WorldWideScience

Sample records for vanilla instruments caps

  1. Alternative instruments for the CAP?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Rijswick, van C.W.J.; Bont, de C.J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    With parallel negotiations taking place on enlargement of the EU and a new WTO agreement, EU's Common Agricultural Policy is facing further reforms. This report addresses the issue of whether any alternatives can be found for the instruments of this policy, and looks at decoupled payments, a net

  2. Texture of semi-solids; sensory and instrumental measurements on vanilla custard desserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Gemert, L.J. van; Terpstra, M.E.J.; Wilkinson, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    A trained panel developed a set of sensory attributes describing flavor, odor, mouth feel and after feel sensations elicited by commercially available vanilla custard desserts. Two main sensory dimensions, one running from "melting" to "thick" and another one running from "rough" to "creamy-soft"

  3. Texture of semi-solids: sensory and instrumental measurements on vanilla custard desserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Gemert, van L.J.; Terpstra, M.E.J.; Wilkinson, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    A trained panel developed a set of sensory attributes describing flavor, odor, mouth feel and after feel sensations elicited by commercially available vanilla custard desserts. Two main sensory dimensions, one running from "melting" to "thick" and another one running from "rough" to "creamy-soft"

  4. Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift (CAPS) Monitor Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The CAPS PMex monitor is a cavity attenuated phase shift extinction instrument. It operates as an optical extinction spectrometer, using a visible-light-emitting diode (LED) as the light source, a sample cell incorporating two high-reflectivity mirrors centered at the wavelength of the LED, and a vacuum photodiode detector. Its efficacy is based on the fact that aerosols are broadband scatterers and absorbers of light.

  5. Vanilla planifolia Andrews

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Coat protein gene sequence; Cucumber mosaic virus; host range; sequence analyses; serological ... assay (DAS-ELISA) method was standardized for the detection of CMV infection in vanilla plants. ..... Recombinant clones were identi-.

  6. Development studies for the OPAL end cap electromagnetic calorimeter using vacuum photo triode instrumented leadglass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffreys, P.W.; Arnison, G.T.J.; Akrawy, M.

    1989-07-01

    A description is given of the OPAL end cap electromagnetic calorimeters which consist of leadglass instrumented with vacuum photo triodes. Test results are presented showing linearity, energy and position resolution measured in an electron beam whilst the calorimeter is subject to magnetic fields up to 1.0T. The response to hadrons is also discussed. Finally, radiation damage and recovery of the leadglass is reported. (author)

  7. The Performance of by Turns Fermentation- Dryer for Vanilla (Vanilla Planifolia Andrews Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haerani Haerani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The drying and fermentation are the processing steps which influence the quality of vanilla. Thus, an effort to produce instrument which can dry and ferment vanilla by turns automatically was done. Based on the test result on the instrument, it was known that the heater and heat-exchanger can function excellently. It can be seen from the increase of temperature after passing heater and heat-exchanger; and the decrease of air humidity in the drying chamber. The small differences of air flow speed between racks proved the uniformity of air flow speed in the drying chamber. The time and temperature control system showed temperature stability on drying process (i.e. 60°C and on fermentation process (i.e. 40°C; moreover, temperature response reached 60°C and did not exceed the setting time (maximum 30 minutes. The water percentage depletion from 88% to 55% is relatively slow (in 5 days fermentation-drying process. The depletion is appropriate with the recommendation for fermentation-drying vanilla processing.

  8. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  9. Comparative metabolomics in vanilla pod and vanilla bean revealing the biosynthesis of vanillin during the curing process of vanilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Chen, Yonggan; Hong, Yinghua; Fang, Yiming; Tan, Lehe

    2017-12-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used for comprehensive metabolomic fingerprinting of vanilla fruits prepared from the curing process. In this study, the metabolic changes of vanilla pods and vanilla beans were characterized using MS-based metabolomics to elucidate the biosynthesis of vanillin. The vanilla pods were significantly different from vanilla beans. Seven pathways of vanillin biosynthesis were constructed, namely, glucovanillin, glucose, cresol, capsaicin, vanillyl alcohol, tyrosine, and phenylalanine pathways. Investigations demonstrated that glucose, cresol, capsaicin, and vanillyl alcohol pathway were detected in a wide range of distribution in microbial metabolism. Thus, microorganisms might have participated in vanillin biosynthesis during vanilla curing. Furthermore, the ion strength of glucovanillin was stable, which indicated that glucovanillin only participated in the vanillin biosynthesis during the curing of vanilla.

  10. Vanilla Ninja hitt telesaate tunnuslaul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Popansambli Vanilla Ninja laul "Blue Tattoo" valiti Saksamaal Pro 7 telesaate "Aupäev - otsus poksiringis" (Der Tag der Ehre - Entscheidung im Boxring) tunnusmeloodiaks. Eesti popansambel kutsuti külla ka Stefan Raabi show'sse TV Total Pro 7 kanalil ja muusikakanali Viva jõulushow'sse "Your Stars for Christmas"

  11. Occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus on vanilla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causing mosaic, leaf distortion and stunting of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India was characterized on the basis of biological and coat protein (CP) nucleotide sequence properties. In mechanical inoculation tests, the virus was found to infect members of Chenopodiaceae, ...

  12. Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift (CAPS) Method for Airborne Aerosol Light Extinction Measurement: Instrument Validation and First Results from Field Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, A.; Perim de Faria, J.; Berg, M.; Bundke, U.; Freedman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring the direct impact of aerosol particles on climate requires the continuous measurement of aerosol optical parameters like the aerosol extinction coefficient on a regular basis. Remote sensing and ground-based networks are well in place (e.g., AERONET, ACTRIS), whereas the regular in situ measurement of vertical profiles of atmospheric aerosol optical properties remains still an important challenge in quantifying climate change. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platform. However, scientific instrumentation for the measurement of atmospheric constituents requires major modifications before being deployable aboard in-service passenger aircraft. Recently, a compact and robust family of optical instruments based on the cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) technique has become available for measuring aerosol light extinction. While this technique was successfully deployed for ground-based atmospheric measurements under various conditions, its suitability for operation aboard aircraft in the free and upper free troposphere still has to be demonstrated. In this work, the modifications of a CAPS PMex instrument for measuring aerosol light extinction on aircraft, the results from subsequent laboratory tests for evaluating the modified instrument prototype, and first results from a field deployment aboard a research aircraft will be covered. In laboratory studies, the instrument showed excellent agreement (deviation CAPS PMex instrument response within 10% deviation. During the field deployment, aerosol extinction coefficients and associated aerosol size distributions have been measured and will be presented as comparison studies between measured and calculated data.

  13. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is...

  14. Isolation of vanilla-endophytic bacteria (Vanilla planifolia with in vitro biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vanillae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Jiménez-Quesada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla sp. genus belongs to Orchidaceae family, and V. planifolia, V. pompona and V. tahitensis. are species of commercial interest. The quality classification of vanilla is made according to the length of the capsule and vanillin content, which is used to make food and beverage, as raw material in the pharmaceutical industry and for the production of cosmetics and perfumes, among others. Currently, root rot caused by the fungus Fusarium oxyporum f. sp. Vanillae is considered to be the biggest problem facing vanilla production, causing 30 to 52% of plant death, attacking adventitious roots and preventing this plant is able to absorb water and nutrients. The fungus cannot be eradicated by the action of chemicals that damage the viability of the plants, and because the cultivation of vanilla in agroforestry systems without the application of agrochemicals is an activity that is gaining interest among small producers country. It is for this reason why was studied the ability of control of vanilla endophytic bacteria isolated from samples from Corcovado, Puriscal, Dota and Guápiles, by testing in vitro antagonism between asylee bacteria and fungus F. oxysporum, giving results about promising candidate B1M11 to respond to pathogen attack, which was corroborated by the appearance of a halo of inhibition of fungal growth on plate.

  15. CAPs-IDD: Characteristics of Assessment Instruments for Psychiatric Disorders in Persons with Intellectual Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, E. L.; Nader, I. W.; Brehmer-Rinderer, B.; Koller, I.; Weber, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Assessment of psychiatric disorders in persons with an intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) can be performed with a variety of greatly differing instruments. This makes the choice of an instrument best suited for the intended purpose challenging. In this study, we developed a comprehensive set of characteristics for the evaluation…

  16. 21 CFR 169.180 - Vanilla-vanillin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin extract. 169.180 Section 169.180... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.180 Vanilla-vanillin extract. (a) Vanilla-vanillin extract conforms to the... § 169.3(c), contained therein, the article also contains not more than 1 ounce of added vanillin. (b...

  17. Microorganisms with a taste of Vanilla; Microbial ecology of traditional Indonesian vanilla curing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roling, W.F.M.; Kerler, J.; Braster, M.; Apriyantono, A.; Stam, H.; van Verseveld, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    The microbial ecology of traditional postharvesting processing of vanilla beans (curing) was examined using a polyphasic approach consisting of conventional cultivation, substrate utilization-based and molecular identification of isolates, and cultivation-independent community profiling by 16S

  18. 21 CFR 169.182 - Vanilla-vanillin powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin powder. 169.182 Section 169.182... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.182 Vanilla-vanillin powder. (a) Vanilla-vanillin powder conforms to the... § 169.3(c) contained therein, the article also contains not more than 1 ounce of added vanillin. (b) The...

  19. Authenticity and Traceability of Vanilla Flavour by Analysis of Stable Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Fromberg, Arvid; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    For authentification of vanilla flavours, vanilla pods of the type Vanilla planifolia and Vanilla tahitensis from different geographical habitats were extracted and analyzed together with vanilla flavours made by fermentations and chemical synthesis. Isotopic delta values were determined using Gas...... or by fermentation. Furthermore the results showed that there was a significant difference in the isotopic composition of vanillin for the two types of vanilla plants analyzed, where Vanilla tahitensis contained more 13C than Vanilla planifolia. Delta2H values of precipitation at different geographic locations...

  20. Unusual 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde synthase activity from tissue cultures of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podstolski, Andrzej; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Malinowski, Jacek; Blount, Jack W; Kourteva, Galina; Dixon, Richard A

    2002-11-01

    Tissue cultures of the vanilla orchid, Vanilla planifolia, produce the flavor compound vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) and vanillin precursors such as 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. A constitutively expressed enzyme activity catalyzing chain shortening of a hydroxycinnamic acid, believed to be the first reaction specific for formation of vanilla flavor compounds, was identified in these cultures. The enzyme converts 4-coumaric acid non-oxidatively to 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde in the presence of a thiol reagent but with no co-factor requirement. Several forms of this 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde synthase (4HBS) were resolved and partially purified by a combination of hydrophobic interaction, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. These forms appear to be interconvertible. The unusual properties of the 4HBS, and its appearance in different protein fractions, raise questions as to its physiological role in vanillin biosynthesis in vivo.

  1. Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español The Cervical Cap KidsHealth / For Teens / The Cervical Cap What's in ... Call the Doctor? Print What Is a Cervical Cap? A cervical cap is a small cup made ...

  2. Efficient in vitro multiplication protocol for Vanilla planifolia using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vanilla planifolia Andr. is a tropical commercial spice crop known for its popular flavoring substance called vanillin. Vanillin is the second most expensive spice in the world market, next to saffron. Ethiopia has favorable environment for vanilla production and the crop has huge local and international market. There is a ...

  3. NATURE MANAGEMENT, LANDSCAPE AND THE CAP

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, Floor M.; Godeschalk, Frans E.

    2004-01-01

    The integration of nature management, landscape and environmental concerns into the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has gained momentum with the CAP reforms adopted in June 2003. The report explores instruments and approaches that contribute to the inte-gration of nature conservation and landscape concerns into the CAP. A broader use of the CAP instruments might help to achieve nature types in the Netherlands.

  4. Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... giving birth vaginally, which means the cervical cap may not fit as well. Inconsistent or incorrect use of the cervical cap increases your risk of pregnancy. For example, you may get pregnant when using the cervical cap if: ...

  5. Microorganisms with a Taste for Vanilla: Microbial Ecology of Traditional Indonesian Vanilla Curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Kerler, Josef; Braster, Martin; Apriyantono, Anton; Stam, Hein; van Verseveld, Henk W.

    2001-01-01

    The microbial ecology of traditional postharvesting processing of vanilla beans (curing) was examined using a polyphasic approach consisting of conventional cultivation, substrate utilization-based and molecular identification of isolates, and cultivation-independent community profiling by 16S ribosomal DNA based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. At two different locations, a batch of curing beans was monitored. In both batches a major shift in microbial communities occurred after short-term scalding of the beans in hot water. Fungi and yeast disappeared, although regrowth of fungi occurred in one batch during a period in which process conditions were temporarily not optimal. Conventional plating showed that microbial communities consisting of thermophilic and thermotolerant bacilli (mainly closely related to Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis,, and B. smithii) developed under the high temperatures (up to 65°C) that were maintained for over a week after scalding. Only small changes in the communities of culturable bacteria occurred after this period. Molecular analysis revealed that a proportion of the microbial communities could not be cultured on conventional agar medium, especially during the high-temperature period. Large differences between both batches were observed in the numbers of microorganisms, in species composition, and in the enzymatic abilities of isolated bacteria. These large differences indicate that the effects of microbial activities on the development of vanilla flavor could be different for each batch of cured vanilla beans. PMID:11319073

  6. Phenolic Profiling for Traceability of Vanilla ×tahitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busconi, Matteo; Lucini, Luigi; Soffritti, Giovanna; Bernardi, Jamila; Bernardo, Letizia; Brunschwig, Christel; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Fernandez, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Vanilla is a flavoring recovered from the cured beans of the orchid genus Vanilla . Vanilla × tahitensis is traditionally cultivated on the islands of French Polynesia, where vanilla vines were first introduced during the nineteenth century and, since the 1960s, have been introduced to other Pacific countries such as Papua New Guinea (PNG), cultivated and sold as "Tahitian vanilla," although both sensory properties and aspect are different. From an economic point of view, it is important to ensure V . × tahitensis traceability and to guarantee that the marketed product is part of the future protected designation of the origin "Tahitian vanilla" (PDO), currently in progress in French Polynesia. The application of metabolomics, allowing the detection and simultaneous analysis of hundreds or thousands of metabolites from different matrices, has recently gained high interest in food traceability. Here, metabolomics analysis of phenolic compounds profiles was successfully applied for the first time to V . × tahitensis to deepen our knowledge of vanilla metabolome, focusing on phenolics compounds, for traceability purposes. Phenolics were screened through a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a UHPLC liquid chromatography system, and 260 different compounds were clearly evidenced and subjected to different statistical analysis in order to enable the discrimination of the samples based on their origin. Eighty-eight and twenty three compounds, with a prevalence of flavonoids, resulted to be highly discriminant through ANOVA and Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) respectively. Volcano plot analysis and pairwise comparisons were carried out to determine those compounds, mainly responsible for the differences among samples as a consequence of either origin or cultivar. The samples from PNG were clearly different from the Tahitian samples that were further divided in two different groups based on the different

  7. Phenolic Profiling for Traceability of Vanilla ×tahitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Busconi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla is a flavoring recovered from the cured beans of the orchid genus Vanilla. Vanilla ×tahitensis is traditionally cultivated on the islands of French Polynesia, where vanilla vines were first introduced during the nineteenth century and, since the 1960s, have been introduced to other Pacific countries such as Papua New Guinea (PNG, cultivated and sold as “Tahitian vanilla,” although both sensory properties and aspect are different. From an economic point of view, it is important to ensure V. ×tahitensis traceability and to guarantee that the marketed product is part of the future protected designation of the origin “Tahitian vanilla” (PDO, currently in progress in French Polynesia. The application of metabolomics, allowing the detection and simultaneous analysis of hundreds or thousands of metabolites from different matrices, has recently gained high interest in food traceability. Here, metabolomics analysis of phenolic compounds profiles was successfully applied for the first time to V. ×tahitensis to deepen our knowledge of vanilla metabolome, focusing on phenolics compounds, for traceability purposes. Phenolics were screened through a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a UHPLC liquid chromatography system, and 260 different compounds were clearly evidenced and subjected to different statistical analysis in order to enable the discrimination of the samples based on their origin. Eighty-eight and twenty three compounds, with a prevalence of flavonoids, resulted to be highly discriminant through ANOVA and Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA respectively. Volcano plot analysis and pairwise comparisons were carried out to determine those compounds, mainly responsible for the differences among samples as a consequence of either origin or cultivar. The samples from PNG were clearly different from the Tahitian samples that were further divided in two different groups based on

  8. Vanilla Sky – El cuento del narcisista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham St. John STOTT

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla Sky (2001, de Cameron Crowe, normalmente se aprecia como un juego intelectual; no obstante, su temática es mucho más oscura que lo que dicha etiqueta podría sugerir. Mientras recorre las diferentes fases del sueño de David Aames (un sueño en el que se mueve de una pretensión de amor a una de homicidio, nos damos cuenta de que David padece un trastorno de la autoestima. Utilizando como referencia Atracción Fatal (1987, de Adrian Lyne, para demostrar la incapacidad de tener en cuenta las necesidades de otros, la película de Crowe nos muestra un caso práctico de trastorno narcisista de la personalidad. David mata porque no es capaz de aceptar las exigencias de otros, ya que supondría para él ponerse en una condición inferior a la autosuficiencia. No resulta sorprendente, por lo tanto, su horror cuando al final de la película se despierta y descubre que su amante sigue viva.

  9. Authenticity and Traceability of Vanilla Flavors by Analysis of Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Fromberg, Arvid; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2014-01-01

    Authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors were investigated using gas chromatographyisotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). Vanilla flavors produced by chemical synthesis (n = 2), fermentation (n = 1), and extracted from two different species of the vanilla orchid (n = 79) were analyzed...

  10. Differential responses of vanilla accessions to root rot and colonization by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayuj eKoyyappurath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Root and stem rot (RSR disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae (Forv is the most damaging disease of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia and V. ×tahitensis, Orchidaceae. Breeding programs aimed at developing resistant vanilla varieties are hampered by the scarcity of sources of resistance to RSR and insufficient knowledge about the histopathology of Forv. In this work we have i identified new genetic resources resistant to RSR including V. planifolia inbreds and vanilla relatives, ii thoroughly described the colonization pattern of Forv into selected vanilla accessions, confirming its necrotic non-vascular behavior in roots, and iii evidenced the key role played by hypodermis, and particularly lignin deposition onto hypodermal cell walls, for resistance to Forv in two highly resistant vanilla accessions.Two hundred and fifty-four vanilla accessions were evaluated in the field under natural conditions of infection and in controlled conditions using in-vitro plants root-dip inoculated by the highly pathogenic isolate Fo072. For the 26 accessions evaluated in both conditions, a high correlation was observed between field evaluation and in-vitro assay.The root infection process and plant response of one susceptible and two resistant accessions challenged with Fo072 were studied using wide field and multiphoton microscopy. In susceptible V. planifolia, hyphae penetrated directly into the rhizodermis in the hairy root region then invaded the cortex through the passage cells where it induced plasmolysis, but never reached the vascular region. In the case of the resistant accessions, the penetration was stopped at the hypodermal layer. Anatomical and histochemical observations coupled with spectral analysis of the hypodermis suggested the role of lignin deposition in the resistance to Forv. The thickness of lignin constitutively deposited onto outer cell walls of hypodermis was highly correlated with the level of resistance for 21

  11. The effect of potassium and mycorrhiza on growth of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I GEDE TIRTA

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The few and shallow roots caused slow growth of vanilla seedling. Mycorrhiza may increased the absorption of water and nutrients, while potassium may increased the rate of growth and strength of seedlings. This study was conducted at Sambangan Village, Buleleng, Bali in 2003 (April-Agustus 2003. The experiment was done in polybag and was arranged in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The treatments were consisted of two factors. The first factor was the rates of KCl fertilizer ( 0, 100 and 200 kg ha-1 or 0, 0,10 and 0,20 9 plant-1 and the second factor was the rates of mycorrhiza (0, 20 and 30 g plant-1. The aim of the research to study interactions between potassium and mycorrhiza and The optimum dosage the mycorrhiza on growth of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrew. The resultes showed that there were interactions between potassium and mycorrhiza on fresh weight of the new shoot, root length and fresh root weight. The optimum dosage of the mycorrhiza was 20 g plant-1 with new shoot fresh weight was 25.63 g plant-1. The longest root (24.67 cm plant-1 was observed at the treatment without potasium with 20 g plant-1 mycorrhiza and this was 23% longer than control (19.93 cm plant-1. The highest fresh root weight (2.48 g plant-1 was observed at the dosage of 200 kg KCl ha-1 and 20 g mycorrhiza plant-1 and that was 55% heavier than control (1.60 g plant-1. The leaf number of the plant with 20 g plant-1 mycorrhiza was 6.22 and that was 18% more than control with leaf number 5.25. The total fresh weight of the seedling with 20 g plant-1 mycorrhiza was 86.74 g plant-1or 15% higher compared with control (75.18 g plant-1. The dosage of 100 kg KCl ha-1 increased the K content of the plant (2.45%K or 35% higher than control (1.81%K.

  12. Determination of vanillin in vanilla perfumes and air by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minematsu, Saaya; Xuan, Guang-Shan; Wu, Xing-Zheng

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated capillary electrophoretic detection of vanillin in vanilla perfume and air. An UV-absorbance detector was used in a home-made capillary electrophoretic instrument. A fused silica capillary (outer diameter: 364 μm, inner diameter: 50 μm) was used as a separation capillary, and a high electric voltage (20 kV) was applied across the two ends of the capillary. Total length of the capillary was 70 cm, and the effective length was 55 cm. Experimental results showed that the vanillin peak was detected at about 600, 450, and 500 seconds when pH of running buffers in CE were 7.2, 9.3, and 11.5, respectively. The peak area of vanillin was proportional to its concentration in the range of 0-10(-2) mol/L. The detection limit was about 10(-5) mol/L. Vanillin concentration in a 1% vanilla perfume sample was determined to be about 3×10(-4) mol/L, agreed well with that obtained by a HPLC method. Furthermore, determination of vanillin in air by combination of CE and active carbon adsorption method was investigated. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 21 CFR 169.176 - Concentrated vanilla extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... content of ethyl alcohol is not less than 35 percent by volume. (b) The specified name of the food is... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla extract. 169.176 Section 169.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  14. Interspecific differentiation and hybridization in vanilla species (Orchidaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Siegismund

    1999-01-01

    Vanilla claviculata, V. barbellata and V. dilloniana are distributed throughout the Caribbean islands and are all found in Puerto Rico. The vegetative parts of the species are similar; however, their conspicuous flowers easily distinguish them. Electrophoresis of seven polymorphic enzymes reveale...... coexist. This suggests that the species may hybridize....

  15. In Vitro Propagation of Vanilla in Rwanda | Mushimiyimana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is used as flavoring substance in several items such as chocolates, ice-creams, yoghurts, soft drinks, liquors, candies, baked foods, cakes, and biscuits. It is also used in scenting tobacco, perfumery and pharmaceuticals. Vanilla is the second most expensive spice after saffron and its demand worldwide is enormous.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF VANILLA PRODUCTION SYSTEMS (Vanilla planifolia A. ON ORANGE TREE AND MESH SHADE IN THE TOTONACAPAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Isabel Barrera Rodríguez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A characterization of production systems of Vanilla planifolia Andrews was carried out, one under orange trees and the other under mesh shade (50% brightness, was conducted through the identification of technical and climatic variables that may affect the yield of vanilla plantations in the Totonacapan region, in the Mexican states of Puebla and Veracruz. The characterization was conducted based on the theoretical approach of agrosystems, and by applying the nonparametric technique, chi square. The information was obtained through the application of a structured questionnaire to 99 producers in the region. The results indicate that on vanilla crop yield, the feature with the highest incidence is the number of pollinated flowers per pot, so that in vainillales with proper management must pollinate from five to seven flowers per pot and vainillales where the plants are not vigorous should pollinate three to four flowers per pot. So far  the system under orange trees represents the best alternative in terms of yield for producers. The vanilla production system under orange trees showed a maximum yield of 1.2 ton ha-1 which exceeded the yield of the mesh shade production system of 435 kg. Based on the traditional knowledge of producers, the most important factors that determine the proper development of the vanilla pods in the production system under orange three are: nutrition (21%, moisture (19% and pollination (16%. While for the production system mesh shade are: nutrition (20%, temperature (15% and moisture (14%.

  17. Effect of gamma-radiation on major aroma compounds and vanillin glucoside of cured vanilla beans (Vanilla planifolia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmah Moosa; Seri Chempaka Mohd Yusof; Ruzalina Bahrin; Maizatul Akmam Mohd Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Radiation processing of food materials by gamma-radiation is a well established method for microbial decontamination and insect disinfestation. Irradiation of spices at doses ranging from 10 to 30 kGy has been reported to result in complete elimination of microorganisms with negligible changes in the flavour quality. The effect of gamma-radiation on microflora and vanillin content of cured vanilla beans in the dose range of 5-50 kGy has been investigated, but its effect on other major aroma compounds and vanillin glucoside (vanillin aroma precursor) remaining after curing have not been studied so far. Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is one such compound used as a flavouring agent and as a dietary component. It is the major component of natural vanilla, which is one of the most widely used and important flavouring materials throughout the world. Vanillin is an antioxidant capable of protecting membrane against lipid peroxidation and DNA against strand breaks induced by reactive oxygen species. The present work was aimed to study the effect of gamma-radiation processing on the major aroma compounds of cured vanilla beans and also to investigate possible enhancement in vanillin content by the radiolytic breakdown of vanillin glucoside present already. Cured vanilla beans were irradiated (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 kGy) and the vanillin content of control and irradiated samples were analysed, respectively for a possible enhancement of vanillin content by radiolysis of vanillin glucoside. Radiolytic breakdown of glycosidic precursors of aroma constituents and consequent release of free aroma was shown to result in the enhancement of aroma quality of these products. Since a considerable amount of vanillin exists as its glycosidic precursor in cured vanilla pods, a possible enhancement in yield of vanillin by radiation processing is thus expected. Hence the highly stable oxygen-carbon linkage between vanillin and glucose limits the possible enhancement of aroma

  18. Combined inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandheep, A R; Asok, A K; Jisha, M S

    2013-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth promoting efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobacteria on Vanilla plants. Based on the in vitro performance of indigenous Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential. The maximum percentage of growth enhancement were observed in the combination of Trichoderma harzianum with Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma virens, respectively in decreasing order. Combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens registered the maximum length of vine (82.88 cm), highest number of leaves (26.67/plant), recorded the highest fresh weight of shoots (61.54 g plant(-1)), fresh weight of roots (4.46 g plant(-1)) and dry weight of shoot (4.56 g plant(-1)) where as the highest dry weight of roots (2.0806 g plant(-1)) were achieved with treatments of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Among the inoculated strains, combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens recorded the maximum nitrogen uptake (61.28 mg plant(-1)) followed by the combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum (std) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (std) (55.03 mg plant(-1)) and the highest phosphorus uptake (38.80 mg plant(-1)) was recorded in dual inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  19. Perpetual American vanilla option pricing under single regime change risk: an exhaustive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel

    2009-07-01

    Perpetual American options are financial instruments that can be readily exercised and do not mature. In this paper we study in detail the problem of pricing this kind of derivatives, for the most popular flavour, within a framework in which some of the properties—volatility and dividend policy—of the underlying stock can change at a random instant of time but in such a way that we can forecast their final values. Under this assumption we can model actual market conditions because most relevant facts usually entail sharp predictable consequences. The effect of this potential risk on perpetual American vanilla options is remarkable: the very equation that will determine the fair price depends on the solution to be found. Sound results are found under the optics both of finance and physics. In particular, a parallelism among the overall outcome of this problem and a phase transition is established.

  20. Molecular Identification of Microorganisms Associated to the Rhizosphere of Vanilla Plants in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Lucía Álvarez López; Nelson Walter Osorio Vega; Mauricio Alejandro Marín Montoya

    2013-01-01

    The cultivation of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) is highly promising in Colombia, but more research is needed on its agronomical management and beneficial microorganisms that grow associated to its rhizosphere, on which the plant depends for its nutrition and growth. This study involved the identification of microorganisms associated to the rhizosphere of vanilla plants in a crop located in Sopetrán, Colombia. The microbes were isolated in selective media for functional groups such as cellulol...

  1. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cradle Cap (Infantile Seborrheic Dermatitis) KidsHealth / For Parents / Cradle Cap ( ... many babies develop called cradle cap. About Cradle Cap Cradle cap is the common term for seborrheic ...

  2. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  3. The Effects of Dose Rhizoctonia Binucleat (BNR and Phosphorus to Nitrate Reductase Activity (NRA and Chlorophyll of Vanilla Seedling (Vanilla planifolia Andrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryuni Haryuni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews is one of the important exported commodities in Indonesia. Indonesia is one of top five major vanilla exporters in the world, that produce the high quality of Indonesian vanilla with high vanillin content (2.75%. The aims of this research were to determine the effects of dose binukleat Rhizoctonia (BNR and phosphorus as well as the interaction of the nitrate reductase activity (NRA and chlorophyll of the vanilla seedling (Vanilla planifolia Andrew. Method in this research used completely randomized factorial design, by involving two factors (dose of BNR inoculation and Phosphor. The first factor is without inoculation and inoculation BNR (M0, M1, M2, M3 wich consists of (0,5, 10, 15 g/polybag, the second factor is the dose of phosphorus fertilizer (P0, P1, P2, P3 which consists of (0, 3, 6, 9 g/polibag. The results showed that the inoculation dose of BNR and doses of phosphorus not significant and lower levels of NRA and chlorophyll while the interaction dose of BNR and phosphorus significantly and increase levels of NRA and chlorophyll of vanilla seedling. Nitrate Reductase Activity and chlorophyll has important role in metabolism process as a plant growth indicator.How to CiteHaryuni, H., & Dewi, T. S. K. (2016. The Effects of Dose Rhizoctonia Binucleat (BNR and Phosphorus to Nitrate Reductase Activity (NRA and Chlorophyll of Vanilla Seedling (Vanilla planifolia Andrews. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 141-147.

  4. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  5. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  6. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  7. Stable isotope ratio determination of the origin of vanillin in vanilla extracts and its relationship to vanillin/potassium ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.E.; Alfonso, F.C.; Figert, D.M.; Burggraff, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for isolating vanillin from vanilla extract, followed by stable isotope ratio analysis to determine the amount of natural vanillin contained in adulterated vanilla extracts. After the potassium content is determined, the percent Madagascar and/or Java vanilla beans incorporated into the extract may then be approximated from the vanillin/potassium ratio

  8. Death cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbæk, Torsten R; Kofoed, Pernille Bouteloup; Bove, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Death cap (Amanita phalloides) is commonly found and is one of the five most toxic fungi in Denmark. Toxicity is due to amatoxin, and poisoning is a serious medical condition, causing organ failure with potential fatal outcome. Acknowledgement and clarification of exposure, symptomatic and focused...

  9. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  10. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  11. KARAKTERISASI ENZIM B-GLUKOSIDASE VANILI [Characterization of B-glukosidase Enzyme from Vanilla Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi setyaningsih 1

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian natural vanilla is know for having a unigue woody, smooky, and phenolic flavor. Development of the aroma and flavor vanilla was formed by the action of a hydrolytic enzyme B-glucosidase on glucovanillin. The objective of this research was to characterize vanilla B-glucosidase. The vanilla B-glucosidase activity was increased by detergent. The enzyme was found as heat labile. Scalding should be conducted at 400C for 2-3 minutes. The result from B-glucosidase activity in each part of vanilla and microscopic analisis of vanilla bean slice showed that the highest B-glucosidase activity and vanillin concentrations were found in the seed funicles and placental tissue the of vanilla bean. The activity of vanilla B-glucosidase was optimum at pH 6,0, and temperature of 400C, found as and activation energy was 5,78 kcal/mole. After 44 minutes incubation time at 400C. The activity was reduced down to 10%. The apparent of moleculer weight was 100-400 kDa according to gel setration (Sephacryl S-300 analysis.

  12. Vanilla Ninjast saab vene bänd / Viktoria Ladõnskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ladõnskaja, Viktoria, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Plaadifirmalt Topten Vanilla Ninja lepingu ära ostnud jurist Aleksander Simakov kuulutab välja konkursi bändi uute tüdrukute leidmiseks, bänd koosseisus Piret Järvis, Lenna Kuurmaa ja Katrin Siska kavatsevad ka Vanilla Ninja nime all jätkata

  13. External morphology of the immature stages of neotropical heliconians: V. Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Denis S. da; Dell'Erba, Rafael; Kaminski, Lucas A.; Moreira, Gilson R. P.

    2006-01-01

    As estruturas externas do ovo, larva e pupa de Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Stichel, [1908]) são descritas e ilustradas, baseadas em microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura.The external features of egg, larva and pupa of Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Stichel, [1908]) are described and illustrated, based upon light and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  15. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  16. Stomatal characterization of five species of the genus Vanilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfino Reyes-López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to characterize the stomata of five species of vanilla. Throughout 2012, leaf samples of V. planifolia G. Jackson, V. pompona Schiede, V. indora Schiede, V. insignis Ames and V. odorota Presl were taken from the vanilla germplasm bank at the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. The stomata size was obtained considering their length and width, as well as the index and stomata number of the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces in a randomized complete block design with three replications. V. pompona Schiede and V. inodora Schiede showed the highest stomatal index with 8713 and 8246 stomata per mm2, respectively, followed by V. odorata Presl with 4412 stomata per mm2. V. insignis Ames and V. planifolia G. Jackson showed the lowest stomata index with 2968 and 1378 stomata per mm2, respectively, in the abaxial leaf surface, these differences were statistically significant (P≤0.05. According to the position of the leaf stomata, V. planifolia G. Jackson and V. inodora Schiede can be considered to be hypostomatics since they showed stomata only in the abaxial leaf surface. V. insignis Ames, V. inodora Schiede and V. odorata Presl. can be considered to be anfiestomatic because they showed stomata in both the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces. V. inodora Schiede had smaller stomata compared with the other species.That is an important feature to be included in the genetic improvement of the genus Vanilla, because due to climate change, temperature will increase and precipitation will decrease, so Vainilla will require more efficient genotypes for water use.

  17. Stomatal characterization of five species of the genus Vanilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Lopez, Delfino; Quiroz-Valentin, Jonathan; Kelso-Bucio, Henry Arturo; Huerta-Lara, Manuel; Avendano-Arrazate, Carlos Hugo; Lobato-Ortiz, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The stomata of five species of vanilla were characterized. Throughout 2012, leaf samples of V. planifolia G. Jackson, V. pompona Schiede, V. inodora Schiede, V. insignis Ames and V. odorota Presl were taken from the vanilla germplasm bank at the Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, throughout 2012. The stomata size was obtained considering their length and width, as well as the index and stomata number of the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The highest stomatal index with 8713 and 8246 stomata per mm"2, was showed in V. pompona Schiede an V. inodora Schiede respectively, followed by V. odorata Presl with 4412 stomata per mm"2. The lowest stomata index with 2968 and 1378 stomata per mm"2, was showed by V. insignis Ames and V. planifolia G. Jackson respectively, in the abaxial leaf surface, these differences were statistically significant (p≤0,05). According to the position of the leaf stomata, V. planifolia G. Jackson and V. inodora Schiede can be considered to be hypostomatics since they showed stomata only in the abaxial leaf surface. V. insignis Ames, V. inodora Schiede and V. odorata Presl. can be considered to be anfiestomatic because they showed stomata in both the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces. V. inodora Schiede has had smaller stomata compared with the other species. That is an important feature to be included in the genetic improvement of the genus Vanilla, because due to climate change, temperature will increase and precipitation will decrease, so Vainilla will require more efficient genotypes for water use. (author) [es

  18. North Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour. In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime. The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  19. Apical cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoud, T.C.; Isler, R.J.; Novelline, R.A.; Putman, C.E.; Simeone, J.; Stark, P.

    1981-01-01

    Apical caps, either unilateral or bilateral, are a common feature of advancing age and are usually the result of subpleural scarring unassociated with other diseases. Pancoast (superior sulcus) tumors are a well recognized cause of unilateral asymmetric apical density. Other lesions arising in the lung, pleura, or extrapleural space may produce unilateral or bilateral apical caps. These include: (1) inflammatory: tuberculosis and extrapleural abscesses extending from the neck; (2) post radiation fibrosis after mantle therapy for Hodgkin disease or supraclavicular radiation in the treatment of breast carcinoma; (3) neoplasm: lymphoma extending from the neck or mediastinum, superior sulcus bronchogenic carcinoma, and metastases; (4) traumatic: extrapleural dissection of blood from a ruptured aorta, fractures of the ribs or spine, or hemorrhage due to subclavian line placement; (5) vascular: coarctation of the aorta with dilated collaterals over the apex, fistula between the subclavian artery and vein; and (6) miscellaneous: mediastinal lipomatosis with subcostal fat extending over the apices

  20. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  1. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  2. PENGGUNAAN EKSTRAK BIOTA LAUTAGLAOPHENIA SP. UNTUK MENGENDALIKANFUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP.VANILLAE PENYEBAB BUSUK BATANG VANILI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KETUT SUADA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Use of Aglaophenia sp. Marine Biota Extract to Control Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vanillae, a Pathogen of Vanilla Stem Rot The use of marine biota for organic fungicide material has enormous potential to be developed. The organic fungicide was directed to substitute synthetic fungicide for vanilla cultivation. Application of synthetic fungicide degraded environmental quality, therefore its applications does not support sustainable agriculture. The objective of this research was to know the potence of Aglaopheniain suppressing the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp.vanillae, the pathogen of vanilla stem rot. The research was done in green house in order to find the best substance for formulation of the extract. The substances screened were water, tween-80, and detergents with two different concentrations. Subsequently, two best formulas were chosen to apply in endemic area in Tabanan. The green house and field trial research used Randomized Completely Design with three and five replications respectively. Results showed that tween was the best substance used for formulation and concentration of 0.2% was better than other concentrations. The extract diluted in tween-80 on the concentration of 0.2% showed the lowest rot on stem, longest shoot, and the most leaves on vanilla shoot. Because of its significant performance, the 0.1% extract ofAglaopheniain 0.1% tween-80 was proposed to be the best formula to suppress the vanilla stem rot disease.

  3. Effects of light intensity on the morphology and CAM photosynthesis of Vanilla planifolia Andrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Claudia Díez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla planifolia is a neotropical orchid, whose fruits produce the natural vanilla, a fundamental ingredient for the food and cosmetic industry. Because of its importance in the world market, it is cultivated in many tropical countries and recently its cultivation has started in Colombia. This species requires shade for its development; however, the optimal of light conditions are unknown. This work evaluates the effect of different light intensities on CAM photosynthesis, physiology, morphology, and growth of this species. For this, vanilla seedlings were subjected to four treatments of relative illumination (RI (T1=8%, T2=17%, T3=31% and T4=67%. Most CO2 assimilation occurred along night in all treatments, which confirms that vanilla is a strong CAM species. Plants grown under high lighting (67% RI had almost half of the photosynthesis in treatments of intermediate lighting (17 and 31%, which is consistent with the lower nocturnal acid accumulation in that treatment. Likewise, the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv / Fm showed that in plants of the 67% RI occurred high radiation stress. On the other hand, vanilla plants reached greater length, leaf area, and total biomass when grown under intermediate radiation (17 and 31% RI. These results suggest that high radiation alters the functioning of vanilla plants, inhibiting photosynthesis and growth, and that highly shaded environments not significantly affected the CAM photosynthesis of vanilla; however, in the long-term this species showed higher photosynthesis and growth under intermediate levels of radiation

  4. Authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors by analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Fromberg, Arvid; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2014-10-22

    Authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors were investigated using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). Vanilla flavors produced by chemical synthesis (n = 2), fermentation (n = 1), and extracted from two different species of the vanilla orchid (n = 79) were analyzed. The authenticity of the flavor compound vanillin was evaluated on the basis of measurements of ratios of carbon stable isotopes (δ(13)C). It was found that results of δ(13)C for vanillin extracted from Vanilla planifolia and Vanilla tahitensis were significantly different (t test) and that it was possible to differentiate these two groups of natural vanillin from vanillin produced otherwise. Vanilla flavors were also analyzed for ratios of hydrogen stable isotopes (δ(2)H). A graphic representation of δ(13)C versus δ(2)H revealed that vanillin extracted from pods grown in adjacent geographic origins grouped together. Accordingly, values of δ(13)C and δ(2)H can be used for studies of authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors.

  5. Vanillin formation from ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallage, Nethaji J; Hansen, Esben H; Kannangara, Rubini

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is a popular and valuable flavour compound. It is the key constituent of the natural vanilla flavour obtained from cured vanilla pods. Here we show that a single hydratase/lyase type enzyme designated vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyses direct conversion of ferulic acid and its glucoside...... to the inner part of the vanilla pod and high transcript levels are found in single cells located a few cell layers from the inner epidermis. Transient expression of VpVAN in tobacco and stable expression in barley in combination with the action of endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and UDP...

  6. Contribution of Bacillus Isolates to the Flavor Profiles of Vanilla Beans Assessed through Aroma Analysis and Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Chen, Yonggan; Fang, Yiming; Wu, Guiping; Tan, Lehe

    2015-10-09

    Colonizing Bacillus in vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) beans is involved in glucovanillin hydrolysis and vanillin formation during conventional curing. The flavor profiles of vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing were analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electronic nose, and quantitative sensory analysis. The flavor profiles were analytically compared among the vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing, conventional curing, and non-microorganism-assisted curing. Vanilla beans added with Bacillus vanillea XY18 and Bacillus subtilis XY20 contained higher vanillin (3.58%±0.05% and 3.48%±0.10%, respectively) than vanilla beans that underwent non-microorganism-assisted curing and conventional curing (3.09%±0.14% and 3.21%±0.15%, respectively). Forty-two volatiles were identified from endogenous vanilla metabolism. Five other compounds were identified from exogenous Bacillus metabolism. Electronic nose data confirmed that vanilla flavors produced through the different curing processes were easily distinguished. Quantitative sensory analysis confirmed that Bacillus-assisted curing increased vanillin production without generating any unpleasant sensory attribute. Partial least squares regression further provided a correlation model of different measurements. Overall, we comparatively analyzed the flavor profiles of vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing, indirectly demonstrated the mechanism of vanilla flavor formation by microbes.

  7. Contribution of Bacillus Isolates to the Flavor Profiles of Vanilla Beans Assessed through Aroma Analysis and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Gu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Colonizing Bacillus in vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews beans is involved in glucovanillin hydrolysis and vanillin formation during conventional curing. The flavor profiles of vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing were analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electronic nose, and quantitative sensory analysis. The flavor profiles were analytically compared among the vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing, conventional curing, and non-microorganism-assisted curing. Vanilla beans added with Bacillus vanillea XY18 and Bacillus subtilis XY20 contained higher vanillin (3.58% ± 0.05% and 3.48% ± 0.10%, respectively than vanilla beans that underwent non-microorganism-assisted curing and conventional curing (3.09% ± 0.14% and 3.21% ± 0.15%, respectively. Forty-two volatiles were identified from endogenous vanilla metabolism. Five other compounds were identified from exogenous Bacillus metabolism. Electronic nose data confirmed that vanilla flavors produced through the different curing processes were easily distinguished. Quantitative sensory analysis confirmed that Bacillus-assisted curing increased vanillin production without generating any unpleasant sensory attribute. Partial least squares regression further provided a correlation model of different measurements. Overall, we comparatively analyzed the flavor profiles of vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing, indirectly demonstrated the mechanism of vanilla flavor formation by microbes.

  8. Diversity and dynamics of plant genome size: an example of polysomaty from a cytogenetic study of Tahitian vanilla (Vanilla xtahitensis, Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Brown, Spencer C; Wong, Maurice; Dron, Michel

    2011-06-01

    Abnormal mitotic behavior with somatic aneuploidy and partial endoreplication were previously reported for the first time in the plant kingdom in Vanilla planifolia. Because vanilla plants are vegetatively propagated, such abnormalities have been transmitted. This study aimed to determine whether mitotic abnormalities also occur in Vanilla hybrid or are suppressed by sexual reproduction. Twenty-eight accessions of Vanilla ×tahitensis, one V. planifolia, and hybrid V. planifolia × V. ×tahitensis were analyzed by chromosome counts, cytometry, and fluorescent in situ hybridization of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA. In a single root meristem of V. ×tahitensis, chromosome number varied from 22 to 31 in diploids (mean 2C = 5.23 pg), 31 to 41 in triploids (2C = 7.82 pg) and 43 to 60 in tetraploids (2C = 10.27 pg). Morphological diversity is apparently related to ploidy changes. Aneuploidy and partial (asymmetrical) endoreduplication were observed in root meristems of both V. ×tahitensis and the hybrid V. planifolia × V. ×tahitensis, but pollen grains had the euploid chromosome number (n = 15 in diploids). Genome irregularities may be transmitted not only during vegetative propagation but also by sexual reproduction in Vanilla. However, there must be a complex regulation of genome size and organization between the aneuploidy in somatic tissues and subsequently euploid gametic tissue. This is a novel example of polysomaty with developmentally regulated partial endoreplication.

  9. Molecular identification of microorganisms associated to the rhizosphere of vanilla plants in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Lopez, Claudia Lucia; Osorio Vega, Nelson Walter; Marin Montoya, Mauricio Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The cultivation of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) is highly promising in Colombia, but more research is needed on its agronomical management and beneficial microorganisms that grow associated to its rhizosphere, on which the plant depends for its nutrition and growth. This study involved the identification of microorganisms associated to the rhizosphere of vanilla plants in a crop located in Sopetran, Colombia. The microbes were isolated in selective media for functional groups such as cellulolytic, proteolytic, inorganic and organic phosphate (phytate) solubilizers, and asymbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria. After isolation and purification, 109 microbial isolates were obtained. DNA was extracted from 52 selected isolates for molecular identification based on its and 16s RDNA sequencing, for fungi and bacteria, respectively. The diversity of rhizosphere microorganisms found was significant. Bacteria such as Bacillus Megaterium, Pseudomonas koreensis and Acinetobacter sp., and the Fungus Plectosphaerella sp., may have a high potential to be used as biofertilizers to improve vanilla plant nutrition and growth.

  10. Use of organic fertilizer and bio fertilizer in a modern planting system to increase the productivity of vanilla plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Mohd Fajri Osman; Latiffah Noordin; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Maizatul Akmam Mhd Nasir; Hazlina Abdullah; Amirul Azmi Supuan; Misman Sumin; Ahamad Sahali Mardi; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2010-01-01

    Vanilla is a plant belonging to the orchid family and native to Mexico. In Malaysia, research and cultivation of vanilla plants are becoming more popular and intensive because the plant has a high commercial value. Fertilizing of vanilla plants is important to enhance the nutrients needed by the plants for growth and vanilla pod production. In 1999, research in MARDI showed that the use of chemical fertilizer NPK (15:15:15) was suitable for vanilla plants. For plants that have not produced vanilla pods foliar fertilizer must be sprayed and foliar fertilizer application must be reduced at pod production stage. The fertilizer programme is almost similar to those of other vanilla producing countries such as Indonesia and Mexico. In Indonesia, studies on organic farming of vanilla have been conducted. They have produced chemical-free vanilla fertilizer products such as Bio-Fob, Bio-TRIBA and Organo TRIBA Compost. We in Malaysian Nuclear Agency conducted a study on the effects of organic and bio fertilizers on vanilla at the vanilla experimental plot. This plot adopts the modern system of vanilla planting. The study involved the use of organic and bio fertilizer products produced in Nuclear Malaysia such as Organik NF, plant growth promoter and phosphate solubiliser and imported commercial orchid mycorrhizal bio fertilizer from Korea. The application of these fertilizers is by placing the fertilizers on the planting media in poly bags with replications according to the treatments. Observations were made weekly for 15 weeks by measuring of parameters including the bud growth and leaf number. These data are plotted in graphical form for evaluation.(author)

  11. Does uncertainty justify intensity emission caps?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirion, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Environmental policies often set 'relative' or 'intensity' emission caps, i.e. emission limits proportional to the polluting firm's output. One of the arguments put forth in favour of relative caps is based on the uncertainty on business-as-usual output: if the firm's production level is higher than expected, so will be business-as-usual emissions, hence reaching a given level of emissions will be more costly than expected. As a consequence, it is argued, a higher emission level should be allowed if the production level is more important than expected. We assess this argument with a stochastic analytical model featuring two random variables: the business-as-usual emission level, proportional to output, and the slope of the marginal abatement cost curve. We compare the relative cap to an absolute cap and to a price instrument, in terms of welfare impact. It turns out that in most plausible cases, either a price instrument or an absolute cap yields a higher expected welfare than a relative cap. Quantitatively, the difference in expected welfare is typically very small between the absolute and the relative cap but may be significant between the relative cap and the price instrument. (author)

  12. Cultural and linguistic transferability of the multi-dimensional OxCAP-MH capability instrument for outcome measurement in mental health: the German language version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Judit; Łaszewska, Agata; Leutner, Eva; Spiel, Georg; Churchman, David; Mayer, Susanne

    2018-06-05

    Mental health conditions affect aspects of people's lives that are often not captured in common health-related outcome measures. The OxCAP-MH self-reported, quality of life questionnaire based on Sen's capability approach was developed in the UK to overcome these limitations. The aim of this study was to develop a linguistically and culturally valid German version of the questionnaire. Following forward and back translations, the wording underwent cultural and linguistic validation with input from a sample of 12 native German speaking mental health patients in Austria in 2015. Qualitative feedback from patients and carers was obtained via interviews and focus group meetings. Feedback from mental health researchers from Germany was incorporated to account for cross-country differences. No significant item modifications were necessary. However, changes due to ambiguous wordings, possibilities for differential interpretations, politically unacceptable expressions, cross-country language differences and differences in political and social systems, were needed. The study confirmed that all questions are relevant and understandable for people with mental health conditions in a German speaking setting and transferability of the questionnaire from English to German speaking countries is feasible. Professional translation is necessary for the linguistic accuracy of different language versions of patient-reported outcome measures but does not guarantee linguistic and cultural validity and cross-country transferability. Additional context-specific piloting is essential. The time and resources needed to achieve valid multi-lingual versions should not be underestimated. Further research is ongoing to confirm the psychometric properties of the German version.

  13. Morfologia externa dos estágios imaturos de heliconíneos neotropicais: V. Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae External morphology of the immature stages of neotropical heliconians: V. Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis S. da Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As estruturas externas do ovo, larva e pupa de Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Stichel, [1908] são descritas e ilustradas, baseadas em microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura.The external features of egg, larva and pupa of Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Stichel, [1908] are described and illustrated, based upon light and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Evaluation of rice flour for use in vanilla ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, T L; Olabi, A; Pettingell, A G; Tong, P S; Walker, J H

    2007-10-01

    The effects of varying concentrations (2, 4, and 6%) of 2 types of rice flours (RF 1 and RF 2) on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of vanilla ice cream samples were assessed at different fat levels (0, 4, and 10%) and storage conditions (control vs. heat-shocked). Fat and total solids were measured as well as hardness, viscosity, and melting rate. Eight trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0 and 7 wk. The 2% rice flour level and to a certain extent the 4% usage level generally improved texture while affecting to a lesser extent the flavor characteristics of the samples compared with the control. The RF 2 generally had a more significant effect than RF 1, especially on the texture attributes. Although the rice flour reduced the negative impact of temperature abuse on textural properties, the samples still deteriorated in textural properties (more icy) under temperature abuse conditions. In addition, rice starch does lower perceived sweetness and can have a "flour flavor" at high usage levels. The use of rice flour appears to be most advantageous for low fat ice cream samples.

  15. Occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a systemic endophyte of vanilla orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James F; Torres, Mónica S; Sullivan, Raymond F; Jabbour, Rabih E; Chen, Qiang; Tadych, Mariusz; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Bergen, Marshall S; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vanilla orchids (Vanilla phaeantha) and cultivated hybrid vanilla (V. planifolia × V. pompona) as a systemic bacterial endophyte. We determined with light microscopy and isolations that tissues of V. phaeantha and the cultivated hybrid were infected by a bacterial endophyte and that shoot meristems and stomatal areas of stems and leaves were densely colonized. We identified the endophyte as B. amyloliquefaciens using DNA sequence data. Since additional endophyte-free plants and seed of this orchid were not available, additional studies were performed on surrogate hosts Amaranthus caudatus, Ipomoea tricolor, and I. purpurea. Plants of A. caudatus inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens demonstrated intracellular colonization of guard cells and other epidermal cells, confirming the pattern observed in the orchids. Isolations and histological studies suggest that the bacterium may penetrate deeply into developing plant tissues in shoot meristems, forming endospores in maturing tissues. B. amyloliquefaciens produced fungal inhibitors in culture. In controlled experiments using morning glory seedlings we showed that the bacterium promoted seedling growth and reduced seedling necrosis due to pathogens. We detected the gene for phosphopantetheinyl transferase (sfp), an enzyme in the pathway for production of antifungal lipopeptides, and purified the lipopeptide "surfactin" from cultures of the bacterium. We hypothesize that B. amyloliquefaciens is a robust endophyte and defensive mutualist of vanilla orchids. Whether the symbiosis between this bacterium and its hosts can be managed to protect vanilla crops from diseases is a question that should be evaluated in future research. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Vanilla--its science of cultivation, curing, chemistry, and nutraceutical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Krushnamurthy; Shyamala, Bellur Nanjundaiah; Naidu, Madeneni Madhava

    2013-01-01

    Vanilla is a tropical orchid belonging to the family Orchidaceae and it is mainly used in food, perfumery, and pharmaceutical preparations. The quality of the bean depends on the volatile constituent's, viz., the vanillin content, the species of the vine used, and the processing conditions adopted. Hence, proper pollination during flowering and curing by exercising utmost care are the important aspects of vanilla cultivation. There are different methods of curing, and each one is unique and named after the places of its origin like Mexican process and Bourbon process. Recently, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore has developed know-how of improved curing process, where the green vanilla beans are cured immediately after harvest and this process takes only 32 days, which otherwise requires minimum of 150-180 days as reported in traditional curing methods. Vanillin is the most essential component of the 200 and odd such compounds present in vanilla beans. Vanillin as such has not shown any antioxidant properties, it is along with other compounds has got nutraceutical properties and therefore its wide usage. The medicinal future of vanilla may definitely lie in further research on basic science and clinical studies on the constituents and their mechanism of action.

  17. SUPPRESSION ABILITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT DERIVED FROM MARINE BIOTA AGAINST FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. VANILLAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Suada

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate suppression ability of marine biota extracts against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vanillae of vanilla stem rot. Samples were collected at intertidal zones and in the depth of 1-7 m from seven beaches in Bali. Screening of active compounds of biota extracts were conducted using inhibition zone of well diffusion method on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA. The extract was tested in-vitro in PDA medium using completely randomized design with three replicates. The methanolic extract of Aglaophenia sp. was able to suppress the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. vanillae effectively, with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC of 0.05 %. The extract inhibited colony growth diameter and total mycelial dry weight.

  18. Studies on some microbiological and chemical aspects of irradiated vanilla beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, S.; Pietka, M.; Zegota, H.

    1995-01-01

    Vanilla bean is a valuable food additive used in many branches of food industry as a source of natural vanillin. The influence of 60 Co γ-radiation in the dose range of 5-50 kGy has been investigated on: the survival of contaminating microflora, and more important vanilla constituents like vanillin and sugars. It has been found that the main vanilla contamination is connected with mesophylic microorganisms in the amount of 8.4 x 10 4 /g. The dose of 15 kGy is sufficient for decontamination of commercial raw material. The samples under investigation on account of sensory properties and chemical composition were in agreement with country regulations. Doses up to 50 kGy do not cause undesirable changes in the content of sugars and vanillin, which has been confirmed by studies on model compounds. (author) 7 refs.; 1 fig.; 7 tabs

  19. The cervical cap (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cervical cap is a flexible rubber cup-like device that is filled with spermicide and self-inserted over the cervix ... left in place several hours after intercourse. The cap is a prescribed device fitted by a health ...

  20. Cradle Cap: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradle cap Treatment Cradle cap usually doesn't require medical treatment. It clears up on its own within a few months. In the meantime, wash ... tips can help you control and manage cradle cap. Gently rub your baby's scalp with your fingers ...

  1. A new vanilla species from Costa Rica closely related to V. planifolia (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Azofeifa-Bolaños

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new vanilla species growing in sympatry with Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews (Orchidaceae in the province of Limón, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. The morphology of the reproductive and vegetative organs observed on vines cultivated under shade-house, the nuclear (Internal Transcribed Spacer and plastid (matK nucleotide sequences, as well as the contents of aromatic compounds measured in ripe fruits, show that this species is close to but distinct from V. planifolia. The name V. sotoarenasii M.Pignal, Azofeifa-Bolaños & Grisoni sp. nov. is proposed for this new Vanilla species endemic in Costa Rica. It is especially distinguished from V. planifolia by a reduction of about 30% of the size of the fruits and flowers, by a divergence of ITS sequences for at least two species-conserved nucleotides compared to seven other species of the V. planifolia group, and by the presence of anisic compounds and low content of phenolic compounds (including vanillin in the fruits. These results confirmed the extension of the area of distribution of V. planifolia southward to Costa Rica, where a recent speciation process occurred. Because of its particular agronomic and aromatic properties, V. sotoarenasii sp. nov. could represent a valuable biological resource for the vanilla industry.

  2. Fast computation of vanilla prices in time-changed models and implied volatilities using rational approximations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, M.; Stolte, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new numerical method to price vanilla options quickly in time-changed Brownian motion models. The method is based on rational function approximations of the Black-Scholes formula. Detailed numerical results are given for a number of widely used models. In particular, we use the

  3. Effects of bite size on the sensory properties of vanilla custard desserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, J.F.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2007-01-01

    A trained panel of 19 subjects were asked to rate a number of sensory attributes of commercially available vanilla custard desserts. Stimuli were placed in plastic cups and were sampled using 11-mm-diameter straws. In total, 304 samples were weighed before and after sampling and the volume ingested

  4. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citris aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Zijlstra, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla) could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and

  5. Microtubule's conformational cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.

    1999-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that allow elongation of the unstable microtubule lattice remain unclear. It is usually thought that the GDP-liganded tubulin lattice is capped by a small layer of GTP- or GDP-P(i)-liganded molecules, the so called "GTP-cap". Here, we point-out that the elastic properties...

  6. Elucidation of the Vanillin Biosynthetic Pathway in Vanilla planifolia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallage, Nethaji Janeshawari

    peptide is transported into the vacuole for potential degradation (Chapter 3 – Manuscript in preparation). This PhD thesis also includes a review (Chapter 4), which represents the current state of biotechnology-derived vanillin synthesis based on ferulic acid, eugenol and glucose using microorganisms....... Vanillin is a compound of major interest in the flavour and fragrance industry. In 2010, the annual world sales of vanillin reached more than 15,000 tons, Nowadays, less than 1 % of the global production of vanillin is derived from vanilla pods, since the production and isolation of vanillin from vanilla...... discovery and downstream processing methods due to physicochemical properties of the substrate, the product and the nature of microorganisms used. Hence, bioengineering tools have been employed to circumvent these drawbacks. The review emphasizes the major issues encountered and the solutions obtained...

  7. RETENSI VANILIN DAN PERUBAHAN WARNA EKSTRAK PEKAT VANILI SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [Vanillin Retention and Color Changes of Concentrated Vanilla Extract During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Sofyaningsih1*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to observe vanillin retention and color changes during storage of concentrated vanilla extract at the low temperature (10°C, room temperature (30°C, and high temperature (55°C for 49 days. The methodology of this research consisted of vanilla curing process, vanilla extraction, evaporation of vanilla extract, formulation of concentrated vanilla extract, and measuring the vanillin retention and color change.The best products of concentrated vanilla extract were made with formula containing 10 ml vanilla extract, 10 ml high fructose syrup (HFS 55% and 3 ml of carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC solution 1% and that made with formula containing 10 ml vanilla extract, 15 ml glucose syrup 75°Brix and 3 ml of CMC solution 1%. The vanillin retention of both formulas had a trend to descrease. The pattern of vanillin retention and color change during storage of both formulas followed linear equations.Thetemperature and period of storage significantly affected the color of concentrated vanilla extract. Both formulas did not show any differences in vanillin retention and color during storage at refrigerator and room temperature.

  8. A re-evaluation of the final step of vanillin biosynthesis in the orchid Vanilla planifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hailian; Barros-Rios, Jaime; Kourteva, Galina; Rao, Xiaolan; Chen, Fang; Shen, Hui; Liu, Chenggang; Podstolski, Andrzej; Belanger, Faith; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Dixon, Richard A

    2017-07-01

    A recent publication describes an enzyme from the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia with the ability to convert ferulic acid directly to vanillin. The authors propose that this represents the final step in the biosynthesis of vanillin, which is then converted to its storage form, glucovanillin, by glycosylation. The existence of such a "vanillin synthase" could enable biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid using a "natural" vanilla enzyme. The proposed vanillin synthase exhibits high identity to cysteine proteases, and is identical at the protein sequence level to a protein identified in 2003 as being associated with the conversion of 4-coumaric acid to 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. We here demonstrate that the recombinant cysteine protease-like protein, whether expressed in an in vitro transcription-translation system, E. coli, yeast, or plants, is unable to convert ferulic acid to vanillin. Rather, the protein is a component of an enzyme complex that preferentially converts 4-coumaric acid to 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, as demonstrated by the purification of this complex and peptide sequencing. Furthermore, RNA sequencing provides evidence that this protein is expressed in many tissues of V. planifolia irrespective of whether or not they produce vanillin. On the basis of our results, V. planifolia does not appear to contain a cysteine protease-like "vanillin synthase" that can, by itself, directly convert ferulic acid to vanillin. The pathway to vanillin in V. planifolia is yet to be conclusively determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vanillin formation from ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallage, Nethaji J.; Hansen, Esben H.; Kannangara, Rubini; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Holme, Inger; Hebelstrup, Kim; Grisoni, Michel; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is a popular and valuable flavour compound. It is the key constituent of the natural vanilla flavour obtained from cured vanilla pods. Here we show that a single hydratase/lyase type enzyme designated vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyses direct conversion of ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. The enzyme shows high sequence similarity to cysteine proteinases and is specific to the substitution pattern at the aromatic ring and does not metabolize caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid as demonstrated by coupled transcription/translation assays. VpVAN localizes to the inner part of the vanilla pod and high transcript levels are found in single cells located a few cell layers from the inner epidermis. Transient expression of VpVAN in tobacco and stable expression in barley in combination with the action of endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and UDP-glucosyltransferases result in vanillyl alcohol glucoside formation from endogenous ferulic acid. A gene encoding an enzyme showing 71% sequence identity to VpVAN was identified in another vanillin-producing plant species Glechoma hederacea and was also shown to be a vanillin synthase as demonstrated by transient expression in tobacco. PMID:24941968

  10. The Intracellular Localization of the Vanillin Biosynthetic Machinery in Pods of Vanilla planifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallage, Nethaji J; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Janfelt, Christian; Nielsen, Agnieszka J Z; Naake, Thomas; Dunski, Eryk; Dalsten, Lene; Grisoni, Michel; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2018-02-01

    Vanillin is the most important flavor compound in the vanilla pod. Vanilla planifolia vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyzes the conversion of ferulic acid and ferulic acid glucoside into vanillin and vanillin glucoside, respectively. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) of vanilla pod sections demonstrates that vanillin glucoside is preferentially localized within the mesocarp and placental laminae whereas vanillin is preferentially localized within the mesocarp. VpVAN is present as the mature form (25 kDa) but, depending on the tissue and isolation procedure, small amounts of the immature unprocessed form (40 kDa) and putative oligomers (50, 75 and 100 kDa) may be observed by immunoblotting using an antibody specific to the C-terminal sequence of VpVAN. The VpVAN protein is localized within chloroplasts and re-differentiated chloroplasts termed phenyloplasts, as monitored during the process of pod development. Isolated chloroplasts were shown to convert [14C]phenylalanine and [14C]cinnamic acid into [14C]vanillin glucoside, indicating that the entire vanillin de novo biosynthetic machinery converting phenylalanine to vanillin glucoside is present in the chloroplast.

  11. Explaining perceived oral texture of starch-based custard desserts from standard and novel instrumental tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A.de; Prinz, J.F.; Janssen, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    A number of in vitro and in vivo instrumental tests have been developed to reflect various aspects of the perceived oral texture of starch-based vanilla custard desserts. These tests include measurements of the food's infra-red reflectance (IRR), of the turbidity of spat-out rinse water, and of the

  12. CENTRIFUGE END CAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beams, J.W.; Snoddy, L.B.

    1960-08-01

    An end cap for ultra-gas centrifuges is designed to impart or remove angular momentum to or from the gas and to bring the entering gas to the temperature of the gas inside the centrifuge. The end cap is provided with slots or fins for adjusting the temperature and the angular momentum of the entering gas to the temperature and momentum of the gas in the centrifuge and is constructed to introduce both the inner and the peripheral stream into the centrifuge.

  13. An ATLAS inner detector end-cap is placed in its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The instrumentation housed inside the inner end-cap must be kept cool to avoid thermal noise. This cooling is achieved on ATLAS by placing the end-cap inside a liquid argon cryostat. The end-cap measures particles that are produced close to the direction of the beam pipe and would otherwise be missed.

  14. CAPS Simulation Environment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Douglas G.; Hoffman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The final design for an effective Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) will likely come after a number of competing designs have been simulated and evaluated. Because of the large number of design parameters involved in a system capable of detecting an object, accurately determining its orbit, and diverting the impact threat, a comprehensive simulation environment will be an extremely valuable tool for the CAPS designers. A successful simulation/design tool will aid the user in identifying the critical parameters in the system and eventually allow for automatic optimization of the design once the relationships of the key parameters are understood. A CAPS configuration will consist of space-based detectors whose purpose is to scan the celestial sphere in search of objects likely to make a close approach to Earth and to determine with the greatest possible accuracy the orbits of those objects. Other components of a CAPS configuration may include systems for modifying the orbits of approaching objects, either for the purpose of preventing a collision or for positioning the object into an orbit where it can be studied or used as a mineral resource. The Synergistic Engineering Environment (SEE) is a space-systems design, evaluation, and visualization software tool being leveraged to simulate these aspects of the CAPS study. The long-term goal of the SEE is to provide capabilities to allow the user to build and compare various CAPS designs by running end-to-end simulations that encompass the scanning phase, the orbit determination phase, and the orbit modification phase of a given scenario. Herein, a brief description of the expected simulation phases is provided, the current status and available features of the SEE software system is reported, and examples are shown of how the system is used to build and evaluate a CAPS detection design. Conclusions and the roadmap for future development of the SEE are also presented.

  15. PENEKANAN PERKEMBANGAN PENYAKIT BUSUK BATANG VANILI (FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. VANILLAE MELALUI SELEKSI ASAM FUSARAT SECARA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Nurcahyani

    2013-09-01

    fungus has been initiated by in vitro selection on medium containing fusaric acid. The aims of this research were: (1 to investigate effective concentration of fusaric acid used for in vitro selection, (2 to characterize mutants which have been set up and also to test those mutants for their resistance to the fungus. The results showed that: (1 fusaric acid at the concentration of 110 ppm effectively suppressed the disease intensity up to 25% compared to the concentration of 90 ppm and 100 ppm. In other words, 110 ppm of fusaric acid has increased the category criterion from moderate to resistant, (2 there was an increase of the total phenol content and thickness of lignin in vanilla stem, and (3 the protein profile of vanilla plantlet was different from the control. There was an initiation of a new band of about 18 kD in a mutant predicted as a protein which is responsible for vanilla resistance to Fusarium.

  16. Effect of endogenous and exogenous enzymatic treatment of green vanilla beans on extraction of vanillin and main aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardío, Violeta T; Flores, Argel; López, Karla M; Martínez, David I; Márquez, Ofelia; Waliszewski, Krzysztof N

    2018-06-01

    Endogenous and exogenous enzymatic hydrolysis carried out to obtain vanilla extracts with higher concentrations of vanillin using green vanilla beans. Sequences initiated with freezing of green vanilla beans at - 1 °C for 24 h, followed by endogenous hydrolysis under optimal β-glucosidase activity at 4.2 and 35 °C for 96 h, exogenous hydrolysis with Crystalzyme PML-MX at pH 5.0 and 40 °C for 72 h, and ethanol extraction at 40% (v v -1 ) for 30 days. In the proposed method, 200 g of fresh green vanilla beans with 84% moisture (32 g dry base) were used to obtain a liter of single fold vanilla extract. This method allowed the release of 82.57% of the theoretically available vanillin from its precursor glucovanillin with 5.78 g 100 g -1 green vanilla beans (dry base). Vanillic acid, p -hydroxybenzaldehyde and vanillyl alcohol were also released and found in commercial and enzymatic extracts. Glucovanillin was detected in commercial and traditional extracts but was absent in enzymatic extracts, indicating incomplete hydrolysis during the curing process. An in vitro assay was conducted to determine if the presence of peroxidase during hydrolysis might affect overall vanillin concentration. Results showed that POD can use vanillin as a substrate under conditions similar to those in which hydrolysis was conducted (pH 5.0 and 50 °C), possibly explaining why vanillin concentration was not complete at the end of the process.

  17. Caracterización Estomática de Cinco Especies del Género Vanilla

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-López, Delfino; Quiroz-Valentín, Jonathan; Kelso-Bucio, Henry Arturo; Huerta-Lara, Manuel; Avendaño-Arrazate, Carlos Hugo; Lobato-Ortiz, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Resumen:El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar los estomas de cinco especies de vainilla. Durante el año 2012 se tomaron muestras de hoja de Vanilla planifolia G. Jackson, V. pompona Schiede, V. inodora Schiede, V. insignis Ames y V. odorata Presl, del banco de germoplasma de vainilla de la Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. Se obtuvo el tamaño de estomas al considerar el largo y ancho de estos, índice y número estomático de la parte abaxial y adaxial de la hoja, en un diseño de...

  18. Identification of nucleopolyhedrovirus that infect Nymphalid butterflies Agraulis vanillae and Dione juno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Vanina Andrea; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás; Gómez, Diego Luis Mengual; Sciocco-Cap, Alicia; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Dione juno and Agraulis vanillae are very common butterflies in natural gardens in South America, and also bred worldwide. In addition, larvae of these butterflies are considered as pests in crops of Passiflora spp. For these reasons, it is important to identify and describe pathogens of these species, both for preservation purposes and for use in pest control. Baculoviridae is a family of insect viruses that predominantly infect species of Lepidoptera and are used as bioinsecticides. Larvae of D. juno and A. vanillae exhibiting symptoms of baculovirus infection were examined for the presence of baculoviruses by PCR and transmission electron microscopy. Degenerate primers were designed and used to amplify partial sequences from the baculovirus p74, cathepsin, and chitinase genes, along with previously designed primers for amplification of lef-8, lef-9, and polh. Sequence data from these six loci, along with ultrastructural observations on occlusion bodies isolated from the larvae, confirmed that the larvae were infected with nucleopolyhedroviruses from genus Alphabaculovirus. The NPVs from the two different larval hosts appear to be variants of the same, previously undescribed baculovirus species. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data placed these NPVs in Alphabaculovirus group I/clade 1b. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variación morfométrica de fruto y semilla en cuatro especies del género Vanilla / Morfometric variation of fruis and seed in four species of the genus Vanilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfino Reyes-López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo la caracterización morfométrica del fruto y semilla en cuatro especies del género Vanilla correspondientes a Vanilla planifolia G. Jackson, Vanilla insignis Ames, Vanilla inodora Schiede y Vanilla pompona Schiede, dentro de V. planifolia G. Jackson se consideró ocho clones. El material biológico utilizado fue tomado del banco de germoplasma de vainilla de la Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, México. Para el análisis de resultados se utilizaron análisis de correlación, análisis de componentes principales y de agrupamiento. Los caracteres morfométricos más discriminantes de semilla fueron: Perímetro, diámetro feret, eje radial, longitud del hilio e índice de compactación (primer componente principal. Área de zona placentaria del fruto, grosor del fruto, y relación longitud/grosor del fruto (segundo componente principal. Angulo superior de semilla, relación área de zona placentaria/área del mesocarpio del fruto, relación ángulo inferior/ángulo superior de semilla (tercer componente principal. Los tres componentes principales acumularon 80 % de la variación total. Se logró la separación entre las diferentes especies y clones de vainilla en cuatro grupos bien definidos, lo que indica que existe variabilidad morfométrica en fruto y semilla entre especies y clones que pueden ser útiles para la discriminación y diferenciación del germoplasma de vainilla.

  20. Designing Smart Charter School Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Erin

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Andrew J. Rotherham proposed a new approach to the contentious issue of charter school caps, the statutory limits on charter school growth in place in several states. Rotherham's proposal, termed "smart charter school caps," called for quality sensitive caps that allow the expansion of high-performing charter schools while also…

  1. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citrus aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times, psychological (emotions and mood and behavioral (food choice measures in a semi-real life environment for 22 participants. Results Exposure to ambient citrus aroma increased physical activity (P P P P P Conclusions The test battery used in this study demonstrated aroma-specific physiological, psychological and behavioral effects of aromas with similar appeal and intensities, and similar food-related origins. These effects could be measured in (semi- real life environments for freely moving subjects using relatively inexpensive commercially available physiological sensors.

  3. Natural hybridization between Vanilla claviculata (W. Wright) Sw. and V. barbellata Rchb.f. (Orchidaceae): genetic, morphological, and pollination experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NIELSEN, LENE ROSTGAARD

    2000-01-01

    Vanilla claviculata (W. Wright) Sw. and V. barbellata Rchb.f. grow sympatrically in the southwestern part of herto Rico. At three localities in the range of the two species, individuals with flowers that appeared different from previously known species were found. To test whether these were hybrids...... the hypothesis that the individuals are hybrids, which is further augmented by interspecific pollination experiments between the putative parental species. This is the first case of natural hybridization reported in the genus Vanilla....

  4. Different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Zhao, Jun; Xun, Weibing; Li, Rong; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. Soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity cluster and UniFrac-weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that monoculture time was the major determinant for fungal community structure, but not for bacterial community structure. The relative abundances (RAs) of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Basidiomycota phyla were depleted along the years of vanilla monoculture. Pearson correlations at the phyla level demonstrated that Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes had significant negative correlations with vanilla disease index (DI), while no significant correlation for fungal phyla was observed. In addition, the amount of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum accumulated with increasing years and was significantly positively correlated with vanilla DI. By contrast, the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, significantly decreased over time. In sum, soil weakness and vanilla stem wilt disease after long-term continuous cropping can be attributed to the alteration of the soil microbial community membership and structure, i.e., the reduction of the beneficial microbes and the accumulation of the fungal pathogen.

  5. Comparison of four kinds of extraction techniques and kinetics of microwave-assisted extraction of vanillin from Vanilla planifolia Andrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhizhe; Gu, Fenglin; Xu, Fei; Wang, Qinghuang

    2014-04-15

    Vanillin yield, microscopic structure, antioxidant activity and overall odour of vanilla extracts obtained by different treatments were investigated. MAE showed the strongest extraction power, shortest time and highest antioxidant activity. Maceration gave higher vanillin yields than UAE and PAE, similar antioxidant activity with UAE, but longer times than UAE and PAE. Overall odour intensity of different vanilla extracts obtained by UAE, PAE and MAE were similar, while higher than maceration extracts. Then, powered vanilla bean with a sample/solvent ratio of 4 g/100 mL was selected as the optimum condition for MAE. Next, compared with other three equations, two-site kinetic equation with lowest RMSD and highest R²(adj) was shown to be more suitable in describing the kinetics of vanillin extraction. By fitting the parameters C(eq), k₁, k₂, and f, a kinetics model was constructed to describe vanillin extraction in terms of irradiation power, ethanol concentration, and extraction time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-chain aliphatic beta-diketones from epicuticular wax of Vanilla bean species. Synthesis of nervonoylacetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson-Raonizafinimanana, B; Gaydou, E M; Bombarda, I

    2000-10-01

    Analysis of the neutral lipids from Vanilla fragrans and Vanilla tahitensis (Orchidaceae) without saponification resulted in the isolation and identification of a new product family in this plant: beta-dicarbonyl compounds. The compound structures are composed of a long aliphatic chain with 2,4-dicarbonyl carbons and a cis double bond at the n-9 position. They represent approximately 28% of the neutral lipids, that is, 1.5%, in immature beans, and approximately 10% of the neutral lipids, that is, 0.9%, in mature beans. Using retention indices, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, derivatization reactions, and chemical degradation, five beta-dicarbonyl compounds have been identified including 16-pentacosene-2,4-dione, 18-heptacosene-2,4-dione, 20-nonacosene-2, 4-dione, 22-hentriacontene-2,4-dione, and 24-tritriacontene-2, 4-dione. Among them (Z)-18-heptacosene-2,4-dione, or nervonoylacetone, has been synthesized in two steps starting from nervonic acid. The major constituent, nervonoylacetone, represented 74.5% of the beta-dicarbonyl fraction. The range of these compounds has been studied in relation with bean maturity for V. fragrans and V. tahitensis species. This compound family has not been found in the leaves or stems of any of the three vanilla species studied and is markedly absent in the beans of V. madagascariensis.

  7. ATLAS end-cap detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Three scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Phyiscs at Novossibirsk with one of the end-caps of the ATLAS detector. The end-caps will be used to detect particles produced in the proton-proton collisions at the heart of the ATLAS experiment that are travelling close to the axis of the two beams.

  8. The North Zealand CAP Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Minna; Ravn, Pernille; Notander Clausen, Lise

    with CAP. We started with 34 audit variables. Through repeated cycles of testing, feedback and discussions, we reduced the number of indicators to 22 and time per audit from 20 to 10 minutes. Strategy for change To link the monitoring system with our patient pathway for CAP we established an improvement...... Designing a database Designing and testing a dashboard to present indicators in a balanced way Messages for others Auditing patients with a common disease as CAP is useful to identify areas for improvement for a large group of patients. The baseline audit can serve as a basis for a monitoring system......Contect We describe how we developed a monitoring system for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) at North Zealand Regional hospital. We serve 310.000 inhabitants and annually around 3200 patients with CAP are admitted. As part of a program of clinical pathways for common conditions, a pathway...

  9. [Potential distribution and geographic characteristics of wild populations of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae) Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Ruiz, Jesús; Herrera-Cabrera, B Edgar; Delgado-Alvarado, Adriana; Salazar-Rojas, Víctor M; Bustamante-Gonzalez, Ángel; Campos-Contreras, Jorge E; Ramírez-Juarez, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Wild specimens of Vanilla planifolia represent a vital part of this resource primary gene pool, and some plants have only been reported in Oaxaca, Mexico. For this reason, we studied its geographical distribution within the state, to locate and describe the ecological characteristics of the areas where they have been found, in order to identify potential areas of establishment. The method comprised four stages: 1) the creation of a database with herbarium records, 2) the construction of the potential distribution based on historical herbarium records for the species, using the model of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and 22 bioclimatic variables as predictors; 3) an in situ systematic search of individuals, based on herbarium records and areas of potential distribution in 24 municipalities, to determine the habitat current situation and distribution; 4) the description of the environmental factors of potential ecological niches generated by MaxEnt. A review of herbarium collections revealed a total of 18 records of V. planifolia between 1939 and 1998. The systematic search located 28 plants distributed in 12 sites in 95 364 Km(2). The most important variables that determined the model of vanilla potential distribution were: precipitation in the rainy season (61.9 %), soil moisture regime (23.4 %) and precipitation during the four months of highest rainfall (8.1 %). The species potential habitat was found to be distributed in four zones: wet tropics of the Gulf of Mexico, humid temperate, humid tropical, and humid temperate in the Pacific. Precipitation oscillated within the annual ranges of 2 500 to 4 000 mm, with summer rains, and winter precipitation as 5 to 10 % of the total. The moisture regime and predominating climate were udic type I (330 to 365 days of moisture) and hot humid (Am/A(C) m). The plants were located at altitudes of 200 to 1 190 masl, on rough hillsides that generally make up the foothills of mountain systems, with altitudes of 1 300 to 2 500 masl. In

  10. Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndromes (CAPS) - Juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all ethnic groups can be affected. What are CAPS? Cryopyrin-associated autoinflammatory syndromes (CAPS) consist of three ... ears by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). How is CAPS treated? Medications that target interleukin-1 are very ...

  11. Rooting of cuttings of vanilla plant (Orchidaceae / Enraizamento de estacas da baunilheira (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Gomes de Araujo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The vanilla plant (Vanilla planifolia could have a higher commercial production but there are problems in the efficiency of propagation. The present work was conducted with the aim of studying the effect of different substrates, in the adventitious rooting of cuttings taken at five heights in the plant stem. The cuttings were 20cm long and had two buds and one leaf and were planted in: 1 Liquid medium formed by Clark’s nutrient added of 2.5mg L-1 of IBA placed in plastic foam box with a capacity of 1.5L lined inside with transparent plastic bag and lidded with proper lid. 2 Solid substrate formed by the mixture of sand, carbonized rice husk, soil and cured cow manure in equal proportions of volume, they being placed in rigid polypropylene with a capacity of 0.28L. 3 Pre-rooting of the cuttings in liquid medium (20 days before planting, and later transferred into seedling tubes containing solid substrate. The cuttings planted in the solid substrate were maintained under intermittent mist condition controlled by a timer. After 90 days, the percentage of rooting was of 98-100%, regardless of the treatment. Larger and more vigorous sproutings were obtained from cuttings planted directly into solid substrate. Adventitious rooting of cuttings and formation of new vanilla cuttings occurred, when the cuttings were obtained from position P2 (ranging between 20 to 40cm in stem height and planted in solid substrate in greenhouse with intermittent misting system. A baunilheira (Vanilla planifolia é uma planta pouco explorada comercialmente, devido ao emprego de tecnologias de baixa eficiência para a produção de mudas. Assim sendo, realizou-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes substratos, no enraizamento adventício de estacas retiradas de diferentes posições na planta. Estacas com 20cm de comprimento, duas gemas e uma folha, tomadas na haste da planta, em cinco posições subseqüentes, a partir do ápice caulinar

  12. Studies on Physical and Sensory Properties of Premium Vanilla Ice Cream Distributed in Korean Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Jung; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the difference in physical and sensory properties of various premium ice creams. The physical properties of the various ice creams were compared by manufacturing brand. The water contents of the samples differed, with BR having the highest value at 60.5%, followed by NT and CS at 57.8% and 56.9%, respectively. The higher the water content, the lower Brix and milk fat contents in all samples. The density of the samples showed almost similar values in all samples (p>0.05). The viscosity of each ice cream had no effect on the water content in any of the brands. Before melting of the ice cream, the total color difference was dependent on the lightness, especially in the vanilla ice cream, owing to the reflection of light on the surface of the ice crystals. The CS product melted the fastest. In the sensory test, CS obtained a significantly higher sweetness intensity score but a lower score for color intensity, probably due to the smaller difference in total color, by which consumers might consider the color of CS as less intense. From this study, the cold chain system for ice cream distribution might be important to decide the physical properties although the concentration of milk fat is key factor in premium ice cream.

  13. Simultaneous observations of sun-aligned polar cap arcs in both hemispheres by EXOS-C and viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, T.; Kitayama, M.; Mukai, T.; Kaya, N.; Murphree, J.S.; Cogger, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    On September 25, 1986, the EXOS-C satellite traversed an intense electron precipitation in the southern polar cap, while the Viking satellite simultaneously obtained image data of the polar cap arc in the northern hemisphere. The energy spectrum of the precipitation, measured by instrumentation aboard EXOS-C, was very similar to that of adjacent (typical) auroral arcs, and the precipitation in the southern polar cap was observed in the same local time sector in which the arc was found in the northern polar cap. Observations seem to support the view that the polar cap arc occurs on closed field lines and is conjugate in both hemispheres. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  14. Shoot differentiation from protocorm callus cultures of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae: proteomic and metabolic responses at early stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payet Bertrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vanilla planifolia is an important Orchid commercially cultivated for the production of natural vanilla flavour. Vanilla plants are conventionally propagated by stem cuttings and thus causing injury to the mother plants. Regeneration and in vitro mass multiplication are proposed as an alternative to minimize damage to mother plants. Because mass production of V. planifolia through indirect shoot differentiation from callus culture is rare and may be a successful use of in vitro techniques for producing somaclonal variants, we have established a novel protocol for the regeneration of vanilla plants and investigated the initial biochemical and molecular mechanisms that trigger shoot organogenesis from embryogenic/organogenic callus. Results For embryogenic callus induction, seeds obtained from 7-month-old green pods of V. planifolia were inoculated on MS basal medium (BM containing TDZ (0.5 mg l-1. Germination of unorganized mass callus such as protocorm -like structure (PLS arising from each seed has been observed. The primary embryogenic calli have been formed after transferring on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ (0.5 mg l-1. These calli were maintained by subculturing on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ (0.3 mg l-1 during 6 months and formed embryogenic/organogenic calli. Histological analysis showed that shoot organogenesis was induced between 15 and 20 days after embryogenic/organogenic calli were transferred onto MS basal medium with NAA (0.5 mg l-1. By associating proteomics and metabolomics analyses, the biochemical and molecular markers responsible for shoot induction have been studied in 15-day-old calli at the stage where no differentiating part was visible on organogenic calli. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS analysis revealed that 15 protein spots are significantly expressed (P Conclusion The

  15. 47 CFR 54.623 - Cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cap. 54.623 Section 54.623 Telecommunication... Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.623 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The annual cap on federal universal service support for health care providers shall be $400 million per funding...

  16. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cap. 54.507 Section 54.507 Telecommunication... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The annual funding cap on federal universal service support for schools and libraries shall be $2.25 billion per...

  17. Vanillin-bioconversion and bioengineering of the most popular plant flavor and its de novo biosynthesis in the vanilla orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallage, Nethaji J; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, biotechnology-derived production of flavors and fragrances has expanded rapidly. The world's most popular flavor, vanillin, is no exception. This review outlines the current state of biotechnology-based vanillin synthesis with the use of ferulic acid, eugenol, and glucose as substrates and bacteria, fungi, and yeasts as microbial production hosts. The de novo biosynthetic pathway of vanillin in the vanilla orchid and the possible applied uses of this new knowledge in the biotechnology-derived and pod-based vanillin industries are also highlighted. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Germinación in vitro de híbridos de vanilla planifolia y v. pompona

    OpenAIRE

    Menchaca G, Rebeca A.; Ramos P, José M; Moreno M, David; Luna R, Mauricio; Mata R, Martín; Vázquez G, Luis Miguel; Lozano R, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    In vitro germination of Vanilla planifolia and V. pompona hybridsResumen El cultivo de la vainilla se lleva a cabo ampliamente por medio de propagación clonal, de manera asexual por cortes de tallos y la producción de frutos se realiza por autopolinización. Esta práctica inhibe la variación genética y la emergencia de nuevos individuos por recombinación sexual. Por lo anterior, se considera necesario realizar cruzas por propagación sexual entre especies para obtener nuevos individuos con cara...

  19. Shoot differentiation from protocorm callus cultures of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae): proteomic and metabolic responses at early stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palama, Tony L; Menard, Patrice; Fock, Isabelle; Choi, Young H; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Govinden-Soulange, Joyce; Bahut, Muriel; Payet, Bertrand; Verpoorte, Robert; Kodja, Hippolyte

    2010-05-05

    Vanilla planifolia is an important Orchid commercially cultivated for the production of natural vanilla flavour. Vanilla plants are conventionally propagated by stem cuttings and thus causing injury to the mother plants. Regeneration and in vitro mass multiplication are proposed as an alternative to minimize damage to mother plants. Because mass production of V. planifolia through indirect shoot differentiation from callus culture is rare and may be a successful use of in vitro techniques for producing somaclonal variants, we have established a novel protocol for the regeneration of vanilla plants and investigated the initial biochemical and molecular mechanisms that trigger shoot organogenesis from embryogenic/organogenic callus. For embryogenic callus induction, seeds obtained from 7-month-old green pods of V. planifolia were inoculated on MS basal medium (BM) containing TDZ (0.5 mg l(-1)). Germination of unorganized mass callus such as protocorm -like structure (PLS) arising from each seed has been observed. The primary embryogenic calli have been formed after transferring on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l(-1)) and TDZ (0.5 mg l(-1)). These calli were maintained by subculturing on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l(-1)) and TDZ (0.3 mg l(-1)) during 6 months and formed embryogenic/organogenic calli. Histological analysis showed that shoot organogenesis was induced between 15 and 20 days after embryogenic/organogenic calli were transferred onto MS basal medium with NAA (0.5 mg l(-1)). By associating proteomics and metabolomics analyses, the biochemical and molecular markers responsible for shoot induction have been studied in 15-day-old calli at the stage where no differentiating part was visible on organogenic calli. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS) analysis revealed that 15 protein spots are significantly expressed (P tissue culture, phenolic compounds such

  20. Importancia y desafíos de la conservación de Vanilla spp. (orquidaceae) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Azofeifa-Bolaños, José Bernal; Paniagua-Vásquez, Amelia; García-García, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir la importancia y los principales retos del uso, manejo y conservación del género Vanilla en Costa Rica. Los temas tratados fueron: taxonomía en el país y a nivel mundial, datos sobre recolección y nuevas estimaciones de parientes silvestres, la importancia económica, ecológica y social, el acervo genético de las especies costarricenses, la situación del cultivo a nivel mundial (área cosechada, producción, rendimiento, principales países productores), ...

  1. Use of just-about-right scales and penalty analysis to determine appropriate concentrations of stevia sweeteners for vanilla yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, P; Chinnasamy, B; Jin, L; Clark, S

    2014-01-01

    With the mainstream emergence of natural sweeteners such as stevia, which is available in different commercial formulations, suitability for yogurt needs to be validated. The present study aimed to determine the appropriate concentration level of 3 processed stevia sweeteners/supplements in commercial plain low-fat yogurt flavored with natural vanilla. Three different levels of sucrose, aspartame, an erythritol and 95% rebaudiana A stevia sweetener, a 95% pure mix of maltodextrin and steviol glycosides, and a cold water stevia extract were used in the study. The just-about-right level for each sweetener and consumer acceptability of each naturally flavored low-fat vanilla yogurt were evaluated. Results from penalty analysis demonstrated that only 0.7% of stevia containing maltodextrin and 95% steviol glycoside was necessary, whereas higher levels (between 4.0 to 5.5%) were more appropriate for stevia containing erythritol and 95% rebaudiana A or cold water extract of stevia, respectively. The concentrations of stevia sweeteners used influenced the perceived sweetness and sourness. In general, consumers disliked the yogurt sweetened with stevia or aspartame, and neither disliked nor liked the yogurt sweetened with sucrose, which was largely driven by perceived sourness of the base yogurt. The findings underline the importance of careful selection of stevia type and concentration as well as optimizing yogurt cultures and fermentation conditions before product launch. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimized production of vanillin from green vanilla pods by enzyme-assisted extraction combined with pre-freezing and thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Mo, Limei; Chen, Feng; Lu, Minquan; Dong, Wenjiang; Wang, Qinghuang; Xu, Fei; Gu, Fenglin

    2014-02-19

    Production of vanillin from natural green vanilla pods was carried out by enzyme-assisted extraction combined with pre-freezing and thawing. In the first step the green vanilla pods were pre-frozen and then thawed to destroy cellular compartmentation. In the second step pectinase from Aspergillus niger was used to hydrolyze the pectin between the glucovanillin substrate and β-glucosidase. Four main variables, including enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time and pH, which were of significance for the vanillin content were studied and a central composite design (CCD) based on the results of a single-factor tests was used. Response surface methodology based on CCD was employed to optimize the combination of enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time, and pH for maximum vanillin production. This resulted in the optimal condition in regards of the enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time, and pH at 84.2 mg, 49.5 °C, 7.1 h, and 4.2, respectively. Under the optimal condition, the experimental yield of vanillin was 4.63% ± 0.11% (dwb), which was in good agreement with the value predicted by the model. Compared to the traditional curing process (1.98%) and viscozyme extract (2.36%), the optimized method for the vanillin production significantly increased the yield by 133.85% and 96%, respectively.

  3. Optimized Production of Vanillin from Green Vanilla Pods by Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Combined with Pre-Freezing and Thawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Production of vanillin from natural green vanilla pods was carried out by enzyme-assisted extraction combined with pre-freezing and thawing. In the first step the green vanilla pods were pre-frozen and then thawed to destroy cellular compartmentation. In the second step pectinase from Aspergillus niger was used to hydrolyze the pectin between the glucovanillin substrate and β-glucosidase. Four main variables, including enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time and pH, which were of significance for the vanillin content were studied and a central composite design (CCD based on the results of a single-factor tests was used. Response surface methodology based on CCD was employed to optimize the combination of enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time, and pH for maximum vanillin production. This resulted in the optimal condition in regards of the enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time, and pH at 84.2 mg, 49.5 °C, 7.1 h, and 4.2, respectively. Under the optimal condition, the experimental yield of vanillin was 4.63% ± 0.11% (dwb, which was in good agreement with the value predicted by the model. Compared to the traditional curing process (1.98% and viscozyme extract (2.36%, the optimized method for the vanillin production significantly increased the yield by 133.85% and 96%, respectively.

  4. Subcellular Lipid Droplets in Vanilla Leaf Epidermis and Avocado Mesocarp Are Coated with Oleosins of Distinct Phylogenic Lineages1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular lipid droplets (LDs) in diverse plant cells and species are coated with stabilizing oleosins of at least five phylogenic lineages and perform different functions. We examined two types of inadequately studied LDs for coated oleosins and their characteristics. The epidermis but not mesophyll of leaves of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) and most other Asparagales species contained solitary and clustered LDs (avocado (Persea americana) and other Lauraceae species possessed large LDs, which likely function in attracting animals for seed dispersal. They contained transcripts of oleosin of a novel M phylogenic lineage. Each avocado mesocarp fatty cell possessed one to several large LDs (5 to 20 μm) and at their periphery, numerous small LDs (<0.5 μm). Immuno-confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that oleosin was present mostly on the small LDs. LDs in isolated fractions coalesced rapidly, and the fraction contained oleosin and several other proteins and triacylglycerols as the main lipids. These two new types of oleosin-LDs exemplify the evolutionary plasticity of oleosins-LDs in generating novel functions in diverse cell types and species. PMID:27208281

  5. Determination of major aromatic constituents in vanilla using an on-line supercritical fluid extraction coupled with supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanshan; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Yao, Jinting; Huang, Taohong; Zhou, Ting

    2018-04-01

    An on-line supercritical fluid extraction coupled with supercritical fluid chromatography method was developed for the determination of four major aromatic constituents in vanilla. The parameters of supercritical fluid extraction were systematically investigated using single factor optimization experiments and response surface methodology by a Box-Behnken design. The modifier ratio, split ratio, and the extraction temperature and pressure were the major parameters which have significant effects on the extraction. While the static extraction time, dynamic extraction time, and recycle time had little influence on the compounds with low polarity. Under the optimized conditions, the relative extraction efficiencies of all the constituents reached 89.0-95.1%. The limits of quantification were in the range of 1.123-4.747 μg. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.3368-1.424 μg. The recoveries of the four analytes were in the range of 76.1-88.9%. The relative standard deviations of intra- and interday precision ranged from 4.2 to 7.6%. Compared with other off-line methods, the present method obtained higher extraction yields for all four aromatic constituents. Finally, this method has been applied to the analysis of vanilla from different sources. On the basis of the results, the on-line supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography method shows great promise in the analysis of aromatic constituents in natural products. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Bank Interest Margin and Default Risk under Basel III Capped Capital Adequacy Accord and Regulatory Deposit Insurance Fund Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Chuen-Ping Chang; Shi Chen

    2015-01-01

    We study the optimal bank interest margin and default risk under the capped ratio schedule of government capital instruments in the Basel III Capital Adequacy Accord and the Deposit Insurance Fund arrangement program. We show that an increase in the capped ratio (a decrease in the capped government capital injection) increases the default risk in the bank¡¯s equity return at a reduced interest margin. Regulatory deposit insurance fund protection reinforces the reduced bank interest margin and...

  7. Effect of fat content on the physical properties and consumer acceptability of vanilla ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolon, M Laura; Bakke, Alyssa J; Coupland, John N; Hayes, John E; Roberts, Robert F

    2017-07-01

    Ice cream is a complex food matrix that contains multiple physical phases. Removal of 1 ingredient may affect not only its physical properties but also multiple sensory characteristics that may or may not be important to consumers. Fat not only contributes to texture, mouth feel, and flavor, but also serves as a structural element. We evaluated the effect of replacing fat with maltodextrin (MD) on select physical properties of ice cream and on consumer acceptability. Vanilla ice creams were formulated to contain 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14% fat, and the difference was made up with 8, 6, 4, 2, and 0% maltodextrin, respectively, to balance the mix. Physical characterization included measurements of overrun, apparent viscosity, fat particle size, fat destabilization, hardness, and melting rate. A series of sensory tests were conducted to measure liking and the intensity of various attributes. Tests were also conducted after 19 weeks of storage at -18°C to assess changes in acceptance due to prolonged storage at unfavorable temperatures. Then, discrimination tests were performed to determine which differences in fat content were detectable by consumers. Mix viscosity decreased with increasing fat content and decreasing maltodextrin content. Fat particle size and fat destabilization significantly increased with increasing fat content. However, acceptability did not differ significantly across the samples for fresh or stored ice cream. Following storage, ice creams with 6, 12, and 14% fat did not differ in acceptability compared with fresh ice cream. However, the 8% fat, 6% MD and 10% fat, 4% MD ice creams showed a significant drop in acceptance after storage relative to fresh ice cream at the same fat content. Consumers were unable to detect a difference of 2 percentage points in fat level between 6 and 12% fat. They were able to detect a difference of 4 percentage points for ice creams with 6% versus 10%, but not for those with 8% versus 12% fat. Removing fat and replacing

  8. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  9. Uji Daya Hambat Jamur Endofit dan Eksofit dalam Menekan Pertumbuhan Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vanillae Penyebab Busuk Batang Panili Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI WAYAN SUNITI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Study on In Vitro Inhibitory Ability of Endophytic and Exophytic Fungusin Suppressing the Growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vanillae thatCauses Stem Rot of Vanilla. Vanilla stem rot disease caused by Fusarium oxysporumf.sp. vanillae , is still a very dangerous disease and feared by vanilla farmers. Disease until thepresent time there does not yet appear adequate control strategies for the disease. On the basisof these problems interested studied the use of endophytic fungi and exophytic existing on theleaves and stems of healthy plants , which have potential as a biological agent to controlpathogens . The study was conducted in three stages: (1 isolation of the pathogen and fungalendophyte and exophytic, (2 identification of pathogenic microscopic morphology, fungalendophyte and exophytic, and (3 test the inhibition of fungal endophyte and exophyticagainst pathogens. Fungi are found as the leaves are Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus spp., Onexophytic on the trunk is Trichoderma sp . and Fusarium spp., as a leaf endophytic found A.niger and Neurospora spp. and as endophytic rod is Neurospora spp . The highest prevalenceachieved by Neurospora spp . which is equal to 100 % on endophyte stem, while Rhizopusspp., and Fusarium spp. by 90 % respectively, exophytic on the leaves and stems. The testresults found that the inhibition of leaf eksofit Rhisopus spp . give up inhibition ranged from70.37±3.2% - 100% , while A. niger amounted to 72.22% . In exophytic on rod found onlyTrichoderma sp. inhibit pathogens by 73.70±3.57%. In endophytic on leaf found A. niger at70.37±3.2% , while Neorospora spp. ranging from 79.11±3.21% - 88.50±2.10%. In theendophytic on trunk was found Neurosporas spp. amounting to 70.74±3.57% - 79.26±1.28%.

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2016-01-29 to 2016-07-27 (NCEI Accession 0160551)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160551 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, North Atlantic...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, Mediterranean Sea and others from 2015-02-28 to 2015-12-16 (NCEI Accession 0157377)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157377 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, Mediterranean...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, Mediterranean Sea and others from 2014-11-15 to 2014-11-19 (NCEI Accession 0157277)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157277 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, Mediterranean...

  13. Analyses of hydraulic performance of velocity caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Degn Eskesen, Mark Chr.; Buhrkall, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic performance of a velocity cap has been investigated. Velocity caps are often used in connection with offshore intakes. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) examined the flow through the cap openings and further down into the intake pipes. This was combined with dimension analyses...

  14. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix to...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom...

  16. 'Elaioplasts' identified as lipotubuloids in Althaea rosea, Funkia sieboldiana and Vanilla planifolia contain lipid bodies connected with microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kwiatkowska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "Elaioplasts" observed in Vanilla planifolia, Funkia Sieboldiana and Althaea rosea exhibit all the features characteristic of lipotubuloids earlier described in Ornithogalum umbellatum. They are cytoplasmic domains containing aggregates of lipid bodies connected with microtubules. The immunogold technique confirmed the presence of tubulin in this domain. These structures do not have their own membranes but they are surrounded by a tonoplast at the side of a vacuole since they invaginate into it. In cytoplasm of this domain among lipid bodies there are numerous ribosomes, ER cisternae and vesicles as well as few mitochondria, Golgi structures and microbodies while at older developmental stages there are also autolytic vacuoles. The fact that they are so similar to O. umbellatum lipotubuloids suggest that "elaioplasts" of V. planifolia, F. Sieboldiana and A. rosea can also be named lipotubuloids.

  17. Vanillin - Bioconversion and Bioengineering of the most popular plant flavour and its de novo biosynthesis in the vanilla orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallage, Nethaji J; Moeller, Birger Lindberg

    2014-09-30

    During recent years, biotechnology derived production of flavours and fragrances have expanded rapidly. The world's most popular flavour vanillin is no exception. This review outlines the current state of biotechnology-based vanillin synthesis with the use of ferulic acid, eugenol and glucose as substrates and bacteria, fungi and yeasts as microbial production hosts. The elucidated de novo biosynthetic pathway of vanillin in the vanilla orchid and the possible applied uses of this new knowledge in the biotechnology derived and pod-based vanillin industries are also highlighted. © The Author 2014. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  18. IMPORTANCIA Y DESAFÍOS DE LA CONSERVACIÓN DE Vanilla spp. (ORQUIDACEAE EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 Bernal Azofeifa-Bola\\u00F1os

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir la importancia y los principales retos del uso, manejo y conservación del género Vanilla en Costa Rica. Los temas tratados fueron: taxonomía en el país y a nivel mundial, datos sobre recolección y nuevas estimaciones de parientes silvestres, la importancia económica, ecológica y social, el acervo genético de las especies costarricenses, la situación del cultivo a nivel mundial (área cosechada, producción, rendimiento, principales países productores, causas que disminuyen el potencial productivo de las especies, los métodos de cultivo, la posibilidad de extinción de Vanilla planifolia y el potencial genético existente en el país respecto a la concentración de vainillina. Se expone una estrategia integral de conservación que pretende perpetuar los recursos fitogenéticos de vainilla en bancos de germoplasma a través de un sistema formal de producción de semillas, para su utilización ulterior con fines de mejoramiento, investigación y producción comercial. Además, mediante un uso sustentable se protegerán las especies y variedades costarricenses. Las personas, físicas o jurídicas, que utilicen dicho material deberán generar a los proveedores beneficios monetarios, o no monetarios, por el uso de los recursos a través de un sistema justo y equitativo. Las condiciones agroecológicas de Costa Rica así como el material genético de vainilla tanto silvestre como cultivado abren la posibilidad de desarrollar modelos productivos basados en la agricultura orgánica.

  19. The rebirth of the cervical cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, J D; Grainger-Harrison, M

    1981-01-01

    In an effort to dispel myths surrounding the cervical cap, the historical and political factors affecting the cap's use in the U.S. are described. Clinical aspects of cap fitting are also included. The cervical cap has found only limited acceptance in the U.S. Skepticisms on the part of physicians may be the result of 2 factors: confusion of the cervical cap with intracervical devices used for artificial insemination and confusion with stem pessaries; and the lack of clinical research and statistical evaluation of efficacy rates. The latter factor prompted Tietze et al. to conduct the only U.S. statistical study of the cap in 1953. Of the 143 women studied, the pregnancy rate was 7.6/100 years of use. Of the 28 unplanned pregnancies, 6 were related to faulty technique or omission of a spermicide and 10 were instances of admittedly irregular use. When these failures are omitted, the theoretical effectiveness rate is about 98%. Some practitioners are concerned about an increased incidence of cervical erosion with cap use. Possibly currently conducted studies will show that cap and spermicide users have a lower incidence of cervical erosion than women using no contraceptive method. Study findings suggest that the cervical cap may afford protection without any spermicidal supplement, but the use of spermicides continues to be recommended to clients. Advantages of the cervical cap include the following: it can be left in place longer than a diaphragm without additional applications of spermicide in the vagina; and the insertion of the cap is unrelated to the time of intercourse. Despite research on toleration of the cap for 3 weeks at a time, it is recommended that the cap be worn for only a few days at a time. At this time there are no manufacturers of cervical caps for contraceptive use in the U.S. The cap is now being imported from England and it costs $6.00. A factor that has made the cap unpopular with many physicians is the lengthy time required for fitting. An

  20. Refunded emission taxes: A resolution to the cap-versus-tax dilemma for greenhouse gas regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory instruments for greenhouse gas control present a policy dilemma: Market-based instruments such as cap and trade function to reduce regulatory costs; but because they provide no guarantee that costs will be reduced to acceptable levels it is infeasible to set caps at sustainable levels. Emission taxes provide cost certainty, but their comparatively high cost makes it infeasible to set tax rates at levels commensurate with sustainability goals. However, there is a straightforward solution to this dilemma: Just as cap and trade uses free allowance allocation to minimize regulatory costs, an emission tax's cost can be mitigated by refunding tax revenue in such a way that emission reduction becomes profitable. A refunded tax, like cap and trade with free allocation, would be revenue-neutral within the regulated industry. Marginal competitive incentives for commercializing emission-reducing technologies would not be diminished by the refund, and the refund could actually make it politically and economically feasible to increase the incentives by an order of magnitude. Whereas cap and trade merely caps emissions at an unsustainable level while subjecting the economy to extreme price volatility, refunded emission taxes could create a stable investment environment with sustained incentives for emission reduction over a long-term investment horizon

  1. ATLAS electromagnetic end-cap detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    After the insertion of the first end-cap into this cryostat, the team proceed to the wiring operations. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap, whch must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. The energy of photons, electrons and positrons will be measured as they pass through the end-cap having been created along the line of the beams in the proton-proton collisions.

  2. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  3. Microtubule dynamics: Caps, catastrophes, and coupled hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.; Holy, T.E.; Leibler, S.

    1996-01-01

    An effective theory is formulated for the dynamics of the guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cap believed to stabilize growing microtubules. The theory provides a ''coarse-grained'' description of the cap's dynamics. ''Microscopic'' details, such as the microtubule lattice structure and the fate of its...

  4. Durability of Capped Wood Plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Mankowski; Mark J. Manning; Damien P. Slowik

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers of wood plastic composites (WPCs) have recently introduced capped decking to their product lines. These new materials have begun to take market share from the previous generation of uncapped products that possessed a homogenous composition throughout the thickness of their cross-section. These capped offerings have been introduced with claims that the...

  5. Theoretical model of polar cap auroral arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.R.; Burke, W.J.; USAF, Bedford, MA)

    1985-01-01

    A theory of the polar cap auroral arcs is proposed under the assumption that the magnetic field reconnection occurs in the cusp region on tail field lines during northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Requirements of a convection model during northward IMF are enumerated based on observations and fundamental theoretical considerations. The theta aurora can be expected to occur on the closed field lines convecting sunward in the central polar cap, while the less intense regular polar cap arcs can occur either on closed or open field lines. The dynamo region for the polar cap arcs is required to be on closed field lines convecting tailward in the plasma sheet which is magnetically connected to the sunward convection in the central polar cap. 43 references

  6. Hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative potential of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna) added vanilla chocolate milk in high cholesterol fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Abdul Hussain, Shaik; Kumar, Anuj; Kapila, Suman; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas

    2016-03-15

    Atherosclerosis is associated with coronary artery disease and occurs in developing as well as developed countries. In the present investigation, hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative properties of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna, 1.8%) added vanilla chocolate dairy drink was evaluated in high cholesterol fed Wistar rats for 60 days. At the end of the experimental period, a significant decrease in the body weight gain by rats receiving the encapsulated herb extract was noted as compared to high cholesterol fed rats. Administration of microencapsulated herb showed a statistically significant decrease in organ weights (epididymal fat and liver). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum lipids such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic index was observed with encapsulated Terminalia arjuna extract in high cholesterol fed group. Increases in reduced glutathione and decreases in TBARS levels were also reported in both liver and red blood cell lysates with encapsulated herb supplementation. The results demonstrated that the bioactive components (phytosterols, flavanoids, saponins and tannins etc.) which are present in the encapsulated T. arjuna not only withstand the processing conditions but also are effectively released in the intestine and show their effects, such as hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities, for better treating cardiovascular disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Quantitative and qualitative variation of fat in model vanilla custard desserts: effects on sensory properties and consumer acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaschunas, Maja; Köhn, Ehrhard; Bennwitz, Petra; Hinrichs, Jörg; Busch-Stockfisch, Mechthild

    2013-06-01

    The effects of variation in fat content (0.1% to 15.8%) and type of fat, using different types of milk, dairy cream, or vegetable fat cream, on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of starch-based vanilla model custards were studied. Descriptive analysis with trained panelists and consumer testing with untrained assessors were applied. Descriptive data were related to hedonic data using principal component analysis to determine drivers of liking and disliking. Results demonstrated an increasing effect of fat concerning visual and oral thickness, creamy flavor, and fat-related texture properties, as well as a decreasing effect concerning yellow color and surface shine. A lack of fat caused moderate intensities in pudding-like flavor attributes and an intensive jelly texture. Adding a vegetable fat cream led to lower intensities in attributes yellow color, cooked flavor, thick, and jelly texture, whereas intensities in vegetable fat flavor and fat-related texture properties increased. All consumers favored custards with medium fat contents, being high in pudding-like and vegetable fat flavor as well as in fat-related texture attributes. Nonfat custards were rejected due to jelly texture and moderate intensities in pudding-flavor attributes. High-fat samples were liked by some consumers, but their high intensities in thickness, white color, and creamy flavor also drove disliking for others. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Hongos endófitos de orquídeas y su efecto sobre el crecimiento en Vanilla planifolia Andrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Fiorela Ordóñez C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Los endófitos son microorganismos que crecen dentro de los tejidos vegetales sin causar síntomas de enfermedad. Aquellos asociados a las raíces tienen, entre otros posibles beneficios la defensa contra patógenos y un aumento en la disponibilidad de nutrientes. En el presente estudio se aislaron hongos endófitos de raíces de orquídeas del género Vanilla en estado silvestre, con el fin de determinar su efecto sobre el crecimiento de plantas de V. planifolia cuando se inocularon en el sustrato. Los resultados mostraron que variables como biomasa aérea, longitud de raíces y altura de la planta son afectadas por la inoculación de estos endófitos. La efectividad de estos hongos sobre la protección de plantas o la estimulación en el crecimiento contribuye a la generación de herramientas para el uso de bioinoculantes. De esta forma se reduce el uso de insumos químicos y se promueven prácticas amigables con el ambiente en sistemas de cultivo de vainilla.

  9. Variations in the polar cap area during two substorm cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This study employs observations from several sources to determine the location of the polar cap boundary, or open/closed field line boundary, at all local times, allowing the amount of open flux in the magnetosphere to be quantified. These data sources include global auroral images from the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI instrument on board the Polar spacecraft, SuperDARN HF radar measurements of the convection flow, and low altitude particle measurements from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA satellites, and the Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST spacecraft. Changes in the open flux content of the magnetosphere are related to the rate of magnetic reconnection occurring at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail, allowing us to estimate the day- and nightside reconnection voltages during two substorm cycles. Specifically, increases in the polar cap area are found to be consistent with open flux being created when the IMF is oriented southwards and low-latitude magnetopause reconnection is ongoing, and decreases in area correspond to open flux being destroyed at substorm breakup. The polar cap area can continue to decrease for 100 min following the onset of substorm breakup, continuing even after substorm-associated auroral features have died away. An estimate of the dayside reconnection voltage, determined from plasma drift measurements in the ionosphere, indicates that reconnection can take place at all local times along the dayside portion of the polar cap boundary, and hence presumably across the majority of the dayside magnetopause. The observation of ionospheric signatures of bursty reconnection over a wide extent of local times supports this finding.Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection; polar ionosphere – Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  10. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  11. Edge of polar cap patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  12. Solid scintillator 'Ready Cap' for measurement with a liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Kenichi; Endo, Masashi; Nogawa, Norio; Tsuda, Shoko; Nakamura, Aiko; Morikawa, Naotake; Osaki, Susumu.

    1990-01-01

    'Ready Cap', a small plastic container coated with solid scintillator has recently been introduced (Beckman Instruments, Inc.). Pulse height spectra and counting efficiencies obtained with a liquid scintillator and Ready Cap using a liquid scintillation counter were compared for 15 different radionuclides. For radionuclides emitting low-energy β-rays or characteristic X-rays, the spectra for Ready Cap shifted toward the higher energy side compared with the spectra for the liquid scintillator. This tendency was reversed for the nuclides emitting higher-energy β-radiations ( 36 Cl and 32 P). Generally, counting efficiencies both in Ready Cap and in liquid scintillator increased with increase in the energy of β- or X-rays. For some nuclides, Ready Cap gave higher counting efficiencies and for others it gave lower values than in the liquid scintillator. However, the differences were not large within each nuclide. The use of Ready Cap is recommended for measurements of radionuclides when liquid scintillation cocktails have no means of waste disposal under the present Japanese radioisotope regulation. (author)

  13. Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsugeki, Ryuji; Fedoroff, Nina V.

    1999-01-01

    The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of...

  14. Mapping of p140Cap phosphorylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repetto, Daniele; Aramu, Simona; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    phosphorylation and tunes its interactions with other regulatory molecules via post-translation modification. In this work, using mass spectrometry, we found that p140Cap is in vivo phosphorylated on tyrosine (Y) within the peptide GEGLpYADPYGLLHEGR (from now on referred to as EGLYA) as well as on three serine...... residues. Consistently, EGLYA has the highest score of in silico prediction of p140Cap phosphorylation. To further investigate the p140Cap function, we performed site specific mutagenesis on tyrosines inserted in EGLYA and EPLYA, a second sequence with the same highest score of phosphorylation. The mutant...

  15. CAP FUTURE: WHAT DO STAKEHOLDERS WANT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr BLIZKOVSKY

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP is at the crossroads of several policy interests. It is scrutinised by farming and environmental communities as well as by the food industry, regional authorities, research and public sector. The paper analyses the recent consultation process undertaken by the European Commission. The paper concludes that among the key reform issues are: the level of the financial support to the CAP; the continued environmental and other public goods orientation of the CAP and generational renewal. In addition, the focus on result orientation and reduction of the administrative burden can be expected. The relevant European Commission proposals are foreseen around summer 2018.

  16. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Action of vanillin (Vanilla planifolia) on the morphology of tibialis anterior and soleus muscles after nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Ana Luiza; Antunes, Juliana Sobral; Lovison, Keli; Kunz, Regina Inês; Castor, Lidyane Regina Gomes; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the action of vanillin (Vanilla planifolia) on the morphology of tibialis anterior and soleus muscles after peripheral nerve injury. Wistar rats were divided into four groups, with seven animals each: Control Group, Vanillin Group, Injury Group, and Injury + Vanillin Group. The Injury Group and the Injury + Vanillin Group animals were submitted to nerve injury by compression of the sciatic nerve; the Vanillin Group and Injury + Vanillin Group, were treated daily with oral doses of vanillin (150mg/kg) from the 3rd to the 21st day after induction of nerve injury. At the end of the experiment, the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were dissected and processed for light microscopy and submitted to morphological analysis. The nerve compression promoted morphological changes, typical of denervation, and the treatment with vanillin was responsible for different responses in the studied muscles. For the tibialis anterior, there was an increase in the number of satellite cells, central nuclei and fiber atrophy, as well as fascicular disorganization. In the soleus, only increased vascularization was observed, with no exacerbation of the morphological alterations in the fibers. The treatment with vanillin promoted increase in intramuscular vascularization for the muscles studied, with pro-inflammatory potential for tibialis anterior, but not for soleus muscle. Avaliar a ação da vanilina (Vanilla planifolia) sobre a morfologia dos músculos tibial anterior e sóleo após lesão nervosa periférica. Ratos Wistar foram divididos em quatro grupos, com sete animais cada, sendo Grupo Controle, Grupo Vanilina, Grupo Lesão e Grupo Lesão + Vanilina. Os animais dos Grupos Lesão e Grupo Lesão + Vanilina foram submetidos à lesão nervosa por meio da compressão do nervo isquiático, e os Grupos Vanilina e Grupo Lesão + Vanilina foram tratados diariamente com doses orais de vanilina (150mg/kg) do 3o ao 21o dia após a indução da lesão nervosa. Ao término do

  18. C-CAP Niihau 2005 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution imagery according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol. This data set utilized 1...

  19. C-CAP Land Cover, Kauai, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  20. Recessed floating pier caps for highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Presented are alternate designs for two existing bridges in Virginia - one with steel beams and the other with prestressed concrete beams - whereby the pier caps are recessed within the depth of the longitudinal beams. The purpose of this recession i...

  1. C-CAP Land Cover, Niihau, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  2. Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Aircraft Requirement Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mercher, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    The Air Force Audit Agency (AFAA) concluded in its Report of Audit EB0980013 (13 May 98), Air Force Oversight of CY 1996 Civil Air Patrol Corporation Activities, CAP-USAF, Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-6323...

  3. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  4. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  5. Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS) contains over 100 data sets pertaining to permafrost and frozen ground topics. It also contains detailed...

  6. Eddy intrusion of hot plasma into the polar cap and formation of polar-cap arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Gorney, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    We present plasma and electric field data obtained by the S3-3 satellite over the polar caps. We demonstrate that: (1) plasma signatures in the polar cap arc formation region near 5000 km altitude show clear intrusions of plasma sheet (approx.keV) and magneto sheath (approx.100 eV) plasma into a background of low-energy polar cap plasma; (2) the combined plasma and electric field signatures (electron inverted-V, ion beam and delxE<0) are exactly the same as in the evening discrete arc. We interpret this equivalence of polar cap and evening discrete arc signatures as indication that their formation processes are identical. The spatial structures of polar cap electric fields and the associated plasma signatures are consistent with the hypothesis that plasma intrusion into the polar cap takes the form of multiple cellular eddies. This hypothesis provides a unifying view of arc formation and arc configurations

  7. La productividad de la vainilla (Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews en México de 2003 a 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Santillán Fernández

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available En México la producción de vainilla (Vanilla planifolia ha disminuido como resultado de una escasa aplicación de paquetes tecnológicos adecuados a las condiciones edafoclimáticas del cultivo. Para comprobar esta hipótesis se realizó un análisis de su productividad de 2003 a 2014 a nivel internacional, mediante pruebas de medias de Tukey, y a nivel nacional con el modelo de descomposición de factores del crecimiento de la producción propuesto por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura. Los resultados mostraron que, en el periodo de estudio, México no incrementó su exportación de vainilla a nivel internacional debido a que se destinó una escasa superficie al cultivo. En el contexto nacional, para el periodo 2009-2014 en comparación con 2003-2008 hubo un incremento en la producción de 2.5 % como respuesta a los rendimientos de campo (2.0 %. Esto se registró en 14 de los 52 municipios involucrados, que presentaron un aumento de 1.6 % en la superficie sembrada y 1.8 % en el campo, lo que contrasta con la caída de producción (-0.1 % de los restantes 38 municipios, producto de una reducción en el área cultivada (-2.3 %. Estos resultados indican que a pesar de los buenos rendimientos en campo que se obtuvieron de 2009-2014, el país no ha podido incrementar su productividad a nivel internacional, principalmente por la escasa superficie sembrada y a la falta de transferencia de tecnología para impulsar el desarrollo del sector.

  8. Truncated Dual-Cap Nucleation Site Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Douglas M.; Sander, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    During heterogeneous nucleation within a metastable mushy-zone, several geometries for nucleation site development must be considered. Traditional spherical dual cap and crevice models are compared to a truncated dual cap to determine the activation energy and critical cluster growth kinetics in ternary Fe-Cr-Ni steel alloys. Results of activation energy results indicate that nucleation is more probable at grain boundaries within the solid than at the solid-liquid interface.

  9. Corrective action program (CAP) in United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koji; Kobayashi, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    The Corrective Action Process (CAP) is one of the most important key issues on the Nuclear Reactor Safety. The experiences on the nuclear power plant operations, including safety culture, maintenance, and so on, should be continuously evaluated and influenced to the KAIZEN (improvement) of the NPP operations. The review of the CAP system in US will be useful for the NPP safety in Japan. (author)

  10. A nucleation theory of cell surface capping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutsias, E.A.; Wester, M.J.; Perelson, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a new theory of cell surface capping based on the principles of nucleation. When antibody interacts with cell surface molecules, the molecules initially form small aggregates called patches that later coalesce into a large aggregate called a cap. While a cap can form by patches being pulled together by action of the cell''s cytoskeleton, in the case of some molecules, disruption of the cytoskeleton does not prevent cap formation. Diffusion of large aggregates on a cell surface is slow, and thus we propose that a cap can form solely through the diffusion of small aggregates containing just one or a few cell surface molecules. Here we consider the extreme case in which single molecules are mobile, but aggregates of all larger sizes are immobile. We show that a set of patches in equilibrium with a open-quotes seaclose quotes of free cell surface molecules can undergo a nucleation-type phase transition in which the largest patch will bind free cell surface molecules, deplete the concentration of such molecules in the open-quotes seaclose quotes and thus cause the other patches to shrink in size. We therefore show that a cap can form without patches having to move, collide with each other, and aggregate

  11. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  12. /sup 58,60,62/Ni (. cap alpha. ,p) three--nucleon transfer reactions and. cap alpha. optical potential ambiguities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuanda, Wang; Xiuming, Bao; Zhiqiang, Mao; Rongfang, Yuan; Keling, Wen; Binyin, Huang; Zhifu, Wang; Shuming, Li; Jianan, Wang; Zuxun, Sun; others, and

    1985-11-01

    The differential cross sections are measured using 26.0 MeV ..cap alpha.. particle for /sup 58,62/Ni(..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..) /sup 58,62/Ni and /sup 58,62/Ni(..cap alpha..,p) /sup 61,65/Cu reactions as well as 25.4 MeV ..cap alpha.. particle for /sup 60/Ni(..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..)/sup 69/Ni and /sup 60/Ni(..cap alpha.., p)/sup 63/Cu reactions. Consistent calculations with optical model and ZR DWBA are made for (..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..) and (..cap alpha.., p) reactions by using of single, two, three and four nucleon optical potential parameters. For elastic scattering due to the ..cap alpha.. optical potential ambiguities, all the above optical potential can reproduce the experimental angular distributions. However, the single, two and three nucleon potential, including the Baird's mass systematics and the Chang's energy systematics of ..cap alpha.. potentials, obviously can not provide a reasonable fitting with the (..cap alpha..,p) reaction experimental data. Only the results from the four nucleon potential is in good agreement with the (..cap alpha..,p) reaction experimental data. This reveals that in the ..cap alpha..-particle induced transfer reactions, the real depth of the ..cap alpha..-nucleus optical potential should be rather deep.

  13. 49 CFR 230.41 - Flexible staybolts with caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flexible staybolts with caps. 230.41 Section 230... Appurtenances Staybolts § 230.41 Flexible staybolts with caps. (a) General. Flexible staybolts with caps shall have their caps removed during every 5th annual inspection for the purpose of inspecting the bolts for...

  14. Anti-pp,. cap alpha cap alpha. and p. cap alpha. elastic scattering at high energies and Chou-Yang conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rifique, M.

    1987-03-01

    The recent experimental measurements for anti-pp and ..cap alpha cap alpha.. elastic scattering at high energies have shown that the Chou-Yang conjecture regarding the relationship between the electromagnetic and the hadronic form factor of a particle is only an approximation. A new ansatz has been proposed to obtain hadronic form factors of proton and the ..cap alpha..-particle. These form factors have been used to explain the various characteristics of anti-pp, ..cap alpha cap alpha.. and p..cap alpha.. elastic scattering at high energies.

  15. A thermoelectric cap for seafloor hydrothermal vents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a thermoelectric cap (TC) to harvest hydrothermal energy. • The TC was deployed at a hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, Taiwan. • The TC monitored the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the field test. • The TC could make the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids a viable power source. - Abstract: Long-term in situ monitoring is crucial to seafloor scientific investigations. One of the challenges of operating sensors in seabed is the lifespan of the sensors. Such sensors are commonly powered by batteries when other alternatives, such as tidal or solar energy, are unavailable. However, the batteries have a limited lifespan and must be recharged or replaced periodically, which is costly and impractical. A thermoelectric cap, which harvests the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids through a conduction pipe and converts the heat to electrical energy by using thermoelectric generators, was developed to avoid these inconveniences. The thermoelectric cap was combined with a power and temperature measurement system that enables the thermoelectric cap to power a light-emitting diode lamp, an electronic load (60 Ω), and 16 thermocouples continuously. The thermoelectric cap was field tested at a shallow hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan. By using the thermal gradient between hydrothermal fluids and seawater, the thermoelectric cap obtained a sustained power of 0.2–0.5 W during the field test. The thermoelectric cap successfully powered the 16 thermocouples and recorded the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the entire field test. Our results show that the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids can be an alternative renewable power source for oceanographic research.

  16. 75 FR 49527 - Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,195] Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC Chicago, IL; Amended... of Caps Visual Communications, LLC, Black Dot Group, formerly known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC...

  17. How does the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins affect actin network dynamics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Longhua; Papoian, Garegin A

    2011-01-01

    Actin-based cell motility is essential to many biological processes. We built a simplified, three-dimensional computational model and subsequently performed stochastic simulations to study the growth dynamics of lamellipodia-like branched networks. In this work, we shed light on the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins in regulating actin dynamics in the filamentous network. We discuss detailed mechanisms by which capping and anti-capping proteins affect the protrusion speed of the actin network and the rate of nucleation of filaments. We computed a phase diagram showing the regimes of motility enhancement and inhibition by these proteins. Our work shows that the effects of capping and anti-capping proteins are mainly transmitted by modulation of the filamentous network density and local availability of monomeric actin. We discovered that the combination of the capping/anti-capping regulatory network with nucleation-promoting proteins introduces robustness and redundancy in cell motility machinery, allowing the cell to easily achieve maximal protrusion speeds under a broader set of conditions. Finally, we discuss distributions of filament lengths under various conditions and speculate on their potential implication for the emergence of filopodia from the lamellipodial network.

  18. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumentation is developed for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to meet several different (and sometimes conflicting) objectives. This paper addresses instrumentation development for data needs that are related either directly or indirectly to a repository site, but does not touch on instrumentation for work with waste forms or other materials. Consequently, this implies a relatively large scale for the measurements, and an in situ setting for instrument performance. In this context, instruments are needed for site characterization to define phenomena, develop models, and obtain parameter values, and for later design and performance confirmation testing in the constructed repository. The former set of applications is more immediate, and is driven by the needs of program design and performance assessment activities. A host of general technical and nontechnical issues have arisen to challenge instrumentation development. Instruments can be classed into geomechanical, geohydrologic, or other specialty categories, but these issues cut across artificial classifications. These issues are outlined. Despite this imposing list of issues, several case histories are cited to evaluate progress in the area

  19. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS): Descriptive analysis of 500 patients from the International CAPS Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pintó, Ignasi; Moitinho, Marta; Santacreu, Irene; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Erkan, Doruk; Espinosa, Gerard; Cervera, Ricard

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of patients with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) from the "CAPS Registry". The demographic, clinical and serological features of 500 patients included in the website-based "CAPS Registry" were analyzed. Frequency distribution and measures of central tendency were used to describe the cohort. Comparison between groups regarding qualitative variables was undertaken by chi-square or Fisher exact test while T-test for independent variables was used to compare groups regarding continuous variables. 500 patients (female: 343 [69%]; mean age 38±17) accounting for 522 episodes of CAPS were included in the analysis. Forty percent of patients had an associated autoimmune disease, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (75%). The majority of CAPS episodes were triggered by a precipitating factor (65%), mostly infections (49%). Clinically, CAPS was characterized by several organ involvement affecting kidneys (73%), lungs (60%), brain (56%), heart (50%), and skin (47%). Lupus anticoagulant, IgG anticardiolipin and IgG anti-β2-glycprotein antibodies were the most often implicated antiphospholipid antibodies (83%, 81% and 78% respectively). Mortality accounted for 37% of episodes of CAPS. Several clinical differences could be observed based on the age of presentation and its association to SLE. Those cases triggered by a malignancy tended to occur in older patients, while CAPS episodes in young patients were associated with an infectious trigger and peripheral vessels involvement. Additionally, CAPS associated with SLE were more likely to have severe cardiac and brain involvement leading to a higher mortality (48%). Although the presentation of CAPS is characterized by multiorgan thrombosis and failure, clinical differences among patients exist based on age and underlying chronic diseases, e.g. malignancy and SLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CAP vessel monitoring. Programme, measurement and neutron calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrugia, J.M.; Nimal, J.C.; Totth, B.; Lloret, R.; Perdreau, R.

    1982-03-01

    Starting with the design of the CAP (Prototype Advanced NSSS), a programme for pressure vessel monitoring has been prepared, including dosimetry. The dosimetry programme encompasses activation dosimeters (Cu, Nb, Co) and fission dosimeters ( 237 Np, 238 U) installed either inside the pressure vessel with the monitoring test-samples, or in a counting tube outside the pressure vessel. In the first place, a description of the method for neutronic calculation is given; such calculations use the codes ANISN and MERCURE 4 allowing assessment of the neutron spectrum seen by the detectors and the related reaction coefficient. This is followed by a description of the instrumentation. The initial dosimetry results available after the initial operating cycles concur with calculations [fr

  1. Photoactivable caps for reactive metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashish

    The synthesis and stabilization of reactive metal nanoparticles is often challenging under normal atmospheric conditions. This problem can be alleviated by capping and passivation. Our lab has focused on forming polymer coatings on the surface of reactive metal nanoparticles. We discovered a convenient and effective route for stabilization of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs), which uses the nascent metal core as a polymerization initiator for various organic monomers. In our previous work, we used this method to passivate the Al NPs using variety of epoxides and copolymers of epoxides and alkenes. These products have demonstrated air stability for weeks to months with little to no degradation in the active Al content. Since our previously synthesized Al NP's were not beneficial for rapid and efficient thermodynamic access to the active Al core, our goal was find polymers that could easily be photochemically activated to enhance such access. Since poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has photodegrading properties, we used PMMA as a capping agent to passivate Al NPs. In this work, we present capping and stabilization of Al NPs with PMMA, and also with 1,2-epoxyhexane/ PMMA. In our previous work, we increased the stability of Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene by adding 1,13-tetradecadiene as a cross-linker. Here, we used the methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer as cross-linker for Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene. We have also used the MMA as capping agent. We use powder x-ray diffractametry (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravity analysis (TGA) to confirm the presence of elemental Al and ATR-FTIR to confirm the presence of polymers.

  2. A nanobody targeting the F-actin capping protein CapG restrains breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Impe, Katrien; Bethuyne, Jonas; Cool, Steven; Impens, Francis; Ruano-Gallego, David; De Wever, Olivier; Vanloo, Berlinda; Van Troys, Marleen; Lambein, Kathleen; Boucherie, Ciska; Martens, Evelien; Zwaenepoel, Olivier; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Gevaert, Kris; Fernández, Luis Ángel; Sanders, Niek N; Gettemans, Jan

    2013-12-13

    Aberrant turnover of the actin cytoskeleton is intimately associated with cancer cell migration and invasion. Frequently however, evidence is circumstantial, and a reliable assessment of the therapeutic significance of a gene product is offset by lack of inhibitors that target biologic properties of a protein, as most conventional drugs do, instead of the corresponding gene. Proteomic studies have demonstrated overexpression of CapG, a constituent of the actin cytoskeleton, in breast cancer. Indirect evidence suggests that CapG is involved in tumor cell dissemination and metastasis. In this study, we used llama-derived CapG single-domain antibodies or nanobodies in a breast cancer metastasis model to address whether inhibition of CapG activity holds therapeutic merit. We raised single-domain antibodies (nanobodies) against human CapG and used these as intrabodies (immunomodulation) after lentiviral transduction of breast cancer cells. Functional characterization of nanobodies was performed to identify which biochemical properties of CapG are perturbed. Orthotopic and tail vein in vivo models of metastasis in nude mice were used to assess cancer cell spreading. With G-actin and F-actin binding assays, we identified a CapG nanobody that binds with nanomolar affinity to the first CapG domain. Consequently, CapG interaction with actin monomers or actin filaments is blocked. Intracellular delocalization experiments demonstrated that the nanobody interacts with CapG in the cytoplasmic environment. Expression of the nanobody in breast cancer cells restrained cell migration and Matrigel invasion. Notably, the nanobody prevented formation of lung metastatic lesions in orthotopic xenograft and tail-vein models of metastasis in immunodeficient mice. We showed that CapG nanobodies can be delivered into cancer cells by using bacteria harboring a type III protein secretion system (T3SS). CapG inhibition strongly reduces breast cancer metastasis. A nanobody-based approach offers

  3. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-15

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  4. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  5. LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  6. Seismic explosion sources on an ice cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans

    2015-01-01

    crustal model can be modelled. A crucial challenge for applying the technique is to control the sources. Here, we present data that describe the efficiency of explosive sources in the ice cover. Analysis of the data shows, that the ice cap traps a significant amount of energy, which is observed......Controlled source seismic investigation of crustal structure below ice covers is an emerging technique. We have recently conducted an explosive refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiment on the ice cap in east-central Greenland. The data-quality is high for all shot points and a full...

  7. Assembling the CMS yoke end-caps

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    A crane is used to piece together one of the end-caps that will provide the path for magnetic flux return on the CMS experiment. A total of six end-cap discs will be assembled before being positioned on the barrel yoke to complete the huge 12 500 tonne cylinder yoke. The magnetic field produced will be greater than any other solenoid created to date at 4 T, 100 000 times greater than the Earth's natural magnetic field, and will store enough energy to melt 18 tonnes of gold.

  8. Interannual observations and quantification of summertime H2O ice deposition on the Martian CO2 ice south polar cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Titus, Timothy N.

    2014-01-01

    The spectral signature of water ice was observed on Martian south polar cap in 2004 by the Observatoire pour l'Mineralogie, l'Eau les Glaces et l'Activite (OMEGA) ( Bibring et al., 2004). Three years later, the OMEGA instrument was used to discover water ice deposited during southern summer on the polar cap ( Langevin et al., 2007). However, temporal and spatial variations of these water ice signatures have remained unexplored, and the origins of these water deposits remains an important scientific question. To investigate this question, we have used observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft of the southern cap during austral summer over four Martian years to search for variations in the amount of water ice. We report below that for each year we have observed the cap, the magnitude of the H2O ice signature on the southern cap has risen steadily throughout summer, particularly on the west end of the cap. The spatial extent of deposition is in disagreement with the current best simulations of deposition of water ice on the south polar cap (Montmessin et al., 2007). This increase in water ice signatures is most likely caused by deposition of atmospheric H2O ice and a set of unusual conditions makes the quantification of this transport flux using CRISM close to ideal. We calculate a ‘minimum apparent‘ amount of deposition corresponding to a thin H2O ice layer of 0.2 mm (with 70% porosity). This amount of H2O ice deposition is 0.6–6% of the total Martian atmospheric water budget. We compare our ‘minimum apparent’ quantification with previous estimates. This deposition process may also have implications for the formation and stability of the southern CO2 ice cap, and therefore play a significant role in the climate budget of modern day Mars.

  9. A Trustworthiness of Commercial Airline Pilots (T-CAP) Scale for American Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Stephen C; Mehta, Rian; Winter, Scott; Oyman, Korhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a Trustworthiness of Commercial Airline Pilots (T-CAP) scale that could be used with American participants. Previous research (Rice, Mehta, Steelman, & Winter, 2014) created a similar scale that may be used with Indian participants. However, due to cultural differences, it was necessary to recreate an instrument that could be used with American consumers. In fact, the scale developed by American participants did differ significantly, both in terms of le...

  10. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  11. Preventing Thin Film Dewetting via Graphene Capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peigen; Bai, Peter; Omrani, Arash A; Xiao, Yihan; Meaker, Kacey L; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Yan, Aiming; Jung, Han Sae; Khajeh, Ramin; Rodgers, Griffin F; Kim, Youngkyou; Aikawa, Andrew S; Kolaczkowski, Mattew A; Liu, Yi; Zettl, Alex; Xu, Ke; Crommie, Michael F; Xu, Ting

    2017-09-01

    A monolayer 2D capping layer with high Young's modulus is shown to be able to effectively suppress the dewetting of underlying thin films of small organic semiconductor molecule, polymer, and polycrystalline metal, respectively. To verify the universality of this capping layer approach, the dewetting experiments are performed for single-layer graphene transferred onto polystyrene (PS), semiconducting thienoazacoronene (EH-TAC), gold, and also MoS 2 on PS. Thermodynamic modeling indicates that the exceptionally high Young's modulus and surface conformity of 2D capping layers such as graphene and MoS 2 substantially suppress surface fluctuations and thus dewetting. As long as the uncovered area is smaller than the fluctuation wavelength of the thin film in a dewetting process via spinodal decomposition, the dewetting should be suppressed. The 2D monolayer-capping approach opens up exciting new possibilities to enhance the thermal stability and expands the processing parameters for thin film materials without significantly altering their physical properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Added Mass of a Spherical Cap Body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimčík, Miroslav; Punčochář, Miroslav; Růžička, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, OCT 18 (2014), s. 1-8 ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : spherical cap * added mass * single particle Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2014

  13. A world first to cap them all

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    A new, more powerful cap lamp has a sealed lead-acid battery which never needs refilling and which will not spill liquid, even if the case is damaged. The plastic case is flame resistant and meets South African requirements for use underground. A new type of cable lock prevents accidental disconnection.

  14. Survey of Enabling Technologies for CAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Koons, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    The enabling technologies required for the development of a viable Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) can be divided into two principal areas: detection and deflection/orbit modification. With the proper funding levels, many of the technologies needed to support a CAPS architecture could be achievable within the next 15 to 20 years. In fact, many advanced detection technologies are currently in development for future in-space telescope systems such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), formerly known as the Next Generation Space Telescope. It is anticipated that many of the JWST technologies would be available for application for CAPS detection concepts. Deflection/orbit modification technologies are also currently being studied as part of advanced power and propulsion research. However, many of these technologies, such as extremely high-output power systems, advanced propulsion, heat rejection, and directed energy systems, would likely be farther term in availability than many of the detection technologies. Discussed subsequently is a preliminary examination of the main technologies that have been identified as being essential to providing the element functionality defined during the CAPS conceptual study. The detailed requirements for many of the technology areas are still unknown, and many additional technologies will be identified as future in-depth studies are conducted in this area.

  15. The Effectiveness of Caps on Political Lobbying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matejka, M.; Onderstal, A.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a lobby game, modelled as an all-pay auction in which interest groups submit bids in order to obtain a political prize.The bids are restricted to be below a cap imposed by the government.For both an incomplete and a complete information setting we show the following

  16. Immunoprecipitation of Tri-methylated Capped RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Karen E; Barr, Jamie A; Xie, Mingyi; Steitz, Joan A; Martinez, Ivan

    2018-02-05

    Cellular quiescence (also known as G 0 arrest) is characterized by reduced DNA replication, increased autophagy, and increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase p27 Kip1 . Quiescence is essential for wound healing, organ regeneration, and preventing neoplasia. Previous findings indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating cellular quiescence. Our recent publication demonstrated the existence of an alternative miRNA biogenesis pathway in primary human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells during quiescence. Indeed, we have identified a group of pri-miRNAs (whose mature miRNAs were found induced during quiescence) modified with a 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG)-cap by the trimethylguanosine synthase 1 (TGS1) protein and transported to the cytoplasm by the Exportin-1 (XPO1) protein. We used an antibody against (TMG)-caps (which does not cross-react with the (m 7 G)-caps that most pri-miRNAs or mRNAs contain [Luhrmann et al ., 1982]) to perform RNA immunoprecipitations from total RNA extracts of proliferating or quiescent HFFs. The novelty of this assay is the specific isolation of pri-miRNAs as well as other non-coding RNAs containing a TMG-cap modification.

  17. CAP Reform and the Doha Development Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, P.; Faber, G.

    2004-01-01

    The CAP reforms that the EU accepted in June 2003 will partially decouple direct income payments to farmers from production and make these payments conditional on cross-compliance. The reforms are driven by enlargement of EU membership, budgetary constraints, mounting pressures from diverse animal

  18. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul; Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  19. Nuclear Waste Vitrification Efficiency: Cold Cap Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.; Pokorny, R.

    2011-01-01

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 ), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter

  20. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  1. Innovative instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all

  2. Innovative instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1983-11-15

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all.

  3. Instrumental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Navid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every neutron scattering experiment requires the choice of a suited neutron diffractometer (or spectrometer in the case of inelastic scattering with its optimal configuration in order to accomplish the experimental tasks in the most successful way. Most generally, the compromise between the incident neutron flux and the instrumental resolution has to be considered, which is depending on a number of optical devices which are positioned in the neutron beam path. In this chapter the basic instrumental principles of neutron diffraction will be explained. Examples of different types of experiments and their respective expectable results will be shown. Furthermore, the production and use of polarized neutrons will be stressed.

  4. Sediment Capping and Natural Recovery, Contaminant Transport Fundamentals With Applications to Sediment Caps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrovski, David M; Corcoran, Maureen K; May, James H; Patrick, David M

    2005-01-01

    Engineered sediment caps and natural recovery are in situ remedial alternatives for contaminated sediments, which consist of the artificial or natural placement of a layer of material over a sediment...

  5. Phenylpropanoid 2,3-dioxygenase involved in the cleavage of the ferulic acid side chain to form vanillin and glyoxylic acid in Vanilla planifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Osamu; Negishi, Yukiko

    2017-09-01

    Enzyme catalyzing the cleavage of the phenylpropanoid side chain was partially purified by ion exchange and gel filtration column chromatography after (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 precipitation. Enzyme activities were dependent on the concentration of dithiothreitol (DTT) or glutathione (GSH) and activated by addition of 0.5 mM Fe 2+ . Enzyme activity for ferulic acid was as high as for 4-coumaric acid in the presence of GSH, suggesting that GSH acts as an endogenous reductant in vanillin biosynthesis. Analyses of the enzymatic reaction products with quantitative NMR (qNMR) indicated that an amount of glyoxylic acid (GA) proportional to vanillin was released from ferulic acid by the enzymatic reaction. These results suggest that phenylpropanoid 2,3-dioxygenase is involved in the cleavage of the ferulic acid side chain to form vanillin and GA in Vanilla planifolia.

  6. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  7. Weather Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  8. Facially amphiphilic thiol capped gold and silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A series of bile acid-derived facially amphiphilic thiols have been used to cap sliver and gold nanoparticles. The self-assembling properties of these steroid-capped nanoparticles have been investigated and reported in this article.

  9. Histological and electron microscopy observations on the testis and spermatogenesis of the butterfly Dione juno (Cramer, 1779) and Agraulis vanillae (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Isabelle Pereira; Gigliolli, Adriana Aparecida Sinópolis; Nanya, Satiko; Portela-Castro, Ana Luiza de Brito

    2018-03-20

    Lepidopteran species present an interesting case of sperm polymorphism and testicular fusion. The study of these features are of great importance in understanding the reproductive biology of these insects, especially in the case of those considered pests. Dione juno and Agraulis vanillae stand out as the most important pests of passion fruit (Passiflora sp.) crops in Brazil. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to characterize the testes and germ cells of Dione juno and Agraulis vanillae at different life stages, using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy, to understand the maturation mechanisms of the male gametes in these species. The study showed that the larvae of both species have a pair of brown kidney-shaped testes, covered by epithelial cells which divide the organ into four follicles. The testes are full of spermatogonia which begin to differentiate in the third larval instar. In the fifth larval instar, spermatozoa can be observed. When they enter the prepupal stage the testes begin a fusion process that is completed in the adult insects, where they present as spherical organs divided into eight follicles, containing all the cells of the germ line. Spermatogenesis occurs centripetally, and in both species, sperm dimorphism is observed, where two different types of spermatozoa are formed, eupyrene (nucleated) and apyrene (anucleate), which differ in morphology and function. Apart from contributing to scientific basic research on the reproductive biology of these insects, the present study provides important data that can aid in research on the physiology, systematics, and control of these species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CAPS Activity in Priming Vesicle Exocytosis Requires CK2 Phosphorylation*

    OpenAIRE

    Nojiri, Mari; Loyet, Kelly M.; Klenchin, Vadim A.; Kabachinski, Gregory; Martin, Thomas F. J.

    2009-01-01

    CAPS (Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion) functions in priming Ca2+-dependent vesicle exocytosis, but the regulation of CAPS activity has not been characterized. Here we show that phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 is required for CAPS activity. Dephosphorylation eliminated CAPS activity in reconstituting Ca2+-dependent vesicle exocytosis in permeable and intact PC12 cells. Ser-5, -6, and -7 and Ser-1281 were identified by mass spectrometry as the major phosphorylation sites in...

  11. 7 CFR 1714.7 - Interest rate cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate cap. 1714.7 Section 1714.7 Agriculture... PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR INSURED ELECTRIC LOANS General § 1714.7 Interest rate cap. Except... section, or both the rate disparity test for the interest rate cap and the consumer income test set forth...

  12. CMS end-cap yoke at the detector's assembly site.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic flux generated by the superconducting coil in the CMS detector is returned via an iron yoke comprising three end-cap discs at each end (end-cap yoke) and five concentric cylinders (barrel yoke). This picture shows the first of three end-cap discs (red) seen through the outer cylinder of the vacuum tank which will house the superconducting coil.

  13. 20 CFR 606.22 - Application for cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for cap. 606.22 Section 606.22... Reduction § 606.22 Application for cap. (a) Application. (1) The Governor of the State shall make... a State requests a cap on tax credit reduction. The Governor is required to notify the Department on...

  14. 47 CFR 61.41 - Price cap requirements generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price cap requirements generally. 61.41 Section... (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.41 Price cap requirements generally. (a... companies shall not bar a carrier from electing price cap regulation provided the carrier is otherwise...

  15. Central Air-Conditioning Plant (CAP) extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, P.S.; Kaul, S.K.; Mishra, H.

    2017-01-01

    Central Air-Conditioning Plant (CAP) and its associated chilled water network of BARC is one among the largest central plants in India for such application. The plant was planned in 1960s to cater to the air-conditioning and process water requirements of laboratories, workshops and buildings spread over a distance of 1.5 Km in three directions from CAP through underground network of chilled water pipelines. The plant was designed for a total capacity of 6600 TR. The present installed capacity of the plant is 7250 TR. The connected load at present is 9800 TR. After the XII plan capacity will be augmented to 7650 TR. The connected load is expected to cross 11,000 TR after the commissioning of new Engg. Halls 9, 10 and 11

  16. Greening CAP payments: a missed opportunity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Alan

    2013-01-15

    At an important point in the current reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), a new IIEA policy brief by Professor Alan Matthews, one of the EU’s foremost experts on the topic, considers proposals to green direct farm payments. Professor Matthews argues that proposed greening of direct payments – the key innovation in the current round of CAP Reform – look likely to fail. While greening may survive as a concept, the likely outcome of the negotiations between Agriculture Ministers and the European Parliament will deliver little practical environmental benefit. The paper examines the rationale underpinning greening, arguing that it exists to justify the continuation of a large agricultural budget, explores reasons for the apparent failure of the proposals, and reflects on the implications for future efforts to better integrate environmental objectives into EU agriculture policy. This is the first in a series of Environment Nexus policy briefs by leading experts in the fields of agriculture, energy, climate change and water.

  17. X. cap alpha. method with pseudopotentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szasz, L. (Fordham Univ., New York (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1980-06-01

    The X..cap alpha.. method for an atom or molecule is transformed into an all-electron pseudopotential formalism. The equations of the X..cap alpha.. method are exactly transformed into pseudo-orbital equations and the resulting pseudopotentials are replaced by simple density-dependent potentials derived from Thomas-Fermi model. It is shown that the new formalism satisfies the virial theorem. As the first application, it is shown that the model explains the shell-structure of atoms by the property that the pseudo-orbitals for the (ns), (np), (nd), etc. electrons are, in a very good approximation, the solutions of the same equation and have their maxima at the same point thereby creating the peaks in the radial density characterizing the shell structure.

  18. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  19. Divided Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

  20. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  1. ATLAS End-cap Part II

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The epic journey of the ATLAS magnets is drawing to an end. On Thursday 12 July, the second end-cap of the ATLAS toroid magnet was lowered into the cavern of the experiment with the same degree of precision as the first (see Bulletin No. 26/2007). This spectacular descent of the 240-tonne component, is one of the last transport to be completed for ATLAS.

  2. Particle Entrainment in Spherical-Cap Wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warncke, Norbert G W; Delfos, Rene; Ooms, Gijs; Westerweel, Jerry, E-mail: n.g.w.warncke@tudelft.nl [Laboratory for Aero- and Hydrodynamics, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2011-12-22

    In this work we study the preferential concentration of small particles in the turbulent wake behind a spherical-cap object. We present a model predicting the mean particle concentration in the near-wake as a function of the characteristic Stokes number of the problem, the turbulence level and the Froude number. We compare the model with our experimental results on this flow, measured in a vertical water tunnel.

  3. Are CAP Decoupling Policies Really Production Neutral?

    OpenAIRE

    Katranidis, Stelios D.; Kotakou, Christina A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of decoupling policies on Greek cotton production. We estimate a system of cotton supply and input derived demand functions under the hypothesis that producers face uncertainty about prices. Using our estimation results we simulate the effects on cotton production under four alternative policy scenarios: the ‘Old’ CAP regime (i.e. the policy practiced until 2005), the Mid Term Review regime, a fully decoupled policy regime and a free trade-no policy scenario. O...

  4. Instrumentation maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-09-01

    It is essential to any research activity that accurate and efficient measurements be made for the experimental parameters under consideration for each individual experiment or test. Satisfactory measurements in turn depend upon having the necessary instruments and the capability of ensuring that they are performing within their intended specifications. This latter requirement can only be achieved by providing an adequate maintenance facility, staffed with personnel competent to understand the problems associated with instrument adjustment and repair. The Instrument Repair Shop at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to achieve this end. The organization, staffing and operation of this system is discussed. Maintenance policy should be based on studies of (1) preventive vs. catastrophic maintenance, (2) records indicating when equipment should be replaced rather than repaired and (3) priorities established to indicate the order in which equipment should be repaired. Upon establishing a workable maintenance policy, the staff should be instructed so that they may provide appropriate scheduled preventive maintenance, calibration and corrective procedures, and emergency repairs. The education, training and experience of the maintenance staff is discussed along with the organization for an efficient operation. The layout of the various repair shops is described in the light of laboratory space and financial constraints

  5. Impacts of the CAP 2014–2020 on the Agroenergy Sector in Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bartolini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sectors’ contribution to the provision of energy is a central issue in Horizon 2020 strategies and has shaped the public and research debates on the future of the bioeconomy. The common agricultural policy (CAP has been one of the main drivers of farmers’ behavioural changes and represents the main agricultural policy instrument to address viability of rural areas and maintaining the profitability of the agricultural sector. To contribute to the ongoing policy debate towards CAP reform, this paper will provide an empirical model to simulate the impact of an alternative CAP mechanism on the provision of renewable energy. By applying a dynamic mathematical programming model, the paper tests the impact new policy measures will have on the provision of a second-generation of bio fuel crops that represent a relevant option for Tuscan farmers. Results show that CAP reform positively impacts the supply of energy crops mainly due to the introduction of greening payments, which allows an enlarging of crop diversification. Model results stress also the income stabilisation effects of energy production introduction at farm level, due to reduction of farm exposure to market prices fluctuations.

  6. Protein synthesis in geostimulated root caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    A study is presented of the processes occurring in the root cap of corn which are requisite for the formation of root cap inhibitor and which can be triggered or modulated by both light and gravity. The results of this study indicate the importance of protein synthesis for light-induced gravitropic bending in roots. Root caps in which protein synthesis is prevented are unable to induce downward bending. This suggests that light acts by stimulating proteins which are necessary for the translation of the gravitropic stimulus into a growth response (downward bending). The turnover of protein with time was also examined in order to determine whether light acts by stimulating the synthesis of unique proteins required for downward growth. It is found that auxin in combination with light allows for the translation of the gravitropic stimulus into a growth response at least in part through the modification of protein synthesis. It is concluded that unique proteins are stimulated by light and are involved in promoting the downward growth in roots which are responding to gravity.

  7. Comparison of Detector Technologies for CAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockum, Jana L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, several different detectors are examined for use in a Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS), a conceptual study for a possible future space-based system. Each detector will be examined for its future (25 years or more in the future) ability to find and track near-Earth Objects (NEOs) from a space-based detection platform. Within the CAPS study are several teams of people who each focus on different aspects of the system concept. This study s focus is on detection devices. In particular, evaluations on the following devices have been made: charge-coupled devices (CCDs), charge-injected devices (CIDs), superconducting tunneling junctions (STJs), and transition edge sensors (TESs). These devices can be separated into two main categories; the first category includes detectors that are currently being widely utilized, such as CCDs and CIDs. The second category includes experimental detectors, such as STJs and TESs. After the discussion of the detectors themselves, there will be a section devoted to the explicit use of these detectors with CAPS.

  8. Dynamics of the quiet polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, H.C. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Work in the past has established that a few percent of the time, under northward interplanetary magnetic field and thus magnetically quiet conditions, sun aligned arcs are found in the polar cap with intensities greater than the order of a kilo Rayleigh in the visible. Here we extend this view. We first note that imaging systems with sensitivity down to tens of Rayleighs in the visible find sun aligned arcs in the polar cap far more often, closer to half the time than a few percent. Furthermore, these sun aligned arcs have simple electrodynamics. They mark boundaries between rapid antisunward flow of ionospheric plasma on their dawn side and significantly slower flow, or even sunward flow, on their dusk side. Since the sun aligned arcs are typically the order of 1000 km to transpolar in the sun-earth direction, and the order of 100 km or less in the dawn-dusk direction, they demarcate lines of strongly anisotropic ionospheric flow shears or convection cells. The very quiet polar cap (strongly northward IMF) is in fact characterized by the presence of sun aligned arcs and multiple highly anisotropic ionospheric flow shears. Sensitive optical images are a valuable diagnostic with which to study polar ionospheric convection under these poorly understood conditions. (author)

  9. MycoCAP - Mycobacterium Comparative Analysis Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Siew Woh; Ang, Mia Yang; Dutta, Avirup; Tan, Shi Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Heydari, Hamed; Mutha, Naresh V R; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah

    2015-12-15

    Mycobacterium spp. are renowned for being the causative agent of diseases like leprosy, Buruli ulcer and tuberculosis in human beings. With more and more mycobacterial genomes being sequenced, any knowledge generated from comparative genomic analysis would provide better insights into the biology, evolution, phylogeny and pathogenicity of this genus, thus helping in better management of diseases caused by Mycobacterium spp.With this motivation, we constructed MycoCAP, a new comparative analysis platform dedicated to the important genus Mycobacterium. This platform currently provides information of 2108 genome sequences of at least 55 Mycobacterium spp. A number of intuitive web-based tools have been integrated in MycoCAP particularly for comparative analysis including the PGC tool for comparison between two genomes, PathoProT for comparing the virulence genes among the Mycobacterium strains and the SuperClassification tool for the phylogenic classification of the Mycobacterium strains and a specialized classification system for strains of Mycobacterium abscessus. We hope the broad range of functions and easy-to-use tools provided in MycoCAP makes it an invaluable analysis platform to speed up the research discovery on mycobacteria for researchers. Database URL: http://mycobacterium.um.edu.my.

  10. Pulp-Capping with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva Kalina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two considerations for direct pulp capping - accidental mechanical pulp exposure and exposure caused by caries. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was used as pulp-capping material to preserve the vitality of the pulpal tissues. Follow-up examinations revealed that treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality and continued development of the tooth. On the basis of available information, it appears that MTA is the material of choice for some clinical applications. Material and methods: Cases 18 - 8 teeth with grey MTA, 10 teeth with white MTA; diagnose: Pulpitis chronica ulcerosa, Electro pulpal test (EOD - 30-35 μA, pre-clinical X-ray - without changes in the structures, follow ups for 4 years. Successful treatments: without clinical symptoms and changes in the X-rays: 5 teeth with grey MTA, 8 teeth with white MTA for period of 4 years. Unsuccessful treatments: Clinical symptoms and sometimes changes in the X-ray: 3 with grey MTA, 2 with white MTA. MTA is an appropriate material for pulp-capping and follow-up examinations revealed that the treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality.

  11. Estimated release from the saltstone landfill effect of landfill caps and landfill-cap/monolith-liner combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of capping the entire saltstone landfill is dependent on the effectiveness of the clay cap in preventing infiltration. A cap that is 99% effective will reduce releases from the saltstone landfill by a factor of 7.7. Several combinations of landfill design alterations will result in meeting ground water standards

  12. Using Financial Instruments to Transfer the Information Security Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Pandey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For many individuals and organizations, cyber-insurance is the most practical and only way of handling a major financial impact of an information security event. However, the cyber-insurance market suffers from the problem of information asymmetry, lack of product diversity, illiquidity, high transaction cost, and so on. On the other hand, in theory, capital market-based financial instruments can provide a risk transfer mechanism with the ability to absorb the adverse impact of an information security event. Thus, this article addresses the limitations in the cyber-(reinsurance markets with a set of capital market-based financial instruments. This article presents a set of information security derivatives, namely options, vanilla options, swap, and futures that can be traded at an information security prediction market. Furthermore, this article demonstrates the usefulness of information security derivatives in a given scenario and presents an evaluation of the same in comparison with cyber-insurance. In our analysis, we found that the information security derivatives can at least be a partial solution to the problems in the cyber-insurance markets. The information security derivatives can be used as an effective tool for information elicitation and aggregation, cyber risk pricing, risk hedging, and strategic decision making for information security risk management.

  13. Cassini CAPS-ELS observations of carbon-based anions and aerosol growth in Titan's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ravindra; Coates, Andrew; Wellbrock, Anne; Kataria, Dhiren; Jones, Geraint; Lewis, Gethyn; Waite, J.

    2016-06-01

    Cassini observations of Titans ionosphere revealed an atmosphere rich in positively charged ions with masses up to > 350 amu and negatively charged ions and aerosols with mass over charge ratios as high as 13,800 amu/q. The detection of negatively charged molecules by the Cassini CAPS Electron Spectrometer (CAPS-ELS) was particularly surprising and showed how the synthesis of large aerosol-size particles takes place at altitudes much greater than previously thought. Here, we present further analysis into this CAPS-ELS dataset, through an enhanced understanding of the instrument's response function. In previous studies the intrinsic E/E energy resolution of the instrument did not allow specific species to be identified and the detections were classified into broad mass ranges. In this study we use an updated fitting procedure to show how the ELS mass spectrum can be resolved into specific peaks at multiples of carbon-based anions up to > 100 amu/q. The negatively charged ions and aerosols in Titans ionosphere increase in mass with decreasing altitude, the lightest species being observed close to Titan's exobase of ˜1,450km and heaviest species observed at altitudes < 950km. We identify key stages in this apparent growth process and report on key intermediaries which appear to trigger the rapid growth of the larger aerosol-size particles.

  14. Economic and regional consequences of direct payments under the current CAP philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Věra Bečvářová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with one of the key instruments of the actual EU Common Agricultural Policy (the CAP, the direct payments. The economic as well as the regional implications of application for direct payments in the CAP strategy are evaluated there. The study deals with the economic costs, direct and indirect effects of such type of subsidy in general and a demonstration thereof in the context of the development of the European model of agriculture. Based on the economic principle of this type of transfer evalution, the processes of the income redistribution in the framework of global/common policy in general is characterized. It explains the causes as well as the nature of implementation of this instrument in the reform processes in the last twenty years, focusing on the reasons and consequences of different application in the original and the new EU member states. It considers the question of whether this type of support to agriculture is truly a tool that does not interfere with market conditions affect the respective competitive ability of agricultural producers. In the context of changes to income support in agriculture in the CAP development process, the effect of decoupled payments on the pricing within the agricultural commodity markets is specified. At the same time the work deals with a broader social context and social impact of the differing forms of support in European regions.

  15. Characterization of cap binding proteins associated with the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzelt, E.

    1986-04-01

    Eucaryotic mRNAs a carry 7-methylguanosine triphosphate residue (called cap structure) at their 5' terminus. The cap plays an important role in RNA recognition. Cap binding proteins (CBP) of HeLa cells were identified by photoaffinity labelling using the cap analogue γ-( 32 P)-(4-(benzoyl-phenyl)methylamido)-7-methylguanosine-5'-triphosphate (BP-m 7 GTP). Photoreaction of this cap analogue with HeLa cell initiation factors resulted in specific labelling of two polypeptides of Msub(r) 37000 and 26000. The latter was also labelled in crude initiation factors prepared from reticulocytes and is identical to the cap binding protein CBP I previously identified. These cap binding proteins were also affinity labelled in poliovirus infected cell extracts. Photoaffinity reaction with BP-m 7 GTP of whole HeLa cell homogenate showed three additional polypeptides with Msub(r) 120000, 89000 and 80000. These cap binding proteins were found to be associated with the nucleus and are therefore referred to as nuclear cap binding proteins, i.e. NCBP 1, NCBP 2 and NCBP 3. They were also present in splicing extracts. Photoaffinity labelling in these nuclear extracts was differentially inhibited by various cap analogues and capped mRNAs. Affinity chromatography on immobilized globin mRNA led to a partial separation of the three nuclear cap binding proteins. Chromatography on m 7 GTP-Sepharose resulted in a specific binding of NCBP 3. The different behaviour of the cap binding proteins suggests that they are functionally distinct and that they might be involved in different processes requiring cap recognition. (Author)

  16. Rocket measurements within a polar cap arc - Plasma, particle, and electric circuit parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, E. J.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Basu, S.; Carlson, H. C.; Hardy, D. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Kelley, M. C.; Fleischman, J. R.; Pfaff, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from the Polar Ionospheric Irregularities Experiment (PIIE), conducted from Sondrestrom, Greenland, on March 15, 1985, designed for an investigation of processes which lead to the generation of small-scale (less than 1 km) ionospheric irregularities within polar-cap F-layer auroras. An instrumented rocket was launched into a polar cap F layer aurora to measure energetic electron flux, plasma, and electric circuit parameters of a sun-aligned arc, coordinated with simultaneous measurements from the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar and the AFGL Airborne Ionospheric Observatory. Results indicated the existence of two different generation mechanisms on the dawnside and duskside of the arc. On the duskside, parameters are suggestive of an interchange process, while on the dawnside, fluctuation parameters are consistent with a velocity shear instability.

  17. Detecting dust hits at Enceladus, Saturn and beyond using CAPS / ELS data from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriff, J. D.; Stoneberger, P. J.; Jones, G.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    It has recently been shown (1) that the impact of hypervelocity dust grains on the Cassini spacecraft can be detected by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Electron Spectrometer (ELS) instrument. For multiple Enceladus flybys, fine scale features in the lower energy regime of ELS energy spectra can be explained as short-duration, isotropic plasma clouds due to dust impacts. We have developed an algorithm for detecting these hypervelocity dust impacts, and the list of such impacts during Enceladus flybys will be presented. We also present preliminary results obtained when using the algorithm to search for dust impacts in other regions of Saturn's magnetosphere as well as in the solar wind. (1) Jones, Geraint, Hypervelocity dust impact signatures detected by Cassini CAPS-ELS in the Enceladus plume, MOP Meeting, June 1-5, 2015, Atlanta, GA

  18. Customizable cap implants for neurophysiological experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonde, Jackson D; Roussy, Megan; Luna, Rogelio; Mahmoudian, Borna; Gulli, Roberto A; Barker, Kevin C; Lau, Jonathan C; Martinez-Trujillo, Julio C

    2018-04-22

    Several primate neurophysiology laboratories have adopted acrylic-free, custom-fit cranial implants. These implants are often comprised of titanium or plastic polymers, such as polyether ether ketone (PEEK). Titanium is favored for its mechanical strength and osseointegrative properties whereas PEEK is notable for its lightweight, machinability, and MRI compatibility. Recent titanium/PEEK implants have proven to be effective in minimizing infection and implant failure, thereby prolonging experiments and optimizing the scientific contribution of a single primate. We created novel, customizable PEEK 'cap' implants that contour to the primate's skull. The implants were created using MRI and/or CT data, SolidWorks software and CNC-machining. Three rhesus macaques were implanted with a PEEK cap implant. Head fixation and chronic recordings were successfully performed. Improvements in design and surgical technique solved issues of granulation tissue formation and headpost screw breakage. Primate cranial implants have traditionally been fastened to the skull using acrylic and anchor screws. This technique is prone to skin recession, infection, and implant failure. More recent methods have used imaging data to create custom-fit titanium/PEEK implants with radially extending feet or vertical columns. Compared to our design, these implants are more surgically invasive over time, have less force distribution, and/or do not optimize the utilizable surface area of the skull. Our PEEK cap implants served as an effective and affordable means to perform electrophysiological experimentation while reducing surgical invasiveness, providing increased strength, and optimizing useful surface area. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Laboratory testing of closure cap repair techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoff, P.; Moridis, G.; Tuck, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    Landfill design requires a low permeability closure cap as well as a low permeability liner. The Savannah River Site, in South Carolina, has approximately 85 acres of mixed waste landfills covered with compacted kaolin clay. Maintaining low permeability of the clay cap requires both that the permeability of the compacted clay itself remain low and that the integrity of the barrier be maintained. Barrier breaches typically result from penetration by roots or animals, and especially cracks caused by uneven settling or desiccation. In this study, clay layers, 0.81 m in diameter and 7.6 cm thick, were compacted in 7 lysimeters to simulate closure caps. The hydraulic conductivity of each layer was measured, and the compacted clay layers (CCL's) were cracked by drying. Then various repair techniques were applied and the effectiveness of each repair was assessed by remeasuring the hydraulic conductivity. Finally the repaired CCL was again dried and measured to determine how the repair responded to the conditions that caused the original failure. For a full report of this investigation see Persoff et al. Six repair techniques have been tested, four of which involve the use of injectable barrier liquids colloidal silica (CS) and polysiloxane (PSX) described below: (I) covering the crack with a bentonite geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), (ii) recompaction of new kaolinite at STD+3 moisture content joined to existing kaolinite that had dried and shrunk, (iii) direct injection of colloidal silica to a crack, (iv) injection of colloidal silica (CS) to wells in an overlying sand layer, (v) direct injection of polysiloxane to a crack, and (vi), injection of polysiloxane (PSX) to wells in an overlying soil layer

  20. IAA transport in corn roots includes the root cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenstein, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    In earlier reports we concluded that auxin is the growth regulator that controls gravicurvature in roots and that the redistribution of auxin occurs within the root cap. Since other reports did not detect auxin in the root cap, we attempted to confirm the IAA does move through the cap. Agar blocks containing 3 H-IAA were applied to the cut surface of 5 mm long apical segments of primary roots of corn (mo17xB73). After 30 to 120 min radioactivity (RA) of the cap and root tissue was determined. While segments suspended in water-saturated air accumulated very little RA in the cap, application of 0.5 μ1 of dist. water to the cap (=controls) increased RA of the cap dramatically. Application to the cap of 0.5 μ1 of sorbitol or the Ca 2+ chelator EGTA reduced cap RA to 46% and 70% respectively compared to water, without affecting uptake. Control root segments gravireacted faster than non-treated or osmoticum or EGTA treated segments. The data indicate that both the degree of hydration and calcium control the amount of auxin moving through the cap

  1. Polar cap deflation during magnetospheric substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. J.; Siscoe, G. L.; Heelis, R. A.; Winningham, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    The expanding/contracting polar cap model has been used to simulate DE-2 ion drift data during substorms as determined using the AL index. Of the 39 cases modeled, 57 percent required the opening of a nightside gap which maps to where reconnection occurs in the tail; 75 percent of the 16 recovery phase cases required a nightside gap, while only 29 percent of the 17 expansion phase cases required a nightside gap. On the basis of this result, it is concluded that if a nightside gap implies tail reconnection, then reconnection probably occurs after expansion phase onset and continues throughout most of the recovery phase of a substorm.

  2. MARK II end cap calorimeter electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jared, R.C.; Haggerty, J.S.; Herrup, D.A.; Kirsten, F.A.; Lee, K.L.; Olson, S.R.; Wood, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An end cap calorimeter system has been added to the MARK II detector in preparation for its use at the SLAC Linear Collider. The calorimeter uses 8744 rectangular proportional counter tubes. This paper describes the design features of the data acquisition electronics that has been installed on the calorimeter. The design and use of computer-based test stands for the amplification and signal-shaping components is also covered. A portion of the complete system has been tested in a beam at SLAC. In these initial tests, using only the calibration provided by the test stands, a resolution of 18%/√E was achieved

  3. Macrophage Capping Protein CapG Is a Putative Oncogene Involved in Migration and Invasiveness in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glaser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The actin binding protein CapG modulates cell motility by interacting with the cytoskeleton. CapG is associated with tumor progression in different nongynecologic tumor entities and overexpression in breast cancer cell lines correlates with a more invasive phenotype in vitro. Here, we report a significant CapG overexpression in 18/47 (38% of ovarian carcinomas (OC analyzed by qRealTime-PCR analyses. Functional analyses in OC cell lines through siRNA mediated CapG knockdown and CapG overexpression showed CapG-dependent cell migration and invasiveness. A single nucleotide polymorphism rs6886 inside the CapG gene was identified, affecting a CapG phosphorylation site and thus potentially modifying CapG function. The minor allele frequency (MAF of SNP rs6886 (c.1004A/G was higher and the homozygous (A/A, His335 genotype was significantly more prevalent in patients with fallopian tube carcinomas (50% as in controls (10%. With OC being one of the most lethal cancer diseases, the detection of novel biomarkers such as CapG could reveal new diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Moreover, in-depth analyses of SNP rs6886 related to FTC and OC will contribute to a better understanding of carcinogenesis and progression of OC.

  4. Anàlisi instrumental

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Sabata, Josep M.

    1994-01-01

    Conté: 2. Cromatografia i electroforesi Aquest text pretén donar una visió general de l'ampli camp dels mètodes instrumentals de separació aplicats al laboratori d'anàlis segons un concepte eminentment pràctic. S'ha dividit en cinc capítols temàtics: teoria de la cromatografia, cromatografia clàssica, cromatografia de gasos, cromatografia de líquids i electroforesi. Va destinat als estudiants d'enginyeria i de les facultats de ciències que dins el seu pla d'estudis incorporin la matèria d'...

  5. MFTF-. cap alpha. + T progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.D. (ed.)

    1985-04-01

    Early in FY 1983, several upgrades of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were proposed to the fusion community. The one most favorably received was designated MFTF-..cap alpha..+T. The engineering design of this device, guided by LLNL, has been a principal activity of the Fusion Engineering Design Center during FY 1983. This interim progress report represents a snapshot of the device design, which was begun in FY 1983 and will continue for several years. The report is organized as a complete design description. Because it is an interim report, some parts are incomplete; they will be supplied as the design study proceeds. As described in this report, MFTF-..cap alpha..+T uses existing facilities, many MFTF-B components, and a number of innovations to improve on the physics parameters of MFTF-B. It burns deuterium-tritium and has a central-cell Q of 2, a wall loading GAMMA/sub n/ of 2 MW/m/sup 2/ (with a central-cell insert module), and an availability of 10%. The machine is fully shielded, allows hands-on maintenance of components outside the vacuum vessel 24 h after shutdown, and has provisions for repair of all operating components.

  6. Acoustic Monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Chayes, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction The monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap is important economically, tactically, and strategically. In the scenario of ice cap retreat, new paths of commerce open, e.g. waterways from Northern Europe to the Far East. Where ship-going commerce is conducted, the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard have always stood guard and been prepared to assist from acts of nature and of man. It is imperative that in addition to measuring the ice from satellites, e.g. Icesat, that we have an ability to measure the ice extent, its thickness, and roughness. These parameters play an important part in the modeling of the ice and the processes that control its growth or shrinking and its thickness. The proposed system consists of three subsystems. The first subsystem is an acoustic source, the second is an array of geophones and the third is a system to supply energy and transmit the results back to the analysis laboratory. The subsystems are described below. We conclude with a plan on how to tackle this project and the payoff to the ice cap modeler and hence the users, i.e. commerce and defense. System Two historically tested methods to generate a large amplitude multi-frequency sound source include explosives and air guns. A new method developed and tested by the University of Texas, ARL is a combustive Sound Source [Wilson, et al., 1995]. The combustive sound source is a submerged combustion chamber that is filled with the byproducts of the electrolysis of sea water, i.e. Hydrogen and Oxygen, an explosive mixture which is ignited via a spark. Thus, no additional compressors, gases, or explosives need to be transported to the Arctic to generate an acoustic pulse capable of the sediment and the ice. The second subsystem would be geophones capable of listening in the O(10 Hz) range and transmitting that data back to the laboratory. Thus two single arrays of geophones arranged orthogonal to each other with a range of 1000's of kilometers and a combustive sound source where the two

  7. Lowering the YE+1 end-cap for CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    On 9 January 2007, the massive YE+1 end-cap was lowered into the CMS cavern. This is a very precise process as the crane must lower the end-cap through minimal clearance without tilt or sway. Once in the cavern, the end-cap is then positioned over the end of the barrel to detect particles produced in collisions that travel close to the axis of the beams.

  8. Increased 5. cap alpha. -reductase activity in idiopathic hirsutism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, P.; Lobo, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro, genital skin 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity (5..cap alpha..-RA) was measured in ten hirsute women with normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism (IH)) and in ten hirsute women with elevated androgen levels (polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)) in order to determine the influence of secreted androgens on 5..cap alpha..-RA. In vitro 5..cap alpha..-RA was assessed by incubations of skin with /sup 14/C-testosterone (T) for 2 hours, after which steroids were separated and the radioactivity of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5..cap alpha..-androstane 3..cap alpha..-17..beta..-estradiol (3..cap alpha..-diol) in specific eluates were determined. All androgens were normal in IH with the exception of higher levels of 3..cap alpha..-diol glucuronide which were similar to the levels of PCO. The conversion ratio (CR) of T to DHT in IH and PCO were similar, yet significantly greater than the CR of control subjects. The CR of T to 3..cap alpha..-diol in IH and PCO were similar, yet higher than in control subjects. Serum androgens showed no correlation with 5..cap alpha..-RA, while the CR of T to DHT showed a significant positive correlation with the Ferriman and Gallwey score. The increased 5..cap alpha..-RA in IH appears to be independent of serum androgen levels and is, therefore, an inherent abnormality. The term idiopathic is a misnomer, because hirsutism in these patients may be explained on the basis of increased skin 5..cap alpha..-RA.

  9. Preform spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jamie T [Simpsonville, SC; Driver, Howard D [Greer, SC; van Breugel, Sjef [Enschede, NL; Jenkins, Thomas B [Cantonment, FL; Bakhuis, Jan Willem [Nijverdal, NL; Billen, Andrew J [Daarlerveen, NL; Riahi, Amir [Pensacola, FL

    2011-07-12

    A spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade. The spar cap may include multiple preform components. The multiple preform components may be planar sheets having a swept shape with a first end and a second end. The multiple preform components may be joined by mating the first end of a first preform component to the second end of a next preform component, forming the spar cap.

  10. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The aim of this RFS is to define the type, location and operating conditions for seismic instrumentation needed to determine promptly the seismic response of nuclear power plants features important to safety to permit comparison of such response with that used as the design basis

  11. Meteorological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    RFS or ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety , while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the ''Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires'' or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the meteorological instrumentation required at the site of each nuclear power plant equipped with at least one pressurized water reactor

  12. Contabilidad de Costos II. - Capítulo 4. Respuestas

    OpenAIRE

    Morillo Moreno, Marysela C.

    2008-01-01

    ÍNDICE Presentación Orientaciones para el usuario Capítulo 1: Contabilidad de costos por procesos Sistemas de Contabilidad de Costos por Proceso Costos de Producción Conjunta. Productos Principales y Secundarios Capítulo 2: Contabilidad de costos predeterminados Presupuesto Estático y Presupuesto Flexible Sistema de Costos Estándar Capítulo 3: Sistema de costos variables Capítulo 4: Respuestas Bibliografía recomendada Pr...

  13. Analyses of Current And Wave Forces on Velocity Caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Buhrkall, Jeppe; Eskesen, Mark C. D.

    2015-01-01

    Velocity caps are often used in connection with for instance offshore intake sea water for the use of for cooling water for power plants or as a source for desalinization plants. The intakes can also be used for river intakes. The velocity cap is placed on top of a vertical pipe. The vertical pipe......) this paper investigates the current and wave forces on the velocity cap and the vertical cylinder. The Morison’s force model was used in the analyses of the extracted force time series in from the CFD model. Further the distribution of the inlet velocities around the velocity cap was also analyzed in detail...

  14. Who's (Still) Above the Social Security Payroll Tax Cap?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Woo; Janelle Jones; John Schmitt

    2012-01-01

    The Social Security payroll tax cap is the earnings level above which no further Social Security taxes are collected. The cap is currently at $110,100, though legislation has been introduced in Congress to apply the Social Security payroll tax to earnings above $250,000 (but not between the current cap and this level). This issue brief updates earlier work, finding that 5.8 percent of workers would be affected if the Social Security cap were eliminated entirely and 1.4 percent would be affect...

  15. Synthesis of tritium or deuterium labelled 19-nor-3. cap alpha. -hydroxy-5. cap alpha. -androstan-17-one from nortestosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protiva, J; Klinotova, E [Karlova Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta; Filip, J [Ustav pro Vyzkum, Vyrobu a Vyuziti Radioisotopu, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Hampl, R [Research Inst. of Endocrinology, Praha (Czechoslovakia)

    1982-10-20

    Tritium and/or deuterium (5-H) labelled 19-nor-3..cap alpha..-hydroxy-5..cap alpha..-androstan-17-one (norandrosterone) was prepared from nortestosterone in view to use it as a radioligand for radioimmunoassay of the main nortestosterone metabolites. Based upon model experiments using testosterone and deuterium labelling, the following four step procedure was established: nortestosterone was oxidized with pyridine chlorochromate and the resulting 19-nor-4-androsten-3,17-dione was tritiated with tritium gas under catalysis with tris(triphenylphosphine)rhodium chloride to give (4,5..cap alpha..-/sup 3/H)19-nor-5..cap alpha..-androstan-3,17-dione. A selective reduction of the latter compound yielded (5-/sup 3/H)19-nor-3..cap alpha..-hydroxy-5..cap alpha..-androstan-17-one of the molar radioactivity 0.3 TBq (8.15 Ci)/mmol.

  16. Radiological instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Seibentritt, C.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring radiation, particularly nuclear radiation, comprising: a radiation sensitive structure pivoted toward one end and including a pair of elongated solid members contiguously joined together along their length dimensions and having a common planar interface therebetween. One of the pairs of members is comprised of radiochromic material whose index of refraction changes due to anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to nuclear radiation. The pair of members further has mutually different indices of refraction with the member having the larger index of refraction further being transparent for the passage of light and of energy therethrough; means located toward the other end of the structure for varying the angle of longitudinal elevation of the pair of members; means for generating and projecting a beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction. The beam of light is projected toward the planar interface where it is reflected out of the other end of the same member as a first output beam; means projecting a portion of the beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction where it traverses therethrough without reflection and out of the other end of the same member as a second output beam; and means adjacent the structure for receiving the first and second output beams, whereby a calibrated change in the angle of elevation of the structure between positions of equal intensity of the first and second output beams prior to and following exposure provides a measure of the radiation sensed due to a change of refraction of the radiochromic material

  17. THE TURN OF THE MONTH EFFECT CONTINUED: A COMPARISON OF SMALL CAP STOCKS AND LARGE CAP STOCKS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsundhar, Shamman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the turn of the month effect occurs in small cap and large cap stocks and if it occurs in both categories, to determine whether there is a difference in the magnitude. My research, for the period of 1963-2008, based on the CRSP value weighted index, shows that there is a significant turn of the month effect in small and large cap stocks, however the effect is larger in small cap stocks. Furthermore, this effect is not limited to a short time...

  18. Diagnostic criteria for cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin B; Ozen, Seza; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Kone-Paut, Isabelle; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Lachmann, Helen; Blank, Norbert; Hoffman, Hal M; Weissbarth-Riedel, Elisabeth; Hugle, Boris; Kallinich, Tilmann; Gattorno, Marco; Gul, Ahmet; Ter Haar, Nienke; Oswald, Marlen; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Cantarini, Luca; Benseler, Susanne M

    2017-06-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a rare, heterogeneous disease entity associated with NLRP3 gene mutations and increased interleukin-1 (IL-1) secretion. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of IL-1 inhibition prevent organ damage. The aim of the study was to develop and validate diagnostic criteria for CAPS. An innovative process was followed including interdisciplinary team building, item generation: review of CAPS registries, systematic literature review, expert surveys, consensus conferences for item refinement, item reduction and weighting using 1000Minds decision software. Resulting CAPS criteria were tested in large cohorts of CAPS cases and controls using correspondence analysis. Diagnostic models were explored using sensitivity analyses. The international team included 16 experts. Systematic literature and registry review identified 33 CAPS-typical items; the consensus conferences reduced these to 14. 1000Minds exercises ranked variables based on importance for the diagnosis. Correspondence analysis determined variables consistently associated with the diagnosis of CAPS using 284 cases and 837 controls. Seven variables were significantly associated with CAPS (pCAPS-typical symptoms: urticaria-like rash, cold-triggered episodes, sensorineural hearing loss, musculoskeletal symptoms, chronic aseptic meningitis and skeletal abnormalities. Sensitivity was 81%, specificity 94%. It performed well for all CAPS subtypes and regardless of NLRP3 mutation. The novel approach integrated traditional methods of evidence synthesis with expert consensus, web-based decision tools and innovative statistical methods and may serve as model for other rare diseases. These criteria will enable a rapid diagnosis for children and adults with CAPS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Alternate cap designs under RCRA regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrod, W.E. III; Yager, R.E.; Craig, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste and mixed wastes have been disposed of in several sites in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Tennessee. Most of these materials have been placed in shallow land burial pits (SLB). Closure plans have been developed and approved by appropriate regulatory agencies for several of these sites. A variety of cap (final cover) designs for closure of these sites were investigated to determine their ability to inhibit infiltration of precipitation to the waste. The most effective designs are those that use synthetic materials as drainage layers and/or impermeable liners. The more complex, multi-layer systems perform no better than simpler covers and would complicate construction and increase costs. Despite the successful analytical results described in this paper, additional considerations must be factored into use of geosynthetic as well as natural materials

  20. Cap stabilization for reclaimed uranium sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, S.R.; Nelson, J.D.; Johnson, T.L.; Hawkins, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    The reclamation and stabilization of uranium-mill tailings sites requires engineering designs to protect against the disruption of tailings and the potential release of radioactive materials. The reclamation design is to be effective for 200-1000 years. This paper presents recently developed or refined techniques and methodologies used to evaluate uranium-tailings-reclamation plans designed to provide long-term stability against failure modes. Specific cap-design aspects presented include design flood selection, influence of fluvial geomorphology on site stabilization, stable slope prediction, slope stabilization using riprap, and riprap selection relative to rock quality and durability. Design relationships are presented for estimating flow through riprap, sizing riprap, and estimating riprap flow resistance for overtopping conditions. Guidelines for riprap-layer thickness and gradation are presented. A riprap-rating procedure for estimating rock quality and durability is also presented

  1. Glaciers and ice caps outside Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Marin; Wolken, G.; Burgess, D.; Cogley, J.G.; Copland, L.; Thomson, L.; Arendt, A.; Wouters, B.; Kohler, J.; Andreassen, L.M.; O'Neel, Shad; Pelto, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps cover an area of over 400 000 km2 in the Arctic, and are a major influence on global sea level (Gardner et al. 2011, 2013; Jacob et al. 2012). They gain mass by snow accumulation and lose mass by meltwater runoff. Where they terminate in water (ocean or lake), they also lose mass by iceberg calving. The climatic mass balance (Bclim, the difference between annual snow accumulation and annual meltwater runoff) is a widely used index of how glaciers respond to climate variability and change. The total mass balance (ΔM) is defined as the difference between annual snow accumulation and annual mass losses (by iceberg calving plus runoff).

  2. Viscoplastic augmentation of the smooth cap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwer, Leonard E.

    1994-01-01

    The most common numerical viscoplastic implementations are formulations attributed to Perzyna. Although Perzyna-type algorithms are popular, they have several disadvantages relating to the lack of enforcement of the consistency condition in plasticity. The present work adapts a relatively unknown viscoplastic formulation attributed to Duvaut and Lions and generalized to multi-surface plasticity by Simo et al. The attraction of the Duvaut-Lions formulation is its ease of numerical implementation in existing elastoplastic algorithms. The present work provides a motivation for the Duvaut-Lions viscoplastic formulation, derivation of the algorithm and comparison with the Perzyna algorithm. A simple uniaxial strain numerical simulation is used to compare the results of the Duvaut-Lions algorithm, as adapted to the ppercase[dyna3d] smooth cap model with results from a Perzyna algorithm adapted by Katona and Muleret to an implicit code. ((orig.))

  3. Climate policies for road transport revisited (II): Closing the policy gap with cap-and-trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachsland, Christian; Brunner, Steffen; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Creutzig, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Current policies in the road transport sector fail to deliver consistent and efficient incentives for greenhouse gas abatement (see companion article by ). Market-based instruments such as cap-and-trade systems close this policy gap and complement traditional policies that are required where specific market failures arise. Even in presence of strong existing non-market policies, cap-and-trade delivers additional abatement and efficiency by incentivizing demand side abatement options. This paper analyzes generic design options and economic impacts of including the European road transport sector into the EU ETS. Suitable points of regulation are up- and midstream in the fuel chain to ensure effectiveness (cover all emissions and avoid double-counting), efficiency (incentivize all abatement options) and low transaction costs. Based on year 2020 marginal abatement cost curves from different models and current EU climate policy objectives we show that in contrast to conventional wisdom, road transport inclusion would not change the EU ETS allowance price. Hence, industrial carbon leakage induced by adding road transport to the EU ETS may be less important than previously estimated. - Research highlights: → We analyze the rationale, design and economic impacts of including road transportation into GHG cap-and-trade systems. → Suitable points of regulation are up- and mid-stream. → Including European road transport into the EU ETS by 2020 would not change the EU allowance price.

  4. The CAP Theorem Versus Databases with Relaxed ACID properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Lars; Pedersen, Rasmus Ulslev; Havnø Frank, Christian

    2014-01-01

    data from different locations can have at most two of the three desirable CAP properties [5]. The NoSQL movement has applied the CAP theorem as an argument against tradi- tional ACID (atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durabil- ity) databases, which prioritize consistency and partition- tolerance...

  5. A simplified model of polar cap electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, N.

    1977-01-01

    A simple-minded 'model' is used in order to visualize the gross features of polar cap electric fields, in particular the 'diode' effect which had emerged already from earlier observations and the asymmetry between the electric fields observed on the dawn and dusk sides of the polar cap, which depends on Bsub(y)

  6. Preparing an ATLAS toroid magnet end-cap for lowering

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    One of the two 13-m high toroid magnet end-caps for the ATLAS experiment being transported from the construction hall to the experimental area. The end-cap will be lowered into the ATLAS cavern and attached to an end of the detector.

  7. IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS - ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A.; Roberts, J.; Paller, M.; Reible, D.

    2010-09-02

    Active capping is a relatively new approach for treating contaminated sediments. It involves applying chemically reactive amendments to the sediment surface. The main role of active caps is to stabilize contaminants in contaminated sediments, lower the bioavailable pool of contaminants, and reduce the release of contaminants to the water column. Metals are common contaminants in many marine and fresh water environments as a result of industrial and military activities. The mobile, soluble forms of metals are generally considered toxic. Induced chemical precipitation of these metals can shift toxic metals from the aqueous phase to a solid, precipitated phase which is often less bioavailable. This approach can be achieved through application of sequestering agents such as rock phosphates, organoclays, zeolites, clay minerals, and biopolymers (e.g., chitosan) in active capping technology. Active capping holds great potential for a more permanent solution that avoids residual risks resulting from contaminant migration through the cap or breaching of the cap. In addition to identifying superior active capping agents, research is needed to optimize application techniques, application rates, and amendment combinations that maximize sequestration of contaminants. A selected set of active capping treatment technologies has been demonstrated at a few sites, including a field demonstration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. This demonstration has provided useful information on the effects of sequestering agents on metal immobilization, bioavailability, toxicity, and resistance to mechanical disturbance.

  8. In Situ Remediation Of Contaminated Sediments - Active Capping Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, A.; Roberts, J.; Paller, M.; Reible, D.

    2010-01-01

    Active capping is a relatively new approach for treating contaminated sediments. It involves applying chemically reactive amendments to the sediment surface. The main role of active caps is to stabilize contaminants in contaminated sediments, lower the bioavailable pool of contaminants, and reduce the release of contaminants to the water column. Metals are common contaminants in many marine and fresh water environments as a result of industrial and military activities. The mobile, soluble forms of metals are generally considered toxic. Induced chemical precipitation of these metals can shift toxic metals from the aqueous phase to a solid, precipitated phase which is often less bioavailable. This approach can be achieved through application of sequestering agents such as rock phosphates, organoclays, zeolites, clay minerals, and biopolymers (e.g., chitosan) in active capping technology. Active capping holds great potential for a more permanent solution that avoids residual risks resulting from contaminant migration through the cap or breaching of the cap. In addition to identifying superior active capping agents, research is needed to optimize application techniques, application rates, and amendment combinations that maximize sequestration of contaminants. A selected set of active capping treatment technologies has been demonstrated at a few sites, including a field demonstration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. This demonstration has provided useful information on the effects of sequestering agents on metal immobilization, bioavailability, toxicity, and resistance to mechanical disturbance.

  9. 20 CFR 606.21 - Criteria for cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criteria for cap. 606.21 Section 606.21 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS UNDER THE... Reduction § 606.21 Criteria for cap. (a) Reduction in unemployment tax effort. (1) For purposes of paragraph...

  10. Devon island ice cap: core stratigraphy and paleoclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, R M

    1977-04-01

    Valuable paleoclimatic information can be gained by studying the distribution of melt layers in deep ice cores. A profile representing the percentage of ice in melt layers in a core drilled from the Devon Island ice cap plotted against both time and depth shows that the ice cap has experienced a period of very warm summers since 1925, following a period of colder summers between about 1600 and 1925. The earlier period was coldest between 1680 and 1730. There is a high correlation between the melt-layer ice percentage and the mass balance of the ice cap. The relation between them suggests that the ice cap mass balance was zero (accumulation equaled ablation) during the colder period but is negative in the present warmer one. There is no firm evidence of a present cooling trend in the summer conditions on the ice cap. A comparison with the melt-layer ice percentage in cores from the other major Canadian Arctic ice caps shows that the variation of summer conditions found for the Devon Island ice cap is representative for all the large ice caps for about 90 percent of the time. There is also a good correlation between melt-layer percentage and summer sea-ice conditions in the archipelago. This suggests that the search for the northwest passage was influenced by changing climate, with the 19th-century peak of the often tragic exploration coinciding with a period of very cold summers.

  11. ATLAS end-caps 
on the move

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Two delicate and spectacular transport operations have been performed for ATLAS in recent weeks: the first end-cap tracker was installed in its final position, and one of the huge end-caps of the toroid magnet was moved to the top of the experiment’s shaft.

  12. Chemical synthesis of highly size-confined triethylamine-capped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-23

    Mar 23, 2018 ... TiO2 nanoparticles and its dye-sensitized solar cell performance .... Figure 5. Formation mechanism of TEA-capped and uncapped TiO2 nanoparticles. ... this research work, synthesized TEA-capped TiO2 nanopar- ticles were ...

  13. 20 CFR 606.20 - Cap on tax credit reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cap on tax credit reduction. 606.20 Section 606.20 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS... Tax Credit Reduction § 606.20 Cap on tax credit reduction. (a) Applicability. Subsection (f) of...

  14. Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to bottle caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson; William C. Miller

    1973-01-01

    Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to aluminum resealable caps during distribution. A study at bottling plants and distribution warehouses showed that an average of 1 bottle out of 4,000 has cap damage. Most of the damage was attributed to handling at the warehouse and in transit. Some recommendations are given for improvement of wooden beverage cases to prevent...

  15. Progress in LAr EndCap Calorimetry: News from the Hadronic EndCap Group.

    CERN Multimedia

    Oram, C.J.

    With module production and testing completed for the Hadronic EndCap calorimeter, the attention of the HEC group is heavily directed towards wheel assembly in building 180. Three of the four HEC wheels are now assembled and rotated, and work is progressing on assembling the final wheel. This year has been a busy year for the installation of components in the EndCap C cryostat: the signal feedthrough installation was completed April 22nd, the pre-sampler shortly thereafter and the Electro-Magnetic EndCap August 13th. This allowed the HEC group to start transferring the HEC wheels from the T6A storage cradle into the cryostat. The operation started in mid-September and has progressed, on or ahead of schedule, since then with the major milestones being: Insertion of 67 ton front HEC wheel October 3rd Insertion of 90 ton rear HEC wheel October 22nd. The wheel alignment has proved to be excellent, with the position of the centre of the front(rear) wheel with respect to the nominal position being displaced b...

  16. Integration of the end cap TEC+ of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, Richard

    2008-04-28

    CMS is the first large experiment of high-energy particle physics whose inner tracking system is exclusively instrumented with silicon detector modules. This tracker comprises 15 148 silicon strip modules enclosing the interaction point in 10-12 layers. The 1. Physikalisches Institut B of RWTH Aachen was deeply involved in the completion of the end caps of the tracking system. The institute played a leading role in the end cap design, produced virtually all support structures and several important electrical components, designed and built the laser alignment system of the tracker, performed system tests and finally integrated one of the two end caps in Aachen. This integration constitutes the central part of the present thesis work. The main focus was on the development of methods to recognise defects early in the integration process and to assert the detector's functionality. Characteristic quantities such as the detector noise or the optical gain of the readout chain were determined during integration as well as during a series of tests performed after transport of the end cap from Aachen to CERN. The procedures followed during the mechanical integration of the detector and during the commissioning of integrated sectors are explained, and the software packages developed for quality assurance are described. In addition, results of the detector readout are presented. During the integration phase, sub-structures of the end cap - named petals - were subjected to a reception test which has also been designed and operated as part of this thesis work. The test setup and software developed for the test are introduced and an account of the analysis of the recorded data is given. Before the end cap project entered the production phase, a final test beam experiment was performed in which the suitability of a system of two fully equipped petals for operation at the LHC was checked. The measured ratio of the signal induced in the silicon sensors by minimal ionising

  17. Integration of the end cap TEC+ of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, Richard

    2008-01-01

    CMS is the first large experiment of high-energy particle physics whose inner tracking system is exclusively instrumented with silicon detector modules. This tracker comprises 15 148 silicon strip modules enclosing the interaction point in 10-12 layers. The 1. Physikalisches Institut B of RWTH Aachen was deeply involved in the completion of the end caps of the tracking system. The institute played a leading role in the end cap design, produced virtually all support structures and several important electrical components, designed and built the laser alignment system of the tracker, performed system tests and finally integrated one of the two end caps in Aachen. This integration constitutes the central part of the present thesis work. The main focus was on the development of methods to recognise defects early in the integration process and to assert the detector's functionality. Characteristic quantities such as the detector noise or the optical gain of the readout chain were determined during integration as well as during a series of tests performed after transport of the end cap from Aachen to CERN. The procedures followed during the mechanical integration of the detector and during the commissioning of integrated sectors are explained, and the software packages developed for quality assurance are described. In addition, results of the detector readout are presented. During the integration phase, sub-structures of the end cap - named petals - were subjected to a reception test which has also been designed and operated as part of this thesis work. The test setup and software developed for the test are introduced and an account of the analysis of the recorded data is given. Before the end cap project entered the production phase, a final test beam experiment was performed in which the suitability of a system of two fully equipped petals for operation at the LHC was checked. The measured ratio of the signal induced in the silicon sensors by minimal ionising particles

  18. Analysis of Dynamic Stiffness of Bridge Cap-Pile System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Chu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the applicability of dynamic stiffness for bridge cap-pile system, a laboratory test was performed. A numerical model was also built for this type of system. The impact load was applied on the cap top and the dynamic stiffness was analysed. Then, the effect of the effective friction area between pile and soil was also considered. Finally, the dynamic stiffness relationship between the single pile and the cap-pile system was also compared. The results show that the dynamic stiffness is a sensitive index and can well reflect the static characteristics of the pile at the elastic stage. There is a significant positive correlation between the vertical dynamic stiffness index and bearing capacity of the cap-pile system in the similar formation environment. For the cap-pile system with four piles, the dynamic stiffness is about four times as large as the single pile between 10 and 20 Hz.

  19. Assessing the measurement of aerosol single scattering albedo by Cavity Attenuated Phase-Shift Single Scattering Monitor (CAPS PMssa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perim de Faria, Julia; Bundke, Ulrich; Onasch, Timothy B.; Freedman, Andrew; Petzold, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The necessity to quantify the direct impact of aerosol particles on climate forcing is already well known; assessing this impact requires continuous and systematic measurements of the aerosol optical properties. Two of the main parameters that need to be accurately measured are the aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo (SSA, defined as the ratio of particulate scattering to extinction). The measurement of single scattering albedo commonly involves the measurement of two optical parameters, the scattering and the absorption coefficients. Although there are well established technologies to measure both of these parameters, the use of two separate instruments with different principles and uncertainties represents potential sources of significant errors and biases. Based on the recently developed cavity attenuated phase shift particle extinction monitor (CAPS PM_{ex) instrument, the CAPS PM_{ssa instrument combines the CAPS technology to measure particle extinction with an integrating sphere capable of simultaneously measuring the scattering coefficient of the same sample. The scattering channel is calibrated to the extinction channel, such that the accuracy of the single scattering albedo measurement is only a function of the accuracy of the extinction measurement and the nephelometer truncation losses. This gives the instrument an accurate and direct measurement of the single scattering albedo. In this study, we assess the measurements of both the extinction and scattering channels of the CAPS PM_{ssa through intercomparisons with Mie theory, as a fundamental comparison, and with proven technologies, such as integrating nephelometers and filter-based absorption monitors. For comparison, we use two nephelometers, a TSI 3563 and an Aurora 4000, and two measurements of the absorption coefficient, using a Particulate Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) and a Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP). We also assess the indirect absorption coefficient

  20. 30 CFR 250.1157 - How do I receive approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I receive approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap? 250.1157 Section 250.1157 Mineral Resources... do I receive approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap? (a...

  1. Development, genetic mapping and QTL association of cotton PHYA, PHYB, and HY5-specific CAPS and dCAPS markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among SNP markers that become increasingly valuable in molecular breeding of crop plants are the CAP and dCAP markers derived from the genes of interest. To date, the number of such gene-based markers is small in polyploid crop plants such as tetraploid cotton that has A and D subgenomes. The obje...

  2. Polar Ice Caps: a Canary for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsaker, W.; Lowell, T. V.; Sagredo, E.; Kelly, M. A.; Hall, B. L.

    2010-12-01

    Ice caps are glacier masses that are highly sensitive to climate change. Because of their hypsometry they can have a binary state. When relatively slight changes in the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) either intersect or rise above the land the ice can become established or disappear. Thus these upland ice masses have a fast response time. Here we consider a way to extract the ELA signal from independent ice caps adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet margin. It may be that these ice caps are sensitive trackers of climate change that also impact the ice sheet margin. One example is the Istorvet Ice Cap located in Liverpool Land, East Greenland (70.881°N, 22.156°W). The ice cap topography and the underlying bedrock surface dips to the north, with peak elevation of the current ice ranging in elevation from 1050 to 745 m.a.s.l. On the eastern side of the ice mass the outlet glaciers extending down to sea level. The western margin has several small lobes in topographic depressions, with the margin reaching down to 300 m.a.s.l. Topographic highs separate the ice cap into at least 5 main catchments, each having a pair of outlet lobes toward either side of the ice cap. Because of the regional bedrock slope each catchment has its own elevation range. Therefore, as the ELA changes it is possible for some catchments of the ice cap to experience positive mass balance while others have a negative balance. Based on weather observations we estimate the present day ELA to be ~1000 m.a.s.l, meaning mass balance is negative for the majority of the ice cap. By tracking glacier presence/absence in these different catchments, we can reconstruct small changes in the ELA. Another example is the High Ice Cap (informal name) in Milne Land (70.903°N, 25.626°W, 1080 m), East Greenland. Here at least 4 unconformities in ice layers found near the southern margin of the ice cap record changing intervals of accumulation and ablation. Therefore, this location may also be sensitive to slight

  3. Estatus nutricional y crecimiento vegetativo de plantas de vanilla planifolia jacks afectadas por la fertilización y la composición de substrato orgánico

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, Adriana Isabel; Osorio Vega, Nelson Walter; Diez, Maria Claudia; Moreno, Flavio Humberto

    2014-01-01

    El cultivo de la vainilla (Vanilla planifolia Jacks) es promisorio en Colombia, sin embargo, sus requerimientos nutricionales son desconocidos. En este estudio la hipótesis fue que el estado nutricional del cultivo de vainilla y su crecimiento dependen de la composición del sustrato y de la fertilización aplicada. En parcelas experimentales de 0.8 x 0.8 x 0.2 m se aplicaron cada 2 meses 10 lt adicionales de un sustrato que contenía fragmentos de madera (WC) o fibra de coco (CF) y hojarasca (L...

  4. Investigating Effect of Olfactory Stimulation by Vanilla on the Rate of Apnea Attacks in Neonates with Apnea of Prematurity: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Yaghoubi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Apnea of prematurity (AOP is a developmental disorder that affects the premature newborns frequently. One of the new non-drug methods for controlling apnea attacks is olfactory stimulation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of olfactory stimulation by vanilla on the rate of apnea attacks in neonates with AOP. Materials and Methods: This study is a single-blind randomized clinical trial study. The study samples included a total of 40 premature neonates with AOP who were admitted to the neonatal Intensive care unit (NICU of Shahid Sadoughi hospital in Yazd, Iran, in 2016 and were assigned randomly in experimental (n=20, and control (n=20 groups. The experimental group was exposed to cotton impregnated with 2ml of vanillin extractfor 24 hours. The number of apnea attacks, heart rate, and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 level were measured before, during and after intervention for three consecutive days. Data analysis was performed using statistical analysis in SPSS version 22.0 software. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean number of apnea attacks (p>0.05. However, there was a significant difference between in the experimental group on the first day (2.84 ± 1.25, and second day (1.63 ± 1.01 in terms of the mean number of attacks. Also, there was a significant difference between the mean heart rate and SaO2 level in both the experimental and control groups (p

  5. Survey of pickup ion signatures in the vicinity of Titan using CAPS/IMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, L. H.; Coates, A. J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Jones, G. H.; Roussos, E.; Waite, J. H.; Krupp, N.; Cox, G.

    2016-09-01

    Pickup ion detection at Titan is challenging because ion cyclotron waves are rarely detected in the vicinity of the moon. In this work, signatures left by freshly produced pickup heavy ions (m/q ˜ 16 to m/q ˜ 28) as detected in the plasma data by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer/Ion Mass Spectrometer (CAPS/IMS) instrument on board Cassini are analyzed. In order to discern whether these correspond to ions of exospheric origin, one of the flybys during which the reported signatures were observed is investigated in detail. For this purpose, ion composition data from time-of-flight measurements and test particle simulations to constrain the ions' origin are used. After being validated, the detection method is applied to all the flybys for which the CAPS/IMS instrument gathered valid data, constraining the region around the moon where the signatures are observed. The results reveal an escape region located in the anti-Saturn direction as expected from the nominal corotation electric field direction. These findings provide new constraints for the area of freshly produced pickup ion escape, giving an approximate escape rate of 3.3-2+3×1023 ions· s-1.

  6. ImmunoCAP assays: Pros and cons in allergology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hage, Marianne; Hamsten, Carl; Valenta, Rudolf

    2017-10-01

    Allergen-specific IgE measurements and the clinical history are the cornerstones of allergy diagnosis. During the past decades, both characterization and standardization of allergen extracts and assay technology have improved. Here we discuss the uses, advantages, misinterpretations, and limitations of ImmunoCAP IgE assays (Thermo Fisher Scientific/Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden) in the field of allergology. They can be performed as singleplex (ImmunoCAP) and, for the last decade, as multiplex (Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip [ISAC]). The major benefit of ImmunoCAP is the obtained quantified allergen-specific IgE antibody level and the lack of interference from allergen-specific IgG antibodies. However, ImmunoCAP allergen extracts are limited to the composition of the extract. The introduction of allergen molecules has had a major effect on analytic specificity and allergy diagnosis. They are used in both singleplex ImmunoCAP and multiplex ImmunoCAP ISAC assays. The major advantage of ISAC is the comprehensive IgE pattern obtained with a minute amount of serum. The shortcomings are its semiquantitative measurements, lower linear range, and cost per assay. With respect to assay performance, ImmunoCAP allergen extracts are good screening tools, but allergen molecules dissect the IgE response on a molecular level and put allergy research on the map of precision medicine. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Temperature Distribution within a Cold Cap during Nuclear Waste Vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Derek R; Schweiger, Michael J; Riley, Brian J; Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel

    2015-07-21

    The kinetics of the feed-to-glass conversion affects the waste vitrification rate in an electric glass melter. The primary area of interest in this conversion process is the cold cap, a layer of reacting feed on top of the molten glass. The work presented here provides an experimental determination of the temperature distribution within the cold cap. Because direct measurement of the temperature field within the cold cap is impracticable, an indirect method was developed in which the textural features in a laboratory-made cold cap with a simulated high-level waste feed were mapped as a function of position using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The temperature distribution within the cold cap was established by correlating microstructures of cold-cap regions with heat-treated feed samples of nearly identical structures at known temperatures. This temperature profile was compared with a mathematically simulated profile generated by a cold-cap model that has been developed to assess the rate of glass production in a melter.

  8. Development of a Direct Pulp-capping Model for the Evaluation of Pulpal Wound Healing and Reparative Dentin Formation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minju; Kim, Sol; Kim, Terresa; Park, Sil; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Kang, Mo; Park, No-Hee; Kim, Reuben

    2017-01-12

    Dental pulp is a vital organ of a tooth fully protected by enamel and dentin. When the pulp is exposed due to cariogenic or iatrogenic injuries, it is often capped with biocompatible materials in order to expedite pulpal wound healing. The ultimate goal is to regenerate reparative dentin, a physical barrier that functions as a "biological seal" and protects the underlying pulp tissue. Although this direct pulp-capping procedure has long been used in dentistry, the underlying molecular mechanism of pulpal wound healing and reparative dentin formation is still poorly understood. To induce reparative dentin, pulp capping has been performed experimentally in large animals, but less so in mice, presumably due to their small sizes and the ensuing technical difficulties. Here, we present a detailed, step-by-step method of performing a pulp-capping procedure in mice, including the preparation of a Class-I-like cavity, the placement of pulp-capping materials, and the restoration procedure using dental composite. Our pulp-capping mouse model will be instrumental in investigating the fundamental molecular mechanisms of pulpal wound healing in the context of reparative dentin in vivo by enabling the use of transgenic or knockout mice that are widely available in the research community.

  9. State-of-the-art synthetic membrane for capping landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriofske, K.P.; Gagle, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Very Low Density Polyethylene (VLDPE) has emerged as a superior capping material for landfill closures. Landfills must be capped by a material which will undergo substantial deformation in areas of localized settlement prior to rupture. Methane and hydrogen sulfide gases must be contained and directed to collection points without permeating the landfill cap. Vegetative growth in the cover sods will be protected by the gas impermeability of the geosynthetic membrane. VLDPE compounded with carbon black is minimally affected by radiation and is inert to ultraviolet rays. This property sustains VLDPE's ability to retard gas permeation at levels superior to other geosynthetics. Cover soil stability on long cap slopes in all weather conditions is crucial. It has been demonstrated in the laboratory and in full-scale, on-site test conditions that VLDPE exhibits friction characteristics equaling or exceeding other synthetics used for this purpose without diminishing physical and chemical properties. Large-scale, multiaxial stress tests have demonstrated the ability of VLDPE to deflect substantially in all directions of a potential settlement area. Only PVC can equal the elastic deformation properties of VLDPE, but PVC is more gas-permeable susceptible to degradation due to natural soil radiation or ultraviolet light and heat. Test results are presented to illustrate these points. The geosynthetic cap membrane must prevent water percolation into the landfill to prevent the formation of hazardous leachates. The use of a VLDPE cap reduces the depth of cap soils, thus increasing landfill volume. The economics and reduction in long-term liabilities of closure costs are enhanced by the use of VLDPE in the cap system. Since the expected half-life of polyethylene exceeds hundreds of years, the inclusion of VLDPE in the cap system will provide pollution security for many generations

  10. /sup 56/Fe (. gamma. ,. cap alpha. /sub 0/) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamae, T; Sugawara, M [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Lab. of Nuclear Science; Tsubota, H

    1974-12-01

    The reaction cross section of /sup 56/Fe (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) was measured from the electron energy of 15 to 25 MeV. The measured data were compared with the calculated ones based on statistic theory. Both agreed with each other. Therefore, the affirmative result was obtained for the presumption that the reaction of (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) of the nuclei around these energy levels can be explained by the statistical theory. The angular distribution of /sup 56/Fe (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) with 17 MeV electron energy was also measured, and the E2/E1 ratio was obtained. In the measurement of the /sup 56/Fe ( Gamma , ..cap alpha../sub 0/) reaction cross section, a natural target of 2.69 mg/cm/sup 2/ was irradiated with an electron beam with energy from 15 MeV to 25 MeV at intervals of 0.5 MeV, and the emitted ..cap alpha.. particles were detected by a broad band magnetic distribution meter. The measured cross section of the (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) reaction agreed with the calculated one based on statistical theory. If this fact is recognized in many nuclei, the cross section of the (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) reaction on those nuclei has the following characteristics. When the increasing rate of the product of a complex nucleus formation cross section and ..cap alpha../sub 0/ penetration factor is larger than that of the sum of all penetration factors of possible channels, the cross section of the (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) reaction increases, and takes a peak value when the above two increasing rates agree with each other.

  11. Bulk fill restoratives: to cap or not to cap--that is the question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Iwona M; Kearns, Jennifer O; Ilie, Nicoleta; Fleming, Garry J P

    2015-03-01

    To assess the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage scores of standardised large mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavities filled with different restoration protocols: (1) conventional resin restoratives, (2) bulk fill flowable base materials 'capped' with a conventional dimethacrylate resin-based composite (RBC) or (3) bulk fill resin restorative materials. Standardised MOD cavities were prepared in sixty-four sound maxillary premolar teeth and randomly allocated to eight groups. Restorations were placed in conjunction with a universal bonding system and resin restorative materials were irradiated with a quartz-tungsten-halogen light-curing-unit. Restoration protocol (eight oblique increments of conventional resin restorative, bulk fill flowable base and two occlusal 'capping' RBC increments (three increments in total) or bulk fill resin restorative (two increments)) was the dependent variable. A twin channel deflection measuring gauge measured the buccal and palatal cuspal deflections. Teeth were thermally fatigued, immersed in a 0.2% basic fuchsin dye for 24h, sectioned and examined for cervical microleakage score. Post hoc Tukey's tests highlighted significant differences in the mean total cuspal deflection values between resin restoratives (p fill flowable base materials with occlusal 'capping' RBC increments (restoration protocol 2) compared with bulk fill resin restoratives (restoration protocol 3). Not all bulk fill flowable materials or bulk fill resin restoratives behave in a similar fashion when used to restore standardised MOD cavities in maxillary premolar teeth and material selection is vital in the absence of clinical data. Poorly performing bulk fill flowable materials or bulk fill restoratives can be identified using the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage protocol which could save the complications encountered clinically when restoring Class II restorations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Polar cap index as a proxy for hemispheric Joule heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, F.K.; Knipp, D.J.; McHarg, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The polar cap (PC) index measures the level of geomagnetic activity in the polar cap based on magnetic perturbations from overhead ionospheric currents and distant field-aligned currents on the poleward edge of the nightside auroral oval. Because PC essentially measures the main sources of energy...... input into the polar cap, we propose to use PC as a proxy for the hemispheric Joule heat production rate (JH). In this study, JH is estimated from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure. We fit hourly PC values to hourly averages of JH. Using a data base approximately...

  13. Capítulo I: Contabilidad de costos - Capítulo II : Costos estimados

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Medina, Ricardo Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Me permito poner a su consideración los capítulos I y II del libro titulado: Costos un enfoque administrativo y de gerencia, contenido que fue realizado para mejorar y reestructurar el libro titulado Sistemas de costos un proceso para su implementación, que tuvo gran acogida dado el volumen de consulta y descarga del repositorio de la UN. En la primera unidad se trabaja lo referente a costos para la toma de decisiones, presentado un marco teórico y los fundamentos básicos del costeo direct...

  14. Emissions trading with and without a cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nentjes, A.; Boom, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    The authors try to reduce the confusion about all the proposals for the design of flexibility mechanisms with respect to the Kyoto Protocol and following Conventions of Parties (CoP) by sketching consistent views of International Emission Trading (IET) and Joint Implementation (JI). It is argued that environmentalists should change their views since it is feasible to design international emission trading in a way that should make it the favourite instrument of environmental organizations

  15. Effects of rooting and tree growth of selected woodland species on cap integrity in a mineral capped landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, T R; Moffat, A J; Kemp, R A

    2001-06-01

    The above and below ground growth of three tree species (Alnus glutinosa, Pinus nigra var. maritima and Acer pseudoplatanus) was studied on a containment landfill site at Waterford, Hertfordshire, UK. Tree root architecture was studied using soil inspection pits excavated next to 12 trees of each species and mapped in detail. Tree height was related to soil thickness over the compacted mineral cap. No roots entered the cap where soil thickness was 1.3 m, but a few roots, especially of alder, were observed within it when the soil cover was 1.0 m or less. Micromorphological analysis of undisturbed samples of the mineral cap suggested that roots exploited weaknesses in the cap rather than actively causing penetration into it. Alder roots were more tolerant of anaerobic conditions within the cap than the other species examined. The results confirm that mineral caps should be covered by 1.5 m of soil or soil-forming material if tree establishment is intended over a restored landfill site, unless protected by other parts of a composite capping system.

  16. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  17. Interleukine-1-remming in cryopyrinegeassocieerd periodiek syndroom (CAPS) en schnitzlersyndroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H.D.; Schalkwijk, J.; van der Meer, J.W.; Simon, A.

    2012-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disorder. Patients suffer from chronic systemic inflammation involving the skin (urticaria), joints arthritis) and in some cases also peritoneum (peritonitis) and meninges (meningitis). Recently, a causative mutation was

  18. Evidence that polar cap arcs occur on open field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Hardy, D.A.; Rich, F.J.; Mullen, E.G.; Redus, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of polar cap arc occurrence are reviewed to show that the assumption of a closed magnetospheric magnetic field topology at very high latitudes when the IMF B z is strongly northward is difficult to reconcile with a wide variety of observational and theoretical considerations. In particular, we consider the implications of observations of particle entry for high and low energy electrons, magnetic flux conservation between the near and far tail, the time sequencing in polar cap arcs events, and the hemispherical differences in polar cap arc observations. These points can be explained either by excluding the need for a major topological magnetic field change from explanations of polar cap arc dynamics, or by assuming a long-tailed magnetosphere for all IMF orientations in which magnetic field lines eventually merge with solar wind field lines in either a smooth or a patchy fashion. (author)

  19. Cap-independent translation of plant viral RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Elizabeth L Pettit; Rakotondrafara, Aurélie M; Miller, W Allen

    2006-07-01

    The RNAs of many plant viruses lack a 5' cap and must be translated by a cap-independent mechanism. Here, we discuss the remarkably diverse cap-independent translation elements that have been identified in members of the Potyviridae, Luteoviridae, and Tombusviridae families, and genus Tobamovirus. Many other plant viruses have uncapped RNAs but their translation control elements are uncharacterized. Cap-independent translation elements of plant viruses differ strikingly from those of animal viruses: they are smaller (translation factors, and speculate on their mechanism of action and their roles in the virus replication cycle. Much remains to be learned about how these elements enable plant viruses to usurp the host translational machinery.

  20. An Overview of the CapDEM Integrated Engineering Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lam, Sylvia; Poursina, Shiva; Spafford, Tim

    2005-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the technology requirements to support collaborative engineering activities, the Collaborative Capability Definition, Engineering and Management (CapDEM...

  1. 2005 C-CAP Land Cover of Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution imagery according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol. This data set utilized...

  2. C-CAP Land Cover, Kauai, Hawaii 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  3. C-CAP Land Cover, Territory of Guam 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  4. Primate numts and reticulate evolution of capped and golden leaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    A recent phylogenetic study of langurs and leaf monkeys of South Asia suggested a reticulate evolution of capped and golden leaf ..... Accordingly, transversions were weighted .... lineages. Most taxonomic schemes published till date place.

  5. On a randomly imperfect spherical cap pressurized by a random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On a randomly imperfect spherical cap pressurized by a random dynamic load. ... In this paper, we investigate a dynamical system in a random setting of dual ... characterization of the random process for determining the dynamic buckling load ...

  6. 2011 C-CAP Land Cover of Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  7. C-CAP Land Cover, Big Island, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  8. Wind blade spar cap and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mansour H [Raleigh, NC

    2008-05-27

    A wind blade spar cap for strengthening a wind blade including an integral, unitary three-dimensional woven material having a first end and a second end, corresponding to a root end of the blade and a tip end of the blade, wherein the material tapers in width from the first to the second end while maintaining a constant thickness and decreasing weight therebetween, the cap being capable of being affixed to the blade for providing increased strength with controlled variation in weight from the root end to the tip end based upon the tapered width of the material thereof. The present inventions also include the method of making the wind blade spar cap and a wind blade including the wind blade spar cap.

  9. Philosophical enquiry as a pedagogical tool to implement the CAPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    2016-02-22

    Feb 22, 2016 ... introduction to community of enquiry pedagogy, perceived its relevance to the CAPS curriculum. The research ..... Gains, at all ages, in listening skills, reasoning, perspective ... This research project was positioned within an.

  10. Exact Lagrangian caps and non-uniruled Lagrangian submanifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroglou Rizell, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    We make the elementary observation that the Lagrangian submanifolds of C n , n≥3, constructed by Ekholm, Eliashberg, Murphy and Smith are non-uniruled and, moreover, have infinite relative Gromov width. The construction of these submanifolds involve exact Lagrangian caps, which obviously are non-uniruled in themselves. This property is also used to show that if a Legendrian submanifold inside a contactisation admits an exact Lagrangian cap, then its Chekanov-Eliashberg algebra is acyclic.

  11. Density functional study of condensation in capped capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, P; Savva, N; Kalliadasis, S

    2015-07-15

    We study liquid adsorption in narrow rectangular capped capillaries formed by capping two parallel planar walls (a slit pore) with a third wall orthogonal to the two planar walls. The most important transition in confined fluids is arguably condensation, where the pore becomes filled with the liquid phase which is metastable in the bulk. Depending on the temperature T, the condensation in capped capillaries can be first-order (at T≤Tcw) or continuous (at T>Tcw), where Tcw is the capillary wetting temperature. At T>Tcw, the capping wall can adsorb mesoscopic amounts of metastable under-condensed liquid. The onset of condensation is then manifested by the continuous unbinding of the interface between the liquid adsorbed on the capping wall and the gas filling the rest of the capillary volume. In wide capped capillaries there may be a remnant of wedge filling transition, which is manifested by the adsorption of liquid drops in the corners. Our classical statistical mechanical treatment predicts a possibility of three-phase coexistence between gas, corner drops and liquid slabs adsorbed on the capping wall. In sufficiently wide capillaries we find that thick prewetting films of finite length may be nucleated at the capping wall below the boundary of the prewetting transition. Prewetting then proceeds in a continuous manner manifested by the unbinding interface between the thick and thin films adsorbed on the side walls. Our analysis is based on a detailed numerical investigation of the density functional theory for the fluid equilibria for a number of illustrative case studies.

  12. Interfacial and Wall Transport Models for SPACE-CAP Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon Joon; Choo, Yeon Joon; Han, Tae Young; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Byung Chul; Choi, Hoon; Ha, Sang Jun

    2009-01-01

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. And CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been also developed for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (gas, continuous liquid, and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by its multidimensional assessment capabilities. Thermal hydraulics solver was already developed and now under testing of its stability and soundness. As a next step, interfacial and wall transport models was setup. In order to develop the best model and correlation package for the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, which are GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0, and CONTEMPT-LT, have been reviewed. The origins of the selected models used in these codes have also been examined to find out if the models have not conflict with a proprietary right. In addition, a literature survey of the recent studies has been performed in order to incorporate the better models for the CAP code. The models and correlations of SPACE were also reviewed. CAP models and correlations are composed of interfacial heat/mass, and momentum transport models, and wall heat/mass, and momentum transport models. This paper discusses on those transport models in the CAP code

  13. Interfacial and Wall Transport Models for SPACE-CAP Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Soon Joon; Choo, Yeon Joon; Han, Tae Young; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon; Ha, Sang Jun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. And CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been also developed for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (gas, continuous liquid, and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by its multidimensional assessment capabilities. Thermal hydraulics solver was already developed and now under testing of its stability and soundness. As a next step, interfacial and wall transport models was setup. In order to develop the best model and correlation package for the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, which are GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0, and CONTEMPT-LT, have been reviewed. The origins of the selected models used in these codes have also been examined to find out if the models have not conflict with a proprietary right. In addition, a literature survey of the recent studies has been performed in order to incorporate the better models for the CAP code. The models and correlations of SPACE were also reviewed. CAP models and correlations are composed of interfacial heat/mass, and momentum transport models, and wall heat/mass, and momentum transport models. This paper discusses on those transport models in the CAP code.

  14. [CAP quality management system in clinical laboratory and its issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, Hiromitsu

    2004-03-01

    The CAP (College of American Pathologists) was established in 1962 and, at present, CAP-accredited laboratories include about 6000 institutions all over the world, mainly in the U.S. The essential purpose of CAP accreditation is high quality reservation and improvement of clinical laboratory services for patient care, and is based on seven points, listed below. (1) Establishment of a laboratory management program and laboratory techniques to assure accuracy and improve overall quality of laboratory services. (2) Maintenance and improvement of accuracy objectively by centering on a CAP survey. (3) Thoroughness in safety and health administration. (4) Reservation of the performance of laboratory services by personnel and proficiency management. (5) Provision of appropriate information to physicians, and contribution to improved quality of patient care by close communication with physicians (improvement in patient care). (6) Reduction of running costs and personnel costs based on evidence by employing the above-mentioned criteria. (7) Reduction of laboratory error. In the future, accreditation and/or certification by organizations such as CAP, ISO, etc., may become a requirement for providing any clinical laboratory services in Japan. Taking the essence of the CAP and the characteristics of the new international standard, ISO151589, into consideration, it is important to choose the best suited accreditation and/or certification depending of the purpose of clinical laboratory.

  15. CAPS--pathogenesis, presentation and treatment of an autoinflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin B

    2015-07-01

    The cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a severity spectrum of rare diseases. CAPS comprises the three conditions previously described as familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disorder (NOMID), also known as chronic infantile neurologic, cutaneous, and articular (CINCA) syndrome. The clinical phenotype of CAPS is characterized by systemic inflammation. General symptoms are fatigue and fever. Local manifestations affect multiple tissues such as skin, joints, muscles, eyes, and the central nervous system. Distinct clinical features are characteristic for each subphenotype. In FCAS, these are cold-induced urticaria and fever, in MWS systemic amyloidosis and hearing loss and in NOMID/CINCA central nervous system inflammation and bone deformities. CAPS is caused by single heterozygous germline or somatic gain of function mutations in the NLRP3 gene encoding the protein cryopyrin. Cryopyrin nucleates an NLRP3 inflammasome, which regulates the activation and cleavage of caspase-1 that cleaves the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18. IL-1β plays the key role in the induction of inflammation in CAPS. This has been confirmed by the application of IL-1 blocking agents, which lead not only to a rapid and sustained reversal of daily symptoms but also to some extent of long-term disease sequelae. To prevent CAPS-induced organ damage, early diagnosis and swift initiation of effective treatment are mandatory.

  16. Standard and alternative landfill capping design in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Franz-Georg; Mueller, Werner W.

    2004-01-01

    Engineered capping systems are in most cases an indispensable and often the only efficient component required by the long-term safety concept for landfills, mine tailings tips and contaminated land. In Germany the composite liner is the main component of standard landfill cappings for municipal and hazardous waste landfills and the compacted clay liner (CCL) for landfills for inert or low-contamination waste. The composite liner is a technically highly effective but very expensive system. Research and experience has given rise to concern about the proper long-term performance of a conventional single CCL as a landfill capping. Therefore, alternative capping systems are discussed and applied for landfills and for the containment of contaminated sites. This paper gives an overview on various alternative engineered cappings and suitable systems for capping reflecting the state of the art and the expert view in Germany. According to the European Council Directive on the landfill of waste an impermeable mineral layer is recommended for the surface sealing of non-hazardous landfills and a composition of artificial sealing liner and impermeable mineral layer for hazardous landfills. In both cases a drainage layer thickness of at least 0.5 m is suggested. These recommendations should be interpreted flexibly and to some extent modified in the light of the experience and results presented in this paper

  17. A decision tool for selecting trench cap designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, G.B.; Stone, J.J.; Lane, L.J. [USDA-ARS, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A computer based prototype decision support system (PDSS) is being developed to assist the risk manager in selecting an appropriate trench cap design for waste disposal sites. The selection of the {open_quote}best{close_quote} design among feasible alternatives requires consideration of multiple and often conflicting objectives. The methodology used in the selection process consists of: selecting and parameterizing decision variables using data, simulation models, or expert opinion; selecting feasible trench cap design alternatives; ordering the decision variables and ranking the design alternatives. The decision model is based on multi-objective decision theory and uses a unique approach to order the decision variables and rank the design alternatives. Trench cap designs are evaluated based on federal regulations, hydrologic performance, cover stability and cost. Four trench cap designs, which were monitored for a four year period at Hill Air Force Base in Utah, are used to demonstrate the application of the PDSS and evaluate the results of the decision model. The results of the PDSS, using both data and simulations, illustrate the relative advantages of each of the cap designs and which cap is the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} alternative for a given set of criteria and a particular importance order of those decision criteria.

  18. Apoio matricial em saúde mental entre CAPS e Saúde da Família: trilhando caminhos possíveis Apoyo matricial de salud mental entre CAPS y Salud de la Familia: trillando caminos posibles Matrix support in mental health between Psychosocial Attention Center (CAPS and Family Health Teams: analyzing possible paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileno Izídio da Costa

    2013-04-01

    fortalecer la salud mental en atención primaria, con inversiones en la educación permanente, el establecimiento de indicadores y la integración entre los CAPS y SF.This paper discusses the experience of implementing the matrix support in mental health practice that aims to produce higher resolution and accountability for mental health situations in Family Health. The objective of the present study is to analyze the implementation of the mental health "matrix support" practice among Psychosocial Attention Centers (CAPS III and Family Health Teams. This is an action-research that had as instruments operational groups of reflection and the response to questionnaires. Groups were held with Family Health professionals, with CAPS professionals and with professionals from the two services together. Regarding the Family Health services, the result indicated difficulties in addressing mental health cases and the coexistence of sheltering and psychosocial models of care practice in their work. In relation to the CAPS, they indicated the importance of strengthening teamwork to achieve the "matrix support" practice. The results indicate the need to strengthen mental health services within the primary health care, by investing in continuing education, establishing indicators and integrating the CAPS and Family Health services.

  19. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  20. Prices regulation in price-cap: the lessons of the british gas industry; Reglementations tarifaires en price-cap: les lecons de l'industrie gaziere anglaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L.

    2003-07-01

    This article examines the problem of the price-cap regulation applied to the british gas transport. The RPI-X cap is a particular form of the price cap. This cap seems to be more remunerative for the regulatory firm than a cap calculated on the Laspeyres index because it authorizes a greater freedom of prices choice, to the prejudice of the consumers. Facing these perverse effects, Cowan proposed in 1997 a new system, not more satisfying. Another equation is analyzed in this article, proposed by Ofgem. Meanwhile this system presents no improvement of the consumers surplus facing the RPI-X cap. (A.L.B.)

  1. Health physics instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupton, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described

  2. Astronomical Instruments in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  3. Troubleshooting in nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report on troubleshooting of nuclear instruments is the product of several scientists and engineers, who are closely associated with nuclear instrumentation and with the IAEA activities in the field. The text covers the following topics: Preamplifiers, amplifiers, scalers, timers, ratemeters, multichannel analyzers, dedicated instruments, tools, instruments, accessories, components, skills, interfaces, power supplies, preventive maintenance, troubleshooting in systems, radiation detectors. The troubleshooting and repair of instruments is illustrated by some real examples

  4. 22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps... blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in Category IV(a) do not include the following articles: (a) Electric squibs. (b) No. 6 and No. 8 blasting caps, including electric...

  5. Landscape Evolution and the Reincarnation of the Southern Residual Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, S.; Zuber, M. T.

    2006-10-01

    Given the present rate of erosion on the southern residual ice cap, it is unlikely that any part of the cap is older than a few centuries. Unless we're lucky, why is there a residual cap present today for us to observe? We propose a solution involving constant destruction and renewal of the cap.

  6. Cap Bubble Drift Velocity in a Confined Test Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodong Sun; Seungjin Kim; Mamoru Ishii; Lincoln, Frank W.; Beus, Stephen G.

    2002-01-01

    In the two-group interfacial area transport equation, bubbles are categorized into two groups, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as group 2. The bubble rise velocities for both groups of bubbles may be estimated by the drift flux model by applying different distribution parameters and drift velocities for both groups. However, the drift velocity for group 2 bubbles is not always applicable (when the wall effect becomes important) as in the current test loop of interest where the flow channel is confined by two parallel flat walls, with a dimension of 200-mm in width and 10-mm in gap. The previous experiments indicated that no stable slug flow existed in this test section, which was designed to permit visualization of the flow patterns and bubble characteristics without the distortion associated with curved surfaces. In fact, distorted cap bubbly and churn-turbulent flow was observed. Therefore, it is essential to developed a correlation for cap bubble drift velocity in this confined flow channel. Since the rise velocity of a cap bubble depends on its size, a high-speed movie camera is used to capture images of cap bubbles to obtain the bubble size information. Meanwhile, the rise velocity of cap and elongated bubbles (called cap bubbles hereafter) is investigated by examining the captured images frame by frame. As a result, the conventional correlation of drift velocity for slug bubbles is modified and acceptable agreements between the measurements and correlation estimation are achieved

  7. A study of auroral activity in the nightside polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q.

    1989-01-01

    Using various ground observations at South Pole, Antarctica (invariant magnetic latitude -74 degree) and its conjugate point, Frobisher Bay, Canada, the author has studied the following aspects of nightside polar cap auroral activity: the appearance and disappearance of polar cap auroras (diffuse and discrete) associated with substorms and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) variations; auroral optical emission line intensities; and the seasonal variation of auroral conjugacy. The observations show that the polar cap auroras usually fade away before the expansive phase of a substorm and bright auroral arcs reach high latitude (-74 degree) near the recovery phase. Just before the auroras fade away the discrete polar cap auroral arcs, which are usually on the poleward boundary of the diffuse aurora, intensify for 1 to 2 minutes. The observations also indicate the IMF may have stronger control over polar cap auroral activity than do substorms. A search for energy spectral variation of precipitating electrons using the intensities of 630.0 nm (0) and 427 nm (N 2 + ) auroral emission lines reveals no dramatic changes in the energy spectrum; instead, the data show possible atmospheric scattering and geometric effects on the photometric measurements while the bright auroral arc is moving into the polar cap. The conjugate observations show that the stormtime auroral electrojet current, which is associated with the bright auroral arc, in most cases reaches higher (lower) latitudes in the winter (summer) hemisphere. An asymmetric plasma sheet (with respect to the neutral sheet) is proposed, which expands deeper into the winter lobe, under a tilted geomagnetic dipole. Accordingly, the winter polar cap would have smaller area and the auroral electrojet would be at higher latitude

  8. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    can empower performers by producing super instrument works that allow the concert instrument to become an ensemble controlled by a single player. The existing instrumental skills of the performer can be multiplied and the qualities of regular acoustic instruments extended or modified. Such a situation......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... have become interested in different ways of “supersizing” acoustic instruments in order to open up previously-unheard instrumental sounds. Super instruments vary a great deal but each has a transformative effect on the identity and performance practice of the performing musician. Furthermore, composers...

  9. The application of Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) for the sterilisation of spacecraft materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Morfill, Gregor; Thomas, Hubertus; Satoshi Shimizu, .; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias

    2012-07-01

    Plasma, oft called the fourth state of matter after solid, liquid and gas, is defined by its ionized state. Ionization can be induced by different means, such as a strong electromagnetic field applied with a microwave generator. The concentration and composition of reactive atoms and molecules produced in Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) depends on the gases used, the gas flow, the power applied, the humidity level etc.. In medicine, low-temperature plasma is already used for the sterilization of surgical instruments, implants and packaging materials as plasma works at the atomic level and is able to reach all surfaces, even the interior of small hollow items like needles. Its ability to sterilise is due to the generation of biologically active bactericidal agents, such as free radicals and UV radiation. In the project PLASMA-DECON (DLR/BMWi support code 50JR1005) a prototype of a device for sterilising spacecraft material and components was built based on the surface micro-discharge (SMD) plasma technology. The produced plasma species are directed into a closed chamber which contains the parts that need to be sterilised. To test the inactivation efficiency of this new device bacterial spores were used as model organisms because in the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy all bioburden constraints are defined with respect to the number of spores (and other heat-tolerant aerobic microorganisms). Spores from different Bacillus species and strains, i.e. wildtype strains from culture collections and isolates from spacecraft assembly cleanrooms, were dried on three different spacecraft relevant materials and exposed to CAP. The specificity, linearity, precision, and effective range of the device was investigated. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the application of CAP proved to be a suitable method for bioburden reduction / sterilisation in the frame of planetary protection measures and the design of a larger plasma device is planned in the future.

  10. Parametric study of propeller boss cap fins for container ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sang-Seop; Kim, Tae-Won; Lee, Dong-Myung; Kang, Chung-Gil; Kim, Soo-Young

    2014-06-01

    The global price of oil, which is both finite and limited in quantity, has been rising steadily because of the increasing requirements for energy in both developing and developed countries. Furthermore, regulations have been strengthened across all industries to address global warming. Many studies of hull resistance, propulsion and operation of ships have been performed to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. This study examined the design parameters of the propeller boss cap fin (PBCF) and hub cap for 6,000TEU container ships to improve the propulsion efficiency. The design parameters of PBCF have been selected based on the geometrical shape. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis with a propeller open water (POW) test was performed to check the validity of CFD analysis. The design of experiment (DOE) case was selected as a full factorial design, and the experiment was analyzed by POW and CFD analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine the correlation among design parameters. Four design alternatives of PBCF were selected from the DOE. The shape of a propeller hub cap was selected as a divergent shape, and the divergent angle was determined by the DOE. Four design alternatives of PBCF were attached to the divergent hub cap, and the POW was estimated by CFD. As a result, the divergent hub cap with PBCF has a negative effect on the POW, which is induced by an increase in torque coefficient. A POW test and cavitation test were performed with a divergent hub cap with PBCF to verify the CFD result. The POW test result showed that the open water efficiency was increased approximately 2% with a divergent hub cap compared to a normal cap. The POW test result was similar to the CFD result, and the divergent hub cap with the PBCF models showed lower open water efficiency. This was attributed to an increase in the torque coefficient just like the CFD results. A cavitation test was performed using the 2 models selected. The test result showed

  11. Polar cap contraction and expansion during a period of substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikio, Anita; Pitkänen, Timo; Honkonen, Ilja; Palmroth, Minna; Amm, Olaf

    We have studied the variations in the polar cap area and related parameters during a period of four substorms on February 18, 2004, following an extended quiet period. The measurements were obtained by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radars, MIRACLE magnetometers, Geotail and solar wind satellites. In addition, the event is modeled by the GUMICS-4 MHD simulation. By using the measured and modeled data, the dayside and nightside reconnection voltages are calculated. The results show a good general agreement in the polar cap boundary (PCB) location as estimated by the EISCAT radars and the GUMICS simulation. Deviations are found, too, like shorter durations of expansion phases in the simulation. Geotail measurements of the inclination angle of the magnetic field in the tail (Xgsm= -22 Re) agree with the PCB latitude variations measured by EISCAT at a different MLT. We conclude that a large polar cap corresponds to a stretched tail configuration in the near-Earth tail and a small polar cap to a more dipolar configuration. The substorm onsets took place during southward IMF. A specific feature is that the substorm expansion phases were not associated with significant contractions of the polar cap. Even though nightside reconnection voltages started to increase during expansion phases, maximum closure of open flux took place in the recovery phases. We shortly discuss implications of the observation to the definition of the recovery phase.

  12. Automated identification and tracking of polar-cap plasma patches at solar minimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Burston

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A method of automatically identifying and tracking polar-cap plasma patches, utilising data inversion and feature-tracking methods, is presented. A well-established and widely used 4-D ionospheric imaging algorithm, the Multi-Instrument Data Assimilation System (MIDAS, inverts slant total electron content (TEC data from ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receivers to produce images of the free electron distribution in the polar-cap ionosphere. These are integrated to form vertical TEC maps. A flexible feature-tracking algorithm, TRACK, previously used extensively in meteorological storm-tracking studies is used to identify and track maxima in the resulting 2-D data fields. Various criteria are used to discriminate between genuine patches and "false-positive" maxima such as the continuously moving day-side maximum, which results from the Earth's rotation rather than plasma motion. Results for a 12-month period at solar minimum, when extensive validation data are available, are presented. The method identifies 71 separate structures consistent with patch motion during this time. The limitations of solar minimum and the consequent small number of patches make climatological inferences difficult, but the feasibility of the method for patches larger than approximately 500 km in scale is demonstrated and a larger study incorporating other parts of the solar cycle is warranted. Possible further optimisation of discrimination criteria, particularly regarding the definition of a patch in terms of its plasma concentration enhancement over the surrounding background, may improve results.

  13. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  14. Nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; McGonigal, G.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is described which has an equal number of fuel sub-assemblies and sensing instruments. Each instrument senses temperature and rate of coolant flow of a coolant derived from a group of three sub-assemblies so that an abnormal value for one sub-assembly will be indicated on three instruments thereby providing for redundancy of up to two of the three instruments. The abnormal value may be a precurser to unstable boiling of coolant

  15. The evolution of polar caps in magnetic cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, J.; Chanmugam, G.

    1986-01-01

    A simple analysis of the evolution of the size of the magnetic polar cap in accreting white dwarfs is made on the basis of current theories of the secular evolution of magnetic cataclysmic variables. For white dwarfs with dipolar fields it is shown that the size of the polar cap in DQ Her binaries is larger than in AM Her binaries. The size of the former is, however, smaller than deduced from interpretation of their X-ray light curves, while that of the latter is in rough agreement. If the dwarf contains an aligned magnetic quadrupole the size of the polar caps of the DQ Her binaries is significantly increased. Magnetic field decay of the quadrupole moment in the older AM Her binaries implies that their fields are predominantly dipolar. (author)

  16. Buy badges and help finance Cap Loisirs activities!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Please give a warm welcome to Cap Loisirs’ volunteers who will be manning a stand at the main entrance on Friday 8 February! In honour of St. Valentine’s Day, they will be selling a selection of 5 badges designed by artist Anna Sommer, depicting declarations of love by our friends from the animal kingdom. Price : Frs. 3.- per badge The aim of Fondation Cap Loisirs is to provide leisure activities for mentally handicapped children, adolescents and adults. The Foundation offers a wide range of activities which allow the mentally handicapped to enjoy quality leisure in areas as varied as culture, sport, tourism, travel and artistic expression. Fondation Cap Loisirs Rue de Monthoux 66 – 1201 Geneva – Tel: 022 731 86 00 – CCP Genève 12-5587-5 – caploisirs@caploisirs.ch – http://www.Caploisirs.ch

  17. Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

    1993-09-01

    Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration.

  18. Assessing the value of price caps and floors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication assesses the long-term economic and climatic effects of introducing price caps and price floors in hypothetical global climate change mitigation policy. Based on emission trends, abatement costs and equilibrium climate sensitivity from IPCC and IEA reports, this quantitative analysis confirms that price caps could significantly reduce economic uncertainty. This uncertainty stems primarily from unpredictable economic growth and energy prices, and ultimately unabated emission trends. In addition, the development of abatement technologies is uncertain. Furthermore,this analysis shows that rigid targets may entail greater economic risks with little or no comparative advantage for the climate. More ambitious emission objectives, combined with price caps and price floors, could still entail significantly lower expected costs while driving similar, or even slightly better, climatic outcomes in probabilistic terms.

  19. Controlling the Shapes of Silver Nanocrystals with Different Capping Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, J.; Tao, J.; Zheng, Y.; Rycenga, M.; Li, Z.-Y.; Zhang, Q.A.; Zhu, Y.; Xia, Y.

    2010-06-30

    This paper provides direct evidence to support the role of a capping agent in controlling the evolution of Ag seeds into nanocrystals with different shapes. Starting with single-crystal seeds (spherical or cubic in shape), we could selectively obtain Ag octahedrons enclosed by {l_brace}111{r_brace} facets and nanocubes/nanobars enclosed by {l_brace}100{r_brace} facets by adding sodium citrate (Na{sub 3}CA) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), respectively, as a capping agent while all other parameters were kept the same. This research not only offers new insights into the role played by a capping agent in shape-controlled synthesis but also provides, for the first time, Ag octahedrons as small as 40 nm in edge length for optical and spectroscopic studies.

  20. Controlling the shapes of silver nanocrystals with different capping agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jie; Zheng, Yiqun; Rycenga, Matthew; Tao, Jing; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Qiang; Zhu, Yimei; Xia, Younan

    2010-06-30

    This paper provides direct evidence to support the role of a capping agent in controlling the evolution of Ag seeds into nanocrystals with different shapes. Starting with single-crystal seeds (spherical or cubic in shape), we could selectively obtain Ag octahedrons enclosed by {111} facets and nanocubes/nanobars enclosed by {100} facets by adding sodium citrate (Na(3)CA) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), respectively, as a capping agent while all other parameters were kept the same. This research not only offers new insights into the role played by a capping agent in shape-controlled synthesis but also provides, for the first time, Ag octahedrons as small as 40 nm in edge length for optical and spectroscopic studies.

  1. Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

    1993-09-01

    Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration

  2. Ferroelectric capped magnetization in multiferroic PZT/LSMO tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org; Shukla, A. K. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012 (India); Barrionuevo, D.; Ortega, N.; Katiyar, Ram S. [Department of Physics and Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931-3343 (United States); Shannigrahi, Santiranjan [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering - IMRE, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Scott, J. F. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 ST (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-30

    Self-poled ultra-thin ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) (5 and 7 nm) films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on ferromagnetic La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) (30 nm) to check the effect of polar capping on magnetization for ferroelectric tunnel junction devices. PZT/LSMO heterostructures with thick polar PZT (7 nm) capping show nearly 100% enhancement in magnetization compared with thin polar PZT (5 nm) films, probably due to excess hole transfer from the ferroelectric to the ferromagnetic layers. Core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed the presence of larger Mn 3s exchange splitting and higher Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ion ratio in the LSMO with 7 nm polar capping.

  3. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, Abraham; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  4. Empiric penicillin monotherapy of CAP is not associated with increased mortality; experiences from the retrospective CAP-North cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunbæk-Knudsen, Getrud; Vestergaard Jensen, Andreas; Andersen, Stine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a severe infection, with high morbidity and mortality. The antibiotic strategies for CAP differ across Europe. Objective: To assess the usage of Penicillin monotherapy in a real-life cohort and to evaluate predictors of treatment duration and the ......Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a severe infection, with high morbidity and mortality. The antibiotic strategies for CAP differ across Europe. Objective: To assess the usage of Penicillin monotherapy in a real-life cohort and to evaluate predictors of treatment duration......, and evaluated predictors of treatment duration by linear regression. Mortality of patients receiving empiric penicillin-G/V was compared to others by logistic regression analysis. The CAPNETZ database technology was used for data-capture. Results: We included 1320 patients. The incidence of hospitalized CAP...... was 3.1 per 1000 inhabitants. The median age was 71 years (IQR; 58.81). In-hospital mortality was 8%. Patients treated with penicillin-G/V as empiric monotherapy (45%) did not have a higher mortality than those treated with broader spectrum antibiotics (OR 1.30, CI 95% 0.84-2-02). The median duration...

  5. Elevation Changes of Ice Caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalati, W.; Krabill, W.; Frederick, E.; Manizade, S.; Martin, C.; Sonntag, J.; Swift, R.; Thomas, R.; Yungel, J.; Koerner, R.

    2004-01-01

    Precise repeat airborne laser surveys were conducted over the major ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in the spring of 1995 and 2000 in order to measure elevation changes in the region. Our measurements reveal thinning at lower elevations (below 1600 m) on most of the ice caps and glaciers, but either very little change or thickening at higher elevations in the ice cap accumulation zones. Recent increases in precipitation in the area can account for the slight thickening where it was observed, but not for the thinning at lower elevations. For the northern ice caps on the Queen Elizabeth Islands, thinning was generally less than 0.5 m/yr , which is consistent with what would be expected from the warm temperature anomalies in the region for the 5-year period between surveys and appears to be a continuation of a trend that began in the mid 1980s. Further south, however, on the Barnes and Penny ice caps on Baffin Island, this thinning was much more pronounced at over 1 m/yr in the lower elevations. Here temperature anomalies were very small, and the thinning at low elevations far exceeds any associated enhanced ablation. The observations on Barnes, and perhaps Penny are consistent with the idea that the observed thinning is part of a much longer term deglaciation, as has been previously suggested for Barnes Ice Cap. Based on the regional relationships between elevation and elevation-change in our data, the 1995-2000 mass balance for the region is estimated to be 25 cu km/yr of ice, which corresponds to a sea level increase of 0.064 mm/ yr . This places it among the more significant sources of eustatic sea level rise, though not as substantial as Greenland ice sheet, Alaskan glaciers, or the Patagonian ice fields.

  6. Enzymatic synthesis of RNAs capped with nucleotide analogues reveals the molecular basis for substrate selectivity of RNA capping enzyme: impacts on RNA metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moheshwarnath Issur

    Full Text Available RNA cap binding proteins have evolved to specifically bind to the N7-methyl guanosine cap structure found at the 5' ends of eukaryotic mRNAs. The specificity of RNA capping enzymes towards GTP for the synthesis of this structure is therefore crucial for mRNA metabolism. The fact that ribavirin triphosphate was described as a substrate of a viral RNA capping enzyme, raised the possibility that RNAs capped with nucleotide analogues could be generated in cellulo. Owing to the fact that this prospect potentially has wide pharmacological implications, we decided to investigate whether the active site of the model Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus-1 RNA capping enzyme was flexible enough to accommodate various purine analogues. Using this approach, we identified several key structural determinants at each step of the RNA capping reaction and generated RNAs harboring various different cap analogues. Moreover, we monitored the binding affinity of these novel capped RNAs to the eIF4E protein and evaluated their translational properties in cellulo. Overall, this study establishes a molecular rationale for the specific selection of GTP over other NTPs by RNA capping enzyme It also demonstrates that RNAs can be enzymatically capped with certain purine nucleotide analogs, and it also describes the impacts of modified RNA caps on specific steps involved in mRNA metabolism. For instance, our results indicate that the N7-methyl group of the classical N7-methyl guanosine cap is not always indispensable for binding to eIF4E and subsequently for translation when compensatory modifications are present on the capped residue. Overall, these findings have important implications for our understanding of the molecular determinants involved in both RNA capping and RNA metabolism.

  7. Azimuthal Structure of the Sand Erg that Encircles the North Polar Water-Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, L. A.; Elphic, R. C.; Eke, V. R.; Feldman, W. C.; Maurice, S.; Pathare, A.

    2011-12-01

    The sand erg that completely encircles the perennial water-ice cap that covers the Martian north geographic pole displays considerable azimuthal structure as seen in visible and near-IR images. Much of this structure is associated with the terminations of the many steep troughs that cut spiral the approximately 3 km thick polar ice cap. Other contributions come from the katabatic winds that spill over steep-sided edges of the cap, such as what bounds the largest set of dunes that comprise Olympia Undae. During the spring and summer months when these winds initiate from the higher altitudes that contain sublimating CO2 ice, which is very cold and dry, heat adiabatically when they compress as they lose altitude. These winds should then remove H2O moisture from the uppermost layer of the sand dunes that are directly in their path. Two likely locations where this desiccation may occur preferentially is at the termination of Chasma Boreale and the ice cap at Olympia Undae. We will search for this effect by sharpening the spatial structure of the epithermal neutron counting rates measured at northern high latitudes using the Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer (MONS). The epithermal range of neutron energies is nearly uniquely sensitive to the hydrogen content of surface soils, which should likely be in the form of H2O/OH molecules/radicals. We therefore convert epithermal counting rates in terms of Water-Equivalent-Hydrogen, WEH. However, MONS counting-rate data have a FWHM of ~550 km., which is sufficiently broad to prevent a close association of WEH variability with images of geological features. In this study, we reduce spurious features in the instrument smeared neutron counting rates through deconvolution. We choose the PIXON numerical deconvolution technique for this purpose. This technique uses a statistical approach (Pina 2001, Eke 2001), which is capable of removing spurious features in the data in the presence of noise. We have previously carried out a detailed

  8. Lower end fitting debris collector and end cap spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor having fuel assemblies including an upper end fitting and spaced nuclear fuel rod spacer grids for supporting and spacing a plurality of elongated nuclear fuel rods. Each includes a hollow active portion of nuclear fuel filled cladding intermediate the rod ends and tapering end cap of solid material with a circumferential groove on the rod end which first encounters reactor coolant flow, a lower end filtering debris collector and end cap spacer grid for capturing and retaining deleterious debris carried by reactor coolant before it enters the active region of a fuel assembly and creates fuel rod cladding damage

  9. Collapse mechanisms and strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe G.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2012-01-01

    . Calculations have been compared with nearly 200 test results found in the literature. Satisfactory agreement has been found. The analyses are conducted on concentrically loaded caps supported by four piles. The paper briefly outlines how the approach may be extended to more complicated loadings and geometries......This paper describes an upper bound plasticity approach for strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps. A number of collapse mechanisms are identified and analysed. The procedure leads to an estimate of the load-carrying capacity and an identification of the critical collapse mechanism...

  10. Capped Lp approximations for the composite L0 regularization problem

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qia; Zhang, Na

    2017-01-01

    The composite L0 function serves as a sparse regularizer in many applications. The algorithmic difficulty caused by the composite L0 regularization (the L0 norm composed with a linear mapping) is usually bypassed through approximating the L0 norm. We consider in this paper capped Lp approximations with $p>0$ for the composite L0 regularization problem. For each $p>0$, the capped Lp function converges to the L0 norm pointwisely as the approximation parameter tends to infinity. We point out tha...

  11. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice K. Harding

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. Particle acceleration and high-energy emission from the polar caps is expected to occur in connection with electron-positron pair cascades. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and associated slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting, population synthesis and phase-resolved spectroscopy.

  12. Status of safeguards instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is performing safeguards at some nuclear power reactors, 50 bulk processing facilities, and 170 research facilities. Its verification activities require the use of instruments to measure nuclear materials and of surveillance instruments to maintain continuity of knowledge of the locations of nuclear materials. Instruments that are in use and under development to measure weight, volume, concentration, and isotopic composition of nuclear materials, and the major surveillance instruments, are described in connection with their uses at representative nuclear facilities. The current status of safeguards instrumentation and the needs for future development are discussed

  13. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  14. Vanilla Technicolor at Linear Colliders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Jarvinen, Matti; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the reach of Linear Colliders (LC)s for models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We show that LCs can efficiently test the compositeness scale, identified with the mass of the new spin-one resonances, till the maximum energy in the center-of-mass of the colliding leptons. In ...

  15. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A., E-mail: oasojo@unmc.edu [Pathology and Microbiology Department, 986495 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6495 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins.

  16. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2011-01-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins

  17. Impact Response Study on Covering Cap of Aircraft Big-Size Integral Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusheng; Jia, Senqing; Wang, Yi; Yue, Zhufeng

    2016-10-01

    In order to assess various design concepts and choose a kind of covering cap design scheme which can meet the requirements of airworthiness standard and ensure the safety of fuel tank. Using finite element software ANSYS/LS- DYNA, the impact process of covering cap of aircraft fuel tank by projectile were simulated, in which dynamical characteristics of simple single covering cap and gland double-layer covering cap impacted by titanium alloy projectile and rubber projectile were studied, as well as factor effects on simple single covering cap and gland double-layer covering cap under impact region, impact angle and impact energy were also studied. Though the comparison of critical damage velocity and element deleted number of the covering caps, it shows that the external covering cap has a good protection effect on internal covering cap. The regions close to boundary are vulnerable to appear impact damage with titanium alloy projectile while the regions close to center is vulnerable to occur damage with rubber projectile. Equivalent strain in covering cap is very little when impact angle is less than 15°. Element deleted number in covering cap reaches the maximum when impact angle is between 60°and 65°by titanium alloy projectile. While the bigger the impact angle and the more serious damage of the covering cap will be when rubber projectile impact composite covering cap. The energy needed for occurring damage on external covering cap and internal covering cap is less than and higher than that when single covering cap occur damage, respectively. The energy needed for complete breakdown of double-layer covering cap is much higher than that of single covering cap.

  18. Relation between consumers' perceptions of color and texture of dairy desserts and instrumental measurements using a generalized procrustes analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tomás, L; Costell, E

    2006-12-01

    Consumers' perceptions of the color and texture of 8 commercial vanilla dairy desserts were studied and related to color and rheological measurements. First, the 8 desserts were evaluated by a group of consumers by means of the Free Choice Profile. For both color and texture, a 2-dimensional solution was chosen, with dimension 1 highly related to yellow color intensity in the case of color and to thickness in the case of texture. Second, mechanical spectra, flow behavior, and instrumental color were determined. All the samples showed a time-dependent and shear-thinning flow and a mechanical spectrum typical of a weak gel. Differences were found in the flow index, in the apparent viscosity at 10 s(-1), and in the values of the storage modulus, the loss modulus, the loss angle tangent, and the complex viscosity at 1 Hz, as well as in the color parameters. Finally, sensory and instrumental relationships were investigated by a generalized Procrustes analysis. For both color and texture, a 3-dimensional solution explained a high percentage of the total variance (>80%). In these particular samples, the instrumental color parameters provided more accurate information on consumers' color perceptions than was provided by the rheological parameters of consumers' perceptions of texture.

  19. Integrated Modeling and Decision-Support System for Water Management in the Puget Sound Basin: Snow Caps to White Caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yang, Zhaoqing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Voisin, Nathalie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richey, Jeff [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wang, Taiping [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taira, Randal Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Constans, Michael [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wigmosta, Mark S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Van Cleve, Frances B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tesfa, Teklu K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Final Report for the EPA-sponsored project Snow Caps to White Caps that provides data products and insight for water resource managers to support their predictions and management actions to address future changes in water resources (fresh and marine) in the Puget Sound basin. This report details the efforts of a team of scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) to examine the movement of water in the Snohomish Basin, within the watershed and the estuary, under present and future conditions, using a set of linked numerical models.

  20. Interannual and seasonal changes in the south seasonal polar cap of Mars: Observations from MY 28-31 using MARCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; Cantor, B. A.; James, P. B.

    2017-08-01

    The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter provides daily synoptic coverage that allows monitoring of seasonal cap retreat and interannual changes that occur between Mars Years (MY) and over the southern summer. We present the first analysis of this data for the southern seasonal cap evolution observed in MY 28, 29, 30 and 31 (2/2007 to 07/2013). Observation over multiple Mars years allows us to compare changes between years as well as longer-term evolution of the high albedo deposits at the poles. Seasonal cap retreat is similar in all years and to retreats observed in other years by both optical and thermal instruments. The cryptic terrain has a fairly consistent boundary in each year, but numerous small-scale variations occur in each MY observed. Additionally, numerous small dark deposits are identified outside the classically identified cyptic region, including Inca City and other locations not previously noted. The large water ice outlier is observed to retain seasonal frost the longest (outside the polar dome) and is also highly variable in each MY. The development of the cryptic/anti-cryptic hemispheres is inferred to occur due to albedo variations that develop after dust venting starts and may be caused by recondensation of CO2 ice on the brightest and coldest regions controlled by topographic winds. Ground ice may play a role in which regions develop cryptic terrain, as there is no elevation control on either cryptic terrain or the late season brightest deposits.

  1. Optical Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles Capped with Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Noguchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles capped with polymers were investigated. Polyethylene glycol (PEG and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP were used as capping reagents. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Fluorescence and absorption spectra were measured. When we varied the timing of the addition of the polymer to the ZnO nanoparticle solution, the optical properties were drastically changed. When PEG was added to the solution before the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, the fluorescence intensity increased. At the same time, the total particle size increased, which indicated that PEG molecules had capped the ZnO nanoparticles. The capping led to surface passivation, which increased fluorescence intensity. However, when PEG was added to the solution after the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, the fluorescence and particle size did not change. When PVP was added to the solution before the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, aggregation of nanoparticles occurred. When PVP was added to the solution after the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, fluorescence and particle size increased. This improvement of optical properties is advantageous to the practical usage of ZnO nanoparticles, such as bioimaging

  2. New Synthesis of .alfa.,.omega.-Diiodoalkynes and Capped Iodobutadiynes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavatý, Jaromír; Kavan, Ladislav; Štícha, M.

    - (2002), s. 705-706 ISSN 1472-7781 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0634 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : .alfa.,. omega .-diiodoalkynes * capped iodobutadiynes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.181, year: 2002

  3. Translation initiation mediated by nuclear cap-binding protein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Incheol; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2017-04-01

    In mammals, cap-dependent translation of mRNAs is initiated by two distinct mechanisms: cap-binding complex (CBC; a heterodimer of CBP80 and 20)-dependent translation (CT) and eIF4E-dependent translation (ET). Both translation initiation mechanisms share common features in driving cap- dependent translation; nevertheless, they can be distinguished from each other based on their molecular features and biological roles. CT is largely associated with mRNA surveillance such as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), whereas ET is predominantly involved in the bulk of protein synthesis. However, several recent studies have demonstrated that CT and ET have similar roles in protein synthesis and mRNA surveillance. In a subset of mRNAs, CT preferentially drives the cap-dependent translation, as ET does, and ET is responsible for mRNA surveillance, as CT does. In this review, we summarize and compare the molecular features of CT and ET with a focus on the emerging roles of CT in translation. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(4): 186-193].

  4. Moving one of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    One of the end-cap calorimeters for the ATLAS experiment is moved using a set of rails. This calorimeter will measure the energy of particles that are produced close to the axis of the beam when two protons collide. It is kept cool inside a cryostat to allow the detector to work at maximum efficiency.

  5. External caps: An approach to stress reduction in balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlewood, K. H.

    Recent findings of the catastrophic balloon failures investigation in the U.S.A. indicate that very large gross inflations, in balloons using present design philosophy, over-stress currently available materials. External caps are proposed as an economic approach to reducting those stresses to an acceptable level.

  6. Aspiration of a perforated pen cap: complete tracheal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign body aspiration is a common but underestimated event in children with potentially fatal outcome. Because of unreliable histories and inconsistent clinical and radiologic findings, diagnosis and treatment can represent a challenge. Inhaled pen caps predispose for complete airway obstruction and are difficult to ...

  7. Facially amphiphilic thiol capped gold and silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    *For correspondence. Also at the Chemical Biology Unit,. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research,. Bangalore 560 064. Facially amphiphilic thiol capped gold and silver nanoparticles. †. SHREEDHAR BHAT a and UDAY MAITRA*. Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore ...

  8. Monitoring of PHWR end cap weld quality by ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxminarayana, B.

    1996-01-01

    In Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor fuel fabrication, the end cap welding is an important process. Till date about 16,000 welds have been studied ultrasonically. This paper discusses the experimental results and the design of a semi automatic ultrasonic equipment incorporating features for both backward and forward integration. (author)

  9. Shelf life of pie caps with biodegradable films as spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Verónica Escobar Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly pie caps at market use polyethylene films as spacers between them. This paper studies the conventional spacers replacement with edible and biodegradable films made with whey protein isolate (WPI and potassium sorbate as a preservative. Besides facilitating the separation of pie caps, with this application is intended to increase their shelf life. The films made by the compression molding method were used as spacers in pie caps without preservative in their formula (A and with preservative (B and they were compared with conventional polyethylene spacers (C. During four months, monthly sensory, microbiological and physicochemical (humidity evaluations were done on the pie caps, together with humidity and solubility evaluations of the films. None of the samples showed microbiological or sensory deterioration. The sensory attributes showed no or slight difference in study time. Between samples the differences were minor: the best scores were for sample A in color, sample C in flavor, and samples B and C in texture and overall liking. The edible films have an interesting potential for this application, although studies in disguise the flavor of serum should be done.

  10. Cadmium plated steel caps seal anodized aluminum fittings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, J.

    1971-01-01

    Cadmium prevents fracturing of hard anodic coating under torquing to system specification requirements, prevents galvanic coupling, and eliminates need for crush washers, which, though commonly used in industry, do not correct leakage problem experienced when anodized aluminum fittings and anodized aluminum cap assemblies are joined.

  11. Working on an LHC dipole end-cap

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A metal worker constructs an end-cap for an LHC dipole magnet. These magnets will be used to bend the proton beams around the LHC, which is due to start up in 2008. The handmade prototype seen here will be used to make a mold from which the final set of components will be made for the accelerator.

  12. Aspiration of a perforated pen cap: complete tracheal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: children, flexible bronchoscopy, Fogarty catheter, foreign body aspiration, pen cap, rigid ... plastic foreign body with central perforation occluding the trachea in supracarinal ... venous steroids and was discharged home on postoperative day 1 without ... history may not be as reliable, if not witnessed by an adult.

  13. CAPS OpenACC Compilers: Performance and Portability

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The announcement late 2011 of the new OpenACC directive-based programming standard supported by CAPS, CRAY and PGI compilers has open up the door to more scientific applications that can be ported on many-core systems. Following a porting methodology, this talk will first review the principles of programming with OpenACC and then the advanced features available in the CAPS compilers to further optimize OpenACC applications: library integration, tuning directives with auto-tune mechanisms to build applications adaptive to different GPUs. CAPS compilers use hardware vendors' backends such as NVIDIA CUDA and OpenCL making them the only OpenACC compilers supporting various many-core architectures. About the speaker Stéphane Bihan is co-funder and currently Director of Sales and Marketing at CAPS enterprise. He has held several R&D positions in companies such as ARC international plc in London, Canon Research Center France, ACE compiler experts in Amsterdam and the INRIA r...

  14. Diagnostic criteria for cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin B.; Ozen, Seza; Tyrrell, Pascal N.; Kone-Paut, Isabelle; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Lachmann, Helen; Blank, Norbert; Hoffman, Hal M.; Weissbarth-Riedel, Elisabeth; Hugle, Boris; Kallinich, Tilmann; Gattorno, Marco; Gul, Ahmet; Ter Haar, Nienke; Oswald, Marlen; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Cantarini, Luca; Benseler, Susanne M.

    2017-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a rare, heterogeneous disease entity associated with NLRP3 gene mutations and increased interleukin-1 (IL-1) secretion. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of IL-1 inhibition prevent organ damage. The aim of the study was to develop and validate

  15. Guardian Caps: What's the Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Seth E.; Rouse, Wardell; Seibles, Ashlie

    2017-01-01

    Reported sport-related concussion rates have dramatically increased recently. In response, the Guardian company has emerged as a leading manufacturer of soft-shell helmet covers. The "Guardian Cap" is a foam padded covering that fits over a helmet that aims to reduce the impact of collisions and lessen the chance of a concussion. The…

  16. Relative symplectic caps, 4-genus and fibered knots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove relative versions of the symplectic capping theorem and sufficiency of Giroux's criterion for Stein fillability and use these to study the 4-genus of knots. More precisely, suppose we have a symplectic 4-manifold with convex boundary and a symplectic surface in such that is a transverse knot in .

  17. Traditional M e n Caps o f Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap TANRISEVER

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Kyrgyzstan has an extraordinarily rich mosaic of folk culture. There is a great importance of wear clothing, crafts and decorative arts in this mosaic. Traditional caps and clothes of Kyrgyzstan are the best elements that reflect the presence of culture, t raditions, geography inhabited, climatic conditions that they already live in. Kyrgyzstan has been trying to keep alive the traditions, styles of lives by using the required crafts and handmade products although the global fashion, time and technological development. According to research, it has still been seen that the caps and clothes of Kyrgyzstan are being used less in daily life. Caps, Kalpak , Tebetey, Malakay, are some of the best known extant that come to this age related with the traditions of ca p s of Kyrgyzstan’s men . In this research, it has been worked of decorations of Kirghiz men caps , specialties of color and design, techniques of sewing, characteristics of mold and fabrics, Moreover the place and the meaning of the titles has been trying to determine in the cultural life. The scan method has been used by doing regional research.

  18. pi-Dimers of end-capped oligopyrrole cation radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haare, van J.A.E.H.; Groenendaal, L.; Havinga, E.E.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Meijer, E.W.

    1996-01-01

    In two consecutive one-electron oxidations, oligopyrroles substituted with phenyl capping groups (PhPynPh, n = 2–4) can be oxidized reversibly to give stable cation radicals and dications. Spectroelectrochemical studies give direct evidence that diamagnetic p-dimers of cation radicals are formed in

  19. Effect of capping agents on optical and antibacterial properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) were synthesized in aqueous phase by the freezing temperature injection technique using different capping agents (viz. thioglycolic acid, 1-thioglycerol, L-cysteine). Absorption spectra of CdSe QDs exhibited a blue shift as compared to its bulk counterpart, which is an indication ...

  20. Indirect pulp capping in primary molar using glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtia Metalita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indirect pulp capping in primary teeth, however, is more rarely conducted than permanent teeth, since it thought to have low impact and most suggestion is for taking caries lesion aggressively on primary teeth. Purpose: The study was aimed to evaluate the subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance of indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomers cements in primary molar. Methods: Sixteen children in range of age 6 to 8 years old, who visited Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital, Surabaya Indonesia, were the subject of study. They had one occlusal dental caries on one side of maxillary or mandibular primary molar with the diagnose of pulpitis reversible. The experimental group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with glass ionomer cements (GC Fuji VII®, while the control group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with calcium hydroxide (Metapaste. Each group was filled with GC Fuji IX® as permanent restoration. After one week, one month, and three months later, the observations were made on subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance. Results: The results showed no subjective complaint such as pain or problem on mastication; no negative clinical symptoms such as pain on palpation, gingivitis or periodontitis, and abnormal tooth mobility; no negative radiographic appearance such as pathological apical radioluscency, internal or external resorbtion, and change of ligament periodontal widthafter the treatment. Conclusion: The study suggested that indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomer cement materials on primary teeth might be considered to be the treatment choice.Latar belakang: Indirect pulp capping pada gigi sulung lebih jarang dilakukan dibandingkan gigi permanen, karena dianggap memiliki dampak yang rendah dan sebagian besar menyarankan untuk mengambil lesi karies secara agresif pada gigi sulung. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan

  1. Coccolithophores put a CAP on calcification and carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickaby, R. E. M.; Lee, R. B. Y.; Mavridou, D. A. I.; Papadakos, G.; McClelland, H. L. O.; Anderson, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Unlike the majority of biomineralization, mediated via proteins, the coccolithophores employ acidic polysaccharides (CAPs) as the template for the multitude of intricate calcium carbonate liths which are precipitated inside their cells and expelled to form an external spherical armour. Massive accumulations of these calcium carbonate coccoliths (we estimate a flux of ~ 6x1025 liths/year) form sediments on the deep seafloor, a dominant sink of carbon from the atmosphere over geological timescales, and a buffer for seawater chemistry. This acidic, coccolith-associated polysaccharide (CAP) plays a dual role, likely determined by the calcifying vesicle chemistry, promoting and limiting precipitation. We have developed and demonstrated novel techniques for the extraction and characterisation of these biomineral-mediating molecules, encapsulated and preserved within liths from sediments as old as the Mesozoic. Modern cultures of extant coccolithophores show that the composition of CAP is distinctive for different species, and even strains of e.g. Emiliania huxleyi, suggestive that interactions with galacturonic acid residues are key to dictating the architecture of the liths. Furthermore, it appears that the galacturonic acid content reflects an adaptive response of the CAP to the chemistry within the coccolith vesicle where calcification is induced; in particular the size of the internal carbon pool and inferred saturation state. Extraction of CAPs from the Coccolithale fraction of sediments suggests that the galacturonic acid content of these relatively large and inefficient carbon concentrators evolves in response to declining CO2 availability and thus may provide a novel means for reconstructing paleo pCO2.

  2. Convection flow structure in the central polar cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    A previous study of spatially averaged flow velocity in the central polar cap [Bristow et al., 2015] observed under steady IMF conditions found that it was extremely rare for the average to exceed 850 m/s (less than 0.2 % of the time). Anecdotally, however it is not uncommon to observe line-of-sight velocities in excess of 100 m/s in the McMurdo radar field of view directly over the magnetic pole. This discrepancy motivated this study, which examines the conditions under which high-velocity flows are observed at latitudes greater than 80° magnetic latitude. It was found that highly structured flows are common in the central polar cap, which leads to the flow within regions to have significant deviation from the average. In addition, the high-speed flow regions are usually directed away from the earth-sun line. No specific set of driving conditions was identified to be associated with high-speed flows. The study did conclude that 1)Polar cap velocities are generally highly structured. 2)Flow patterns typically illustrate narrow channels, vortical flow regions, and propagating features. 3) Persistent waves are a regular occurrence. 3)Features are observed to propagate from day side to night side, and from night side to day side.. 4)Convection often exhibits significant difference between the two hemispheres. And 5)About 10% of the time the velocity somewhere in the cap exceeds 1 Km/s The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the physical reasons for the flow structure. Bristow, W. A., E. Amata, J. Spaleta, and M. F. Marcucci (2015), Observations of the relationship between ionospheric central polar cap and dayside throat convection velocities, and solar wind/IMF driving, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, doi:10.1002/2015JA021199.

  3. Design document for landfill capping Prototype Decision Support System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.J.; Paige, G.; Hakonson, T.E.; Lane, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The overall objective of the Prototype Decision Support System for shallow land burial project is to ''Develop a Decision Support System tool which incorporates simulation modeling and multi-objective decision theory for the purpose of designing and evaluating alternative trench cap designs for mixed waste landfill covers. The goal is to improve the quality of technical information used by the risk manager to select landfill cover designs while taking into account technological, economical, and regulatory factors.'' The complexity of the technical and non-technical information, and how the information varies in importance across sites, points to the need for decision analysis tools that provide a common basis for integrating, synthesizing, and valuing the decision input. Because the cost of remediating thousands of contaminated DOE sites is projected to be in the 10's--100's of billions of dollars, methods will be needed to establish cleanup priorities and to help in the selection and evaluation of cost effective remediation alternatives. Even at this early stage in DOE's cleanup program, it is certain that capping technologies will be heavily relied upon to remediate the 3000+ landfills on DOE property. Capping is favored in remediating most DOE landfills because, based on preliminary baseline risk assessments, human and ecological risks are considered to be low at most of these sites and the regulatory requirements for final closure of old landfills can be met using a well designed cap to isolate the buried waste. This report describes a program plan to design, develop, and test a decision support system (DSS) for assisting the DOE risk manager in evaluating capping alternatives for radioactive and hazardous waste landfills. The DOE DSS will incorporate methods for calculating, integrating and valuing technical, regulatory, and economic criteria

  4. Characterization of a mimivirus RNA cap guanine-N2 methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarroch, Delphine; Qiu, Zhicheng R; Schwer, Beate; Shuman, Stewart

    2009-04-01

    A 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG) cap is a signature feature of eukaryal snRNAs, telomerase RNAs, and trans-spliced nematode mRNAs. TMG and 2,7-dimethylguanosine (DMG) caps are also present on mRNAs of two species of alphaviruses (positive strand RNA viruses of the Togaviridae family). It is presently not known how viral mRNAs might acquire a hypermethylated cap. Mimivirus, a giant DNA virus that infects amoeba, encodes many putative enzymes and proteins implicated in RNA transactions, including the synthesis and capping of viral mRNAs and the promotion of cap-dependent translation. Here we report the identification, purification, and characterization of a mimivirus cap-specific guanine-N2 methyltransferase (MimiTgs), a monomeric enzyme that catalyzes a single round of methyl transfer from AdoMet to an m(7)G cap substrate to form a DMG cap product. MimiTgs, is apparently unable to convert a DMG cap to a TMG cap, and is thereby distinguished from the structurally homologous yeast and human Tgs1 enzymes. Nonetheless, we show genetically that MimiTgs is a true ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tgs1. Our results hint that DMG caps can satisfy many of the functions of TMG caps in vivo. We speculate that DMG capping of mimivirus mRNAs might favor viral protein synthesis in the infected host.

  5. Instrumentation a reader

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, P

    1990-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers and articles in instrumentation previously pub­ lished in technical periodicals and journals of learned societies. Our selection has been made to illustrate aspects of current practice and applications of instrumentation. The book does not attempt to be encyclopaedic in its coverage of the subject, but to provide some examples of general transduction techniques, of the sensing of particular measurands, of components of instrumentation systems and of instrumentation practice in two very different environments, the food industry and the nuclear power industry. We have made the selection particularly to provide papers appropriate to the study of the Open University course T292 Instrumentation. The papers have been chosen so that the book covers a wide spectrum of instrumentation techniques. Because of this, the book should be of value not only to students of instrumen­ tation, but also to practising engineers and scientists wishing to glean ideas from areas of instrumen...

  6. Instrumentation for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and coordinate nuclear instrumentation standards with resulting economies for the nuclear and radiation fields. There was particular emphasis on coordination and management of the Nuclear Instrument Module (NIM) System, U.S. activity involving the CAMAC international standard dataway system, the FASTBUS modular high-speed data acquisition and control system and processing and management of national nuclear instrumentation and detector standards, as well as a modest amount of assistance and consultation services to the Pollutant Characterization and Safety Research Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The principal accomplishments were the development and maintenance of the NIM instrumentation system that is the predominant instrumentation system in the nuclear and radiation fields worldwide, the CAMAC digital interface system in coordination with the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories, the FASTBUS high-speed system and numerous national and international nuclear instrumentation standards

  7. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  8. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  9. The comparison of CAP88-PC version 2.0 versus CAP88-PC version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakubovich, B.A.; Klee, K.O.; Palmer, C.R.; Spotts, P.B.

    1997-12-01

    40 CFR Part 61 (Subpart H of the NESHAP) requires DOE facilities to use approved sampling procedures, computer models, or other approved procedures when calculating Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) values to members of the public. Currently version 1.0 of the approved computer model CAP88-PC is used to calculate EDE values. The DOE has upgraded the CAP88-PC software to version 2.0. This version provides simplified data entry, better printing characteristics, the use of a mouse, and other features. The DOE has developed and released version 2.0 for testing and comment. This new software is a WINDOWS based application that offers a new graphical user interface with new utilities for preparing and managing population and weather data, and several new decay chains. The program also allows the user to view results before printing. This document describes a test that confirmed CAP88-PC version 2.0 generates results comparable to the original version of the CAP88-PC program

  10. Protein capped nanosilver free radical oxidation: role of biomolecule capping on nanoparticle colloidal stability and protein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Manuel; Bohne, Cornelia; Oake, Jessy; Alarcon, Emilio I

    2018-05-03

    We studied the effect of human serum albumin protein capped spherical nanosilver on the nanoparticle stability upon peroxyl radical oxidation. The nanoparticle-protein composite is less prone to oxidation compared to the individual components. However, higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide were formed in the nanoparticle-protein system.

  11. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  12. Instrument validation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells

  13. Instrument performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program

  14. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  15. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  16. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) Regional Land Cover Data and Change Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  17. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  18. Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACOG Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap Home For Patients Search ... Format Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap Contraception What are barrier ...

  19. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2016 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  20. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  1. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  2. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  3. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  4. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  5. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2010 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  6. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  7. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  8. Precast, Prestressed Concrete Bent Caps : Volume 2, Design Recommendations and Design Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Recommendations for design of pretensioned bent caps are developed based on the findings of full-scale experimental tests of bent cap subassemblages. Companion examples are provided to demonstrate implementation of the design recommendations. First, ...

  9. Subaqueous Cap Design: Selection of Bioturbation Profiles, Depths, and Process Rates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Douglas

    2001-01-01

    .... For either practice to satisfy the requirement of isolation of the contaminated sediments, design of caps of clean material must account for multiple factors affecting the long-term stability of the cap...

  10. Innovative Capping Technology To Prevent The Migration of Toxic Chemicals From Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capping is a common strategy for decreasing the risk associated with contaminated sediments in lakes and streams. Historically, caps have been designed to physically isolate contaminated sediments and prevent the transport of contaminants from sediments into the water above them...

  11. Green wet chemical route to synthesize capped CdSe quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, we report green synthesis of tartaric acid (TA) and triethanolamine (TEA) capped ... CdSe quantum dots; chemical bath deposition; capping; green chemistry; nanomaterials. 1. .... at high concentration of nanoparticles.

  12. Integration of the End Cap TEC+ of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Volker; Ageron, Michel; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Atz, Bernd; Barvich, Tobias; Baulieu, Guillaume; Beaumont, Willem; Beissel, Franz; Bergauer, Thomas; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Blüm, Peter; Bock, E; Bogelsbacher, F; de Boer, Wim; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouhali, Othmane; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Bremer, R; Brom, Jean-Marie; Butz, Erik; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Clerbaux, Barbara; Contardo, Didier; De Callatay, Bernard; Dehm, Philip; Delaere, Christophe; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Didierjean, Francois; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Dragicevic, Marko; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Esser, Hans; Estre, Nicolas; Fahrer, Manuel; Feld, Lutz; Fernández, J; Florins, Benoit; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Flügge, Günter; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Freudenreich, Klaus; Frey, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Furgeri, Alexander; Giraud, Noël; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goorens, Robert; Graehling, Philippe; Grégoire, Ghislain; Gregoriev, E; Gross, Laurent; Hansel, S; Haroutunian, Roger; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Heyninck, Jan; Hosselet, J; Hrubec, Josef; Jahn, Dieter; Juillot, Pierre; Kaminski, Jochen; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kaussen, Gordon; Keutgen, Thomas; Klanner, Robert; Klein, Katja; König, Stefan; Kosbow, M; Krammer, Manfred; Ledermann, Bernhard; Lemaître, Vincent; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Linn, Alexander; Lounis, Abdenour; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Lumb, Nicholas; Maazouzi, Chaker; Mahmoud, Tariq; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Mirabito, Laurent; Müller, Thomas; Neukermans, Lionel; Ollivetto, C; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pein, Uwe; Pernicka, Manfred; Perriès, Stephane; Piaseki, C; Pierschel, Gerhard; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Rouby, Xavier; Sabellek, Andreas; Schael, Stefan; Schirm, Norbert; Schleper, Peter; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stahl, Achim; Steck, Pia; Steinbruck, G; Stoye, Markus; Strub, Roger; Tavernier, Stefaan; Teyssier, Daniel; Theel, Andreas; Trocmé, Benjamin; Udo, Fred; Van der Donckt, M; Van der Velde, C; Van Hove, Pierre; Vanlaer, Pascal; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Staa, Rolf; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Weber, Markus; Weiler, Thomas; Weseler, Siegfried; Wickens, John; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; De Wolf, Eddi A; Zhukov, Valery; Zoeller, Marc Henning

    2009-01-01

    The silicon strip tracker of the CMS experiment has been completed and inserted into the CMS detector in late 2007. The largest sub-system of the tracker is its end cap system, comprising two large end caps (TEC) each containing 3200 silicon strip modules. To ease construction, the end caps feature a modular design: groups of about 20 silicon modules are placed on sub-assemblies called petals and these self-contained elements are then mounted into the TEC support structures. Each end cap consists of 144 petals, and the insertion of these petals into the end cap structure is referred to as TEC integration. The two end caps were integrated independently in Aachen (TEC+) and at CERN (TEC--). This note deals with the integration of TEC+, describing procedures for end cap integration and for quality control during testing of integrated sections of the end cap and presenting results from the testing.

  13. INFLUENCE OF A ROUND CAP ON THE BEARING CAPACITY OF A LATERALLY LOADED PILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buslov Anatoliy Semenovich

    2012-07-01

    The data has proven that cap-covered piles are substantially more economical (over 40 % in terms of materials consumption rate if compared to constant cross-section piles (cap-free or broadening piles, all other factors being equal.

  14. Polar cap mesosphere wind observations: comparisons of simultaneous measurements with a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a field-widened Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, G M; Killeen, T L; Wu, Q; Reeves, J M; Hays, P B; Gault, W A; Brown, S; Shepherd, G G

    2000-08-20

    Polar cap mesospheric winds observed with a Fabry-Perot interferometer with a circle-to-line interferometer optical (FPI/CLIO) system have been compared with measurements from a field-widened Michelson interferometer optimized for E-region winds (ERWIN). Both instruments observed the Meinel OH emission emanating from the mesopause region (approximately 86 km) at Resolute Bay, Canada (74.9 degrees N, 94.9 degrees W). This is the first time, to our knowledge, that winds measured simultaneously from a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer and a ground-based Michelson interferometer have been compared at the same location. The FPI/CLIO and ERWIN instruments both have a capability for high temporal resolution (less than 10 min for a full scan in the four cardinal directions and the zenith). Statistical comparisons of hourly mean winds for both instruments by scatterplots show excellent agreement, indicating that the two optical techniques provide equivalent observations of mesopause winds. Small deviations in the measured wind can be ascribed to the different zenith angles used by the two instruments. The combined measurements illustrate the dominance of the 12-h wave in the mesopause winds at Resolute Bay, with additional evidence for strong gravity wave activity with much shorter periods (tens of minutes). Future operations of the two instruments will focus on observation of complementary emissions, providing a unique passive optical capability for the determination of neutral winds in the geomagnetic polar cap at various altitudes near the mesopause.

  15. Radioimmunological determination of. cap alpha. -MSH and ACTH in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usategui Echeverria, R; Oliver, C; Vaudry, H; Lombardi, G; Rozenberg, I; Vague, J [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1975-09-01

    Specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay methods for ..cap alpha..-MSH and ACTH are reported. They make possible specific measurements of each hormone in rat plasma or pituitary extracts. Endogenous ..cap alpha..-MSH and ACTH extracted from plasma or pituitary show the same immunoreactivity than synthetic ..cap alpha..-MSH and ACTH. ..cap alpha..-MSH and ACTH levels vary independently from each other in the following conditions: circadian rythm, corticoid treatment, adrenalectomy, ether stress, haloperidol injection.

  16. Rocket measurements within a polar cap arc: Plasma, particle, and electric circuit parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, E.J.; Ballenthin, J.O.; Basu, S.; Carlson, H.C.; Hardy, D.A.; Maynard, N.C.; Smiddy, M.; Kelley, M.C.; Fleischman, J.R.; Sheehan, R.E.; Pfaff, R.F.; Rodriguez, P.

    1989-01-01

    An instrumented rocket payload was launched into a polar cap F layer aurora to investigate the energetic particle, plasma, and electric circuit parameters of a Sun-aligned arc. On-board instruments measured energetic electron flux, ion composition and density fluctuations, electron density and temperature, electron density fluctuations, and ac and dc electric fields. Real-time all-sky imaging photometer measurements of the location and motion of the aurora, were used to determine the proper geophysical situation for launch. Comparison of the in situ measurements with remote optical measurements shows that the arc was produced by fluxes of low-energy (< 1 keV) electrons. Field-aligned potentials in the arc inferred from the electron spectra had a maximum value of approximately 300 V, and from the spectral shape a parent population of preaccelerated electrons characteristic of the boundary plasma sheet or magnetosheath was inferred. Electric field components along and across the arc show sunward flow within the arc and duskward drift of the arc consistent with the drift direction and speed determined from optical imaging. Thus this arc is drifting duskward under the influence of the convection electric field. Three possible explanations for this (field-aligned currents, chemistry, and transport) are considered. Finally, ionospheric irregularity and electric field fluctuations indicate two different generation mechanisms on the dawnside and duskside of the arc. On the duskside, parameters are suggestive of an interchange process, while on the dawnside, fluctuation parameters are consistent with a velocity shear instability

  17. Overview of LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed

  18. 77 FR 57197 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1099-CAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... 1099-CAP AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... Form 1099-CAP, Changes in Corporate Control and Capital Structure. DATES: Written comments should be... Structure. OMB Number: 1545-1814. Form Number: 1099-CAP. Abstract: Any corporation that undergoes...

  19. 34 CFR 370.1 - What is the Client Assistance Program (CAP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Client Assistance Program (CAP)? 370.1... § 370.1 What is the Client Assistance Program (CAP)? The purpose of this program is to establish and carry out CAPs that— (a) Advise and inform clients and client applicants of all services and benefits...

  20. 34 CFR 364.30 - What notice must be given about the Client Assistance Program (CAP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Program (CAP)? 364.30 Section 364.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... (CAP)? The State plan must include satisfactory assurances that all service providers will use formats... about— (a) The availability of the CAP authorized by section 112 of the Act; (b) The purposes of the...

  1. 78 FR 22490 - Administrative Practice and Procedure; Postal Service; Review of Price Cap Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...] Administrative Practice and Procedure; Postal Service; Review of Price Cap Rules AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission is initiating a review of its Price Cap Rules. The... implemented without a price cap calculation. Docket No. R2011-5, Order Approving Market Dominant Price...

  2. 50 CFR 679.82 - Rockfish Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rockfish Program use caps and sideboard... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Rockfish Program § 679.82 Rockfish Program use caps and sideboard limits. (a) Use caps—(1) General. Use caps limit the amount of rockfish QS and CQ of primary rockfish species that may...

  3. 50 CFR 679.92 - Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment 80 Program use caps and... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Amendment 80 Program § 679.92 Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits. (a) Use caps—(1) General. Use caps limit the amount of Amendment 80 QS units and Amendment 80 species...

  4. 40 CFR 1060.521 - How do I test fuel caps for permeation emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I test fuel caps for permeation... EQUIPMENT Test Procedures § 1060.521 How do I test fuel caps for permeation emissions? If you measure a fuel tank's permeation emissions with a nonpermeable covering in place of the fuel cap under § 1060.520(b)(5...

  5. The alignment system of the ATLAS muon end-cap spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schricker, A.

    2002-08-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will offer an unparalleled opportunity to probe fundamental physics at an energy scale well beyond that reached by current experiments. The ATLAS detector is being designed to fully exploit the potential of the LHC for revealing new aspects of the fundamental structure of nature. The muon spectrometer itself must measure with a momentum resolution of s10 % for muons with a transverse momentum of p T =1TeV, to fully exploit the advantages offered by the open superconducting air core muon toroid magnet system. At this level of momentum resolution the muon spectrometer relies heavily on the ability to master the alignment of the large muon chambers spaced far apart. The overall contribution of the alignment to the total sagitta error must be less than 30 μm r.m.s. In order to meet the stringent alignment requirements the positions of the muon chambers are constantly monitored with optical alignment technologies. The end-caps of this spectrometer are therefore embedded in an alignment grid that must allow for an absolute position measurement of the chambers. This alignment grid employs up to 9.6m long precision rulers (alignment bars) which have to provide the position and orientation of all alignment sensors permeating the end-caps. Simulation studies have shown that the shape of these bars must be known to 30 μm r.m.s. and the length must be known to 20 μm r.m.s. The principles of alignment and survey techniques used to do this are introduced and the current activities concerning the alignment strategy for the ATLAS muon end-cap spectrometer are presented. After consideration of the motivation and requirements, the measurement strategy and the design of the alignment bars is given. An optical and thermal in-bar instrumentation is used to provide shape information of discrete points on the bar. The strategy to calibrate the in-bar instrumentation and to measure an initial bar shape with a large coordinate measuring machine, leads

  6. Environmentally sustainable agriculture and future developments of the CAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Christensen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO). It is wi......Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO...... in the world market could increase pressure to slacken regulatory requirements on agriculture. Thus, the question of whether liberalization will hinder or promote environmentally sustainable production methods in agriculture is unresolved. This paper analyses different scenarios of agricultural policy...

  7. Evaluation of management alternatives for LWR hulls and caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudon, L.; Mehling, O.; Cecille, L.; Thiels, G.; Kowa, S.

    1993-01-01

    Hulls and caps resulting from the reprocessing of LWR spent fuels represent one of the major sources of alpha-bearing solid waste generated during the nuclear fuel cycle. The Commission of the European Communities has undertaken considerable R and D efforts on the development of advanced treatment and conditioning methods for this type of waste. In view of the encouraging results achieved, the Commission launched a theoretical assessment study on cladding waste management. Six practical or potential schemes were identified and elaborated: direct cementation, decontamination prior to cementation, rolling before cementation, rolling followed by embedding in graphite, compaction, and melting in a cold crucible. The economic aspects of each management option were also investigated. This included the assessment of the plant (treatment, conditioning and interim storage), transport and disposal costs. Further consideration will be required to define the best management option for 'cap' wastes. Transport and disposal costs will also require further analysis from an industrial standpoint

  8. Meteorological observations in support of a hill cap cloud experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Morten

    1998-06-01

    Humid air flows form a hill cap cloud over the Agana mountain ridge in the north-east of Tenerife. The HILLCLOUD project utilised this cloud formation to investigate the chemical and physical properties of cloud aerosols by land based observations. The project was part of the second Aerosol characterisation Experiment (ACE-2) of the International Global Atmospheric chemistry project (IGAC). The present report describes meteorological observations in support of the hill cap cloud experiment. Time-series of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and humidity were collected at ground-based meteorological stations during a period starting one year in advance of the main campaign. A series of radiosonde detecting the upstream stability and wind profile were launched during the main campaign. (au) 5 tabs., 32 ills., 6 refs.

  9. Nanoscale gadolinium oxide capping layers on compositionally variant gate dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2010-11-19

    Metal gate work function enhancement using nanoscale (1.0 nm) Gd2O3 interfacial layers has been evaluated as a function of silicon oxide content in the HfxSiyOz gate dielectric and process thermal budget. It is found that the effective work function tuning by the Gd2O3 capping layer varied by nearly 400 mV as the composition of the underlying dielectric changed from 0% to 100% SiO2, and by nearly 300 mV as the maximum process temperature increased from ambient to 1000 °C. A qualitative model is proposed to explain these results, expanding the existing models for the lanthanide capping layer effect.

  10. Mars polar cap: a habitat for elementary life1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, M. K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2009-04-01

    Ices in the Martian polar caps are potential habitats for various species of microorganisms. Salts in the ice and biological anti-freeze polymers maintain liquid in cracks in the ices far below 0°C, possibly down to the mean 220-240 K. Sub-surface microbial life is shielded from ultraviolet (UV) radiation, but could potentially be activated on south-facing slopes under the midday, midsummer Sun. Such life would be limited by low levels of vapour, little transport of nutrients, low light levels below a protective dirt-crust, frost accumulation at night and in shadows, and little if any active translocation of organisms. As in the Antarctic and in permafrost, movement to new habitats depends on geo-climatic changes, which for Mars's north polar cap occur on a 50 000 year scale, except for rare meteorite impacts.

  11. Simple MoCap System for Home Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Magdin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many MoCap systems exist. Generating 3D facial animation of characters is currently realized by using the motion capture data (MoCap data, which is obtained by tracking the facial markers from an actor/actress. In general it is a professional solution that is sophisticated and costly. This paper presents a solution with a system that is inexpensive. We propose a new easy-to-use system for home usage, through which we are making character animation. In its implementation we paid attention to the elimination of errors from the previous solutions. In this paper the authors describe the method how motion capture characters on a treadmill and as well as an own Java application that processes the video for its further use in Cinema 4D. This paper describes the implementation of this technology of sensing in a way so that the animated character authentically imitated human movement on a treadmill.

  12. Condensation in a capped capillary is a continuous critical phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A O; Rascón, C; Wilding, N B; Evans, R

    2007-06-01

    We show that condensation in a capped capillary slit is a continuous interfacial critical phenomenon, related intimately to several other surface phase transitions. In three dimensions, the adsorption and desorption branches correspond to the unbinding of the meniscus from the cap and opening, respectively, and are equivalent to 2D-like complete-wetting transitions. For dispersion forces, the singularities on the two branches are distinct, owing to the different interplay of geometry and intermolecular forces. In two dimensions we establish precise connection, or covariance, with 2D critical-wetting and wedge-filling transitions: i.e., we establish that certain interfacial properties in very different geometries are identical. Our predictions of universal scaling and covariance in finite capillaries are supported by extensive Ising model simulation studies in two and three dimensions.

  13. Nanoscale gadolinium oxide capping layers on compositionally variant gate dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Cha, D. K.

    2010-01-01

    Metal gate work function enhancement using nanoscale (1.0 nm) Gd2O3 interfacial layers has been evaluated as a function of silicon oxide content in the HfxSiyOz gate dielectric and process thermal budget. It is found that the effective work function tuning by the Gd2O3 capping layer varied by nearly 400 mV as the composition of the underlying dielectric changed from 0% to 100% SiO2, and by nearly 300 mV as the maximum process temperature increased from ambient to 1000 °C. A qualitative model is proposed to explain these results, expanding the existing models for the lanthanide capping layer effect.

  14. Lowering of the YE+2 end-cap for CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Lowering of the second end-cap disk of CMS, designated YE+2, took place on 12 December 2006. The huge disk, 15 m high and weighing around 900 tonnes, is equipped on both sides with muon detectors. The lowering operation started at around 7am and finished about 10 hours later with the arrival of the disk into the cavern 100 m below the surface hall.

  15. Learning Sparse Visual Representations with Leaky Capped Norm Regularizers

    OpenAIRE

    Wangni, Jianqiao; Lin, Dahua

    2017-01-01

    Sparsity inducing regularization is an important part for learning over-complete visual representations. Despite the popularity of $\\ell_1$ regularization, in this paper, we investigate the usage of non-convex regularizations in this problem. Our contribution consists of three parts. First, we propose the leaky capped norm regularization (LCNR), which allows model weights below a certain threshold to be regularized more strongly as opposed to those above, therefore imposes strong sparsity and...

  16. Polar cap flow channel events: spontaneous and driven responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present two case studies of specific flow channel events appearing at the dusk and/or dawn polar cap boundary during passage at Earth of interplanetary (IP coronal mass ejections (ICMEs on 10 January and 25 July 2004. The channels of enhanced (>1 km/s antisunward convection are documented by SuperDARN radars and dawn-dusk crossings of the polar cap by the DMSP F13 satellite. The relationship with Birkeland currents (C1–C2 located poleward of the traditional R1–R2 currents is demonstrated. The convection events are manifest in ground magnetic deflections obtained from the IMAGE (International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects Svalbard chain of ground magnetometer stations located within 71–76° MLAT. By combining the ionospheric convection data and the ground magnetograms we are able to study the temporal behaviour of the convection events. In the two ICME case studies the convection events belong to two different categories, i.e., directly driven and spontaneous events. In the 10 January case two sharp southward turnings of the ICME magnetic field excited corresponding convection events as detected by IMAGE and SuperDARN. We use this case to determine the ground magnetic signature of enhanced flow channel events (the NH-dusk/By<0 variant. In the 25 July case a several-hour-long interval of steady southwest ICME field (Bz<0; By<0 gave rise to a long series of spontaneous convection events as detected by IMAGE when the ground stations swept through the 12:00–18:00 MLT sector. From the ground-satellite conjunction on 25 July we infer the pulsed nature of the polar cap ionospheric flow channel events in this case. The typical duration of these convection enhancements in the polar cap is 10 min.

  17. Little Ice Age Fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, J. S.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T.

    2009-12-01

    A record of the past extents of Quelccaya Ice Cap (QIC) provides valuable information about tropical climate change from late glacial to recent time. Here, we examine the timing and regional significance of fluctuations of QIC during the Little Ice Age (LIA; ~1300-1850 AD). One prominent set of moraines, known as the Huancane I moraines, is located ~1 km from the present-day western ice cap margin and provides a near-continuous outline of the most recent advance of QIC. This moraine set was radiocarbon dated (~298 ± 134 and 831 ± 87 yr BP) by Mercer and Palacios (1977) and presented as some of the first evidence for cooling in the tropics during the Little Ice Age. Recent field investigations in the QIC region focused on refining the chronology of the Huancane I moraines. In 2008, new stratigraphic sections exposed by local lake-flooding events revealed multiple layers of peat within the Huancane I moraines. In both 2008 and 2009, samples were obtained for 10Be dating of boulders on Huancane I moraines. A combination of radiocarbon and 10Be ages indicate that the Huancane I moraines were deposited by ice cap expansion after ~3800 yr BP and likely by multiple advances at approximately 1000, 600, 400, and 200 yr BP. Radiocarbon and 10Be chronologies of the Huancane I moraines are compared with the Quelccaya ice core records (Thompson et al., 1985; 1986; 2006). Accumulation data from the ice core records are interpreted to indicate a significant wet period at ~1500-1700 AD followed by a significant drought at ~1720-1860 AD. We examine ice marginal fluctuations during these times to determine influence of such events on the ice cap extent.

  18. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2012-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting and population synthesis.

  19. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu; Wellington, Scott Lee

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  20. Material properties of CorCap passive cardiac support device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsaz, Sam; Wenk, Jonathan F; Ge, Liang; Wisneski, Andrew; Mookhoek, Aart; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Guccione, Julius M; Tseng, Elaine E

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial function deteriorates during ventricular remodeling in patients with congestive heart failure (HF). Ventricular restraint therapy using a cardiac support device (CSD) is designed to reduce the amount of stress inside the dilated ventricles, which in turn halts remodeling. However, as an open mesh surrounding the heart, it is unknown what the mechanical properties of the CSD are in different fiber orientations. Composite specimens of CorCap (Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc, St. Paul, MN) CSD fabric and silicone were constructed in different fiber orientations and tested on a custom-built biaxial stretcher. Silicone controls were made and stretched to detect the parameters of the matrix. CSD coefficients were calculated using the composite and silicone matrix stress-strain data. Stiffness in different fiber orientations was determined. Silicone specimens exerted a linear behavior, with stiffness of 2.57 MPa. For the composites with 1 fiber set aligned with respect to the stretch axes, stiffness in the direction of the aligned fiber set was higher than that in the cross-fiber direction (14.39 MPa versus 5.66 MPa), indicating greater compliance in the cross-fiber direction. When the orientation of the fiber sets in the composite were matched to the expected clinical orientation of the implanted CorCap, the stiffness in the circumferential axis (with respect to the heart) was greater than in the longitudinal axis (10.55 MPa versus 9.70 MPa). The mechanical properties of the CorCap demonstrate directionality with greater stiffness circumferentially than longitudinally. Implantation of the CorCap clinically should take into account the directionality of the biomechanics to optimize ventricular restraint. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced gravitropism of roots with a disrupted cap actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guichuan; Mohamalawari, Deepti R.; Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2003-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton has been proposed to be a major player in plant gravitropism. However, understanding the role of actin in this process is far from complete. To address this problem, we conducted an analysis of the effect of Latrunculin B (Lat B), a potent actin-disrupting drug, on root gravitropism using various parameters that included detailed curvature kinetics, estimation of gravitropic sensitivity, and monitoring of curvature development after extended clinorotation. Lat B treatment resulted in a promotion of root curvature after a 90 degrees reorientation in three plant species tested. More significantly, the sensitivity of maize (Zea mays) roots to gravity was enhanced after actin disruption, as determined from a comparison of presentation time of Lat B-treated versus untreated roots. A short 10-min gravistimulus followed by extended rotation on a 1-rpm clinostat resulted in extensive gravitropic responses, manifested as curvature that often exceeded 90 degrees. Application of Lat B to the cap or elongation zone of maize roots resulted in the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, which was confined to the area of localized Lat B application. Only roots with Lat B applied to the cap displayed the strong curvature responses after extended clinorotation. Our study demonstrates that disrupting the actin cytoskeleton in the cap leads to the persistence of a signal established by a previous gravistimulus. Therefore, actin could function in root gravitropism by providing a mechanism to regulate the proliferation of a gravitropic signal originating from the cap to allow the root to attain its correct orientation or set point angle.

  2. cap alpha. -spectra hyperfine structure resolution by silicon planar detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremin, V K; Verbitskaya, E M; Strokan, N B; Sukhanov, V L; Malyarenko, A M

    1986-10-01

    The lines with 13 keV step from the main one is ..cap alpha..-spectra of nuclei with an odd number of nucleons take place. Silicon planar detectors n-Si with the operation surface of 10 mm/sup 2/ are developed for resolution of this hyperfine structure. The mechanism of losses in detectors for short-range-path particles is analyzed. The results of measurements from detectors with 10 keV resolution are presented.

  3. King George Island ice cap geometry updated with airborne GPR measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rückamp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ice geometry is a mandatory requirement for numerical modelling purposes. In this paper we present a consistent data set for the ice thickness, the bedrock topography and the ice surface topography of the King George Island ice cap (Arctowski icefield and the adjacent central part. The new data set is composed of ground based and airborne ground penetrating radar (GPR and differential GPS (DGPS measurements, obtained during several field campaigns. Blindow et al. (2010 already provided a comprehensive overview of the ground based measurements carried out in the safely accessible area of the ice cap. The updated data set incorporates airborne measurements in the heavily crevassed coastal areas. Therefore, in this paper special attention is paid to the airborne measurements by addressing the instrument used, survey procedure, and data processing in more detail. In particular, the inclusion of airborne GPR measurements with the 30 MHz BGR-P30-System developed at the Institute of Geophysics (University of Münster completes the picture of the ice geometry substantially. The compiled digital elevation model of the bedrock shows a rough, highly variable topography with pronounced valleys, ridges, and troughs. Mean ice thickness is 240 ± 6 m, with a maximum value of 422 ± 10 m in the surveyed area. Noticeable are bounded areas in the bedrock topography below sea level where marine based ice exists. The provided data set is required as a basis for future monitoring attempts or as input for numerical modelling experiments. The data set is available from the PANGAEA database at http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.770567.

  4. First Wheel of the Hadronic EndCap Calorimeter Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    Oram, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    With the LAr calorimeters well advanced in module production, the attention is turning to Batiment 180 where the calorimeter modules are formed into complete detectors and inserted into their respective cryostats. For the Hadronic End Cap (HEC) Group the task in B180 is to assemble the wheels, rotate them into their final orientation, and put them onto the cradle in front of the End Cap Cryostat. These tasks have been completed for the first HEC wheel in the B180 End Cap Clean Room. Given that this wheel weighs 70 tons the group is very relieved to have established that these gymnastics with the wheel proceed in a routine fashion. To assemble a wheel we take modules that have already been cold tested, do the final electrical testing and locate them onto the HEC wheel assembly table. Four wheels are required in total, each consisting of 32 modules. Wheel assembly is done in the horizontal position, creating a doughnut-like object sitting on the HEC table. The first picture shows the last module being added ...

  5. Completion of the first TRT End-cap

    CERN Multimedia

    Catinaccio, A; Rohne, O

    On July 1, the first end-cap of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) was successfully completed in terms of the integration of the wheels assembled in Russia with their front-end electronics. The two groups of the detector, fully assembled and equipped with front-end electronics, were rotated from their horizontal position during stacking to their nominal vertical position, in which they will be integrated with the corresponding end-cap silicon-strip (SCT) detector towards the end of 2005, before installation into ATLAS in spring 2006. After starting the assembly in the SR building one year ago, the TRT team reached this important milestone, which marks the final realization and validation of the engineering concept developed by the CERN DT1 (ex-TA1) and ATT teams. A TRT end-cap consists of two sets of identical and independent wheels. The first type of wheels (type A, 12 wheels, positioned closest to the primary interaction point) contains 6144 radial straws positioned in eight successive layers s...

  6. Last End Cap Toroid installation : The Pharaonic enterprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Arnaud Foussat

    After the successful and impressive transport feat from Building 191 to Point 1 was carried out by the Friderici crew on 28th June, the second and last Toroid End Cap, ECT-C, was transferred into the surface building, SX1, on 2nd July. The ECT-C was installed in the ATLAS cavern on the C-side on 12th July. As the person responsible for the project, in my opinion, one of the crucial points of this project was to design all the tooling and installation sequences taking into account the building infrastructure dimensional constraints. View of the ECT installation tooling and preparation for the ECT-C descent into the ATLAS 80m-shaft by the ATLAS magnet group and DBS teams. The movement of the 240-ton magnet and 12-m diameter toroid end-cap was achieved in collaboration with SCALES, a subcontractor company, using a hydraulic gantry able to lower the ECT inside the shaft by 5m below the floor level . This allowed the DBS team to attach the end-cap with the 2 x 140 tons overhead crane and lower it onto the c...

  7. Results from the First Validation Phase of CAP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul; Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The second stage of Safety Analysis Code Development for Nuclear Power Plants was lunched on Apirl, 2010 and is scheduled to be through 2012, of which the scope of work shall cover from code validation to licensing preparation. As a part of this project, CAP(Containment Analysis Package) will follow the same procedures. CAP's validation works are organized hieratically into four validation steps using; 1) Fundamental phenomena. 2) Principal phenomena (mixing and transport) and components in containment. 3) Demonstration test by small, middle, large facilities and International Standard Problems. 4) Comparison with other containment codes such as GOTHIC or COMTEMPT. In addition, collecting the experimental data related to containment phenomena and then constructing the database is one of the major works during the second stage as a part of this project. From the validation process of fundamental phenomenon, it could be expected that the current capability and the future improvements of CAP code will be revealed. For this purpose, simple but significant problems, which have the exact analytical solution, were selected and calculated for validation of fundamental phenomena. In this paper, some results of validation problems for the selected fundamental phenomena will be summarized and discussed briefly

  8. Commissioning Test of ATLAS End-Cap Toroidal Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, A; Foussat, A; Benoit, P; Jeckel, M; Olyunin, A; Kopeykin, N; Stepanov, V; Deront, L; Olesen, G; Ponts, X; Ravat, S; Sbrissa, K; Barth, J; Bremer, J; Delruelle, J; Metselaar, J; Pengo, R; Pirotte, O; Buskop, J; Baynham, D E; Carr, F S; Holtom, E

    2009-01-01

    The system of superconducting toroids in the ATLAS experiment at CERN consists of three magnets. The Barrel Toroid was assembled and successfully tested in 2006. Next, two End-Cap Toroids have been tested on surface at 77 K and installed in the cavern, 100-m underground. The End Cap Toroids are based on Al stabilized Nb-Ti/Cu Rutherford cables, arranged in double pancake coils and conduction cooled at 4.6 K. The nominal current is 20.5 kA at 4.1 T peak field in the windings and the stored energy is 250 MJ per toroid. Prior to final testing of the entire ATLAS Toroidal system, each End Cap Toroid passed a commissioning test up to 21 kA to guarantee a reliable performance in the final assembly. In this paper the test results are described. It includes the stages of test preparation, isolation vacuum pumping and leak testing, cooling down, step-by-step charging to full current, training quenches and quench recovery. By fast discharges the quench detection and protection system was checked to demonstrate a safe e...

  9. Interactions between citrate-capped gold nanoparticles and polymersomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohan; Lopez, Anand; Liu, Yibo; Wang, Feng; Liu, Juewen

    2018-06-01

    Polymersomes are vesicles formed by self-assembled amphiphilic block copolymers. Polymersomes generally have better stability than liposomes and they have been widely used in making drug delivery vehicles. In this work, the interaction between two types of polymersomes and citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was studied. The following two polymers: poly(2-methyloxazoline-b-dimethylsiloxane-b-2-methyloxazoline) (called P1) and poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) (called P2) were respectively used to form polymersomes. While P1 only formed spherical vesicle structures, worm-like structures were also observed with P2 as indicated by cryo-TEM. Both polymersomes adsorbed AuNPs leading to their subsequent aggregation. A lower polymersome concentration produced more obvious aggregation of AuNPs as judged from the color change. Capping AuNPs with glutathione inhibited adsorption of AuNPs. Considering the surface property of the polymers, the interaction with AuNPs was likely due to van der Waals forces. P1 polymersomes encapsulated calcein stably and AuNPs did not induce leakage. The P1/AuNP complex was more efficiently internalized by HeLa cells compared to free P1 polymersomes, further indicating a stable adsorption under cell culture conditions. In summary, this work indicates citrate-capped AuNPs form stable adsorption complexes with these polymersomes and their interactions have been explored.

  10. The thermospheric effects of a rapid polar cap expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Idenden

    Full Text Available In a previous publication we used results from a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere model to illustrate a new mechanism for the formation of a large-scale patch of ionisation arising from a rapid polar cap expansion. Here we describe the thermospheric response to that polar cap expansion, and to the ionospheric structure produced. The response is dominated by the energy and momentum input at the dayside throat during the expansion phase itself. These inputs give rise to a large-scale travelling atmospheric disturbance (TAD that propagates both antisunward across the polar cap and equatorward at speeds much greater than both the ion drifts and the neutral winds. We concentrate only on the initially poleward travelling disturbance. The disturbance is manifested in the neutral temperature and wind fields, the height of the pressure level surfaces and in the neutral density at fixed heights. The thermospheric effects caused by the ionospheric structure produced during the expansion are hard to discern due to the dominating effects of the TAD.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere · atmosphere interaction; modeling and forecasting; plasma convection.

  11. The response of ionospheric convection in the polar cap to substorm activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lester

    Full Text Available We report multi-instrument observations during an isolated substorm on 17 October 1989. The EISCAT radar operated in the SP-UK-POLI mode measuring ionospheric convection at latitudes 71°λ-78°λ. SAMNET and the EISCAT Magnetometer Cross provide information on the timing of substorm expansion phase onset and subsequent intensifications, as well as the location of the field aligned and ionospheric currents associated with the substorm current wedge. IMP-8 magnetic field data are also included. Evidence of a substorm growth phase is provided by the equatorward motion of a flow reversal boundary across the EISCAT radar field of view at 2130 MLT, following a southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. We infer that the polar cap expanded as a result of the addition of open magnetic flux to the tail lobes during this interval. The flow reversal boundary, which is a lower limit to the polar cap boundary, reached an invariant latitude equatorward of 71°λ by the time of the expansion phase onset. A westward electrojet, centred at 65.4°λ, occurred at the onset of the expansion phase. This electrojet subsequently moved poleward to a maximum of 68.1°λ at 2000 UT and also widened. During the expansion phase, there is evidence of bursts of plasma flow which are spatially localised at longitudes within the substorm current wedge and which occurred well poleward of the westward electrojet. We conclude that the substorm onset region in the ionosphere, defined by the westward electrojet, mapped to a part of the tail radially earthward of the boundary between open and closed magnetic flux, the "distant" neutral line. Thus the substorm was not initiated at the distant neutral line, although there is evidence that it remained active during the expansion phase. It is not obvious whether the electrojet mapped to a near-Earth neutral line, but at its most poleward, the expanded electrojet does not reach the estimated latitude of the polar cap

  12. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  13. The latest radiation instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Se Sik; Gwon, Dal Gwan; Kim, Gyeong Geum

    2008-08-01

    This book deals with the latest radiation instrument, which is comprised of eight chapters. It explains X rays instrument for medial treatment, X-ray tube instrument and permissible burden with its history, structure and characteristic high voltage apparatus with high voltage rectifier circuit, X-ray control apparatus for medical treatment, X-ray image equipment X-ray television apparatus and CCD 205, X-ray apparatus of install and types, Digital X-ray apparatus with CR 261 and DR 269, performance management on X-ray for medical treatment with its history, necessity and management in the radiation field.

  14. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities as well as wastes from old waste burial ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. Because of the topic of this workshop, only the assay instrumentation applied specifically to soil monitoring will be discussed here. Four types of soil monitors are described

  15. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities, as well as from old waste-burial-ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. The assay instrumentation that is applied specifically to soil monitoring is discussed

  16. Jones' instrument technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Ernest Beachcroft; Kingham, Edward G; Radnai, Rudolf

    1985-01-01

    Jones' Instrument Technology, Volume 5: Automatic Instruments and Measuring Systems deals with general trends in automatic instruments and measuring systems. Specific examples are provided to illustrate the principles of such devices. A brief review of a considerable number of standards is undertaken, with emphasis on the IEC625 Interface System. Other relevant standards are reviewed, including the interface and backplane bus standards. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with a short introduction to the principles of automatic measurements, classification of measuring system

  17. Medical instruments in museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderqvist, Thomas; Arnold, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This essay proposes that our understanding of medical instruments might benefit from adding a more forthright concern with their immediate presence to the current historical focus on simply decoding their meanings and context. This approach is applied to the intriguingly tricky question of what...... actually is meant by a "medical instrument." It is suggested that a pragmatic part of the answer might lie simply in reconsidering the holdings of medical museums, where the significance of the physical actuality of instruments comes readily to hand....

  18. Dynamic Interaction between Cap & Trade and Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeev, Kumar

    Greenhouse Gases (GHG), such as Carbon-Dioxide (CO2), which is released in the atmosphere due to anthropogenic activities like power production, are now accepted as the main culprits for global warming. The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), an initiative of the North East and Mid-Atlantic States of the United States (US) for limiting the emission of GHG, has developed a regional cap-and-trade program for CO2 emissions for power plants. Existing cap-and-trade programs in US and Europe for Greenhouse Gases have recently been plagued by over-allocation. Carbon prices recently collapsed in all these markets during the global recession. Since then, there have been significant policy changes, which have resulted in the adoption of aggressive emission cap targets by most major carbon emission markets. This is expected to make carbon emissions availability more restrictive, raising the prices of these credits. These emissions markets are expected to have a major impact on the wholesale electricity markets. Two models to study the interaction of these two markets are presented. These models assess the impact of the emissions market on wholesale electricity prices. The first model characterizes the competition between two types of power plants (coal and gas) in both the electricity and emissions markets as a dynamic game using the Cournot approximation. Under this approximation, we find that in the Nash equilibrium the plants increase their permit allocation to high-demand periods and the marginal value of each credit for a plant is identical in all periods under their optimal equilibrium strategy. The second numerical model allows us to explicitly evaluate the closed loop equilibrium of the dynamic interaction of two competitors in these markets. We find that plants often try to corner the market and push prices all the way to the price cap. Power plants derive most of their profits from these extreme price regimes. In the experiments where trading is allowed

  19. ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY - NEW APPROACHES FOR IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Roberts, J.

    2012-02-13

    This study evaluated pilot-scale active caps composed of apatite, organoclay, biopolymers, and sand for the remediation of metal-contaminated sediments. The active caps were constructed in Steel Creek, at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. Monitoring was conducted for 12 months. Effectiveness of the caps was based on an evaluation of contaminant bioavailability, resistance to erosion, and impacts on benthic organisms. Active caps lowered metal bioavailability in the sediment during the one-year test period. Biopolymers reduced sediment suspension during cap construction, increased the pool of carbon, and lowered the release of metals. This field validation showed that active caps can effectively treat contaminants by changing their speciation, and that caps can be constructed to include more than one type of amendment to achieve multiple goals.

  20. Qualification Approach for the CMC Nose Cap of X-38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, H.; Gülhan, A.

    2002-01-01

    In October 2001 the flight hardware of the TPS nose assembly of X-38 has been installed at the main structure of the X-38 V201 vehicle at NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston Texas. X-38 is a test vehicle for the planned Crew Return Vehicle CRV for the International Space Station ISS. Currently the flight of the X-38 is scheduled for 2005. Besides the Body flaps (MAN-T) and the nose skirt system (ASTRIUM, MAN-T) the nose cap system is one of the essential hot structure components that were developed within Germany's national TETRA (Technologies for future space transportation systems) programme. The integration of the hardware was an important milestone for the nose cap development which started approx. 5 years ago. DLR-Stuttgart is responsible for the design and manufacturing of the CMC based nose cap system, which has to withstand the extreme thermal loads during re-entry which will induce a maximum temperature up to 1750 °C on the surface of the cap. Thus, the shell of the cap system is designed and manufactured using DLR's C/C-SiC material which is a special kind of carbon based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material produced via the in house liquid silicon infiltration process of DLR. This material has demonstrated its good temperature resistance during FOTON and EXPRESS re-entry capsule missions. Besides the design and manufacturing of the nose cap system, the qualification approach was an important effort of the development work. Missing a test facility which is able to simulate all loading conditions from lift off to re-entry and landing, is was necessary to separate the loads and to use different test facilities. Considering the limitations of the facilities, the budget and time constraints, an optimized test philosophy has been established. The goal was to use a full scale qualification unit including all TPS components of the nose area for most of the tests. These were the simulation of ascent loads given by the shuttle requirements and descent loads

  1. Environment for the instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambro, P.

    1992-01-01

    A properly conditioned AC power supply is necessary for reliable functioning of instruments. Electric mains power is produced primarily for industry, workshops, lighting and household uses. Its quality is adjusted to these uses. In areas sand countries with a fast growing demand for electric power, these requirements are far from being met. Electronic instruments and computers, especially in these countries, need protection against disturbances of the mains supply. A clean and dry environment is needed for reliable functioning and long life of instruments. High humidity, specially at higher temperatures, changes the characteristics of electronic components. Moreover, under these conditions fungal growth causes leakage of currents and corrosion causes poor contacts. The presence of dust enhances these effects. They give rise to malfunction of instruments, particularly of high voltage equipment

  2. CCAT Heterodyne Instrument Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work will extend and proof-out the design concept for a high pixel count (128 pixels in 2 bands) submillimeter-wave heterodyne receiver array instrument for the...

  3. Environment for the instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambro, P

    1993-12-31

    A properly conditioned AC power supply is necessary for reliable functioning of instruments. Electric mains power is produced primarily for industry, workshops, lighting and household uses. Its quality is adjusted to these uses. In areas sand countries with a fast growing demand for electric power, these requirements are far from being met. Electronic instruments and computers, especially in these countries, need protection against disturbances of the mains supply. A clean and dry environment is needed for reliable functioning and long life of instruments. High humidity, specially at higher temperatures, changes the characteristics of electronic components. Moreover, under these conditions fungal growth causes leakage of currents and corrosion causes poor contacts. The presence of dust enhances these effects. They give rise to malfunction of instruments, particularly of high voltage equipment

  4. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  5. Nuclear instrument technician training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollesen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Nuclear Instrument Technician (NIT) training that has developed at an accelerated rate over the past three decades. During the 1960's commercial nuclear power plants were in their infancy. For that reason, there is little wonder that NIT training had little structure and little creditability. NIT training, in many early plants, was little more than On-The Job Training (OJT). The seventies brought changes in Instrumentation and Controls as well as emphasis on the requirements for more in depth training and documentation. As in the seventies, the eighties saw not only changes in technologies but tighter requirements, standardized training and the development of accredited Nuclear Instrument Training; thus the conclusion: Nuclear Instrument Training Isn't What It Used To Be

  6. Carbon Footprint Reduction Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page outlines the major differences between Renewable Energy Certificates (REC) and Project Offsets and what types of claims each instrument allows the organization to make in regards to environmental emissions claims.

  7. Synthesis, Structural and Optical Properties of TOPO and HDA Capped Cadmium Sulphide Nanocrystals, and the Effect of Capping Ligand Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian C. Onwudiwe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal decomposition of bis(N,N-diallyldithiocarbamatoCd(II in a “one-pot” synthesis in tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO and hexadecylamine (HDA afforded CdS (TOPO-CdS and HDA-CdS of varying optical properties and morphologies. The influence of the ratio of the precursor concentration to the capping molecule, as a factor affecting the morphology and size of the nanoparticles, was investigated. The particles varied in shape from spheres to rods and show quantum size effects in their optical spectra with clear differences in the photoluminescence (PL spectra. The PL spectrum of the HDA capped CdS nanoparticles has an emission maximum centred at 468, 472, and 484 nm for the precursor to HDA concentration ratio of 1 : 10, 1 : 15, and 1 : 20, respectively, while the TOPO capped nanoparticles show emission peaks at 483, 494, and 498 nm at the same concentration ratio. Powdered X-ray diffraction (p-XRD shows the nanoparticles to be hexagonal. The crystallinity of the nanoparticles was evident from high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM which gave well-defined images of particles with clear lattice fringes.

  8. Instrument care: everyone's responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée du Toit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Everyone working in an ophthalmic operating theatre must be competent in the care, handling, storage, and maintenance of instruments. This will help to improve surgical outcomes, maintain an economic and affordable service for patients, and provide a safe environment for the wellbeing of patients and staff.Including instrument care in theatre courses and in-service training is one way of ensuring staff competence.

  9. Instrument uncertainty predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, D.A.

    1991-07-01

    The accuracy of measurements and correlations should normally be provided for most experimental activities. The uncertainty is a measure of the accuracy of a stated value or equation. The uncertainty term reflects a combination of instrument errors, modeling limitations, and phenomena understanding deficiencies. This report provides several methodologies to estimate an instrument's uncertainty when used in experimental work. Methods are shown to predict both the pretest and post-test uncertainty

  10. Experimenting with woodwind instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2007-05-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects of holes in the tubing and other factors that make simple tubes useful as musical instruments.

  11. Maintenance of scientific instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, E.

    1986-01-01

    During the last years Colombia has increased the use of nuclear techniques, instruments and equipment in ambitious health programs, as well as in research centers, industry and education; this has resulted in numerous maintenance problems. As an alternative solution IAN has established a Central Maintenance Laboratory for nuclear instruments within an International Atomic Energy Agency program for eight Latin American and nine Asian Countries. Established strategies and some results are detailed in this writing

  12. Advanced optical instruments technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-08-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  13. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1984-09-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  14. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  15. Multi-instrumentation observations of a transpolar arc in the northern hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Goudarzi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A transpolar arc was imaged by the FUV instrument on the IMAGE spacecraft during a 3-h interval on 5 February 2002. Observations indicate that a burst of reconnection in the geomagnetic tail, which was not associated with a substorm, was responsible for the formation of the arc. The arc initially formed across the central polar cap, extending from near midnight to noon such that the polar cap was approximately divided in half. The subsequent motion of the arc was controlled by the amount of open flux being added to the dawn sector cap from a magnetopause reconnection site on the post-noon side of the magnetosphere. The dayside reconnection happened during a period when the IMF By component was dominant, although the Bz component initially remained positive, and resulted in strong westward azimuthal flows in the noon sector. The arc continued to move towards the duskside auroral oval after the IMF Bz turned southward. A keogram of the FUV/WIC auroral observations along the dawn-dusk meridian provides further evidence of the expansion and contraction of the polar cap during the period in which different IMF orientations occurred. Furthermore, comparing images from IMAGE and ionospheric convection flow from SuperDARN measurements, vortical convection flows occurred exactly at the time and location of the formation of the transpolar arc and subsequently followed the head of the transpolar arc as it moved across the polar cap. The observations are consistent with the prediction of a recent model for the formation of the transpolar cap by the closure of open flux in the geomagnetic tail, and its subsequent motion through changes in the open flux distribution within the polar cap.

  16. Multi-instrumentation observations of a transpolar arc in the northern hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Goudarzi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A transpolar arc was imaged by the FUV instrument on the IMAGE spacecraft during a 3-h interval on 5 February 2002. Observations indicate that a burst of reconnection in the geomagnetic tail, which was not associated with a substorm, was responsible for the formation of the arc. The arc initially formed across the central polar cap, extending from near midnight to noon such that the polar cap was approximately divided in half. The subsequent motion of the arc was controlled by the amount of open flux being added to the dawn sector cap from a magnetopause reconnection site on the post-noon side of the magnetosphere. The dayside reconnection happened during a period when the IMF By component was dominant, although the Bz component initially remained positive, and resulted in strong westward azimuthal flows in the noon sector. The arc continued to move towards the duskside auroral oval after the IMF Bz turned southward. A keogram of the FUV/WIC auroral observations along the dawn-dusk meridian provides further evidence of the expansion and contraction of the polar cap during the period in which different IMF orientations occurred. Furthermore, comparing images from IMAGE and ionospheric convection flow from SuperDARN measurements, vortical convection flows occurred exactly at the time and location of the formation of the transpolar arc and subsequently followed the head of the transpolar arc as it moved across the polar cap. The observations are consistent with the prediction of a recent model for the formation of the transpolar cap by the closure of open flux in the geomagnetic tail, and its subsequent motion through changes in the open flux distribution within the polar cap.

  17. The Plasma Proton Environment within Saturn's inner magnetosphere as Observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) during Saturn Orbit Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Elrod, M. K.; Johnson, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Tseng, W. L.; Smith, H. T.; Chornay, D. J.; Shappirio, M.; Simpson, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    In analyzing the Cassini data between Saturn's A-ring outer edge and Mimas' L shell numerous inconsistencies have been reported in estimates of total ionic charge and electron density. The primary focus of our work is to understand these inconsistencies. We present our recent discovery of plasma protons during Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) outbound pass of the magnetospheric region between the F and G rings. We also searched for H2+ ions but no such events were found. The discovery of protons was made possible by a recent analysis of the CAPS Ion Mass Spectrometer's (IMS's) time-of-flight (TOF) composition data in a mode of reduced post-acceleration voltage at 6 kV instead of the usual 14.6 kV. All previous work for this region had not considered the TOF data. The new proton analysis was enabled by minimum scattering of 6 kV protons in the instrument's ultrathin carbon foils (CF), in comparison to larger scattering for the heavier ions such as for O+ and O2+. We use a SIMION model of the CAPS IMS including the effects of energy straggling and scattering by the instrument's CFs in an attempt to understand the TOF composition data for the heavier ions. This analysis within the uncertainties of the instrument allows us to estimate the relative abundances of the heavier ions and thus run our 2D velocity ion moments code to get ion densities, temperatures and velocities during the SOI outbound pass through the F-ring and G-ring gap. Comparisons with other data sets will be made.

  18. Enhancement of device performance by using quaternary capping over ternary capping in strain-coupled InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tongbram, B.; Shetty, S.; Ghadi, H.; Adhikary, S.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate and compare the performance of 30 layers strain-coupled quantum dot (SCQD) infrared photodetectors capped with one of two different layers: a quaternary (In 0.21 Al 0.21 Ga 0.58 As) or ternary (In 0.15 Ga 0.85 As) alloy of 30 Aa and a GaAs layer with a thickness of 120-150 Aa. Measurements of optical properties, spectral responsivity, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy were conducted. Results showed that quaternary capping yielded more superior multilayer QD infrared photodetectors than ternary capping. Quaternary capping resulted in enhanced dot size, order, and uniformity of the QD array. The presence of Al in the capped layer helped in the reduction in dark current density and spectral linewidth as well as led to higher electron confinement of the QDs and enhanced device detectivity. The vertically ordered SCQD system with quaternary capping exhibited higher peak detectivity (∝10 10 cm Hz 1/2 /W) than that with ternary capping (∝10 7 cm Hz 1/2 /W). In addition, a very low noise current density of ∝10 -16 A/cm 2 Hz 1/2 at 77 K was achieved with quaternary-capped QDs. (orig.)

  19. Some emergency instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P H

    1986-10-01

    The widespread release of activity and the resultant spread of contamination after the Chernobyl accident resulted in requests to NRPB to provide instruments for, and expertise in, the measurement of radiation. The most common request was for advice on the usefulness of existing instruments, but Board staff were also involved in their adaptation or in the development of new instruments specially to meet the circumstances of the accident. The accident occurred on 26 April. On 1 May, NRPB was involved at Heathrow Airport in the monitoring of the British students who had returned from Kiev and Minsk. The main purpose was to reassure the students by checking that their persons and belongings did not have significant surface contamination. Additional measurements were also made of iodine activity in thyroid using hand-held detectors or a mobile body monitor. This operation was arranged with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, which had also received numerous requests for instruments from embassies and consulates in countries close to the scene of the accident. There was concern for the well-being of staff and other United Kingdom nationals who resided in or intended to visit the most affected countries. The board supplied suitable instruments, and the FCO distributed them to embassies. The frequency of environmental monitoring was increased from 29 April in anticipation of contamination and appropriate Board instrumentation was deployed. After the Chernobyl cloud arrived in the UK on 2 May, there were numerous requests from local government, public authorities, private companies and members of the public for information and advice on monitoring equipment and procedures. Some of these requirements could be met with existing equipment but members of the public were usually advised not to proceed. At a later stage, the contamination of foodstuffs and livestock required the development of an instrument capable of detecting low levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs in food

  20. Between Smallholder Traditions and “Ecological Modernisation” – Agricultural Transformation, Landscape Change and the Cap in Austria 1995–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurz Peter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores transformations in agriculture during the period 1995–2015 and shows their impact on rural landscapes in the case of Austria. When Austria joined the European Union in 1995, this meant a minor gash in agricultural politics, from broad support of smallholder agriculture to a programme of modernisation and rationalisation. Austrian politicians defined this shift as a process of “ecological modernisation” (Fischler et al. 1994, incorporating agri-environmental schemes as instruments and modifying existing programmes of direct payments. The survey forms the groundwork for a discussion on landscape effects of the CAP as an “ecological” modernisation programme and possible impact of the CAP-reform 2020.

  1. Identification of the Pro orientation of CAP2b peptides for antidiuretic activity in the stink bug Acrosternum hilare

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CAP2b neuropeptide family plays an important role in the regulation of the processes of diuresis and/or antidiuresis in a variety of insects. While Manse-CAP2b (pELYAFPRVamide) and native CAP2bs elicit diuretic activity in a number of species of flies, native CAP2b sequences have been shown to ...

  2. Reactor instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, D.; Beraha, D.

    1980-01-01

    The methods for measuring radiation are shortly reviewed. The instrumentation for neutron flux measurement is classified into out-of-core and in-core instrumentation. The out-of-core instrumentation monitors the operational range from the subcritical reactor to full power. This large range is covered by several measurement channels which derive their signals from counter tubes and ionization chambers. The in-core instrumentation provides more detailed information on the power distribution in the core. The self-powered neutron detectors and the aeroball system in PWR reactors are discussed. Temperature and pressure measurement devices are briefly discussed. The different methods for leak detection are described. In concluding the plant instrumentation part some new monitoring systems and analysis methods are presented: early failure detection methods by noise analysis, acoustic monitoring and vibration monitoring. The presentation of the control starts from an qualitative assessment of the reactor dynamics. The chosen control strategy leads to the definition of the part-load diagram, which provides the set-points for the different control systems. The tasks and the functions of these control systems are described. In additiion to the control, a number of limiting systems is employed to keep the reactor in a safe operating region. Finally, an outlook is given on future developments in control, concerning mainly the increased application of process computers. (orig./RW)

  3. Instrumental analysis, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, G.D.; O'Reilly, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The second edition of Instrumental Analysis is a survey of the major instrument-based methods of chemical analysis. It appears to be aimed at undergraduates but would be equally useful in a graduate course. The volume explores all of the classical quantitative methods and contains sections on techniques that usually are not included in a semester course in instrumentation (such as electron spectroscopy and the kinetic methods). Adequate coverage of all of the methods contained in this book would require several semesters of focused study. The 25 chapters were written by different authors, yet the style throughout the book is more uniform than in the earlier edition. With the exception of a two-chapter course in analog and digital circuits, the book purports to de-emphasize instrumentation, focusing more on the theory behind the methods and the application of the methods to analytical problems. However, a detailed analysis of the instruments used in each method is by no means absent. The book has the favor of a user's guide to analysis

  4. Evaluation of in situ capping with clean soils to control phosphate release from sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Di [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Ding, Shiming, E-mail: smding@niglas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Sun, Qin [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Zhong, Jicheng [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wu, Wei; Jia, Fei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing (China)

    2012-11-01

    Evaluation of in situ capping with clean soils to control phosphate release from the sediments of a eutrophic bay in Lake Taihu was performed after 18 months of capping. The concentrations of dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP) in pore waters and DRP resupply from native sediments and capped sediments were determined using high-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) and a Zr-oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (Zr-oxide DGT) technique. The adsorption isotherm of these sediments was further investigated using a modified Langmuir model. The results showed low concentrations of DRP in pore waters with a low resupply from the sediments for sustaining pore water DRP concentration after capping. The calculated flux to the overlying water following the capping treatment was approximately half of that for the native sediments, implying that the capping reduced the release of phosphate from the sediments. The low resupply of the sediments after capping was further demonstrated by larger partitioning coefficient (K{sub p}) values and greater adsorption capacity (Q{sub max}) values, while zero equilibrium concentrations (EPC{sub 0}s) were similar to those in native sediments. The larger K{sub p} and Q{sub max} were attributed to higher active Fe and Al introduced by the capping, indicating that the binding of phosphate onto the active Fe and Al played a critical role in reducing the internal loading of phosphorous. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of capping with soils was performed through high-resolution sampling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capping decreased the concentrations of DRP in pore waters and its release to waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capping decreased the resupply of pore water DRP from the sediments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capped sediments had stronger abilities to adsorb and retain P. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Active Fe and Al introduced by capping played a critical role.

  5. Evaluation of in situ capping with clean soils to control phosphate release from sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Di; Ding, Shiming; Sun, Qin; Zhong, Jicheng; Wu, Wei; Jia, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of in situ capping with clean soils to control phosphate release from the sediments of a eutrophic bay in Lake Taihu was performed after 18 months of capping. The concentrations of dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP) in pore waters and DRP resupply from native sediments and capped sediments were determined using high-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) and a Zr-oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (Zr-oxide DGT) technique. The adsorption isotherm of these sediments was further investigated using a modified Langmuir model. The results showed low concentrations of DRP in pore waters with a low resupply from the sediments for sustaining pore water DRP concentration after capping. The calculated flux to the overlying water following the capping treatment was approximately half of that for the native sediments, implying that the capping reduced the release of phosphate from the sediments. The low resupply of the sediments after capping was further demonstrated by larger partitioning coefficient (K p ) values and greater adsorption capacity (Q max ) values, while zero equilibrium concentrations (EPC 0 s) were similar to those in native sediments. The larger K p and Q max were attributed to higher active Fe and Al introduced by the capping, indicating that the binding of phosphate onto the active Fe and Al played a critical role in reducing the internal loading of phosphorous. Highlights: ► Evaluation of capping with soils was performed through high-resolution sampling. ► Capping decreased the concentrations of DRP in pore waters and its release to waters. ► Capping decreased the resupply of pore water DRP from the sediments. ► Capped sediments had stronger abilities to adsorb and retain P. ► Active Fe and Al introduced by capping played a critical role.

  6. Effectiveness evaluation of three RCRA caps at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevenell, L.A. [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Reno, NV (United States); Goldstrand, P.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1994-01-01

    Because installation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)- engineered caps is costly, it is prudent to evaluate the effectiveness of this procedure for hydrologically isolating contaminants. The objective for installation of five-part engineered caps at the Y-12 Plant was to (1) satisfy the regulatory compliance issues, (2) minimize the risk of direct contact with the wastes, and (3) reduce rainfall infiltration. Although the original objectives of installing the caps were not to alter groundwater flow, a potential effect of reducing infiltration is to minimize leaching, thus retarding groundwater contaminant migration from the site. Hence, cap effectiveness with respect to reduced groundwater contaminant migration is evaluated using groundwater data in this report. Based on the available data at the Y-12 capped areas, evaluation of cap effectiveness includes studying water level and chemical variability in nearby monitoring wells. Three caps installed during 1989 are selected for evaluation in this report. These caps are located in three significantly different hydrogeologic settings: overlying a karst aquifer (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits [CRSP]), overlying shales located on a hill slope (Oil Landfarm Waste Management Area [OLWMA]), and overlying shales in a valley floor which is a site of convergent groundwater flow (New Hope Pond [NHP]). Presumably, the caps have been effective in minimizing risk of direct contact with the wastes and halting direct rainfall infiltration into the sites over the extent of the capped areas, but no evidence is presented in this report to directly demonstrate this. The caps installed over the three sites appear to have had a minimal effect on groundwater contaminant migration from the respective sites. Following cap construction, no changes in the configuration of the water table were observed. Migration of contaminant plumes occurred at all three sites, apparently without regard to the timing of cap installation.

  7. Szilard-Chalmers effect in natural. cap alpha. disintegrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haissinsky, M; Cottin, M

    1948-11-01

    The Szilard-Chalmers effect resulting from the reaction UI(/sup 238/U) ..-->.. UX1(/sup 234/Th) was investigated. The authors developed a chemical method adapted from a technique of Starke (Naturwissenschaften 30, 577(1942)) to separate UX1 which was formed by ..cap alpha.. emission. The experimental accuracy is insufficient to indicate the influence of the degree of dilution of the chemical solutions used on the efficiency of separation, but it is shown that there is a marked decrease in efficiency when solid compounds are used, which is consistent with a hypothesis of Franck and Rabinowitsch (Trans. Faraday Soc. 30, 120(1934)).

  8. Estimation of the polar cap dimensions from photometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besprozvannaya, A.S.; Vorob'ev, V.G.; Ruga, G.N.; Shchuka, T.I.; Yagodkina, O.I.

    1992-01-01

    The moment of crossing near-polar boundary of auroral oval by the is. Heis station (Φ L =74,4 deg) according to simultaneous optical and ionospheric observations during the period, dated 25.12.83-10.01.84, is investigated. It is shown that time of the station appearance in the polar cap area, characterized by decrease in luminescence intensity of the basic auroral emissions by the background one and by appearance in the UT afternoon hours of flat layers, coincide. Correlation coefficient - r=0.95

  9. The structural effects of cap and trade climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettle, Richard J.; Fawcett, Allen A.

    2009-01-01

    The Inter-temporal General Equilibrium Model (IGEM) explores the cost to the U.S. economy of increasingly more stringent cap and trade regimes. The economy-wide losses are small with energy, agriculture, chemicals, high tech manufacturing and trade being most affected. The availability of lower cost offsets substantially reduces these economic losses. The economy becomes less capital but more labor intensive. Household welfare losses are smaller for full consumption (goods, services and leisure). A more inelastic trade-off between consumption and leisure dramatically reduces policy costs as do more favorable revenue recycling options. Induced technical change yields a small, measurable reduction in policy costs. (author)

  10. License - RGP caps | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RGP caps License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2015/05/12 You may use this database...license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database...Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follow...ommons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan is found here . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: ...freely access part or whole of this database, and acquire data; freely redistribute part or whole of the data from this database

  11. Thermodynamics of hydrogen and deuterium solutions in. cap alpha. -zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinokurov, Yu V; Mogutnov, B M [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR)

    1979-09-01

    Interaction of H/sub 2/ and D/sub 2/ with ..cap alpha..-Zr are studied in the 700-890 K temperature range using a high-temperature colorimeter. It is shown that hydrogen and deuterium partial enthalpies in zirconium do not depend on the temperature and concentration and compose -48.9+-1.0 and -46.2+-1.2 kJ/g-at. Calculated is an excess entropy of hydrogen in a solution and analyzed are contributions composing it.

  12. Computed tomography on a defective CANDU fuel pencil end cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, L.R.

    1985-09-01

    Five tomographic slices through a defective end cap from a CANDU fuel pencil have been generated using a Co-60 source and a first generation translate-rotate tomography scanner. An anomaly in the density distribution that is believed to have resulted from the defect has been observed. However, with the 0.30 mm spatial resolution used, it has not been possible to state unequivocally whether the change in density is caused by a defect in the weld or a statistical anomaly in the data. It is concluded that a microtomography system, with a spatial resolution in the range of 0.1 mm, could detect the flaw

  13. Metal-silicon reaction rates - The effects of capping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence is presented showing that the presence of the commonly used anti-reflection coating material Ta2O5 on the free surface of contact metallization can either suppress or enhance, depending on the system, the interaction that takes place at elevated temperatures between the metallization and the underlying Si. The cap layer is shown to suppress both the generation and annihilation of vacancies at the free surface of the metal which are necessary to support metal-Si interactons. Evidence is also presented indicating that the mechanical condition of the free metal surface has a significant effect on the metal-silicon reaction rate.

  14. Analysis of trace and mineral elements in vanilla pods from the region of S.A.V.A using total reflection X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption and ion chromatography techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be, K.

    2013-01-01

    In the case of studies of food security, - arsenic, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, rubidium, selenium, strontium, titanium, zinc - cadmium, lead - are almost always analyzed. Guide values are used to express the level of quality in matter of consumption. Analytical laboratories of Madagascar-INSTN outline usually their research on quantifying those elements by using two different analytical methods, the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence for the first twelve metals and the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry dedicated to lead and cadmium. Supplementary analysis is carried out for the quantification of essential mineral elements such as calcium, magnesium and potassium by using Ion Chromatograph. The aim of this study was to set up the analysis of the above mentioned elements in vanilla pods collected from Sambava, Antalaha and Andapa for a routine use. After all the parameters were established, the validation was particularly focused on the limits of detection and quantification and the accuracy of each element. The used methods fulfil the scope of application needed and are easy to use in routine. [fr

  15. Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Technology Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UCLA-DOE Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Facility provides the UCLA biochemistry community with easy access to sophisticated instrumentation for a wide variety...

  16. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  17. Measurements of Nascent Soot Using a Cavity Attenauted Phase Shift (CAPS)-based Single Scattering Albedo Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, A.; Onasch, T. B.; Renbaum-Wollf, L.; Lambe, A. T.; Davidovits, P.; Kebabian, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate, as compared to precise, measurement of aerosol absorption has always posed a significant problem for the particle radiative properties community. Filter-based instruments do not actually measure absorption but rather light transmission through the filter; absorption must be derived from this data using multiple corrections. The potential for matrix-induced effects is also great for organic-laden aerosols. The introduction of true in situ measurement instruments using photoacoustic or photothermal interferometric techniques represents a significant advance in the state-of-the-art. However, measurement artifacts caused by changes in humidity still represent a significant hurdle as does the lack of a good calibration standard at most measurement wavelengths. And, in the absence of any particle-based absorption standard, there is no way to demonstrate any real level of accuracy. We, along with others, have proposed that under the circumstance of low single scattering albedo (SSA), absorption is best determined by difference using measurement of total extinction and scattering. We discuss a robust, compact, field deployable instrument (the CAPS PMssa) that simultaneously measures airborne particle light extinction and scattering coefficients and thus the single scattering albedo (SSA) on the same sample volume. The extinction measurement is based on cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) techniques as employed in the CAPS PMex particle extinction monitor; scattering is measured using integrating nephelometry by incorporating a Lambertian integrating sphere within the sample cell. The scattering measurement is calibrated using the extinction measurement of non-absorbing particles. For small particles and low SSA, absorption can be measured with an accuracy of 6-8% at absorption levels as low as a few Mm-1. We present new results of the measurement of the mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of soot generated by an inverted methane diffusion flame at 630 nm. A value

  18. Characteristics of protective instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichart, G.

    1982-01-01

    Protective Instrumentation (PI) for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) is a general term for an highly reliable instrumentation, which provides information for keeping the system within safe limits, for initation of countermeasures in the case of an incident or for mitigation of consequences of an accident. In German NPPs one can find a hierarchical structure of protective instrumentation, wherein the Reactor Protection System (RPS) has the highest priority. To meet the reliability requirements different design principles are used, like - redundancy - diversity - fail safe - decoupling. The presentation gives an overview about the different design principles and characterizes their reliability aspects. As an example for the technical realization the RPS of a German NPP is discussed in some detail. Furthermore some information about other type of PI is given and reliability aspects of the interaction of operating personell with these systems are mentioned. (orig.)

  19. Aethalometer™ Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Aethalometer is an instrument that provides a real-time readout of the concentration of “Black” or “Elemental” carbon aerosol particles (BC or E) in an air stream (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). It is a self-contained instrument that measures the rate of change of optical transmission through a spot on a filter where aerosol is being continuously collected and uses the information to calculate the concentration of optically absorbing material in the sampled air stream. The instrument measures the transmitted light intensities through the “sensing” portion of the filter, on which the aerosol spot is being collected, and a “reference” portion of the filter as a check on the stability of the optical source. A mass flowmeter monitors the sample air flow rate. The data from these three measurements is used to determine the mean BC content of the air stream.

  20. The IKARUS instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerster, H.J.; Stein, G.

    1994-01-01

    When the Federal Government decided on a 25% reduction of CO 2 emissions till 2005 in 1990 the necessity resulted that an instrument has to be developed for the analysis and assessment of the ecological, economic and energetic impact of different reduction strategies. The development task was awarded by the BMFT to the Research Centre Juelich in cooperation with well-known institutions of energy system research. The total instrument is scheduled to be finished by the end of 1994. For the decentral use of the instrument by a wide specialist public the developed models and data banks which are equipped with a user-friendly surface are suited for larger PCs (486, 16 MB RAM/500-1000 MB ROM). (orig.) [de