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Sample records for vancomycin mic values

  1. Evaluation of vancomycin MIC creep in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Raquel; Ramalheira, Elmano; Afreixo, Vera; Gago, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    Vancomycin is the primary treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, an increasing proportion of MRSA isolates with high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) within the susceptible range (vancomycin 'MIC creep') is being observed. The aim of this study was to assess the vancomycin MIC distribution for S. aureus isolates over a period of 4 years in Centro Hospitalar Baixo Vouga (Aveiro, Portugal) and to identify differences in vancomycin MIC determined by different susceptibility testing methods. For each S. aureus isolate, the vancomycin MIC was assayed by the VITEK ® 2 automated system and the broth microdilution testing method. The results showed significant differences in vancomycin MIC by different methods (P=0.021, sign test) and did not suggest the presence of vancomycin MIC creep during the study period. Vancomycin MIC creep is a regional problem, therefore it can only be assessed through the evaluation of local susceptibility profiles, and antibiogram based on real MIC assay should be an essential element in local MRSA infection clinical management. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Effectiveness of Vancomycin Versus Daptomycin for MRSA Bacteremia With Vancomycin MIC >1 mg/L: A Multicenter Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Pamela A; Culshaw, Darren L; Wong-Beringer, Annie; Bensman, Joyce; Lamp, Kenneth C; Smith, Winter J; Bauer, Karri; Goff, Debra A; Adamson, Robert; Leuthner, Kimberly; Virata, Michael D; McKinnell, James A; Chaudhry, Saira B; Eskandarian, Romic; Lodise, Thomas; Reyes, Katherine; Zervos, Marcus J

    2016-01-01

    evaluation of daptomycin versus vancomycin for patients with vancomycin-susceptible MRSA bacteremia with vancomycin MIC values >1 µg/mL. Although the overall composite failure rates did not differ between the vancomycin and daptomycin groups when intensively matched according to risks for failure, the rates of acute kidney injury were significantly lower in the daptomycin group. These findings suggest that daptomycin is a useful therapy for clinicians treating patients who have MRSA bacteremia. Prospective, randomized trials should be conducted to better assess the potential significance of elevated vancomycin MIC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of vancomycin MIC creep in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections-a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, R; Afreixo, V; Ramalheira, E; Rodrigues, C; Gago, B

    2018-02-01

    Vancomycin is currently the primary option treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, an increasing number of MRSA isolates with high MICs, within the susceptible range (vancomycin MIC creep), are being reported worldwide. Resorting to a meta-analysis approach, this study aims to assess the evidence of vancomycin MIC creep. We searched for studies in the PubMed database. The inclusion criteria for study eligibility included the possibility of retrieving the reported data values of vancomycin MIC and information concerning the applied MIC methodology. The mean values of vancomycin MICs, of all 29 234 S. aureus isolates reported in the 55 studies included in the meta-analysis, were 1.23 mg/L (95% CI 1.13-1.33) and 1.20 mg/L (95% CI 1.13-1.28) determined by Etest and broth microdilution method, respectively. No significant differences were observed between these two methodologies. We found negative correlation between pooled mean/pooled proportion and time strata. We have found no evidence of the MIC creep phenomenon. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vancomycin AUC/MIC ratio and 30-day mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Natasha E; Turnidge, John D; Munckhof, Wendy J; Robinson, J Owen; Korman, Tony M; O'Sullivan, Matthew V N; Anderson, Tara L; Roberts, Sally A; Warren, Sanchia J C; Gao, Wei; Howden, Benjamin P; Johnson, Paul D R

    2013-04-01

    A ratio of the vancomycin area under the concentration-time curve to the MIC (AUC/MIC) of ≥ 400 has been associated with clinical success when treating Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, and this target was recommended by recently published vancomycin therapeutic monitoring consensus guidelines for treating all serious S. aureus infections. Here, vancomycin serum trough levels and vancomycin AUC/MIC were evaluated in a "real-world" context by following a cohort of 182 patients with S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) and analyzing these parameters within the critical first 96 h of vancomycin therapy. The median vancomycin trough level at this time point was 19.5 mg/liter. There was a significant difference in vancomycin AUC/MIC when using broth microdilution (BMD) compared with Etest MIC (medians of 436.1 and 271.5, respectively; P AUC/MIC of ≥ 400 using BMD was not associated with lower 30-day all-cause or attributable mortality from SAB (P = 0.132 and P = 0.273, respectively). However, an alternative vancomycin AUC/MIC of >373, derived using classification and regression tree analysis, was associated with reduced mortality (P = 0.043) and remained significant in a multivariable model. This study demonstrated that we obtained vancomycin trough levels in the target therapeutic range early during the course of therapy and that obtaining a higher vancomycin AUC/MIC (in this case, >373) within 96 h was associated with reduced mortality. The MIC test method has a significant impact on vancomycin AUC/MIC estimation. Clinicians should be aware that the current target AUC/MIC of ≥ 400 was derived using the reference BMD method, so adjustments to this target need to be made when calculating AUC/MIC ratio using other MIC testing methods.

  5. Balancing vancomycin efficacy and nephrotoxicity: should we be aiming for trough or AUC/MIC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Karisma; Crumby, Ashley S; Maples, Holly D

    2015-04-01

    Sixty years later, the question that still remains is how to appropriately utilize vancomycin in the pediatric population. The Infectious Diseases Society of America published guidelines in 2011 that provide guidance for dosing and monitoring of vancomycin in adults and pediatrics. However, goal vancomycin trough concentrations of 15-20 μg/mL for invasive infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were based primarily on adult pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data that achieved an area under the curve to minimum inhibitory concentration ratio (AUC/MIC) of ≥400. Recent pediatric literature shows that vancomycin trough concentrations needed to achieve the target AUC/MIC are different than the adult goal troughs cited in the guidelines. This paper addresses several thoughts, including the role of vancomycin AUC/MIC in dosing strategies and safety monitoring, consistency in laboratory reporting, and future directions for calculating AUC/MIC in pediatrics.

  6. High MICs for Vancomycin and Daptomycin and Complicated Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections with Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Esther; Chaves, Fernando; Lalueza, Antonio; Fortún, Jesús; Loza, Elena; Pujol, Miquel; Ardanuy, Carmen; Morales, Isabel; de Cueto, Marina; Resino-Foz, Elena; Morales-Cartagena, Alejandra; Rico, Alicia; Romero, María P.; Orellana, María Ángeles; López-Medrano, Francisco; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic role of high MICs for antistaphylococcal agents in patients with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus catheter-related bloodstream infection (MSSA CRBSI). We prospectively reviewed 83 episodes from 5 centers in Spain during April 2011–June 2014 that had optimized clinical management and analyzed the relationship between E-test MICs for vancomycin, daptomycin, oxacillin, and linezolid and development of complicated bacteremia by using multivariate analysis. Complicated MSSA CRBSI occurred in 26 (31.3%) patients; MICs for vancomycin and daptomycin were higher in these patients (optimal cutoff values for predictive accuracy = 1.5 μg/mL and 0.5 μg/mL). High MICs for vancomycin (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–5.5) and daptomycin (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.1–5.9) were independent risk factors for development of complicated MSSA CRBSI. Our data suggest that patients with MSSA CRBSI caused by strains that have high MICs for vancomycin or daptomycin are at increased risk for complications. PMID:27192097

  7. The need to assay the real MIC when making the decision to eradicate Staphylococcus aureus with vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tomczak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was a comparison of the MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration evaluated in the automatic system Vitek 2 and the real MIC of vancomycin by the Etest method for S. aureus strains isolated from clinical materials.Material and Methods: Over a twelve-month study period we compared the results obtained with two commercial methods – the automatic system VITEK 2 and the real MIC by Etest – for 359 strains of S. aureus isolated from clinical materials.Results: Most of the strains of S. aureus were cultured from wounds (84, the ear (60 and nose (42. MSSA (methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 342 cases and MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in 17 cases. The test with the Vitek automatic method showed that vancomycin had MIC values of ≤1.0 μg/ml in more than 96�0and 2.0 μg/ml in over 3�0of cases. Using the Etest technique MIC ≤ 1.0 μg/ml was obtained in only 16.4�0of cases and values of >1.0 μg/ml in 83.6�0of cases.Discussion: In view of such big differences between the MIC values obtained with the two methods the authors suggest that the Etest method of assaying the real MIC is more useful than the automatic method.

  8. Vancomycin AUC/MIC and Corresponding Troughs in a Pediatric Population.

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    Kishk, Omayma A; Lardieri, Allison B; Heil, Emily L; Morgan, Jill A

    2017-01-01

    Adult guidelines suggest an area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) > 400 corresponds to a vancomycin trough serum concentration of 15 to 20 mg/L for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, but obtaining these troughs in children are difficult. The primary objective of this study was to assess the likelihood that 15 mg/kg of vancomycin every 6 hours in a child achieves an AUC/MIC > 400. This retrospective chart review included pediatric patients >2 months to AUCs were calculated four times using three pharmacokinetic methods. A total of 36 patients with 99 vancomycin trough serum concentrations were assessed. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. For troughs in group 1 (n = 55), the probability of achieving an AUC/MIC > 400 ranged from 16.4% to 90.9% with a median trough concentration of 11.4 mg/L, while in group 2 (n = 44) the probability of achieving AUC/MIC > 400 ranged from 15.9% to 54.5% with mean trough concentration of 9.2 mg/L. The AUC/MICs were not similar between the different pharmacokinetic methods used; however, a trapezoidal equation (Method A) yielded the highest correlation coefficient (r 2 = 0.59). When dosing every 6 hours, an AUC/MIC of 400 correlated to a trough serum concentration of 11 mg/L. The probability of achieving an AUC/MIC > 400 using only a trough serum concentration and an MIC with patients receiving 15 mg/kg every 6 hours is variable based on the method used to calculate the AUC. An AUC/MIC of 400 in children correlated to a trough concentration of 11 mg/L using a trapezoidal Method to calculate AUC.

  9. The Relationship Between Vancomycin Trough Concentrations and AUC/MIC Ratios in Pediatric Patients: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

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    Tkachuk, Stacey; Collins, Kyle; Ensom, Mary H H

    2018-04-01

    In adults, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is associated with better clinical and bacteriological response to vancomycin in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus who achieve target AUC/MIC ≥ 400. This target is often extrapolated to pediatric patients despite the lack of similar evidence. The impracticalities of calculating the AUC in practice means vancomycin trough concentrations are used to predict the AUC/MIC. This review aimed to determine the relationship between vancomycin trough concentrations and AUC/MIC in pediatric patients. We searched the MEDLINE and Embase databases, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials using the medical subject heading (MeSH) terms vancomycin and AUC and pediatric* or paediatric*. Articles were included if they were published in English and reported a relationship between vancomycin trough concentrations and AUC/MIC. Of 122 articles retrieved, 11 met the inclusion criteria. One trial reported a relationship between vancomycin trough concentrations, AUC/MIC, and clinical outcomes but was likely underpowered. Five studies found troughs 6-10 mg/l were sufficient to attain an AUC/MIC > 400 in most general hospitalized pediatric patients. One study in patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery found a trough of 18.4 mg/l achieved an AUC/MIC > 400. Two oncology studies reported troughs ≥ 15 mg/l likely attained an AUC/MIC ≥ 400. In critical care patients: one study found a trough of 9 mg/l did not attain the AUC/MIC target; another found 7 mg/l corresponded to an AUC/MIC of 400. Potential vancomycin targets varied based on the population studied but, for general hospitalized pediatric patients, troughs of 6-10 mg/l are likely sufficient to achieve AUC/MIC ≥ 400. For MIC ≥ 2 mg/l, higher troughs are likely necessary to achieve an AUC/MIC ≥ 400. More

  10. Discrepancy in Vancomycin AUC/MIC Ratio Targeted Attainment Based upon the Susceptibility Testing in Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Eum, Seenae; Bergsbaken, Robert L; Harvey, Craig L; Warren, J Bryan; Rotschafer, John C

    2016-09-27

    This study demonstrated a statistically significant difference in vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Staphylococcus aureus between a common automated system (Vitek 2) and the E-test method in patients with S. aureus bloodstream infections. At an area under the serum concentration time curve (AUC) threshold of 400 mg∙h/L, we would have reached the current Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Society of Health System Pharmacists (ASHP)/Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP) guideline suggested AUC/MIC target in almost 100% of patients while using the Vitek 2 MIC data; however, we could only generate 40% target attainment while using E-test MIC data ( p AUC of 450 mg∙h/L or greater was required to achieve 100% target attainment using either Vitek 2 or E-test MIC results.

  11. Relationship between Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-Intermediate S. aureus, High Vancomycin MIC, and Outcome in Serious S. aureus Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Natasha E.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin has been used successfully for over 50 years for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections, particularly those involving methicillin-resistant S. aureus. It has proven remarkably reliable, but its efficacy is now being questioned with the emergence of strains of S. aureus that display heteroresistance, intermediate resistance, and, occasionally, complete vancomycin resistance. More recently, an association has been established between poor outcome and infections with strain...

  12. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations of 15 to 20 mg/L Associated With Increased Attainment of an AUC/MIC ≥ 400 in Patients With Presumed MRSA Infection?

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    Hale, Cory M; Seabury, Robert W; Steele, Jeffrey M; Darko, William; Miller, Christopher D

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether there is an association between higher vancomycin trough concentrations and attainment of a calculated area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥400. A retrospective analysis was conducted among vancomycin-treated adult patients with a positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) culture. Attainment of a calculated AUC/MIC ≥400 was compared between patients with troughs in the reference range of 15 to 20 mg/L and those with troughs in the following ranges: 20 mg/L. Nephrotoxicity was assessed as a secondary outcome based on corrected average vancomycin troughs over 10 days of treatment. Overall, 226 patients were reviewed and 100 included. Relative to troughs ≥10, patients with vancomycin troughs AUC/MIC ≥400 (odds ratio [OR] 0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01-0.75). No difference was found in the attainment of an AUC/MIC ≥400 in patients with troughs of 10 to 14.9 mg/L and >20 mg/L when compared to patients with troughs of 15 to 20 mg/L. The mean corrected average vancomycin trough was higher in patients developing nephrotoxicity compared to those who did not (19.5 vs 14.5 mg/L, P AUC/MIC target relative to troughs of 10 to 14.9 mg/L but may increase nephrotoxicity risk.

  13. Vancomycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killling bacteria in the intestines. Vancomycin will ... part of the body when taken by mouth. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.

  14. AUC/MIC Pharmacodynamic Target Is Not a Good Predictor of Vancomycin Efficacy in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Experimental Endocarditis.

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    Castañeda, Ximena; García-de-la-Mària, Cristina; Gasch, Oriol; Pericas, Juan M; Armero, Yolanda; Soy, Dolors; García-González, Javier; Falces, Carlos; Ninot, Salvador; Almela, Manel; Ambrosioni, Juan; Quintana, Eduardo; Vidal, Barbara; Fuster, David; Llopis, Jaume; Soto, Sara; Moreno, Asuncion; Marco, Francesc; Miró, Jose M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to compare the efficacy of vancomycin at standard doses (VAN-SD) to that of VAN at adjusted doses (VAN-AD) in achieving a VAN area under the curve/MIC ratio (AUC/MIC) of ≥400 against three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with different microdilution VAN MICs in an experimental endocarditis model. The valve vegetation bacterial counts after 48 h of VAN therapy were compared, and no differences were observed between the two treatment groups for any of the three strains tested. Overall, for VAN-SD and VAN-AD, the rates of sterile vegetations were 15/45 (33.3%) and 21/49 (42.8%) ( P = 0.343), while the medians (interquartile ranges [IQRs]) for log 10 CFU/g of vegetation were 2 (0 to 6.9) and 2 (0 to 4.5) ( P = 0.384), respectively. In conclusion, this VAN AUC/MIC pharmacodynamic target was not a good predictor of vancomycin efficacy in MRSA experimental endocarditis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Beta-Lactams combinations with Vancomycin provide synergy against VSSA, hVISA, and VISA.

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    Tran, Kieu-Nhi; Rybak, Michael J

    2018-03-19

    Background: Increasing utilization of vancomycin due to the high prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections has lead to the emergence of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and heterogeneous VISA (hVISA). In vitro data suggest the potential for potent synergy between several beta-lactams and vancomycin. The objective of this study is to evaluate the synergy between beta-lactams and vancomycin against MRSA that is vancomycin susceptible, vancomycin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA), hVISA, and VISA. Methods: Fifty randomly selected clinical MRSA strains with varying susceptibility to vancomycin were evaluated for vancomycin alone and vancomycin in combination with varying concentrations of cefazolin (CFZ), cefepime (FEP), ceftaroline (CPT), and nafcillin (NAF) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The potential for synergy was assessed by 24h time-kills. Results: Beta-lactams reduced vancomycin MIC values against all strains (4-16 fold reduction). In time-kill studies against MRSA, CFZ, FEP, CPT, and NAF all demonstrated a similar extent of killing at 24h, and all showed synergistic activity with vancomycin against VSSA, hVISA, and VISA. Each of these combinations was also superior to any single agent against isolates of all three phenotypes, and each was bactericidal (P synergy of vancomycin against these Staphylococcus strains. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol.

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    Smith, P; Endris, R; Kronvall, G; Thomas, V; Verner-Jeffreys, D; Wilhelm, C; Dalsgaard, I

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values were developed for application to antibiotic susceptibility data for Flavobacterium psychrophilum generated by standard CLSI test protocols. The MIC values for ten antibiotic agents against Flavobacterium psychrophilum were determined in two laboratories. For five antibiotics, the data sets were of sufficient quality and quantity to allow the setting of valid epidemiological cut-off values. For these agents, the cut-off values, calculated by the application of the statistically based normalized resistance interpretation method, were ≤16 mg L(-1) for erythromycin, ≤2 mg L(-1) for florfenicol, ≤0.025 mg L(-1) for oxolinic acid (OXO), ≤0.125 mg L(-1) for oxytetracycline and ≤20 (1/19) mg L(-1) for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, the majority of putative wild-type observations were 'off scale', and therefore, statistically valid cut-off values could not be calculated. For ormetoprim/sulphadimethoxine, the data were excessively diverse and a valid cut-off could not be determined. For flumequine, the putative wild-type data were extremely skewed, and for enrofloxacin, there was inadequate separation in the MIC values for putative wild-type and non-wild-type strains. It is argued that the adoption of OXO as a class representative for the quinolone group would be a valid method of determining susceptibilities to these agents. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. An investigation of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration creep among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from pediatric patients and healthy children in Northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ning; Lo, Wen-Tsung; Chan, Ming-Chin; Yu, Ching-Mei; Wang, Chih-Chien

    2017-06-01

    The phenomenon of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep is an increasingly serious problem in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. In this study, we investigated the vancomycin and daptomycin MIC values of MRSA strains isolated from pediatric patients and MRSA colonized healthy children. Then, we assessed whether there was evidence of clonal dissemination for strains with an MIC to vancomycin of ≥ 1.5 μg/mL. We collected clinical MRSA isolates from pediatric patients and from healthy children colonized with MRSA during 2008-2012 at a tertiary medical center in northern Taiwan and obtained vancomycin and daptomycin MIC values using the Etest method. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec) typing were used to assess clonal dissemination for strains with an MIC to vancomycin of ≥ 1.5 μg/mL. A total 195 MRSA strains were included in this study; 87 were isolated patients with a clinical MRSA infection, and the other 108 strains from nasally colonized healthy children. Vancomycin MIC≥1.5 μg/mL was seen in more clinical isolates (60/87, 69%) than colonized isolates (32/108, 29.6%), p < 0.001. The PFGE typing of both strains revealed multiple pulsotypes. Vancomycin MIC creeps existed in both clinical MRSA isolates and colonized MRSA strains. Great diversity of PFGE typing was in both strains collected. There was no association between the clinical and colonized MRSA isolates with vancomycin MIC creep. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Vancomycin graft composite for infected bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, H.; Janata, O.; Georgopoulos, A.

    1999-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery under septic conditions represents a major challenge in orthopaedics. Local application of antibiotics can provide high drug levels at the site of infection without systemic effects. However, removal of non-resorbable implants and filling of defects usually requires additional operative procedures. An ideal antibiotic carrier should provide for : 1) Effective bactericidal activity, especially against staphylococci including MRSA; 2) High and long lasting levels at the site of infection without local or systemic toxicity; 3) Repair of defects without a second stage procedure. Allogeneic cancellous bone is proven to be effective in restoration of bone stock. Vancomycin is effective against all gram-positive populations and the agent of choice for infections with MRSA. The aim of our study is to investigate the efficacy of a combination of both components in bone infection. Cancellous bone of human origin was processed during several steps and incubated in 10% vancomycin solution. The antimicrobial activity of the vancomycin graft composite (VGC) was evaluated using an agar diffusion bioassay against staphylococcus aureus and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The testing period was up to 9 weeks. Elution of vancomycin from the graft was evaluated in 2.5% human albumin solution, which was exchanged every 24 hours. Concentration of vancomycin in allograft-bone was between 6.653[tg/g and 23.194gg/g with an average of 15.250 [tg/g, which is equivalent to 10.000 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for s. aureus. The initial activity decreased to approx. 50% during the first week and approx. 30% at the end of the 9th week. The lowest values measured exceeded the MIC by 2000 times. Concentration in surrounding fluid decreased from 24.395,80 to 18,43pg/ml after 11 complete exchanges. Human cancellous bone, processed in an adequate way, offers capability to store high quantities of vancomycin. Vancomycin graft composites are

  19. Continuous infusion of vancomycin : Effective, efficient and safe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Maarseveen, E.; Touw, D.; Bouma, A.; Van Zanten, A.

    Aims: Vancomycin is an antibiotic which is used in (suspected or proven) bacteriaemia, peritonitis or osteomyelitis with grampositive micro-organisms. Currently in most Dutch hospitals vancomycin is administered as an intermittent infusion. As the killing of vancomycin is dependent of the AUC/MIC

  20. An investigation of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration creep among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from pediatric patients and healthy children in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ning Chang

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Vancomycin MIC creeps existed in both clinical MRSA isolates and colonized MRSA strains. Great diversity of PFGE typing was in both strains collected. There was no association between the clinical and colonized MRSA isolates with vancomycin MIC creep.

  1. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, P.; Endris, R.; Kronvall, G.

    2016-01-01

    -1 for florfenicol, ≤0.025 mg L-1 for oxolinic acid (OXO), ≤0.125 mg L-1 for oxytetracycline and ≤20 (1/19) mg L-1 for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, the majority of putative wild-type observations were 'off scale', and therefore, statistically valid cut-off values...

  2. Evaluating the Relationship between Vancomycin Trough Concentration and 24-Hour Area under the Concentration-Time Curve in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Sheng-Hsuan; Lim, Chuan Poh; Chen, Qi; Tang, Cheng Cai; Kong, Sing Teang; Ho, Paul Chi-Lui

    2018-04-01

    Bacterial sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, especially those involving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommend the vancomycin 24-h area under the concentration-time curve to MIC ratio (AUC 24 /MIC) of >400 as the best predictor of successful treatment against MRSA infections when the MIC is ≤1 mg/liter. The relationship between steady-state vancomycin trough concentrations and AUC 24 values (mg·h/liter) has not been studied in an Asian neonatal population. We conducted a retrospective chart review in Singapore hospitals and collected patient characteristics and therapeutic drug monitoring data from neonates on vancomycin therapy over a 5-year period. A one-compartment population pharmacokinetic model was built from the collected data, internally validated, and then used to assess the relationship between steady-state trough concentrations and AUC 24 A Monte Carlo simulation sensitivity analysis was also conducted. A total of 76 neonates with 429 vancomycin concentrations were included for analysis. Median (interquartile range) was 30 weeks (28 to 36 weeks) for postmenstrual age (PMA) and 1,043 g (811 to 1,919 g) for weight at the initiation of treatment. Vancomycin clearance was predicted by weight, PMA, and serum creatinine. For MRSA isolates with a vancomycin MIC of ≤1, our major finding was that the minimum steady-state trough concentration range predictive of achieving an AUC 24 /MIC of >400 was 8 to 8.9 mg/liter. Steady-state troughs within 15 to 20 mg/liter are unlikely to be necessary to achieve an AUC 24 /MIC of >400, whereas troughs within 10 to 14.9 mg/liter may be more appropriate. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  4. Vancomycin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus


    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Will A.; Malachowa, Natalia; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus during the modern antibiotic era has been delineated by distinct strain emergence events, many of which include acquisition of antibiotic resistance. The relative high burden of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in healthcare and community settings is a major concern worldwide. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits cell wall biosynthesis, remains a drug of choice for treatment of severe MRSA infections. S. aureus strains exhibiting increased resistance to vancomycin, known as vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) (MIC = 4-8 µg/mL), were discovered in the 1990s. The molecular basis of resistance in VISA is polygenic and involves stepwise mutations in genes encoding molecules predominantly involved in cell envelope biosynthesis. S. aureus isolates with complete resistance to vancomycin (MIC ≥ 16 µg/mL) are termed vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA)—they were first reported in the U.S. in 2002. Resistance in VRSA is conferred by the vanA gene and operon, which is present on a plasmid. Although treatment of VRSA infections is challenging, the total number of human VRSA infections to date is limited (14 in the U.S.). By comparison, the burden of VISA is relatively high and the molecular mechanisms of resistance are less well-defined. VISA are associated with persistent infections, vancomycin treatment failure, and poor clinical outcomes. Here, we review in brief progress made toward understanding the acquisition of antibiotic resistance in S. aureus, with an emphasis on the molecular mechanisms underlying vancomycin resistance. PMID:28656013

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile using EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values and disk diffusion correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, L T; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Kahlmeter, G

    2012-01-01

    towards metronidazole, vancomycin and moxifloxacin on Brucella Blood Agar supplemented with hemin and vitamin K. We found an excellent agreement between inhibition zone diameter and MICs. For each MIC value, the inhibition zones varied from 0 to 8 mm, with 93% of values within 6 mm for metronidazole, 95...

  6. Multicenter evaluation of MIC distributions for epidemiologic cutoff value definition to detect amphotericin B, posaconazole, and itraconazole resistance among the most clinically relevant species of Mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Chakrabarti, A; Chowdhary, A; Cordoba, S; Dannaoui, E; Dufresne, P; Fothergill, A; Ghannoum, M; Gonzalez, G M; Guarro, J; Kidd, S; Lass-Flörl, C; Meis, J F; Pelaez, T; Tortorano, A M; Turnidge, J

    2015-03-01

    Clinical breakpoints (CBPs) have not been established for the Mucorales and any antifungal agent. In lieu of CBPs, epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) are proposed for amphotericin B, posaconazole, and itraconazole and four Mucorales species. Wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined with available pooled CLSI MICs from 14 laboratories (Argentina, Australia, Canada, Europe, India, Mexico, and the United States) as follows: 10 Apophysomyces variabilis, 32 Cunninghamella bertholletiae, 136 Lichtheimia corymbifera, 10 Mucor indicus, 123 M. circinelloides, 19 M. ramosissimus, 349 Rhizopus arrhizus, 146 R. microsporus, 33 Rhizomucor pusillus, and 36 Syncephalastrum racemosum isolates. CLSI broth microdilution MICs were aggregated for the analyses. ECVs comprising ≥95% and ≥97.5% of the modeled populations were as follows: amphotericin B ECVs for L. corymbifera were 1 and 2 μg/ml, those for M. circinelloides were 1 and 2 μg/ml, those for R. arrhizus were 2 and 4 μg/ml, and those for R. microsporus were 2 and 2 μg/ml, respectively; posaconazole ECVs for L. corymbifera were 1 and 2, those for M. circinelloides were 4 and 4, those for R. arrhizus were 1 and 2, and those for R. microsporus were 1 and 2, respectively; both itraconazole ECVs for R. arrhizus were 2 μg/ml. ECVs may aid in detecting emerging resistance or isolates with reduced susceptibility (non-WT MICs) to the agents evaluated. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Activity of vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin against staphylococci and enterococci isolated in 5 Greek hospitals during a 5-year period (2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Matthaios; Kolonitsiou, Fevronia; Zerva, Loukia; Lebessi, Evangelia; Koutsia, Chryssa; Drougka, Eleanna; Sarrou, Styliani; Giormezis, Nikolaos; Vourli, Sofia; Doudoulakakis, Anastassios; Konsolakis, Christos; Marangos, Markos; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Petinaki, Efthimia; Spiliopoulou, Iris

    2015-12-01

    The tendency of vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin MICs was investigated among 6920 staphylococci and enterococci during a 5-year period. Antimicrobial consumption was determined. Decrease of vancomycin MIC was detected associated with reduction in consumption. Linezolid and daptomycin remained active. An upward trend of linezolid MIC for methicillin-resistant staphylococci was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MDS MIC Catalog Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Vowell, C. W.; Smith, Byron; Darcy, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the inputs to the MDS Medical Information Communique (MIC) catalog. The purpose of the group is to provide input for updating the MDS MIC Catalog and to request that MMOP assign Action Item to other working groups and FSs to support the MITWG Process for developing MIC-DDs.

  9. Attempt to validate breakpoint MIC values estimated from pharmacokinetic data obtained during oxolinic acid therapy of winter ulcer disease in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coyne, R.; Bergh, Ø.; Samuelsen, O.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of oxolinic acid (OXA) were measured in the plasma, muscle, liver, and kidney of 48 Atlantic salmons (Salmo salar) 1 day after the end of an oral administration. OXA was administered over a period of 13 days to control an outbreak of winter ulcer disease in a commercial marine farm...... administration of OXA. A numerical description of the concentration of the antimicrobial agent achieved in therapy is necessary to determine the resistance or sensitivity of the bacteria involved in the infection. The degree of fish-to-fish variation in the concentrations of OXA, both within the healthy fish...... a useful parameter for describing the concentrations of agents achieved during therapy. The plasma data from this investigation were used to estimate clinically relevant breakpoint minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The validity of these breakpoint values was discussed with reference...

  10. Influence of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration on the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Alex; Marco, Francesc; Martínez, José A; Pisos, Elena; Almela, Manel; Dimova, Veselka P; Alamo, Dolores; Ortega, Mar; Lopez, Josefina; Mensa, Josep

    2008-01-15

    Vancomycin treatment failure in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is not uncommon, even when MRSA is susceptible to vancomycin. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration has any influence on the mortality associated with MRSA bacteremia. A total of 414 episodes of MRSA bacteremia were prospectively followed-up from 1991 through 2005. MIC of vancomycin for the first isolate was determined by E-test. Clinical variables recorded were age, comorbidity, prior administration of vancomycin, use of corticosteroids, prognosis of underlying disease, source of bacteremia, the need for mechanical ventilation, shock, and mortality. A "treatment group" variable was created and defined as follows: (1) receipt of empirical vancomycin and an isolate with a vancomycin MIC of 1 microg/mL (38 episodes), (2) receipt of empirical vancomycin and an isolate with a vancomycin MIC of 1.5 microg/mL (90 episodes), (3) receipt of empirical vancomycin and an isolate with a vancomycin MIC of 2 microg/mL (40 episodes), and (4) receipt of inappropriate empirical therapy (246 episodes). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Episodes caused by strains with a vancomycin MIC of 2 microg/mL were independently associated with a lower risk of shock (odds ratio [OR], 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-0.75). Multivariate analysis selected receipt of empirical vancomycin and an isolate with a vancomycin MIC of 2 microg/mL (OR, 6.39; 95% CI, 1.68-24.3), receipt of inappropriate empirical therapy (OR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.20-10.9), increasing age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.04), use of corticosteroids (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.04-3.29), an ultimately (OR, 10.2; 95% CI, 2.85-36.8) or rapidly (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.06-3.10) fatal underlying disease, high-risk (OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.89-6.88) and intermediate-risk (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.17-4.04) sources of bacteremia, and shock (OR, 7.38; 95% CI, 4.11-13.3) as the best predictors of

  11. In Vitro Activity of Ertapenem versus Ceftriaxone against Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates with Highly Diverse Ceftriaxone MIC Values and Effects of Ceftriaxone Resistance Determinants: Ertapenem for Treatment of Gonorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Daniel; Limnios, Athena; Whiley, David; Ohnishi, Makoto; Lahra, Monica M.; Tapsall, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical resistance to the currently recommended extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), the last remaining treatment options for gonorrhea, is being reported. Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are crucial. We investigated the in vitro activity of ertapenem, relative to ceftriaxone, against N. gonorrhoeae isolates and the effects of ESC resistance determinants on ertapenem. MICs were determined using agar dilution technique or Etest for international reference strains (n = 17) and clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 257), which included the two extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with high ESC MICs, clinical ESC resistance, and other types of clinical high-level and multidrug resistance (MDR). Genetic resistance determinants for ESCs (penA, mtrR, and penB) were sequenced. In general, the MICs of ertapenem (MIC50 = 0.032 μg/ml; MIC90 = 0.064 μg/ml) paralleled those of ceftriaxone (MIC50 = 0.032 μg/ml; MIC90 = 0.125 μg/ml). The ESC resistance determinants mainly increased the ertapenem MIC and ceftriaxone MIC at similar levels. However, the MIC ranges for ertapenem (0.002 to 0.125 μg/ml) and ceftriaxone (gonorrhea, particularly for the currently identified ESC-resistant cases and possibly in a dual antimicrobial therapy regimen. However, further knowledge regarding the genetic determinants (and their evolution) conferring resistance to both antimicrobials, and clear correlates between genetic and phenotypic laboratory parameters and clinical treatment outcomes, is essential. PMID:22547617

  12. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  13. Comparison of EUCAST and CLSI Reference Microdilution MICs of Eight Antifungal Compounds for Candida auris and Associated Tentative Epidemiological Cutoff Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M. C.; Prakash, Anupam; Meletiadis, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    ) and lowest for isavuconazole and anidulafungin (58%/76% to 75% within ±1/±2 dilutions). We found that 90.2%/100% of the isolates were amphotericin B susceptible based on CLSI/EUCAST methods, respectively (i.e., with MICs of ≤1 mg/liter), and 100%/97.6% were fluconazole nonsusceptible by CLSI/EUCAST (MICs > 2......, the estimated ECOFFs were dependent on the method applied for voriconazole (1 to 32) and isavuconazole (0.125 to 4). CLSI and EUCAST MICs were remarkably similar and confirmed uniform fluconazole resistance and variable acquired resistance to the other agents....

  14. [Microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of vancomycin-dependent enterococci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Keumrock; Sung, Heungsup; Namgoong, Seung; Yoon, Nam Surp; Kim, Mi-Na

    2009-08-01

    Vancomycin-dependent enterococci (VDE) are clinically equivalent to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), but more difficult to detect. This study was purposed to characterize VDE microbiologically and epidemiologically. The patients from whom VDE were detected from April 2007 to March 2008 were investigated. For available isolates, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of and the levels of dependence on vancomycin and teicoplanin were measured by E test (AB Biodisk, Sweden), and a test for reversion of VDE to non-dependent VRE (NDVRE) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. Patients' demographic and clinical findings were reviewed via electronic medical records. VDE were recovered from 6 (2.2%) of 272 patients carrying VRE during this study period. All patients were already colonized or infected by VRE and treated with vancomycin for 13 to 107 days. VDE were isolated from pleural fluid (one), urine (four), and stool (one). All isolates carried vanA with vancomycin MICs of >256 microg/mL, but two of them had intermediate susceptibilities to teicoplanin. Because 4 VDE isolates were reverted to NDVRE with single passage, vancomycin dependence was measurable for only two isolates as equal and above 0.064 and 0.5 microg/mL respectively, and was reverted after 5 and 7 passages, respectively. Six VDE isolates showed no related clones in PFGE analysis, and 3 of 4 available pairs of initial VRE isolates and subsequent VDE isolates were identical clones. VDE were not rare and seemed to emerge independently from VRE with a prolonged use of vancomycin. Vancomycin-dependence was reverted within several passages.

  15. Genomic organization of a vancomycin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirani, A.Z.; Jamil, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the genomic organization of vancomycin resistance in a local isolate of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA). Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, January 2008 through December 2010. Methodology: A vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA-CP2) isolate (MIC 16 mu g/ml) was isolated from a local hospital of Karachi. Species identification was confirmed by Gram staining, standard biochemical tests and PCR amplification of the nuc gene. The vancomycin MIC was re-confirmed by E-test. For the genetic determination of vancomycin resistance, in-vitro amplification of vanA cassette was performed by using plasmid DNA of CP2, CP2's transformant as template on MWG Thermo-Cycler. Amplified products of vanR, vanS, vanH, vanA, vanY, orf2, orf1D, orf2E, orf-Rev and IS element genes were subjected to Sanger's electrophoresis based sequence determination using specific primers. The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) algorithm was used to identify sequences in GenBank with similarities to the vanA cassette genes. Results: The vancomycin-resistant isolate CP2 was found to be resistant to oxacillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampicin, gentamicin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, as well. The isolate CP2 revealed four bands: one of large molecular size approx 56.4 kb and three of small size approx 6.5 kb, approx 6.1 kb and approx 1.5 kb by agarose gel electrophoresis indicating the presence of 3 plasmids. The plasmid DNA of isolate CP2 was analyzed by PCR for the presence of the van cassettes with each of the vanA , vanB and vanC specific primers. It carried vanA cassette, which comprises of vanR, vanS, vanH, vanA, vanY, and orf2. The vanA cassette of isolate CP2 also carried an insertion element (IS). However, it did not show the PCR product for orf1. Vancomycin resistance was successfully transferred from the donor CP2 to a vancomycin-sensitive recipient S

  16. Derivatives of a vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain isolated at Hershey Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Bülent; Ednie, Lois; Credito, Kim; Kosowska, Klaudia; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2004-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibilities and genetic relatedness of the vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain (VRSA) isolated at Hershey, Pa. (VRSA Hershey), and its vancomycin-susceptible and high-level-resistant derivatives were studied and compared to 32 methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) isolated from patients and medical staff in contact with the VRSA patient. Derivatives of VRSA were obtained by subculturing six VRSA colonies from the original culture with or without vancomycin. Ten days of drug-free subculture caused the loss of vanA in two vancomycin-susceptible derivatives for which vancomycin MICs were 1 to 4 microg/ml. Multistep selection of three VRSA clones with vancomycin for 10 days increased vancomycin MICs from 32 to 1,024 to 2,048 microg/ml. MICs of teicoplanin, dalbavancin, and oritavancin were also increased from 4, 0.5, and 0.12 to 64, 1, and 32 microg/ml, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing analysis indicated that VRSA Hershey was the vanA-acquired variety of a common MRSA clone in our hospital with sequence type 5 (ST5). Three of five vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strains tested from geographically different areas were also ST5, and the Michigan VRSA was ST371, a one-allele variant of ST5. Derivatives of VRSA Hershey had differences in PFGE profiles and the size of SmaI fragment that carries the vanA gene cluster, indicating instability of this cluster in VRSA Hershey. However induction with vancomycin increased glycopeptide MICs and stabilized the resistance.

  17. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-11-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and broth microdilution procedures. Repeat testing of isolates by macro- and microdilution synergy methods yielded MICs that were within one twofold dilution of each other for both intra- and intertest comparisons. Synergy was always detected by time-kill studies when the MIC of ampicillin in the combination synergy screen was 16 micrograms/ml in the combination microdilution synergy screen. The determination of the synergy by the broth microdilution procedure appears to be simple, convenient, and accurate.

  18. Growing interest in MIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, J.R.; Little, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Although corrosion has not caused a major nuclear accident, it has resulted in degraded nuclear systems and components, unscheduled shut-downs and loss of productivity. From 1981 to 1988, operating and maintenance costs for nuclear plants more than doubled, while plant capacity increased by only 10%. And as nuclear plants age, service water system problems cause losses in capacity. Many corrosion failures in these systems cannot be understood, controlled or prevented using theories based on classic, abiotic corrosion mechanisms. But research has now identified microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC - corrosion caused by the presence and activities of micro-organisms within biofilms on metals surfaces) as the cause of otherwise unexplained corrosion failures. Some prevention and control measures are examined. (author)

  19. Frequency of Reduced Vancomycin Susceptibility among Clinical Staphylococcus aureus Isolated in Ahvaz Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Moosavian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:   One   of   the   most   important   agents   in   hospital-acquired   infections   is Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA infections with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin has recently been more difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible presence of vancomycin intermediate S. aureus (VISA and vancomycin- resistant S. aureus (VRSA and also to determine the frequency of MRSA in clinical specimens.Methods: In this study, 195 S. aureus isolates were collected from the patients were examined. All of the isolates were identified using standard biochemical tests.  Susceptibility of S. aureus isolates against 10 antibiotics was detected by disk diffusion method and was followed by E-test and vancomycin screen agar methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of vancomycin was determined according to the CLSI guidelines.  Also, detection of mecA gene was performed by PCR and finally, the results were compared.Results: All of the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin (i.e. MIC range of vancomycin was between 0.25-2 µg/ml. Out of 195 S. aureus isolates, 99 isolates (50.8% were resistant to methicillin, and mecA gene was detected in 96 isolates. These results also showed that the highest and lowest resistance rate of isolates was to penicillin (96.9% and chloramphenicol (0%, respectively.Conclusion: Our findings showed that vancomycin can still be used as a valuable drug for treatment of S. aureus infections in our region. However, periodic evaluation of vancomycin MIC of S. aureus isolates is critical for monitoring MRSA and preventing the spread of VISA or VRSA among patients.

  20. Reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and biofilm formation in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Pinheiro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to correlate the presence of ica genes, biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance in 107 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from blood cultures. The isolates were analysed to determine their methicillin resistance, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec type, ica genes and biofilm formation and the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was measured for isolates and subpopulations growing on vancomycin screen agar. The mecA gene was detected in 81.3% of the S. epidermidis isolated and 48.2% carried SCCmec type III. The complete icaADBC operon was observed in 38.3% of the isolates; of these, 58.5% produced a biofilm. Furthermore, 47.7% of the isolates grew on vancomycin screen agar, with an increase in the MIC in 75.9% of the isolates. Determination of the MIC of subpopulations revealed that 64.7% had an MIC ≥ 4 μg mL-1, including 15.7% with an MIC of 8 μg mL-1 and 2% with an MIC of 16 μg mL-1. The presence of the icaADBC operon, biofilm production and reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were associated with methicillin resistance. This study reveals a high level of methicillin resistance, biofilm formation and reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in subpopulations of S. epidermidis. These findings may explain the selection of multidrug-resistant isolates in hospital settings and the consequent failure of antimicrobial treatment.

  1. Heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate susceptibility in a community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemic clone, in a case of Infective Endocarditis in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindel Ana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA has traditionally been related to skin and soft tissue infections in healthy young patients. However, it has now emerged as responsible for severe infections worldwide, for which vancomycin is one of the mainstays of treatment. Infective endocarditis (IE due to CA-MRSA with heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate susceptibility-(h-VISA has been recently reported, associated to an epidemic USA 300 CA-MRSA clone. Case Presentation We describe the occurrence of h-VISA phenotype in a case of IE caused by a strain belonging to an epidemic CA-MRSA clone, distinct from USA300, for the first time in Argentina. The isolate h-VISA (SaB2 was recovered from a patient with persistent bacteraemia after a 7-day therapy with vancomycin, which evolved to fatal case of IE complicated with brain abscesses. The initial isolate-(SaB1 was fully vancomycin susceptible (VSSA. Although MRSA SaB2 was vancomycin susceptible (≤2 μg/ml by MIC (agar and broth dilution, E-test and VITEK 2, a slight increase of MIC values between SaB1 and SaB2 isolates was detected by the four MIC methods, particularly for teicoplanin. Moreover, Sab2 was classified as h-VISA by three different screening methods [MHA5T-screening agar, Macromethod-E-test-(MET and by GRD E-test] and confirmed by population analysis profile-(PAP. In addition, a significant increase in cell-wall thickness was revealed for SaB2 by electron microscopy. Molecular typing showed that both strains, SaB1 and SaB2, belonged to ST5 lineage, carried SCCmecIV, lacked Panton-Valentine leukocidin-(PVL genes and had indistinguishable PFGE patterns (subtype I2, thereby confirming their isogenic nature. In addition, they were clonally related to the epidemic CA-MRSA clone (pulsotype I detected in our country. Conclusions This report demonstrates the ability of this epidemic CA-MRSA clone, disseminated in some regions of Argentina, to

  2. Vancomycin, linezolid and daptomycin susceptibility pattern among clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA from Sub- Himalyan Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Husain

    2018-01-01

    CONCLUSION: MIC creep was observed with vancomycin. Although linezolid MIC was within the susceptible zone, more than 40% strains showing MIC 3 μg/ml may herald the future development of either resistant or heteroresistant. Daptomycin showed good sensitivity against MRSA isolates. Therefore, it could be considered as an alternative agent for the treatment of infections caused by MRSA. However, it should be reserved where this class has a clear therapeutic advantage over other anti-MRSA drugs.

  3. AUC versus peak-trough dosing of vancomycin: applying new pharmacokinetic paradigms to an old drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel L; Lalla, Christina D; Masselink, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    To compare and contrast the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic foundations of traditional "peak-trough" vancomycin dosing methods versus newer "area under the curve" (AUC) strategies. To propose a new AUC-based dosing chart for empirically determining an initial vancomycin dosing regimen designed to achieve a desired AUC24 using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), creatinine clearance (CrCl), and vancomycin clearance (ClVanco). Peak-trough vancomycin dosing is designed to achieve a Cpeak of 20-40 mg/L and a Ctrough of 10-15 or 15-20 mg/L, depending on the severity of the infection and the nature of the pathogen. New treatment guidelines for vancomycin suggest that therapy should achieve an AUC24/MIC of ≥400. AUC-based vancomycin dosing derives the daily dose from ClVanco, MIC, and the desired AUC24/MIC, without consideration of the patient's weight. A vancomycin dosing chart is proposed that estimates ClVanco using the following formula developed by Matzke et al: ClVanco in L/h = [(CrClmL/min × 0.689) + 3.66] × 0.06, which simplifies to (CrClmL/min × 0.41) + 0.22. Two levels of dosing are included-high dose (Ctrough: 15-20 mg/L) and moderate dose (Ctrough: 10-15 mg/L). Although the chart has not been validated clinically, it represents the product of standard dosing equations that are used to determine a starting dosing regimen based on well-established vancomycin pharmacokinetic parameters. An understanding of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles, including the relevance of AUC in relation to MIC, enables clinicians to make the best use of vancomycin dosing options. The proposed dosing chart is pharmacokinetically valid but has yet to be applied clinically. It provides a foundation for further study of how clinicians can determine an optimal AUC-based starting vancomycin dosing regimen without having to derive ClVanco or AUC24.

  4. Is Vancomycine Still a Choice for Chronic Osteomyelitis Empirical Therapy in Iran?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Morteza; Zamani, Mohammad Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed Ahmad; Sadat, Seyed Mir Mostafa; Siami, Zeinab; Vais Ahmadi, Noushin; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Shirvani, Shahram; Majidi Fard, Mojgan; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background Pyogenic bacteria and especially Staphylococcus aurous (S. aurous) are the most common cause of chronic osteomyelitis. Not only treatment protocol of chronic osteomyelitis occasionally is amiss but also this malady responds to treatment difficultly. Objectives This study investigates antibiotic resistance pattern of S. aurous isolated from Iranian patients who suffer from chronic osteomyelitis by two methods: disk diffusion (Kirby bauyer) and E-test (Epsilometer test) to find Vancomycin susceptibility and MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration). Patients and Methods One hundred and thirty one patients who suffer from chronic osteomyelitis which have been referred to both governmental and private hospitals at 2010 were tried out for culturing of osteomyelitis site (sites). Antibiotic susceptibility and MIC of isolated bacteria were investigated by Kirby bauyer and E-test respectively. Results Samples were collected from bone (73.4%), surrounding tissue (14.6%) and wound discharge (12%). S. aureus was isolated from 49.6% of the samples. According to disc diffusion, methicillin resistance S. aureus (MRSA) was 75% and Vancomycin resistance S. aurous (VRSA) was 0% and based on MIC, MRSA was 68.5% and VRSA was 0%. According to MIC experiments, maximum sensitivity was against to Vancomycin (90.2%) and ciprofloxacin (54.4%) respectively but based on disc diffusion, maximum sensitivity was against to Vancomycin (97.7%) and ciprofloxacin (43.2%), respectively (P = 0.001). E-test (9.8%) in comparison with Disc diffusion (2.3%) showed higher percent of intermediate susceptibility to Vancomycin (P = 0.017). Conclusions Comparison of antibiograms and MICs showed that Kirby bauyer technique especially for detection of VISA strains is not reliable comparison with E-test. Already VRSA strains have not detected in Iranian chronic osteomyelitis, Thus Vancomycin is the first choice for chronic osteomyelitis empirical therapy in Iran yet. PMID:23483042

  5. In Vitro Synergistic Effects of Double and Triple Combinations of β-Lactams, Vancomycin, and Netilmicin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon-Edouard, Stéphanie; Pestel-Caron, Martine; Lemeland, Jean-François; Caron, François

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have previously reported synergistic effects between vancomycin and a given β-lactam or a given aminoglycoside against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. The aim of our study was to exhaustively compare the effects of different combinations of a β-lactam, vancomycin, and/or an aminoglycoside against 32 clinical MRSA strains with different aminoglycoside susceptibility patterns. The effects of 26 different β-lactam–vancomycin and 8 different aminoglycoside-vancomycin combinations were first studied using a disk diffusion screening method. The best interactions with vancomycin were observed with either imipenem, cefazolin, or netilmicin. By checkerboard studies, imipenem-vancomycin and cefazolin-vancomycin each provided a synergistic bacteriostatic effect against 22 strains; the mean fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indexes were 0.35 and 0.46 for imipenem-vancomycin and cefazolin-vancomycin, respectively. The vancomycin-netilmicin combination provided an indifferent effect against all of the 32 strains tested; the mean of FIC index was 1.096. The mean concentrations of imipenem, cefazolin, netilmicin, and vancomycin at which FIC indexes were calculated were clinically achievable. Killing experiments were then performed using imipenem, cefazolin, netilmicin, and vancomycin at one-half of the MIC, alone and in different combinations, against 10 strains. The vancomycin-netilmicin regimen was rarely bactericidal, even against strains susceptible to netilmicin. The imipenem-vancomycin and cefazolin-vancomycin combinations were strongly bactericidal against six and five strains, respectively. The addition of netilmicin markedly enhanced the killing activity of the combination of cefazolin or imipenem plus vancomycin, but only for the MRSA strains against which the β-lactam–vancomycin combinations had no bactericidal effect. It is noteworthy that the latter strains were both susceptible to netilmicin and

  6. Study on the susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis from infectious processes to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Genaro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is considered a pathogen responsible for hospital infections and, due to its frequent multi-resistant profile, has caused preoccupations among many medical authorities. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 74 strains isolated from blood cultures and purulent secretions to vancomycin and ciprofloxacin through the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC by using the Microdilution test. The results showed a greater efficacy of vancomycin compared to ciprofloxacin (98.6% of the strains were inhibited by vancomycin at lower concentrations: 0.06 - 1 µg/ml. However, in the MBC analysis 73% of the strains showed a MBC of vancomycin only at high concentrations (equal to or higher than 64 µg/ml. For ciprofloxacin, the strains showed a broad sensitivity with MICs and MBCs distributed along all the MIC classes. Results also revealed a probability that some strains are tolerant to vancomycin, which indicates the need of other tests to confirm this characteristic.

  7. AUC-Guided Vancomycin Dosing in Adolescent Patients With Suspected Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanke, Shankar; Yu, Tian; Rower, Joseph E; Balch, Alfred H; Korgenski, E Kent; Sherwin, Catherine M

    2017-01-01

    Vancomycin is a first-line treatment for β-lactam-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections. Understanding the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) characteristics of vancomycin in an adolescent population is of clinical importance in this often overlooked pediatric population. This retrospective study investigated vancomycin PK-PD in an adolescent cohort (12 to 18 years of age) of 463 patients (57% male, 81% white) admitted to the Intermountain Healthcare System between January 2006 and December 2013. Population PK modeling was performed in NONMEM 7.3. Vancomycin PK was well described with a 1-compartment model that identified both body weight (WT) and creatinine clearance (CRCL) as covariates significantly impacting vancomycin disposition. The model was then utilized to determine dosing strategies that achieved the targeted area under the 24-hour time curve vs minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC 0-24 /MIC) ratio of ≥400. Additionally, these data were correlated with minimum steady-state concentrations (C ss,min ) to find an acceptable target trough concentration range in adolescents. This analysis demonstrated that C ss,min ranging from 10 to 12.5 mg/L were highly predictive of achieving an AUC 0-24 /MIC ≥400 when the MIC was ≤1 mg/L. These results suggest that the target trough concentration for adolescents may be lower than that for adults. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. Nanoconjugated vancomycin: new opportunities for the development of anti-VRSA agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Roy, Somenath [Immunology and Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Human Physiology with Community Health, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore-721102 (India); Sahu, Sumanta Kumar; Santra, Susmita; Pramanik, Panchanan [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Pin-721302 (India); Bal, Manjusri, E-mail: panchanan_123@yahoo.com [Department of Human Physiology, Calcutta University, Kolkata (India)

    2010-03-12

    More than 90% of Staphylococcus strains are resistant to penicillin. In 1961 S. aureus developed resistance to methicillin (MRSA), invalidating almost all antibiotics, including the most potent {beta}-lactams. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, was used for the treatment of MRSA in 1980. Vancomycin inhibits the bio-synthesis of peptidoglycan and the assembly of NAM-NAG-polypeptide into the growing peptidoglycan chain. Vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA) first appeared in the USA in 2002. Folic acid tagged chitosan nanoparticles are used as Trojan horses to deliver vancomycin into bacterial cells. These nanoparticles are biocompatible and biodegradable semisynthetic polymers. These nanosized vehicles enhance the transport of vancomycin across epithelial surfaces and show its efficient drug action, which has been understood from studies of the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of nanoparticles of a chitosan derivative loaded with vancomycin. Tolerance values distinctly show that vancomycin loaded into nanoconjugate is very effective and has a strong bactericidal effect on VRSA.

  9. Nanoconjugated vancomycin: new opportunities for the development of anti-VRSA agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Roy, Somenath; Sahu, Sumanta Kumar; Santra, Susmita; Pramanik, Panchanan; Bal, Manjusri

    2010-01-01

    More than 90% of Staphylococcus strains are resistant to penicillin. In 1961 S. aureus developed resistance to methicillin (MRSA), invalidating almost all antibiotics, including the most potent β-lactams. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, was used for the treatment of MRSA in 1980. Vancomycin inhibits the bio-synthesis of peptidoglycan and the assembly of NAM-NAG-polypeptide into the growing peptidoglycan chain. Vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA) first appeared in the USA in 2002. Folic acid tagged chitosan nanoparticles are used as Trojan horses to deliver vancomycin into bacterial cells. These nanoparticles are biocompatible and biodegradable semisynthetic polymers. These nanosized vehicles enhance the transport of vancomycin across epithelial surfaces and show its efficient drug action, which has been understood from studies of the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of nanoparticles of a chitosan derivative loaded with vancomycin. Tolerance values distinctly show that vancomycin loaded into nanoconjugate is very effective and has a strong bactericidal effect on VRSA.

  10. Comparison of in vitro efficacy of linezolid and vancomycin by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleem, F.; Usman, J.; Hassan, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the in vitro activities of vancomycin and linezolid against methicillin resistant Staphyloccus aureus in our set up to help in formulating a better empirical treatment and reduce the emergence of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 6 months(July 1, 2009 - Dec 1, 2009). Fifty Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the clinical isolates of Military Hospital Rawalpindi were subjected to the determination of Minimum inhibitory concentrations of linezolid and vancomycin using E-strips. Results: All the isolated organisms were uniformly susceptible to both the antibiotics. Vancomycin showed higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as compared to linezolid MICs. Conclusion: This study suggests that linezolid and vancomycin have similar in vitro efficacy for methicillin resistant Staphyloccus aureus infections. (author)

  11. Identification of VanN-type vancomycin resistance in an Enterococcus faecium isolate from chicken meat in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takahiro; Tanimoto, Koichi; Shibayama, Keigo; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Fujimoto, Shuhei; Ike, Yasuyoshi; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Five VanN-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains were isolated from a sample of domestic chicken meat in Japan. All isolates showed low-level resistance to vancomycin (MIC, 12 mg/liter) and had the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile. The vancomycin resistance was encoded on a large plasmid (160 kbp) and was expressed constitutively. The VanN-type resistance operon was identical to the first resistance operon to be reported, with the exception of a 1-bp deletion in vanT(N) and a 1-bp substitution in vanS(N).

  12. An optimal method for generating stable vancomycin heteroresistance and intermediate susceptibility in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusblood isolates under in-vitro vancomycin pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Khatib

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The relevance of vancomycin intermediately-susceptible (VISA and hetero-resistant (hVISA methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA remains uncertain because of their low frequency. In vitro attempts to generate reducedsusceptibility have been inconsistent. We describe a simple method for generating VISA/hVISA.Materials and methods: Twenty-four SCCmec type II and IV MRSA blood isolates plus USA100 and USA300 controls werecultured (107 CFU/ml in BHI broth with 0, 2 and 3 mg/L vancomycin for 10 days followed by 10 days vancomycin-freepassage.We monitored vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; Etest and population analysis profile-areaunder the curve (PAP-AUC ratios of tested isolate-Mu3 during and after vancomycin pressure (VP. PAP-AUC ratios 1.3 were considered consistent with susceptible, hVISA and VISA, respectively.Results: VP at 2 mg/L (VP-2 increased MIC to 3 mg/L in 20 (83.3% isolates and raised PAP-AUC ratio to hVISA (n=18; 75.0%and VISA (six; 25.0% ranges. VP-3 increased MIC to 3 and 4 mg/L in 19 (79.2% and three (12.5% isolates, respectively andraised PAP-AUC ratio to hVISA (n=3; 12.5% and VISA (n=19; 79.2% ranges. SCCmec IV isolates had lower pre-exposurePAP-AUC ratios (0.48±0.14 vs. 0.69±0.10; p<0.001 and lower MIC (1.6±0.2 vs. 1.8±0.2 mg/L; p=0.1 but MIC rise and VISA/hVISA emergence was comparable. MIC and PAP-AUC ratio rises were stable in 20/22 isolates during drug-free passages.Conclusions: VISA/hVISA readily emerges among MRSA SCCmec type II and IV isolates under VP. VP at the MIC level generateshVISA while pressure at slightly higher level results in the VISA phenotype. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(4: 129-134Key words: Staphylococcus aureus; heteroresistance; glycopeptides; resistance; bacteremia.

  13. Detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Vancomycin for Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Pus/Wound Swab Samples of the Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghabendra Adhikari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of cefoxitin disc diffusion method and oxacillin broth microdilution method for detection of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA, taking presence of mecA gene as reference. In addition, inducible clindamycin resistance and beta-lactamase production were studied and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of vancomycin for S. aureus isolates was determined. A total of 711 nonrepeated pus/wound swab samples from different anatomic locations were included in the study. The Staphylococcus aureus was identified on the basis of colony morphology, Gram’s stain, and biochemical tests. A total of 110 (15.47% S. aureus isolates were recovered, of which 39 (35.50% isolates were identified as MRSA by cefoxitin disc diffusion method. By oxacillin broth microdilution method, 31.82% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found to be MRSA. However, mecA gene was present in only 29.1% of the isolates. Further, beta-lactamase production was observed in 71.82% of the isolates, while inducible clindamycin resistance was found in 10% of S. aureus isolates. The MIC value of vancomycin for S. aureus ranged from 0.016 μg/mL to 1 μg/mL. On the basis of the absolute sensitivity (100%, both phenotypic methods could be employed for routine diagnosis of MRSA in clinical microbiology laboratory; however cefoxitin disc diffusion could be preferred over MIC method considering time and labour factor.

  14. The frequent occurrence of MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, Matthias [Gesellschaft fuer Technische Mikrobiologie und Hygieneueberwachung - Dr. Graff und Partner, Stadtweg 9, D-38176 Wendeburg (Germany); Neubert, Volkmar [Institut fuer Materialpruefung und Werkstofftechnik Dr. Doelling und Dr. Neubert GmbH, Freiberger Strasse 1, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) is not as rare as many materials scientist and corrosion practitioners do believe. It is not an exotic and scarce event, but can be found frequently in many fields of corrosion research, provided that it is looked for. The reason for the relatively few descriptions of MIC cases seems to be the fact, that the microbiological approach is not widely known and applied in the world of materials science. MIC is not so much a corrosion mechanism on its own, but it enhances the corrosion rates of the 'normal' mechanisms to such an extent, that in some cases 'incredible' fast corrosion progress can be observed. The reason is the microorganisms' function as bio-catalysts: Chemical reactions, which are very slow under normal chemical conditions can be highly accelerated by living organisms. Besides that, several microorganisms do produce very corrosive substances which in natural environments do not occur without the activity of microorganisms, e. g. sulfuric or nitric acid. We want to point out, that it can be very worthy to take microbial induced corrosion into account. MIC is not the general answer for all unsolved corrosion problems, but to think about it helps in many corrosion cases as the authors had to experience. The initial indication for the presence of MIC are markedly increased corrosion rates. In the following, some of our 'lessons' are presented as short case studies: Two of them deal with steel corrosion characterized by increased corrosion rates. The third example presents corrosion damage of aluminium structures, where from a technical point of view corrosion was not expected, least of all microbial induced corrosion. (authors)

  15. Worrisome trends in rising minimum inhibitory concentration values of antibiotics against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus – Insights from a tertiary care center, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagasundaram Niveditha

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: MIC creep was notably observed with vancomycin, and to some extent with tigecycline and linezolid. Selection pressure may result in creeping MICs, which may herald the emergence of resistant organisms.

  16. Tedizolid susceptibility in linezolid- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupp, E-M; Both, A; Belmar Campos, C; Büttner, H; König, C; Christopeit, M; Christner, M; Aepfelbacher, M; Rohde, H

    2016-12-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are of ever-increasing importance, most notably in high-risk patient populations. Therapy options are often limited for these isolates, and apart from tigecycline and daptomycin, oxazolidinone linezolid is frequently administered. The broad usage of linezolid, however, has driven the emergence of linezolid-resistant VRE strains (LR-VRE), further shortening therapeutic options. Second-generation oxazolidinone tedizolid has the advantage of being active against a specific subset of LR-VRE, i.e. isolates expressing the plasmid-encoded chloramphenicol-florfenicol resistance (cfr) gene. Here we tested tedizolid activity in a collection of 30 LR Enterococcus faecium VRE (MIC range 32-256 mg/l) isolated between 2012 and 2015 from clinical and screening specimens. By pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) isolates were assigned to 16 clonal lineages. In three cases, linezolid-susceptible progenitor isolates of LR-VRE were isolated, thus demonstrating the de-novo emergence of the linezolid-resistant phenotype. PCR did not detect cfr, cfr(B) or novel oxazolidinone resistance gene optrA in LR-VRE. All isolates, however, carried mutations within the 23S rDNA. Compared to linezolid, tedizolid MICs were lower in all isolates (MIC range 2-32 mg/l), but remained above the FDA tedizolid breakpoint for E. faecalis at 0.5 mg/l. Thus, related to the predominant resistance mechanism, tedizolid is of limited value for treatment of most LR-VRE and represents a therapeutic option only for a limited subset of isolates.

  17. Experiences on MIC monitoring by electrochemical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristiani, P.; Perboni, G.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2002-01-01

    Some results of practical experiences on the performances of electrochemical and electric MIC monitoring techniques, coming from the discussion in the Brite-Euram thematic network "MIC of industrial materials", are presented in this paper.......Some results of practical experiences on the performances of electrochemical and electric MIC monitoring techniques, coming from the discussion in the Brite-Euram thematic network "MIC of industrial materials", are presented in this paper....

  18. Does vancomycin prescribing intervention affect vancomycin-resistant enterococcus infection and colonization in hospitals? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Lee W

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE is a major cause of nosocomial infections in the United States and may be associated with greater morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs than vancomycin-susceptible enterococcus. Current guidelines for the control of VRE include prudent use of vancomycin. While vancomycin exposure appears to be a risk factor for VRE acquisition in individual patients, the effect of vancomycin usage at the population level is not known. We conducted a systematic review to determine the impact of reducing vancomycin use through prescribing interventions on the prevalence and incidence of VRE colonization and infection in hospitals within the United States. Methods To identify relevant studies, we searched three electronic databases, and hand searched selected journals. Thirteen studies from 12 articles met our inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and summarized for study setting, design, patient characteristics, types of intervention(s, and outcome measures. The relative risk, 95% confidence interval, and p-value associated with change in VRE acquisition pre- and post-vancomycin prescription interventions were calculated and compared. Heterogeneity in study results was formally explored by stratified analysis. Results No randomized clinical trials on this topic were found. Each of the 13 included studies used a quasi-experimental design of low hierarchy. Seven of the 13 studies reported statistically significant reductions in VRE acquisition following interventions, three studies reported no significant change, and three studies reported increases in VRE acquisition, one of which reported statistical significance. Results ranged from a reduction of 82.5% to an increase of 475%. Studies of specific wards, which included sicker patients, were more likely to report positive results than studies of an entire hospital including general inpatients (Fisher's exact test 0.029. The type of intervention

  19. Association between Vancomycin Day 1 Exposure Profile and Outcomes among Patients with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapao, Anthony M.; Lodise, Thomas P.; Davis, Susan L.; Claeys, Kimberly C.; Kullar, Ravina; Levine, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    Given the critical importance of early appropriate therapy, a retrospective cohort (2002 to 2013) was performed at the Detroit Medical Center to evaluate the association between the day 1 vancomycin exposure profile and outcomes among patients with MRSA infective endocarditis (IE). The day 1 vancomycin area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0–24) and the minimum concentration at 24 h (Cmin 24) was estimated for each patient using the Bayesian procedure in ADAPT 5, an approach shown to accurately predict the vancomycin exposure with low bias and high precision with limited pharmacokinetic sampling. Initial MRSA isolates were collected and vancomycin MIC was determined by broth microdilution (BMD) and Etest. The primary outcome was failure, defined as persistent bacteremia (≥7 days) or 30-day attributable mortality. Classification and regression tree analysis (CART) was used to determine the vancomycin exposure variables associated with an increased probability of failure. In total, 139 patients met study criteria; 76.3% had right-sided IE, 16.5% had left-sided IE, and 7.2% had both left and right-sided IE. A total of 89/139 (64%) experienced failure by composite definition. In the CART analysis, failure was more pronounced in patients with an AUC0–24/MIC as determined by BMD of ≤600 relative to those with AUC0–24/MIC as determined by BMD of >600 (69.8% versus 54.7%, respectively, P = 0.073). In the logistic regression analysis, an AUC/MIC as determined by BMD of ≤600 (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 5.37; P = 0.047) was independently associated with failure. Given the retrospective nature of the present study, further prospective studies are required but these data suggest that patients with an AUC0–24/MIC as determined by BMD of ≤600 present an increased risk of failure. PMID:25753631

  20. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) in hepatic cirrhosis patient: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazoni, M.; Siregar, M. L.; Jamil, K. F.

    2018-03-01

    The irrational use of vancomycin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections result in the emergence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) pathogen, which can pose a threat to the world healthcare. A 32-year-old male with hepatic cirrhosis patient admitted with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding with a wound in his left leg since 6 months ago; the result microbiological culture showed a VRSA with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) vancomycin ≥32μg/mL The patient was treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole combination according to cultural sensitivity. The second microbiological culture showed thesame result. VRSA is a rare and difficult condition to handle. The success of therapy for this VRSA case warn us how important to cut the S. aureus distribution chain with a high level of resistance.

  1. The role of the Staphylococcal VraTSR regulatory system on vancomycin resistance and vanA operon expression in vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Nadia K; Yin, Shaohui; Boyle-Vavra, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin is often the preferred treatment for invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. With the increase in incidence of MRSA infections, the use of vancomycin has increased and, as feared, isolates of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) have emerged. VRSA isolates have acquired the entercoccal vanA operon contained on transposon (Tn) 1546 residing on a conjugal plasmid. VraTSR is a vancomycin and β-lactam-inducible three-component regulatory system encoded on the S. aureus chromosome that modulates the cell-wall stress response to cell-wall acting antibiotics. Mutation in vraTSR has shown to increase susceptibility to β-lactams and vancomycin in clinical VISA strains and in recombinant strain COLVA-200 which expresses a plasmid borne vanA operon. To date, the role of VraTSR in vanA operon expression in VRSA has not been demonstrated. In this study, the vraTSR operon was deleted from the first clinical VRSA strain (VRS1) by transduction with phage harvested from a USA300 vraTSR operon deletion strain. The absence of the vraTSR operon and presence of the vanA operon were confirmed in the transductant (VRS1Δvra) by PCR. Broth MIC determinations, demonstrated that the vancomycin MIC of VRS1Δvra (64 µg/ml) decreased by 16-fold compared with VRS1 (1024 µg/ml). The effect of the vraTSR operon deletion on expression of the van gene cluster (vanA, vanX and vanR) was examined by quantitative RT-PCR using relative quantification. A 2-5-fold decreased expression of the vanA operon genes occured in strain VRS1Δvra at stationary growth phase compared with the parent strain, VRS1. Both vancomycin resistance and vancomycin-induced expression of vanA and vanR were restored by complementation with a plasmid harboring the vraTSR operon. These findings demonstrate that expression in S. aureus of the horizontally acquired enterococcal vanA gene cluster is enhanced by the staphylococcal three-component cell wall stress regulatory

  2. Uncommon vancomycin: induced side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Jaime Luís Lopes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin has been used with increased frequency during the past 15 years and the most common toxicity with this drug is the "red man syndrome". Other adverse effects include neutropenia, fever, phlebitis, nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, thrombocytopenia, interstitial nephritis, lacrimation, linear IgA bullous dermatosis, necrotizing cutaneous vasculitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Only two cases of vancomycin-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and one case of pancytopenia have been reported in the medical literature. The treatment for both situations is based on cessation of the vancomycin therapy; in cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, antihistamine and/or steroid agents can be used. This article reports a case of pancytopenia and a case of erythema major associated with neutropenia.

  3. Phenotypic changes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus during vancomycin therapy for persistent bacteraemia and related clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T; Kim, E S; Park, S Y; Sung, H; Kim, M-N; Kim, S-H; Lee, S-O; Choi, S-H; Jeong, J-Y; Woo, J H; Chong, Y P; Kim, Y S

    2017-08-01

    Persistent bacteraemia (PB) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that fails to respond to glycopeptide therapy is a well-documented clinical problem. There are limited data on changes in agr functionality, vancomycin susceptibility and heteroresistance during MRSA PB. Thus, the frequency of these changes and their clinical significance remain unclear. Only patients with MRSA PB (≥7 days) from a prospective cohort of S. aureus bacteraemia were included. We collected isogenic paired strains and compared vancomycin MIC, vancomycin heteroresistance, and agr functionality between initial and final blood isolates. We also assessed the clinical outcome. A total of 49 patients had MRSA PB over 22 months. Bacteraemia persisted for a median of 13 days and most patients (98%) received glycopeptide as initial therapy. Among 49 isogenic pairs, only one pair showed a vancomycin MIC increase ≥2-fold by broth microdilution method, and only seven (14%) by E-test. Significant portions of initial isolates had vancomycin heteroresistance (49%) and agr dysfunction (76%). Development of vancomycin heteroresistance during PB occurred in four (16%) among 25 initial vancomycin-susceptible isolates, and acquisition of agr dysfunction occurred in two (16%) among 12 initial agr-functional isolates. Changes in the opposite direction occasionally occurred. These phenotypic changes during PB were not associated with mortality, whereas agr dysfunction of the initial isolates was significantly associated with mortality. During MRSA PB, phenotypic changes of MRSA isolates occurred occasionally under prolonged vancomycin exposure but were not significantly associated with clinical outcome. In contrast, initial agr dysfunction could be a predictor for mortality in MRSA PB.

  4. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from different biological samples at Policlinico Umberto I of Rome: correlation with vancomycin susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Mascellino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The methicillin-resistance is increasing all over the world in the last decade. It is more frequent among coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS; infact the 52% of S. epidermidis strains results to be resistant to methicillin.The methicillin-resistant strains also show a reduced sensitivity towards the first-line agents such as glycopeptides and other antibiotics commonly used in therapy such as trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, imipenem, gentamycin, fosfomycin and chlarytromicin. Unlike MRSA (Methicillin-resistant S. aureus, MRCoNS resistance to glycopeptides generally concerns teicoplanin. Although vancomycin resistance is rare in Staphylococcus isolates, the detected shift towards higher values of MICs might affect patient’s clinical outcome.

  5. Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Vancomycin Used in Open Heart Surgery: Model-Based Evaluation of Standard Dosing Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Saeed A; Alsultan, Abdullah S; Alqattan, Hussain M; Eldemerdash, Ahmed; Albacker, Turki B

    2018-04-23

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in patients undergoing open heart surgery. In this observational pharmacokinetic study, multiple blood samples were drawn over a 48-h period of intravenous vancomycin in patients who were undergoing open heart surgery. Blood samples were analysed using the Architect i4000SR Immunoassay Analyzer. Population pharmacokinetic models were developed using Monolix 4.4 software. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) simulations were performed to explore the ability of different dosage regimens to achieve the pharmacodynamic targets. One-hundred and sixty-eight blood samples were analysed from 28 patients. The pharmacokinetics of vancomycin was best described by a two-compartment model with between-subject variability in CL, V of the central compartment, and V of the peripheral compartment. CL and central compartment V of vancomycin were related to CL CR , body weight, and albumin concentration. Dosing simulations showed that standard dosing regimens of 1 and 1.5 g failed to achieve the PK-PD target of AUC 0--24 /MIC > 400 for an MIC of 1 mg/L, while high weight-based dosing regimens were able to achieve the PK-PD target. In summary, administration of standard doses of 1 and 1.5 g of vancomycin two times daily provided inadequate antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing open heart surgery. The same findings were obtained when 15 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg doses of vancomycin were administered. Achieving the PK-PD target required higher doses (25 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) of vancomycin. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Vancomycin Molecular Interactions: Antibiotic and Enantioselective Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Timothy J.; Gilmore, Aprile; Ward, Karen; Vowell, Courtney

    Medical studies established that vancomycin and other related macrocyclic antibiotics have an enhanced antimicrobial activity when they are associated as dimers. The carbohydrate units attached to the vancomycin basket have an essential role in the dimerization reaction. Covalently synthesized dimers were found active against vancomycin-resistant bacterial strains. A great similarity between antibiotic potential and enantioselectivity was established. A covalent vancomycin dimer was studied in capillary electrophoresis producing excellent chiral separation of dansyl amino acids. Balhimycin is a macrocyclic glycopeptide structurally similar to vancomycin. The small differences are, however, responsible for drastic differences in enantioselectivity in the same experimental conditions. Contributions from studies examining vancomycin's mechanism for antimicrobial activity have substantially aided our understanding of its mechanism in chiral recognition.

  7. Vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium isolated from Danish chicken meat is located on a pVEF4-like plasmid persisting in poultry for 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leinweber, Helena Augusta Katharina; Alotaibi, Sulaiman Mohammed I; Overballe-Petersen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    traits of VREfm in Danish retail chicken meat. Three out of 40 samples (7.5%) from two slaughterhouses yielded VREfm (vancomycin MIC > 32mg/L). This is the first report of VREfm in Danish retail poultry meat since 2010 (DANMAP). All three VREfm belonged to the sequence type ST32, cluster type CT1068...

  8. Risk of vancomycin-resistant enterococci bloodstream infection among patients colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Kara

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, our study found that 1.55% of vancomycin-resistant enterococci-colonized children had developed vancomycin-resistant enterococci bloodstream infection among the pediatric intensive care unit and hematology/oncology patients; according to our findings, we suggest that immunosupression is the key point for developing vancomycin-resistant enterococci bloodstream infections.

  9. Magnetic stimulus responsive vancomycin drug delivery system based on chitosan microbeads embedded with magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Ankita; Harris, Michael A; LeVine, David; Ghimire, Madhav; Jennings, Jessica A; Morshed, Bashir I; Haggard, Warren O; Bumgardner, Joel D; Mishra, Sanjay R; Fujiwara, Tomoko

    2017-10-20

    Local antibiotic delivery can overcome some of the shortcomings of systemic therapy, such as low local concentrations and delivery to avascular sites. A localized drug delivery system (DDS), ideally, could also use external stimuli to modulate the normal drug release profile from the DDS to provide efficacious drug administration and flexibility to healthcare providers. To achieve this objective, chitosan microbeads embedded with magnetic nanoparticles were loaded with the antibiotic vancomycin and stimulated by a high frequency alternating magnetic field. Three such stimulation sessions separated by 1.5 h were applied to each test sample. The chromatographic analysis of the supernatant from these stimulated samples showed more than approximately 200% higher release of vancomycin from the DDS after the stimulation periods compared to nonstimulated samples. A 16-day long term elution study was also conducted where the DDS was allowed to elute drug through normal diffusion over a period of 11 days and stimulated on day 12 and day 15, when vancomycin level had dropped below therapeutic levels. Magnetic stimulation boosted elution of test groups above minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), as compared to control groups (with no stimulation) which remained below MIC. The drug release from test groups in the intervals where no stimulation was given showed similar elution behavior to control groups. These results indicate promising possibilities of controlled drug release using magnetic excitation from a biopolymer-based DDS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Prophylactic Vancomycin Drops Reduce the Severity of Early Bacterial Keratitis in Keratoprosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Aris; Tan, Xiao Wei; Goh, Gwendoline Tze Wei; Saraswathi, Padmanabhan; Chen, Liyan; Nyein, Chan Lwin; Zhou, Lei; Beuerman, Roger; Tan, Donald Tiang Hwee; Mehta, Jod

    2015-01-01

    Background Artificial cornea transplantation, keratoprosthesis, improves vision for patients at high risk of failure with human cadaveric cornea. However, post-operative infection can cause visual loss and implant extrusion in 3.2–17% of eyes. Long-term vancomycin drops are recommended following keratoprosthesis to prevent bacterial keratitis. Evidence, though, in support of this practice is poor. We investigated whether prophylactic vancomycin drops prevented bacterial keratitis in an animal keratoprosthesis model. Methodology Twenty-three rabbits were assigned either to a prophylactic group (n = 13) that received vancomycin 1.4% drops 5 times/day from keratoprosthesis implantation to sacrifice, or a non-prophylactic group (n = 10) that received no drops. All rabbits had Staphylococcus aureus inoculation into the cornea at 7–12 days post-implantation and were sacrificed at predetermined time-points. Prophylactic and non-prophylactic groups were compared with slit-lamp photography (SLP), anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), and histology, immunohistochemistry and bacterial quantification of excised corneas. Corneal vancomycin pharmacokinetics were studied in 8 additional rabbits. Results On day 1 post-inoculation, the median SLP score and mean±SEM AS-OCT corneal thickness (CT) were greater in the non-prophylactic than the prophylactic group (11 vs. 1, p = 0.049 and 486.9±61.2 vs. 327.4±37.1 μm, p = 0.029 respectively). On days 2 and 4, SLP scores and CT were not significantly different. Immunohistochemistry showed a greater CD11b+ve/non-CD11b+ve cell ratio in the non-prophylactic group (1.45 vs. 0.71) on day 2. Bacterial counts were not significantly different between the two groups. Corneal vancomycin concentration (2.835±0.383 μg/ml) exceeded minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Staphylococcus aureus only after 16 days of vancomycin drops. Two of 3 rabbits still developed infection despite bacterial inoculation after 16 days of

  11. Prophylactic Vancomycin Drops Reduce the Severity of Early Bacterial Keratitis in Keratoprosthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Konstantopoulos

    Full Text Available Artificial cornea transplantation, keratoprosthesis, improves vision for patients at high risk of failure with human cadaveric cornea. However, post-operative infection can cause visual loss and implant extrusion in 3.2-17% of eyes. Long-term vancomycin drops are recommended following keratoprosthesis to prevent bacterial keratitis. Evidence, though, in support of this practice is poor. We investigated whether prophylactic vancomycin drops prevented bacterial keratitis in an animal keratoprosthesis model.Twenty-three rabbits were assigned either to a prophylactic group (n = 13 that received vancomycin 1.4% drops 5 times/day from keratoprosthesis implantation to sacrifice, or a non-prophylactic group (n = 10 that received no drops. All rabbits had Staphylococcus aureus inoculation into the cornea at 7-12 days post-implantation and were sacrificed at predetermined time-points. Prophylactic and non-prophylactic groups were compared with slit-lamp photography (SLP, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT, and histology, immunohistochemistry and bacterial quantification of excised corneas. Corneal vancomycin pharmacokinetics were studied in 8 additional rabbits.On day 1 post-inoculation, the median SLP score and mean±SEM AS-OCT corneal thickness (CT were greater in the non-prophylactic than the prophylactic group (11 vs. 1, p = 0.049 and 486.9±61.2 vs. 327.4±37.1 μm, p = 0.029 respectively. On days 2 and 4, SLP scores and CT were not significantly different. Immunohistochemistry showed a greater CD11b+ve/non-CD11b+ve cell ratio in the non-prophylactic group (1.45 vs. 0.71 on day 2. Bacterial counts were not significantly different between the two groups. Corneal vancomycin concentration (2.835±0.383 μg/ml exceeded minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for Staphylococcus aureus only after 16 days of vancomycin drops. Two of 3 rabbits still developed infection despite bacterial inoculation after 16 days of prophylactic drops

  12. Is the mazEF toxin-antitoxin system responsible for vancomycin resistance in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Soheili, Sara; Sekawi, Zamberi; Ghafourian, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) and the presence of mazEF toxin-antitoxin (TA) system, which may be useful as target for novel antimicrobial therapy concepts. The susceptibility of E. faecalis was determined by MIC, and the presence of the mazEF TA system was evaluated by PCR. Among 200 E. faecalis isolates 39.5% showed resistance to vancomycin (VRE), while 60.5% were susceptible strains (VSE). The mazEF TA system was positive in all VRE isolates (100%), but less prevalent (38/121, 31.4%) among the 121 VSE strains. In conclusion, our study demonstrated a positive relationship between the presence of vancomycin resistance and mazEF TA system. This observation may introduce therapeutic options against a novel antimicrobial target in enterococci.

  13. Is the mazEF toxin-antitoxin system responsible for vancomycin resistance in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available [english] The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between vancomycin-resistant (VRE and the presence of toxin-antitoxin (TA system, which may be useful as target for novel antimicrobial therapy concepts. The susceptibility of was determined by MIC, and the presence of the TA system was evaluated by PCR. Among 200 isolates 39.5% showed resistance to vancomycin (VRE, while 60.5% were susceptible strains (VSE. The TA system was positive in all VRE isolates (100%, but less prevalent (38/121, 31.4% among the 121 VSE strains. In conclusion, our study demonstrated a positive relationship between the presence of vancomycin resistance and TA system. This observation may introduce therapeutic options against a novel antimicrobial target in enterococci.

  14. NICHD Microscopy and Imaging Core (MIC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NICHD Microscopy and Imaging Core (MIC) is designed as a multi-user research facility providing training and instrumentation for high resolution microscopy and...

  15. Titanium-tethered vancomycin prevents resistance to rifampicin in Staphylococcus aureus in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rottman

    Full Text Available Rifampicin is currently recognized as the most potent drug against Gram positive implant related infections. The use of rifampicin is limited by the emergence of bacterial resistance, which is often managed by coadministration of a second antibiotic. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of soluble rifampicin in combination with vancomycin tethered to titanium metal as a means to control bacterial growth and resistance in vitro. Bacterial growth was inhibited when the vancomycin-tethered titanium discs were treated with Staphylococcus aureus inocula of ≤2×10⁶ CFU, however inocula greater than 2×10⁶ CFU/disc adhered and survived. The combination of surface-tethered vancomycin with soluble rifampicin enhanced the inhibitory effect of rifampicin for an inoculum of 10⁶ CFU/cm² by one dilution (combination MIC of 0.008 mg/L versus 0.015 mg/L for rifampicin alone. Moreover, surface tethered vancomycin prevented the emergence of a rifampicin resistant population in an inoculum of 2×10⁸ CFU.

  16. Recovery of vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Wadowsky, R M; Barbadora, K

    1990-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey of vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci (VRGPC) in the feces of children was initiated after several bacteremic infections with these organisms occurred at our hospital. A selective medium consisting of colistin-nalidixic acid agar, 5% sheep blood, vancomycin (5 mg/liter), and amphotericin B (8 mg/liter) was developed to isolate VRGPC. A single stool specimen submitted to the clinical microbiology laboratory from each of 48 patients was inoculated onto the medium. Plates were incubated at 35 degrees C with 5% carbon dioxide and examined at 24, 48, and 72 h. Susceptibilities were determined by broth microdilution. A total of 14 isolates from 11 of 48 (22%) children were recovered. The density of growth ranged from a single colony to 2+. The VRGPC were identified as Leuconostoc lactis (n = 2), Lactobacillus confusus (n = 4), Enterococcus species (n = 5), and Lactococcus lactis (n = 3). One strain of Lactobacillus confusus was recovered from both the stool and the blood of one of these patients. The MICs of vancomycin were 4 micrograms/ml for one of the isolates, 8 micrograms/ml for four of the isolates, and more than 16 micrograms/ml for the remaining eight isolates. All isolates were susceptible to both penicillin and ampicillin. Only 1 of the 11 children had received prior treatment with vancomycin. We conclude that low concentrations of VRGPC may be common in the gastrointestinal tracts of children.

  17. Synergy of β-Lactams with Vancomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Correlation of Disk Diffusion and Checkerboard Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Cheng Len; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chen, Chii Shiang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Wann, Shue-Renn; Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Chen, Jui-Kuang; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Liu, Yung-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Modified disk diffusion (MDD) and checkerboard tests were employed to assess the synergy of combinations of vancomycin and β-lactam antibiotics for 59 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mu50 (ATCC 700699). Bacterial inocula equivalent to 0.5 and 2.0 McFarland standard were inoculated on agar plates containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 μg/ml of vancomycin. Oxacillin-, cefazolin-, and cefoxitin-impregnated disks were applied to the surface, and the zones of inhibition were measured at 24 h. The CLSI-recommended checkerboard method was used as a reference to detect synergy. The MICs for vancomycin were determined using the Etest method, broth microdilution, and the Vitek 2 automated system. Synergy was observed with the checkerboard method in 51% to 60% of the isolates when vancomycin was combined with any β-lactam. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices were significantly lower in MRSA isolates with higher vancomycin MIC combinations (P synergy in MRSA isolates with bacterial inocula equivalent to McFarland standard 0.5 were 33.0% and 62.5% for oxacillin, 45.1% and 52.4% for cefazolin, and 43.1% and 52.4% for cefoxitin when combined with 0.5 and 2 μg/ml of vancomycin, respectively. Based on our study, the simple MDD method is not recommended as a replacement for the checkerboard method to detect synergy. However, it may serve as an initial screening method for the detection of potential synergy when it is not feasible to perform other labor-intensive synergy tests. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Population pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in Jordanian patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    predictors of vancomycin clearance include: weight, serum creatinine, chronic renal ... (http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read), which permit ... reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. ... fluid balance; and albumin levels]); (3) .... vancomycin half-life is prolonged in patients with.

  19. Vancomycin Utilization Evaluation: Are We Dosing Appropriately?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Ayazkhoo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inappropriate use of vancomycin not only increase health care costs but also contribute to the emergence of resistant organisms. Higher trough serum vancomycin concentrations (>10mg/L has been recommended for avoidance of development of resistance. We aim to compare the administered dose with recommended doses based on guideline-recommended weight-based dosing.Methods: In a cross sectional study, all patients who received vancomycin between July and October 2013, in infectious disease, internal medicine wards and emergency department of a teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran were entered to the study. Indication of vancomycin and necessary data for dose calculation including height and serum creatinine were recorded. Prescribed doses were compared with recommended doses in guidelines and calculated Glomerular filtration rate (GFR for each patient.Results: One hundred and four patients (45 females and 59 males recruited in the study. Our results indicated that, from all administered doses of vancomycin, 64.4% and 88.8% differs significantly (more than 20% based on American Pharmacist Association (AphA vancomycin monograph and guideline-recommended, weight-based vancomycin dosing (for adults, respectively.Conclusion: Underdosing of vancomycin is a major risk factor for developing resistance of gram positive organisms to this glycopeptide. Our results showed that more than half of patients receiving vancomycin are in the risk of low drug levels based on guidelines. So, having a comprehensive plan for the proper use of this drug especially designing effective internal guidelines can prevent emergence of resistance to vancomycin in future.

  20. mics para la Disfemia

    OpenAIRE

    Pomares Puig, María Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Desde la Facultad de Educación se vienen desarrollando diversas estrategias para fomentar el uso del cómic en distintos niveles escolares y profundizar en el conocimiento del mismo y ampliar la labor de divulgación que realiza la asociación de Unicómic http://unicomic.blogspot.com, centrándonos en los aspectos didácticos. La disfemia es un trastorno de la fluidez verbal y del ritmo del habla caracterizado por disfluencias consistentes en repeticiones y prolongaciones de sonidos y dificultad p...

  1. Plectranthus amboinicus essential oil and carvacrol bioactive against planktonic and biofilm of oxacillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Sara Edwirgens Costa Benício; Melo, Hider Machado; Cavalcante, Theodora Thays Arruda; Júnior, Francisco Eduardo Aragão Catunda; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo; Menezes, Francisca Gleire Rodrigues; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Costa, Renata Albuquerque

    2017-09-16

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a worldwide concern and in order to find an alternative to this problem, the occurrence of antimicrobial compounds in Plectranthus amboinicus essential oil was investigated. Thus, this study aims to determine susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food to antibiotics, P. amboinicus essential oil (PAEO) and carvacrol. Leaves and stem of P. amboinicus were used for extraction of essential oil (PAEO) by hydrodistillation technique and EO chemical analysis was performed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. S. aureus strains (n = 35) isolated from food and S. aureus ATCC 6538 were used to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of PAEO and carvacrol. All strains (n = 35) were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility profile by disk diffusion method. Determination of MIC and MBC was performed by microdilution technique and antibiofilm activity was determined by microtiter-plate technique with crystal violet assay and counting viable cells in Colony Forming Units (CFU). Carvacrol (88.17%) was the major component in the PAEO. Antibiotic resistance was detected in 28 S. aureus strains (80%) and 12 strains (34.3%) were oxacillin and vancomycin-resistant (OVRSA). From the 28 resistant strains, 7 (25%) showed resistance plasmid of 12,000 bp. All strains (n = 35) were sensitive to PAEO and carvacrol, with inhibition zones ranging from 16 to 38 mm and 23 to 42 mm, respectively. The lowest MIC (0.25 mg mL -1 ) and MBC (0.5 mg mL -1 ) values were observed when carvacrol was used against OVRSA. When a 0.5 mg mL -1 concentration of PAEO and carvacrol was used, no viable cells were found on S. aureus biofilm. The antibacterial effect of carvacrol and PAEO proves to be a possible alternative against planktonic forms and staphylococcal biofilm.

  2. Red man syndrome caused by vancomycin powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yasunori; VanBeek, Marta J; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2018-04-01

    Red man syndrome (RMS) is a well-known hypersensitivity reaction caused by intravenous administration of vancomycin, with symptoms ranging from flushing, erythematous rash, pruritus, mild to profound hypotension, and even cardiac arrest. RMS has not previously been described from local application of vancomycin powder in a surgical wound, a technique increasingly utilized for infection prophylaxis in many surgical disciplines including neurosurgery. We describe the first reported case of RMS as a result of local intra-wound application of vancomycin powder for infection prophylaxis. A 73-year-old male with a history of Parkinson's disease underwent 2-stage deep brain stimulation implantation surgeries. Vancomycin powder was applied locally in the surgical wounds for infection prophylaxis during both of the surgeries. The patient developed a well-demarcated, geometric erythematous pruritic rash following the second surgery that was clinically diagnosed as RMS and resolved without sequelae. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ranking alloys for susceptibility to MIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.J.B.; Davies, M.; Goldie, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that laboratory experiments demonstrate that alloys containing 6 to 9% Mo are susceptible to microbiologically influenced corrosion attack. They also demonstrate that corrosion behavior in batch cultures do not correlate well with standard ferric chloride and pitting potential tests of the same alloys. In recent years, there has been an increasing awareness of the incidence of plant equipment failures caused by microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). This has led to the search for suitable testing techniques to look for MIC, which, in turn, has expanded the list of known susceptible alloys. Faced with field failures, the normal response has been to upgrade the alloy of construction. There is, for example, a common belief that the addition of more molybdenum to austenitic stainless steels conveys immunity (or at least increased resistance) to MIC. The basis for this is an extrapolation of localized corrosion data. The supposed correlation between molybdenum content and resistance to MIC has not yet been supported by a comprehensive testing program

  4. High-Level Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA in Iran: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emran Askari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen world- wide. Vancomycin has been used for decades to treat multidrug resistant S. aureus. Ten years has passed since the first report of vancomycin re- sistant S. aureus (VRSA. The objective of this systematic review was to determine  the total number of VRSA isolates that have been reported from Iran.Methods:  Search terms reflected “Iran”, “vancomycin” and “S. aureus” were  searched  in the ISI web  of knowledge,  PubMed,  SciVerse,  and Google scholar. Also two Persian scientific databases and 13 recent na- tional congresses  were investigated.  Articles / abstracts working on S. aureus in Iran, evaluating vancomycin MIC and / or PCR of vanA/B were included in this systematic review.Results: Out of the 3484 records found in mentioned resources, 13 re-lated studies were included in the final analysis. The result showed that at least 24 VRSA isolates which have been reported from Iran up to Sep- tember 2012.Conclusion: It seems that many Iranian researchers did not follow a spe- cific guideline for reporting and confirming VRSA. Establishing an Ira- nian reference center where studies on VRSA can be registered, evaluat- ed and confirmed is strongly recommended.

  5. Generalidades de Queratitis Micótica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Buitrago Torrado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La queratitis micótica es una importante causa de discapacidad visual en los países desarrollados. En los últimos años ha aumentado su incidencia en países de regiones tropicales, relacionado con el aumento de las conductas de riesgo como el uso indiscriminado de antifúngicos y corticoides oftálmicos en la práctica médica. La confirmación del diagnóstico es necesaria, no sólo en caso de queratitis micótica, sino también en otras enfermedades oculares infecciosas para así iniciar la terapia oportuna y exacta, y evitar el uso innecesario de antimicrobianos. El pronóstico visual de los pacientes dependerá del diagnóstico temprano y el tratamiento médico oportuno

  6. Support for higher ciprofloxacin AUC 24/MIC targets in treating Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenitsky, Sheryl A; Ariano, Robert E

    2010-08-01

    Given concerns regarding optimal therapy for serious Gram-negative infections, the goal was to characterize the pharmacodynamics of ciprofloxacin in the context of treating bloodstream infection. Data were collected from the medical records of 178 clinical cases. Blood isolates were retrieved and ciprofloxacin MICs were measured. Forty-two cases in which ciprofloxacin was initiated within 24 h of the positive blood culture were used in the pharmacodynamic analysis. Significant factors with regard to treatment failure were low ciprofloxacin AUC(24)/MIC (P AUC(24) (P = 0.01). AUC(24)/MIC (P = 0.012) and MIC (P = 0.019) were significant variables in multivariate analyses; however, only the former remained significant (P = 0.038) after excluding two cases with ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. An AUC(24)/MIC breakpoint of 250 was most significant, with cure rates of 91.4% (32/35) and 28.6% (2/7) in patients with values above and below this threshold, respectively (P = 0.001). The risk of ciprofloxacin treatment failure was 27.8 times (95% confidence interval, 2.1-333) greater in those not achieving an AUC(24)/MIC >or=250 (P = 0.011). Monte Carlo simulation of 5000 study subjects predicted that 0.88 of the population would achieve an AUC(24)/MIC >or=250 with standard-dose ciprofloxacin (400 mg intravenously every 12 h). This study confirms the pharmacodynamic parameters of ciprofloxacin that are important for optimizing the treatment of serious infections, particularly the benefits of achieving an AUC(24)/MIC >or=250, rather than the conventional target of >or=125. It also shows the relevance of dose selection in optimizing target attainment, with important differences among pathogens, even those with MICs within the susceptible range.

  7. Minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different clinical samples at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Ojha Kshetry

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has evolved as a serious threat to public health. It has capability to cause infections not only in health care settings but also in community. Due to the multidrug resistance shown by MRSA, there are limited treatment options for the infections caused by this superbug. Vancomycin is used as the drug of choice for the treatment of infections caused by MRSA. Different studies from all around the world have documented the emergence of strains of S. aureus those are intermediate sensitive or resistant to vancomycin. And recently, there have been reports of reduced susceptibility of MRSA to vancomycin, from Nepal also. So the main purpose of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of vancomycin to methicillin resistant S. aureus isolated from different clinical specimens. Methods Total 125 strains of S. aureus isolated from different clinical samples at KIST Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Lalitpur, Nepal from Nov 2012 to June 2013, were subjected to MRSA detection by cefoxitin disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin to confirmed MRSA strains were determined by agar dilution method. Yellow colored colonies in mannitol salt agar, which were gram positive cocci, catalase positive and coagulase positive were confirmed to be S. aureus. Results Among, total 125 S. aureus strains isolated; 47(37.6% were MRSA. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin to the strains of MRSA ranged from 0.125 μg/ml to 1 μg/ml. Conclusion From our findings we concluded that the rate of isolation of MRSA among all the strains of S. aureus isolated from clinical samples was very high. However, none of the MRSA strains were found to be vancomycin intermediate-sensitive or vancomycin-resistant.

  8. Indications for vancomycin in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golper, T A; Schulman, G; D'Agata, E M

    2000-01-01

    Resistance to vancomycin has emerged among Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), and enterococci, and this emergence has particular prevalence in dialysis units. It has therefore become imperative that physicians use vancomycin judiciously. General recommendations regarding the appropriate use of vancomycin have been developed. Although in theory implementation of these guidelines should not be difficult, the medical community may be unable or unwilling to make the necessary adjustments in practice. The onslaught of cost constraints and bureaucratic encumbrance has occurred simultaneously with the increase in vancomycin resistance among pathogens commonly isolated among the dialysis population. When a patient responds to empiric antibiotic therapy and susceptibility data indicate that an antibiotic other than vancomycin would be appropriate, the clinician far too often does not make the change to this alternative. Previously there was no biological imperative to change the antibiotic. That complacency has infected an entire generation of physicians, and especially nephrologists. Furthermore, there is an active movement against change, driven by concerns such as malpractice accusations and frank errors in the interpretation of medical facts.

  9. Anti-MIC2 as a tool in examination of testicular biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visfeldt, J; Cortes, Dina; Thorup, J M

    1999-01-01

    MIC2 is a pseudoautosomal gene localized on X and Y chromosomes. The MIC2 gene product is a glycoprotein expressed on the cell membranes of a number of somatic cells, including Sertoli cells of the testis, but not on the cell membranes of germ cells. In cases of cryptorchidism, a testicular biopsy...... transverse section is lower than 1% of the lowest normal age-matched value. Besides Sertoli cells the seminiferous tubules in undescended testes contain only a few germ cells, and it may be difficult to pinpoint the germ cells in small biopsies. Especially in nonpalpable testes their number may be heavily...... reduced. A reliable identification of germ cells may also be difficult in cultures of testicular biopsies from undescended testes. Against this background, we tried the use of an immunohistochemical method with DAKO antibody to the MIC2 gene product (MIC2, 12 E7, code no. M3601) in order to obtain...

  10. Molecular events for promotion of vancomycin resistance in vancomycin intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwen Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin has been used as the last resort in the clinical treatment of serious Staphylococcus aureus infections. Vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA was discovered almost two decades ago. Aside from the vancomycin-intermediate phenotype, VISA strains from the clinic or laboratory exhibited common characteristics, such as thickened cell walls, reduced autolysis, and attenuated virulence. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for the reduced vancomycin susceptibility in VISA are varied. The comparative genomics of vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA/VISA pairs showed diverse genetic mutations in VISA; only a small number of these mutations have been experimentally verified. To connect the diversified genotypes and common phenotypes in VISA, we reviewed the genetic alterations in the relative determinants, including mutation in the vraSRT, graSR, walKR, stk1/stp1, rpoB, clpP, and cmk genes. Especially, we analyzed the mechanism through which diverse mutations mediate vancomycin resistance. We propose a unified model that integrates diverse gene functions and complex biochemical processes in VISA upon the action of vancomycin.

  11. Avaliação da tolerância à vancomicina em 395 cepas hospitalares de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à oxacilina Evaluation of the tolerance to vancomycin in 395 oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from Brazilian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo A. Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a presença de tolerância à vancomicina em cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à oxacilina (Orsa isoladas de quatro hospitais da cidade de São Paulo. Foram estudadas 395 cepas Orsa isoladas de pacientes hospitalizados entre outubro de 1998 e maio de 2000. A determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e da concentração bactericida mínima (CBM para vancomicina foi realizada conforme padronizado pelo National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. A tolerância à vancomicina foi definida como a razão CBM/CIM > ou = 32. Do total de cepas estudadas, 10,4% apresentaram CIM de 0,5µg/ml para vancomicina; 41,3%, CIM de 1µg/ml; 42,2%, CIM de 2µg/ml; e 6,1%, CIM de 4µg/ml. Em média, 49,1% dos Orsa apresentaram tolerância à vancomicina. Em conclusão, a tolerância à vancomicina entre as cepas Orsa foi considerada elevada. Conseqüentemente, aumentam as chances de falhas no tratamento com vancomicina, além de aumentar o risco da emergência de Staphylococcus aureus vancomicina-intermediário.The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of tolerance to vancomycin in oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Orsa strains isolated from four hospitals in the city of São Paulo. From October/1998 to May/2000 we analysed 395 Orsa strains isolated from hospitalized patients. MIC and MBC to vancomycin were determined as standardised by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Tolerance was defined as the ratio MBC/MIC > or = 32. The results showed that 10.4% of the Orsa strains presented a MIC of 0.5µg/mL for vancomycin, 41.3% presented a MIC of 1µg/mL, 42.2% a MIC of 2µg/mL and 6.1% a MIC of 4µg/mL. On average, 49,1% of the Orsa presented tolerance to vancomycin. We conclude that the tolerance to vancomycin amongst the Orsa strains was considered high. These high levels of tolerance augment the chances of failure in the treatment with

  12. In vitro synergy of baicalein and gentamicin against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ping Chin; Li, Hua Yu; Tang, Hung Jen; Liu, Jien Wei; Wang, Jhi Joung; Chuang, Yin Ching

    2007-02-01

    Little is known about the possible synergism of baicalein, a bioactive flavone of Scutellariae radix (a Chinese herb), when used in conjunction with other antimicrobial agents against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). This in vitro study examined the possible synergism of the combination of baicalein and gentamicin against VRE. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of baicalein as well as gentamicin were determined against 39 clinical isolates of VRE by the agar dilution method. Synergistic activities were determined using the checkerboard method based on the fractional inhibitory concentration indices and also the time-kill method. Further time-kill studies were conducted with these two agents against one randomly chosen clinical isolate, VRE-096. Minimal concentrations inhibiting 50% (MIC(50)) and 90% (MIC(90)) of isolates for baicalein and gentamicin were all >256 microg/mL. Synergism between baicalein and gentamicin was demonstrated against four clinical isolates of VRE (VRE-70, VRE-940, VRE-096 and VRE-721). When approximately 5 x 10(5) colony-forming units/mL of VRE-096 was incubated with both baicalein at a concentration of 32 microg/mL (1/8 x MIC) and gentamicin at a concentration of 128 microg/mL (1/2 x MIC), there was an inhibitory effect against VRE that persisted for 48 h. At 48 h, the combination of baicalein and gentamicin at these respective concentrations resulted in a reduction of growth by approximately 2 orders of magnitude compared to that for the starting inoculum and by 3 orders of magnitude compared to that for baicalein alone, the more active single agent. This study demonstrated that baicalein and gentamicin can act synergistically in inhibiting VRE in vitro.

  13. Presence of the resistance genes vanC1 and pbp5 in phenotypically vancomycin and ampicillin susceptible Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Mölle, Gabriele; Preikschat, Petra; Kämpf, Peter; Bauer-Unkauf, Ilse; Bischoff, Meike; Hölzel, Christina

    2012-08-01

    Ampicillin and vancomycin are important antibiotics for the therapy of Enterococcus faecalis infections. The ampicillin resistance gene pbp5 is intrinsic in Enterococcus faecium. The vanC1 gene confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Both genes are chromosomally located. Resistance to ampicillin and vancomycin was determined in 484 E. faecalis of human and porcine origin by microdilution. Since E. faecalis are highly skilled to acquire resistance genes, all strains were investigated for the presence of pbp5 (and, in positive strains, for the penicillin-binding protein synthesis repressor gene psr) and vanC1 (and, in positive strains, for vanXYc and vanT) by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One porcine and one human isolate were phenotypically resistant to ampicillin; no strain was vancomycin resistant. Four E. faecalis (3/1 of porcine/human origin) carried pbp5 (MIC=1 mg/L), and four porcine strains were vanC1 positive (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]=1 mg/L). Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR revealed that the genes were not expressed. The psr gene was absent in the four pbp5-positive strains; the vanXYc gene was absent in the four vanC1-positive strains. However, vanT of the vanC gene cluster was detected in two vanC1-positive strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of pbp5, identical with the "E. faecium pbp5 gene," and of vanC1/vanT in E. faecalis. Even if resistance is not expressed in these strains, this study shows that E. faecalis have a strong ability to acquire resistance genes-and potentially to spread them to other bacteria. Therefore, close monitoring of this species should be continued.

  14. Protective Effects of Cilastatin against Vancomycin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Humanes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is a very effective antibiotic for treatment of severe infections. However, its use in clinical practice is limited by nephrotoxicity. Cilastatin is a dehydropeptidase I inhibitor that acts on the brush border membrane of the proximal tubule to prevent accumulation of imipenem and toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of cilastatin on vancomycin-induced apoptosis and toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs. Porcine RPTECs were cultured in the presence of vancomycin with and without cilastatin. Vancomycin induced dose-dependent apoptosis in cultured RPTECs, with DNA fragmentation, cell detachment, and a significant decrease in mitochondrial activity. Cilastatin prevented apoptotic events and diminished the antiproliferative effect and severe morphological changes induced by vancomycin. Cilastatin also improved the long-term recovery and survival of RPTECs exposed to vancomycin and partially attenuated vancomycin uptake by RPTECs. On the other hand, cilastatin had no effects on vancomycin-induced necrosis or the bactericidal effect of the antibiotic. This study indicates that cilastatin protects against vancomycin-induced proximal tubule apoptosis and increases cell viability, without compromising the antimicrobial effect of vancomycin. The beneficial effect could be attributed, at least in part, to decreased accumulation of vancomycin in RPTECs.

  15. Controlled Delivery of Vancomycin via Charged Hydrogels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl T Gustafson

    Full Text Available Surgical site infection (SSI remains a significant risk for any clean orthopedic surgical procedure. Complications resulting from an SSI often require a second surgery and lengthen patient recovery time. The efficacy of antimicrobial agents delivered to combat SSI is diminished by systemic toxicity, bacterial resistance, and patient compliance to dosing schedules. We submit that development of localized, controlled release formulations for antimicrobial compounds would improve the effectiveness of prophylactic surgical wound antibiotic treatment while decreasing systemic side effects. Our research group developed and characterized oligo(poly(ethylene glycolfumarate/sodium methacrylate (OPF/SMA charged copolymers as biocompatible hydrogel matrices. Here, we report the engineering of this copolymer for use as an antibiotic delivery vehicle in surgical applications. We demonstrate that these hydrogels can be efficiently loaded with vancomycin (over 500 μg drug per mg hydrogel and this loading mechanism is both time- and charge-dependent. Vancomycin release kinetics are shown to be dependent on copolymer negative charge. In the first 6 hours, we achieved as low as 33.7% release. In the first 24 hours, under 80% of total loaded drug was released. Further, vancomycin release from this system can be extended past four days. Finally, we show that the antimicrobial activity of released vancomycin is equivalent to stock vancomycin in inhibiting the growth of colonies of a clinically derived strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In summary, our work demonstrates that OPF/SMA hydrogels are appropriate candidates to deliver local antibiotic therapy for prophylaxis of surgical site infection.

  16. Increased cefepime MIC for enterobacteriacae clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Narges; Alikhani, Ahmad; Babamahmoudi, Farhang; Davoudi, Alireza; Ghasemiyan, Roya; Aliyan, Shahriar; Shoujaiifar, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Background : Cefepime was used as empirical treatment in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) induced by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of cefepime against microorganism causing VAP in Mazandaran, North of Iran. This study was performed on VAP patients diagnosed with clinical pulmonary infection score (CPIS) scores in ICU of two hospitals. For each patient suspected of having VAP, quantitative culture of endotracheal aspiration (QEA) was performed and MIC was determined by micro dilution test. Data were collected and analyzed. Thirty- five cases of enterobacteriaceae were isolated orderly including E coli 13, P. aeruginosa 11, Enterobacter 7 and K. pneumonia 4 cases. All the isolated E. coli, Enterobacter and Klebsiella, 54.5% of P. aeruginosa isolated were fully resistant to cefepime. The results of this study show that cefepime is not a reasonable choice for empirical treatment of nosocomial pneumonia and VAP.

  17. Effectiveness of local vancomycin powder to decrease surgical site infections: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsiu-Yin; Herwaldt, Loreen A; Blevins, Amy E; Cho, Edward; Schweizer, Marin L

    2014-03-01

    vancomycin powder application for preventing SSIs, the outcome of interest. We used the I²-index, Q-statistic, and corresponding p value to assess the heterogeneity of the risk estimates, and funnel plots to assess publication bias. We included seven quasi-experimental studies, two cohort studies, and one randomized controlled trial, encompassing 5,888 surgical patients. The pooled effects showed that applying local vancomycin powder was significantly protective against SSIs (pooled odds ratio [pOR] 0.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.38), deep incisional SSIs (pOR 0.23; 95% CI 0.09-0.57), and SSIs caused by S. aureus (pOR 0.22; 95% CI 0.08-0.58). However, significant heterogeneity was present for studies evaluating all SSIs or deep incisional SSIs. When we pooled the risk estimates from the eight studies that assessed patients undergoing spinal operations, vancomycin powder remained significantly protective against SSIs (pOR 0.16; 95% CI 0.09-0.30), deep incisional SSIs (pOR 0.18; 95% CI 0.09-0.36), and SSIs caused by S. aureus (pOR 0.11; 95% CI 0.03-0.36). The pooled ORs from studies of spinal operations were lower than those for all studies and the estimates from spinal operation studies were homogeneous. However, there was evidence of publication bias. Local administration of vancomycin powder appears to protect against SSIs, deep incisional SSIs, and S. aureus SSIs after spinal operations. Large, high-quality studies should be performed to evaluate this intervention before it is used routinely. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) in the Oil and Gas Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Eckert, Rickard

    2015-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a serious corrosion threat that impacts the operating integrity and reliability of assets in the oil and gas, maritime, power generation, and other industries. Yet MIC is also commonly misunderstood, leading to ineffective mitigation programs, wasted...... and implement improved mitigation strategies and thereby reduce operating risk. Our experts provide guidance in applying the latest state-of-the-art molecular microbiological methods (MMM) and industry standards to properly diagnose MIC in operating assets and on failed components. With this understanding, MIC...... can be effectively addressed as part of the overall Corrosion Management System (CMS)....

  19. The Role of Vancomycin on Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. Shatat and P.I.C.U team

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: After the previous discussion of the results obtained from this study, the researchers concluded that most of the cases diagnosed meningitis was aseptic and there was no need for antibiotics. Also in those who diagnosed as bacterial vancomycin was not essential in all cases, this confirmed by the absence of any differences in the outcome. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 501-511

  20. Iterative Chemical Engineering of Vancomycin Leads to Novel Vancomycin Analogs With a High in Vitro Therapeutic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigam M. Mishra

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits transpeptidation during cell wall synthesis by binding to the D-Ala-D-Ala termini of lipid II. For long, it has been used as a last resort antibiotic. However, since the emergence of the first vancomycin-resistant enterococci in 1987, vancomycin resistance has become widespread, especially in hospitals. We have synthesized and evaluated 110 vancomycin analogs modified at the C-terminal carboxyl group of the heptapeptide moiety with R2NHR1NH2 substituents. Through iterative optimizations of the substituents, we identified vancomycin analogs that fully restore (or even exceed the original inhibitory activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, vancomycin-intermediate (VISA and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA strains. The best analogs have improved growth inhibitory activity and in vitro therapeutic indices against a broad set of VRE and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA isolates. They also exceed the activity of vancomycin against Clostridium difficile ribotypes. Vanc-39 and Vanc-42 have a low probability to provoke antibiotic resistance, and overcome different vancomycin resistance mechanisms (VanA, VanB, and VanC1.

  1. MICs of Oxazolidinones for Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Humans and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Bowersock, Terry L.; Salmon, Sarah A.; Portis, Ellen S.; Prescott, John F.; Robison, Denise A.; Ford, Charles W.; Watts, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Eperezolid and linezolid are representatives of a new class of orally active, synthetic antimicrobial agents. The in vitro activity values (MICs) of linezolid, eperezolid, and comparator antibiotics against 102 strains of Rhodococcus equi isolated from humans and animals were determined. Linezolid was more active than eperezolid against the strains tested; premafloxacin was the most active comparator antibiotic.

  2. Synergistic effect of Carum copticum and Mentha piperita essential oils with ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and gentamicin on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talei, Gholam-Reza; Mohammadi, Mohsen; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Kopaei, Mahmoud Rafieian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Infectious diseases have always been an important health issue in human communities. In the recent years, much research has been conducted on antimicrobial effects of nature-based compounds because of increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance. The present study was conducted to investigate synergistic effect of Carum copticum and Mentha piperita essential oils with ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and gentamicin on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the synergistic effects of C. copticum and M. piperita essential oils with antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 14990), and Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 7644) were studied according to broth microdilution and the MIC and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) of these two essential oils determined. Results: C. copticum essential oil at 30 μg/ml could inhibit S. aureus, and in combination with vancomycin, decreased MIC from 0.5 to 0.12 μg/ml. Moreover, the FIC was derived 0.24 μg/ml which represents a potent synergistic effect with vancomycin against S. aureus growth. C. copticum essential oil alone or combined with other antibiotics is effective in treating bacterial infections. Conclusions: In addition, C. copticum essential oil can strengthen the activities of certain antibiotics, which makes it possible to use this essential oil, especially in drug resistance or to lower dosage or toxicity of the drugs. PMID:28929050

  3. Clinical outcomes of linezolid and vancomycin in patients with nosocomial pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus stratified by baseline renal function: a retrospective, cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Capitano, Blair; Stein, Amy; El-Solh, Ali A

    2017-05-22

    The primary objective of this study is to assess whether baseline renal function impacts treatment outcomes of linezolid and vancomycin (with a dose-optimized regimen) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of data generated from a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial (NCT 00084266). The analysis included 405 patients with culture-proven MRSA pneumonia. Baseline renal function was stratified based on creatinine clearance. Clinical and microbiological success rates and presence of nephrotoxicity were assessed at the end of treatment (EOT) and end of study (EOS). Multivariate logistic regression analyses of baseline patient characteristics, including treatment, were performed to identify independent predictors of efficacy. Vancomycin concentrations were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach. The relationships between vancomycin exposures, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic index (trough concentration, area under the curve over a 24-h interval [AUC 0-24 ], and AUC 0-24 /MIC) and efficacy/nephrotoxicity were assessed in MRSA pneumonia patients using univariate logistic regression or Cox proportional hazards regression analysis approach. After controlling for use of vasoactive agents, choice of antibiotic therapy and bacteremia, baseline renal function was not correlated with clinical and microbiological successes in MRSA pneumonia at either end of treatment or at end of study for both treatment groups. No positive association was identified between vancomycin exposures and efficacy in these patients. Higher vancomycin exposures were correlated with an increased risk of nephrotoxicity (e.g., hazards ratio [95% confidence interval] for a 5 μg/ml increase in trough concentration: 1.42 [1.10, 1.82]). In non-dialysis patients, baseline renal function did not impact the differences in efficacy or nephrotoxicity with treatment of linezolid versus vancomycin in MRSA

  4. Methicillin-Susceptible, Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Panesso , Diana; Planet , Paul J.; Diaz , Lorena; Hugonnet , Jean-Emannuel; Tran , Truc T.; Narechania , Apurva; Munita , José M.; Rincon , Sandra; Carvajal , Lina P.; Reyes , Jinnethe; Londono , Alejandra; Smith , Hannah; Sebra , Robert; Deikus , Gintaras; Weinstock , George M

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We report characterization of a methicillin-susceptible, vancomycin-resistant bloodstream isolate of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from a patient in Brazil. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus would indicate that this resistance trait might be poised to disseminate more rapidly among S. aureus and represents a major public health threat.

  5. Evaluation of risk factors for vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Jin; Lim, Na Ri; Park, Hyo Jung; Yang, Jae Wook; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Kyunga; In, Yong Won; Lee, Young Mee

    2018-05-09

    Background Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic of choice for the treatment of serious infections caused by multi-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. However, vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity (VAN) often limits its use. Previous data suggested a few risk factors of VAN, including higher mean vancomycin trough level, higher daily doses, old age, long duration of vancomycin therapy, and concomitant nephrotoxins. Objective To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of VAN and determine whether higher vancomycin trough concentrations were associated with a greater risk for VAN. Settings A retrospective, observational, single-center study at the 1960-bed university-affiliated tertiary care hospital (Samsung Medical Center), Seoul, Korea. Method A retrospective analysis of adult patients who received vancomycin parenterally in a tertiary care medical center from March 1, 2013 to June 30, 2013 was performed. We excluded patients with a baseline serum creatinine level > 2 mg/dL and those who had a history of end-stage renal disease and dialysis at baseline. The clinical characteristics were compared between patients with nephrotoxicity and those without nephrotoxicity to identify the risk factors associated with VAN. Main outcome measure Incidence of VAN and VAN-associated risk factors were analyzed. Results Of the 315 vancomycin-treated patients, nephrotoxicity occurred in 15.2% of the patients. In multivariate analysis, higher vancomycin trough concentrations of > 20 mg∕L (OR 9.57, 95% CI 2.49-36.83, p < 0.01) and intensive care unit (ICU) residence (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.41-5.82, p < 0.01) were independently associated with VAN. Conclusion Our findings suggest that higher vancomycin trough levels and ICU residence might be associated with a greater risk for VAN. More careful monitoring of vancomycin serum trough levels and patient status might facilitate the timely prevention of VAN.

  6. Determining vancomycin clearance in an overweight and obese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Julie V B; Boro, Maureen S; Winter, Michaele

    2011-04-01

    Two methods of calculating vancomycin clearance were compared to determine the best body weight measure to use when dosing vancomycin for overweight and obese patients. Hospitalized veterans weighing more than 120% of their ideal body weight (IBW) with serum vancomycin concentrations (SVCs) drawn between January 1, 2003, and June 30, 2005, were eligible for study inclusion. Exclusion criteria included weight of more than 300% the IBW, unstable renal function, dialysis, uncertain vancomycin dosing or sampling times, and distribution-phase sampling. Data from January 1 through December 31, 2003 (phase 1) determined the best-fit weight for vancomycin clearance for the Leonard and Boro method. The bias and precision of the modified Leonard and Boro method using the best-fit weight for vancomycin clearance were then compared with those of the Rushing and Ambrose method for predicting SVCs from January 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005 (phase 2). Forty-eight patients were included in phase 1, with 67 SVCs for analysis. During phase 1, adjusted body weight (ABW), using the Leonard and Boro method, was superior in predicting vancomycin clearance and the resultant SVCs. A total of 96 patients were included in phase 2 of the study, with 160 SVCs for analysis. The modified Leonard and Boro method was significantly more precise than the Rushing and Ambrose method in predicting vancomycin clearance. Use of ABW proved to be superior compared with total body weight when estimating vancomycin clearance in overweight and obese patients. While there was no difference in bias between methods, the modified Leonard and Boro method was significantly more precise than the Rushing and Ambrose method in predicting SVCs when dosing vancomycin for obese patients.

  7. In Vitro Synergy of Telavancin and Rifampin Against Enterococcus faecium Resistant to Both Linezolid and Vancomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, George A; Ashcraft, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    An emerging pathogen is Enterococcus faecium resistant to both linezolid and vancomycin (LRVRE). Antimicrobial combinations may be required for therapy and need to be evaluated. The combination of daptomycin and rifampin has demonstrated good in vitro activity against gram-positive bacteria, including E faecium. Telavancin, a newer lipoglycopeptide, has shown in vitro activity against E faecium. We evaluated the combination of telavancin and rifampin and compared the results to the combination of daptomycin and rifampin used previously on the same isolates. Twenty-four genetically unique (by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis), clinical LRVRE isolates were collected in the United States from 2001-2004. Etest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (μg/mL) were 0.064-8 for telavancin, 1-4 for daptomycin, and 0.012 to >32 for rifampin. In vitro synergy testing was performed in triplicate by an Etest MIC:MIC ratio method, and summation fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC) was calculated: synergy ≤0.5; indifference >0.5-4; and antagonism >4. The Etest method showed synergy (ΣFICs of 0.1-0.5) with telavancin + rifampin in 20/24 (83%) isolates and indifference (ΣFICs of 0.6-0.8) in 4/24 (17%) isolates. Similarly, the daptomycin + rifampin combination showed synergy (ΣFICs of 0.1-0.5) in 21/24 (88%) isolates and indifference (ΣFICs of 0.6-1.0) in 3/24 (12%) isolates by the Etest method. No antagonism was found. In vitro synergy with both combinations (rifampin + telavancin or daptomycin) was 83% and 88%, respectively, by Etest against these LRVRE isolates. Although both daptomycin and telavancin in combination with rifampin showed a high incidence of synergistic activity, further in vitro synergy testing with this combination should be performed against additional E faecium isolates. In vitro synergy may or may not translate into in vivo effectiveness.

  8. The Impact of AUC-Based Monitoring on Pharmacist-Directed Vancomycin Dose Adjustments in Complicated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessel, Andrew M; Hale, Cory M; Seabury, Robert W; Miller, Christopher D; Steele, Jeffrey M

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of area under the curve (AUC)-based vancomycin monitoring on pharmacist-initiated dose adjustments after transitioning from a trough-only to an AUC-based monitoring method at our institution. A retrospective cohort study of patients treated with vancomycin for complicated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection between November 2013 and December 2016 was conducted. The frequency of pharmacist-initiated dose adjustments was assessed for patients monitored via trough-only and AUC-based approaches for trough ranges: 10 to 14.9 mg/L and 15 to 20 mg/L. Fifty patients were included: 36 in the trough-based monitoring and 14 in the AUC-based-monitoring group. The vancomycin dose was increased in 71.4% of patients when troughs were 10 to 14.9 mg/L when a trough-only approach was used and in only 25% of patients when using AUC estimation ( P = .048). In the AUC group, the dose was increased only when AUC/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) AUC/MIC ≥400. The AUC-based monitoring did not significantly increase the frequency of dose reductions when trough concentrations were 15 to 20 mg/L (AUC: 33.3% vs trough: 4.6%; P = .107). The AUC-based monitoring resulted in fewer patients with dose adjustments when trough levels were 10 to 14.9 mg/L. The AUC-based monitoring has the potential to reduce unnecessary vancomycin exposure and warrants further investigation.

  9. MIC in long oil pipelines: diagnosis, treatment and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenneman, Gary; Harris, Jennifer; Webb, Robert [ConocoPhillips (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) in long oil pipelines. The presence of inorganic solids, bacteria, gases and organic acids in produced water in the oil pipelines causes MIC, which is hard to detect or test and it does not produce any unique type of corrosion. Chemical analysis of water from pig runs is presented in a tabular form and a graphical analysis of pig sludge solids is shown. From the biometabolite analysis, 23 putative hydrocarbon biometabolites were identified and biometabolites for the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic HC were also detected. Operational considerations include the history of MIC in upstream pipelines, water slugging, and presence of suspended solids, among others. From microbiological, chemical, metallurgical and operational evidence it was suggested that MIC is a likely mechanism. The mitigation program is described and suggestions for successful mitigation measures include removal of oxygen sources, scale inhibitor injection, and increasing CO2 inhibitor concentration.

  10. Utilization Pattern of Vancomycin in a University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    vis a vis to the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) guidelines and the ... effective against most Gram-positive bacteria ... Proper use of TDM procedures along ..... between antecedent vancomycin treatment and.

  11. Product quality of parenteral vancomycin products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, S; Madurawe, R D; Zuk, S M; Khan, S R; Ellison, C D; Faustino, P J; Mans, D J; Trehy, M L; Hadwiger, M E; Boyne, M T; Biswas, K; Cox, E M

    2012-06-01

    In response to concerns raised about the quality of parenteral vancomycin products, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is investigating the product quality of all FDA-approved parenteral vancomycin products available in the United States. Product quality was evaluated independently at two FDA Office of Testing and Research (FDA-OTR) sites. In the next phase of the investigation, being done in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the in vivo activity of these products will be evaluated in an appropriate animal model. This paper summarizes results of the FDA investigation completed thus far. One site used a validated ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography method (OTR-UPLC), and the second site used the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for related substances provided in the British Pharmacopeia (BP) monograph for vancomycin intravenous infusion. Similar results were obtained by the two FDA-OTR laboratories using two different analytical methods. The products tested had 90 to 95% vancomycin B (active component of vancomycin) by the BP-HPLC method and 89 to 94% vancomycin by OTR-UPLC methods. Total impurities were 5 to 10% by BP-HPLC and 6 to 11% by OTR-UPLC methods. No single impurity was >2.0%, and the CDP-1 level was ≤ 2.0% across all products. Some variability in impurity profiles of the various products was observed. No adverse product quality issues were identified with the six U.S. vancomycin parenteral products. The quality parameters of all parenteral vancomycin products tested surpassed the United States Pharmacopeia acceptance criteria. Additional testing will characterize in vivo performance characteristics of these products.

  12. Operational measures for the mitigation of MIC [microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    Although entitled Operational Measure, this section of the workshop encompasses aspects of mitigating MIC by controlling the hydraulic characteristics of a system. In order for operational considerations outside of the chemical treatment program to be effective, the system must be designed, constructed or modified, and maintained with MIC in mind. Since other papers in these proceedings discuss in detail the proper selection of materials, chemical treatments and detection of monitoring techniques, this paper is limited to quidelines for mitigating MIC and its effects by the mechanical design, maintenance and operation of the system. The key concept behind this philosophy is the synergistic relationships among microbes and among microbes and larger biofouling organisms. If the slime formers or other marine organisms can be prevented from attaching to the components, conducive environments for attack by other species is avoided

  13. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp.: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Kristensen, Lise; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged to become a significant nosocomial pathogen. However, detection may be challenging and treatment possibilities are limited. Reports of resistance to linezolide, daptomycin and tigecycline underline the need for reliable susceptibility testing wi...

  14. High Glucose Concentration Promotes Vancomycin-Enhanced Biofilm Formation of Vancomycin-Non-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in Diabetic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yu Hsu

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that vancomycin treatment increased acquisition of eDNA and enhanced biofilm formation of drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus through a cidA-mediated autolysis mechanism. Recently we found that such enhancement became more significant under a higher glucose concentration in vitro. We propose that besides improper antibiotic treatment, increased glucose concentration environment in diabetic animals may further enhance biofilm formation of drug-resistant S. aureus. To address this question, the diabetic mouse model infected by vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA was used under vancomycin treatment. The capacity to form biofilms was evaluated through a catheter-associated biofilm assay. A 10- and 1000-fold increase in biofilm-bound bacterial colony forming units was observed in samples from diabetic mice without and with vancomycin treatment, respectively, compared to healthy mice. By contrast, in the absence of glucose vancomycin reduced propensity to form biofilms in vitro through the increased production of proteases and DNases from VRSA. Our study highlights the potentially important role of increased glucose concentration in enhancing biofilm formation in vancomycin-treated diabetic mice infected by drug-resistant S. aureus.

  15. Predominant MIC Mechanisms in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    literature, terms such as microbial corrosion, biocorrosion, microbially influenced/induced corrosion, and biodegradation are often applied. All descriptions...express that microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, and fungi) influence the corrosion process of a given material. In this chapter, an overview of the common MIC mechanisms encountered in the oil and gas industry is presented.

  16. Gene-specific cell labeling using MiMIC transposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnerer, Joshua P; Venken, Koen J T; Dierick, Herman A

    2015-04-30

    Binary expression systems such as GAL4/UAS, LexA/LexAop and QF/QUAS have greatly enhanced the power of Drosophila as a model organism by allowing spatio-temporal manipulation of gene function as well as cell and neural circuit function. Tissue-specific expression of these heterologous transcription factors relies on random transposon integration near enhancers or promoters that drive the binary transcription factor embedded in the transposon. Alternatively, gene-specific promoter elements are directly fused to the binary factor within the transposon followed by random or site-specific integration. However, such insertions do not consistently recapitulate endogenous expression. We used Minos-Mediated Integration Cassette (MiMIC) transposons to convert host loci into reliable gene-specific binary effectors. MiMIC transposons allow recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to modify the transposon content. We developed novel exchange cassettes to convert coding intronic MiMIC insertions into gene-specific binary factor protein-traps. In addition, we expanded the set of binary factor exchange cassettes available for non-coding intronic MiMIC insertions. We show that binary factor conversions of different insertions in the same locus have indistinguishable expression patterns, suggesting that they reliably reflect endogenous gene expression. We show the efficacy and broad applicability of these new tools by dissecting the cellular expression patterns of the Drosophila serotonin receptor gene family. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Role of the transmembrane domain of the VanT serine racemase in resistance to vancomycin in Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, C A; Peña, J; Panesso, D; Reynolds, P

    2003-03-01

    Enterococcus gallinarum BM4175 (a vancomycin-susceptible derivative of BM4174 obtained by insertional inactivation of vanC-1) was transformed with plasmid constructs pCA10 (containing the genes necessary for resistance, vanC-1-XYc-T), pJP1 (with a fragment lacking the DNA encoding the transmembrane region of VanT, -vanC-1-XYc-T((Delta))(2-322)-) and with plasmids containing fragments encoding either the transmembrane (mvanT(1-322)) or racemase (svanT(323-698)) domains of VanT under the control of a constitutive promoter. Accumulated peptidoglycan precursors were measured in all strains in the presence of L-Ser, D-Ser (50 mM) or in the absence of any growth supplement. Uptake of 0.1 mM L-[(14)C]serine was also determined in BM4174, BM4175 and BM4175/pCA10. Vancomycin resistance was restored in BM4175 transformed with pCA10(C-1-XYc-T), and the profile of peptidoglycan precursors was similar to wild-type E. gallinarum BM4174. Transformation of E. gallinarum BM4175 with plasmid pJP1(vanC-1-XYc-T((Delta))(2-322)) resulted in: (i) vancomycin MICs remaining within susceptible levels (VanT is likely to be involved in the transport of L-Ser, and that in its absence the resistance phenotype is compromised.

  18. El cómic español desde 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz de Guereñu, Juan Manuel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifteen years comic has changed dramatically in Spain. The small size of the comics industry in the Spanish market doesn’t allow comic creators to turn his job into a profession, but the medium has attained prestige, critical attention on the cultural spaces and a place in the bookstores. Those changes are the consequence of some significant facts of the period: after the extinction of former comic magazines, comic books substituted them as the first format for comics edition, and a number of critical fanzines and self-edited fanzines and magazines were published by the authors themselves. Newborn and independent smallpress, more focused on the aesthetic values than on the economic profits of comics edition, have defined the new author comic, often printed in the format of books and associated to the “graphic novel” label.

    En los últimos quince años, el cómic ha cambiado mucho en España. Aunque el escaso peso de la industria del cómic no permite a los autores vivir como profesionales, el medio ha ganado prestigio, atención crítica en las páginas culturales y un lugar en las librerías. Dichos cambios son consecuencia de algunos hechos significativos del periodo: tras la desaparición de las revistas, las sustituyeron cuadernillos o comic-books como soporte fundamental del cómic, y proliferaron revistas críticas de aficionados y fanzines o revistas autoeditadas por los autores. Nuevas editoriales, pequeñas e independientes, más atentas a los valores estéticos que a los comerciales, han definido el nuevo cómic de autor, a menudo identificado con el formato libro y la etiqueta “novela gráfica”.

  19. In vitro activities of the new semisynthetic glycopeptide telavancin (TD-6424), vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and four comparator agents against anaerobic gram-positive species and Corynebacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Warren, Yumi A; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Fernandez, Helen T

    2004-06-01

    Telavancin is a new semisynthetic glycopeptide anti-infective with multiple mechanisms of action, including inhibition of bacterial membrane phospholipid synthesis and inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. We determined the in vitro activities of telavancin, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ampicillin against 268 clinical isolates of anaerobic gram-positive organisms and 31 Corynebacterium strains using agar dilution methods according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards procedures. Plates with daptomycin were supplemented with Ca(2+) to 50 mg/liter. The MICs at which 90% of isolates tested were inhibited (MIC(90)s) for telavancin and vancomycin were as follows: Actinomyces spp. (n = 45), 0.25 and 1 microg/ml, respectively; Clostridium difficile (n = 14), 0.25 and 1 microg/ml, respectively; Clostridium ramosum (n = 16), 1 and 4 microg/ml, respectively; Clostridium innocuum (n = 15), 4 and 16 microg/ml, respectively; Clostridium clostridioforme (n = 15), 8 and 1 microg/ml, respectively; Eubacterium group (n = 33), 0.25 and 2 microg/ml, respectively; Lactobacillus spp. (n = 26), 0.5 and 4 microg/ml, respectively; Propionibacterium spp. (n = 34), 0.125 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively; Peptostreptococcus spp. (n = 52), 0.125 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively; and Corynebacterium spp. (n = 31), 0.03 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively. The activity of TD-6424 was similar to that of quinupristin-dalfopristin for most strains except C. clostridioforme and Lactobacillus casei, where quinupristin-dalfopristin was three- to fivefold more active. Daptomycin had decreased activity (MIC > 4 microg/ml) against 14 strains of Actinomyces spp. and all C. ramosum, Eubacterium lentum, and Lactobacillus plantarum strains. Linezolid showed decreased activity (MIC > 4 microg/ml) against C. ramosum, two strains of C. difficile, and 15 strains of Lactobacillus spp. Imipenem and piperacillin

  20. Infection dynamics of vancomycin and inducible clindamycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis in an Indian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasmita Dubey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To do surveillance for vancomycin and inducible clindamycin resistance of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis, a Gram-positive bacterium in a teaching hospital. Methods: E. faecalis strains isolated from clinical samples were screened for vancomycin and inducible clindamycin resistance, i.e., D-test positivity, using vancomycin screen agar and blood agar plates, respectively. For the D-test screening, erythromycin resistant (Er-r and clindamycin sensitive (Cd-s strain were used. Results: Of 265 isolated E. faecalis strains, 159 (60% were vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE and 106 were vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus (VSE. Of 265 strains, 42 were constitutively resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin and of 148 Er-r and Cd-s strains, 87 (32.83% had D-test positivity, while the rest 61 strains were D-test negatives. D-test results examined with 6 hospital factors as bivalents, only 2 factors, the VSE/VRE and the presence/absence of prior antibiotic use > 90 days bivalent were statistically significant. A VRE strain with D-test positivity would be picked up 0.570 2 times more frequently than a strain with VSE and D-test positivity. Also, patients with prior antibiotic use > 90 days had 3.737 5 times more chance of picking up D-test positive strains than patients without any prior antibiotic use. Resistance pattern of E. faecalis strains to individual 14 antibiotics were recorded; the maximum values of resistance were against ampicillin 10 μg/disc and linezolid 30 μg/disc. Student’s t-test for hospital acquired and community acquired data revealed that drug resistant strains were equally prevalent in both sources. Conclusions: Prevalence of 60% VRE in both hospital and adjoining community creates consternation. In total 87 (32.83% strains had D-test positivity; patients who had used antibiotics within the last 90 days have got an ample chance of picking of D-test positive E. faecalis. D-test protocol should be followed with

  1. Trough Concentrations of Vancomycin in Patients Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Jin Park

    Full Text Available To investigate the appropriateness of the current vancomycin dosing strategy in adult patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, between March 2013 and November 2013, patients who were treated with vancomycin while on ECMO were enrolled. Control group consisted of 60 patients on vancomycin without ECMO, stayed in medical intensive care unit during the same study period and with the same exclusion criteria. Early trough levels were obtained within the fourth dosing, and maintenance levels were measured at steady state. A total of 20 patients were included in the analysis in ECMO group. Sixteen patients received an initial intravenous dose of 1.0 g vancomycin followed by 1.0 g every 12 hours. The non-steady state trough level of vancomycin after starting administration was subtherapeutic in 19 patients (95.00% in ECMO group as compared with 40 patients (66.67% in the control group (p = 0.013. Vancomycin clearance was 1.27±0.51 mL/min/kg, vancomycin clearance/creatinine clearance ratio was 0.90 ± 0.37, and elimination rate constant was 0.12 ± 0.04 h-1. Vancomycin dosingfrequency and total daily dose were significantly increased after clinical pharmacokinetic services of the pharmacist based on calculated pharmacokinetic parameters (from 2.10 ± 0.72 to 2.90 ± 0.97 times/day, p = 0.002 and from 32.54 ± 8.43 to 42.24 ± 14.62mg/kg, p = 0.014 in ECMO group in contrast with those (from 2.11 ± 0.69 to 2.37 ± 0.86 times/day, p = 0.071 and from 33.91 ± 11.85 to 31.61 ± 17.50 mg/kg, p = 0.350 in the control group.Although the elimination rate for vancomycin was similar with population parameter of non ECMO patients, the current dosing strategy of our institution for vancomycinin our ICU was not sufficient to achieve the target trough in the initial period in most patients receiving ECMO.

  2. [Study of marine actinomycetes isolated from the central coast of Peru and their antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Jorge; Aponte, Juan José; Rojas, Rosario; Cuadra, D'Lourdes; Ayala, Nathaly; Tomás, Gloria; Guerrero, Marco

    2011-06-01

    To determine the antimicrobial potential of marine actinomycetes against drug-resistant pathogens represented by strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE). Strains of actinomycetes (29) isolated from marine sediment were evaluated by their characteristics in two culture media and by testing their inhibitory capacity by in vitro antagonism against multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria for MRSA and VRE. Organic extracts of 3 selected actinomicetes were processed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the active compound. Most isolated actinomycetes belong to a homogeneous group of write-gray actinomycetes with a good growth in Marine Agar. The inhibitory rates of the isolates were above 85% for both pathogens with inhibition zones greater than 69 and 78 mm in diameter for MRSA and VRE respectively. Dichloromethane extracts of 3 isolates (I-400A, B1-T61, M10-77) showed strong inhibitory activity of both pathogens, M10-77 being the highest actinomycete strain with antibiotic activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis ATCC 51299 with a minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 7.9 and 31.7 μg/ml respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of M10-77 strain showed 99% similarity with the marine species Streptomyces erythrogriseus. Marine sediments of the central coast of Peru, are a source of actinomycetes strains showing high capacity to produce bioactive compounds able to inhibit pathogens classified as multi-drug-resistant such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis.

  3. Wild-type MIC distributions for aminoglycoside and cyclic polypeptide antibiotics used for treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juréen, P; Angeby, K; Sturegård, E; Chryssanthou, E; Giske, C G; Werngren, J; Nordvall, M; Johansson, A; Kahlmeter, G; Hoffner, S; Schön, T

    2010-05-01

    The aminoglycosides and cyclic polypeptides are essential drugs in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, underscoring the need for accurate and reproducible drug susceptibility testing (DST). The epidemiological cutoff value (ECOFF) separating wild-type susceptible strains from non-wild-type strains is an important but rarely used tool for indicating susceptibility breakpoints against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we established wild-type MIC distributions on Middlebrook 7H10 medium for amikacin, kanamycin, streptomycin, capreomycin, and viomycin using 90 consecutive clinical isolates and 21 resistant strains. Overall, the MIC variation between and within runs did not exceed +/-1 MIC dilution step, and validation of MIC values in Bactec 960 MGIT demonstrated good agreement. Tentative ECOFFs defining the wild type were established for all investigated drugs, including amikacin and viomycin, which currently lack susceptibility breakpoints for 7H10. Five out of seven amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were classified as susceptible to capreomycin according to the current critical concentration (10 mg/liter) but were non-wild type according to the ECOFF (4 mg/liter), suggesting that the critical concentration may be too high. All amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were clearly below the ECOFF for viomycin, and two of them were below the ECOFF for streptomycin, indicating that these two drugs may be considered for treatment of amikacin-resistant strains. Pharmacodynamic indices (peak serum concentration [Cmax]/MIC) were more favorable for amikacin and viomycin compared to kanamycin and capreomycin. In conclusion, our data emphasize the importance of establishing wild-type MIC distributions for improving the quality of drug susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  4. Wild-Type MIC Distributions for Aminoglycoside and Cyclic Polypeptide Antibiotics Used for Treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juréen, P.; Ängeby, K.; Sturegård, E.; Chryssanthou, E.; Giske, C. G.; Werngren, J.; Nordvall, M.; Johansson, A.; Kahlmeter, G.; Hoffner, S.; Schön, T.

    2010-01-01

    The aminoglycosides and cyclic polypeptides are essential drugs in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, underscoring the need for accurate and reproducible drug susceptibility testing (DST). The epidemiological cutoff value (ECOFF) separating wild-type susceptible strains from non-wild-type strains is an important but rarely used tool for indicating susceptibility breakpoints against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we established wild-type MIC distributions on Middlebrook 7H10 medium for amikacin, kanamycin, streptomycin, capreomycin, and viomycin using 90 consecutive clinical isolates and 21 resistant strains. Overall, the MIC variation between and within runs did not exceed ±1 MIC dilution step, and validation of MIC values in Bactec 960 MGIT demonstrated good agreement. Tentative ECOFFs defining the wild type were established for all investigated drugs, including amikacin and viomycin, which currently lack susceptibility breakpoints for 7H10. Five out of seven amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were classified as susceptible to capreomycin according to the current critical concentration (10 mg/liter) but were non-wild type according to the ECOFF (4 mg/liter), suggesting that the critical concentration may be too high. All amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were clearly below the ECOFF for viomycin, and two of them were below the ECOFF for streptomycin, indicating that these two drugs may be considered for treatment of amikacin-resistant strains. Pharmacodynamic indices (peak serum concentration [Cmax]/MIC) were more favorable for amikacin and viomycin compared to kanamycin and capreomycin. In conclusion, our data emphasize the importance of establishing wild-type MIC distributions for improving the quality of drug susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:20237102

  5. Biofilm-Forming Staphylococcus epidermidis Expressing Vancomycin Resistance Early after Adhesion to a Metal Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Sakimura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated biofilm formation and time of vancomycin (VCM resistance expression after adhesion to a metal surface in Staphylococcus epidermidis. Biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis with a VCM MIC of 1 μg/mL was used. The bacteria were made to adhere to a stainless steel washer and treated with VCM at different times and concentrations. VCM was administered 0, 2, 4, and 8 hours after adhesion. The amount of biofilm formed was evaluated based on the biofilm coverage rates (BCRs before and after VCM administration, bacterial viability in biofilm was visually observed using the fluorescence staining method, and the viable bacterial count in biofilm was measured. The VCM concentration required to decrease BCR significantly compared with that of VCM-untreated bacteria was 4 μg/mL, even in the 0 hr group. In the 4 and 8 hr groups, VCM could not inhibit biofilm growth even at 1,024 μg/mL. In the 8 hr group, viable bacteria remained in biofilm at a count of 104 CFU even at a high VCM concentration (1,024 μg/mL. It was suggested that biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis expresses resistance to VCM early after adhesion to a metal surface. Resistance increased over time after adhesion as the biofilm formed, and strong resistance was expressed 4–8 hours after adhesion.

  6. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Lise, Kristensen,; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics......Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics...

  7. Relationship between the clinical efficacy and AUC/MIC of intravenous ciprofloxacin in Japanese patients with intraabdominal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Emiko; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2013-10-01

    The efficacy of fluoroquinolones (FQs) correlates with the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) parameter, AUC/MIC. To our knowledge, however, no prospective studies have reported the relationship between FQ efficacy and PK-PD parameters in intraabdominal infection; therefore, we prospectively investigated the relationship between the efficacy of intravenous ciprofloxacin (CPFX IV) and PK-PD parameters. The study included 16 patients diagnosed with peritonitis between 2006 and 2008: 14 patients infected with a single organism and 2 patients infected with more than one organism. Each patient was treated with CPFX IV (300 mg twice daily). The response rate was 56% (9 responders and 7 non-responders). Non-responders were infected with Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacteroides fragilis (6 patients were infected with a single organism and 1 with more than one organism). Plasma drug concentrations were measured 1 h and 2 or 4 h after administration of CPFX IV. AUC for 24 h (AUC(0-24))/MIC values was calculated. The range of AUC(0-24)/MIC values in responders [95.3-3628.4 (geometric mean, 521.6)] was significantly different from that in non-responders [7.0-45.2 (geometric mean, 16.5)] (p = 0.001). The target AUC/MIC value of CPFX IV would be considered to be 45-95 in patients with peritonitis.

  8. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-01-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and b...

  9. CoMIC, the hidden dynamics of mitochondrial inner compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Bongki; Sun, Woong

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondria have evolutionarily, functionally and structurally distinct outer- (OMM) and inner-membranes (IMM). Thus, mitochondrial morphology is controlled by independent but coordinated activity of fission and fusion of the OMM and IMM. Constriction and division of the OMM are mediated by endocytosis-like machineries, which include dynamin-related protein 1 with additional cytosolic vesicle scissoring machineries such as actin filament and Dynamin 2. However, structural alteration of the IMM during mitochondrial division has been poorly understood. Recently, we found that the IMM and the inner compartments undergo transient and reversible constriction prior to the OMM division, which we termed CoMIC, Constriction of Mitochondrial Inner Compartment. In this short review, we further discuss the evolutionary perspective and the regulatory mechanism of CoMIC during mitochondrial division. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(12): 597-598].

  10. Threshold SRB populations for MIC of stainless alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angell, P.; Urbanic, K.; Gendron, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The three CANDU reactor sites on the Great Lakes exhibit differences in susceptibility to microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of heat exchanger tubes, despite similar colonization of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Therefore, it was suspected that bacterial activity, rather than numbers, is responsible for pit initiation. Accelerated corrosion tests are being used to examine the relationship between SRB colonization and pitting activity on stainless alloy heat exchanger tubes. Experimental conditions model those of the natural systems. At present, there appears to be little correlation between bacterial numbers and pit initiation. However, there does appear to be a correlation between bacterial activity (causing a decrease in corrosion potential, as a function of sulfide production), and pit initiation. Data are being collected to develop a model to predict MIC for the CHECWORKS service water module. (author)

  11. Test methods for microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, B.; Wagner, P.; Mansfeld, F.

    1992-01-01

    Electrochemical techniques such as measurements of corrosion and redox potentials, polarization curves, polarization resistance, electrochemical impedance and electrochemical noise have been used to evaluate the impact of marine microorganisms on corrosion processes. Surface analytical techniques including microbiological culturing, scanning electron microscopy, microprobes and microelectrodes have been used to characterize metal surfaces after exposure to marine waters. A combination of electrochemical, surface analytical and microbiological techniques is the most promising approach for determining mechanisms of MIC

  12. Investigation of the potential for mutational resistance to XF-73, retapamulin, mupirocin, fusidic acid, daptomycin, and vancomycin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates during a 55-passage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, David J; Robbins, Marion; Rhys-Williams, William; Love, William G

    2011-03-01

    XF-73 is a dicationic porphyrin drug with rapid Gram-positive antibacterial activity currently undergoing clinical trials for the nasal decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In multistep (55-passage) resistance selection studies in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of XF-73, retapamulin, mupirocin, fusidic acid, and vancomycin against four Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus MRSA strains, there was no >4-fold increase in the MIC for XF-73 after 55 passages. In contrast, there was an increase in the MICs for retapamulin (from 0.25 μg/ml to 4 to 8 μg/ml), for mupirocin (from 0.12 μg/ml to 16 to 512 μg/ml), for fusidic acid (from 0.12 μg/ml to 256 μg/ml), and for vancomycin (from 1 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml in two of the four strains tested). Further investigations using S. aureus NRS384 (USA300) and daptomycin demonstrated a 64-fold increase in the MIC after 55 passages (from 0.5 μg/ml to 32 μg/ml) with a >4-fold increase in the MIC obtained after only five passages. Sequencing analysis of selected isolates confirmed previously reported point mutations associated with daptomycin resistance. No cross-resistance to XF-73 was observed with the daptomycin-resistant strains, suggesting that whereas the two drugs act on the bacterial cell membrane, their specific site of action differs. XF-73 thus represents the first in a new class of antibacterial drugs, which (unlike the comparator antibiotics) after 55 passages exhibited a ≤4-fold increase in MIC against the strains tested. Antibacterial drugs with a low propensity for inducing bacterial resistance are much needed for the prevention and treatment of multidrug-resistant bacteria both within and outside the hospital setting.

  13. Application of mineral insulated cable (MIC) in Tokamak fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Tianyong; Jiang Jiaming; Cen Yishun

    2014-01-01

    To avoid the instability of plasma and achieve some experimental tasks in Tokamak fusion reactor, many in-vessel coils are designed such as the coils to mitigate the effect of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs coils) and the coils to provide vertical stabilization (VS coils). The in-vessel location presents special challenges in terms of nuclear radiation and temperature, and requires the use of mineral-insulated conductors. The in-vessel coils in ITER are designed to be Mineral-insulated Cable (MIC) with three-layer structures. The inner is hollow-core tube made by OFHC or CuCrZr, the middle is the insulation layer made by Mgo and the outer is the jacket by SS316L or Inconel 718. To control the effect of Edge Localized Modes and vertical instability of plasma, the MIC in-vessel coils shall be used in HL-2M. More details about the application of MIC in Tokamak fusion reactor will be shown in this report. (authors)

  14. Single-Dose Bone Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in a Porcine Implant-Associated Osteomyelitis Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bue, Mats; Hanberg, Pelle; Koch, Janne

    2018-01-01

    , vancomycin bone and soft tissue penetration during infection remains unclear. In eight pigs, implant-associated osteomyelitis was induced on day 0, using a Staphylococcus aureus strain. Following administration of 1,000 mg of vancomycin on day 5, vancomycin concentrations were obtained with microdialysis...

  15. Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 (MIC-1 as A Biomarker for Diagnosis 
and Prognosis of Stage I-II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuning LIU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Increased macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1, member of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β superfamily, was found in patients serum with epithelial tumors. Therefore, our aim was to delineate the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum MIC-1 in patients with stage I-II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods A total of 152 consecutive patients with stage I–II NSCLC were prospectively enrolled and underwent follow up after total resection of tumor. Serum MIC-1 level was detected in lung cancer patients by ELISA, 48 benign pulmonary disease patients and 105 healthy controls, and was correlated with clinical features and prognosis of patients. Results The level of MIC-1 of NSCLC patients was significantly higher than that of controls (P<0.001 and benign pulmonary disease patients (P<0.001. A threshold of 1,000 pg/mL could be used to diagnose early-stage NSCLC with 70.4% sensitivity and 99.0% specificity. The level of MIC-1 was associated with elder age (P=0.001, female (P=0.03 and T2 (P=0.022. A threshold of 1,465 pg/mL could identify patients with early poor outcome with 72.2% sensitivity and 66.1% specificity. The overall 3-year survival rate in patients with high level of MIC-1 (≥1,465 pg/mL was significantly lower than that of patients with low MIC-1 level (77.6% vs 94.8%. Multivariable Cox regression revealed that a high level of MIC-1 was an independent risk factor for compromised overall survival (HR=3.37, 95%CI: 1.09-10.42, P=0.035. Conclusion High level of serum MIC-1 could be served as a potential biomarker for diagnosis and poorer outcome in patients with early-stage NSCLC.

  16. Stoma-Closure-Induced Fulminant Pseudomembranous Colitis Recovered by Adjunctive Intracolic Vancomycin with Postural Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yozo Suzuki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man with a history of low anterior resection and diverting loop transverse colostomy for rectal carcinoma developed fulminant pseudomembranous colitis after stoma closure. Oral administration of vancomycin at 0.5 g every 6 h and colonoscopy with intracolic vancomycin administration was unsuccessful, but continuation of intracolic vancomycin with postural change resulted in dramatic recovery. Postural change may extend the efficacy of intracolic vancomycin, and intracolic vancomycin should be considered as an option between conventional therapy and surgical intervention for pseudomembranous colitis.

  17. Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 limits the recurrence of Clostridium difficile-Induced colitis following vancomycin withdrawal in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, we found that the probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (GanedenBC30) improved indices of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)-induced colitis in mice (Fitzpatrick et al., Gut Pathogens, 2011). Our goal was to determine if BC30 could also prevent the recurrence of C. difficile-induced colitis in mice, following initial treatment with vancomycin. During study days 0 through 5, mice were treated with antibiotics. On day 6, the C. difficile strain VPI 10463 was given by oro-gastric gavage at ≈ 5x104 CFU to induce colitis. Mice were treated on study days 6 to 10 with vancomycin (50 mg/kg) (vanco) or vehicle (saline) by gavage. On days 10 to16, mice were dosed by gavage with saline vehicle or BC30 (2 x 109 CFU per day). Mice were monitored for mortality, weight loss and diarrhea. On study days 14, 16 and 17, stools and colons were collected for analyzing other parameters of colitis. Results The mean stool consistency score in Vehicle/C.difficile/Vanco mice increased from 0.4 (day 10) to a range of 1.1 to 1.4 (days 14 to 17), indicating the recurrence of colitis. On days 13 through 17, the stool consistency scores for the vancomycin/BC30 mice were significantly lower (p< 0.05) than for the vancomycin/vehicle cohort of animals. On day 17, 88.9% of mice treated with BC30 had normal stools, while this value was 0% with vehicle treatment (p value = 0.0004). Colonic myeloperoxidase (Units/2 cm colon) was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced from 4.3 ± 0.7 (Vehicle/C.difficile/Vanco) to 2.6 ± 0.2 (BC30/C. Difficle/Vanco). The colonic histology score and Keratinocyte derived-chemokine level in the colon were also lower in BC30 treated mice. Summary In BC30-treated mice, there was evidence of better stool consistency, as well as improved biochemical and histological indices of colitis, following initial treatment of animals with vancomycin. Conclusion BC30 limited the recurrence of CD-induced colitis following vancomycin withdrawal in mice. PMID

  18. Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 limits the recurrence of Clostridium difficile-Induced colitis following vancomycin withdrawal in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Leo R; Small, Jeffrey S; Greene, Wallace H; Karpa, Kelly D; Farmer, Sean; Keller, David

    2012-10-22

    Recently, we found that the probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (GanedenBC30) improved indices of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)-induced colitis in mice (Fitzpatrick et al., Gut Pathogens, 2011). Our goal was to determine if BC30 could also prevent the recurrence of C. difficile-induced colitis in mice, following initial treatment with vancomycin. During study days 0 through 5, mice were treated with antibiotics. On day 6, the C. difficile strain VPI 10463 was given by oro-gastric gavage at ≈ 5x104 CFU to induce colitis. Mice were treated on study days 6 to 10 with vancomycin (50 mg/kg) (vanco) or vehicle (saline) by gavage. On days 10 to16, mice were dosed by gavage with saline vehicle or BC30 (2 x 109 CFU per day). Mice were monitored for mortality, weight loss and diarrhea. On study days 14, 16 and 17, stools and colons were collected for analyzing other parameters of colitis. The mean stool consistency score in Vehicle/C.difficile/Vanco mice increased from 0.4 (day 10) to a range of 1.1 to 1.4 (days 14 to 17), indicating the recurrence of colitis. On days 13 through 17, the stool consistency scores for the vancomycin/BC30 mice were significantly lower (p< 0.05) than for the vancomycin/vehicle cohort of animals. On day 17, 88.9% of mice treated with BC30 had normal stools, while this value was 0% with vehicle treatment (p value = 0.0004). Colonic myeloperoxidase (Units/2 cm colon) was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced from 4.3 ± 0.7 (Vehicle/C.difficile/Vanco) to 2.6 ± 0.2 (BC30/C. Difficle/Vanco). The colonic histology score and Keratinocyte derived-chemokine level in the colon were also lower in BC30 treated mice. In BC30-treated mice, there was evidence of better stool consistency, as well as improved biochemical and histological indices of colitis, following initial treatment of animals with vancomycin. BC30 limited the recurrence of CD-induced colitis following vancomycin withdrawal in mice.

  19. Repeated batch production of vancomycin using synthetic cotton fibers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... The production of vancomycin by free and immobilized cells of Amycolatopsis orientalis was .... ceutical Industries Company (EIPICO)] and the inhibition zone ... production medium showed a marked loss in the first ... secondary metabolic enzymes of immobilized cells, as ... of cells in an economic way.

  20. Vancomycin resistant enterococci in farm animals – occurrence and importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Nilsson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The view on enterococci has over the years shifted from harmless commensals to opportunistic but important pathogens mainly causing nosocomial infections. One important part of this development is the emergence of vancomycin resistance enterococci (VRE. The term VRE includes several combinations of bacterial species and resistance genes of which the most clinically important is Enterococcus faecium with vanA type vancomycin resistance. This variant is also the most common VRE among farm animals. The reason for VRE being present among farm animals is selection by extensive use of the vancomycin analog avoparcin for growth promotion. Once the use of avoparcin was discontinued, the prevalence of VRE among farm animals decreased. However, VRE are still present among farm animals and by spread via food products they could potentially have a negative impact on public health. This review is based on the PhD thesis Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci in Swedish Broilers – Emergence, Epidemiology and Elimination and makes a short summary of VRE in humans and food producing animals. The specific situation regarding VRE in Swedish broiler production is also mentioned.

  1. Prophylactic intracameral vancomycin: efficacy in preventing endophthalmitis after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash Kumar Goswami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Post Operative endophthalmitis is rare but devastating complication in ocular surgery. The present study determined the efficacy of intracameral vancomycin after phaco-emusification cataract surgery to prevent endophthalmitis. Method: A total of 768 cases who had undergone phaco-emusification cataract surgery were included in the study. Every alternate patient received 0.5 ml injection of vancomycin (1mg in 0.1 ml in the anterior chamber after completion of phaco-emulcification and formation of anterior chamber. All the patients were examined for symptoms and signs of bacterial endophthalmitis at 24 hrs, 7 days, 15 days and subsequently at 1, 3 and 6 months following surgery. Results: No endophthalmitis case was recorded at any time period during 6 month follow up in either group. However, significantly higher number of cases in vancomycin group had cells in anterior chamber and disturbances in visual acuity at day 15 following surgery. Conclusion: Vancomycin did not have any prophylactic role in preventing endophthalmitis. Proper aseptic measures are important to prevent any infection in ocular surgery. IMC J Med Sci 2016; 10(1: 24-28

  2. Peran Public Speaking dalam Kegiatan Open Mic (Studi tentang Peran Public Speaking terhadap Kemampuan Comic dalam Kegiatan Open Mic Komunitas Stand Up Indo Kota Medan)

    OpenAIRE

    Rovis, Disa Yumna

    2016-01-01

    This study, entitled "The Role of Public Speaking on Open Mic Activity". The aim of the research is knowing the public speaking proses and the use of public speaking on the ability of comic on open mic activity. Public speaking theory is used for this research. Descriptive qualitative method is used in this research by nonparticipant observation tecnique through interviewing the comic. Based on this research, open mic activity uses the specific elements of public speaking. They are, the speak...

  3. Synthesis and biodistribution of 99mTc-Vancomycin in a model of bacterial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roohi, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Malik, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Vancomycin Hydrochloride is an antibiotic produced by the growth of certain strains of Streptomyces orientalis. As vancomycin hydrochloride is poorly absorbed after oral administration; it is given intravenously for therapy of systemic infections. Vancomycin was labeled with technetium-99m pertechnetate using SnCl 2 . 2H 2 O as reducing agent. The labeling efficiency depends on ligand/reductant ratio, pH, and volume of reaction mixture. Radiochemical purity and stability of 99m Tc-Vancomycin was determined by thin layer chromatography. Biodistribution studies of 99m Tc-Vancomycin were performed in a model of bacterial infection in Sprague-Dawley rats. A significantly higher accumulation of 99m Tc-Vancomycin was seen at sites of S. aureus infected animals. Whereas uptake of 99m Tc-Vancomycin in turpentine inflamed rats were quite low. (orig.)

  4. Mastite micótica em ruminantes causada por leveduras

    OpenAIRE

    Spanamberg,Andréia; Sanches,Edna Maria Cavallini; Santurio,Janio Morais; Ferreiro,Laerte

    2009-01-01

    A ocorrência de casos esporádicos de mastite causados por microrganismos de origem ambiental pode ser considerada como emergente e as leveduras, os fungos leveduriformes e os filamentosos são alguns dos principais agentes envolvidos. Em relação à mastite micótica, as leveduras são freqüentemente causas de infecções da glândula mamária em animais produtores de leite. A maior parte dos casos ocorre sob a forma de surtos localizados e/ou após tratamento com antimicrobianos. Os principais gêneros...

  5. El vocabulario de las armas en micénico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabé, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic analysis of rise, structure, and development of the words referred to weapons in Mycenaean tablets and in first Millennium Greek. The results of application of linguistic or philological methods can so be collated with ones achieved by archaeologists.

    Estudio sistemático de la creación, estructura y desarrollo del vocabulario referido a las armas en las tablillas micénicas y en el griego posterior. Los resultados obtenidos por métodos lingüísticos o filológicos pueden así ser cotejados con los logrados por la arqueología.

  6. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

  7. Ceftaroline efficacy against high-MIC clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates in an in vitro hollow-fibre infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Renu; Almutairi, Mashal; Alm, Richard A; Lahiri, Sushmita D; San Martin, Maryann; Chen, April; Ambler, Jane E

    2017-10-01

    The current CLSI and EUCAST clinical susceptible breakpoint for 600 mg q12h dosing of ceftaroline (active metabolite of ceftaroline fosamil) for Staphylococcus aureus is ≤1 mg/L. Efficacy data for S. aureus infections with ceftaroline MIC ≥2 mg/L are limited. This study was designed to generate in-depth pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) understanding of S. aureus isolates inhibited by ≥ 2 mg/L ceftaroline using an in vitro hollow-fibre infection model (HFIM). The PK/PD target of ceftaroline was investigated against 12 diverse characterized clinical MRSA isolates with ceftaroline MICs of 2 or 4 mg/L using q8h dosing for 24 h. These isolates carried substitutions in the penicillin-binding domain (PBD) and/or the non-PBD. Additionally, PD responses of mutants with ceftaroline MICs ranging from 2 to 32 mg/L were evaluated against the mean 600 mg q8h human-simulated dose over 72 h. The mean stasis, 1 log10-kill and 2 log10-kill PK/PD targets were 29%, 32% and 35% f T>MIC, respectively. In addition, these data suggest that the PK/PD target for MRSA is not impacted by the presence of substitutions in the non-PBD commonly found in isolates with ceftaroline MIC values of ≤ 2 mg/L. HFIM studies with 600 mg q8h dosing demonstrated a sustained long-term bacterial suppression for isolates with ceftaroline MICs of 2 and 4 mg/L. Overall, efficacy was demonstrated against a diverse collection of clinical isolates using HFIM indicating the utility of 600 mg ceftaroline fosamil for S. aureus isolates with MIC ≤4 mg/L using q8h dosing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Characterization of vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium isolates from humans, chickens and pigs by RiboPrinting and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Fussing, Vivian; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2000-01-01

    Forty-eight vancomycin-resistant and 35 vancomycin-sensitive Danish Enterococcus faecium isolates obtained from pigs, chickens and humans, as well as the human vanA reference isolate BM4147, were characterized by EcoRI RiboPrinting and Smal pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. RiboPrinting of the 84...

  9. Evaluation of vancomycin therapy in the adult ICUs of a teaching hospital in southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazin A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Afsaneh Vazin, Motahare Mahi Birjand, Masoud Darake Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Background: Vancomycin resistance in intensive care units (ICUs accounts for significant morbidity and excess costs. The objective of the present study was to determine the appropriateness of vancomycin use in the various ICUs of Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Methods: This prospective study was performed on 95 critically ill patients (48 males and 47 females who were treated with vancomycin for at least 3 subsequent doses in 6 ICUs during 12 months. Required demographic, clinical, and paraclinical data were collected by a pharmacist. Fifteen indexes were considered for evaluation of vancomycin use. Results: Ventilator-associated hospital-acquired pneumonia (22.6%, sepsis (22.1% and CNS infection (12.6% were found to be the most important indications for vancomycin prescription. Vancomycin was prescribed empirically in 81% of patients. None of the patients received loading dose, and most of the patients received fixed dose. The rate of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy was 68.5% in patients who received vancomycin. The mean score of vancomycin use in the ICUs of Nemazee Hospital was 7.1±0.6 out of 15, implying that the rate of vancomycin use was in accordance with the guideline proposed by the Department of Clinical Pharmacy of Nemazee Hospital based on Infectious Diseases Society of America by 47.3%. Conclusion: Based on our results, the weakness in using vancomycin was related to not administering loading dose, the practice of prescribing fixed-dose vancomycin and prolonged duration of empiric therapy. Efforts to improve the pattern of vancomycin prescription and utilization in these ICUs should be undertaken. Keywords: vancomycin, drug utilization, intensive care units

  10. Treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in mice with vancomycin alone is as effective as treatment with vancomycin and metronidazole in combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Aarup, Mie; Hagemann-Madsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clostridium difficile is a major cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhoea. Treatment of C. difficile infection (CDI) depends on disease severity. A combination of vancomycin and metronidazole is often recommended in severe cases. The aim of this study was to examine, in a murine model....... difficile toxins. RESULTS: None of the mice in the vancomycin-treated group died during the treatment phase compared to a mortality of 17%, 33% and 55% in the combination, metronidazole and infected control group, respectively. Mice treated with vancomycin alone or in combination with metronidazole...... of CDI, if mice treated with a combination of vancomycin and metronidazole had a better clinical outcome than mice treated with vancomycin or metronidazole alone. DESIGN: C57BL/6J mice pretreated with an antimicrobial mixture were challenged with C. difficile VPI 10463 or phosphate-buffered saline...

  11. Meningitis associated with Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus casseliflavus: First report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Sefa Uçar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are present in the gastrointestinal system as normal floral components. In the past two decades membersof the genus Enterococcus have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Enterococci may cause arange of different disorders such as urinary tract, intraabdominal, and wound infections, as well as endocarditis, meningitisand bacteraemia. Nosocomial enterococcal meningitis is most commonly observed following ventriculoperitonealshunt operations. Vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE represents 30% of all enterococci infections.This report presents a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus casseliflavus meningitis case in a 66-year-old patient withventriculoperitoneal shunt, which has not been reported in the literature before. Successful outcomes were obtainedwith daptomycin plus linezolid combined treatment in VRE meningitis. Treatment recommendations in VRE meningitisare also discussed in this article. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1 (3:138-140

  12. Isolation of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium from food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Madsen, Mogens; Nielsen, Niels

    1997-01-01

    was not detected in 124 samples of pork and 128 samples of beef from retail outlets by the direct plating method. An additional enrichment step in nutrient broth supplemented with vancomycin enhanced the detection rate of VREF by approximately three times compared to the direct plating method when investigating...... the same 160 samples of broilers by the two methods. The implications and public health aspects of VREF in food is discussed....

  13. An accelerated electrochemical MIC test for stainless alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendron, T.S.; Cleland, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory and elsewhere has suggested that MIC of stainless steels and nickel-base alloys occurs in locally anaerobic regions that support the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The cathodic reaction is provided by oxygen reduction at remote sites. Such a coupling between anode and cathode is difficult to reproduce in the laboratory, but can be simulated indirectly using a double electrochemical cell, as in previous work. A more realistic simulation using a single aerated electrochemical cell has now been developed, in which a second organism (P. aeruginosa) is used to provide an anoxic habitat for SRB growth and possibly a source of organic carbon, within a layer of silt. A bare alloy electrode is used as the oxygen cathode. Tests of this kind using rigorous microbiological procedures have generated pitting corrosion of several alloys in low chloride media simulating freshwater heat exchanger conditions. Similar test procedures are applicable to other environments of interest to this symposium

  14. Randomized prospective study comparing vancomycin with teicoplanin in the treatment of infections associated with Hickman catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S R; Cheesbrough, J; Spearing, R; Davies, J M

    1989-08-01

    In 72 episodes of suspected or proven Hickman-catheter-associated infection occurring in 59 patients with various hematological disorders, patients were assigned to treatment with either vancomycin or teicoplanin in a randomized nonblinded prospective study. Of 60 episodes evaluable for response, 28 were treated with vancomycin and 32 were treated with teicoplanin. Sixteen infective episodes were microbiologically documented in the vancomycin group, and twenty-one were microbiologically documented in the teicoplanin group. Microbiologically and clinically documented infections treated with vancomycin had an 80% response rate, compared with a 69% response rate for those treated with teicoplanin (P = 0.316). Adverse events occurred in nine (25%) of the episodes in the vancomycin group, compared with three (8%) in the teicoplanin group (P = 0.044). Teicoplanin may provide an effective alternative to vancomycin in the treatment of Hickman-catheter-associated infection in patients with hematological malignancies.

  15. An Approach to Optimise Therapeutic Vancomycin Dosage in a Haemodialysis Population

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gunning, H

    2016-10-01

    Haemodialysis patients are at risk of gram-positive bacteraemia and commonly require intravenous vancomycin. Intravenously administered vancomycin is primarily excreted by the kidney and exhibits complex pharmacokinetics in haemodialysis patients; achieving therapeutic levels can be challenging. An audit in our unit showed current practises of vancomycin administration resulted in a high proportion of sub-therapeutic levels. A new protocol was developed with fixed weight-based loading and subsequent dosing guided by pre-dialysis levels, target levels were 10-20mg\\/L. Its effectiveness was prospectively evaluated between 24th September 2012, and 8th February 2013. During this period 25 patients commenced vancomycin, 15 were included. In total, 112 vancomycin levels were taken, 94 (84%) were therapeutic, this was a significant improvement compared to previous practise (odds ratio 5.4, CI 3.1-9.4, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, our study shows this protocol can consistently and reliably achieve therapeutic vancomycin levels

  16. Genomic, Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Studies of Two Well-Characterized, Laboratory-Derived Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Strains Derived from the Same Parent Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti S. Hattangady

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Complete genome comparisons, transcriptomic and metabolomic studies were performed on two laboratory-selected, well-characterized vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA derived from the same parent MRSA that have changes in cell wall composition and decreased autolysis. A variety of mutations were found in the VISA, with more in strain 13136p−m+V20 (vancomycin MIC = 16 µg/mL than strain 13136p−m+V5 (MIC = 8 µg/mL. Most of the mutations have not previously been associated with the VISA phenotype; some were associated with cell wall metabolism and many with stress responses, notably relating to DNA damage. The genomes and transcriptomes of the two VISA support the importance of gene expression regulation to the VISA phenotype. Similarities in overall transcriptomic and metabolomic data indicated that the VISA physiologic state includes elements of the stringent response, such as downregulation of protein and nucleotide synthesis, the pentose phosphate pathway and nutrient transport systems. Gene expression for secreted virulence determinants was generally downregulated, but was more variable for surface-associated virulence determinants, although capsule formation was clearly inhibited. The importance of activated stress response elements could be seen across all three analyses, as in the accumulation of osmoprotectant metabolites such as proline and glutamate. Concentrations of potential cell wall precursor amino acids and glucosamine were increased in the VISA strains. Polyamines were decreased in the VISA, which may facilitate the accrual of mutations. Overall, the studies confirm the wide variability in mutations and gene expression patterns that can lead to the VISA phenotype.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility against penicillin, ampicillin and vancomycin of viridans group Streptococcus in oral microbiota of patients at risk of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süzük, Serap; Kaşkatepe, Banu; Çetin, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    The viridans group Streptococci (VGS) are most abundant in the mouth; in some instances they might emerge as pathogens particularly in infective endocarditis (IE). In this study, we aimed to define and determine the susceptibility against antibiotics of VGS that are members of the oral microbiota of patients exhibiting a risk of developing IE. Forty-nine patients at risk of infective endocarditis were included in the study. Identification of the bacteria was performed using API STREP (bioMérieux, France). Gradient test strips (E-Test, France) were used to determine MIC of the bacteria against penicillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. The distribution of the isolated VGS groups was determined as follows: Streptococcus mitis 32.6% and anginosus group - 32.6%, S. sanguinis group - 16.3%, S. mutans group - 12.2%, and S. salivarius group - 6.1%. The rates of resistance and reduced sensitivity of the isolates for penicillin and ampicillin were determined at 61.2% and 55.1%, respectively. However, all isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin. We conclude that the antimicrobial resistance of VGS should be determined on a regular basis locally, and decisions on therapeutic and prophylactic interventions should be given taking this resistance into consideration.

  18. Comparative effectiveness of nafcillin or cefazolin versus vancomycin in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGregor Jessina C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA has led clinicians to select antibiotics that have coverage against MRSA, usually vancomycin, for empiric therapy for suspected staphylococcal infections. Clinicians often continue vancomycin started empirically even when methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA strains are identified by culture. However, vancomycin has been associated with poor outcomes such as nephrotoxicity, persistent bacteremia and treatment failure. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of vancomycin versus the beta-lactam antibiotics nafcillin and cefazolin among patients with MSSA bacteremia. The outcome of interest for this study was 30-day in-hospital mortality. Methods This retrospective cohort study included all adult in-patients admitted to a tertiary-care facility between January 1, 2003 and June 30, 2007 who had a positive blood culture for MSSA and received nafcillin, cefazolin or vancomycin. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess independent mortality hazards comparing nafcillin or cefazolin versus vancomycin. Similar methods were used to estimate the survival benefits of switching from vancomycin to nafcillin or cefazolin versus leaving patients on vancomycin. Each model included statistical adjustment using propensity scores which contained variables associated with an increased propensity to receive vancomycin. Results 267 patients were included; 14% (38/267 received nafcillin or cefazolin, 51% (135/267 received both vancomycin and either nafcillin or cefazolin, and 35% (94/267 received vancomycin. Thirty (11% died within 30 days. Those receiving nafcillin or cefazolin had 79% lower mortality hazards compared with those who received vancomycin alone (adjusted hazard ratio (HR: 0.21; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.09, 0.47. Among the 122 patients who initially received vancomycin empirically, those who were switched to nafcillin or cefazolin (66

  19. Evaluating guideline adherence regarding empirical vancomycin use in patients with neutropenic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Chastain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of empirical vancomycin for patients with neutropenic fever (NF with regard to adherence to treatment guidelines. Methods: Adult patients with a diagnosis of neutropenia, who met the definition of NF as per treatment guidelines, were identified. Use of vancomycin was evaluated as part of empirical therapy and again after 72 h. Outcomes were assessed using descriptive statistics, the Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and univariate exact logistic regression analyses. Results: Sixty-four patients were included. Overall, inappropriate empirical vancomycin use was observed in more than 30% of patients. Of 35 patients with indications for empirical vancomycin, only 68% received it. At 72 h, appropriate vancomycin continuation, de-escalation, or discontinuation occurred in 21 of 33 patients. On univariate regression, hematological malignancy was associated with appropriate empirical vancomycin prescribing, whether initiating or withholding (odds ratio 4.0, 95% confidence interval 1.31–12.1. No variable was independently associated with inappropriate continuation at 72 h. Conclusions: There is poor guideline adherence to vancomycin prescribing as empirical therapy and at 72-h reassessment in patients with NF. Further efforts are needed to foster a more rational use of vancomycin in patients with NF. Keywords: Antibiotics, Neutropenia, Neutropenic fever, Vancomycin

  20. Comparative antianaerobic activities of doripenem determined by MIC and time-kill analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim L; Ednie, Lois M; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2008-01-01

    Against 447 anaerobe strains, the investigational carbapenem doripenem had an MIC 50 of 0.125 microg/ml and an MIC 90 of 1 microg/ml. Results were similar to those for imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem. Time-kill studies showed that doripenem had very good bactericidal activity compared to other carbapenems, with 99.9% killing of 11 strains at 2x MIC after 48 h.

  1. Comparative Antianaerobic Activities of Doripenem Determined by MIC and Time-Kill Analysis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim L.; Ednie, Lois M.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Against 447 anaerobe strains, the investigational carbapenem doripenem had an MIC50 of 0.125 μg/ml and an MIC90 of 1 μg/ml. Results were similar to those for imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem. Time-kill studies showed that doripenem had very good bactericidal activity compared to other carbapenems, with 99.9% killing of 11 strains at 2× MIC after 48 h. PMID:17938185

  2. Comparison of Neisseria gonorrhoeae MICs Obtained by Etest and Agar Dilution for Ceftriaxone, Cefpodoxime, Cefixime and Azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Severin; Kong, Carol J; Lee, Yer; Samuel, Michael C; Bauer, Heidi M; Dixon, Paula; Soge, Olusegun O; Lei, John; Pandori, Mark

    2013-10-24

    We evaluated Neisseria gonorrhoeae Etest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) relative to agar dilution MICs for 664 urethral isolates for ceftriaxone (CRO) and azithromycin (AZM), 351 isolates for cefpodoxime (CPD) and 315 isolates for cefixime (CFM). Etest accurately determined CPD, CFM and AZM MICs, but resulted in higher CRO MICs. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High-performance computing on the Intel Xeon Phi how to fully exploit MIC architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Endong; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Guangyong; Lu, Xiaowei; Wu, Qing; Wang, Yajuan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this book is to explain to high-performance computing (HPC) developers how to utilize the Intel® Xeon Phi™ series products efficiently. To that end, it introduces some computing grammar, programming technology and optimization methods for using many-integrated-core (MIC) platforms and also offers tips and tricks for actual use, based on the authors' first-hand optimization experience.The material is organized in three sections. The first section, "Basics of MIC", introduces the fundamentals of MIC architecture and programming, including the specific Intel MIC programming environment

  4. Prevention for possible microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in RHLWE flush water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.C.; Jenkins, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    This report is in response to the request to provide a recommendation for the prevention of possible microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) for the RHLWE (Replacement High-Level Waste Evaporator) flush water (FW) system. The recent occurrences of MIC at DWPF prompted HLWE to evaluate the possibility of MIC occurring in this 304L stainless steel RHLWE flush water system. Concern was heightened by the fact that the well water used and the other conditions at H-Tank Farm are similar to those at DWPF. However, only one known leak has occurred in the existing 304L evaporator flush water systems in either tank farm (in 1H system), and no MIC Corrosion has been confirmed in the tank farm area. The design of the RHLWE flush water system (completed long before the occurrence of MIC at DWPF) was modeled after the existing evaporator flush water systems and did not specifically include MIC prevention considerations. Therefore, MIC prevention was not specifically considered during the design phase of this flush water system. The system is presently being installed. After an extensive evaluation, a task team concluded that the best biocide to prevent the occurrence of MIC would be NaOH at fairly low concentration. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is optimal in this application, because of its effectiveness, low cost, and familiarity to the Operations personnel (see Appendix A). However, it is the opinion of the task group that application should be withheld until MIC corrosion is demonstrated in the system

  5. Anti-MIC2 as a tool in examination of testicular biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visfeldt, J; Cortes, D; Thorup, J M

    1999-01-01

    MIC2 is a pseudoautosomal gene localized on X and Y chromosomes. The MIC2 gene product is a glycoprotein expressed on the cell membranes of a number of somatic cells, including Sertoli cells of the testis, but not on the cell membranes of germ cells. In cases of cryptorchidism, a testicular biopsy...... testes which had been cultured in vitro for 7, 14 or 21 days. In all cases the immunohistochemical method with DAKO antibody to the MIC2 gene product was helpful for identification of Sertoli cells and germ cells, and we therefore recommend the use of anti-MIC2 in all testicular biopsies where...

  6. Mic it! microphones, microphone techniques, and their impact on the final mix

    CERN Document Server

    Corbett, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Capture great sound in the first place, and spend less time ""fixing it in the mix"" with Ian Corbett's Mic It! Microphones, Microphone Techniques, and Their Impact on the Final Mix. With his expert guidance, you'll quickly understand essential audio concepts as they relate to microphones and mic techniques, and learn how to apply them to your recording situation. Whether you only ever buy one microphone, are equipping a studio on a budget, or have a vast selection of great mics to use, you'll learn to better use whatever tools you have. Mic It! gives you the background to design and discover

  7. Pediatric vancomycin use in 421 hospitals in the United States, 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Lasky

    Full Text Available Recommendations to prevent the spread of vancomycin resistance have been in place since 1995 and include guidelines for inpatient pediatric use of vancomycin. The emergence of large databases allows us to describe variation in pediatric vancomycin across hospitals. We analyzed a database with hospitalizations for children under 18 at 421 hospitals in 2008.The Premier hospital 2008 database, consisting of records for 877,201 pediatric hospitalizations in 421 hospitals, was analyzed. Stratified analyses and logistic mixed effects models were used to calculate the probability of vancomycin use while considering random effects of hospital variation, hospital fixed effects and patient effects, and the hierarchical structure of the data. Most hospitals (221 had fewer than 10 hospitalizations with vancomycin use in the study period, and 47 hospitals reported no vancomycin use in 17,271 pediatric hospitalizations. At the other end of the continuum, 21 hospitals (5.6% of hospitals each had over 200 hospitalizations with vancomycin use, and together, accounted for more than 50% of the pediatric hospitalizations with vancomycin use. The mixed effects modeling showed hospital variation in the probability of vancomycin use that was statistically significant after controlling for teaching status, urban or rural location, size, region of the country, patient ethnic group, payor status, and APR-mortality and severity codes.The number and percentage of pediatric hospitalizations with vancomycin use varied greatly across hospitals and was not explained by hospital or patient characteristics in our logistic models. Public health efforts to reduce vancomycin use should be intensified at hospitals with highest use.

  8. An accelerated electrochemical MIC test for stainless alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendron, T.S.; Cleland, R.D.

    1994-11-01

    Previous work in our laboratory and elsewhere has suggested that microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of stainless steels and nickel-base alloys occurs in locally anaerobic regions that support the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The cathodic reaction is provided by oxygen reduction at remote sites. Such a coupling between anode and cathode is difficult to reproduce in the laboratory, but can be simulated indirectly using a double electrochemical cell, as in previous work. A more realistic simulation using a single aerated electrochemical cell has now been developed, in which a second organism (P. aeruginosa) is used to provide an anoxic habitat for SRB growth and possible a source of organic carbon, within a layer of silt. A bare alloy electrode is used as the oxygen cathode. Tests of this kind using rigorous microbiological procedures have generated pitting corrosion of several alloys in low chloride media simulating freshwater heat exchanger conditions. This report discusses the adaption of these procedures to study corrosion of nuclear waste containers. (author). 20 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  9. Solvent-free biodegradable scleral plugs providing sustained release of vancomycin, amikacin, and dexamethasone--an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yi-Jie; Kau, Yi-Chuan; Wen, Chin-Wei; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Liu, Shih-Jung

    2010-08-01

    Delivering effective drugs at sufficiently high concentrations to the area of infection is a standard treatment for infectious disease, such as endophthalmitis. This is currently done by empirical trans pars plana intravitreal injection of both antibiotics directed against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms and steroids. However, injections by needles repeatedly may increase the risks of intraocular infection and hemorrhage, as well as retinal detachment. This article explores the alternative of using biodegradable polymers as scleral plugs for a long-term drug release in vivo. To manufacture plugs, poly(lactide-glycolide) copolymers were first mixed with vancomycin, amikacin, and dexamethasone. The mixture was compressed and sintered at 55 degrees C to form scleral plugs 1.4 mm in diameter. Biodegradable scleral plugs released high concentrations of antibiotics (well above the minimum inhibitory concentrations, MIC) and steroids in vivo for the period of time needed to treat intraocular infection. In addition, no major complications such as infectious or sterile endophthalmitis, retinal detachment, ocular phthisis, or uvea protrusion at sclerotomy site were observed throughout the experiment. The sclerotomy wound healed after total degradation of the scleral implants without leakage or local necrosis. Antibiotic/steroid-impregnated biodegradable scleral plugs may have a potential role in the treatment of various intraocular infections. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF STREPTOMYCES SPP. PRODUCING VANCOMYCIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-KABBANY, H.M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples obtained from different governments in Egypt were analyzed to determine the presence of types of antibiotic producing actinomycetes using starch-nitrite agar, starch-casein nitrate agar and Czapek's Dox agar as culture media. Different Streptomyces spp. were isolated. The Streptomyces (S.) isolates encountered were S. violochromogens, S. violaceus-nigar and S. orientalis and known as standard Vancomycin producers. The optimum conditions of S. orientalis; incubation period, initial pH and incubation temperature, were determined. In addition, physical properties; appearance, melting point, solubility, mass spectrophotometer of ultra violet (UV) and the effect of gamma rays, were also determined

  11. Synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy to assess the activity of vancomycin against endocarditis vegetation bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batard, Eric; Jamme, Frédéric; Montassier, Emmanuel; Bertrand, Dominique; Caillon, Jocelyne; Potel, Gilles; Dumas, Paul

    2011-06-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy was used to show that vancomycin alters infrared spectra of endocarditis vegetation bacteria, and that vancomycin effects on bacterial biochemical contents are unevenly distributed between peripheral and central areas of bacterial masses. Infrared microspectroscopy is useful to study the activity of antibacterial agents against bacteria in tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Leuconostoc garlicum: an unusual pathogen in the era of vancomycin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Augustine, Deepthi; Mehta, Asmita; Dinesh, Kavitha R; Viswam, Darsana; Philip, Rosamma

    2012-01-01

    Leuconostoc garlicum, belonging to the family of Leuconostocaceae, is a catalase-negative, Gram-positive ovoid cocci, intrinsically resistant to vancomycin. Clinical infection by Leuconostoc garlicum is rare. We report a case of respiratory tract infection subsequent to vancomycin therapy.

  13. Evaluating guideline adherence regarding empirical vancomycin use in patients with neutropenic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, Daniel B; Wheeler, Sarah; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Olubajo, Babatunde; Hawkins, W Anthony

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of empirical vancomycin for patients with neutropenic fever (NF) with regard to adherence to treatment guidelines. Adult patients with a diagnosis of neutropenia, who met the definition of NF as per treatment guidelines, were identified. Use of vancomycin was evaluated as part of empirical therapy and again after 72h. Outcomes were assessed using descriptive statistics, the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, and univariate exact logistic regression analyses. Sixty-four patients were included. Overall, inappropriate empirical vancomycin use was observed in more than 30% of patients. Of 35 patients with indications for empirical vancomycin, only 68% received it. At 72h, appropriate vancomycin continuation, de-escalation, or discontinuation occurred in 21 of 33 patients. On univariate regression, hematological malignancy was associated with appropriate empirical vancomycin prescribing, whether initiating or withholding (odds ratio 4.0, 95% confidence interval 1.31-12.1). No variable was independently associated with inappropriate continuation at 72h. There is poor guideline adherence to vancomycin prescribing as empirical therapy and at 72-h reassessment in patients with NF. Further efforts are needed to foster a more rational use of vancomycin in patients with NF. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II; William Bogan

    2004-01-31

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter included the fractionation of extracts prepared from several varieties of pepper plants, and using several solvents, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A preliminary determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts ability to inhibit biofilm formation was also performed. The analysis of multiple extracts of pepper plants and fractions of extracts of pepper plants obtained by HPLC illustrated that these extracts and fractions are extremely complex mixtures of chemicals. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify the chemical constituents of these extracts and fractions to the greatest degree possible. Analysis of the chemical composition of various extracts of pepper plants has illustrated the complexity of the chemical mixtures present, and while additional work will be performed to further characterize the extracts to identify bioactive compounds the focus of efforts should now shift to an evaluation of the ability of extracts to inhibit corrosion in mixed culture biofilms, and in pure cultures of bacterial types which are known or believed to be important in corrosion.

  15. Emergence in Asian Countries of Staphylococcus aureus with Reduced Susceptibility to Vancomycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Suh, Ji Yoeun; Ko, Kwan Soo; Ito, Teruyo; Kapi, Maria; Kiem, Sungmin; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Oh, Won Sup; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains in Asian countries, a total of 1,357 clinical isolates of MRSA collected from 12 Asian countries were screened by using brain heart infusion agar plates containing 4 mg of vancomycin per liter. The presence of strains that were heterointermediately resistant to vancomycin (hVISA) was confirmed by population analysis. Of 347 (25.6%) MRSA isolates that grew on the screening agar plates, 58 isolates (4.3%) were hVISA. hVISA strains were found in India, South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. However, neither vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus nor vancomycin-resistant S. aureus isolates were found among MRSA isolates from Asian countries in this survey. PMID:15561884

  16. Prevalence and distribution of VRE (vancomycin resistant enterococci and VSE (vancomycin susceptible enterococci strains in the breeding environment

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    Krzysztof Skowron

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction.[/b] Intensive animal production causes numerous problems. Facilities connected with animal maintenance not only cause environmental pollution, but also pose a great sanitary and epidemiological threat. Long-term use of antibiotics in animal production lead animal-borne microorganisms to develop multiple resistance mechanisms, transferred to the typical environmental bacteria. [b]Objective. [/b]The aim of this study was assessment of E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. durans and E. hirae prevalence in samples gathered from swine production sectors, and determination of the contribution of VRE (vancomycin resistant enterococci strains and their resistance. The degree of relationship between isolates of each species from genus Enterococcus was also determined. [b]Materials and method.[/b] 195 isolates were obtained, from which DNA was isolated. Genus identification was conducted with the primers specific to the 16S rRNA region, and identification of the species with primers specific to sequence of gene sodA in Multiplex PCR reaction. Resistance to vancomycin (6 μg×ml -1 was tested using a screening method on Muller Hinton Agar. To assess resistance type Multiplex PCR, amplifying products corresponding to genes VanA, VanB and VanC, was conducted. Genotyping was conducted using the PCR-RAPD method. [b]Results. [/b]Among the 195 isolates, 133 (68% belonged to E. hirae. The other species contributions were respectively: E. faecalis – 21%, E. durans – 8% and E. faecium – 3%. Only 2 isolates of E. hirae, being different strains, were resistant to vancomycin. Both were representing phenotype VanC1. 60 genetically different strains were defined. The possible contamination paths involved animal feed and spreading of excrements by slaughtered individuals or on personnel’s footwear. [b]Conclusions. [/b]The obtained results indicate a very low percentage of VRE strains in the tested piggery, resulting in a low health risk to piggery

  17. Currently used dosage regimens of vancomycin fail to achieve therapeutic levels in approximately 40% of intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Vitor Yuzo; Zacas, Carolina Petrus; Carrilho, Claudia Maria Dantas de Maio; Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether currently used dosages of vancomycin for treatment of serious gram-positive bacterial infections in intensive care unit patients provided initial therapeutic vancomycin trough levels and to examine possible factors associated with the presence of adequate initial vancomycin trough levels in these patients. A prospective descriptive study with convenience sampling was performed. Nursing note and medical record data were collected from September 2013 to July 2014 for patients who met inclusion criteria. Eighty-three patients were included. Initial vancomycin trough levels were obtained immediately before vancomycin fourth dose. Acute kidney injury was defined as an increase of at least 0.3mg/dL in serum creatinine within 48 hours. Considering vancomycin trough levels recommended for serious gram-positive infection treatment (15 - 20µg/mL), patients were categorized as presenting with low, adequate, and high vancomycin trough levels (35 [42.2%], 18 [21.7%], and 30 [36.1%] patients, respectively). Acute kidney injury patients had significantly greater vancomycin trough levels (p = 0.0055, with significance for a trend, p = 0.0023). Surprisingly, more than 40% of the patients did not reach an effective initial vancomycin trough level. Studies on pharmacokinetic and dosage regimens of vancomycin in intensive care unit patients are necessary to circumvent this high proportion of failures to obtain adequate initial vancomycin trough levels. Vancomycin use without trough serum level monitoring in critically ill patients should be discouraged.

  18. Vancomycin Powder Regimen for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection in Complex Spine Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hal, Michael; Lee, Joon; Laudermilch, Dann; Nwasike, Chinedu; Kang, James

    2017-10-01

    In total, 496 patients of a single surgeon cohort examining the surgical-site infection (SSI) rates with the addition of vancomycin powder in both diabetic and revision spine surgery cases. A historical control group of 652 patients were compared from the same surgeon over an earlier time period before the inception of using vancomycin powder prophylaxis. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the rates of infection in high-risk patient populations while using vancomycin powder. Vancomycin powder may not decrease an already low rate of infection. Therefore, use of vancomycin powder in high-risk patients with a higher rate of infection would potentially show benefit of vancomycin powder. In total, 496 patient charts were collected from a database of cases. Patients were included in the cohort if they had revision spinal operation or if they were diabetic. Patients in the time period July 2010 to August 2013 were included in the vancomycin protocol where 1 g of vancomycin powder was added to the wound before wound closure. Cases were considered positive if there was a positive culture or if there was sufficient clinical suspicion to treat. As a control to this cohort, 692 charts were reviewed from a earlier time period of the same surgeon and institution. In total, 28 patients of 496 (5.6%) patients in the cohort returned to the operating room for seroma, hematoma, draining wound, or infection. Sixteen of these patients (16/496, 3.2%) had a culture positive infection or were treated as an infection. This rate was significantly lower than the historical rate before the protocol. Although vancomycin does seem to be useful in decreasing SSIs, it is not a panacea. SSIs in high-risk patients were not completely eliminated by the vancomycin protocol.

  19. Characterization of Vancomycin Reactions and Linezolid Utilization in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Samantha K; Mulieri, Kevin M; Ishmael, Faoud T

    Red man syndrome (RMS) occurs because of non-IgE-mediated histamine release. Unlike vancomycin allergy, which necessitates the use of an alternative drug (often linezolid), RMS does not typically preclude further vancomycin use. Care should be taken to differentiate these reaction types from one another to prevent unnecessary vancomycin avoidance. To characterize vancomycin reaction types in our population, and to determine whether having a reaction consistent with RMS is associated with otherwise unexplained vancomycin avoidance and linezolid use. We retrospectively reviewed charts for children with documented vancomycin reactions. We classified the in-hospital reactions via an objective analysis and estimated the prevalence of different reaction types. We then identified children who received linezolid over 3 years, and investigated reasons for linezolid use instead of vancomycin. Of the 78 in-hospital reactions we characterized, 72 (92%) were objectively consistent with RMS, 5 we could not objectively classify (2 most likely RMS, 3 more suspicious for possible IgE-mediated allergy), and 1 was a non-RMS/non-IgE reaction. Of 60 children who received linezolid, 19 had previous reactions consistent with RMS, which should not preclude further vancomycin. Nevertheless, only 7 of 19 (37%) had a clear explanation for receiving linezolid instead of vancomycin compared with 32 of 39 (82%) children without previous vancomycin reactions (P linezolid utilization. We propose that this may be related to how reactions appear in the electronic medical record. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A specially tailored vancomycin continuous infusion regimen for renally impaired critically ill patients

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    Eman Mohamed Bahgat Eldemiry

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vancomycin remains the gold standard for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Specially designed continuous infusion of vancomycin leads to better therapy. Methodology: A total of 40 critically ill patients who suffered from pneumonia susceptible to vancomycin, had serum creatinine >1.4 mg%, and oliguria <0.5 mL/kg/h for 6 h were included in the study with respiratory culture sensitivity to vancomycin ≤2 mg/L. Patients’ clinical, microbiological, and biological data were obtained by retrospective analysis of the corresponding medical files before and after vancomycin treatment. Patients with serum creatinine level ≥4 mg% and patients who received renal replacement therapy during the treatment period were excluded. The patients were divided into two groups—group 1 (intermittent dosing and group 2 (continuous infusion based on the following formula: rate of vancomycin continuous infusion (g/day = [0.0205 creatinine clearance (mL/min + 3.47] × [target vancomycin concentration at steady state (µg/mL] × (24/1000. Trough vancomycin serum levels were also assessed using high-performance liquid chromatographic technique. Patients’ outcomes such as clinical improvement, adverse events, and 15-day mortality were reported. Results: Group 2 showed significant reduction in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine serum levels, white blood cells, partial carbon dioxide pressure, body temperature, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, while significant increase in partial oxygen pressure and saturated oxygen was also observed. A significantly shorter duration of treatment with a comparable vancomycin serum levels was also reported with group 2. Conclusion: After treatment, comparison in patients’ criteria supports the superiority of using continuous infusion of vancomycin according to this equation in renally impaired patients.

  1. Determination Of Appropriate Antibiotic In Bacterial Meningitis Of Children Based On MIC

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    Noorbakhsh S

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial meningitis is one of the most serious infections in infants and children. Three organisms include S.Pneumo;N.mening;H.Influ are the most common cause of meningitis in children between 2M-14y age.Etest is a new method for determination the MIC of some antimicrobial drugs in agarose .This method is useful for some organisms like as S .Pneumo; N.mening; H.Influ;sensitive Streptococcus and anaerobic ;aerobic gram negative. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study; In 57 suspected meningitis children ; organisms isolated from blood; CSF or other sterile boy fluid after culturing and antibiogram;. .MIC of someorganisms detected by Etest method. Results: Streptococcuswas the most prevalent ( 70% and S.pneumon( 90% of all Streptococcus; H.infl 2%;N.mening 4%and L.monocyt 6%(more than expected;Gram negative (Ecoli; Klebsiella; entrobacter and psudomona 18%. There was significant difference (P =0.01in type of organisms between age groups. S.pneumonia was more frequent in children > 2 year ;N.meningitis in>4yr old .Site of isolation :blood; CSF (35.8*;28.3%other sterile site 18.4%;concomitant positive culture in two site:17%.Mean age in Streptococcus was significantly different with Listeria (p=0.05; N.meningitis (p=0.04;H.influ (p=0.04;.but no difference with Staphylococcus;Klebsiella and E.coli Two type of H.inf were sensitive to Ampici or chloram ;both of them were sensitive to ceftiaxon. GBS were sensitive to PNC or Ampici Strep.nonAnonBnon- Cotrimoxazol>32mic/ml /PNC >256mic/ml/ Vanco>256mic/ml Strep.D: Cotrimoxazol>0.062mg/ml/ /PNC >0.016mic/ml/Imipenem>0.032mic/ml. Strep Pneumonia: All fo them were sensitive except 3 cases /Cotrimoxazol>2ic/ml /PNC =0.01mic/ml/Vanco>0.125mic/ m Vanco>0. 25mic/ ml/.Cotrimoxazol>2ic/ml / PNC =0.01mg/ml Vanco>0.125mic/ ml / Cotrimoxazol>2mic/ml /MIC-PNC >0.016mic/ml Therefore high dose of PNC is adequate for S.pneu ;because of Interm resistance to PNC All 3 N.menin were

  2. E. coli encoding blaNDM-5 associated with community-acquired UTI cases with unusual MIC creep like phenomenon against Imipenem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajamer, Varsha Rani; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha; Paul, Deepjyoti; Deshamukhya, Chandrayee; Singh, Ashish Kr; Pradhan, Nilu; Tiwari, Hare Krishna

    2018-05-15

    Carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli are of major clinical concern. The present study aimed to identify NDM-5 producing E.coli associated with community-acquired urinary tract infection, co-harboring ESBL genes and a pattern of imipenem MIC creep. A total of 973 urine samples were collected from females of age between 18-49 diagnosed with UTI. Isolates were identified by standard microbiological procedures. Presence of bla NDM and ESBL genes was determined by PCR assay and sequencing.PCR based replicon typing was performed. Plasmid stability of all bla producers and their transformants study were analyzed by serial passages and MIC creep phenomenon was analysed by studying revertants. Among 34 bla NDM-5 positive E.coli isolates, 21 isolates co harbored bla CTX-M-15 , followed by multiple combinations of genes. The study revealed diverse types of plasmids type viz; HI1, I1, FIA+FIB, FIA and Y. The strains showed progressive plasmid loss after 31 passages.Twenty-eight isolates mostly had MIC value of 0.5μg/ml and 1μg/ml against imipenem, ertapenem and meropenem. However, on studying the MIC creep activity; the MIC was found elevated from 0.5ug/ml to 64μg/ml and from 1μg/ml to 128μg/ml. While analyzing the revertants, MIC of most of the NDM positive isolates was reduced to 16μg/ml after the 30th serial passages. This study observed a unique phenotype of NDM producers which is not been reported earlier. In the current study, the observed phenomenon poses a global threat as these pathogens may evade phenotypic screening by routine laboratories. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. ENVIROMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo; Amrutha Daram; Vesna Trbovic

    2003-10-31

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter includes the application of the method of fractionation of the extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts' ability to inhibit biofilm formation. We initiated the delivery system for these new biocides in the test cell and in mixtures of foam components and biocides/anti-biofilms. A total of 51 fractions collected by HPLC from crude extracts that were obtained from three varieties of Capsicum sp. (Serrano, Habanero, Chile de Arbol) were subjected to growth inhibition tests against two SRB strains, D. vulgaris and D. desulfuricans. Five fractions showed growth inhibition against both strains while seven inhibited D. desulfuricans only. The crude extracts did not show growth inhibition on both strains but were proven to be potent in preventing the formation of biofilm. Growth inhibition tests of the same set of crude extracts against Comamonas denitrificans did not show positive results. The fractions will be subjected to biofilm inhibition and dissociation assay as well. The delivery system to be evaluated first was foam. The ''foam pig'' components of surfactants and water were tested with the biocide addition. The first chemical and physical parameters to be tested were pH and surfactants. Tests using the fractionated pepper extracts are progressing rapidly. Gas chromatographic analysis

  4. Vancomycin-induced thrombocytopenia in a 60-year-old man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Ravish A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, is used to treat resistant gram-positive infections. There has been a 10- to 20-fold increase in its use over the past 25 years. Although ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity are well known side effects of vancomycin, it can also induce platelet reactive antibodies leading to life-threatening thrombocytopenia. Vancomycin is often clinically overlooked as a cause of thrombocytopenia, especially in a scenario of sepsis or when there is use of heparin. We report a proven case of vancomycin-induced thrombocytopenia and its reversal after discontinuation of vancomycin. Case presentation A 60-year-old man with a history of hypertension, congestive heart failure and dyslipidemia was admitted for a right shoulder rotator cuff tear. He underwent right-shoulder arthroscopy and rotator cuff repair. About three weeks later, he developed pain, swelling and purulent drainage from his right shoulder. Arthroscopic irrigation and drainage was then performed. Intraoperative fluid revealed the presence of Methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus spp. and Serratia marcescens. The patient had no known allergies. After reviewing his antimicrobial susceptibility, he was started on vancomycin 1500 mgs intravenously every 12 hours (to treat both Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp and ciprofloxacin 750 mgs by oral induction every 12 hours. The patient's condition improved following antibiotic treatment. He was discharged and allowed to go home on IV vancomycin and oral ciprofloxacin. The patient's platelet count on the day of starting vancomycin therapy was 253 × 103/mm3. At weeks one, two and three, the counts were 231 × 103/mm3, 272 × 103/mm and 6 × 103/mm3, respectively. The patient was admitted for further work-up of the thrombocytopenia. He was later shown to have vancomycin-induced platelet-reactive antibodies, causing significant thrombocytopenia, and then

  5. Immune protection of microneme 7 (EmMIC7) against Eimeria maxima challenge in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the immune protective effects of recombinant microneme protein 7 of Eimeria maxima (rEmMIC7) and a DNA vaccine encoding this antigen (pVAX1-EmMIC7) on experimental challenge were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. Experimental groups of chickens were immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC7 or 200 μg rEmMIC7, while control groups of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results showed that the anti-EmMIC7 antibody titres in chickens of both rEmMIC7 and pVAX1-MIC7 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (P maxima challenge in chickens and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima.

  6. A Rare Case of Vancomycin-Induced Linear Immunoglobulin A Bullous Dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky Jha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD is an autoimmune vesiculobullous disease, which is typically idiopathic but can also rarely be caused by medications or infections. Vancomycin is the most common drug associated with LABD. Lesions typically appear 24 hours to 15 days after the first dose of vancomycin. It is best characterized pathologically by subepidermal bulla (blister formation with linear IgA deposition at the dermoepidermal junction. Here we report an 86-year-old male with a history of left knee osteoarthritis who underwent a left knee arthroplasty and subsequently developed a prosthetic joint infection. This infection was treated with intravenous vancomycin as well as placement of a vancomycin impregnated joint spacer. Five days following initiation of antibiotic therapy, he presented with a vesiculobullous eruption on an erythematous base over his trunk, extremities, and oral mucosa. The eruption resolved completely when intravenous vancomycin was discontinued and colchicine treatment was begun. Curiously, complete resolution occurred despite the presence of the vancomycin containing joint spacer. The diagnosis of vancomycin-induced linear IgA bullous dermatosis was made based on characteristic clinical and histopathologic presentations.

  7. Vancomycin Dosing in Obese Patients: Special Considerations and Novel Dosing Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Cheryl; Bylo, Mary; Howard, Brian; Belliveau, Paul

    2018-06-01

    To review the literature regarding vancomycin pharmacokinetics in obese patients and strategies used to improve dosing in this population. PubMed, EMBASE (1974 to November 2017), and Google Scholar searches were conducted using the search terms vancomycin, obese, obesity, pharmacokinetics, strategy, and dosing. Additional articles were selected from reference lists of selected studies. Included articles were those published in English with a primary focus on vancomycin pharmacokinetic parameters in obese patients and practical vancomycin dosing strategies, clinical experiences, or challenges of dosing vancomycin in this population. Volume of distribution and clearance are the pharmacokinetic parameters that most often affect vancomycin dosing in obese patients; both are increased in this population. Challenges with dosing in obese patients include inconsistent and inadequate dosing, observations that the obese population may not be homogeneous, and reports of an increased likelihood of supratherapeutic trough concentrations. Investigators have revised and developed dosing and monitoring protocols to address these challenges. These approaches improved target trough attainment to varying degrees. Some of the vancomycin dosing approaches provided promising results in obese patients, but there were notable differences in methods used to develop these approaches, and sample sizes were small. Although some approaches can be considered for validation in individual institutions, further research is warranted. This may include validating approaches in larger populations with narrower obesity severity ranges, investigating target attainment in indication-specific target ranges, and evaluating the impact of different dosing weights and methods of creatinine clearance calculation.

  8. A Novel and Validated Protocol for Performing MIC Tests to Determine the Susceptibility of Piscirickettsia salmonis Isolates to Florfenicol and Oxytetracycline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Contreras-Lynch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validated protocol, using a novel, specifically formulated medium, to perform broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility assays of the salmonid bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for florfenicol and oxytetracycline against 58 P. salmonis isolates recovered from various outbreaks occurred in Chilean salmonid farms were determined using this protocol. Normalized resistance interpretation (NRI analysis was applied to these data to calculate appropriate protocol-specific epidemiological cut-off values. These cut-off values allow the isolates to be categorized as either fully susceptible wild type (WT members of this species, or as manifesting reduced susceptibility non-wild type (NWT. The distribution of MIC values of florfenicol was bimodal and the distribution of the normalized values for the putative WT observation had a standard deviation of 0.896 log2 μg mL-1. This analysis calculated a cut-off value of ≤0.25 μg mL-1 and categorized 33 (56% of the isolates as manifesting reduced susceptibility to florfenicol. For the oxytetracycline MIC data the NRI analysis also treated the distribution as bimodal. The distribution of the normalized values for the putative WT observation had a standard deviation of 0.951 log2 μg mL-1. This analysis gave a cut-off value of ≤0.5 μg mL-1 and categorized five isolates (9% as manifesting reduced susceptibility to oxytetracycline. The susceptibility testing protocol developed in this study was capable of generating MIC data from all the isolates tested. On the basis of the precision of the data it generated, and the degree of separation of values for WT and NWT it achieved, it is argued that this protocol has the performance characteristics necessary for it to be considered as a standard protocol.

  9. LDL electronegativa: caracterització fisico-química i biològica en individus normolipèmics i hipercolesterolèmics

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez i Gonzàlez, Sònia

    2002-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada L'LDL electronegativa (LDL(-)) és una fracció modificada de l'LDL total present en circulació. Vàries evidències indiquen que l'LDL(-) pot presentar característiques aterogèniques, ja que se suggereix que podria estar mínimament oxidada. En la present tesi s'han estudiat les propietats de l'LDL(-) procedent d'individus normolipèmics (NL) i hipercolesterolèmics (HF). Es van avaluar els següents aspectes: 1) Característiqu...

  10. The cost effectiveness of vancomycin for preventing infections after shoulder arthroplasty: a break-even analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, M Daniel; Daniels, Stephen D; Glerum, Kimberly M; Higgins, Laurence D

    2017-03-01

    Increasing methicillin resistance and recognition of Propionibacterium acnes as a cause of infection in shoulder arthroplasty has led to the adoption of local vancomycin powder application as a more effective method to prevent expensive periprosthetic infections. However, no study has analyzed the cost effectiveness of vancomycin powder for preventing infection after shoulder replacement. Cost data for infection-related care of 16 patients treated for deep periprosthetic shoulder infection was collected from our institution for the break-even analysis. An equation was developed and applied to the data to determine how effective vancomycin powder would need to be at reducing a baseline infection rate to make prophylactic use cost effective. The efficacy of vancomycin (absolute risk reduction [ARR]) was evaluated at different unit costs, baseline infection rates, and average costs of treating infection. We determined vancomycin to be cost effective if the initial infection rate decreased by 0.04% (ARR). Using the current costs of vancomycin reported in the literature (range: $2.50/1000 mg to $44/1000 mg), we determined vancomycin to be cost effective with an ARR range of 0.01% at a cost of $2.50/1000 mg to 0.19% at $44/1000 mg. Baseline infection rate does not influence the ARR obtained at any specific cost of vancomycin or the cost of treating infection. We have derived and used a break-even equation to assess efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics during shoulder surgery. We further demonstrated the prophylactic administration of local vancomycin powder during shoulder arthroplasty to be a highly cost-effective practice. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nurses' experience with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ann; Cummins, Teresa; Spearing, Natalie; Adams, June; Gilroy, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    The emergence and spread of resistant organisms, in particular vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), is an issue facing all staff in acute hospitals. This study explored how nurses coped with the responsibility of halting further spread of this organism during an outbreak. VRE-positive patients were cohorted with nurses who cared for them in an endeavour to contain the spread of VRE. The majority of nurses found the situation extremely stressful because of the need to act as 'gatekeepers' responsible for educating and monitoring the practices of staff and visitors. The nurses reported that they felt they were inadequately supported, were blamed for the outbreak, and that they had an increased workload as they took on duties of other staff. The results reinforce the need for a multidisciplinary team approach to education and control of VRE, more support for nursing staff cohorted with VRE-positive patients, and stringent adherence to infection control measures by all hospital staff.

  12. Typing of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, C H; Olsen, S S; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2009-01-01

    locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium isolates. Results: The collection consisted of 45 E. faecium and 16 E. faecalis isolates which originated from 12 different hospitals. Thirty three of 45 E. faecium isolates were vanA positive and the remaining 12 isolates...... were vanB positive. All but one of the E. faecalis isolates contained the vanB gene (n = 15) and the remaining isolate contained the vanA gene. MLST of the 45 E. faecium isolates revealed 10 different sequence types (ST). The STs were ST18 (n = 21), ST203 (n = 8), ST78 (n = 3), ST192 (n = 3), ST412 (n...

  13. Optimization of nebulized delivery of linezolid, daptomycin, and vancomycin aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarogoulidis P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Paul Zarogoulidis,1 Ioannis Kioumis,1 Sofia Lampaki,1 John Organtzis,1 Konstantinos Porpodis,1 Dionysios Spyratos,1 Georgia Pitsiou,1 Dimitris Petridis,2 Athanasia Pataka,1 Haidong Huang,3 Qiang Li,3 Lonny Yarmus,4 Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,5 Nikolaos Pezirkianidis,6 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis1 1Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Food Technology, School of Food Technology and Nutrition, Alexander Technological Educational Institute, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Department of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Hospital, II Military University Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5II Medical Department, “Coburg” Regional Hospital, Coburg, Germany; 6Surgery Department, Private Cabinet, Serres, Greece Background: At this time, several antibiotics have been investigated as possibilities for aerosol administration, but local therapy has been found to be more efficient in several diseases. Materials and methods: The drugs linezolid (Zyvox, vancomycin (Voncon, and daptomycin (Cubicin were tested with three jet nebulizers with seven different residual cups and different loadings. Moreover, three ultrasound nebulizers were again tested with these drugs, with different loadings and mouthpiece attachments. Results: When drugs are combined with particular cup designs, they significantly lower the droplet size to 1.60 and 1.80 µm, which represents the best combination of Zyvox and cup G and Cubicin and cup D, respectively. Cup design D is suggested as the most effective cup for lowering the droplet size (2.30 µm when considering a higher loading level (8 mL. Conclusion: Modification of current drugs from dry powder to solution is possible, and the residual cup design plays the most important role in droplet size production when the

  14. Characterisation of the selective binding of antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin by the VanS receptor regulating type A vancomycin resistance in the enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C S; Longo, E; Phillips-Jones, M K; Hussain, R

    2017-08-01

    A-type resistance towards "last-line" glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin in the leading hospital acquired infectious agent, the enterococci, is the most common in the UK. Resistance is regulated by the VanR A S A two-component system, comprising the histidine sensor kinase VanS A and the partner response regulator VanR A . The nature of the activating ligand for VanS A has not been identified, therefore this work sought to identify and characterise ligand(s) for VanS A . In vitro approaches were used to screen the structural and activity effects of a range of potential ligands with purified VanS A protein. Of the screened ligands (glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin, and peptidoglycan components N-acetylmuramic acid, D-Ala-D-Ala and Ala-D-y-Glu-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala) only glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin were found to bind VanS A with different affinities (vancomycin 70μM; teicoplanin 30 and 170μM), and were proposed to bind via exposed aromatic residues tryptophan and tyrosine. Furthermore, binding of the antibiotics induced quicker, longer-lived phosphorylation states for VanS A , proposing them as activators of type A vancomycin resistance in the enterococci. Copyright © 2017 Diamond Light Source Ltd. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Imagen popular de la ciencia transmitida por los cómics

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Torres, Adriana Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In this work we will be centered in the critical analysis of the popular image of the science transmitted by cómics existing in the market (in the measurement that makes reference to the scientific work).

  16. Guidelines for destructive examination of potential MIC [microbiologically influenced corrosion]-related failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borenstein, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is recognized as a major cause of pitting corrosion failures in natural waters. In order to alleviate the problem, it is important to establish the exact cause of corrosion. If there is a possibility that the failure is due to MIC, a particularly careful failure analysis must be conducted. MIC can be misdiagnosed as attack due to conventional chloride crevice/pitting corrosion unless specialized techniques are used. Certain techniques generally must be employed, including a careful visual examination, is situ bacterial sampling of residual water, bacterial analysis for corrosion products, radiographic examinations, and metallographic examinations. Other techniques may be necessary, or may be very helpful in the analysis, including culture growth, scanning electron microscopy, and ultrasonic examinations. Metallographic examinations can reveal MIC characteristics such as selective pitting of one phase in duplex stainless steel weldments. The methods of failure analysis and their importance are addressed, including each of the steps in the nondestructive examinations and destructive analyses

  17. Rhodium, iridium and nickel complexes with a 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene tris-MIC ligand. Study of the electronic properties and catalytic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mejuto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The coordination versatility of a 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene-tris-mesoionic carbene ligand is illustrated by the preparation of complexes with three different metals: rhodium, iridium and nickel. The rhodium and iridium complexes contained the [MCl(COD] fragments, while the nickel compound contained [NiCpCl]. The preparation of the tris-MIC (MIC = mesoionic carbene complex with three [IrCl(CO2] fragments, allowed the estimation of the Tolman electronic parameter (TEP for the ligand, which was compared with the TEP value for a related 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene-tris-NHC ligand. The electronic properties of the tris-MIC ligand were studied by cyclic voltammetry measurements. In all cases, the tris-MIC ligand showed a stronger electron-donating character than the corresponding NHC-based ligands. The catalytic activity of the tri-rhodium complex was tested in the addition reaction of arylboronic acids to α,β-unsaturated ketones.

  18. General technique for the integration of MIC/MMIC'S with waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Bernard D. (Inventor); Zaghloul, Amir I. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A technique for packaging and integrating of a microwave integrated circuit (MIC) or monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) with a waveguide uses a printed conductive circuit pattern on a dielectric substrate to transform impedance and mode of propagation between the MIC/MMIC and the waveguide. The virtually coplanar circuit pattern lies on an equipotential surface within the waveguide and therefore makes possible single or dual polarized mode structures.

  19. MIC risk in the Halfdan oil export system quantified with a DNA-based diagnostic tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Jan; Rasmussen, Kim; Andersen, Kenneth [Maersk Oil (Denmark); Holmkvist, Lars [DTI Oil and Gas (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents the risk involved due to microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) using the halfdan oil export system. With growth of assets, scale and microbial fouling, corrosion and souring have increased. Some of the consequences to operators include, safety issues and loss of production. An example of the effects caused by MIC is the Valhall platform in the Norwegian sector, which was shut down for 80 days. Some of the factors causing bacterial growth and MIC are O2, CO2, and H2S, solids. Consideration of four objectives, corrosive products, microbiological activities, microbes, and spatially associating microbes is very important for diagnosing MIC. The objective of the halfdan study was to investigate the corrosion mechanism in the oil export spool section. Observations show severe pitting inside the pipelines. Suggestions for the operator, including the risk assessment of MIC, are given along with a summary of results. It can be concluded that there is a certain need in the industry to understand and act upon MIC.

  20. DRESS with delayed onset acute interstitial nephritis and profound refractory eosinophilia secondary to Vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Meara Paloma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS is a relatively rare clinical entity; even more so in response to vancomycin. Methods Case report. Results We present a severe case of vancomycin-induced DRESS syndrome, which on presentation included only skin, hematological and mild liver involvement. The patient further developed severe acute interstitial nephritis, eosinophilic pneumonitis, central nervous system (CNS involvement and worsening hematological abnormalities despite immediate discontinuation of vancomycin and parenteral corticosteroids. High-dose corticosteroids for a prolonged period were necessary and tapering of steroids a challenge due to rebound-eosinophilia and skin involvement. Conclusion Patients with DRESS who are relatively resistant to corticosteroids with delayed onset of certain organ involvement should be treated with a more prolonged corticosteroid tapering schedule. Vancomycin is increasingly being recognized as a culprit agent in this syndrome.

  1. A Promising Approach to Provide Appropriate Colon Target Drug Delivery Systems of Vancomycin HCL: Pharmaceutical and Microbiological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadria A. Elkhodairy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin HCl was prepared as orally administered colon target drug delivery tablets for systemic therapy. Tablet matrices containing 10–60% of tablet weight of guar gum (F1–F6 were prepared by direct compression and subjected to in vitro release studies to explore their sustained release in the colon. Various synthetic and natural polymers were incorporated to F6 to modify the drug release rate. Different 15 matrix tablet formulations (F6–F20 were enteric coated with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose phthalate. F6, F13 and F20 showed promising sustained release results having median dissolution time (MDT values: 8.25, 7.97, and 7.64, respectively. Microbiological assay was performed to test the efficacy of F6, F13, and F20 to inhibit clinical Staphylococcus aureus (SA isolates. Bactericidal activity of F6 was reached after 2, 4, and 24 hours of incubation against MSSA 18, MRSA 29, and MRSA 11 strains, respectively, while it was reached within 6–8 hours in case of F13, and F20 against all strains tested. F13 enhanced log microbial reduction by 1.74, 0.65 and 2.4 CFU/mL compared to F6 while it was 1, 2.57 and 1.57 compared to F20 against MSSA18, MRSA11 and MRSA29, respectively. Vancomycin HCl tablets displayed a promising sustained release in vitro and microbiological inhibitory action on all isolates tested.

  2. A promising approach to provide appropriate colon target drug delivery systems of vancomycin HCL: pharmaceutical and microbiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhodairy, Kadria A; Afifi, Samar A; Zakaria, Azza S

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin HCl was prepared as orally administered colon target drug delivery tablets for systemic therapy. Tablet matrices containing 10-60% of tablet weight of guar gum (F1-F6) were prepared by direct compression and subjected to in vitro release studies to explore their sustained release in the colon. Various synthetic and natural polymers were incorporated to F6 to modify the drug release rate. Different 15 matrix tablet formulations (F6-F20) were enteric coated with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose phthalate. F6, F13 and F20 showed promising sustained release results having median dissolution time (MDT) values: 8.25, 7.97, and 7.64, respectively. Microbiological assay was performed to test the efficacy of F6, F13, and F20 to inhibit clinical Staphylococcus aureus (SA) isolates. Bactericidal activity of F6 was reached after 2, 4, and 24 hours of incubation against MSSA 18, MRSA 29, and MRSA 11 strains, respectively, while it was reached within 6-8 hours in case of F13, and F20 against all strains tested. F13 enhanced log microbial reduction by 1.74, 0.65 and 2.4 CFU/mL compared to F6 while it was 1, 2.57 and 1.57 compared to F20 against MSSA18, MRSA11 and MRSA29, respectively. Vancomycin HCl tablets displayed a promising sustained release in vitro and microbiological inhibitory action on all isolates tested.

  3. Comparing the ocular surface effects of topical vancomycin and linezolid for treating bacterial keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akova Budak, Berna; Baykara, Mehmet; Kıvanç, Sertaç Argun; Yilmaz, Hakan; Cicek, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin is the gold standard in combination therapy for severe and resistant gram-positive keratitis and in particular for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. The aim of this study was to report the ocular surface toxicity and scoring in patients whose treatment shifted to topical linezolid/ceftazidime from topical vancomycin/ceftazidime due to their vancomycin intolerance. A retrospective, interventional case series of bacterial keratitis was treated with topical linezolid (one drop of 0.2% solution per eye), administered hourly until epithelization and then gradually decreased. The number and extent of punctate epithelial erosions were noted across the entire surface of the cornea. Ocular discomfort was assessed by means of (a) patient-reported pain upon instillation of the medication (vancomycin/linezolid), (b) reported burning sensation between doses and (c) reported foreign-body sensation. No ocular surface toxicity related to linezolid use was noted. Patients were followed for at least 2 months after treatment between April and December 2013. Of the seven patients included in the study (age range: 2-88 years; five females, two males), complete epithelization and resolution was achieved in five patients. One patient was treated with linezolid after penetrating keratoplasty. The second culture of another patient with impending perforation despite linezolid/ceftazidime therapy yielded Fusarium spp., so he underwent tectonic keratoplasty. The mean ocular surface score was 9.4 ± 1.6 during vancomycin treatment and 5.9 ± 1.3 during linezolid treatment after discontinuation of vancomycin. The topical linezolid score was significantly lower (p = 0.027). Topical linezolid may be better tolerated, according to the mean ocular surface score, than topical vancomycin by some patients and can be considered an alternative for patients who do not well tolerate vancomycin.

  4. Antimicrobial growth promoter ban and resistance to macrolides and vancomycin in enterococci from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerlin, P.; Wissing, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-six enterococcus isolates from fecal samples of pigs receiving tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter and 59 isolates obtained in the same farms 5 to 6 months after the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in Switzerland were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents....... A clear decrease in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was visible after the ban. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium belonged to the same clonal lineage as vancomycin-resistant isolates previously isolated from Danish pigs....

  5. Recovery of vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci from children.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, M; Wadowsky, R M; Barbadora, K

    1990-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci (VRGPC) in the feces of children was initiated after several bacteremic infections with these organisms occurred at our hospital. A selective medium consisting of colistin-nalidixic acid agar, 5% sheep blood, vancomycin (5 mg/liter), and amphotericin B (8 mg/liter) was developed to isolate VRGPC. A single stool specimen submitted to the clinical microbiology laboratory from each of 48 patients was inoculated onto the medium....

  6. Intravenous Vancomycin Associated With the Development of Nephrotoxicity in Patients With Class III Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yookyung Christy; Saw, Stephen; Soliman, Daniel; Bingham, Angela L; Pontiggia, Laura; Hunter, Krystal; Chuang, Linda; Siemianowski, Laura A; Ereshefsky, Benjamin; Hollands, James M

    2017-11-01

    A consensus statement recommends initial intravenous (IV) vancomycin dosing of 15-20 mg/kg every 8- 24 hours, with an optional 25- to 30-mg/kg loading dose. Although some studies have shown an association between weight and the development of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity, results have been inconsistent. To evaluate the correlation between incidence of nephrotoxicity associated with weight-based IV vancomycin dosing strategies in nonobese and obese patients. This retrospective cohort study evaluated hospitalized adult patients admitted who received IV vancomycin. Patients were stratified into nonobese (body mass index [BMI] obesity class I and II (BMI 30-39.9kg/m 2 ), and obesity class III (BMI≥40 kg/m 2 ) groups; patients who were overweight but not obese were excluded. Incidence of nephrotoxicity and serum vancomycin trough concentrations were evaluated. Of a total of 62 documented cases of nephrotoxicity (15.1%), 13 (8.7%), 23 (14.3%), and 26 (26.3%) cases were observed in nonobese, obesity class I and II, and obesity class III groups, respectively ( P=0.002). Longer durations of therapy ( P20 mg/L ( Pobesity were 3-times as likely to develop nephrotoxicity when compared with nonobese patients (odds ratio [OR]=2.99; CI=1.12-7.94) and obesity class I and II patients (OR=3.14; CI=1.27-7.75). Obesity and other factors are associated with a higher risk of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity.

  7. Fidaxomicin versus Vancomycin in the Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection: Canadian Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This analysis examined the efficacy of fidaxomicin versus vancomycin in 406 Canadian patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI, based on data from 2 randomized, clinical trials. Methods. Patients received fidaxomicin or vancomycin 1. Patients were assessed for clinical response recurrence of infection and sustained clinical response for 28 days after treatment completion. Patients at increased risk of recurrence were subjected to subgroup analyses. Results. Clinical response rates for fidaxomicin (90.0% were noninferior to those with vancomycin (92.2%; 95% confidence interval for difference: −7.7, 3.5. However, fidaxomicin-treated patients had lower recurrence (14.4% versus 28.0%, p=0.001 and higher sustained clinical response (77.1% versus 66.3%, p=0.016. Compared with vancomycin, fidaxomicin was associated with lower recurrence rates in all subgroups, reaching statistical significance in patients with age ≥ 65 years (16.0% versus 30.9%, p=0.026, concomitant antibiotic use (16.2% versus 38.7%, p=0.036, and non-BI strains (11.8% versus 28.3%, p=0.004. Higher sustained clinical response rates were observed for fidaxomicin compared with vancomycin in all subgroups; this was statistically significant in the non-BI subgroup (82.8% versus 69.1%, p=0.021. Conclusions. In Canadian patients, fidaxomicin was superior to vancomycin in sustaining clinical response and reducing CDI recurrence.

  8. Pharmacist-managed dose adjustment feedback using therapeutic drug monitoring of vancomycin was useful for patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: a single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirano R

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ryuichi Hirano,1 Yuichi Sakamoto,2 Junichi Kitazawa,2 Shoji Yamamoto,1 Naoki Tachibana2 1Department of Pharmacy, 2Laboratory Medicine and Blood Transfusion, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori-shi, Japan Background: Vancomycin (VCM requires dose adjustment based on therapeutic drug monitoring. At Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, physicians carried out VCM therapeutic drug monitoring based on their experience, because pharmacists did not participate in the dose adjustment. We evaluated the impact of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP on attaining target VCM trough concentrations and pharmacokinetics (PK/pharmacodynamics (PD parameters in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections. Materials and methods: The ASP was introduced in April 2012. We implemented a prospective audit of prescribed VCM dosages and provided feedback based on measured VCM trough concentrations. In a retrospective pre- and postcomparison study from April 2007 to December 2011 (preimplementation and from April 2012 to December 2014 (postimplementation, 79 patients were treated for MRSA infection with VCM, and trough concentrations were monitored (pre, n=28; post, n=51. In 65 patients (pre, n=15; post, n=50, 24-hour area under the ­concentration–time curve (AUC 0–24 h/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ratios were calculated. Results: Pharmacist feedback, which included recommendations for changing dose or using alternative anti-MRSA antibiotics, was highly accepted during postimplementation (88%, 29/33. The number of patients with serum VCM concentrations within the therapeutic range (10–20 μg/mL was significantly higher during postimplementation (84%, 43/51 than during preimplementation (39%, 11/28 (P<0.01. The percentage of patients who attained target PK/PD parameters (AUC 0–24 h/MIC >400 was significantly higher during postimplementation (84%, 42/50 than during preimplementation (53%, 8/15; P=0.013. There were

  9. Accuracy of the Thermo Fisher Scientific (Sensititre™) dry-form broth microdilution MIC product when testing ceftaroline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Holliday, Nicole M; Critchley, Ian A

    2015-04-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the ceftaroline fosamil pro-drug, was the first advanced-spectrum cephalosporin with potent activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. After 4 years of clinical use, few ceftaroline commercial susceptibility testing devices other than agar diffusion methods (disks and stable gradient) are available. Here, we validate a broth microdilution product (Sensititre™; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Cleveland, OH, USA) that achieved 99.2% essential agreement (manual and automated reading) and 95.3-100.0% categorical agreement, with high reproducibility (98.0-100.0%). Sensititre™ MIC values for ceftaroline, however, were slightly skewed toward an elevated value (0.5 × log2 dilution step), greatest when testing for streptococci and Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gene Expression Analysis Reveals New Possible Mechanisms of Vancomycin-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Identifies Gene Markers Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Dieterich, Christine; Puey, Angela; Lyn, Sylvia; Swezey, Robert; Furimsky, Anna; Fairchild, David; Mirsalis, Jon C.; Ng, Hanna H.

    2008-01-01

    Vancomycin, one of few effective treatments against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is nephrotoxic. The goals of this study were to (1) gain insights into molecular mechanisms of nephrotoxicity at the genomic level, (2) evaluate gene markers of vancomycin-induced kidney injury, and (3) compare gene expression responses after iv and ip administration. Groups of six female BALB/c mice were treated with seven daily iv or ip doses of vancomycin (50, 200, and 400 mg/kg) or saline, and...

  11. Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE in Swedish sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspan Anna

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE in treated sewage sludge, in a Swedish waste water treatment plant (WWTP, and to compare VRE isolates from sewage sludge with isolates from humans and chickens. Methods During a four month long study, sewage sludge was collected weekly and cultured for VRE. The VRE isolates from sewage sludge were analysed and compared to each other and to human and chicken VRE isolates by biochemical typing (PhenePlate, PFGE and antibiograms. Results Biochemical typing (PhenePlate-FS and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE revealed prevalence of specific VRE strains in sewage sludge for up to 16 weeks. No connection was found between the VRE strains isolated from sludge, chickens and humans, indicating that human VRE did not originate from Swedish chicken. Conclusion This study demonstrated widespread occurrence of VRE in sewage sludge in the studied WWTP. This implies a risk of antimicrobial resistance being spread to new farms and to the society via the environment if the sewage sludge is used on arable land.

  12. Reformulation of a new vancomycin analog: an example of the importance of buffer species and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer L H; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2006-01-13

    The purpose of this research was to use our previously validated dynamic injection apparatus as a rapid method for screening pH-adjusted formulations of a new vancomycin analog, Van-An, for their potential to precipitate upon dilution. In 1 vial, Van-An was reconstituted according to the manufacturer's instructions. In a separate vial, the Van-An formulation's existing phosphate buffer species was supplemented with acetate buffer, which has a pKa in the desired range: between the pH values of the formulation (pH 3.9) and blood (pH 7.4). The formulations were injected using the dynamic injection apparatus into a flowing stream of isotonic Sorensen's phosphate buffer at rates of 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mL/min. The peaks obtained with the spectrophotometer were reproducible for each injection rate/formulation combination. For the phosphate-buffered formulation, the least amount of precipitation was obtained at the 0.25 mL/min injection rate. Acetate buffer was able to substantially reduce such precipitation, even at the highest injection rate. The opacity peaks for the formulation with the acetate addition were significantly smaller (P buffer species than phosphate for the pH range defined. Furthermore, we present evidence to support a generally applicable approach to screening new formulations of drug products that may be clinically useful for reducing the incidence of phlebitis in humans.

  13. Internalization of Staphylococcus aureus in Lymphocytes Induces Oxidative Stress and DNA Fragmentation: Possible Ameliorative Role of Nanoconjugated Vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated pathogen causing bloodstream infections, skin and soft tissue infections and pneumonia. Lymphocyte is an important immune cell. The aim of the present paper was to test the ameliorative role of nanoconjugated vancomycin against Vancomycin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA infection-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes. VSSA and VRSA infections were developed in Swiss mice by intraperitoneal injection of 5×106 CFU/mL bacterial solutions. Nanoconjugated vancomycin was adminstrated to VSSA- and VRSA-infected mice at its effective dose for 10 days. Vancomycin was adminstrated to VSSA- and VRSA-infected mice at a similar dose, respectively, for 10 days. Vancomycin and nanoconjugated vancomycin were adminstrated to normal mice at their effective doses for 10 days. The result of this study reveals that in vivo VSSA and VRSA infection significantly increases the level of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidized glutathione level, nitrite generation, nitrite release, and DNA damage and decreases the level of reduced glutathione, antioxidant enzyme status, and glutathione-dependent enzymes as compared to control group, which were increased or decreased significantly near to normal in nanoconjugated vancomycin-treated group. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of nanoconjugated vancomycin against VSSA and VRSA infection-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of fidaxomicin versus vancomycin in Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathwani, Dilip; Cornely, Oliver A; Van Engen, Anke K; Odufowora-Sita, Olatunji; Retsa, Peny; Odeyemi, Isaac A O

    2014-11-01

    Fidaxomicin was non-inferior to vancomycin with respect to clinical cure rates in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in two Phase III trials, but was associated with significantly fewer recurrences than vancomycin. This economic analysis investigated the cost-effectiveness of fidaxomicin compared with vancomycin in patients with severe CDI and in patients with their first CDI recurrence. A 1 year time horizon Markov model with seven health states was developed from the perspective of Scottish public healthcare providers. Model inputs for effectiveness, resource use, direct costs and utilities were obtained from published sources and a Scottish expert panel. The main model outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), expressed as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), for fidaxomicin versus vancomycin; ICERs were interpreted using willingness-to-pay thresholds of £20,000/QALY and £30,000/QALY. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Total costs were similar with fidaxomicin and vancomycin in patients with severe CDI (£14,515 and £14,344, respectively) and in patients with a first recurrence (£16,535 and £16,926, respectively). Improvements in clinical outcomes with fidaxomicin resulted in small QALY gains versus vancomycin (severe CDI, +0.010; patients with first recurrence, +0.019). Fidaxomicin was cost-effective in severe CDI (ICER £16,529/QALY) and dominant (i.e. more effective and less costly) in patients with a first recurrence. The probability that fidaxomicin was cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £30,000/QALY was 60% for severe CDI and 68% in a first recurrence. Fidaxomicin is cost-effective in patients with severe CDI and in patients with a first CDI recurrence versus vancomycin. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  15. Clinical and economic benefits of fidaxomicin compared to vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Jason C; Reilly, Joseph P; Navalkele, Bhagyashri; Downham, Gemma; Haynes, Kevin; Trivedi, Manish

    2015-11-01

    We studied the clinical and economic impact of a protocol encouraging the use of fidaxomicin as a first-line drug for treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients hospitalized during a 2-year period. This study evaluated patients who received oral vancomycin or fidaxomicin for the treatment of CDI during a 2-year period. All included patients were eligible for administration of fidaxomicin via a protocol that encouraged its use for selected patients. The primary clinical endpoint was 90-day readmission with a diagnosis of CDI. Hospital charges and insurance reimbursements for readmissions were calculated along with the cost of CDI therapy to estimate the financial impact of the choice of therapy. Recurrences were seen in 10/49 (20.4%) fidaxomicin patients and 19/46 (41.3%) vancomycin patients (P = 0.027). In a multivariate analysis that included determinations of severity of CDI, serum creatinine increases, and concomitant antibiotic use, only fidaxomicin was significantly associated with decreased recurrence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12 to 0.93). The total lengths of stay of readmitted patients were 183 days for vancomycin and 87 days for fidaxomicin, with costs of $454,800 and $196,200, respectively. Readmissions for CDI were reimbursed on the basis of the severity of CDI, totaling $151,136 for vancomycin and $107,176 for fidaxomicin. Fidaxomicin drug costs totaled $62,112, and vancomycin drug costs were $6,646. We calculated that the hospital lost an average of $3,286 per fidaxomicin-treated patient and $6,333 per vancomycin-treated patient, thus saving $3,047 per patient with fidaxomicin. Fidaxomicin use for CDI treatment prevented readmission and decreased hospital costs compared to use of oral vancomycin. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Analysis of the Sarcocystis neurona microneme protein SnMIC10: protein characteristics and expression during intracellular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoane, Jessica S; Carruthers, Vernon B; Striepen, Boris; Morrison, David P; Entzeroth, Rolf; Howe, Daniel K

    2003-07-01

    Sarcocystis neurona, an apicomplexan parasite, is the primary causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Like other members of the Apicomplexa, S. neurona zoites possess secretory organelles that contain proteins necessary for host cell invasion and intracellular survival. From a collection of S. neurona expressed sequence tags, we identified a sequence encoding a putative microneme protein based on similarity to Toxoplasma gondii MIC10 (TgMIC10). Pairwise sequence alignments of SnMIC10 to TgMIC10 and NcMIC10 from Neospora caninum revealed approximately 33% identity to both orthologues. The open reading frame of the S. neurona gene encodes a 255 amino acid protein with a predicted 39-residue signal peptide. Like TgMIC10 and NcMIC10, SnMIC10 is predicted to be hydrophilic, highly alpha-helical in structure, and devoid of identifiable adhesive domains. Antibodies raised against recombinant SnMIC10 recognised a protein band with an apparent molecular weight of 24 kDa in Western blots of S. neurona merozoites, consistent with the size predicted for SnMIC10. In vitro secretion assays demonstrated that this protein is secreted by extracellular merozoites in a temperature-dependent manner. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis of SnMIC10 showed a polar labelling pattern, which is consistent with the apical position of the micronemes, and immunoelectron microscopy provided definitive localisation of the protein to these secretory organelles. Further analysis of SnMIC10 in intracellular parasites revealed that expression of this protein is temporally regulated during endopolygeny, supporting the view that micronemes are only needed during host cell invasion. Collectively, the data indicate that SnMIC10 is a microneme protein that is part of the excreted/secreted antigen fraction of S. neurona. Identification and characterisation of additional S. neurona microneme antigens and comparisons to orthologues in other Apicomplexa could provide further insight into the

  17. Traducción de cómic americano, superhéroes y chimichangas

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalbes Valenzuela, Carla

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el proceso de traducción de un cómic americano. Consiste de una traducción de varios fragmentos de un cómic de Marvel de Masacre (Deadpool, en inglés) y un posterior análisis de dicha traducción, en el que se comentan los problemas que han surgido, se explica la solución al problema y se justifican las decisiones tomadas L'objectiu d'aquest treball és estudiar el procés de traducció d'un còmic americà. Consisteix en la traducció de diversos fragments...

  18. El cómic en España: 1977-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Vergara Díaz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende repasar las tres últimas décadas del cómic en España. El estudio se realiza valorando la evolución de la industria del cómic, desde sus inicios durante la dictadura y su expansión con la llegada de la democracia hasta la época actual de dificultades y cambios. El auge del cómic se observa en su relevancia creciente dentro de la prensa, en la aceptación de un público que va madurando con el paso del tiempo y, sobre todo, en las ventas de una industria que tiene que adaptarse a nuevas situaciones.

  19. En el umbral. El cómic español contemporáneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Santiago

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available These days, when we talk about contemporary Spanish comics, or comics produced primarily in Spain for the Spanish market, we have to contemplate two main trends: the graphic novel and the humor comics. The fall of the traditional industry opened the door to the realization of authoral ambitions that previous generations of artists couldn’t fulfil.

    En la actualidad, cuando hablamos de cómic español contemporáneo, es decir, cuando nos referimos a cómics producidos en España y para el mercado español en primer lugar, tenemos que tener en cuenta dos corrientes principalmente: la novela gráfica y el cómic de humor. La caída de la industria tradicional ha abierto el camino para que se cumplan las aspiraciones autorales que durante décadas tuvieron muchos dibujantes españoles.

  20. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Najar-Peerayeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and some genetic characteristics of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. Methods: A total of 414 isolates of S. aureus were collected from clinical specimens from hospitals in Tehran. Vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA was determined by brain heart infusion agar containing 4 μg/mL vancomycin screening plate and confirmed via E-test. VISA isolates were analysed for vanA, vanB, mecA, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types, surface protein A (Spa types and agr specific groups. Results: Brain heart infusion agar containing 4 μg/mL vancomycin screening tests revealed that 17.14% (n = 71 of S. aureus isolates were VISA phenotype. Ten of the 71 isolates were confirmed by E-test method (minimal inhibitory concentration was 4 to 8 μg/mL. All VISA isolates were susceptible to linezolid and 6 isolates (60% were methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Five isolates belonged to agr Group II, 4 belonged to agr Group I and 1 belonged to agr Group III. Spa type t030, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec Type III were dominant among VISA isolates. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence of the global dissemination of VISA isolates and emphasizes to vancomycin susceptibility testing prior to antibiotic therapy.

  1. Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the oral cavity of patients with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellappally, Sajith; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Alqahtani, Amer; Dalati, M H N; Anil, Sukumaran; Khan, Aftab Ahmed; Harikrishna Varma, P R

    2017-09-01

    Oral streptococci are the major group of microbes isolated from oral microflora. They represent frequent pathogens of infective endocarditis (IE), and it is assumed that in most of the cases oral streptococci are acquired via mucosa layer of oral cavity. Staphylococcus aureus is also frequently isolated from IE as it accounts for 20%-30% of all cases. Vancomycin has been the most reliable therapeutic agent against infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The main objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of S. aureus species in dental caries specimens. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of S. aureus to four antibiotics namely vancomycin, linezolid, teicoplanin, and daptomycin was performed. Detection of vancomycin resistance was conducted using polymerase chain reaction. Among the tested 150 strains, 98 were MRSA and of that 54 were vancomycin sensitive and 27 were resistant. All 98 MRSA strains were positive for mecA and 36 yielded pvl, whereas 13 carried vanA and only 2 were positive for vanB. Majority of the isolates showed sensitivity toward daptomycin and linezolid. Strains of S. aureus exhibiting decreased susceptibility to different antibiotics like vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid severely compromise the therapeutic alternatives and require a considerable amount of time, public awareness, and integrative health-care strategies to prevent the emergence of resistance to these compounds.

  2. Controlled release of vancomycin from thin sol-gel films on implant surfaces successfully controls osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher S; Antoci, Valentin; Harrison, Gerald; Patal, Payal; Freeman, Terry A; Shapiro, Irving M; Parvizi, Javad; Hickok, Noreen J; Radin, Shula; Ducheyne, Paul

    2009-06-01

    Peri-prosthetic infection remains a serious complication of joint replacement surgery. Herein, we demonstrate that a vancomycin-containing sol-gel film on Ti alloy rods can successfully treat bacterial infections in an animal model. The vancomycin-containing sol-gel films exhibited predictable release kinetics, while significantly inhibiting S. aureus adhesion. When evaluated in a rat osteomyelitis model, microbiological analysis indicated that the vancomycin-containing sol-gel film caused a profound decrease in S. aureus number. Radiologically, while the control side showed extensive bone degradation, including abscesses and an extensive periosteal reaction, rods coated with the vancomycin-containing sol-gel film resulted in minimal signs of infection. MicroCT analysis confirmed the radiological results, while demonstrating that the vancomycin-containing sol-gel film significantly protected dense bone from resorption and minimized remodeling. These results clearly demonstrate that this novel thin sol-gel technology can be used for the targeted delivery of antibiotics for the treatment of periprosthetic as well as other bone infections. Copyright 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society

  3. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Structures and Interactions of Vancomycin Antibiotics with Cell Wall Analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhibo; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Laskin, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Surface-induced dissociation (SID) of the singly protonated complex of vancomycin antibiotic with cell wall peptide analogue (N α , N # var e psilon#-diacetyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala) was studied using a 6 T Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) specially configured for SID experiments. The binding energy between the vancomycin and the peptide was obtained from the RRKM modeling of the time- and energy resolved fragmentation efficiency curves (TFECs) of the precursor ion and its fragments. Electronic structure calculations of the geometries, proton affinities and binding energies were performed for several model systems including vancomycin (V), vancomycin aglycon (VA), N α , N # var e psilon#-diacetyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala, and non-covalent complexes of VA with N-acetyl-D-Ala-D-Ala and N α , N # var e psilon#-diacetyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. Comparison between the experimental and computational results suggests that the most probable structure of the complex observed in our experiments corresponds to the neutral peptide bound to the vancomycin protonated at the secondary amino group of the N-methyl-leucine residue. The experimental binding energy of 30.9 ± 1.8 kcal/mol is in good agreement with the binding energy of 29.3 ± 2.5 kcal/mol calculated for the model system representing the preferred structure of the complex

  4. Cell Wall Remodeling by a Synthetic Analog Reveals Metabolic Adaptation in Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Sean E; Pires, Marcos M

    2017-07-21

    Drug-resistant bacterial infections threaten to overburden our healthcare system and disrupt modern medicine. A large class of potent antibiotics, including vancomycin, operate by interfering with bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) evade the blockage of cell wall biosynthesis by altering cell wall precursors, rendering them drug insensitive. Herein, we reveal the phenotypic plasticity and cell wall remodeling of VRE in response to vancomycin in live bacterial cells via a metabolic probe. A synthetic cell wall analog was designed and constructed to monitor cell wall structural alterations. Our results demonstrate that the biosynthetic pathway for vancomycin-resistant precursors can be hijacked by synthetic analogs to track the kinetics of phenotype induction. In addition, we leveraged this probe to interrogate the response of VRE cells to vancomycin analogs and a series of cell wall-targeted antibiotics. Finally, we describe a proof-of-principle strategy to visually inspect drug resistance induction. Based on our findings, we anticipate that our metabolic probe will play an important role in further elucidating the interplay among the enzymes involved in the VRE biosynthetic rewiring.

  5. Vancomycin-Rifampin Combination Therapy Has Enhanced Efficacy against an Experimental Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niska, Jared A.; Shahbazian, Jonathan H.; Ramos, Romela Irene; Francis, Kevin P.; Bernthal, Nicholas M.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of prosthetic joint infections often involves a two-stage exchange, with implant removal and antibiotic spacer placement followed by systemic antibiotic therapy and delayed reimplantation. However, if antibiotic therapy can be improved, one-stage exchange or implant retention may be more feasible, thereby decreasing morbidity and preserving function. In this study, a mouse model of prosthetic joint infection was used in which Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated into a knee joint containing a surgically placed metallic implant extending from the femur. This model was used to evaluate whether combination therapy of vancomycin plus rifampin has increased efficacy compared with vancomycin alone against these infections. On postoperative day 7, vancomycin with or without rifampin was administered for 6 weeks with implant retention. In vivo bioluminescence imaging, ex vivo CFU enumeration, X-ray imaging, and histologic analysis were carried out. We found that there was a marked therapeutic benefit when vancomycin was combined with rifampin compared with vancomycin alone. Taken together, our results suggest that the mouse model used could serve as a valuable in vivo preclinical model system to evaluate and compare efficacies of antibiotics and combinatory therapy for prosthetic joint infections before more extensive studies are carried out in human subjects. PMID:23917317

  6. Is There an Opportunity for Current Chemotherapeutics to Up-regulate MIC-A/B Ligands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendel Quirk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are critical effectors of the immune system. NK cells recognize unhealthy cells by specific ligands [e.g., MHC- class I chain related protein A or B (MIC-A/B] for further elimination by cytotoxicity. Paradoxically, cancer cells down-regulate MIC-A/B and evade NK cell’s anticancer activity. Recent data indicate that cellular-stress induces MIC-A/B, leading to enhanced sensitivity of cancer cells to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In this Perspective article, we hypothesize that current chemotherapeutics at sub-lethal, non-toxic dose may promote cellular-stress and up-regulate the expression of MIC-A/B ligands to augment cancer’s sensitivity to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Preliminary data from two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and T47D treated with clinically relevant therapeutics such as doxorubicin, paclitaxel and methotrexate support the hypothesis. The goal of this Perspective is to underscore the prospects of current chemotherapeutics in NK cell immunotherapy, and discuss potential challenges and opportunities to improve cancer therapy.

  7. Imagen popular de la ciencia transmitida por los cómics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallego, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will be centered in the critical analysis of the popular image of the science transmitted by cómics existing in the market (in the measurement that makes reference to the scientific work.

  8. Imagen popular de la ciencia transmitida por los cómics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Patricia Gallego-Torres

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo nos centraremos en el análisis crítico de la imagen popular de la ciencia transmitida por los cómics existentes en el mercado (en la medida que hagan referencia al trabajo científico.

  9. MiMIC: a highly versatile transposon insertion resource for engineering Drosophila melanogaster genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venken, Koen J. T.; Schulze, Karen L.; Haelterman, Nele A.; Pan, Hongling; He, Yuchun; Evans-Holm, Martha; Carlson, Joseph W.; Levis, Robert W.; Spradling, Allan C.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the versatility of a collection of insertions of the transposon Minos mediated integration cassette (MiMIC), in Drosophila melanogaster. MiMIC contains a gene-trap cassette and the yellow+ marker flanked by two inverted bacteriophage ΦC31 attP sites. MiMIC integrates almost at random in the genome to create sites for DNA manipulation. The attP sites allow the replacement of the intervening sequence of the transposon with any other sequence through recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). We can revert insertions that function as gene traps and cause mutant phenotypes to wild type by RMCE and modify insertions to control GAL4 or QF overexpression systems or perform lineage analysis using the Flp system. Insertions within coding introns can be exchanged with protein-tag cassettes to create fusion proteins to follow protein expression and perform biochemical experiments. The applications of MiMIC vastly extend the Drosophila melanogaster toolkit. PMID:21985007

  10. Spectrophotometric Determination of Microamounts of Uranium previous Extraction with TBP-MIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Palomino, J.; Palomares Delgado, F.; Petrement, J.; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1962-01-01

    Selective extraction of uranium in nitric acid medium with a mixture of Tbp-MIC (1:10) has been achieved. Aluminium nitrate was used as salting agent. Complexing agents were added in order to avoid extraction of impurities. Extraction conditions have been studied so that extraction is almost practically complete in a single run. (Author) 19 refs

  11. Peak Measurement for Vancomycin AUC Estimation in Obese Adults Improves Precision and Lowers Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Manjunath P; Hong, Joseph; Krop, Lynne

    2017-04-01

    Vancomycin area under the curve (AUC) estimates may be skewed in obese adults due to weight-dependent pharmacokinetic parameters. We demonstrate that peak and trough measurements reduce bias and improve the precision of vancomycin AUC estimates in obese adults ( n = 75) and validate this in an independent cohort ( n = 31). The precision and mean percent bias of Bayesian vancomycin AUC estimates are comparable between covariate-dependent ( R 2 = 0.774, 3.55%) and covariate-independent ( R 2 = 0.804, 3.28%) models when peaks and troughs are measured but not when measurements are restricted to troughs only ( R 2 = 0.557, 15.5%). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Vancomycin intoxication in a patient with inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome and diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hidalgo-Collazos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is an antibiotic used for infections by gram-positive bacteria with a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Its monitoring has an established therapeutic range (10-20 mg/L to prevent nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity due to supratherapeutic levels, and inefficiency and development of resistance by subtherapeutic levels. Nephrotoxicity for vancomycin monotherapy at standard doses according to pathogen and typical regimens (usual dose: 15-20 mg/kg/12 h is rare and usually reversible. Moreover, monitoring plasma concentrations allows to achieve concentrations within therapeutic range to allow safe and effective drug use. The renal hypoperfusion can cause pre-renal damage, resulting in elevated levels of serum creatinine, resulting in decreased antibiotic elimination and nephrotoxicity. We report a case of unexpected vancomycin nephrotoxicity in a patient with syndrome Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion associated paraneoplastic

  13. Vancomycin gene selection in the microbiome of urban Rattus norvegicus from hospital environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arn Hansen, Thomas; Joshi, Tejal; Larsen, Anders Rhod

    2016-01-01

    for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes. We show that despite the shared resistome within samples from the same geographic locations, samples from hospital area carry significantly abundant vancomycin resistance genes. The observed pattern is consistent with a selection for vancomycin genes in the R...

  14. vanI: a novel d-Ala-d-Lac vancomycin resistance gene cluster found in Desulfitobacterium hafniense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, T.; Levisson, M.; Vos, de W.M.; Smidt, H.

    2014-01-01

    The glycopeptide vancomycin was until recently considered a drug of last resort against Gram-positive bacteria. Increasing numbers of bacteria, however, are found to carry genes that confer resistance to this antibiotic. So far, 10 different vancomycin resistance clusters have been described. A

  15. Vancomycin treatment of infective endocarditis is linked with recently acquired obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Thuny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota play a major role in digestion and energy conversion of nutrients. Antibiotics, such as avoparcin (a vancomycin analogue, and probiotics, such as Lactobacillus species, have been used to increase weight in farm animals. We tested the effect of antibiotics given for infective endocarditis (IE on weight gain (WG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty-eight adults with a definite diagnosis of bacterial IE (antibiotic group were compared with forty-eight age-matched controls without IE. Their body mass index (BMI was collected at one month before the first symptoms and one year after hospital discharge. The BMI increased significantly and strongly in vancomycin-plus-gentamycin-treated patients (mean [+/-SE] kg/m(2, +2.3 [0.9], p = 0.03, but not in controls or in patients treated with other antibiotics. Seventeen patients had a BMI increase of >or=10%, and five of the antibiotic group developed obesity. The treatment by vancomycin-plus-gentamycin was an independent predictor of BMI increase of >or=10% (adjusted OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.37-33.0; p = 0.02, but not treatment with other antibiotics. Weight gain was particularly high in male patients older than 65 who did not undergo cardiac surgery. Indeed, all three vancomycin-treated patients with these characteristics developed obesity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A major and significant weight gain can occur after a six-week intravenous treatment by vancomycin plus gentamycin for IE with a risk of obesity, especially in males older than 65 who have not undergone surgery. We speculate on the role of the gut colonization by Lactobacillus sp, a microorganism intrinsically resistant to vancomycin, used as a growth promoter in animals, and found at a high concentration in the feces of obese patients. Thus, nutritional programs and weight follow-up should be utilized in patients under such treatment.

  16. Effect of nosocomial vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia on mortality, length of stay, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyan; Srinivasan, Arjun; Plaut, David; Perl, Trish M

    2003-04-01

    To determine the impact of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia on patient outcomes and costs by assessing mortality, excess length of stay, and charges attributable to it. A population-based, matched, historical cohort study. A 1,025-bed, university-based teaching facility and referral hospital. Two hundred seventy-seven vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia case-patients and 277 matched control-patients identified between 1993 and 2000. The crude mortality rate was 50.2% and 19.9% for case-patients and control-patients, respectively, yielding a mortality rate of 30.3% attributable to vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia. The excess length of hospital stay attributable to vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia was 17 days, of which 12 days were spent in intensive care units. On average, dollars 77,558 in extra charges was attributable to each vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia. To adjust for severity of illness, 159 pairs of case-patients and control-patients, who had the same severity of illness (All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Group complexity level), were further analyzed. When patients were stratified by severity of illness, the crude mortality rate was 50.3% among case-patients compared with 27.7% among control-patients, accounting for an attributable mortality rate of 22.6%. Attributable excess length of stay and charges were 17 days and dollars 81,208, respectively. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia contributes significantly to excess mortality and economic loss, once severity of illness is considered. Efforts to prevent these infections will likely be cost-effective.

  17. Implementation of the systems approach to improve a pharmacist-managed vancomycin dosing service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, David J; Roberts, Russel; Sylvia, Lynne

    2014-12-01

    Quality improvements achieved by applying the systems approach to assess the clinical effectiveness, operational efficiency, and financial feasibility of a pharmacist-managed vancomycin dosing service are described. Faced with increased patient volumes and resource demands, the pharmacy department at Tufts Medical Center conducted an evaluation of its adult inpatient vancomycin dosing service using the systems approach, which emphasizes multidisciplinary assessment of system inputs, processes, and outcomes and consensus-building methods to identify needed changes and recommended action steps. A multidisciplinary committee composed of representatives of the medical center's pharmacy, internal medicine, infectious diseases, nursing, phlebotomy, and clinical laboratory services was assembled; in a series of three moderated monthly sessions, committee members deliberated and ultimately reached consensus on a list of action items. Relative to a concurrent intradepartmental assessment of the vancomycin dosing service based solely on pharmacist feedback, the systems approach identified a greater number and wider array of needed improvements in key program areas. Quality improvements implemented as a direct result of the systems-based analysis included a policy change authorizing pharmacists to order serum vancomycin determinations without physician cosignature and inclusion of a vancomycin dosing algorithm in the institutional antibiotic dosing guide. Future changes based on deliverable action items will result in a structured process to help direct program resources toward the patients most in need of pharmacist-managed vancomycin dosing services. The systems approach allowed for a comprehensive multidisciplinary evaluation of the service, as indicated by the identification of process improvements not identified by the department of pharmacy alone. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of oral vancomycin on gut microbiota, bile acid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieze, Anne; Out, Carolien; Fuentes, Susana

    2014-01-01

    .i.d. At baseline and after 1 week of therapy, fecal microbiota composition (Human Intestinal Tract Chip phylogenetic microarray), fecal and plasma bile acid concentrations as well as insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp using [6,6-(2)H2]-glucose tracer) were measured. RESULTS: Vancomycin reduced...... (pinsulin sensitivity (p... of vancomycin significantly impacts host physiology by decreasing intestinal microbiota diversity, bile acid dehydroxylation and peripheral insulin sensitivity in subjects with metabolic syndrome. These data show that intestinal microbiota, particularly of the Firmicutes phylum contributes to bile acid...

  19. Novel Inhibitors of Staphyloxanthin Virulence Factor in Comparison with Linezolid and Vancomycin versus Methicillin-Resistant, Linezolid-Resistant, and Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shuaishuai; Wei, Hanwen; Li, Baoli; Chen, Feifei; Liu, Yifu; Chen, Wenhua; Xu, Yixiang; Qiu, Xiaoxia; Li, Xiaokang; Lu, Yanli; Liu, Wenwen; Hu, Linhao; Lin, Dazheng; Wang, Manjiong; Zheng, Xinyu; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Lan, Lefu; Li, Jian

    2017-10-12

    Our previous work ( Wang et al. J. Med. Chem. 2016 , 59 , 4831 - 4848 ) revealed that effective benzocycloalkane-derived staphyloxanthin inhibitors against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections were accompanied by poor water solubility and high hERG inhibition and dosages (preadministration). In this study, 92 chroman and coumaran derivatives as novel inhibitors have been addressed for overcoming deficiencies above. Derivatives 69 and 105 displayed excellent pigment inhibitory activities and low hERG inhibition, along with improvement of solubility by salt type selection. The broad and significantly potent antibacterial spectra of 69 and 105 were displayed first with normal administration in the livers and hearts in mice against pigmented S. aureus Newman, Mu50 (vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus), and NRS271 (linezolid-resistant S. aureus), compared with linezolid and vancomycin. In summary, both 69 and 105 have the potential to be developed as good antibacterial candidates targeting virulence factors.

  20. [Comparison of four MICS intraocular lenses regarding their rates of neodymium:YAG laser capsulotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridaki, M; Höh, H

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of posterior capsule opacification up to 50 months following 1.7-mm bimanual MICS-cataract surgery. Bimanual MICS cataract surgery was performed in 197 eyes (135 patients) via two 1.7-mm corneal incisions. Four MICS acrylic foldable IOLs were implanted: AcriSmart 48S-5, n = 54 (Acritec GmbH, Hennigsdorf, now AT.Smart 48S Carl-Zeiss-Meditec, AG, Jena, Germany), ThinLens UltraChoice 1.0, n = 53 (Technomed GmbH, Baesweiler, Germany), AcriFlex 46, n = 41 und AcriFlex 48 CSE, n = 7 (Acrimed GmbH, Berlin, now: Lentis L-303, Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany) and CareFlex, n = 43 (w2o Medizintechnik AG, Bruchsal, Germany). Statistical analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier technique. High levels of completeness of follow-up rates were: ThinLens 96%, CareFlex 100%, AcriSmart 93%, AcriFlex 92%. The capsulotomy rate was 43.13% for ThinLens within a mean/max. follow-up period of 801/1131 days, 34.88% for CareFlex (565/872 days), 40% for AcriSmart (988/1506 days) and 15.91% for AcriFlex (728/975 days). By limiting the follow-up period to a comparable maximum of 850 days for all four IOLs, our capsulotomy rates were as follows: ThinLens 33.33%, CareFlex 32.56 %, AcriSmart 20.0% and AcriFlex 11.36%. MICS IOLs have higher capsulotomy rates than hydrophobic acrylic lenses and sharp-edged silicone lenses. In literature comparisons MICS-IOLs do not exceed the variance levels of capsulotomy rates of PMMA, hydrophilic acrylic and silicone lenses without sharp edges. Cases of decentration or luxation of MICS-IOLs following Neodym:YAG laser capsulotomy were not detected. Capsulotomy frequency with the CareFlex was statistically significantly higher in comparison to the AcriSmart (Log Rank Mantel Cox Test, p = 0.007) and AcriFlex (log rank Mantel Cox test, p = 0.002). Capsulotomy rates observed varied for the four MICS-IOL-types tested. The posterior capsule opacification frequency of the two best MICS-IOLs (AcriFlex, Acri

  1. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks 5 years after the avoparcin ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    The glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin was banned from animal production in Denmark in 1995. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks in the absence of the selective pressure exerted by the use of avoparcin. One hundred sixty...

  2. Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection: meta-analysis of pivotal randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Derrick W; Walker, A Sarah; Kean, Yin; Weiss, Karl; Cornely, Oliver A; Miller, Mark A; Esposito, Roberto; Louie, Thomas J; Stoesser, Nicole E; Young, Bernadette C; Angus, Brian J; Gorbach, Sherwood L; Peto, Timothy E A

    2012-08-01

    Two recently completed phase 3 trials (003 and 004) showed fidaxomicin to be noninferior to vancomycin for curing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and superior for reducing CDI recurrences. In both studies, adults with active CDI were randomized to receive blinded fidaxomicin 200 mg twice daily or vancomycin 125 mg 4 times a day for 10 days. Post hoc exploratory intent-to-treat (ITT) time-to-event analyses were undertaken on the combined study 003 and 004 data, using fixed-effects meta-analysis and Cox regression models. ITT analysis of the combined 003/004 data for 1164 patients showed that fidaxomicin reduced persistent diarrhea, recurrence, or death by 40% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26%-51%; P < .0001) compared with vancomycin through day 40. A 37% (95% CI, 2%-60%; P = .037) reduction in persistent diarrhea or death was evident through day 12 (heterogeneity P = .50 vs 13-40 days), driven by 7 (1.2%) fidaxomicin versus 17 (2.9%) vancomycin deaths at <12 days. Low albumin level, low eosinophil count, and CDI treatment preenrollment were risk factors for persistent diarrhea or death at 12 days, and CDI in the previous 3 months was a risk factor for recurrence (all P < .01). Fidaxomicin has the potential to substantially improve outcomes from CDI.

  3. Suppression by Saccharomyces boulardii of toxigenic Clostridium difficile overgrowth after vancomycin treatment in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, G W; McFarland, L V

    1987-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii prevented the development of high counts of Clostridium difficile, high titers of toxin B, and positive latex agglutination tests after cessation of vancomycin treatment for hamsters. The protocol used was designed to stimulate relapse of human C. difficile-associated colitis. S. boulardii was protective in this model. PMID:3566236

  4. Therapeutic drug monitoring by radioimmunoassay: Determination of aminoglycoside antibiotics and vancomycin in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaubitt, D.; Drechsler, H.J.; Knoch, K.; Siafarikas, K.

    1984-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmicin) or vancomycin in plasma may considerably aid to assess their appropriate dosage and, if necessary, to rapidly adjust it to the assumed requirement. Thus the dosage of the antibiotic is kept large enough as to lead to the desired therapeutic result but not as high as to cause side effects. (orig.)

  5. Efficacy of Vancomycin-based Continuous Triple Antibiotic Irrigation in Immediate, Implant-based Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Hunsicker, MD, FACS

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions:. Continuous breast irrigation with a vancomycin-based triple antibiotic solution is a safe and effective accompaniment for immediate implant reconstruction. Use of intramuscular anesthetic injection for postoperative pain control allows the elastomeric infusion pump to be available for local tissue antibiotic irrigation.

  6. CORRELATION BETWEEN HYDROPHOBICITY AND RESISTANCE TO NONOXYNOL-9 AND VANCOMYCIN FOR UROGENITAL ISOLATES OF LACTOBACILLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TOMECZEK, L; REID, G; CUPERUS, PL; MCGROARTY, JA; VANDERMEI, HC; BRUCE, AW; KHOURY, AE; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1992-01-01

    Seven clinical isolates of lactobacilli were found to be relatively hydrophobic with a mean water-contact angle of 66 +/- 15 degrees, and to be susceptible to 1% nonoxynol-9 and vancomycin. However, seven other strains were relatively hydrophilic with a mean water-contact angle of 32 +/- 13 degrees,

  7. Weissella confusa: a rare cause of vancomycin-resistant Gram-positive bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Augustine, Deepthi; Sudhindran, S; Kurian, Anu M; Dinesh, Kavitha R; Karim, Shamsul; Philip, Rosamma

    2011-10-01

    We describe a case of bacteraemia caused by Weissella confusa in a 48-year-old male who was operated on for adenocarcinoma of the gastro-oesophageal junction and maintained on total parenteral nutrition. Blood cultures were positive for a vancomycin-resistant streptococcus-like organism which was identified as W. confusa by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  8. Annual Surveillance Summary: Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico , Arizona, Utah, Nevada, Alaska, Hawaii. • South: Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Washington, DC. 2007; 587–620. 27. Milburn E, Chukwuma U. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci infections in

  9. Auditory function after application of ototopical vancomycin and mupirocin solutions in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Kimberley D; Kavanagh, Katherine; Parham, Kourosh

    2011-03-01

    To determine whether mupirocin (440 µg/mL) and vancomycin otic drops (25 mg/mL) show evidence of ototoxicity in CBA/J mice immediately following a 7-day course of daily intratympanic (IT) injections and 1 month following treatment. Nonrandomized controlled trial. Academic hospital laboratory. Twenty CBA/J mice. Mean auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds increased in all drug- and saline-treated ears immediately after 7 days of IT injections but returned to baseline for most stimulus frequencies by 30 days later. This finding appeared to be correlated with the presence and subsequent resolution of tympanic membrane (TM) perforations and granulation tissue at the injection sites. Mupirocin-treated ears showed no significant difference in ABR thresholds compared to saline-treated ears. No significant differences were noted between vancomycin- and saline-treated ears, but there was a significant interaction between testing day and stimulus frequency (P injections (95% confidence interval, -13.5 to -5.5, P application of mupirocin solution (440 µg/mL) caused no significant change in the ABR thresholds in a murine model, vancomycin solution (25 mg/mL) resulted in high-frequency threshold elevations in both the ear directly injected and the contralateral ear. Mupirocin solution may be beneficial in managing otitis externa and media caused by resistant pathogens. Further studies of ototopical vancomycin are needed to define parameters governing its safe use.

  10. Department of Energy: MICS (Mathematical Information, and Computational Sciences Division). High performance computing and communications program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This document is intended to serve two purposes. Its first purpose is that of a program status report of the considerable progress that the Department of Energy (DOE) has made since 1993, the time of the last such report (DOE/ER-0536, {open_quotes}The DOE Program in HPCC{close_quotes}), toward achieving the goals of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program. The second purpose is that of a summary report of the many research programs administered by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences (MICS) Division of the Office of Energy Research under the auspices of the HPCC Program and to provide, wherever relevant, easy access to pertinent information about MICS-Division activities via universal resource locators (URLs) on the World Wide Web (WWW). The information pointed to by the URL is updated frequently, and the interested reader is urged to access the WWW for the latest information.

  11. [Effectiveness of Mitral Natural Folding Plasty for Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery Mitral Valve Plasty (MICS MVP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shunichi; Tsuboi, Eitoshi; Rokkaku, Kyu; Irie, Yoshihito; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    We performed 45 cases of Natural folding plasty without leaflet resection for degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) between September 2005 and July 2014. Twenty cases of 45 were operated by right small intercostal approach (MICS). There was no operative mortality. No patient had greater than mild MR intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. The median follow-up was 847 (19~1,747) days. One case needed a second pump run performed without complication. One patient had a reoperation performed for recurrent MR 20 months later. Natural folding plasty for degenerative MR with favorable long term out come in our results. This technique is simple and reproducible for most surgeons. Furthermore, with its simplicity and reversibility, we considered it to be suitable for MICS approach.

  12. EL ESTADO DE LA CIENCIA. INVESTIGACIÓN Y CÓMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Matly

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available La investigación académica sobre el cómic español y latinoamericano es un mundo pequeño, sin memoria, poco organizado e insuficientemente conocido por sus propios miembros. Al contrario de otras disciplinas científicas, existe poca tradición de colaboración, pocas dinámicas de equipo o escuelas de pensamiento identificables como tal. La capitalización de su memoria se enfrenta a dificultades, unas externas, otras internas: los cómics antiguos y descatalogados no han sido conservados en un sistema coherente de bibliotecas y son de difícil acceso; casi no existen revistas indexadas donde publicar; los mismos trabajos científicos sobre el cómic están dispersos y sin indexar, complicando el trabajo de nuevos investigadores. El crecimiento durante estas últimas décadas de dicho sector de investigación abre nuevas oportunidades y a la vez crea nuevas obligaciones. El número creciente de investigadores abre más perspectivas para potenciar núcleos de pensamiento y desarrollar colaboraciones y competiciones, bases del avance científico. Estamos también a tiempo de organizar la bibliografía científica dedicada al cómic en español. En fin, la investigación debe aprender a desarrollar puentes entre los mundos académico y no académico, para encontrar cómo desarrollar una red de publicaciones científicas digitales y beneficiarse del importante trabajo de memoria realizado a través del mundo hispanista por comunidades de apasionados que recuperan y ponen a disposición de los interesados obras antiguas hasta ahora perdidas.

  13. Vancomycin resistant enterococci in urine cultures: Antibiotic susceptibility trends over a decade at a tertiary hospital in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Liam; Papa, Nathan; Aliyu, Sani H; Dev, Harveer; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Al-Hayek, Samih

    2016-03-01

    Enterococci are a common cause of urinary tract infection and vancomycin-resistant strains are more difficult to treat. The purpose of this surveillance program was to assess the prevalence of and determine the risk factors for vancomycin resistance in adults among urinary isolates of Enterococcus sp. and to detail the antibiotic susceptibility profile, which can be used to guide empirical treatment. From 2005 to 2014 we retrospectively reviewed 5,528 positive Enterococcus sp. urine cultures recorded in a computerized laboratory results database at a tertiary teaching hospital in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Of these cultures, 542 (9.8%) were vancomycin resistant. No longitudinal trend was observed in the proportion of vancomycin-resistant strains over the course of the study. We observed emerging resistance to nitrofurantoin with rates climbing from near zero to 40%. Ampicillin resistance fluctuated between 50% and 90%. Low resistance was observed for linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Female sex and inpatient status were identified as risk factors for vancomycin resistance. The incidence of vancomycin resistance among urinary isolates was stable over the last decade. Although resistance to nitrofurantoin has increased, it still serves as an appropriate first choice in uncomplicated urinary tract infection caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus sp.

  14. Vancomycin resistant enterococci in urine cultures: Antibiotic susceptibility trends over a decade at a tertiary hospital in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Toner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Enterococci are a common cause of urinary tract infection and vancomycin-resistant strains are more difficult to treat. The purpose of this surveillance program was to assess the prevalence of and determine the risk factors for vancomycin resistance in adults among urinary isolates of Enterococcus sp. and to detail the antibiotic susceptibility profile, which can be used to guide empirical treatment. Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2014 we retrospectively reviewed 5,528 positive Enterococcus sp. urine cultures recorded in a computerized laboratory results database at a tertiary teaching hospital in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Results: Of these cultures, 542 (9.8% were vancomycin resistant. No longitudinal trend was observed in the proportion of vancomycin- resistant strains over the course of the study. We observed emerging resistance to nitrofurantoin with rates climbing from near zero to 40%. Ampicillin resistance fluctuated between 50% and 90%. Low resistance was observed for linezolid and quinupristin/ dalfopristin. Female sex and inpatient status were identified as risk factors for vancomycin resistance. Conclusions: The incidence of vancomycin resistance among urinary isolates was stable over the last decade. Although resistance to nitrofurantoin has increased, it still serves as an appropriate first choice in uncomplicated urinary tract infection caused by vancomycin- resistant Enterococcus sp.

  15. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus outbreak in a pediatric intensive care unit: report of successful interventions for control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Carmona

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to retrospectively report the results of interventions for controlling a vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE outbreak in a tertiary-care pediatric intensive care unit (PICU of a University Hospital. After identification of the outbreak, interventions were made at the following levels: patient care, microbiological surveillance, and medical and nursing staff training. Data were collected from computer-based databases and from the electronic prescription system. Vancomycin use progressively increased after March 2008, peaking in August 2009. Five cases of VRE infection were identified, with 3 deaths. After the interventions, we noted a significant reduction in vancomycin prescription and use (75% reduction, and the last case of VRE infection was identified 4 months later. The survivors remained colonized until hospital discharge. After interventions there was a transient increase in PICU length-of-stay and mortality. Since then, the use of vancomycin has remained relatively constant and strict, no other cases of VRE infection or colonization have been identified and length-of-stay and mortality returned to baseline. In conclusion, we showed that a bundle intervention aiming at a strict control of vancomycin use and full compliance with the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee guidelines, along with contact precautions and hand-hygiene promotion, can be effective in reducing vancomycin use and the emergence and spread of vancomycin-resistant bacteria in a tertiary-care PICU.

  16. Clinical Utility and Safety of a Model-Based Patient-Tailored Dose of Vancomycin in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Stéphanie; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Biran, Valérie; Lopez, Emmanuel; Madeleneau, Doriane; Wallon, Camille; Zana-Taïeb, Elodie; Virlouvet, Anne-Laure; Rioualen, Stéphane; Zhao, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacokinetic modeling has often been applied to evaluate vancomycin pharmacokinetics in neonates. However, clinical application of the model-based personalized vancomycin therapy is still limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility and safety of a model-based patient-tailored dose of vancomycin in neonates. A model-based vancomycin dosing calculator, developed from a population pharmacokinetic study, has been integrated into the routine clinical care in 3 neonatal intensive care units (Robert Debré, Cochin Port Royal, and Clocheville hospitals) between 2012 and 2014. The target attainment rate, defined as the percentage of patients with a first therapeutic drug monitoring serum vancomycin concentration achieving the target window of 15 to 25 mg/liter, was selected as an endpoint for evaluating the clinical utility. The safety evaluation was focused on nephrotoxicity. The clinical application of the model-based patient-tailored dose of vancomycin has been demonstrated in 190 neonates. The mean (standard deviation) gestational and postnatal ages of the study population were 31.1 (4.9) weeks and 16.7 (21.7) days, respectively. The target attainment rate increased from 41% to 72% without any case of vancomycin-related nephrotoxicity. This proof-of-concept study provides evidence for integrating model-based antimicrobial therapy in neonatal routine care. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Review on Usage of Vancomycin in Livestock and Humans: Maintaining Its Efficacy, Prevention of Resistance and Alternative Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panditharathnalage Nishantha Kumara Wijesekara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is one of the “last-line” classes of antibiotics used in the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Even though vancomycin was discovered in the 1950s, it was widely used after the 1980s for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci, as the prevalence of these strains were increased. However, it is currently evident that vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci have developed for various reasons, including the use of avaparcin—an analog of vancomycin—as a feed additive in livestock. Therefore, prophylactic and empiric use of antibiotics and their analogues need to be minimized. Herein we discuss the rational use of vancomycin in treating humans, horses, farm animals, and pet animals such as dogs, cats, and rabbits. In present day context, more attention should be paid to the prevention of the emergence of resistance to antibiotics in order to maintain their efficacy. In order to prevent emergence of resistance, proper guidance for the responsible use of antimicrobials is indispensable. Therefore, almost all stakeholders who use antibiotics should have an in-depth understanding of the antibiotic that they use. As such, it is imperative to be aware of the important aspects of vancomycin. In the present review, efforts have been made to discuss the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, indications, emergence of resistance, control of resistance, adverse effects, and alternative therapy for vancomycin.

  18. micROS: a morphable, intelligent and collective robot operating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuejun; Dai, Huadong; Yi, Xiaodong; Wang, Yanzhen; Yang, Shaowu; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Yun; Peng, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Robots are developing in much the same way that personal computers did 40 years ago, and robot operating system is the critical basis. Current robot software is mainly designed for individual robots. We present in this paper the design of micROS, a morphable, intelligent and collective robot operating system for future collective and collaborative robots. We first present the architecture of micROS, including the distributed architecture for collective robot system as a whole and the layered architecture for every single node. We then present the design of autonomous behavior management based on the observe-orient-decide-act cognitive behavior model and the design of collective intelligence including collective perception, collective cognition, collective game and collective dynamics. We also give the design of morphable resource management, which first categorizes robot resources into physical, information, cognitive and social domains, and then achieve morphability based on self-adaptive software technology. We finally deploy micROS on NuBot football robots and achieve significant improvement in real-time performance.

  19. Multi-Kepler GPU vs. multi-Intel MIC for spin systems simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaschi, M.; Bisson, M.; Salvadore, F.

    2014-10-01

    We present and compare the performances of two many-core architectures: the Nvidia Kepler and the Intel MIC both in a single system and in cluster configuration for the simulation of spin systems. As a benchmark we consider the time required to update a single spin of the 3D Heisenberg spin glass model by using the Over-relaxation algorithm. We present data also for a traditional high-end multi-core architecture: the Intel Sandy Bridge. The results show that although on the two Intel architectures it is possible to use basically the same code, the performances of a Intel MIC change dramatically depending on (apparently) minor details. Another issue is that to obtain a reasonable scalability with the Intel Phi coprocessor (Phi is the coprocessor that implements the MIC architecture) in a cluster configuration it is necessary to use the so-called offload mode which reduces the performances of the single system. As to the GPU, the Kepler architecture offers a clear advantage with respect to the previous Fermi architecture maintaining exactly the same source code. Scalability of the multi-GPU implementation remains very good by using the CPU as a communication co-processor of the GPU. All source codes are provided for inspection and for double-checking the results.

  20. Fast and efficient Drosophila melanogaster gene knock-ins using MiMIC transposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, Sven; Vanhauwaert, Roeland; Maes, Ine; Schoovaerts, Nils; Zhou, Lujia; Soukup, Sandra; da Cunha, Raquel; Lauwers, Elsa; Fiers, Mark; Verstreken, Patrik

    2014-10-08

    Modern molecular genetics studies necessitate the manipulation of genes in their endogenous locus, but most of the current methodologies require an inefficient donor-dependent homologous recombination step to locally modify the genome. Here we describe a methodology to efficiently generate Drosophila knock-in alleles by capitalizing on the availability of numerous genomic MiMIC transposon insertions carrying recombinogenic attP sites. Our methodology entails the efficient PhiC31-mediated integration of a recombination cassette flanked by unique I-SceI and/or I-CreI restriction enzyme sites into an attP-site. These restriction enzyme sites allow for double-strand break-mediated removal of unwanted flanking transposon sequences, while leaving the desired genomic modifications or recombination cassettes. As a proof-of-principle, we mutated LRRK, tau, and sky by using different MiMIC elements. We replaced 6 kb of genomic DNA encompassing the tau locus and 35 kb encompassing the sky locus with a recombination cassette that permits easy integration of DNA at these loci and we also generated a functional LRRK(HA) knock in allele. Given that ~92% of the Drosophila genes are located within the vicinity (MiMIC element, our methodology enables the efficient manipulation of nearly every locus in the fruit fly genome without the need for inefficient donor-dependent homologous recombination events. Copyright © 2014 Vilain et al.

  1. From penicillin-streptomycin to amikacin-vancomycin: antibiotic decontamination of cardiovascular homografts in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Ling Heng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In February 2012, the National Cardiovascular Homograft Bank (NCHB became the first tissue bank outside of North America to receive accreditation from the American Association of Tissue Banks. From 2008 to 2009, NCHB had been decontaminating its cardiovascular homografts with penicillin and streptomycin. The antibiotic decontamination protocol was changed in January 2010 as amikacin and vancomycin were recommended, in order to cover bacteria isolated from post-recovery and post- antibiotic incubation tissue cultures. AIM: The objective of this study is to determine the optimal incubation conditions for decontamination of homografts by evaluating the potencies of amikacin and vancomycin in different incubation conditions. Retrospective reviews of microbiological results were also performed for homografts recovered from 2008 to 2012, to compare the effectiveness of penicillin-streptomycin versus the amikacin-vancomycin regimens. METHODS: Based on microbiological assays stated in United States Pharmacopeia 31, potency of amikacin was evaluated by turbidimetric assay using Staphylococcus aureus, while vancomycin was by diffusion assay using Bacillus subtilis sporulate. Experiments were performed to investigate the potencies of individual antibiotic 6-hours post incubation at 4°C and 37°C and 4°C for 24 hours, after the results suggested that amikacin was more potent at lower temperature. FINDINGS: Tissue incubation at 4°C for 24 hours is optimal for both antibiotics, especially for amikacin, as its potency falls drastically at 37°C. CONCLUSION: The decontamination regimen of amikacin-vancomycin at 4°C for 24 hours is effective. Nevertheless, it is imperative to monitor microbiological trends closely and evaluate the efficacy of current antibiotics regimen against emerging strains of micro-organisms.

  2. In vitro antimicrobial activity of linezolid tested against vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated in Brazilian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Adriana O.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE has been described recently in Brazil. This is in contrast to the USA and Europe, where the VRE appeared in the late 1980s. The progressive increase in VRE isolation poses important problems in the antimicrobial therapy of nosocomial infections. Treatment options and effective antimicrobial agents for VRE are often limited and the possibility of transfer of vancomycin genes to other Gram-positive microorganisms continues. In the search for antimicrobial agents for multiresistant Gram-positive cocci, compounds such as linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin have been evaluated. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro activity of the oxazolidinone linezolid and 10 other antimicrobial agents, including quinupristin-dalfopristin, against multiresistant enterococci isolated in Brazilian hospitals. Thirty-three vancomycin resistant isolates (17 Enterococcus faecium and 16 E. faecalis, were analyzed. Strains were isolated from patients at São Paulo Hospital, Oswaldo Cruz Hospital, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, Santa Marcelina Hospital, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and Hospital de Clínicas do Paraná. The samples were tested by a broth microdilution method following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. All isolates were molecular typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Linezolid was the most active compound against these multiresistant enterococci, showing 100% inhibition at the susceptible breakpoints. Quinupristin/dalfopristin and teicoplanin showed poor activity against both species. The molecular typing results suggest that there has been interhospital spread of vancomycin resistant E. faecium and E. faecalis among Brazilian hospitals. The results of this study indicate that linezolid is an appropriate therapeutic option for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci infections in Brazil.

  3. Vancomycin added to the wash solution of the cell-saver. Effect on bacterial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ferrer, A; Gredilla-Díaz, E; de Vicente-Sánchez, J; Navarro-Suay, R; Gilsanz-Rodríguez, F

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to test whether the addition of a low-dose of antibiotic (vancomycin) to the wash solution (saline) of the cell-saver reduces the incidence of bacterial contamination of the autologous red blood cell (RBCs) concentrate recovered. Experimental, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study performed on 20 consecutive patients scheduled for posterior spinal fusion surgery. Intraoperative bleeding was processed through a cell-saver: HaemoLite ® 2+, in which the RBCs were washed according to randomization group, with saline (control group) or saline+10μg/ml -1 vancomycin (vanco group). Data regarding age, weight, processed and recovered volume, blood count, blood culture, and vancomycin concentration in RBCs concentrates obtained and incidence of fever after reinfusion were collected. Processed volume was 843±403ml and recovered volume 121±29ml, with haemoglobin concentration 10.4±5.0g/dl -1 and haematocrit 29.1±15.9% (mean±SD). Recovered RBC concentrate cultures were positive for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus in 5 cases (50%) of the control group while all cultures were negative in the vanco group (P=.016). The difference between the theoretical concentration of vancomycin administered and the concentration determined in the recovered RBC concentrate was 1.31μg/ml -1 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.43; P=.074). The addition of vancomycin at a concentration of 10ug/ml -1 to the wash solution of the cell-saver achieved similar concentrations in the autologous blood concentrate recovered allowing for bacterial removal, with negative blood cultures in all cases. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence study of enterococus and staphylococci resistance to vancomycin isolated from urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Sharifi Yazdi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of gram-positive cocci especially Staphylococci species in causing urinary tract infection are well known. Among the Staphylococci species Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is the most important. The rate of MRSA is increasing worldwide. This is alarming because the danger of these organism in public health. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of gram-positive cocci, as well as MRSA to vancomycin and other antibiotics.Methods: This was a descriptive study, and were carried out on 300 patients with urinary tract infections (UTI caused by gram-positive cocci, referred to Imam Khomeini hospital during eight months. Prior to the antibiotic sensitivity testing all the isolates were identified according to the standard conventional biochemical procedure, and then the antibiotic susceptibility test were carried out according to Bauer-Kirby method. Results: Among the gram positive cocci causing UTI, the most abundant were Staphylococcus saprophyticus (37.7%, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (22.3% and Staphylococcus aureus (18% respectivley. The sex distribution of patients were 163 female (54.3% and 137 male (45.7% respectively, and the prevalence rate of urinary tract infections in female was (8.6% higher than male. The rate of sensitivity of isolated Staphylococci were as followed, sensitive to vancomycine (100%, Ciprofloxacin (89.2%, rifampin (87.6%, and amikacin (71.8% respectivley, but were resistant to penicillin and amoxicillin (100%. The antibiotic sensitivity rate of isolated  Streptococci was to vancomycine (85.1%, ciprofloxacin (50.7% and penicillin (79.1% respectively.Conclusion: Vancomycin is still a suitable antibiotic for the treatment of Staphyloco-ccus infections. Although 6% rate of enterococci resistance to vancomycin is alarming, and use of this antibiotic in the treatment of other gram-positive bacteria should be done with precaution.

  5. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci and Bacterial Community Structure following a Sewage Spill into an Aquatic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Suzanne; Nayak, Bina; Sun, Shan; Badgley, Brian D.; Rohr, Jason R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sewage spills can release antibiotic-resistant bacteria into surface waters, contributing to environmental reservoirs and potentially impacting human health. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are nosocomial pathogens that have been detected in environmental habitats, including soil, water, and beach sands, as well as wildlife feces. However, VRE harboring vanA genes that confer high-level resistance have infrequently been found outside clinical settings in the United States. This study found culturable Enterococcus faecium harboring the vanA gene in water and sediment for up to 3 days after a sewage spill, and the quantitative PCR (qPCR) signal for vanA persisted for an additional week. Culturable levels of enterococci in water exceeded recreational water guidelines for 2 weeks following the spill, declining about five orders of magnitude in sediments and two orders of magnitude in the water column over 6 weeks. Analysis of bacterial taxa via 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed changes in community structure through time following the sewage spill in sediment and water. The spread of opportunistic pathogens harboring high-level vancomycin resistance genes beyond hospitals and into the broader community and associated habitats is a potential threat to public health, requiring further studies that examine the persistence, occurrence, and survival of VRE in different environmental matrices. IMPORTANCE Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are harmful bacteria that are resistant to the powerful antibiotic vancomycin, which is used as a last resort against many infections. This study followed the release of VRE in a major sewage spill and their persistence over time. Such events can act as a means of spreading vancomycin-resistant bacteria in the environment, which can eventually impact human health. PMID:27422829

  6. Success of linezolid therapy for postneurosurgical ventriculitis due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaJi Qiu; Jie Tang; DeLing Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium ventriculitis is one of the most severe events in postneurosurgical intracranial infections.There are no guidelines recommending an appropriate treatment before.Case presentation:This case presents a successful linezolid treatment for post-neurosurgical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium ventriculitis of a 24-year-old man in the department of neurosurgery,Beijing Tiantan Hospital.Conclusions:Linezolid should be considered as one of the important methods for the treatment of postneurosurgical intracranial infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.

  7. Enantioseparation of dansyl amino acids by HPLC on a monolithic column dynamically coated with a vancomycin derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, Elfriede; Schmid, Martin G

    2010-11-01

    In this work a chiral stationary phase was prepared by dynamically coating a monolithic reversed-phase HPLC column with a vancomycin-derivative as chiral selector. A hydrophobic alkyl-chain was attached to the vancomycin molecule, providing the immobilization of the chiral selector on the reversed-phase material. Dansyl amino acids were chosen as model analytes for testing the separation power of the dynamically coated phase. All investigated compounds were separated into their enantiomers. Compared with a conventionally packed vancomycin-CSP, a reversal of the enantiomer elution order was obtained. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Single-Event Latchup Testing of the Micrel MIC4424 Dual Power MOSFET Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, J. A.; Boutte, A.; Kim, H.; Phan, A.; Topper, A.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted 47 exposures of four different MIC4424 devices and did not observe any SEL or high-current events. This included worst-case conditions with a LET of 81 MeV-sq cm/mg, applied voltage of 18.5 V, a case temperature greater than 120 C, and a final fluence of 1x10(exp 7)/sq cm. We also monitored both the outputs for the presence of SETs. While the period of the 1 MHz square wave was slightly altered in some cases, no pulses were added or deleted. 1. Purpose: The purpose of this testing is to characterize the BiCMOS/DMOS Micrel MIC4424 dual, non-inverting MOSFET driver for single-event latchup (SEL) susceptibility. These data will be used for flight lot evaluation purposes. 2. Devices Tested: The MIC4423/4424/4425 family are highly reliable BiCMOS/DMOS buffer/driver MOSFET drivers. They are higher output current versions of the MIC4426/4427/4428. They can survive up to 5V of noise spiking, of either polarity, on the ground pin. They can accept, without either damage or logic upset, up to half an amp of reverse current (either polarity) forced back into their outputs. Primarily intended for driving power MOSFETs, the MIC4423/4424/4425 drivers are suitable for driving other loads (capacitive, resistive, or inductive) which require low-impedance, high peak currents, and fast switching times. Heavily loaded clock lines, coaxial cables, or piezoelectric transducers are some examples. The only known limitation on loading is that total power dissipated in the driver must be kept within the maximum power dissipation limits of the package. Five (5) parts were provided for SEL testing. We prepared four parts for irradiation and reserved one piece as an un-irradiated control. More information about the devices can be found in Table 1. The parts were prepared for testing by removing the lid from the CDIP package to expose the target die. The parts were then soldered to small copper circuit adapter boards for easy handling. These parts are fabricated in a bulk Bi

  9. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15 slows cancer development but increases metastases in TRAMP prostate cancer prone mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Husaini

    Full Text Available Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15, a divergent member of the TGF-β superfamily, is over-expressed by many common cancers including those of the prostate (PCa and its expression is linked to cancer outcome. We have evaluated the effect of MIC-1/GDF15 overexpression on PCa development and spread in the TRAMP transgenic model of spontaneous prostate cancer. TRAMP mice were crossed with MIC-1/GDF15 overexpressing mice (MIC-1(fms to produce syngeneic TRAMP(fmsmic-1 mice. Survival rate, prostate tumor size, histopathological grades and extent of distant organ metastases were compared. Metastasis of TC1-T5, an androgen independent TRAMP cell line that lacks MIC-1/GDF15 expression, was compared by injecting intravenously into MIC-1(fms and syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. Whilst TRAMP(fmsmic-1 survived on average 7.4 weeks longer, had significantly smaller genitourinary (GU tumors and lower PCa histopathological grades than TRAMP mice, more of these mice developed distant organ metastases. Additionally, a higher number of TC1-T5 lung tumor colonies were observed in MIC-1(fms mice than syngeneic WT C57BL/6 mice. Our studies strongly suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 has complex actions on tumor behavior: it limits local tumor growth but may with advancing disease, promote metastases. As MIC-1/GDF15 is induced by all cancer treatments and metastasis is the major cause of cancer treatment failure and cancer deaths, these results, if applicable to humans, may have a direct impact on patient care.

  10. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  11. Application of natural antimicrobial compounds for reservoir souring and MIC prevention in offshore oil and gas production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Skovhus, Torben Lund; Mashietti, Marco

    Offshore oil production facilities are subjectable to internal corrosion, potentially leading to human and environmental risk and significant economic losses. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and reservoir souring - sulphide production by sulfate reducing microorganisms in the reservo...

  12. Vancomycin analogues containing monosaccharides exhibit improved antibiotic activity: a combined one-pot enzymatic glycosylation and chemical diversification strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Desiree A; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2006-09-18

    Many natural products contain carbohydrate moieties that contribute to their biological activity. Manipulation of the carbohydrate domain of natural products through multiple glycosylations to identify new derivatives with novel biological activities has been a difficult and impractical process. We report a practical one-pot enzymatic approach with regeneration of cosubstrates to synthesize analogues of vancomycin that contain an N-alkyl glucosamine, which exhibited marked improvement in antibiotic activity against a vancomycin-resistant strain of Enterococcus.

  13. Antimycobacterial activity evaluation and MIC determination of liophilizated hydroalcoholic extracts of Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata B. Silva

    Full Text Available Bixa orellana is used in popular medicine against several diseases. Extracts of its fruit, root and leaf presented antimicrobial activity, while seed extract showed negative results. This study aimed at verifying the antimycobacterial activity of B. orellanalyophilized hydroalcoholic extracts over Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration against five bacteria. Antimycobacterial activity was determined by diffusion technique, while MIC was assessed by diffusion and colorimetric analysis. MICs were 0.3, 0.5 and 0.2 mg/mL respectively, for leaf, root and stem extracts, against M. tuberculosis. Stem's extract showed 1.2 mg/mL for B. cereus, 1.53 mg/mL for S. aureusand S. typhimurium, 4.50 mg/mL for P. aeruginosaand 8.01 mg/mL for P. mirabillis.Leaf extracts showed 0.66 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa, 0.94 mg/mL for P. mirabillis, 1.88 mg/mL for S. aureus, 3.95 mg/mL for B. cereusand 8.37 mg/mL for S. typhimurium. Root's extracts showed 0.25 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa,0.31 mg/mL for S. aureus, 0.62 mg/mL for S. typhimuriumand 3.00 mg/mL for B. cereusand P. mirabillis. Leaf and stem extracts showed antimycobacterial activity. MICs were lower in colorimetric analysis than in agar diffusion. Extracts revealed bacteriostatic activity against the five bacterial.

  14. Thread-level parallelization and optimization of NWChem for the Intel MIC architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Hongzhang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); de Jong, Wibe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the multicore era it was possible to exploit the increase in on-chip parallelism by simply running multiple MPI processes per chip. Unfortunately, manycore processors' greatly increased thread- and data-level parallelism coupled with a reduced memory capacity demand an altogether different approach. In this paper we explore augmenting two NWChem modules, triples correction of the CCSD(T) and Fock matrix construction, with OpenMP in order that they might run efficiently on future manycore architectures. As the next NERSC machine will be a self-hosted Intel MIC (Xeon Phi) based supercomputer, we leverage an existing MIC testbed at NERSC to evaluate our experiments. In order to proxy the fact that future MIC machines will not have a host processor, we run all of our experiments in native mode. We found that while straightforward application of OpenMP to the deep loop nests associated with the tensor contractions of CCSD(T) was sufficient in attaining high performance, significant e ort was required to safely and efeciently thread the TEXAS integral package when constructing the Fock matrix. Ultimately, our new MPI+OpenMP hybrid implementations attain up to 65× better performance for the triples part of the CCSD(T) due in large part to the fact that the limited on-card memory limits the existing MPI implementation to a single process per card. Additionally, we obtain up to 1.6× better performance on Fock matrix constructions when compared with the best MPI implementations running multiple processes per card.

  15. Thread-Level Parallelization and Optimization of NWChem for the Intel MIC Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Williams, Samuel; Jong, Wibe de; Oliker, Leonid

    2014-10-10

    In the multicore era it was possible to exploit the increase in on-chip parallelism by simply running multiple MPI processes per chip. Unfortunately, manycore processors' greatly increased thread- and data-level parallelism coupled with a reduced memory capacity demand an altogether different approach. In this paper we explore augmenting two NWChem modules, triples correction of the CCSD(T) and Fock matrix construction, with OpenMP in order that they might run efficiently on future manycore architectures. As the next NERSC machine will be a self-hosted Intel MIC (Xeon Phi) based supercomputer, we leverage an existing MIC testbed at NERSC to evaluate our experiments. In order to proxy the fact that future MIC machines will not have a host processor, we run all of our experiments in tt native mode. We found that while straightforward application of OpenMP to the deep loop nests associated with the tensor contractions of CCSD(T) was sufficient in attaining high performance, significant effort was required to safely and efficiently thread the TEXAS integral package when constructing the Fock matrix. Ultimately, our new MPI OpenMP hybrid implementations attain up to 65x better performance for the triples part of the CCSD(T) due in large part to the fact that the limited on-card memory limits the existing MPI implementation to a single process per card. Additionally, we obtain up to 1.6x better performance on Fock matrix constructions when compared with the best MPI implementations running multiple processes per card.

  16. El cómic en la clase de ELE: una propuesta didáctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Abal, Marina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Suplemento del número 14 de marcoELE (enero - junio de 2012 La presente memoria pretende hacer una reflexión sobre el valor del cómic como herramienta pedagógica. Para ello y, como punto de partida, se plantean tres cuestiones que sirven como eje vertebrador de dicho trabajo. La primera tiene que ver con los motivos de su utilización en la clase de ELE. En dicho apartado, se tratan aspectos como el factor afectivo, lo lúdico, el humor, la interculturalidad, etc., todos ellos presentes en las tiras cómicas y que, tal y como se pone de manifiesto en el segundo bloque, en el que se analiza la finalidad de su explotación en el aula, favorecen un aprendizaje significativo en consonancia con los postulados del MCER y del PCIC. El tercer bloque pretende desarrollar de manera práctica los aspectos teóricos abordados anteriormente. Se presentan tres cómics que se utilizarán como eje central de tres secuencias de actividades, correspondientes a cada uno de los niveles del MCER (A, B, C. En cada secuencia se desarrollarán una serie de actividades para alcanzar un objetivo comunicativo concreto confirmando, así, el valor didáctico de los cómics más allá de la utilización de dicho material como actividad complementaria de revisión al final de la unidad, como una actividad aislada para practicar un determinado contenido lingüístico o como una mera distracción o una excusa para la conversación.

  17. Validitas Utrecht-Management Of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) Versi Indonesia: Struktur Faktor, Invariansi Pengukuran Gender, dan Usia

    OpenAIRE

    Muttaqin, Darmawan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of Indonesian version of the U-MICS, a measure three identity dimensions. Participants were 910 adolescents (12-21 years old). The Confirmatory Factor Analyses and Multi-Group Analyses were used to examine the factor structure, gender, and age measurement invariance of Indonesian version of the U-MICS. We further tested the gender and age differences using Multivariate Analysis of Variance. The results indicated that the fac...

  18. Initial steps in the microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of metallic surfaces in a natural marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteso, M.A.; Estrella, C.N.; Dolores de la Rosa, M.; Martinez-Trujillo, R.; Rosales, B.M.; Podesta, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Immersion of various metal samples in polluted seawater from Tenerife Harbor was followed by microbial attachment as an intermediate step in fouling development. The purpose of this research was to determine the initial steps in MIC by identifying the different microbial species attached to the respective metal or alloy. Image analysis was used to determine the morphologic changes in the metal surfaces. The corrosion products were determined by X-ray diffraction. The open circuit potentials were measured periodically and their variation with time used to assess the electrochemical behavior in the aforementioned marine environment

  19. Heavy Metals Pollution of Alluvial Soil in the Copşa Mică Area

    OpenAIRE

    , D. Popa; , I.M. Prundeanu; , R. Lăcătuşu

    2011-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Fe) from soil samples, which have been previously treated with HNO3 and concentrated HClO4. The study was performed on a series of 24 soil samples and one soil profile, collected from the alluvial soil in the Copşa Mică area. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The pH was determined by using the potentiometric method in aqueous...

  20. MIC damage in a water coolant header for remote process equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel water piping used to supply coolant for remote chemical separations equipment developed leaks during low flow conditions resulting from an extended interruption of operations. All the leaks occurred at welds in the bottom zone of the pipe, which was blanketed with silt deposits from the unfiltered well water used for cooling. Ultrasonic, radiographic, and metallographic examinations of leak sites revealed worm hole pitting adjacent to the welds. Seepage at the penetrations was strongly acidic and resulted in corrosion on the external pipe surfaces beneath brown crusty deposits which had developed. Analyses of the water and deposits suggest a strong propensity toward microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and fouling

  1. Towards Porting a Real-World Seismological Application to the Intel MIC Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    V. Weinberg

    2014-01-01

    This whitepaper aims to discuss first experiences with porting an MPI-based real-world geophysical application to the new Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture. The selected code SeisSol is an application written in Fortran that can be used to simulate earthquake rupture and radiating seismic wave propagation in complex 3-D heterogeneous materials. The PRACE prototype cluster EURORA at CINECA, Italy, was accessed to analyse the MPI-performance of SeisSol on Intel Xeon Phi on both sing...

  2. El cómic en Ecuador, una historia en génesis permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Santibáñez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta una síntesis histórica del cómic en Ecuador y las diferentes tendencias temáticas y de uso, a través de su evolución, principalmente en los medios de información de masas. También se exponen los nombres de los cultores de este arte/medio y de los historietistas más reconocidos en el país.

  3. Persistence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler houses after the avoparcin ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2002-01-01

    The glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin was banned from animal production in the EU in 1997 due to concern for the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from food animals to humans. In recent Norwegian and Danish studies, extensive occurrence of VRE on broiler farms and in broiler......, and disinfection of the houses between rotations, and two consecutive broiler flocks from each house were sampled by taking cloacal swabs from the broilers at the time of slaughter. A total of 69 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates obtained from broiler flocks and broiler houses were subjected......-isolates from different broiler houses and from flocks reared in different houses appeared to be genetically unrelated. These findings indicated that VRE was transmitted between consecutive broiler flocks by clones of resistant. bacteria surviving in the broiler houses despite cleaning and disinfection between...

  4. Selective vancomycin detection using optical fibre long period gratings functionalised with molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korposh, Sergiy; Chianella, Iva; Guerreiro, Antonio; Caygill, Sarah; Piletsky, Sergey; James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P

    2014-05-07

    An optical fibre long period grating (LPG) sensor modified with molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) for the specific detection of antibiotics is presented. The operation of the sensor is based on the measurement of changes in refractive index induced by the interaction of nanoMIPs deposited onto the cladding of the LPG with free vancomycin (VA). The binding of nanoMIPs to vancomycin was characterised by a binding constant of 4.3 ± 0.1 × 10(-8) M. The lowest concentration of analyte measured by the fibre sensor was 10 nM. In addition, the sensor exhibited selectivity, as much smaller responses were obtained for high concentrations (∼700 μM) of other commonly prescribed antibiotics such as amoxicillin, bleomycin and gentamicin. In addition, the response of the sensor was characterised in a complex matrix, porcine plasma, spiked with 10 μM of VA.

  5. Effect of amikacin, cephalothin, clindamycin and vancomycin on in vitro fibroblast growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Timm Seabra Souza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four antibiotics (amikacin, clindamycin, cephalothin and vancomycin was investigated considering that bacterial infection in fibroblasts cultures is a very frequent event. The investigation included the effect of the antibiotics on fibroblast growth and on the activity of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. The antibiotics were added to the fibroblast cultures and cell growth was evaluated by counting the number of cells and their viability. After cell harvesting, the enzyme activity and content of protein were measured. The results allowed us to conclude that none of the antibiotics affected the cellular number nor the cellular viability. The content of protein decreased when cephalothin and clindamycin were added to the cultures, and glucocerebrosidase was affected in the presence of amikacin. Vancomycin did not interfere with any of the parameters analyzed, so it was chosen to be used in cell cultures to prevent the contamination by gram positive bacteria.

  6. Detection of vancomycin resistances in enterococci within 3 1/2 hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, U. -Ch.; Beleites, C.; Assmann, C.; Glaser, U.; Hübner, U.; Pfister, W.; Fritzsche, W.; Popp, J.; Neugebauer, U.

    2015-02-01

    Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) constitute a challenging problem in health care institutions worldwide. Novel methods to rapidly identify resistances are highly required to ensure an early start of tailored therapy and to prevent further spread of the bacteria. Here, a spectroscopy-based rapid test is presented that reveals resistances of enterococci towards vancomycin within 3.5 hours. Without any specific knowledge on the strain, VRE can be recognized with high accuracy in two different enterococci species. By means of dielectrophoresis, bacteria are directly captured from dilute suspensions, making sample preparation very easy. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the trapped bacteria over a time span of two hours in absence and presence of antibiotics reveals characteristic differences in the molecular response of sensitive as well as resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Furthermore, the spectroscopic fingerprints provide an indication on the mechanisms of induced resistance in VRE.

  7. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Eberechi Akpaka

    Full Text Available Molecular characteristics of vancomycin resistant enterococci isolates from Bermuda Island is currently unknown. This study was conducted to investigate phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of VRE isolates from Bermuda Island using the chromogenic agar, E-tests, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Eighteen E. faecium isolates were completely analyzed and were all resistant to vancomycin, susceptible to linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin, positive for vanA and esp genes. The MLST analysis confirmed most isolates were of the sequence types linked to clonal complex 17 (CC17 that is widely associated with outbreaks in hospitals. Infection control measures, antibiotic stewardship, and surveillance activities will continue to be a priority in hospital on the Island.

  8. [Vancomycin-resistant enterococci - the nature of resistance and risk of transmission from animals to humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanovská, Lýdia; Bardoň, Jan; Čermák, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora of humans and animals. Under certain circumstances, they are capable of extraintestinal conversion to opportunistic pathogens. They cause endogenous as well as exogenous community and nosocomial infections. The gastrointestinal tract of mammals provides them with favorable conditions for acquisition and spread of resistance genes, for example to vancomycin (van), from other symbiotic bacteria. Thus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) become potential reservoirs and vectors of the van genes. Their occurrence in the population of the Czech Republic was first reported by Kolář et al. in 1997. Some variants of the vanA gene cluster carried on Tn1546 which encode resistance to vancomycin are identical in humans and in animals. It means that animals, especially cattle, poultry and pigs, could be an important reservoir of VRE for humans. Kolář and Bardoň detected VRE in animals in the Czech Republic for the first time in 2000. In Europe, the glycopeptide antibiotic avoparcin, used as a growth stimulator, is responsible for selection of VRE strains in animals. Strains of Enterococcus faecium from animals may offer genes of antimicrobial resistance to other enterococci or they can be directly dangerous to human. This is demonstrated by finding isolates of E. faecalis from human patients and from pigs having very similar profiles of resistance and virulence genes. The goal of the paper was to point out the similarity between isolates of human and animal strains of enterococci resistant to vancomycin, and the possibility of their bilateral transfer between humans and animals.

  9. Enviromnental contamination during a vancomycin-resistant Enterococci outbreak at a hospital in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Zarate, Mariela Soledad; Gales, Ana [UNIFESP; Jordd-Vargas, L'fiana; Yahni, Diego; RelloSo, Silvia; Bonvehi, Pablo; Monteiro, Jussimara [UNIFESP; Campos-Pignatari, Antonio [UNIFESP; Smayevsky, Jorgelina [UNIFESP

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolates (VRE) have caused numerous outbreaks in intensive care units (ICUs). A contaminated hospital environment, the hands of health care workers (HCW), and carrier patients may play important roles in perpetuating the chain of transmission in these outbreaks. the aims of this study were to report the first VRE outbreak in our center and assess the role of environmental contamination and HCW hands in the spread of new cases of enterococcal infe...

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Serotonin Toxicity among Veterans Affairs Patients Receiving Linezolid and Vancomycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N.; Rivera, A.; Tristani, L.; Lazariu, V.; Vandewall, H.; McNutt, L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the theoretical risk of serotonin toxicity (ST) with linezolid, “real-world” clinical evaluations of the risk of ST in patients receiving linezolid have been limited to case reports and noncomparator studies. An observational, matched-cohort study was conducted to evaluate the risk of ST among hospitalized patients who received linezolid or vancomycin at the Upstate New York Veterans Affairs Healthcare Network (Veterans Integrated Service Network 2 [VISN-2]). Matching criteria included VISN-2 hospital, hospital ward, prior hospital length of stay, age, and baseline platelet counts. The patients' electronic medical records were evaluated for symptoms consistent with ST and the Hunter serotonin toxicity criteria (HSTC) using an intensive, natural word search algorithm. The study included 251 matched pairs. Demographics and comorbidities were similar between groups. Over half of the study population received at least one concurrent medication with serotonergic activity. Receipt of agents with serotonergic activity was more pronounced in the vancomycin group, and the higher frequency was due to concomitant antihistamine and antiemetic use. Antidepressant use, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), was similar between groups. No patients in either group were found to meet the criteria using the word search algorithm for ST. Fewer linezolid patients than vancomycin patients met the HSTC overall (3.2% versus 8.8%) and when stratified by receipt of a concurrent serotonergic agent (4.3% versus 12.4%). Of the patients meeting the HSTC, most had past or present comorbidities that may have contributed to or overlapped the HSTC. This study of hospitalized patients revealed comparably low frequencies of adverse events potentially related to ST among patients who received linezolid or vancomycin. PMID:24041888

  11. Optimisation of the synthesis of vancomycin-selective molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles using automatic photoreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Muzyka, Kateryna; Karim, Khalku; Guerreiro, Antonio; Poma, Alessandro; Piletsky, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    A novel optimized protocol for solid-state synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) with specificity for antibiotic vancomycin is described. The experimental objective was optimization of the synthesis parameters (factors) affecting the yield of obtained nanoparticles which have been synthesized using the first prototype of an automated solid-phase synthesizer. Applications of experimental design (or design of experiments) in optimization of nanoMIP yield were carri...

  12. Our experiences with vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Jesenice General hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ribič

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE present a great problem in health care, especially because of their resistance to many groups of antibiotics and because of the way of their spreading in health care and long-term care institutions. Genes responsible for resistance to vancomycin can be transmitted to other species of enterococci and also to other grampositive cocci, for example Staphylococcus aureus. Experts anticipate that failure to control methicilin-resistant S. aureus and VRE may make control of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus impossible.Methods: In the medical microbiology laboratory of Institute Public Health Kranj we perform microbiology diagnosis for Jesenice General Hospital, where surveillance culturing for VRE started in May 2007. Until 15th June, 364 surveillance samples for VRE were taken from 92 patients. We also analysed the results of enterococci that were isolated in our laboratory during routine work in the period from 2004 to 2006.Results: In the three-year period we isolated 1593 strains of enterococci and among them 7 strains were VRE. In the Jesenice General Hospital, the first strain of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium was isolated in May 2007 in a patient, treated in internal intensive care unit. Nine strains of VRE with the same resistance type in nine patients followed the first case. The first four patients with VRE were moved from the same hospital. Among next six patients the common risk factor was contact with VRE positive patient.Conclusions: Control of VRE strains claims for intensive action. Active surveillance of colonised and infected patients, contact precautions with barrier isolation, intensive hand hygiene measures, aggressive environmental decontamination and prudent use of antimicrobials are needed.

  13. Annual Surveillance Summary: Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, nor the U.S. Government . i i VRE in the MHS: Annual Summary 2016 Prepared...continually increased from 1.16 infections per 100,000 persons in 2013 to 1.60 infections per 100,000 persons in 2015. A recent meta -analysis of VRE...associated with infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci in the United States: systematic literature review and meta -analysis. Infect

  14. Vancomycin-Resistance Enterococci Infections in the Department of the Defense: Annual Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    str.r.:lioos, S€’ £l "r:’hi fl!’:: lil<i~lin ,:l ddc ~o.r-c.;s, !]:l:ho:>r rr:, aY. nflinttlirir~ :he !::f;, ·nod c ol ’ HO: Io ~:·rnhlir’U ;;· ;d ro...16. Morris JG, et al. Enterococci resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, including vancomycin: establishment of endemicity in a university

  15. In Vitro Assessment of Electric Currents Increasing the Effectiveness of Vancomycin Against Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Peter A; Mah, Thien-Fah; Mussivand, Tofy

    2016-08-01

    Biofilms are communities of bacteria that can cause infections which are resistant to the immune system and antimicrobial treatments, posing a significant threat for patients with implantable and indwelling medical devices. The purpose of our research was to determine if utilizing specific parameters for electric currents in conjunction with antibiotics could effectively treat a highly resistant biofilm. Our study evaluated the impact of 16 μg/mL of vancomycin with or without 22 or 333 μA of direct electric current (DC) generated by stainless steel electrodes against 24-, 48-, and 72-h-old Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms formed on titanium coupons. An increase in effectiveness of vancomycin was observed with the combination of 333 μA of electric current against 48-h-old biofilms (P value = 0.01) as well as in combination with 22 μA of electric current against 72-h-old biofilms (P value = 0.04); 333 μA of electric current showed the most significant impact on the effectiveness of vancomycin against S. epidermidis biofilms demonstrating a bioelectric effect previously not observed against this strain of bacteria. © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. In vitro activity of flomoxef and cefazolin in combination with vancomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C; Simon, M

    1991-01-01

    207 clinical isolates from strains of patients from the University Children's Hospital of Kiel were investigated for their in vitro activity with the agar dilution method against flomoxef and cefazolin (alone and partially in combination with vancomycin). Staphylococci were also tested with other cephalosporins (cefoxitin, cefamandole, cefotaxime, cefotetan and latamoxef). Flomoxef and cefazolin always acted more vigorously on staphylococci than the other cephalosporins. Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains against flomoxef and cefazolin did not occur but was found in 15 and 5 of 98 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains, respectively. Enterococcus faecalis strains were always resistant against both drugs; Streptococcus faecium strains were only moderately sensitive. Combined testing of flomoxef or cefazolin with vancomycin showed synergism in almost all staphylococcal strains. Synergism was stronger when S. epidermidis strains were only weakly sensitive to or resistant against flomoxef and cefazolin in comparison to highly sensitive strains. Flomoxef (or cefazolin) acted synergistically in combination with vancomycin on E. faecalis and S. faecium with the exception of two strains of E. faecalis which showed an additive effect of both drugs.

  17. Preparation and biodistribution of [201Tl](III)vancomycin complex in normal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilian, A.R.; Hosseini, M.A.; Karimian, A.; Saddadi, F.; Sadeghi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thallium-201 (T 1/2 = 3.04 days) in Tl + form was converted to Tl 3+ cation in presence of O 3 in 6 M HCl controlled by RTLC/gel electrophoresis methods. The final evaporated activity was reacted with vancomycin (VAN) in water to yield [ 201 Tl](III)VAN. The best results were obtained at room temperature in water after 30 min with a radiochemical yield >99%, after mixing the reactants followed by SPE purification using Si Sep-Pak. The studies showed that thallic ion is mostly incorporated into vancomycin with a radiochemical purity of more than 98 ± 1% by RTLC. A specific activity of about 4.14·10 10 Bq/mmol was obtained. Radiochemical purity and stability of 201 Tl-VAN in the preparation and in presence of human serum was determined up to 5.5 days. Biodistribution study of 201 Tl(III)-vancomycin in normal rats was performed up to 52 h. (authors)

  18. Clinical study on the incidence of vancomycin intraocular injection in treatment with suppurative endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qin Duan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To estimate the clinical significance of the microculture of humor and vitreous and vancomycin intraocular injection in treatment of suppurative endophthalmitis associated with intraocular foreign bodies.METHODS: Totally 65 patients with penetrating eye trauma and retained intraocular foreign bodies in emergency operation and intraocular injection from January 2012 to September 2014 were regarded as the study group, another 62 patients with penetrating eye trauma and retained intraocular foreign bodies in emergency operation without intraocular injection before August 2011 were regarded as the control group. Aqueous humor and vitreous humor were taken from each patient of the study group and the control group for bacteria and fungus cultivation. The study group was treated with 1mg vancomycin intraocular injection after operation, while the control group was not. RESULTS: The incidence of endophthalmitis in the control group was 16%(10 cases, while in the study group was 3%(2 cases, with significant difference between two groups(x2=6.32, PP>0.05. The positive rate of vitreous humor germiculture in study group was 14%(9 cases, and the incidence of endophthalmitis was 3%. The positive rate of vitreous humor germiculture in control group was 11%(7 casesand the incidence of endophthalmitis was 16%, with significant differences between two groups(PCONCLUSION: Intraocular foreign bodies treated with emergency operation and vancomycin intraocular injections can decrease the incidence of suppurative endophthalmitis and have a good vision prognosis for the second stage of operation.

  19. Enterocin A mutants identified by saturation mutagenesis enhance potency towards vancomycin-resistant Enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Maria K; Kaznessis, Yiannis N; Hackel, Benjamin J

    2016-02-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci infections are a significant clinical problem. One proposed solution is to use probiotics, such as lactic acid bacteria, to produce antimicrobial peptides at the site of infection. Enterocin A, a class 2a bacteriocin, exhibits inhibitory activity against E. faecium and E. faecalis, which account for 86% of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci infections. In this study, we aimed to engineer enterocin A mutants with enhanced potency within a lactic acid bacterial production system. Peptide mutants resulting from saturation mutagenesis at sites A24 and T27 were efficiently screened in a 96-well plate assay for inhibition of pathogen growth. Several mutants exhibit increased potency relative to wild-type enterocin A in both liquid- and solid-medium growth assays. In particular, A24P and T27G exhibit enhanced inhibition of multiple strains of E. faecium and E. faecalis, including clinically isolated vancomycin-resistant strains. A24P and T27G enhance killing of E. faecium 8 by 13 ± 3- and 18 ± 4-fold, respectively. The engineered enterocin A/lactic acid bacteria systems offer significant potential to combat antibiotic-resistant infections. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Frequency and Antibiogram of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, N.; Usman, J.; Munir, T.; Gill, M. M.; Anjum, R.; Gilani, M.; Latif, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in a tertiary care hospital of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from May 2011 to May 2012. Methodology: Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus isolated from the clinical specimens including blood, pus, double lumen tip, ascitic fluid, tracheal aspirate, non-directed bronchial lavage (NBL), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), high vaginal swab (HVS) and catheter tips were cultured on blood agar and MacConkey agar, while the urine samples were grown on cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar. Later the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates was carried out using the modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar. Results: A total of 190 enterococci were isolated. Of these, 22 (11.57%) were found to be resistant to vancomycin. The antimicrobial sensitivity pattern revealed maximum resistance against ampicillin (86.36%) followed by erythromycin (81.81%) and gentamicin (68.18%) while all the isolates were 100% susceptible to chloramphenicol and linezolid. Conclusion: The frequency of VRE was 11.57% with the highest susceptibility to linezolid and chloramphenicol. (author)

  1. Application of Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) accelerators to the Pleim-Xiu land surface scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Melin; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2015-10-01

    The land-surface model (LSM) is one physics process in the weather research and forecast (WRF) model. The LSM includes atmospheric information from the surface layer scheme, radiative forcing from the radiation scheme, and precipitation forcing from the microphysics and convective schemes, together with internal information on the land's state variables and land-surface properties. The LSM is to provide heat and moisture fluxes over land points and sea-ice points. The Pleim-Xiu (PX) scheme is one LSM. The PX LSM features three pathways for moisture fluxes: evapotranspiration, soil evaporation, and evaporation from wet canopies. To accelerate the computation process of this scheme, we employ Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architecture as it is a multiprocessor computer structure with merits of efficient parallelization and vectorization essentials. Our results show that the MIC-based optimization of this scheme running on Xeon Phi coprocessor 7120P improves the performance by 2.3x and 11.7x as compared to the original code respectively running on one CPU socket (eight cores) and on one CPU core with Intel Xeon E5-2670.

  2. Optimizing the Betts-Miller-Janjic cumulus parameterization with Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Melin; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.-L.

    2015-10-01

    The schemes of cumulus parameterization are responsible for the sub-grid-scale effects of convective and/or shallow clouds, and intended to represent vertical fluxes due to unresolved updrafts and downdrafts and compensating motion outside the clouds. Some schemes additionally provide cloud and precipitation field tendencies in the convective column, and momentum tendencies due to convective transport of momentum. The schemes all provide the convective component of surface rainfall. Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) is one scheme to fulfill such purposes in the weather research and forecast (WRF) model. National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) has tried to optimize the BMJ scheme for operational application. As there are no interactions among horizontal grid points, this scheme is very suitable for parallel computation. With the advantage of Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture, efficient parallelization and vectorization essentials, it allows us to optimize the BMJ scheme. If compared to the original code respectively running on one CPU socket (eight cores) and on one CPU core with Intel Xeon E5-2670, the MIC-based optimization of this scheme running on Xeon Phi coprocessor 7120P improves the performance by 2.4x and 17.0x, respectively.

  3. Optimizing zonal advection of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) dynamics for Intel MIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is the most widely used community weather forecast and research model in the world. There are two distinct varieties of WRF. The Advanced Research WRF (ARW) is an experimental, advanced research version featuring very high resolution. The WRF Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (WRF-NMM) has been designed for forecasting operations. WRF consists of dynamics code and several physics modules. The WRF-ARW core is based on an Eulerian solver for the fully compressible nonhydrostatic equations. In the paper, we will use Intel Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture to substantially increase the performance of a zonal advection subroutine for optimization. It is of the most time consuming routines in the ARW dynamics core. Advection advances the explicit perturbation horizontal momentum equations by adding in the large-timestep tendency along with the small timestep pressure gradient tendency. We will describe the challenges we met during the development of a high-speed dynamics code subroutine for MIC architecture. Furthermore, lessons learned from the code optimization process will be discussed. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 5110P by a factor of 2.4x.

  4. Efficient Execution of Microscopy Image Analysis on CPU, GPU, and MIC Equipped Cluster Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, G; Ferreira, R; Teodoro, George; Rocha, Leonardo; Saltz, Joel H; Kurc, Tahsin

    2014-10-01

    High performance computing is experiencing a major paradigm shift with the introduction of accelerators, such as graphics processing units (GPUs) and Intel Xeon Phi (MIC). These processors have made available a tremendous computing power at low cost, and are transforming machines into hybrid systems equipped with CPUs and accelerators. Although these systems can deliver a very high peak performance, making full use of its resources in real-world applications is a complex problem. Most current applications deployed to these machines are still being executed in a single processor, leaving other devices underutilized. In this paper we explore a scenario in which applications are composed of hierarchical data flow tasks which are allocated to nodes of a distributed memory machine in coarse-grain, but each of them may be composed of several finer-grain tasks which can be allocated to different devices within the node. We propose and implement novel performance aware scheduling techniques that can be used to allocate tasks to devices. We evaluate our techniques using a pathology image analysis application used to investigate brain cancer morphology, and our experimental evaluation shows that the proposed scheduling strategies significantly outperforms other efficient scheduling techniques, such as Heterogeneous Earliest Finish Time - HEFT, in cooperative executions using CPUs, GPUs, and MICs. We also experimentally show that our strategies are less sensitive to inaccuracy in the scheduling input data and that the performance gains are maintained as the application scales.

  5. Implementation of body area networks based on MICS/WMTS medical bands for healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Mehmet R; Ho, Chee Keong

    2008-01-01

    A multi-hoping sensor network system has been implemented to monitor physiological parameters from multiple patient bodies by means of medical communication standards MICS (Medical Implant Communication Service) and WMTS (Wireless Medical Telemetry Service). Unlike the other medical sensor networks (they usually use 2.4 GHz ISM band), we used the two medical standards occupying the frequency bands that are mainly assigned to medical applications. The prototype system uses the MICS band (402-405 MHz) between the sensor nodes and a remote central control unit (CCU). And WMTS frequencies (608-614MHz) are used between the CCUs and the remote base stations allowing for a much larger range acting as an intermediate node. The sensor nodes in the prototype can measure up to four body signals (i.e. 4-channel) where one is dedicated to a continuous physiological signal such as ECC/EEG. The system includes firmware and software designs that can provide a long distance data transfer through the internet or a mobile network.

  6. MicROS-drt: supporting real-time and scalable data distribution in distributed robotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bo; Wang, Huaimin; Fan, Zedong; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Hui

    A primary requirement in distributed robotic software systems is the dissemination of data to all interested collaborative entities in a timely and scalable manner. However, providing such a service in a highly dynamic and resource-limited robotic environment is a challenging task, and existing robot software infrastructure has limitations in this aspect. This paper presents a novel robot software infrastructure, micROS-drt, which supports real-time and scalable data distribution. The solution is based on a loosely coupled data publish-subscribe model with the ability to support various time-related constraints. And to realize this model, a mature data distribution standard, the data distribution service for real-time systems (DDS), is adopted as the foundation of the transport layer of this software infrastructure. By elaborately adapting and encapsulating the capability of the underlying DDS middleware, micROS-drt can meet the requirement of real-time and scalable data distribution in distributed robotic systems. Evaluation results in terms of scalability, latency jitter and transport priority as well as the experiment on real robots validate the effectiveness of this work.

  7. Management and control of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the oil and gas industry - Overview and a North Sea case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Eckert, Richard B; Rodrigues, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    the oil and gas industry has seen regarding MIC research over the past decade. The paper starts out with an overview of where in the process stream MIC occurs - from the oil reservoir to the consumer. Both biotic and abiotic corrosion mechanisms are explained in the context of managing MIC using...... to manage the corrosion threat, operators commonly use models to support decision making. The models use qualitative, semi-quantitative or quantitative measures to help assess the rate of degradation caused by MIC. The paper reviews four existing models for MIC Threat Assessment and describe a new model...

  8. Evaluation of Ceftobiprole in a Rabbit Model of Aortic Valve Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant and Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Henry F.

    2005-01-01

    Ceftobiprole is a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin that binds with high affinity to PBP 2a, the methicillin-resistance determinant of staphylococci, and is active against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Ceftobiprole was compared to vancomycin in a rabbit model of methicillin-resistant S. aureus aortic valve endocarditis. Ceftobiprole and vancomycin were equally effective against endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain 76, whereas ceftobipro...

  9. Treatment of osteomyelitis defects by a vancomycin-loaded gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Zhou, X. G.; Wang, J. W.; Zhou, H.; Dong, J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective In the present study, we aimed to assess whether gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) composite porous scaffolds could be used as a local controlled release system for vancomycin. We also investigated the efficiency of the scaffolds in eliminating infections and repairing osteomyelitis defects in rabbits. Methods The gelatin scaffolds containing differing amounts of of β-TCP (0%, 10%, 30% and 50%) were prepared for controlled release of vancomycin and were labelled G-TCP0, G-TCP1, G-TCP3 and G-TCP5, respectively. The Kirby-Bauer method was used to examine the release profile. Chronic osteomyelitis models of rabbits were established. After thorough debridement, the osteomyelitis defects were implanted with the scaffolds. Radiographs and histological examinations were carried out to investigate the efficiency of eliminating infections and repairing bone defects. Results The prepared gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds exhibited a homogeneously interconnected 3D porous structure. The G-TCP0 scaffold exhibited the longest duration of vancomycin release with a release duration of eight weeks. With the increase of β-TCP contents, the release duration of the β-TCP-containing composite scaffolds was decreased. The complete release of vancomycin from the G-TCP5 scaffold was achieved within three weeks. In the treatment of osteomyelitis defects in rabbits, the G-TCP3 scaffold showed the most efficacious performance in eliminating infections and repairing bone defects. Conclusions The composite scaffolds could achieve local therapeutic drug levels over an extended duration. The G-TCP3 scaffold possessed the optimal porosity, interconnection and controlled release performance. Therefore, this scaffold could potentially be used in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis defects. Cite this article: J. Zhou, X. G. Zhou, J. W. Wang, H. Zhou, J. Dong. Treatment of osteomyelitis defects by a vancomycin-loaded gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold. Bone Joint Res

  10. Postcataract endophthalmitis prophylaxis using irrigation, incision hydration, and eye pressurization with vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schelonka LP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lee P Schelonka,1 Margaret A SaBell2 1Department of Opthalmology, Kaiser Permanente Lone Tree Medical Offices, Lone Tree, 2Department of Infection Control, Kaiser Permanente Lone Tree Medical Offices, Lone Tree, Denver, CO, USA Purpose: This study aimed to determine whether switching from balanced salt solution (BSS to vancomycin 20 g/mL BSS for incision hydration and eye pressurization reduces the rate of postcataract endophthalmitis.Methods: This was a patient safety/quality improvement project, including all patients undergoing cataract surgery at the Kaiser Permanente Colorado Ophthalmology Department from January 2002 to December 2014. Throughout the study, patients received vancomycin 20 µg/mL in the irrigating solution. During the baseline period from 2002 to 2005, surgeons pressurized eyes and hydrated incisions with plain BSS. During the intervention period from 2006 through 2014, surgeons switched from BSS to the vancomycin/BSS irrigating solution for eye pressurization and incision hydration.Results: A total of 57,263 cataract operations were performed by 24 surgeons at seven surgical centers: 12,400 in the baseline period and 44,863 in the intervention period. The rate of postcataract endophthalmitis declined significantly from 5/12,400 (rate: 0.4/1,000 in the baseline period to 1/44,863 (rate: 0.022/1,000 during the intervention period (odds ratio [OR]: 18.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.11–154.9; χ2=13.5, P=0.00024. Accounting for an estimated 2.05-fold risk reduction due to confounding variables, the risk reduction attributed to the intervention remained significant: (adjusted OR: 8.78, 95% CI: 1.73–44.5; χ2=10.06, P=0.0015. Since 2009, we have not experienced any cases of postcataract endophthalmitis after 32,753 operations.Conclusion: We experienced a significant reduction in postcataract endophthalmitis when we switched from BSS to the vancomycin/BSS irrigating solution for incision hydration and eye pressurization

  11. Typing of vancomycin-resistant enterococci with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in a nosocomial outbreak setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzknecht, B J; Dargis, R; Pedersen, M; Pinholt, M; Christensen, J J

    2018-03-23

    To investigate the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) typing as a first-line epidemiological tool in a nosocomial outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm). Fifty-five VREfm isolates, previously characterized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS), were included and analysed by MALDI-TOF MS. To take peak reproducibility into account, ethanol/formic acid extraction and other steps of the protocol were conducted in triplicate. Twenty-seven spectra were generated per isolate, and spectra were visually inspected to determine discriminatory peaks. The presence or absence of these was recorded in a peak scheme. Nine discriminatory peaks were identified. A characteristic pattern of these could distinguish between the three major WGS groups: WGS I, WGS II and WGS III. Only one of 38 isolates belonging to WGS I, WGS II or WGS III was misclassified. However, ten of the 17 isolates not belonging to WGS I, II or III displayed peak patterns indistinguishable from those of the outbreak strain. Using visual inspection of spectra, MALDI-TOF MS typing proved to be useful in differentiating three VREfm outbreak clones from each other. However, as non-outbreak isolates could not be reliably differentiated from outbreak clones, the practical value of this typing method for VREfm outbreak management was limited in our setting. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis evaluating fidaxomicin versus oral vancomycin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranges, Paul M; Hutton, David W; Collins, Curtis D

    2013-01-01

    Fidaxomicin is a novel treatment for Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). This new treatment, however, is associated with a higher acquisition cost compared with alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of fidaxomicin or oral vancomycin for the treatment of CDIs. We performed a cost-utility analysis comparing fidaxomicin with oral vancomycin for the treatment of CDIs in the United States by creating a decision analytic model from the third-party payer perspective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio with fidaxomicin compared with oral vancomycin was $67,576/quality-adjusted life-year. A probabilistic Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis showed that fidaxomicin had an 80.2% chance of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/quality-adjusted life-year. Fidaxomicin remained cost-effective under all fluctuations of both fidaxomicin and oral vancomycin costs. The decision analytic model was sensitive to variations in clinical cure and recurrence rates. Secondary analyses revealed that fidaxomicin was cost-effective in patients receiving concominant antimicrobials, in patients with mild to moderate CDIs, and when compared with oral metronidazole in patients with mild to moderate disease. Fidaxomicin was dominated by oral vancomycin if CDI was caused by the NAP1/Bl/027 Clostridium difficile strain and was dominant in institutions that did not compound oral vancomycin. Results of our model showed that fidaxomicin may be a more cost-effective option for the treatment of CDIs when compared with oral vancomycin under most scenarios tested. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Herramienta observacional para el estudio de conductas violentas en un cómic audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Márquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research paper presents a study which aimed to structure a system of categories for observation and description of violent behavior within an audiovisual children program, specifically in cartoons. A chapter of an audiovisual cartoon was chosen as an example. This chapter presented three main female characters in a random fashion in order to be observed by the children. Categories were established using the taxonomic criteria proposed by Anguera (2001 and were made up of various typed behaviors according to levels of response. To identify a stable behavioral pattern, some events were taken as a sample, taking into account one or several behavior registered in the observed sessions. The episode was analyzed by two observers who appreciated the material simultaneously, making two observations, registering the relevant data and contrasting opinions. The researchers determined a set of categories which expressed violent behavior such as: Nonverbal behavior, special behavior, and vocal/verbal behavior. It was concluded that there was a pattern of predominant and stable violent behavior in the cartoon observed. Resumen El presente artículo de investigación presenta un trabajo cuyo objetivo consistió en estructurar un sistema de categorías para la observación y descripción de conductas violentas en un cómic audiovisual (dibujo animado. Se seleccionó como muestra un cómic audiovisual que tiene tres personajes principales femeninos; tomándose de forma aleatoria, para su observación, uno de sus capítulos. Para el establecimiento de las categorías se escogieron como base los criterios taxonómicos propuestos por Anguera (2001, con lo cual se tipificaron las conductas que conforman cada categoría según los niveles de respuesta. Y para identificar un patrón de conducta estable se ha realizado un muestreo de eventos, usando todas las ocurrencias de una o varias conductas que se registraron en las sesiones observadas. El episodio

  14. THE CHIRONOMIDAE ASSEMBLAGES IN SOMESUL MIC RIVER (ROMANIA DURING 1996 AND 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Monica Tudorancea

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The communities of Chironomidae larvae in the Gilau – Gherla sector of the Somesul Mic River (Transylvania, Romania were studied during 1996 and 1997 in order to compare their species composition and to see if their component species could be good indicators for water quality deterioration. A total of 102 species were recorded, out of which 12 are new records for the Romanian fauna. Four of these species are known only from East Asia and from the North America. Some species such as Chironomus thumi, Microcricotopus bicolor, Dicrotendipes nervosus and Dicrotendipes notatus occurred in organically enriched waters. Other species, such as Cricotopus algarum, Cricotopus bicinctus, Cricotopus tremulus and Cricotopus trifasciatus occurred in both clean and organically polluted water which indicate they are not good bioindicators for water quality deterioration.

  15. The Poincaré compactification of the MIC-Kepler problem with positive energies

    CERN Document Server

    Iwai, T

    2001-01-01

    The Poincare compactification and the symplectic reduction methods are first reviewed and then used to study the behaviour at infinity of the MIC (McIntosh-Cisneros)-Kepler problem at positive energies. The hyperbolic orbits leave the unstable equilibrium point set at infinity and tend eventually to the stable equilibrium point set at infinity. Both of these equilibrium point sets are diffeomorphic with S/sup 2/, the unit sphere in R/sup 3/. The hyperbolic orbits determine a map of the unstable equilibrium point set to the stable equilibrium point set in such a manner that the initial point (or the limit point as t to - infinity ) of an orbit is mapped to its final point (or the limit point as t to infinity ). This map is found explicitly as a rotation matrix which depends on the energy and the angular momentum of the orbits. (9 refs).

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Fidaxomicin and Vancomycin for Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection: A Markov Model Based on Data from a South West Balkan Country in Socioeconomic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Veroljub; Kostić, Marina; Iličković, Ivana; Janković, Slobodan M

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that fidaxomicin, a novel antibiotic, can reduce the rate of complications and mortality in patients with colitis induced by Clostridium difficile. Introduction of fidaxomicin in clinical practice is limited by its high costs. The purpose of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of using fidaxomicin versus vancomycin in patients with colitis induced by C. difficile who did not respond to oral metronidazole. We constructed a Markov model that was than simulated by Monte-Carlo simulation using 1000 virtual patients with colitis induced by C. difficile. The perspective in our model was institutional. The time horizon was 3 months. Values of transition probabilities and therapy outcomes were estimated from the available literature, the prices of health services were obtained from the Republic Institute for Health Insurance Tariff Book, and the price of fidaxomicin was derived from data gained from the drug manufacturer. The total costs of treating one statistical patient for 3 months with fidaxomicin were higher (48,106.19 ± 118.07 Republic of Serbia dinars [RSD]; 95% confidence interval 47,988.12-48,224.27) than the total costs of treating with vancomycin (25,872.85 ± 41.44 RSD; 95% confidence interval 25,831.41-25,914.29). Our results showed that the treatment of infections induced by C. difficile with fidaxomicin correlated with a lower rate of mortality and with a smaller number of colectomies. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for colitis induced by C. difficile per saved life was estimated at 2.97 million RSD and for one avoided colectomy at 10.07 million RSD. Results of our model indicate that fidaxomicin is a cost-effective therapy compared with vancomycin in patients with colitis induced by C. difficile if the outcome is life-year saved. However, if the outcome is the number of avoided colectomies, then fidaxomycin is not a cost-effective option compared with vancomycin. Copyright

  17. Gene expression analysis reveals new possible mechanisms of vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity and identifies gene markers candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Christine; Puey, Angela; Lin, Sylvia; Lyn, Sylvia; Swezey, Robert; Furimsky, Anna; Fairchild, David; Mirsalis, Jon C; Ng, Hanna H

    2009-01-01

    Vancomycin, one of few effective treatments against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is nephrotoxic. The goals of this study were to (1) gain insights into molecular mechanisms of nephrotoxicity at the genomic level, (2) evaluate gene markers of vancomycin-induced kidney injury, and (3) compare gene expression responses after iv and ip administration. Groups of six female BALB/c mice were treated with seven daily iv or ip doses of vancomycin (50, 200, and 400 mg/kg) or saline, and sacrificed on day 8. Clinical chemistry and histopathology demonstrated kidney injury at 400 mg/kg only. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that kidney gene expression profiles of all mice treated at 400 mg/kg clustered with those of mice administered 200 mg/kg iv. Transcriptional profiling might thus be more sensitive than current clinical markers for detecting kidney damage, though the profiles can differ with the route of administration. Analysis of transcripts whose expression was changed by at least twofold compared with vehicle saline after high iv and ip doses of vancomycin suggested the possibility of oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in vancomycin-induced toxicity. In addition, our data showed changes in expression of several transcripts from the complement and inflammatory pathways. Such expression changes were confirmed by relative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Finally, our results further substantiate the use of gene markers of kidney toxicity such as KIM-1/Havcr1, as indicators of renal injury.

  18. Clinical Outcome with Oral Linezolid and Rifampin Following Recurrent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Despite Prolonged Vancomycin Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon-David Schwalm

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, especially Staphylococcus aureus, are emerging as the predominant organisms involved in both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Since the 1980s, vancomycin has been the first-line antibiotic used to treat methicillin-resistant S aureus. However, allergy and intolerance to vancomycin, the increasing number of vancomycin clinical failures and the existence of vancomycin intermediate-susceptible isolates of S aureus suggest that new antibiotics are needed. This paper reports the only known case of a successful clinical outcome with long term oral linezolid and rifampin therapy in the management of recurrent and persistent methicillin-resistant S aureus bacteremia with metastatic infections despite prolonged vancomycin use. More than two years since the initiation of linezolid and rifampin, the study patient has been clinically well with no evidence of adverse drug reactions including cytopenia and hepatic toxicities. Physicians must be aware of the novel developments in antibiotic therapy to treat drug-resistant bacterial infections.

  19. Structural and Functional Adaptation of Vancomycin Resistance VanT Serine Racemases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziane-Cherif, Djalal; Stogios, Peter J; Evdokimova, Elena; Egorova, Olga; Savchenko, Alexei; Courvalin, Patrice

    2015-08-11

    Vancomycin resistance in Gram-positive bacteria results from the replacement of the D-alanyl-D-alanine target of peptidoglycan precursors with D-alanyl-D-lactate or D-alanyl-D-serine (D-Ala-D-Ser), to which vancomycin has low binding affinity. VanT is one of the proteins required for the production of D-Ala-D-Ser-terminating precursors by converting L-Ser to D-Ser. VanT is composed of two domains, an N-terminal membrane-bound domain, likely involved in L-Ser uptake, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic catalytic domain which is related to bacterial alanine racemases. To gain insight into the molecular function of VanT, the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of VanTG from VanG-type resistant Enterococcus faecalis BM4518 was determined. The structure showed significant similarity to type III pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent alanine racemases, which are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis. Comparative structural analysis between VanTG and alanine racemases as well as site-directed mutagenesis identified three specific active site positions centered around Asn696 which are responsible for the L-amino acid specificity. This analysis also suggested that VanT racemases evolved from regular alanine racemases by acquiring additional selectivity toward serine while preserving that for alanine. The 4-fold-lower relative catalytic efficiency of VanTG against L-Ser versus L-Ala implied that this enzyme relies on its membrane-bound domain for L-Ser transport to increase the overall rate of d-Ser production. These findings illustrate how vancomycin pressure selected for molecular adaptation of a housekeeping enzyme to a bifunctional enzyme to allow for peptidoglycan remodeling, a strategy increasingly observed in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Vancomycin is one of the drugs of last resort against Gram-positive antibiotic-resistant pathogens. However, bacteria have evolved a sophisticated mechanism which remodels the drug target, the D-alanine ending precursors in cell wall

  20. Influence of subinhibitory-concentration (sub-MIC Cefetoxime on biofilm formation. SEM study of ESBL-producing Salmonella typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Narasanna, Manjunath Chavadi, Ajaykumar Oli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the present study, we have analyzed ESBL-producing S. typhi’s capability in forming a significant amount of biofilm on plastic and glass surface, and the influence of cefetoxime on biofilm development at subinhibitory (Sub-MIC concentration. Methods: Nine strains of cefetoxime-mediated ESBL-producing S. typhi were used in the study. S. typhi formed biofilm on plastic and glass materials; it was demonstrated using micro titre plate (MTP and standard test tube methods. Comparative study of the influence of cefetoxime on biofilm formation in its MIC (128 µg/ml and at sub-MIC (64 µg/ml was demonstrated by microtitre plate method. The biofilm production was observed in SEM images, statistical analysis (ANOVA showed significant increase in cell surface and volume due to the influence of Cefetoxime. Results: Of the nine selected isolates, two S. typhi strains, namely BST 51 and BST 130, produced relatively strong biofilm in the presence of cefetoxime at sub-MIC level (64 µg/ml, comparatively weak biofilm formation at MIC level (128 µg/ml. Typical morphological changes were observed in cefetoxime-resistant strains, S. typhi BST 51 and BST 130, in comparison to cefetoxime-sensitive strain S. typhi BST 63 used as a control. We found an increase in surface and volume of a cell in response to cefetoxime and statistical data (ANOVA proved that resistant strains were significantly different from control strains. Conclusion: The above study clearly shows that cefetoxime at sub-MIC level efficiently induces biofilm formation and promotes changes in morphology of the cell. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(2: 67-75

  1. Comparison of Linezolid and Vancomycin for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia: Institutional Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, ManShan C; Wisniewski, Christopher S; Wolf, Bethany; Bosso, John A

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies suggesting clinical superiority of linezolid over vancomycin in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia led to a change in our institution's clinical pathway/order form for hospital-acquired pneumonia, positioning linezolid as the preferred agent. Our objective was to assess the impact of this change within our institution. Retrospective electronic medical records review. The analysis for this observational study included eligible patients admitted to our medical center between May 1, 2011, and August 31, 2014, with ICD-9 codes for MRSA and pneumonia. Included patients were at least 18 years of age and had vancomycin or linezolid initiated at least 2 days after admission and continued for at least 2 consecutive days. The primary end points were extent of antibiotic use before and after order form change and length of stay (LOS) and hospital charges in the two treatment groups. A secondary aim was to detect any gross discrepancies in patient outcomes such as treatment duration, mechanical ventilation duration, all-cause mortality rate, nephrotoxicity, and 30-day readmission between the two treatment groups. Outcomes in 227 patients were assessed. Linezolid use increased 16.2% subsequent to the change in the order form. Although not statistically significant, the median hospital admission charge was $6200 lower in patients treated with linezolid compared with those treated with vancomycin ($25,900 vs $32,100). Hospital LOS was significantly associated with Charlson Comorbidity Index score (plinezolid treatment, and these patients were more likely to be discharged (shorter LOS). Although linezolid use increased markedly with this pathway/order form change, no negative institutional consequences or unfavorable patient outcomes were detected, justifying the change in policy from these perspectives. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  2. Successful prevention of the transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a Brazilian public teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Alves Ferreira Rossini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE can colonize or cause infections in high-risk patients and contaminate the environment. Our objective was to describe theepidemiological investigation of an outbreak of VRE, the interventions made, and their impact on its control. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive, non-comparative study by reviewing the charts of patients with a VRE-positive culture in the University Hospital of Campinas State University, comprising 380 beds, 40 of which were in intensive care units (ICUs, who were admitted from February 2008-January 2009. Interventions were divided into educational activity, reviewing the workflow processes, engineering measures, and administrative procedures. RESULTS: There were 150 patients, 139 (92.7% colonized and 11 (7.3% infected. Seventy-three percent were cared for in non-ICUs (p = 0.028. Infection was more frequent in patients with a central-line (p = 0.043, mechanical ventilation (p = 0.013, urinary catheter (p = 0.049, or surgical drain (p = 0.049. Vancomycin, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and third-generation cephalosporin were previously used by 47 (31.3%, 31 (20.7%, 24 (16%, and 24 (16% patients, respectively. Death was more frequent in infected (73% than in colonized (17% patients (p < 0.001. After the interventions, the attack rate fell from 1.49 to 0.33 (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Classical risk factors for VRE colonization or infection, e.g., being cared for in an ICU and previous use of vancomycin, were not found in this study. The conjunction of an educational program, strict adhesion to contact precautions, and reinforcement of environmental cleaning were able to prevent the dissemination of VRE.

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Alters Staphylococcus aureus Sensitivity to Vancomycin in a Biofilm Model of Cystic Fibrosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Orazi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The airways of cystic fibrosis (CF patients have thick mucus, which fosters chronic, polymicrobial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are two of the most prevalent respiratory pathogens in CF patients. In this study, we tested whether P. aeruginosa influences the susceptibility of S. aureus to frontline antibiotics used to treat CF lung infections. Using our in vitro coculture model, we observed that addition of P. aeruginosa supernatants to S. aureus biofilms grown either on epithelial cells or on plastic significantly decreased the susceptibility of S. aureus to vancomycin. Mutant analyses showed that 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO, a component of the P. aeruginosa Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS system, protects S. aureus from the antimicrobial activity of vancomycin. Similarly, the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin also contribute to the ability of P. aeruginosa to protect S. aureus from vancomycin, as did growth under anoxia. Under our experimental conditions, HQNO, P. aeruginosa supernatant, and growth under anoxia decreased S. aureus growth, likely explaining why this cell wall-targeting antibiotic is less effective. P. aeruginosa supernatant did not confer additional protection to slow-growing S. aureus small colony variants. Importantly, P. aeruginosa supernatant protects S. aureus from other inhibitors of cell wall synthesis as well as protein synthesis-targeting antibiotics in an HQNO- and siderophore-dependent manner. We propose a model whereby P. aeruginosa causes S. aureus to shift to fermentative growth when these organisms are grown in coculture, leading to reduction in S. aureus growth and decreased susceptibility to antibiotics targeting cell wall and protein synthesis.

  4. Influence of Rifampin Therapy on Serum Bactericidal Activity in the Presence of Cloxacillin and Vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew MR Mackenzie

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of rifampin on serum inhibitory and serum bactericidal titres was examined. Sera were prepared from pooled human serum to contain vancomycin (10 mg/L, cloxacillin (5 mg/L or rifampin (1 mg/L, and the combinations cloxacillin/rifampin and vancomycin/rifampin. These five sera were tested by a microtitre method for serum inhibitory power and serum bactericidal titre against 11 strains of Staphylococcus aureus. A 48 h incubation period was required to detect full colony growth for subculture plates. It was found with all strains that the effect of the addition of rifampin to the other two antibiotics was to increase the serum inhibitory power, lower the serum bactericidal titre, increase the inhibitory/cidal ratio, and slow colony growth on subculture. In the clinical part of the study it was shown that only three of 38 sera (8% from patients receiving betalactam or vanomycin but not rifampin gave an inhibitory/cidal ratio greater than 8, but that nine of 10 sera (90% from patients receiving rifampin in addition to betalactam or vancomycin gave a ratio greater than 8 (P<0.001. The study verified that the effect of rifampin in serum was to increase inhibitory power and decrease bactericidal titre. The clinical significance of these results is not known and it is suggested that a high ratio of inhibitory to bactericidal titre in the presence of rifampin is to be expected, and that a low bactericidal titre under these circumstances is not necessarily an indication to modify therapy.

  5. Vancomycin pre-treatment impairs tissue healing in experimental colitis: Importance of innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Cai, Chenwen; Zheng, Qing; Jin, Shuang; Song, Dongjuan; Shen, Jun; Ran, Zhihua

    2017-01-29

    The interplay between luminal microbes and innate immunity during colonic epithelial repair has been well noted. At the same time, antibiotic has widely been used during flare-ups of ulcerative colitis. The possible effects of luminal microbiota disruption caused by antibiotics usage on epithelial repairing have been scarcely discussed. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) embedded in the lamina propria can be modulated by gut microbes, resulting in altered colonic IL-22/pSTAT3 levels, which is considered a prominent molecular axis in tissue repairing after epithelium damage. This study aimed to investigate whether antibiotics could interfere with ILCs-dependent tissue repair. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis was established in mice pre-treated with reagent of different antibiotic spectrum. Both morphological and molecular markers of tissue repair after DSS cessation were detected. ILCs population and function status were also recorded. Further attention was paid to the response of dendritic cells after antibiotics treatment, which were claimed to regulate colonic ILC3s in an IL-23 dependent way. Using of vancomycin resulted in delayed tissue repairing after experimental colitis. Both colonic IL-22/pSTAT3 axis and ILC3 population were found decreased in this situation. Vancomycin treatment diminished the upstream IL-23 and producer dendritic cell population. The reduced dendritic cell number may due to inadequate chemokines and colony-stimulating factors supply. Presence of vancomycin-sensitive microbiota is required for the maturation of ILC3-activating dendritic cells hence maintain the sufficient IL-22/pSTAT3 level in the colon during tissue healing. Manipulation of colonic microbiota may help achieve colonic mucosal healing post inflammation and injury. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant and -susceptible Enterococcus spp. in reclaimed water used for spray irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Stephanie Ann; Goldstein, Rachel E. Rosenberg [Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD (United States); Gibbs, Shawn G. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health-Bloomington, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States); Claye, Emma [Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD (United States); He, Xin [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD (United States); Sapkota, Amy R., E-mail: ars@umd.edu [Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Reclaiming municipal wastewater for agricultural, environmental, and industrial purposes is increasing in the United States to combat dwindling freshwater supplies. However, there is a lack of data regarding the microbial quality of reclaimed water. In particular, no previous studies have evaluated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in reclaimed water used at spray irrigation sites in the United States. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the occurrence, concentration, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of VRE and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci at three U.S. spray irrigation sites that use reclaimed water. We collected 48 reclaimed water samples from one Mid-Atlantic and two Midwest spray irrigation sites, as well as their respective wastewater treatment plants, in 2009 and 2010. Samples were analyzed for total enterococci and VRE using standard membrane filtration. Isolates were purified and then confirmed using biochemical tests and PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the Sensititre® microbroth dilution system. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion tests and one-way analysis of variance. We detected total enterococci and VRE in 71% (34/48) and 4% (2/48) of reclaimed water samples, respectively. Enterococcus faecalis was the most common species identified. At the Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site, UV radiation decreased total enterococci to undetectable levels; however, subsequent storage in an open-air pond at this site resulted in increased concentrations of enterococci. E. faecalis isolates recovered from the Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site expressed intrinsic resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin; however, non-E. faecalis isolates expressed resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin (52% of isolates), vancomycin (4%), tetracycline (13%), penicillin (4%) and ciprofloxacin (17%). Our findings show that VRE are present in low numbers in reclaimed water at point-of-use at the sampled spray

  7. Vancomycin gene selection in the microbiome of urban Rattus norvegicus from hospital environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arn Hansen, Thomas; Joshi, Tejal; Larsen, Anders Rhod

    2016-01-01

    Widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in selection pressure on genes that make bacteria non-responsive to antibiotics. These antibiotic-resistant bacteria are currently a major threat to global health. There are various possibilities for the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. It has be....... norvegicus microbiome, potentially driven by the outflow of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria into the wastewater systems. Carriage of vancomycin resistance may suggest that R. norvegicus is acting as a reservoir for possible transmission to the human population....

  8. Replacement of Antibodies in Pseudo-ELISAs: Molecularly Imprinted Nanoparticles for Vancomycin Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfarotta, Francesco; Smolinska-Kempisty, Katarzyna; Piletsky, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a widely employed analytical test used to quantify a given molecule. It relies on the use of specific antibodies, linked to an enzyme, to target the desired molecule. The reaction between the enzyme and its substrate gives rise to the analytical signal that can be quantified. Thanks to their robustness and low cost, molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) are a viable alternative to antibodies. Herein, we describe the synthesis of nanoMIPs imprinted for vancomycin and their subsequent application in an ELISA-like format for direct replacement of antibodies.

  9. Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant and -susceptible Enterococcus spp. in reclaimed water used for spray irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, Stephanie Ann; Goldstein, Rachel E. Rosenberg; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Claye, Emma; He, Xin; Sapkota, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Reclaiming municipal wastewater for agricultural, environmental, and industrial purposes is increasing in the United States to combat dwindling freshwater supplies. However, there is a lack of data regarding the microbial quality of reclaimed water. In particular, no previous studies have evaluated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in reclaimed water used at spray irrigation sites in the United States. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the occurrence, concentration, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of VRE and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci at three U.S. spray irrigation sites that use reclaimed water. We collected 48 reclaimed water samples from one Mid-Atlantic and two Midwest spray irrigation sites, as well as their respective wastewater treatment plants, in 2009 and 2010. Samples were analyzed for total enterococci and VRE using standard membrane filtration. Isolates were purified and then confirmed using biochemical tests and PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the Sensititre® microbroth dilution system. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion tests and one-way analysis of variance. We detected total enterococci and VRE in 71% (34/48) and 4% (2/48) of reclaimed water samples, respectively. Enterococcus faecalis was the most common species identified. At the Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site, UV radiation decreased total enterococci to undetectable levels; however, subsequent storage in an open-air pond at this site resulted in increased concentrations of enterococci. E. faecalis isolates recovered from the Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site expressed intrinsic resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin; however, non-E. faecalis isolates expressed resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin (52% of isolates), vancomycin (4%), tetracycline (13%), penicillin (4%) and ciprofloxacin (17%). Our findings show that VRE are present in low numbers in reclaimed water at point-of-use at the sampled spray

  10. Stimulated phase-shift acoustic nanodroplets enhance vancomycin efficacy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo H

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hao Guo,1 Ziming Wang,1 Quanyin Du,1 Pan Li,2 Zhigang Wang,2 Aimin Wang1 1Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China; 2Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Molecular Imaging, Institute of Ultrasound Imaging, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China Purpose: Bacterial biofilms on the surface of prostheses are becoming a rising concern in managing prosthetic joint infections. The inherent resistant features of biofilms render traditional antimicrobial therapy unproductive and revision surgery outcomes uncertain. This situation has prompted the exploration of novel antimicrobial strategies. The synergy of ultrasound microbubbles and vancomycin has been proposed as an efficient alternative for biofilm eradication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm effect of stimulated phase-shift acoustic nanodroplets (NDs combined with vancomycin.Materials and methods: We fabricated lipid phase-shift NDs with a core of liquid perfluoropentane. A new phase change mode for NDs incorporating an initial unfocused low-intensity pulsed ultrasound for 5 minutes and a subsequent incubation at 37°C into a 24-hour duration was developed. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA biofilms were incubated with vancomycin and NDs under the hybrid stimulation. Biofilm morphology following treatment was determined using confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Resazurin assay was used to quantify bactericidal efficacy against MRSA biofilm bacteria.Results: NDs treated sequentially with ultrasound and heating at 37°C achieved gradual and substantial ND vaporization and cavitation in a successive process. NDs after stimulation were capable of generating stronger destruction on biofilm structure which was best characterized by residual circular arc margins and more dead bacteria. Furthermore, NDs

  11. Epidemiological alteration in pathogens found in ground meat in Iran: unexpected predominance of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of the human and animal intestinal tract with potential pathogenic bacteria is correlated with the risk of contamination of food products. The current study analyzed the prevalence of and O157H7 in ground meat in Ilam, Iran. Both index organisms were identified following standard food microbiological methods. For , the susceptibility to vancomycin was tested, and PCR was used to check for the gene. was present in all 24 ground meat samples, with no O157H7 detected in samples. The analysis showed the presence of the gene in 5/24 vancomycin resistant enterococci. In conclusion, this study for the first time demonstrates the presence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in ground meat in Iran. This observation warrants further epidemiologic investigation and should be followed up in the future.

  12. Efficacy of a synthetic antimicrobial peptidomimetic versus vancomycin in a Staphylococcus epidermidis device-related murine peritonitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavanagh, Jorunn Pauline; Granslo, Hildegunn Norbakken; Fredheim, Elizabeth Aarag

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prevalent cause of peritonitis during peritoneal dialysis. We compared the efficacy of a synthetic antimicrobial peptidomimetic (Ltx21) versus vancomycin in a murine model mimicking a device-related peritonitis. Methods Silicone implants......, pre-colonized with an S. epidermidis biofilm, were inserted into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice. Three groups (36 mice in each) with pre-colonized implants received intraperitoneal treatment with Ltx21, vancomycin or placebo. Mice were euthanized on day 3 (n = 12), day 6 (n = 12) or day 8 (n...... = 12) post-implantation. Controls were mice with sterile implants (n = 18) and mice without surgery (n = 6). Bacterial reductions in cfu were analysed from implants and peritoneal fluid (PF). Inflammatory responses in serum and PF were measured. Results Vancomycin resulted in a stronger reduction...

  13. Antistaphylococcal activity of DX-619 alone and in combination with vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid assessed by time-kill synergy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Lin, Genrong; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2007-04-01

    Time-kill synergy studies testing in vitro activity of DX-619 alone and with added vancomycin, teicoplanin, or linezolid against 101 Staphylococcus aureus strains showed synergy between DX-619 and teicoplanin at 12 to 24 h in 72 strains and between DX-619 and vancomycin in 28 strains. No synergy was found with linezolid, and no antagonism was observed with any combination.

  14. Wounds, Functional Disability, and Indwelling Devices Are Associated With Cocolonization by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Southeast Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Flannery, Erika L.; Wang, Linda; Zöllner, Sebastian; Foxman, Betsy; Mobley, Harry L. T.; Mody, Lona

    2011-01-01

    Cocolonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is a precursor to vancomycin-resistant S. aureus emergence. MRSA/VRE cocolonization incidence is higher among skilled nursing facility residents with functional disability and indwelling devices and occurs more frequently in wounds than other anatomical sites.

  15. Assessing outcomes of adult oncology patients treated with linezolid versus daptomycin for bacteremia due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Khilna; Kabir, Rubiya; Ahmad, Samrah; Allen, Steven L

    2016-04-01

    The incidence and severity of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus blood stream infections continue to rise and is a significant burden in the healthcare setting. Literature thus far is minimal regarding treatment outcomes in patients with malignancy and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus bacteremia. Appropriate antibiotic selection is vital to treatment success due to high rates of resistance, limited antimicrobials and mortality in this patient population. We conducted this study to determine whether treatment outcomes differed between cancer patients treated with linezolid and those treated with daptomycin for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus bacteremia. This single-center, retrospective study included adult patients hospitalized on the oncology service with documented vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia who received at least 48 h of either linezolid or daptomycin as primary treatment. A total of 65 patients were included in the analysis. Thirty-two patients received daptomycin as primary treatment, and 33 patients received linezolid as primary treatment. Twenty-six (76.5%) patients in the linezolid cohort versus 22 (71%) patients in the daptomycin cohort achieved microbiological cure (p = 0.6141). Median length of stay in days (30 vs. 42, p = 0.0714) and mortality (7/32 (20.6%) vs. 8/33 (25.8%), p = 0.6180) were also similar between the linezolid and daptomycin treated patients, respectively. No differences in microbiological cure, length of stay or mortality were identified between the groups. This study suggests that linezolid and daptomycin are each reasonable options for treating vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus bacteremia in oncology patients. Further prospective, randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the optimal treatment for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus bacteremia in this patient population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Berberine blocks the relapse of Clostridium difficile infection in C57BL/6 mice after standard vancomycin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhi; Peng, Guoli; Liu, Weihua; Xu, Hufeng; Su, JianRong

    2015-07-01

    Vancomycin is a preferred antibiotic for treating Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and has been associated with a rate of recurrence of CDI of as high as 20% in treated patients. Recent studies have suggested that berberine, an alternative medical therapy for gastroenteritis and diarrhea, exhibits several beneficial effects, including induction of anti-inflammatory responses and restoration of the intestinal barrier function. This study investigated the therapeutic effects of berberine on preventing CDI relapse and restoring the gut microbiota in a mouse model. Berberine was administered through gavage to C57BL/6 mice with established CDI-induced intestinal injury and colitis. The disease activity index (DAI), mean relative weight, histopathology scores, and levels of toxins A and B in fecal samples were measured. An Illumina sequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the overall structural change in the microbiota in the mouse ileocecum. Berberine administration significantly promoted the restoration of the intestinal microbiota by inhibiting the expansion of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and counteracting the side effects of vancomycin treatment. Therapy consisting of vancomycin and berberine combined prevented weight loss, improved the DAI and the histopathology scores, and effectively decreased the mortality rate. Berberine prevented CDIs from relapsing and significantly improved survival in the mouse model of CDI. Our data indicate that a combination of berberine and vancomycin is more effective than vancomycin alone for treating CDI. One of the possible mechanisms by which berberine prevents a CDI relapse is through modulation of the gut microbiota. Although this conclusion was generated in the case of the mouse model, use of the combination of vancomycin and berberine and represent a novel therapeutic approach targeting CDI. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. A meta-analysis of metronidazole and vancomycin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection, stratified by disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xiuzhen; Bai, Nan; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Bin; Ni, Wentao; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kai; Liang, Beibei; Liu, Youning; Wang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy of metronidazole and vancomycin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection, especially to investigate which agent was superior for treating either mild or severe C. difficile infection. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and cohort studies identified in Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library was conducted. Four randomized controlled trials and two cohort studies involving 1218 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Metronidazole was inferior to vancomycin for treating C. difficile infection in terms of both initial clinical cure rates (risk ratio, RR=0.91, 95% confidence interval, CI=0.84-0.98, p=0.02) and sustained cure rates (RR=0.88, 95% CI=0.82-0.96, p=0.003). For mild C. difficile infection, the efficacy of metronidazole and vancomycin resulted in similar clinical cure rates (RR=0.94, 95% CI=0.84-1.04, p=0.21) and sustained cure rates (RR=0.93, 95% CI=0.83-1.05, p=0.26). For severe C. difficile infection the efficacy of vancomycin was superior to metronidazole in terms of clinical cure rates (RR=0.81, 95% CI=0.69-0.95, p=0.009), whereas sustained cure rates were similar (RR=0.86, 95% CI=0.72-1.02, p=0.08). Regarding microbiological cure metronidazole therapy was as effective as vancomycin therapy (RR=0.88, 95% CI=0.64-1.21, p=0.43). Recurrence rates with metronidazole and vancomycin for both mild C. difficile infection (RR=0.95, 95% CI=0.56-1.60, p=0.85) and severe C. difficile infection (RR=1.27, 95% CI=0.85-1.91, p=0.25) were not different. Likewise, no difference in all-cause mortality was found as well (RR=0.87, 95% CI=0.56-1.35, p=0.53). In conclusion, vancomycin provides improved initial clinical and sustained cure rates in patients with C. difficile infection compared with metronidazole, especially in patients with severe C. difficile infection. In view of these data, vancomycin may be considered first line therapy for severe C. difficile infection. Copyright

  18. In vitro activities of ramoplanin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, linezolid, bacitracin, and four other antimicrobials against intestinal anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, D M; Merriam, C V; Tyrrell, K L; Warren, Y A; Fernandez, H; Goldstein, E J C

    2003-07-01

    By using an agar dilution method, the in vitro activities of ramoplanin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, linezolid, and five other agents were determined against 300 gram-positive and 54 gram-negative strains of intestinal anaerobes. Ramoplanin was active at Eubacterium, Actinomyces, Propionibacterium, and Peptostreptococcus spp. were inhibited by spp. were >or=256 microg/ml. Ramoplanin displays excellent activity against C. difficile and other gram-positive enteric anaerobes, including vancomycin-resistant strains; however, it has poor activity against most gram-negative anaerobes and thus potentially has a lesser effect on the ecological balance of normal fecal flora.

  19. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC determination of disinfectant and/or sterilizing agents

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    Priscila Gava Mazzola

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing number of outbreaks of infection in hospital and nurseries, it becomes essential to set up a sanitation program that indicates that the appropriate chemical agent was chosen for application in the most effective way. Validating the effectiveness of decontamination and disinfection is an important and often challenging task. In order to study and compare the behavior of selected microorganisms, they were submitted to minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. The MIC intervals, which reduced bacteria populations over 6 log10, were: 59 to 156 mg/L of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs; 63 to 10000 mg/L of chlorhexidine; 1375 to 3250 mg/L of glutaraldehyde; 39 to 246 mg/L of formaldehyde; 43750 to 87500 mg/L of ethanol; 1250 to 6250 mg/L of iodine in polyvinyl-pyrolidone complexes, 150 to 4491 mg/L of chlorine-releasing-agents (CRAs and 469 to 2500 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide. Chlorhexidine showed non inhibitory activity over germinating spores. A. calcoaceticus showed resistance to the majority of the agents tested, followed by E. cloacae and S. marcescens.Devido ao número crescente de surtos de infecção hospitalar, torna-se proeminente o estabelecimento de um programa de sanitização que liste os agentes químicos a serem empregados e o modo de aplicação mais efetivo. Validação da eficácia de descontaminação é uma tarefa ao mesmo tempo importante e desafiadora. Para estudar e comparar o comportamento dos microrganismos selecionados foram realizados ensaios de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM. A CIM capaz de reduzir o bioburden inicial (>6 log10 foi: 59 - 156 mg/L de quartenários de amônia; 63 - 10000 mg/L de clorexidina, 1375 - 3250 mg/mL de glutaraldeído, 39 - 246 mg/L de formaldeído, 43750 - 87500 mg/L de etanol 1250 - 6250 mg/L de PVPI, 150 - 4491 mg/L de compostos liberadores de cloro e 469 -2500 mg/L de peróxido de hidrogênio.

  20. Determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and mutant prevention concentration (MPC of selected antimicrobials in bovine and swine Pasteurella multocida, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates

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    Kateřina Nedbalcová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the values of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and mutant prevention concentration (MPC values ​​of three antimicrobial agents for 72 bovine isolates of Pasteurella multocida, 80 swine isolates of P. multocida, 80 bovine isolates of Escherichia coli, 80 swine isolates of E. coli, and 80 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis. The ratio of MIC90​​/MPC90 which limited mutant selection window (MSW was ≤ 0.12/4 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 0.5/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 4/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in bovine P. multocida isolates, ≤ 0.12/2 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 0.5/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 4/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in swine P. multocida isolates, 1/16 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 8/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 8/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in bovine E. coli isolates, 0.5/16 mg/l for enrofloxacin, ≥ 64/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 8/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in swine E. coli isolates, and 0.25/16 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 4/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 4/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in S. aureus isolates. These findings indicate that the dosage of antimicrobial agents to achieve serum concentration equal to or higher than MPC could reduce selection of resistant bacterial subpopulation.

  1. [Severe diarrhea after the original well-functioning percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube was replaced by a Mic-Key button].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Susanne Wigh; Eriksen, Jan; Kristensen, Kurt

    2006-03-06

    We report two cases of colocutaneous fistula as a complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in small children. Both children developed severe osmotic diarrhoea immediately after the original PEG tube was replaced by a Mic-Key button which subsequently migrated to the colon.

  2. Overexpression of MicA induces production of OmpC-enriched outer membrane vesicles that protect against Salmonella challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Il; Kim, Moonjeong; Jeon, Jinseong; Han, Jin Kwan; Kim, Kwang-Sun

    2017-08-26

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from bacteria are promising candidates for subunit vaccines. Stresses that modulate the composition of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are important for OMV synthesis. Small RNAs (sRNAs) expressed in response to stress regulate OMPs, although the mechanism underlying sRNA-mediated OMV biogenesis and its utility for developing vaccine platforms remains to be elucidated. Here, we characterized the role of a sRNA, MicA, which regulates OmpA, a major OMP involved in both production of OMVs and reactive immunity against Salmonella challenge. A Salmonella strain overexpressing MicA generated more OMVs than a control strain. In addition, OmpC was the major component of MicA-derived OMV proteins. MicA-derived OMVs induced Th1- and Th17-type immune responses in vitro and reduced Salmonella-mediated lethality in a mouse model. Thus, OmpA-regulatory sRNA-derived OMVs may facilitate production of Salmonella-protective vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Un nuevo enfoque para la explotación del cómic en E/LE

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    Consuelo Escudero Medina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En esta ocasión, nos hemos decantado por trabajar con el cómic.  Los elementos que configuran este material favorecen sobre todo la motivación del alumno, puesto que no le son ajenos, existen en su cultura.

  4. El aprovechamiento del cómic como herramienta didáctica desde el enfoque comunicativo

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    Isabel García Martínez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El cómic es un recurso que, en muchos casos, se utiliza de modo anecdótico en el aula y con una función puramente de entretenimiento, sin dar muchas veces la importancia que se merece a lo que muchos consideran el noveno arte. Esta experiencia práctica pretende mostrar la idoneidad y la versatilidad de este medio narrativo en el aula de español como lengua extranjera. Tras un breve acercamiento teórico al uso del cómic en el aula de E/LE, se presentan los resultados de un análisis previo sobre la presencia de cómics en los manuales de E/LE. Las diferentes aplicaciones didácticas que se presentan, dirigidas a diferentes niveles que oscilan desde el nivel B1 hasta el C2, suplen las carencias detectadas en el mencionado análisis, utilizan cómics españoles e hispanoamericanos, y fomentan el uso de las TIC y los álbumes completos.

  5. Un nuevo enfoque para la explotación del cómic en E/LE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Escudero Medina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta ocasión, nos hemos decantado por trabajar con el cómic. Los elementos que configuran este material favorecen sobre todo la motivación del alumno, puesto que no le son ajenos, existen en su cultura.

  6. Cross-transmission of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in patients undergoing dialysis and kidney transplant

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    D. Fram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE cross-transmission between two patient groups (long-term dialysis and kidney transplant patients. Molecular typing, by automated ribotyping with the RiboPrinter Microbial Characterization System (Qualicon, USA, was used to analyze VRE isolates from 31 fecal samples of 320 dialysis patients and 38 fecal samples of 280 kidney transplant patients. Clonal spread of E. faecalis and E. casseliflavus was observed intragroup, but not between the two groups of patients. In turn, transmission of E. gallinarum and E. faecium between the groups was suggested by the finding of vancomycin-resistant isolates belonging to the same ribogroup in both dialysis and transplant patients. The fact that these patients were colonized by VRE from the same ribogroup in the same health care facility provides evidence for cross-transmission and supports the adoption of stringent infection control measures to prevent dissemination of these bacteria.

  7. Delayed-Onset Post-Keratoplasty Endophthalmitis Caused by Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium

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    Julio C. Hernandez-Camarena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE endophthalmitis after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP is very rare, the management is a challenge due to both the pattern of antibiotic resistance and the aggressive nature of the infectious process. We report the first delayed-onset case of VRE endophthalmitis after PKP. Materials and Methods: Case report of a 51-year-old female with a 7-week history of PKP who arrived at the emergency room with signs and symptoms of endophthalmitis. Initial visual acuity was light perception, and a posterior pole exam was not possible due to the intense vitreous reaction. Mode B ultrasound was used to assess the posterior pole. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy and received intravitreous antibiotics. Results: Vitreous stains and cultures were positive for Enterococcus faecium resistant to vancomycin. Donor rim cultures and viral PCR were negative. Treatment was carried out by repeated intravitreal antibiotics and systemic linezolid. Clinical improvement was seen after the second dose of intravitreous antibiotics and systemic linezolid, but visual acuity remained at light perception consistent with the ischemic changes observed in the posterior pole. Conclusion: VRE endophthalmitis might be associated with positive donor rim cultures. Prompt use of systemic linezolid in addition to intravitreous antibiotics is recommendable, but even with prompt treatment, visual prognosis is guarded.

  8. Presence of virulence factors in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium susceptible and resistant to vancomycin

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    Carolina Baldisserotto Comerlato

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing importance of Enterococcus as opportunistic pathogens, their virulence factors are still poorly understood. This study determines the frequency of virulence factors in clinical and commensal Enterococcus isolates from inpatients in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Fifty Enterococcus isolates were analysed and the presence of the gelE, asa1 and esp genes was determined. Gelatinase activity and biofilm formation were also tested. The clonal relationships among the isolates were evaluated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The asa1, gelE and esp genes were identified in 38%, 60% and 76% of all isolates, respectively. The first two genes were more prevalent in Enterococcus faecalis than in Enterococcus faecium, as was biofilm formation, which was associated with gelE and asa1 genes, but not with the esp gene. The presence of gelE and the activity of gelatinase were not fully concordant. No relationship was observed among any virulence factors and specific subclones of E. faecalis or E. faecium resistant to vancomycin. In conclusion, E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates showed significantly different patterns of virulence determinants. Neither the source of isolation nor the clonal relationship or vancomycin resistance influenced their distribution.

  9. Therapeutic Success of Rifaximin for Clostridium difficile Infection Refractory to Metronidazole and Vancomycin

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    George Tannous

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 46-year-old white male with confirmed Clostridium difficile infection for >4 weeks after fluoroquinolone therapy. The patient received two courses of metronidazole 500 mg three times daily (t.i.d. during which time diarrhea resolved; however, symptoms recurred 14–15 days after treatment termination. He received a 2-week course of vancomycin 125 mg four times daily, with symptoms recurring 10 days after treatment conclusion. The patient then received a pulsed tapering schedule of vancomycin with adjunctive Saccharomyces boulardii. Diarrhea recurred 12 days after treatment completion. He received rifaximin 400 mg t.i.d. while hospitalized for diarrhea-associated complications. Symptoms resolved within 24 h. The patient received a 4-week regimen of rifaximin 400 mg orally t.i.d. after discharge. No further episodes of diarrhea were reported within 6 months after treatment termination. The present case supports the potential benefit of rifaximin for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

  10. The Murine Lung Microbiome Changes During Lung Inflammation and Intranasal Vancomycin Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfod, Kenneth Klingenberg; Vrankx, Katleen; Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Hansen, Jitka Stilund; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Larsen, Søren Thor; Ouwenhand, Arthur C.; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2015-01-01

    Most microbiome research related to airway diseases has focused on the gut microbiome. This is despite advances in culture independent microbial identification techniques revealing that even healthy lungs possess a unique dynamic microbiome. This conceptual change raises the question; if lung diseases could be causally linked to local dysbiosis of the local lung microbiota. Here, we manipulate the murine lung and gut microbiome, in order to show that the lung microbiota can be changed experimentally. We have used four different approaches: lung inflammation by exposure to carbon nano-tube particles, oral probiotics and oral or intranasal exposure to the antibiotic vancomycin. Bacterial DNA was extracted from broncho-alveolar and nasal lavage fluids, caecum samples and compared by DGGE. Our results show that: the lung microbiota is sex dependent and not just a reflection of the gut microbiota, and that induced inflammation can change lung microbiota. This change is not transferred to offspring. Oral probiotics in adult mice do not change lung microbiome detectible by DGGE. Nasal vancomycin can change the lung microbiome preferentially, while oral exposure does not. These observations should be considered in future studies of the causal relationship between lung microbiota and lung diseases. PMID:26668669

  11. UNC-Utah NA-MIC Framework for DTI Fiber Tract Analysis

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    Audrey Rose Verde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging has become an important modality in the field ofneuroimaging to capture changes in micro-organization and to assess white matterintegrity or development. While there exists a number of tractography toolsets,these usually lack tools for preprocessing or to analyze diffusion properties alongthe fiber tracts. Currently, the field is in critical need of a coherent end-to-endtoolset for performing an along-fiber tract analysis, accessible to non-technicalneuroimaging researchers. The UNC-Utah NA-MIC DTI framework represents acoherent, open source, end-to-end toolset for atlas fiber tract based DTI analysisencompassing DICOM data conversion, quality control, atlas building, fibertractography, fiber parameterization, and statistical analysis of diffusionproperties. Most steps utilize graphical user interfaces (GUI to simplifyinteraction and provide an extensive DTI analysis framework for non-technicalresearchers/investigators. We illustrate the use of our framework on a smallsample, cross sectional neuroimaging study of 8 healthy 1-year-old children fromthe Infant Brain Imaging Study (IBIS Network. In this limited test study, weillustrate the power of our method by quantifying the diffusion properties at 1year of age on the genu and splenium fiber tracts.

  12. UNC-Utah NA-MIC framework for DTI fiber tract analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Audrey R; Budin, Francois; Berger, Jean-Baptiste; Gupta, Aditya; Farzinfar, Mahshid; Kaiser, Adrien; Ahn, Mihye; Johnson, Hans; Matsui, Joy; Hazlett, Heather C; Sharma, Anuja; Goodlett, Casey; Shi, Yundi; Gouttard, Sylvain; Vachet, Clement; Piven, Joseph; Zhu, Hongtu; Gerig, Guido; Styner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging has become an important modality in the field of neuroimaging to capture changes in micro-organization and to assess white matter integrity or development. While there exists a number of tractography toolsets, these usually lack tools for preprocessing or to analyze diffusion properties along the fiber tracts. Currently, the field is in critical need of a coherent end-to-end toolset for performing an along-fiber tract analysis, accessible to non-technical neuroimaging researchers. The UNC-Utah NA-MIC DTI framework represents a coherent, open source, end-to-end toolset for atlas fiber tract based DTI analysis encompassing DICOM data conversion, quality control, atlas building, fiber tractography, fiber parameterization, and statistical analysis of diffusion properties. Most steps utilize graphical user interfaces (GUI) to simplify interaction and provide an extensive DTI analysis framework for non-technical researchers/investigators. We illustrate the use of our framework on a small sample, cross sectional neuroimaging study of eight healthy 1-year-old children from the Infant Brain Imaging Study (IBIS) Network. In this limited test study, we illustrate the power of our method by quantifying the diffusion properties at 1 year of age on the genu and splenium fiber tracts.

  13. Extension of the AMBER molecular dynamics software to Intel's Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Perri J.; Bhuiyan, Ashraf; Walker, Ross C.

    2016-04-01

    We present an implementation of explicit solvent particle mesh Ewald (PME) classical molecular dynamics (MD) within the PMEMD molecular dynamics engine, that forms part of the AMBER v14 MD software package, that makes use of Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors by offloading portions of the PME direct summation and neighbor list build to the coprocessor. We refer to this implementation as pmemd MIC offload and in this paper present the technical details of the algorithm, including basic models for MPI and OpenMP configuration, and analyze the resultant performance. The algorithm provides the best performance improvement for large systems (>400,000 atoms), achieving a ∼35% performance improvement for satellite tobacco mosaic virus (1,067,095 atoms) when 2 Intel E5-2697 v2 processors (2 ×12 cores, 30M cache, 2.7 GHz) are coupled to an Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor (Model 7120P-1.238/1.333 GHz, 61 cores). The implementation utilizes a two-fold decomposition strategy: spatial decomposition using an MPI library and thread-based decomposition using OpenMP. We also present compiler optimization settings that improve the performance on Intel Xeon processors, while retaining simulation accuracy.

  14. Implementation of an Agent-Based Parallel Tissue Modelling Framework for the Intel MIC Architecture

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    Maciej Cytowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Timothy is a novel large scale modelling framework that allows simulating of biological processes involving different cellular colonies growing and interacting with variable environment. Timothy was designed for execution on massively parallel High Performance Computing (HPC systems. The high parallel scalability of the implementation allows for simulations of up to 109 individual cells (i.e., simulations at tissue spatial scales of up to 1 cm3 in size. With the recent advancements of the Timothy model, it has become critical to ensure appropriate performance level on emerging HPC architectures. For instance, the introduction of blood vessels supplying nutrients to the tissue is a very important step towards realistic simulations of complex biological processes, but it greatly increased the computational complexity of the model. In this paper, we describe the process of modernization of the application in order to achieve high computational performance on HPC hybrid systems based on modern Intel® MIC architecture. Experimental results on the Intel Xeon Phi™ coprocessor x100 and the Intel Xeon Phi processor x200 are presented.

  15. Chelsea Boys: paradigmas sexuales de un cómic queer

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    Rafael Manuel Mérida Jiménez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Más allá del barrio neoyorquino que da título a este serie de volúmenes –aunque en diálogo tanto con su realidad como con sus representaciones anteriores, como Rear Window, dónde se presenta ya como espacio sexualizado–; y más allá del estereotipo gay que la misma expresión representa, Chelsea Boys aparece como un espacio de ruptura de clichés. En el contexto del cómic gay norteamericano que se repasa en este artículo, constituye una propuesta plural, donde la universalidad de las situaciones que representa superan tanto el localismo como la rigidez estereotípica de algunas creaciones anteriores. En él emerge una comunidad queer a través de cuya representación se plantean cuestiones cruciales en y para la/s realidad/es gays.

  16. [Efficacy of a multidisciplinary care management program for patients admitted at hospital because of heart failure (ProMIC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Cristina; Aros, Fernando; Otxandategi, Agurtzane; Beistegui, Idoia; Besga, Ariadna; Latorre, Pedro María

    2018-02-26

    To assess the efficacy of the ProMIC, multidisciplinary program for patients admitted at hospital because of heart failure (HF) programme, in reducing the HF-related readmission rate. Quasi-experimental research with control group. Twelve primary health care centres and 3 hospitals from the Basque Country. Aged 40 years old or above patients admitted for HF with a New York Heart Association functional class II to IV. Patients in the intervention group carried out the ProMIC programme, a structured clinical intervention based on clinical guidelines and on the chronic care model. Control group received usual care. The rate of readmission for HF and health-related quality of life RESULTS: One hundred fifty five patients were included in ProMIC group and 129 in control group. 45 rehospitalisation due to heart failure happened in ProMIC versus 75 in control group (adjusted hazard ratio=0.59, CI 95%: 0.36-0.98; P=.049). There were significant differences in specific quality of life al 6 months. No significant differences were found in rehospitalisation due to all causes, due to cardiovascular causes, visits to emergency room, mortality, the combined variable of these events, the functional capacity or quality of life at 12 months of follow up. ProMIC reduces significantly heart failure rehospitalisation and improve quality of life al 6 months of follow up. No significant differences were found in the rests of variables. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. The ciprofloxacin target AUC : MIC ratio is not reached in hospitalized patients with the recommended dosing regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeseker, Michiel; Stolk, Leo; Nieman, Fred; Hoebe, Christian; Neef, Cees; Bruggeman, Cathrien; Verbon, Annelies

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ciprofloxacin serum concentrations in hospitalized patients and to determine which percentage reached the efficacy target of AUC : MIC > 125. Additionally, the influence of demographic anthropomorphic and clinical parameters on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ciprofloxacin were investigated. In serum of 80 hospitalized patients ciprofloxacin concentrations were measured with reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The ciprofloxacin dose was 400-1200 mg day(-1) i.v. in two or three doses depending on renal function and causative bacteria. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimation (MW\\PHARM 3.60). A two compartment open model was used. Mean (± SD) age was 66 (± 17) years, the mean clearance corrected for bodyweight was 0.24 l h(-1) kg(-1) and the mean AUC was 49 mg l(-1) h. Ciprofloxacin clearance and thus AUC were associated with both age and serum creatinine. Of all patients, 21% and 75% of the patients, did not reach the proposed ciprofloxacin AUC : MIC > 125 target with MICs of 0.25 and 0.5 mg l(-1), respectively. A computer simulated increase in the daily dose from 800 mg to 1200 mg, decreased these percentages to 1% and 37%, respectively. A substantial proportion of the hospitalized patients did not reach the target ciprofloxacin AUC : MIC and are suboptimally dosed with recommended doses. Taking into account the increasing resistance to ciprofloxacin worldwide, a ciprofloxacin dose of 1200 mg i.v. daily in patients with normal renal function is necessary to reach the targeted AUC : MIC > 125. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Comparative effectiveness of linezolid versus vancomycin as definitive antibiotic therapy for heterogeneously resistant vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococcal central-line-associated bloodstream infections in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, A C; Fortin, E; Laferrière, C; Goyer, I; Moussa, A; Autmizguine, J; Quach, C

    2017-06-01

    Heterogeneously resistant vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococci (hVICoNS) are emerging pathogens causing central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients. Given the burden of disease associated with CLABSI and the current lack of therapeutic guidelines, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of linezolid versus vancomycin used as the definitive antibiotic therapy for hVICoNS CLABSI. We performed a retrospective cohort study of infants with hVICoNS CLABSI from a single NICU between 2009 and 2014, treated with either linezolid or vancomycin as definitive antibiotic therapy. CLABSI duration, early and late recurrence and in-hospital mortality were compared using propensity score-adjusted proportional hazards and logistic regression models. Of 89 infants with hVICoNS CLABSI, 33 (37.1%) treated with linezolid were compared with 56 (62.9%) treated with vancomycin. The median duration of CLABSI was 5 (range 1-12) versus 4 days (range 0-14) ( P  =   0.11), early recurrences were 3.0% versus 7.1% ( P  =   0.42), late recurrences 0% versus 14.3% ( P  =   0.02) and mortality 27.3% versus 28.6% ( P  =   0.90), when treated with linezolid versus vancomycin, respectively. When adjusting using a continuous propensity score, linezolid had an HR of 0.78 (95% CI 0.48-1.27) for CLABSI duration, an OR of 0.23 (95% CI 0.02-2.56) for early recurrence and an OR of 0.9 (95% CI 0.3-2.67) for mortality, relative to vancomycin. There was no statistically significant difference between linezolid and vancomycin when used as definitive treatment for hVICoNS CLABSI in NICU patients, in terms of CLABSI duration, recurrence or all-cause mortality. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Enterococci and Occurrence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Raw Minced Beef and Pork in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Günter; Pack, Alexander; Reuter, Gerhard

    1998-01-01

    The food chain, especially raw minced meat, is thought to be responsible for an increase in the incidence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in human nosocomial infections. Therefore, 555 samples from 115 batches of minced beef and pork from a European Union-licensed meat-processing plant were screened for the occurrence of VRE. The processed meat came from 45 different slaughterhouses in Germany. Enterococci were isolated directly from Enterococcosel selective agar plates and also from Enterococcosel selective agar plates supplemented with 32 mg of vancomycin per liter. In addition, peptone broth was used in a preenrichment procedure, and samples were subsequently plated onto Enterococcosel agar containing vancomycin. To determine resistance, 209 isolates from 275 samples were tested with the glycopeptides vancomycin, teicoplanin, and avoparcin and 19 other antimicrobial substances by using a broth microdilution test. When the direct method was used, VRE were found in 3 of 555 samples (0.5%) at a concentration of 1.0 log CFU/g of minced meat. When the preenrichment procedure was used, 8% of the samples were VRE positive. Our findings indicate that there is a low incidence of VRE in minced meat in Germany. In addition, the resistance patterns of the VRE isolates obtained were different from the resistance patterns of clinical isolates. A connection between the occurrence of VRE in minced meat and nosocomial infections could not be demonstrated on the basis of our findings. PMID:9572958

  20. Increasing Incidence of Linezolid-Intermediate or -Resistant, Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Strains Parallels Increasing Linezolid Consumption▿

    OpenAIRE

    Scheetz, Marc H.; Knechtel, Stephanie A.; Malczynski, Michael; Postelnick, Michael J.; Qi, Chao

    2008-01-01

    Clinical enterococcal resistance to linezolid is defined by the presence of the G2576T mutation. We evaluated the incidence of genetically proven linezolid resistance among vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains and linezolid consumption for a possible association. A relationship was found (r2 = 0.73, P = 0.03) and predicts increasing resistance with current trends of linezolid use.

  1. Detection of Fusobacterium nucleatum in two cases of empyema and lung abscess using paromomycin-vancomycin supplemented Brucella HK agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Kentaro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Kohno, Shigeru

    2017-02-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum was found in patients with empyema or pulmonary abscess, using paromomycin-vancomycin Brucella HK agar. In vitro examination revealed that growth of the strains differed significantly in different media. Clinicians should be aware that suboptimal F. nucleatum cultivation methods may result in an underestimation of its frequency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Direct replacement of antibodies with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles in ELISA – development of a novel assay for vancomycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianella, Iva; Guerreiro, Antonio; Moczko, Ewa; Caygill, J. Sarah; Piletska, Elena V.; Perez De Vargas Sansalvador, Isabel M.; Whitcombe, Michael J.; Piletsky, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    A simple and straightforward technique for coating microplate wells with molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) to develop ELISA type assays is presented here for the first time. NanoMIPs were synthesized by a solid phase approach with immobilized vancomycin (template) and characterized using Biacore 3000, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. Immobilization, blocking and washing conditions were optimized in microplate format. The detection of vancomycin was achieved in competitive binding experiments with a HRP-vancomycin conjugate. The assay was capable of measuring vancomycin in buffer and in blood plasma within the range 0.001-70 nM with a detection limit of 0.0025 nM (2.5 pM). The sensitivity of the assay was three orders of magnitude better than a previously described ELISA based on antibodies. In these experiments nanoMIPs have shown high affinity and minimal interference from blood plasma components. Immobilized nanoMIPs were stored for 1 month at room temperature without any detrimental effects to their binding properties. The high affinity of nanoMIPs and the lack of a requirement for cold chain logistics make them an attractive alternative to traditional antibodies used in ELISA. PMID:23947402

  3. Direct replacement of antibodies with molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles in ELISA--development of a novel assay for vancomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianella, Iva; Guerreiro, Antonio; Moczko, Ewa; Caygill, J Sarah; Piletska, Elena V; De Vargas Sansalvador, Isabel M Perez; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2013-09-03

    A simple and straightforward technique for coating microplate wells with molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) to develop assays similar to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is presented here for the first time. NanoMIPs were synthesized by a solid-phase approach with an immobilized vancomycin (template) and characterized using Biacore 3000, dynamic light scattering, and electron microscopy. Immobilization, blocking, and washing conditions were optimized in microplate format. The detection of vancomycin was achieved in competitive binding experiments with a horseradish peroxidase-vancomycin conjugate. The assay was capable of measuring vancomycin in buffer and in blood plasma within the range of 0.001-70 nM with a detection limit of 0.0025 nM (2.5 pM). The sensitivity of the assay was 3 orders of magnitude better than a previously described ELISA based on antibodies. In these experiments, nanoMIPs have shown high affinity and minimal interference from blood plasma components. Immobilized nanoMIPs were stored for 1 month at room temperature without any detrimental effects to their binding properties. The high affinity of nanoMIPs and the lack of a requirement for cold chain logistics make them an attractive alternative to traditional antibodies used in ELISA.

  4. Typing of vancomycin-resistant enterococci with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in a nosocomial outbreak setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzknecht, B J; Dargis, R; Pedersen, M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) typing as a first-line epidemiological tool in a nosocomial outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm). METHODS: Fifty-five VREfm isolates...

  5. Outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a haematology unit: risk factor assessment and successful control of the epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Gert Jan; van der Zwet, Wil C.; Simoons-Smit, Ina M.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Meester, Helena H. M.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Huijgens, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) on the haematology ward of a Dutch university hospital. After the occurrence of three consecutive cases of bacteraemia with VRE, strains were genotyped and found to be identical. During the next 4 months an intensive

  6. Prevalence and determinants of fecal colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in hospitalized patients in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Braak, N.; Ott, A.; van Belkum, A.; Kluytmans, J. A.; Koeleman, J. G.; Spanjaard, L.; Voss, A.; Weersink, A. J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M.; Buiting, A. G.; Verbrugh, H. A.; Endtz, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and determinants of fecal carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in intensive care unit (ICU), hematology-oncology, and hemodialysis patients in The Netherlands. Descriptive, multicenter study, with yearly 1-week point-prevalence assessments between 1995 and

  7. Serum levels of human MIC-1/GDF15 vary in a diurnal pattern, do not display a profile suggestive of a satiety factor and are related to BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Macia, Laurence; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres...

  8. Clustering, haplotype diversity and locations of MIC-3: a unique root-specific defense-related gene family in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIC-3-related genes of cotton (Gossypium spp.) were identified and shown to have root-specific expression, associated with pathogen defense-related function and specifically increased expression in root-knot nematode (RKN) resistant plants after nematode infection. Here we cloned and sequenced MIC-...

  9. Stellar Winds and Dust Avalanches in the AU Mic Debris Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Eugene; Fung, Jeffrey, E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: jeffrey.fung@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    We explain the fast-moving, ripple-like features in the edge-on debris disk orbiting the young M dwarf AU Mic. The bright features are clouds of submicron dust repelled by the host star’s wind. The clouds are produced by avalanches: radial outflows of dust that gain exponentially more mass as they shatter background disk particles in collisional chain reactions. The avalanches are triggered from a region a few au across—the “avalanche zone”—located on AU Mic’s primary “birth” ring at a true distance of ∼35 au from the star but at a projected distance more than a factor of 10 smaller: the avalanche zone sits directly along the line of sight to the star, on the side of the ring nearest Earth, launching clouds that disk rotation sends wholly to the southeast, as observed. The avalanche zone marks where the primary ring intersects a secondary ring of debris left by the catastrophic disruption of a progenitor up to Varuna in size, less than tens of thousands of years ago. Only where the rings intersect are particle collisions sufficiently violent to spawn the submicron dust needed to seed the avalanches. We show that this picture works quantitatively, reproducing the masses, sizes, and velocities of the observed escaping clouds. The Lorentz force exerted by the wind’s magnetic field, whose polarity reverses periodically according to the stellar magnetic cycle, promises to explain the observed vertical undulations. The timescale between avalanches, about 10 yr, might be set by time variability of the wind mass loss rate or, more speculatively, by some self-regulating limit cycle.

  10. Optical Coronagraphic Spectroscopy of AU Mic: Evidence of Time Variable Colors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Jamie R.; Wisniewski, John P.; Roberge, Aki; Donaldson, Jessica K.; Debes, John H.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Weinberger, Alycia J.

    2018-02-01

    We present coronagraphic long slit spectra of AU Mic’s debris disk taken with the STIS instrument aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Our spectra are the first spatially-resolved, scattered light spectra of the system’s disk, which we detect at projected distances between approximately 10 and 45 au. Our spectra cover a wavelength range between 5200 and 10200 Å. We find that the color of AU Mic’s debris disk is bluest at small (12–17 au) projected separations. These results both confirm and quantify the findings qualitatively noted by Krist et al. and are different than IR observations that suggested a uniform blue or gray color as a function of projected separation in this region of the disk. Unlike previous literature, which reported that the color of AU Mic’s disk became increasingly more blue as a function of projected separation beyond ∼30 au, we find the disk’s optical color between 35 and 45 au to be uniformly blue on the southeast side of the disk and decreasingly blue on the northwest side. We note that this apparent change in disk color at larger projected separations coincides with several fast, outward moving “features” that are passing through this region of the southeast side of the disk. We speculate that these phenomenon might be related and that the fast moving features could be changing the localized distribution of sub-micron-sized grains as they pass by, thereby reducing the blue color of the disk in the process. We encourage follow-up optical spectroscopic observations of AU Mic to both confirm this result and search for further modifications of the disk color caused by additional fast moving features propagating through the disk.

  11. Polymyxin-B and vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Douglas de Sousa; Reis, André da Fonte; Silva Junior, Geraldo Bezerra da; Leite, Tacyano Tavares; Parente Filho, Sérgio Luiz Arruda; Rocha, Carina Vieira de Oliveira; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to investigate renal toxicities of Polymyxin B and Vancomycin among critically ill patients and risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital in Brazil. Patients were divided into two groups: those who used association of Polymyxin B + Vancomycin (Group I) and those who used only Polymyxin B (Group II). Risk factors for AKI were also analyzed. A total of 115 patients were included. Mean age was 59.2 ± 16.1 years, and 52.2% were males. Group I presented higher GFR (117.1 ± 70.5 vs. 91.5 ± 50 ml/min/1.73 m², p = 0.02) as well as lower creatinine (0.9 ± 0.82 vs. 1.0 ± 0.59 mg/dL, p = 0.014) and urea (51.8 ± 23.7 vs. 94.5 ± 4.9 mg/dL, p = 0.006) than group II on admission. Group I also manifested significantly higher incidence of AKI than group II (62.7% vs. 28.5%, p = 0.005), even when stratified according to RIFLE criteria ('Risk' 33.9% vs. 10.7%; 'Injury' 10.2% vs. 8.9%; 'Failure' 18.6% vs. 8.9%; p = 0.03). Accumulated Polymyxin B dose > 10 million IU was an independent predictor for AKI (OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.13-6.51, p = 0.024). Although patients who received Polymyxin B plus vancomycin had more favorable clinical profile and higher previous GFR, they presented a higher AKI incidence than those patients who received Polymyxin B alone. Cumulative Polymyxin B dose > 10 million IU was independently associated to AKI.

  12. Activity of daptomycin- and vancomycin-loaded poly-epsilon-caprolactone microparticles against mature staphylococcal biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ferreira I

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inês Santos Ferreira,1 Ana F Bettencourt,1 Lídia MD Gonçalves,1 Stefanie Kasper,2 Bertrand Bétrisey,3 Judith Kikhney,2 Annette Moter,2 Andrej Trampuz,4 António J Almeida1 1Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal; 2Biofilmcenter, German Heart Institute Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland; 4Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: The aim of the present study was to develop novel daptomycin-loaded poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL microparticles with enhanced antibiofilm activity against mature biofilms of clinically relevant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Daptomycin was encapsulated into PCL microparticles by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. For comparison purposes, formulations containing vancomycin were also prepared. Particle morphology, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, surface charge, thermal behavior, and in vitro release were assessed. All formulations exhibited a spherical morphology, micro­meter size, and negative surface charge. From a very early time stage, the released concentrations of daptomycin and vancomycin were higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration and continued so up to 72 hours. Daptomycin presented a sustained release profile with increasing concentrations of the drug being released up to 72 hours, whereas the release of vancomycin stabilized at 24 hours. The antibacterial activity of the microparticles was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry against planktonic and sessile MRSA and S. epidermidis. Regarding planktonic bacteria, daptomycin-loaded PCL microparticles presented the highest antibacterial activity against both strains. Isothermal

  13. VanA and VanB Positive Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Among Clinical Isolates in Shiraz, South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Saadat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples in Shiraz hospitals. Methods: From March to December 2012, 100 S. aureus isolates (mainly from wound and blood were collected from three hospitals in Shiraz, south of Iran. After identification of Staphylococcus aureus by biochemical, microbiological and molecular methods, antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion test for 13 different antibiotics. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were determined by vancomycin agar screening test and PCR for vancomycin resistant genes (vanA and vanB. Results: The lowest and highest resistance was seen for quinupristin-dalfopristin (n=1 and ampicillin (n=95, respectively. Vancomycin agar screening test showed that 37 isolates can grow on these media. Further study by PCR also detected vanA and/or vanB genes in all of these strains. Also, 19 isolates showed either vanA or vanB but were susceptible according to vancomycin agar screening test. In total, vanA and vanB resistant genes were detected in 34% and 37% of clinical isolates, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the frequency of vancomycin resistance genes (vanA, vanB is very high in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients in south of Iran. Thus, urgent interventions are needed to keep the emergence and transmission of these isolates to a minimum.

  14. Análisis de los problemas expresivos del cómic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís RODRÍGUEZ BELTRÁN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se plantea en este artículo una aproximación a los códigos específicos del cómic que busca principalmente determinar algunas de las relaciones existentes entre los mismos. No se busca, por lo tanto, definir cada uno de estos códigos, tarea ya realizada en numerosos trabajos más extensos que el presente artículo, sino buscar claves que permitan entender por qué algunas historietas presentan una narración fluida y otras, en cambio, resultan de lectura difícil y poco clara. El proceso que se siguió a este efecto fue la realización de un estudio estadístico sobre una muestra de cómics "de calidad". Los criterios para la selección de la muestra residieron fundamentalmente en la eliminación de subproductos, con la intención de dejar aisladas una serie de historietas narradas con efectividad. A continuación, una vez definida la muestra, se trató de convertir en variables bipolares todo aquello que, a juicio del autor y de las referencias consultadas, fuera de importancia como código específico o elemento significativo en una narración de viñetas. El resultado arroja cierta luz sobre la conveniencia o no de usar determinados recursos de modo conjunto, y podría resultar útil como marco de referencia flexible para aquellos interesados en conocer la gramática del cómic más allá de sus elementos constitutivos mínimos.ABSTRACT: This article sets forth an approach to the specific codes of the comic, in which the main aim is to determine some of the relationships existing between them. The objective is thus not to define each one of these codes - a task already performed in numerous studies, more extensive than this article, - but to find keys that will enable us to understand why some comic strips have a fluent series of incidents and others, on the contrary, are difficult to read and not very clear. The process foliowed for this purpose was that of carrying out a statistical study of a sample of "quality" comics. The

  15. Potentials of plasma NGAL and MIC-1 as biomarker(s in the diagnosis of lethal pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhwinder Kaur

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer (PC is lethal malignancy with very high mortality rate. Absence of sensitive and specific marker(s is one of the major factors for poor prognosis of PC patients. In pilot studies using small set of patients, secreted acute phase proteins neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL and TGF-β family member macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1 are proposed as most potential biomarkers specifically elevated in the blood of PC patients. However, their performance as diagnostic markers for PC, particularly in pre-treatment patients, remains unknown. In order to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of NGAL and MIC-1, their levels were measured in plasma samples from patients with pre-treatment PC patients (n = 91 and compared it with those in healthy control (HC individuals (n = 24 and patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP, n = 23. The diagnostic performance of these two proteins was further compared with that of CA19-9, a tumor marker commonly used to follow PC progression. The levels of all three biomarkers were significantly higher in PC compared to HCs. The mean (± standard deviation, SD plasma NGAL, CA19-9 and MIC-1 levels in PC patients was 111.1 ng/mL (2.2, 219.2 U/mL (7.8 and 4.5 ng/mL (4.1, respectively. In comparing resectable PC to healthy patients, all three biomarkers were found to have comparable sensitivities (between 64%-81% but CA19-9 and NGAL had a higher specificity (92% and 88%, respectively. For distinguishing resectable PC from CP patients, CA19-9 and MIC-1 were most specific (74% and 78% respectively. CA19-9 at an optimal cut-off of 54.1 U/ml is highly specific in differentiating resectable (stage 1/2 pancreatic cancer patients from controls in comparison to its clinical cut-off (37.1 U/ml. Notably, the addition of MIC-1 to CA19-9 significantly improved the ability to distinguish resectable PC cases from CP (p = 0.029. Overall, MIC-1 in combination with CA19-9 improved the diagnostic

  16. Efecto del EcoMic® en la emergencia de plántulas de Jatropha curcas (Nota Técnica Effect of EcoMic® on the emergence of Jatropha curcas seedlings (Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolai Noda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estudiar el efecto del EcoMic® en la emergencia de las plántulas de Jatropha curcas, se hizo una prueba de observación en el laboratorio de análisis químico de la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes «Indio Hatuey». Se usaron semillas recién cosechadas, en dos tratamientos: semillas inoculadas con EcoMic® (T1, y sin inóculo (T2, con cuatro réplicas de 100 semillas cada una. Se utilizó un diseño totalmente aleatorizado y se realizaron 15 observaciones (a los 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 y 16 días de emergencia. Las medias se compararon a través de un análisis descriptivo. El efecto del T1 fue notable durante todo el período; a partir del cuarto día se observaron 45 plántulas emergidas, lo que representó el 11,2% del total de las tratadas con este biofertilizante, y el último día del estudio había emergido el 96,2%. En el T2 no se observaron plántulas emergidas en ningún momento. Se concluye que el EcoMic® ejerció un efecto positivo en la emergencia de las plántulas de J. curcas al ser utilizado como inóculo en condiciones de laboratorio. Se recomienda realizar estudios pregerminativos para determinar la dormancia en la semilla de Jatropha, teniendo en cuenta el empleo del EcoMic® como uno de los tratamientos.In order to study the effect of EcoMic® on the emergence of Jatropha curcas seedlings, an observation test was conducted in the laboratory of chemical analysis of the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages «Indio Hatuey». Newly-harvested seeds were used, in two treatments: seeds inoculated with EcoMic® (T1, and without inoculation (T2, with four replications of 100 seeds each. A completely randomized design was used and 15 observations were made (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 days after emergence. The means were compared through a descriptive analysis. The effect of T1 was remarkable throughout the period; since the fourth day 45

  17. Modeling the economic impact of linezolid versus vancomycin in confirmed nosocomial pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipen A; Shorr, Andrew F; Chastre, Jean; Niederman, Michael; Simor, Andrew; Stephens, Jennifer M; Charbonneau, Claudie; Gao, Xin; Nathwani, Dilip

    2014-07-22

    We compared the economic impacts of linezolid and vancomycin for the treatment of hospitalized patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-confirmed nosocomial pneumonia. We used a 4-week decision tree model incorporating published data and expert opinion on clinical parameters, resource use and costs (in 2012 US dollars), such as efficacy, mortality, serious adverse events, treatment duration and length of hospital stay. The results presented are from a US payer perspective. The base case first-line treatment duration for patients with MRSA-confirmed nosocomial pneumonia was 10 days. Clinical treatment success (used for the cost-effectiveness ratio) and failure due to lack of efficacy, serious adverse events or mortality were possible clinical outcomes that could impact costs. Cost of treatment and incremental cost-effectiveness per successfully treated patient were calculated for linezolid versus vancomycin. Univariate (one-way) and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. The model allowed us to calculate the total base case inpatient costs as $46,168 (linezolid) and $46,992 (vancomycin). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio favored linezolid (versus vancomycin), with lower costs ($824 less) and greater efficacy (+2.7% absolute difference in the proportion of patients successfully treated for MRSA nosocomial pneumonia). Approximately 80% of the total treatment costs were attributed to hospital stay (primarily in the intensive care unit). The results of our probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated that linezolid is the cost-effective alternative under varying willingness to pay thresholds. These model results show that linezolid has a favorable incremental cost-effectiveness ratio compared to vancomycin for MRSA-confirmed nosocomial pneumonia, largely attributable to the higher clinical trial response rate of patients treated with linezolid. The higher drug acquisition cost of linezolid was offset by lower treatment failure

  18. Evaluation of body weight-based vancomycin therapy and the incidence of nephrotoxicity: a retrospective study in the northwest of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mo-Han; Wang, Jing-Wen; Wu, Yin; Chen, Bei-Yu; Yu, Min; Wen, Ai-Dong

    2015-08-01

    To identify specific risk factors of vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity in China, as the relationship between vancomycin therapy (dosing and trough concentration monitoring) and nephrotoxicity has been the subject of critical debate. The cases of 90 critically ill patients who received vancomycin therapy in Xijing Hospital in the northwest of China between March 2014 and January 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Vancomycin dosing, blood serum trough concentration, and other independent risk factors associated with nephrotoxicity were evaluated in a multivariable model. Among the 90 critically ill patients, 59 were males; mean age was 46.3 years. The indications for vancomycin use were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-associated pneumonia, central nervous system infection, and bacteremia. Clinical pharmacists prescribed weight-based dosing, ranging from 20 to 45mg/kg/day. Fourteen (15.6%) patients developed nephrotoxicity, with serum creatinine elevated significantly from a mean (standard deviation) of 90.0 (18.8) μmol/l to 133.8 (63.2) μmol/l (p = 0.015). It was found that those with a vancomycin dosage >38mg/kg/day (50.0% vs. 11.3%, p = 0.004) and a vancomycin serum trough concentration >20mg/l (57.1% vs. 12.0%, p = 0.01) were more likely to develop nephrotoxicity. The data from this study indicate that a vancomycin dosage >38mg/kg/day and a serum trough level >20mg/l are both independent factors associated with the development of nephrotoxicity, suggesting that renal function should be monitored closely during vancomycin treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum Levels of Human MIC-1/GDF15 Vary in a Diurnal Pattern, Do Not Display a Profile Suggestive of a Satiety Factor and Are Related to BMI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres in the hypothalamus and brainstem. More recent studies in germline gene deleted mice also suggest that this cytokine may play a role in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis. To further characterize the role of MIC-1/GDF15 in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis in man, we have examined diurnal and food associated variation in serum levels and whether variation in circulating levels relate to BMI in human monozygotic twin pairs. We found that the within twin pair differences in serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels were significantly correlated with within twin pair differences in BMI, suggesting a role for MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of energy balance in man. MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels altered slightly in response to a meal, but comparison with variation its serum levels over a 24 hour period suggested that these changes are likely to be due to bimodal diurnal variation which can alter serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels by about plus or minus 10% from the mesor. The lack of a rapid and substantial postprandial increase in MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels suggests that MIC1/GDF15 is unlikely to act as a satiety factor. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 may be a physiological regulator of energy homeostasis in man, most probably due to actions on long-term regulation of energy homeostasis.

  20. Modulating activity of vancomycin and daptomycin on the expression of autolysis cell-wall turnover and membrane charge genes in hVISA and VISA strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Cafiso

    Full Text Available Glycopeptides are still the gold standard to treat MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, but their widespread use has led to vancomycin-reduced susceptibility [heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate-Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA and Vancomycin-Intermediate-Staphylococcus aureus (VISA], in which different genetic loci (regulatory, autolytic, cell-wall turnover and cell-envelope positive charge genes are involved. In addition, reduced susceptibility to vancomycin can influence the development of resistance to daptomycin. Although the phenotypic and molecular changes of hVISA/VISA have been the focus of different papers, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these different phenotypes and for the vancomycin and daptomycin cross-resistance are not clearly understood. The aim of our study was to investigate, by real time RT-PCR, the relative quantitative expression of genes involved in autolysis (atl-lytM, cell-wall turnover (sceD, membrane charges (mprF-dltA and regulatory mechanisms (agr-locus-graRS-walKR, in hVISA and VISA cultured with or without vancomycin and daptomycin, in order to better understand the molecular basis of vancomycin-reduced susceptibility and the modulating activity of vancomycin and daptomycin on the expression of genes implicated in their reduced susceptibility mechanisms. Our results show that hVISA and VISA present common features that distinguish them from Vancomycin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA, responsible for the intermediate glycopeptide resistance i.e. an increased cell-wall turnover, an increased positive cell-wall charge responsible for a repulsion mechanism towards vancomycin and daptomycin, and reduced agr-functionality. Indeed, VISA emerges from hVISA when VISA acquires a reduced autolysis caused by a down-regulation of autolysin genes, atl/lytM, and a reduction of the net negative cell-envelope charge via dltA over-expression. Vancomycin and daptomycin, acting in a similar

  1. Observed Antagonistic Effect of Linezolid on Daptomycin or Vancomycin Activity against Biofilm-Forming Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Megan K.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacodynamic activity in antibiotic combinations of daptomycin, vancomycin, and linezolid was investigated in a 48-h in vitro pharmacodynamic model. Using human-simulated free drug concentrations, activity against clinical biofilm-forming methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates was evaluated. Linezolid antagonized vancomycin activity at 24 and 48 h. Linezolid antagonized daptomycin at 24 and 48 h depending on dose and strain. Adding daptomycin increased vancomycin activity at 48 h (P < 0.03). These results may be strain dependent and require further clinical investigation. PMID:26369963

  2. Optimisation of the synthesis of vancomycin-selective molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles using automatic photoreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Kateryna; Karim, Khalku; Guerreiro, Antonio; Poma, Alessandro; Piletsky, Sergey

    2014-03-01

    A novel optimized protocol for solid-state synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) with specificity for antibiotic vancomycin is described. The experimental objective was optimization of the synthesis parameters (factors) affecting the yield of obtained nanoparticles which have been synthesized using the first prototype of an automated solid-phase synthesizer. Applications of experimental design (or design of experiments) in optimization of nanoMIP yield were carried out using MODDE 9.0 software. The factors chosen in the model were the amount of functional monomers in the polymerization mixture, irradiation time, temperature during polymerization, and elution temperature. In general, it could be concluded that the irradiation time is the most important and the temperature was the least important factor which influences the yield of nanoparticles. Overall, the response surface methodology proved to be an effective tool in reducing time required for optimization of complex experimental conditions.

  3. Cómo, cuándo y por qué hicimos un cómic bollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Arquero (Project Manager

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo traza un recorrido por distintos aspectos que desempeñaron un papel destacado en la génesis del cómic Salidas de Emergencia. Sus autoras explican la importancia que su situación personal y el contexto político de la España de 2005 tuvieron en la decisión de iniciar su proyecto creativo, situándonos a la vez en las coordenadas culturales en que éste se inscribe. Con ello, también se lleva a cabo un repaso por distintos productos culturales de temática lésbica, con el que se ponen en evidencia las particularidades de este cómic.

  4. Surveillance and endemic vancomycin-resistant enterococci: some success in control is possible.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morris-Downes, M

    2010-07-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are prevalent in many Irish hospitals. We analysed surveillance data from 2001 to 2008 in a centre where VRE is endemic. All clinically significant enterococci were tested for susceptibility to vancomycin. All intensive care unit admissions were screened on admission and weekly thereafter. Interventions included isolating\\/cohorting VRE patients, monthly prevalence surveys of VRE patients, the introduction of an electronic alert system, programmes to improve hand and environmental hygiene, and the appointment of an antibiotic pharmacist. There was a significant increase in the number of positive VRE screening samples from 2001 (1.96 patients with positive VRE screens per 10 000 bed-days) to 2006 (4.98 per 10 000 bed-days) (P < or = 0.001) with a decrease in 2007 (3.18 per 10 000 bed-days) (P < or = 0.01). The number of VRE bloodstream infections (BSI) increased from 0.09 BSI per 10 000 bed-days in 2001 to 0.78 per 10 000 bed-days in 2005 (P < or = 0.001) but decreased subsequently. Linear regression analysis indicated a significant association between new cases of VRE and non-isolated VRE patients, especially between May 2005 and December 2006 [P=0.009; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08-0.46] and between May 2005 and December 2008 (P = 0.008; 95% CI: 0.06-0.46). Routine surveillance for VRE together with other measures can control VRE BSI and colonisation, even where VRE is endemic, and where facilities are constrained.

  5. Halloysite nanotubes as carriers of vancomycin in alginate-based wound dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurczewska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an inorganic support – halloysite nanotubes – on the release rate and biological activity of the antibiotic encapsulated in alginate-based dressings was studied. The halloysite samples were loaded with approx. 10 wt.% of the antibiotic and then encapsulated in Alginate and Gelatin/Alginate gels. The material functionalized with aliphatic amine significantly extended the release of vancomycin from alginate-based gels as compared to that achieved when silica was used. After 24 h, the released amounts of the antibiotic immobilized at silica reached 70%, while for the drug immobilized at halloysite the released amount of vancomycin reached 44% for Alginate discs. The addition of gelatin resulted in even more prolonged sustained release of the drug. The antibiotic was released from the system with a double barrier with Higuchi kinetic model and Fickian diffusion mechanism. Only the immobilized drug encapsulated in Alginate gel demonstrated very good antimicrobial activity against various bacteria. The inhibition zones were greater than those of the standard discs for the staphylococci and enterococci bacteria tested. The addition of gelatin adversely affected the biological activity of the system. The inhibition zones were smaller than those of the reference samples. A reduction in the drug dose by half had no significant effect on changing the release rate and microbiological activity. The in vivo toxicity studies of the material with immobilized drug were carried out with Acutodesmus acuminatus and Daphnia magna. The material studied had no effect on the living organisms used in the bioassays. The proposed system with a double barrier demonstrated high storage stability.

  6. Halloysite nanotubes as carriers of vancomycin in alginate-based wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczewska, Joanna; Pecyna, Paulina; Ratajczak, Magdalena; Gajęcka, Marzena; Schroeder, Grzegorz

    2017-09-01

    The influence of an inorganic support - halloysite nanotubes - on the release rate and biological activity of the antibiotic encapsulated in alginate-based dressings was studied. The halloysite samples were loaded with approx. 10 wt.% of the antibiotic and then encapsulated in Alginate and Gelatin/Alginate gels. The material functionalized with aliphatic amine significantly extended the release of vancomycin from alginate-based gels as compared to that achieved when silica was used. After 24 h, the released amounts of the antibiotic immobilized at silica reached 70%, while for the drug immobilized at halloysite the released amount of vancomycin reached 44% for Alginate discs. The addition of gelatin resulted in even more prolonged sustained release of the drug. The antibiotic was released from the system with a double barrier with Higuchi kinetic model and Fickian diffusion mechanism. Only the immobilized drug encapsulated in Alginate gel demonstrated very good antimicrobial activity against various bacteria. The inhibition zones were greater than those of the standard discs for the staphylococci and enterococci bacteria tested. The addition of gelatin adversely affected the biological activity of the system. The inhibition zones were smaller than those of the reference samples. A reduction in the drug dose by half had no significant effect on changing the release rate and microbiological activity. The in vivo toxicity studies of the material with immobilized drug were carried out with Acutodesmus acuminatus and Daphnia magna . The material studied had no effect on the living organisms used in the bioassays. The proposed system with a double barrier demonstrated high storage stability.

  7. Prevalence of Methicillin and Vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in nasopharynx; Amir-Alam hospital, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibi M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections with high morbidity and mortality rate. Traditionally, methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus has been considered a major nosocomial pathogen in healthcare facilities, but in the past decade, it has been observed emerging in the community as well. Informations regarding hospital microbial colonization could be an important step for prevention of nosocomial infections. Our objective was clarifying the prevalence of methicillin resistant and vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus colonization in nasopharynx. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 106 patients and nursing staff of surgery and hemodialysis wards in Amir-Alam hospital from April 2005 to July 2005. The samples were collected from nasal region of cases using cotton swab by two experienced technician and were sent to laboratory for culture and antibiogram. Results: Twenty six (29.5% out of 106 cases were nasopharyngeal carriers of staphylococcus aureus. Eight cases (7.5% had methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus. The most frequent colonization rate was seen in hemodialysis nursing staff and in all of them methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus was reported. Carrier rates in hemodialysis patients were twice compared to surgery ward patients. The interesting point was that no sample of vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus was isolated. Conclusion: Prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus colonization seems to be increased; therefore proper management for controlling this problem is mandatory. The results of the present study suggest that the prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus infections is higher than was expected in Iran and vigorous preventive strategies should therefore be taken to stop the growth of this major health problem.

  8. The effects of amoxicillin and vancomycin on parameters reflecting cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, S; Reijnders, D; Konings, M C J M; Groen, A K; Lütjohann, D; Goossens, G H; Blaak, E E; Plat, J

    2017-10-01

    Changes in the microbiota composition have been implicated in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, not much is known on the involvement of gut microbiota in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. In addition, the gut microbiota might also be a potential source of plasma oxyphytosterol and oxycholesterol concentrations (oxidation products of plant sterols and cholesterol). Therefore, the aim of this study was to modulate the gut microbiota by antibiotic therapy to investigate effects on parameters reflecting cholesterol metabolism and oxyphytosterol concentrations. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in which 55 obese, pre-diabetic men received oral amoxicillin (broad-spectrum antibiotic), vancomycin (antibiotic directed against Gram-positive bacteria) or placebo (microcrystalline cellulose) capsules for 7days (1500mg/day). Plasma lipid and lipoprotein, non-cholesterol sterol, bile acid and oxy(phyto)sterol concentrations were determined at baseline and after 1-week intervention. Plasma secondary bile acids correlated negatively with cholestanol (marker for cholesterol absorption, r=-0.367; Pcholesterol synthesis, r=0.430; Pcholesterol metabolism, plasma TAG, total cholesterol, LDL-C or HDL-C concentrations as compared to placebo. In addition, both antibiotic treatments did not affect individual isoforms or total plasma oxyphytosterol or oxycholesterol concentrations. Despite strong correlations between plasma bile acid concentrations and cholesterol metabolism (synthesis and absorption), amoxicillin and vancomycin treatment for 7days did not affect plasma lipid and lipoprotein, plasma non-cholesterol sterol and oxy(phyto)sterol concentrations in obese, pre-diabetic men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Postantibiotic effect and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect of LTX-109 and mupirocin on Staphylococcus aureus blood isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravolatz, L D; Pawlak, J; Martin, H; Saravolatz, S; Johnson, L; Wold, H; Husbyn, M; Olsen, W M

    2017-11-01

    The development of new synthetic antimicrobial peptides like LTX-109 provides a new class of drugs for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections. We evaluated LTX-109 and mupirocin for pharmacodynamic parameters against 10 methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. The postantibiotic effect (PAE) is defined as the length of time that bacterial growth is suppressed following a brief exposure to an antibiotic. We also determined the sub-MIC effect (SME) which measures the direct effect of subinhibitory levels on strains that have not previously been exposed to antibiotics. The postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PA-SME) is a combination of the PAE and SME. LTX-109 had an average PAE of 5·51 h vs 1·04 h for mupirocin. The PA-SME of LTX-109 ranged from 2·51 to 9·33 h as the concentration increased from 0·2 to 0·4 times the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The PA-SME range for mupirocin was 0·93-2·58 h. LTX-109, as compared to mupirocin, demonstrated prolonged time of effect for these pharmacodynamic parameters, which supports persistent activity for several hours after the drug is no longer present or is below the MIC. The pharmacodynamic parameters studied here suggest that LTX-109 is less likely than mupirocin to generate resistance to S. aureus. Resistant bacterial infections continue to be a challenge for clinicians. Identification of antibiotics with pharmacodynamic advantages may be beneficial in the treatment of these infections. An antibiotic with a longer postantibiotic effect may be able to be administered less frequently resulting in improved adherence. In this study, a new synthetic antimicrobial peptide, LTX-109, demonstrated a more prolonged time for LTX-109 than mupirocin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Webgrafia al voltant del ciberplagi. Referències a la xarxa sobre el ciberplagi acadèmic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Sureda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En aquest article es proporcionen les fonts de documentació que hi ha a internet i que poden aportar al lector que hi estigui interessat un coneixement més profund de qualsevol de les cares, les arestes i els vèrtexs del polièdric fenomen del plagi acadèmic entre l'alumnat. Text complet (PDFDossier complet (PDF

  11. Optimizing the updated Goddard shortwave radiation Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) scheme for Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.-L.

    2015-05-01

    Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) ushers in a new era of supercomputing speed, performance, and compatibility. It allows the developers to run code at trillions of calculations per second using the familiar programming model. In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the updated Goddard shortwave radiation Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The co-processor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is familiar one to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of Xeon Phi will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discusses in this paper. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 1.3x.

  12. Measuring coverage in MNCH: tracking progress in health for women and children using DHS and MICS household surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Hancioglu

    Full Text Available Household surveys are the primary data source of coverage indicators for children and women for most developing countries. Most of this information is generated by two global household survey programmes-the USAID-supported Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. In this review, we provide an overview of these two programmes, which cover a wide range of child and maternal health topics and provide estimates of many Millennium Development Goal indicators, as well as estimates of the indicators for the Countdown to 2015 initiative and the Commission on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. MICS and DHS collaborate closely and work through interagency processes to ensure that survey tools are harmonized and comparable as far as possible, but we highlight differences between DHS and MICS in the population covered and the reference periods used to measure coverage. These differences need to be considered when comparing estimates of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health indicators across countries and over time and we discuss the implications of these differences for coverage measurement. Finally, we discuss the need for survey planners and consumers of survey results to understand the strengths, limitations, and constraints of coverage measurements generated through household surveys, and address some technical issues surrounding sampling and quality control. We conclude that, although much effort has been made to improve coverage measurement in household surveys, continuing efforts are needed, including further research to improve and refine survey methods and analytical techniques.

  13. LiF Reduces MICs of Antibiotics against Clinical Isolates of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Syed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem yet the development of new antibiotics has slowed to a trickle, giving rise to the use of combination therapy to eradicate infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined inhibitory effect of lithium fluoride (LiF and commonly used antimicrobials on the growth of the following bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccoccus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The in vitro activities of ceftazidime, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, streptomycin, erythromycin, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, alone or combined with LiF were performed by microdilution method. MICs were determined visually following 18–20 h of incubation at 37°C. We observed reduced MICs of antibiotics associated with LiF ranging from two-fold to sixteen-fold. The strongest decreases of MICs observed were for streptomycin and erythromycin associated with LiF against Acinetobacter baumannii and Streptococcus pneumoniae. An eight-fold reduction was recorded for streptomycin against S. pneumoniae whereas an eight-fold and a sixteen-fold reduction were obtained for erythromycin against A. baumannii and S. pneumoniae. This suggests that LiF exhibits a synergistic effect with a wide range of antibiotics and is indicative of its potential as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy.

  14. De los cómics a la cinematografía = From Comics to Cinematography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Gubern Garriga-Nogués

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde una perspectiva multidisciplinar nos sumergimos en la Historia del Arte para bucear en los antecedentes del cómic y, a partir de ahí, seguir a lo largo del tiempo la interacción que ha existido entre éste y los grandes medios de difusión de imágenes y de creación de iconos visuales: pintura, fotografía y especialmente el cine. Analiza el paso de la imagen estática a la imagen en movimiento tanto en la alta cultura como en la cultura popular y como todas estas artes visuales se han interrelacionado y retroalimentado, mucho más aún en la actualidad. Un largo recorrido que tiene por objeto rastrear los procesos, la dinámica y la evolución que existe alrededor de la viñeta desde sus orígenes ancestrales hasta el mundo del cine, sus semejanzas y sus diferencias, su interactividad y, sobre todo la influencia y los nexos existentes entre uno y otro en la búsqueda y desarrollo de un lenguaje plástico narrativo.From a multidisciplinary perspective we immerse ourselves into the History of Art, to dive into the background of the history of comics and, from there, to follow along the way the interaction that has existed between this and the main media that are specialized in images and creating visual icons, painting, photography and especially the cinema. It analyses the step from the static image to the moving image, in both high culture and popular culture, and shows how all these visual arts have been interrelating and have nurtured themselves, even more so nowadays. A long journey that aims to track the processes, the dynamic and the evolution that exist around the vignette from their ancestral origins to the cinematic world, their similarities and their differences, its interactivity and especially the influence and links between one another in the pursuit and development of a narrative visual language.

  15. The anorectic actions of the TGFβ cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 require an intact brainstem area postrema and nucleus of the solitary tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15 modulates food intake and body weight under physiological and pathological conditions by acting on the hypothalamus and brainstem. When overexpressed in disease, such as in advanced cancer, elevated serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels lead to an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. To gain a better understanding of its actions in the brainstem we studied MIC-1/GDF15 induced neuronal activation identified by induction of Fos protein. Intraperitoneal injection of human MIC-1/GDF15 in mice activated brainstem neurons in the area postrema (AP and the medial (m portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, which did not stain with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. To determine the importance of these brainstem nuclei in the anorexigenic effect of MIC-1/GDF15, we ablated the AP alone or the AP and the NTS. The latter combined lesion completely reversed the anorexigenic effects of MIC-1/GDF15. Altogether, this study identified neurons in the AP and/or NTS, as being critical for the regulation of food intake and body weight by MIC-1/GDF15.

  16. An Outbreak of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium in an Acute Care Pediatric Hospital: Lessons from Environmental Screening and a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Drews

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study describes a vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE outbreak investigation and a case-control study to identify risk factors for VRE acquisition in a tertiary care pediatric hospital.

  17. Antistaphylococcal Activity of DX-619 Alone and in Combination with Vancomycin, Teicoplanin, and Linezolid Assessed by Time-Kill Synergy Testing▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Lin, Genrong; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    Time-kill synergy studies testing in vitro activity of DX-619 alone and with added vancomycin, teicoplanin, or linezolid against 101 Staphylococcus aureus strains showed synergy between DX-619 and teicoplanin at 12 to 24 h in 72 strains and between DX-619 and vancomycin in 28 strains. No synergy was found with linezolid, and no antagonism was observed with any combination. PMID:17261625

  18. Comparrisson of MICs of ceftioufur and other antimicrobial agents against bacterial pathogens of swine from the United States, Canada and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmon, S.A.; Watts, J.L.; Case, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    , sulfamethazine, trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (1:19), erythromycin, lincomycin, spectinomycin, lincomycin-spectinomycin (1:8), tilmicosin, and tetracycline. Tilmicosin was only tested against the U.S. isolates. Overall, ceftiofur and enrofloxacin were the most active antimicrobial agents tested against all isolates.......0 and 8.0 mu g/ml, respectively). However, this compound was not active against the remaining U.S. isolates (MIC(90)s, >64.0 mu g/ml), Differences in the MICs from one country to another were not detected with enrofloxacin, ceftiofur, or lincomycin for the strains tested, but variations in the MICs...

  19. Les etapes d’édification de la fortification de Horodca Mică

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Munteanu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La fortification Horodca Mică est située dans la zone centrale de l'espace pruto-dniesterien, aux environs des sources de la rivière Botna, et elle est devenue objet des recherches systématiques depuis 2006. Plusieurs des résultats obtenus depuis cette date on été publiés entre temps. On compte parmi ceux-ci une étude concernant les éléments défensifs de la forteresse, où l'on a mis en avant l'hypothèse d'une fortification par étapes, du promontoire, alternées avec des destructions périodiques. Au départ, on avait plus insisté sur la première phase d'édification du système défensif, en décrivant ses éléments constitutifs, les techniques utilisées dans le processus d'édification, mais aussi l'évolution de la fortification même, jusqu'au dévastateur incendie qui a écroulé la construction défensive. Dans cet article on a repris le débat portant sur le système défensif. L'hypothèse sur laquelle on se fonde admet l'existence de trois autres phases de refortification du même espace, suite à la première destruction. Pour l'argumentaire de ce point de vue on s'est proposé de présenter dans un premier temps, le tableau des observations objectives, enregistrées sur le terrain, et dans un deuxième temps, partant de ces observations, offrir une explication de la vision que nous avons construit. Cette analyse porte y compris sur les modalités d'édification du système défensif dans chacune des phases identifiées, sur les techniques et matériaux utilisés, ainsi que des raisonnements concernant les repères chronologiques. On est donc d'avis que dans ces phases ultérieures de fortification du promontoire, a été procédé de la même manière que dans la première : un fossé a été creusé (en réalité c'est l'ancien qui a été étendu en largeur, derrière a été montée une palissade complexe, en bois (sur le sommet même de la vague constituée suite à l'écroulement de la construction de la phase

  20. Analysis of the world epidemiological situation among vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections and the current situation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga-Ćwiertnia, Katarzyna; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2018-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) strains have become an important hospital pathogen due to their rapid spread, high mortality rate associated with infections and limited therapeutic options. Vancomycin resistance is predominantly mediated by VanA or VanB phenotypes, which differ as regards maintaining sensitivity to teicoplanin in the VanB phenotype. The majority of VREfm cases in the United States, Europe, Korea, South America and Africa are currently caused by the VanA phenotype. However, the epidemics in Australia and Singapore are chiefly brought about by the VanB phenotype. The rate of VREfm isolate spread varies greatly. The greatest percentage of VREfm is now recorded in the USA, Ireland and Australia. Supervision of VRE is implemented to varying degrees. Therefore, the epidemiological situation in some countries is difficult to assess due to limited data or lack thereof.

  1. Identification and molecular characterization of Van A-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinalda Anselmo Vilela

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE in Brazil has rapidly increased, following the world wide tendency. We report in the present study the first isolation of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE in the Northeast of Brazil. The four VRE isolates were characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility, genotypic typing by macro restriction of chromosomal DNA followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and for characterization of the Tn1546-like element and plasmid contents. The isolates showed resistance to multiple antibiotics and a single genotype profile, suggesting the dissemination of a single clone among the patients. Tn1546 associated to genetic elements as plasmids shows the importance of infection control measures to avoid the spreading of glycopetide resistance by conjugative transfer of VanA elements.

  2. Simultaneous determination of vancomycin and ceftazidime in cerebrospinal fluid in craniotomy patients by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guangming; Cai, Xuejian; Wang, Biao; Zhou, Zhongxian; Yu, Xiaohua; Wang, Weibin; Zhang, Jiandong; Wang, Yuhai; Dong, Jierong; Jiang, Yunyun

    2008-11-04

    A simple, accurate and rapid method for simultaneous analysis of vancomycin and ceftazidime in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), has been developed and thoroughly validated to satisfy strict FDA guidelines for bioanalytical methods. Protein precipitation was used as the sample pretreatment method. In order to increase the accuracy, tinidazole was chosen as the internal standard. Separation was achieved on a Diamonsil C18 column (200 mm x 4.6mm I.D., 5 microm) using a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and acetate buffer (pH 3.5) (8:92, v/v) at room temperature (25 degrees C), and the detection wavelength was 240 nm. All the validation data, such as accuracy, precision, and inter-day repeatability, were within the required limits. The method was applied to determine vancomycin and ceftazidime concentrations in CSF in five craniotomy patients.

  3. Ring Current Ion Composition during Solar Minimum and Rising Solar Activity: POLAR/CAMMICE/MICS Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pulkkinen, T

    2001-01-01

    ... observations from the WIND spacecraft during a period from September 1996 to March 1999. The statistics are performed both for time-averaged values for all periods as well as for peak flux values during geomagnetic storms (defined as Dst < -50 nT...

  4. Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 limits the recurrence of Clostridium difficile-Induced colitis following vancomycin withdrawal in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Leo R; Small, Jeffrey S; Greene, Wallace H; Karpa, Kelly D; Farmer, Sean; Keller, David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Recently, we found that the probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (GanedenBC30) improved indices of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)-induced colitis in mice (Fitzpatrick et al., Gut Pathogens, 2011). Our goal was to determine if BC30 could also prevent the recurrence of C. difficile-induced colitis in mice, following initial treatment with vancomycin. During study days 0 through 5, mice were treated with antibiotics. On day 6, the C. difficile strain VPI 104...

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis on the use of fidaxomicin and vancomycin to treat Clostridium difficile infection in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Maureen; Dinh, Aurélien; Le Monnier, Alban; Tilleul, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Fidaxomicin is a macrocyclic antibiotic with proven efficacy against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. It was licensed in France in 2012, but, due to higher acquisition costs compared with existing treatments, healthcare providers require information on its cost/benefit profile. To compare healthcare costs and health outcomes of fidaxomicin and vancomycin, as reference treatment for CDI. A Markov model was used to simulate the treatment pathway, over 1 year, of adult patients with CDI receiving fidaxomicin or vancomycin. Several patient sub-groups (severe CDI; recurrent CDI; concomitant antibiotics; cancer; renal failure; elderly) were evaluated. Cost-effectiveness was analyzed based on cure and recurrence rates derived from published randomized clinical trials comparing fidaxomicin and vancomycin, and costs calculated from the payer perspective using French hospitalization data and drug cost databases. Model outputs included costs in euros (reference year 2014) and health outcomes (recurrence; sustained cure rates). Alternative scenario and sensitivity analyses were performed using data from other clinical trials in CDI, including one conducted in real-life clinical practice in France. Drug acquisition costs were €1,692 higher in fidaxomicin-treated patients, but this was offset by the lower hospitalization costs with fidaxomicin, which were reduced by €1,722. The reduction in the cost of hospitalization was driven by the significantly lower number of recurrences in fidaxomicin-treated patients, offsetting the acquisition cost of fidaxomicin in all sub-groups except recurrent CDI and concomitant antibiotics. This study demonstrated that, despite higher acquisition costs, the lower recurrence rate with fidaxomicin resulted in cost savings or low incremental costs compared with vancomycin.

  6. Análisis clínico-epidemiológico de la portación intestinal de enterococos resistentes a vancomicina en una unidad de terapia intensiva Clinical and epidemiologic analysis of intestinal tract colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci in an intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Togneri

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available En un período de cinco meses y 25 días se investigó la portación intestinal de enterococos resistentes a vancomicina (EVR. Se estudiaron 124 pacientes (73% de 171 admitidos en la unidad de terapia intensiva (UTI, 35 de los cuales (28% resultaron ser portadores. Los aislamientos de EVR (n=35 fueron identificados como Enterococcus faecium (n=18, Enterococcus gallinarum (n=16 y Enterococcus raffinosus (n=1. Todos los aislamientos estudiados fueron resistentes a vancomicina (VAN (CIM90= 512 µg/ml y teicoplanina (CIM90= 32 µg/ml y portaban el gen vanA. Los estudios de tipificación molecular mostraron un alto grado de homología entre los aislamientos de E. faecium (un clon dominante y E. gallinarum (dos tipos clonales, sugiriendo su diseminación a modo de brote. No se encontraron diferencias significativas con la edad y el sexo de los pacientes no portadores (p>0,05, pero si con el tiempo de hospitalización y el uso de esquemas antibióticos de amplio espectro (pIntestinal tract colonization with vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE was studied during five months and 25 days. Out of 171 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit, 124 (73% were included in this study. Thirty five of them (28% were recognized as colonized with VRE. VRE isolates (n = 35 were identified as Enterococcus faecium (n=18, Enterococcus gallinarum (n=16, and Enterococcus raffinosus (n=1. All of them were resistant to vancomycin (MIC90= 512 µg/ml and to teicoplanin (MIC90= 32 µg/ml, having the vanA gene. By means of molecular methods a high homology was found among E. faecium and E. gallinarum isolates, respectively, suggesting their spread as a kind of outbreak. No significant differences in age or sex were found among colonized and non-colonized patients (p>0.05. On the other hand, the hospitalization time and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics were associated with colonization. From this study we highlight the importance of enhancing all measures of

  7. The potential of vancomycin-resistant enterococci to persist in fermented and pasteurised meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, J H

    2003-11-15

    Experiments with 148 isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were performed to assess their potential to persist and grow in fermented sausages and pasteurised meat products. All strains were meat isolates and Van-type A, except a single VanC1 strain. In total, 143 strains of Enterococcus faecium were involved. Eight selected strains were examined for their potential to grow at high salt and nitrite levels and at reduced pH. The same isolates were used in experiments with fermented sausages. All available strains were subjected to heating tests in meat suspensions with added curing ingredients. All but one of the eight tested isolates grew at pH 4.0 in tryptone soya broth (TSB). With the combination of 8% w/w NaCl, 400 ppm NaNO2 and 0.5% w/w glucose in the meat suspension, all isolates grew at 37 degrees C, whereas none grew at 7 degrees C even after 56 days. With the addition of 10% w/w NaCl, 200 ppm NaNO2 and 0.5% w/w glucose, still one E. faecium isolate grew at 37 degrees C, although very slowly. Overall, the strains tolerated high salt and nitrite concentrations and reduced pH very well, even beyond levels applied in the regular production of fermented and/or pasteurised meat products. The tested strains could be isolated after the fermentation and further ripening of "boerenmetworst" and "snijworst". Overall, their colony counts decreased on average about 1 log-unit over a period of 60 days after batter manufacture. All 148 isolates demonstrated a relatively weak thermal resistance compared to results for selected vancomycin-sensitive enterococci strains reported in the literature and to results collected under identical experimental conditions in this laboratory. None of the strains (log inoculation level about 5-6 ml(-1) for each isolate) could be cultured after heating at 70 degrees C for 10 min.

  8. Polyelectrolyte complex of vancomycin as a nanoantibiotic: Preparation, in vitro and in silico studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikwal, Dhiraj R.; Kalhapure, Rahul S.; Rambharose, Sanjeev; Vepuri, Suresh; Soliman, Mahmoud; Mocktar, Chunderika; Govender, Thirumala, E-mail: govenderth@ukzn.ac.za

    2016-06-01

    Delivery of antibiotics by various nanosized carriers is proving to be a promising strategy to combat limitations associated with conventional dosage forms and the ever-increasing drug resistance problem. This method entails improving the pharmacokinetic parameters for accumulation at the target infection site and reducing their adverse effects. It has been proposed that antibiotic nanoparticles themselves are more effective delivery system than encapsulating the antibiotic in a nanosystem. In this study, we report on nanoparticles of vancomycin (VCM) by self-assembled amphiphilic–polyelectrolyte complexation between VCM hydrochloride and polyacrylic acid sodium (PAA). The size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of the developed nanoplexes were 229.7 ± 47.76 nm, 0.442 ± 0.075, − 30.4 ± 5.3 mV respectively, whereas complexation efficiency, drug loading and percentage yield were 75.22 ± 1.02%, 58.40 ± 1.03% and 60.60 ± 2.62% respectively. An in vitro cytotoxicity study on three mammalian cell lines using MTT assays confirmed the biosafety of the newly formulated nanoplexes. Morphological investigations using scanning electron microscope showed cube shaped hexagonal-like particles. In vitro drug release studies revealed that the drug was completely released from the nanoplexes within 12 h. In silico studies revealed that the nano-aggregation was facilitated by means of self-association of VCM in the presence of the polymer. The supramolecular pattern of the drug self-association was found to be similar to that of the VCM dimer observed in the crystal structure of the VCM available in Protein Data Bank. In vitro antibacterial activity against susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus proved that the potency of VCM was retained after being formulated as the nanoplex. In conclusion, VCM nanoplexes could be a promising nanodrug delivery system to treat infections of S. aureus origin. - Highlights: • Self-assembly of vancomycin to form cube

  9. Polyelectrolyte complex of vancomycin as a nanoantibiotic: Preparation, in vitro and in silico studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikwal, Dhiraj R.; Kalhapure, Rahul S.; Rambharose, Sanjeev; Vepuri, Suresh; Soliman, Mahmoud; Mocktar, Chunderika; Govender, Thirumala

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of antibiotics by various nanosized carriers is proving to be a promising strategy to combat limitations associated with conventional dosage forms and the ever-increasing drug resistance problem. This method entails improving the pharmacokinetic parameters for accumulation at the target infection site and reducing their adverse effects. It has been proposed that antibiotic nanoparticles themselves are more effective delivery system than encapsulating the antibiotic in a nanosystem. In this study, we report on nanoparticles of vancomycin (VCM) by self-assembled amphiphilic–polyelectrolyte complexation between VCM hydrochloride and polyacrylic acid sodium (PAA). The size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of the developed nanoplexes were 229.7 ± 47.76 nm, 0.442 ± 0.075, − 30.4 ± 5.3 mV respectively, whereas complexation efficiency, drug loading and percentage yield were 75.22 ± 1.02%, 58.40 ± 1.03% and 60.60 ± 2.62% respectively. An in vitro cytotoxicity study on three mammalian cell lines using MTT assays confirmed the biosafety of the newly formulated nanoplexes. Morphological investigations using scanning electron microscope showed cube shaped hexagonal-like particles. In vitro drug release studies revealed that the drug was completely released from the nanoplexes within 12 h. In silico studies revealed that the nano-aggregation was facilitated by means of self-association of VCM in the presence of the polymer. The supramolecular pattern of the drug self-association was found to be similar to that of the VCM dimer observed in the crystal structure of the VCM available in Protein Data Bank. In vitro antibacterial activity against susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus proved that the potency of VCM was retained after being formulated as the nanoplex. In conclusion, VCM nanoplexes could be a promising nanodrug delivery system to treat infections of S. aureus origin. - Highlights: • Self-assembly of vancomycin to form cube

  10. A dirty cause of vancomycin-mediated Henoch-Schonlein purpura: oxygen tubing is not a foley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nikhil H; Kline, Kristopher P; Shukla, Manas K

    2017-06-20

    A 59-year-old male presented with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia from a prostatic abscess and was treated with vancomycin. Two weeks into his treatment course, he developed severe joint pains, abdominal pain with bloody, mucinous stools and a diffuse palpable purpuric rash on his extremities. Biopsy of the rash showed IgA immune-complex deposition consistent with Henoch-Schönlein purpura. After treatment with glucocorticoids, his symptoms resolved completely. Vancomycin is an extremely commonly used antibiotic with certain well-known adverse effects. Henoch-Schönlein purpura, a vasculitis involving abdominal pain, arthralgias and palpable purpura, is a much less common side effect, as seen in this patient. Given that vancomycin is widely used internationally, clinicians should be aware of the risks entailed by its use. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Short communication: β-Lactam resistance and vancomycin heteroresistance in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Priscila Luiza; Pinheiro, Luiza; Martins, Lisiane de Almeida; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2017-08-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents has led to the emergence of resistant bacterial strains over a relatively short period. Furthermore, Staphylococcus spp. can produce β-lactamase, which explains the survival of these strains in a focus of infection despite the use of a β-lactam antibiotic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis to oxacillin and vancomycin (by minimum inhibitory concentration) and to detect vancomycin heteroresistance by a screening method. We also evaluated β-lactamase production and resistance due to hyperproduction of this enzyme and investigated the mecA and mecC genes and performed staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing. For this purpose, 181 Staphylococcus spp. isolated from mastitis subclinical bovine were analyzed. Using the phenotypic method, 33 (18.2%) of Staphylococcus spp. were resistant to oxacillin. In contrast, all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, and heteroresistance was detected by the screening method in 13 isolates. Production of β-lactamase was observed in 174 (96%) of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates. The mecA gene was detected in 8 isolates, all of them belonging to the species Staphylococcus epidermidis, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing revealed the presence of type I and type IV isolates. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sobre el plagi acadèmic a Europa. Un enfocament analític basat en quatre estudis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Pupovac

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amb el desenvolupament de les tecnologies de la informació i la comunicació (TIC, el plagi esdevé un problema cada cop més greu en la comunitat acadèmica. Segons els estudis sobre el plagi acadèmic elaborats en universitats de quatre països europeus diferents, l'índex de plagi entre els estudiants és considerablement alt i els estudiants majoritàriament passen per alt o permeten el plagi per la manca de coneixement, la manca de conseqüències o simplement perquè les TIC fan que el plagi sigui fàcil de cometre. Les conclusions dels estudis que es presenten en aquest article indiquen que cal introduir polítiques estrictes contra el plagi a les universitats. Pensem que s'hauria de captar l'atenció del públic sobre el problema del plagi, que s'hauria de debatre en altes esferes i que s'haurien d'aplicar mesures efectives contra el plagi. L'abast del plagi entre estudiants i les seves actituds envers el plagi reben influències de l'entorn cultural i també per l'escenari acadèmic. En comunitats multiculturals, com ara la comunitat europea, és necessari investigar i comparar el comportament acadèmic a diferents països per a establir estàndards equivalents en l'ensenyament arreu d'Europa. Text complet (PDFDossier complet (PDF

  13. Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) on DHP copper by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bacillus megaterium strains in media simulating heater waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumelzu, E.; Cabezas, C.; Schoebitz, R.; Ugarte, R.; Rodriguez, E.D.; Rios, J.

    2003-01-01

    The complexity and diversity of microbial populations in water heating systems of steam generators make it necessary to study the magnitude of the metabolic activity of bacteria and biofilm development that may lead to degradation of metal components through microbial induced corrosion (MIC). Electrolytes simulating the conditions found in heater water networks were used to induce biofilm formation on DHP copper coupons by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSMZ and Bacillus megaterium C10, a commercial strain and an isolate from these waters, respectively. In order to enhance their action, industrial waters enriched with the minimum nutrient content such as sodium lactate and sodium sulphite for the DSMZ strain and glucose, proteose peptone and starch for the C10 strain were employed. Biofilm formation was studied under controlled temperature, time, shaking, pH and concentrations of the media used in this study. Then, the samples were electrochemically tested in an artificial solution of sea water as control medium, based on the hypothesis that the action of an aggressive biofilm/electrolyte medium generates damaged and non-damaged areas on the metal surface, and assuming that the sea water trial can detect the latter. Hence, a higher anodic current was associated with a lower degradation of the metal surface by the action of one of the media under study. All these trials were performed along with bacterial count, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Furthermore, it was possible to identify under which conditions MIC on DHP copper occurred and complex mechanisms from retention of cations to diffusion processes at the biofilm/tested media interface level were proposed. Surface corrosion by MIC took place on DHP copper; therefore, greater control on the treatment of industrial waters is highly desirable. (author)

  14. Dual Regulation of the Small RNA MicC and the Quiescent Porin OmpN in Response to Antibiotic Stress in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushovan Dam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a serious threat for public health. The permeation of antibiotics through their outer membrane is largely dependent on porin, changes in which cause reduced drug uptake and efficacy. Escherichia coli produces two major porins, OmpF and OmpC. MicF and MicC are small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs that modulate the expression of OmpF and OmpC, respectively. In this work, we investigated factors that lead to increased production of MicC. micC promoter region was fused to lacZ, and the reporter plasmid was transformed into E. coli MC4100 and derivative mutants. The response of micC–lacZ to antimicrobials was measured during growth over a 6 h time period. The data showed that the expression of micC was increased in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics and in an rpoE depleted mutant. Interestingly, the same conditions enhanced the activity of an ompN–lacZ fusion, suggesting a dual transcriptional regulation of micC and the quiescent adjacent ompN. Increased levels of OmpN in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of chemicals could not be confirmed by Western blot analysis, except when analyzed in the absence of the sigma factor σE. We suggest that the MicC sRNA acts together with the σE envelope stress response pathway to control the OmpC/N levels in response to β-lactam antibiotics.

  15. Wild-type MIC distributions of four fluoroquinolones active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in relation to current critical concentrations and available pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeby, K A; Jureen, P; Giske, C G; Chryssanthou, E; Sturegård, E; Nordvall, M; Johansson, A G; Werngren, J; Kahlmeter, G; Hoffner, S E; Schön, T

    2010-05-01

    To describe wild-type distributions of the MIC of fluoroquinolones for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in relation to current critical concentrations used for drug susceptibility testing and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) data. A 96-stick replicator on Middlebrook 7H10 medium was used to define the MICs of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin and levofloxacin for 90 consecutive clinical strains and 24 drug-resistant strains. The MICs were compared with routine BACTEC 460 susceptibility results and with MIC determinations in the BACTEC MGIT 960 system in a subset of strains using ofloxacin as a class representative. PK/PD data for each drug were reviewed in relation to the wild-type MIC distribution. The wild-type MICs of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin and levofloxacin were distributed from 0.125 to 1, 0.25 to 1, 0.032 to 0.5 and 0.125 to 0.5 mg/L, respectively. The MIC data correlated well with the BACTEC 960 MGIT and BACTEC 460 results. PD indices were the most favourable for levofloxacin, followed by moxifloxacin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. We propose S (susceptible) MIC data could shift the ECOFFs for ofloxacin and levofloxacin one dilution upwards. The proposed ECOFFs may be more appropriate if used as clinical breakpoints on Middlebrook 7H10 agar than the current critical concentrations of S

  16. Long-term Conventionally Dosed Vancomycin Therapy In Patients With Orthopaedic Implant-related Infections Seems As Effective And Safe As Long-term Penicillin Or Clindamycin Therapy. A Retrospective Cohort Study Of 103 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Jacomien; Moojen, Dirk Jan F; van Ogtrop, Marc L; Poolman, Rudolf W; Franssen, Eric J F

    2018-01-01

    Objectives : Antimicrobial therapy is one of the cornerstones of orthopaedic implant-related infections (OIRI) treatment. Infections with Gram-positive bacteria are often treated with vancomycin, penicillin or clindamycin. A recent IDSA guideline suggests increasing the dose of vancomycin to increase the trough vancomycin target serum concentrations. This is deemed necessary because of an observed decrease in vancomycin susceptibility among Gram-positive bacteria. However, elevated vancomycin concentrations are correlated with the risk of nephrotoxicity, especially with prolonged therapy. Compared to most countries, rates of resistance against antibiotics among bacteria in the Netherlands are lower for currently available antibiotics, therefore lower target concentrations of vancomycin are probably efficacious for the treatment of infections. In this study we evaluated the efficacy and safety of long-term conventionally dosed vancomycin therapy, as an initial therapy for OIRI, and compared this with long-term penicillin and clindamycin therapy, as initial therapy, in patients with Gram-positive orthopaedic implant-related infections. Methods : A retrospective, observational study was conducted in 103 adult patients treated for OIRI, with vancomycin, penicillin or clindamycin for at least 10 days. The target trough serum concentration of vancomycin was 10-15 mg/l. Results : 74% of our patients were treated successfully with vancomycin, as initial therapy, (no reinfection within 1 year) versus 55% of our patients treated with either an antibiotic of the penicillin class (mostly flucloxacillin) or clindamycin (p=0.08), as initial therapy. For patients treated with vancomycin we observed a serum creatinine increase of 6 μmol/l, for patients treated with either an antibiotic of the penicillin class or clindamycin the serum creatinine increase was 4 μmol/l (p=0.395). Conclusions : In our population of patients with OIRI long-term treatment with conventionally dosed

  17. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  18. Air quality and climate change, Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia Phase III (MICS-Asia III) - Part 1: Overview and model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Han, Zhiwei; Liu, Zirui; Li, Meng; Xin, Jinyuan; Tao, Zhining; Li, Jiawei; Kang, Jeong-Eon; Huang, Kan; Dong, Xinyi; Zhuang, Bingliang; Li, Shu; Ge, Baozhu; Wu, Qizhong; Cheng, Yafang; Wang, Yuesi; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Fu, Joshua S.; Wang, Tijian; Chin, Mian; Woo, Jung-Hun; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zifa; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2018-04-01

    Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative and microphysical feedbacks. A comprehensive overview of the MICS-Asia III Topic 3 study design, including descriptions of participating models and model inputs, the experimental designs, and results of model evaluation, are presented. Six modeling groups from China, Korea and the United States submitted results from seven applications of online coupled chemistry-meteorology models. Results are compared to meteorology and air quality measurements, including data from the Campaign on Atmospheric Aerosol Research Network of China (CARE-China) and the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The correlation coefficients between the multi-model ensemble mean and the CARE-China observed near-surface air pollutants range from 0.51 to 0.94 (0.51 for ozone and 0.94 for PM2.5) for January 2010. However, large discrepancies exist between simulated aerosol chemical compositions from different models. The coefficient of variation (SD divided by the mean) can reach above 1.3 for sulfate in Beijing and above 1.6 for nitrate and organic aerosols in coastal regions, indicating that these compositions are less consistent from different models. During clean periods, simulated aerosol optical depths (AODs) from different models are similar, but peak values differ during severe haze events, which can be explained by the differences in simulated inorganic aerosol concentrations and the hygroscopic growth efficiency (affected by varied relative humidity). These differences in composition and AOD suggest that future models can be improved by including new heterogeneous or aqueous pathways for sulfate and nitrate formation under hazy conditions, a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation chemical

  19. Vancomycin-functionalised Ag-TiO{sub 2} phototoxicity for bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Yi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Shandong Province, Institute of Oceanology, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang Dun, E-mail: zhangdun@ms.qdio.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Shandong Province, Institute of Oceanology, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang Yi; Qi Peng; Wu Jiajia; Hou Baorong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Shandong Province, Institute of Oceanology, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A multivalent interaction between Van-Ag-TiO{sub 2} and SRB. {yields} Van-Ag-TiO{sub 2} allow for selective photokilling of pathogen. {yields} Van-Ag-TiO{sub 2} show certain bactericidal property in dark. - Abstract: This study reports on the synthesis of vancomycin (Van)-functionalised Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and their enhanced bactericidal activities. Van-Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared by nanoparticle deposition and chemical cross-linking reactions. The catalysts showed high efficiency for the degradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. The photocatalytic inactivation of the sulphate-reducing bacteria, Desulfotomaculum, was also studied under UV light irradiation and in the dark using aqueous mixtures of Ag, Ag-SiO{sub 2}, Ag-TiO{sub 2}, and Van-Ag-TiO{sub 2}. The Van-Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles showed a capacity to target Van-sensitive bacteria. They also effectively prevented bacterial cell growth through the functionalised nanoparticles under UV irradiation for 1 h. To investigate the specificity of the catalyst phototoxicity, a Van-resistant bacteria, Vibrio anguillarum, was used as the negative control. The results indicated that Van-Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles had a higher selective phototoxicity for Van-sensitive bacteria. Therefore, the antibiotic molecule-functionalised core-shell nanoparticles allow for selective photokilling of pathogenic bacteria.

  20. The adsorption of tetracycline and vancomycin onto nanodiamond with controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarco, James; Mochalin, Vadym N; Haeckel, James; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-04-15

    The unique properties and tailorable surface of detonation nanodiamonds have given rise to an abundance of potential biomedical applications. Very little is known about the details of adsorption/desorption equilibria of drugs on/from nanodiamonds with different purity, surface chemistry, and agglomeration state. The studies presented here delve into the details of adsorption and desorption of tetracycline (TET) and vancomycin (VAN) on nanodiamond, which are critically important for the rational design of the nanodiamond drug delivery systems. The nanodiamonds studied in these experiments were as-received (ND), purified and carboxyl terminated (ND-COOH), and aminated (ND-NH2). The monolayer capacities of the drugs loaded onto the nanodiamonds are reported herein using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The results from the desorption studies demonstrate that, by changing the pH environment of drug loaded nanodiamond using buffers of pH 4.09, 7.45, 8.02, and a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, the drug release can effectively be triggered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Controlling for endogeneity in attributable costs of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from a Canadian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Smith, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Decisions regarding the optimal provision of infection prevention and control resources depend on accurate estimates of the attributable costs of health care-associated infections. This is challenging given the skewed nature of health care cost data and the endogeneity of health care-associated infections. The objective of this study is to determine the hospital costs attributable to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) while accounting for endogeneity. This study builds on an attributable cost model conducted by a retrospective cohort study including 1,292 patients admitted to an urban hospital in Vancouver, Canada. Attributable hospital costs were estimated with multivariate generalized linear models (GLMs). To account for endogeneity, a control function approach was used. The analysis sample included 217 patients with health care-associated VRE. In the standard GLM, the costs attributable to VRE are $17,949 (SEM, $2,993). However, accounting for endogeneity, the attributable costs were estimated to range from $14,706 (SEM, $7,612) to $42,101 (SEM, $15,533). Across all model specifications, attributable costs are 76% higher on average when controlling for endogeneity. VRE was independently associated with increased hospital costs, and controlling for endogeneity lead to higher attributable cost estimates. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intestinal Microbiota Containing Barnesiella Species Cures Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Vanni; Caballero, Silvia; Djukovic, Ana; Toussaint, Nora C.; Equinda, Michele; Lipuma, Lauren; Ling, Lilan; Gobourne, Asia; No, Daniel; Taur, Ying; Jenq, Robert R.; van den Brink, Marcel R. M.; Xavier, Joao B.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria causing infections in hospitalized patients are increasingly antibiotic resistant. Classical infection control practices are only partially effective at preventing spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria within hospitals. Because the density of intestinal colonization by the highly antibiotic-resistant bacterium vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) can exceed 109 organisms per gram of feces, even optimally implemented hygiene protocols often fail. Decreasing the density of intestinal colonization, therefore, represents an important approach to limit VRE transmission. We demonstrate that reintroduction of a diverse intestinal microbiota to densely VRE-colonized mice eliminates VRE from the intestinal tract. While oxygen-tolerant members of the microbiota are ineffective at eliminating VRE, administration of obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria to mice results in a billionfold reduction in the density of intestinal VRE colonization. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of intestinal bacterial populations isolated from mice that cleared VRE following microbiota reconstitution revealed that recolonization with a microbiota that contains Barnesiella correlates with VRE elimination. Characterization of the fecal microbiota of patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation demonstrated that intestinal colonization with Barnesiella confers resistance to intestinal domination and bloodstream infection with VRE. Our studies indicate that obligate anaerobic bacteria belonging to the Barnesiella genus enable clearance of intestinal VRE colonization and may provide novel approaches to prevent the spread of highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:23319552

  3. Reconsidering contact precautions for endemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Daniel J; Murthy, Rekha; Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Barnden, Marsha; Camins, Bernard C; Johnston, B Lynn; Rubin, Zachary; Sullivan, Kaede V; Shane, Andi L; Dellinger, E Patchen; Rupp, Mark E; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2015-10-01

    Whether contact precautions (CP) are required to control the endemic transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in acute care hospitals is controversial in light of improvements in hand hygiene, MRSA decolonization, environmental cleaning and disinfection, fomite elimination, and chlorhexidine bathing. To provide a framework for decision making around use of CP for endemic MRSA and VRE based on a summary of evidence related to use of CP, including impact on patients and patient care processes, and current practices in use of CP for MRSA and VRE in US hospitals. A literature review, a survey of Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Research Network members on use of CP, and a detailed examination of the experience of a convenience sample of hospitals not using CP for MRSA or VRE. Hospital epidemiologists and infection prevention experts. No high quality data support or reject use of CP for endemic MRSA or VRE. Our survey found more than 90% of responding hospitals currently use CP for MRSA and VRE, but approximately 60% are interested in using CP in a different manner. More than 30 US hospitals do not use CP for control of endemic MRSA or VRE. Higher quality research on the benefits and harms of CP in the control of endemic MRSA and VRE is needed. Until more definitive data are available, the use of CP for endemic MRSA or VRE in acute care hospitals should be guided by local needs and resources.

  4. Molecular Analysis of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Isolated from Regional Hospitals in Trinidad and Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick E. Akpaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographic spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE clones in cities, countries, or even continents has been identified by molecular techniques. This study aimed at characterizing virulent genes and determining genetic relatedness of 45 VRE isolates from Trinidad and Tobago using molecular tools, including polymerase chain reaction, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and Random Amplification Polymorphic DNA (RAPD. The majority (84% of the isolates were Enterococcus faecium possessing vanA gene while the rest (16% were Enterococcus faecalis possessing vanB. The esp gene was found in all 45 VRE isolates while hyl genes were found only in E. faecium species. The E. faecium species expressed five distinct PFGE patterns. The predominant clones with similar or common patterns belonged to clones one and three, and each had 11 (29% of the VRE isolates. Plasmid content was identified in representative isolates from each clonal group. By contrast, the E. faecalis species had one PFGE pattern suggesting the presence of an occult and limited clonal spread. The emergence of VRE in the country seems to be related to intra/interhospital dissemination of an epidemic clone carrying the vanA element. Therefore, infection control measures will be warranted to prevent any potential outbreak and spread of VRE in the country.

  5. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry vs. commercial immunoassay for determination of vancomycin plasma concentration in children. Possible implications for everyday clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, Sebastiano; Castagnola, Elio; Gennai, Iulian; Barbagallo, Laura; Loy, Anna; Tripodi, Gino; Cangemi, Giuliana

    2016-10-01

    Vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is necessary for effective and safetherapy. The aim of the this paper was to develop a specific and robust ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for vancomycin quantification starting from low plasma volumes to be applied for the routine TDM in children. Samples from children receiving intravenous vancomycin were analysed using a TSQ Quantum Access MAX Triple Quadrupole system coupled with an Accela 1250 UHPLC system after a rapid protein precipitation. Gradient separation chromatography was carried out using a Hypersil GOLD aQ C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, particle size 1.9 μm). Method performance was validated following international guidelines. UHPLC-MS/MS allowed a rapid and specific quantification of vancomycin over the range 0.1-128 μg/mL from 50 μL of plasma with high reproducibility and accuracy in the absence of matrix effect. The comparison with the commercial immunoassay performed on 138 samples demonstrated the presence of a proportional bias. The concentrations of vancomycin measured with immunoassay were found to be 4.5% (95% CI: 1.3-7.7) higher than those determined with UHPLC-MS/MS. Importantly, a clinical discordance was found in about 10% of samples analysed. This new UHPLC-MS/MS method is accurate and specific for the measurement of vancomycin starting from small (50 μL) plasma volumes. The use of UHPLC-MS/MS is recommended to prevent a misclassification of therapeutic or toxic vancomycin levels in paediatrics.

  6. Lavage with allicin in combination with vancomycin inhibits biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis in a rabbit model of prosthetic joint infection.

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    Haohan Zhai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The present anti-infection strategy for prosthetic joint infections (PJI includes the use of antibiotics and surgical treatments, but the bacterial eradication rates are still low. One of the major challenges is the formation of biofilm causing poor bacterial eradication. Recently it has been reported that allicin (diallyl thiosulphinate, an antibacterial principle of garlic, can inhibit bacteria adherence and prevent biofilm formation in vitro. However, whether allicin could inhibit biofilm formation in vivo is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of allicin on biofilm formation, and whether allicin could potentiate the bactericidal effect of vancomycin in a rabbit PJI model. METHODS: A sterile stainless-steel screw with a sterile ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene washer was inserted into the lateral femoral condyle of the right hind knee joint of rabbit, and 1 mL inoculum containing 104 colony-forming units of Staphylococcus epidermidis was inoculated into the knee joint (n = 32. Fourteen days later, rabbits randomly received one of the following 4 treatments using continuous lavages: normal saline, vancomycin (20 mcg/mL, allicin (4 mg/L, or allicin (4 mg/L plus vancomycin (20 mcg/mL. Three days later, the washer surface biofilm formation was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The bacterial counts within the biofilm of implanted screws were determined by bacterial culture. RESULTS: The lowest number of viable bacterial counts of Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from the biofilm was in the rabbits treated with allicin plus vancomycin (P<0.01 vs. all other groups. The biofilm formation was significantly reduced or undetectable by SEM in rabbits receiving allicin or allicin plus vancomycin. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular allicincan inhibit biofilm formation and enhance the bactericidal effect of vancomycin on implant surface in vivo. Allicin in combination with vancomycin may be

  7. Performance Analysis of GFDL's GCM Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model on GPU and MIC Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, R.; Paynter, D.; Jones, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Due to their relatively low computational cost, radiative transfer models in global climate models (GCMs) run on traditional CPU architectures generally consist of shortwave and longwave parameterizations over a small number of wavelength bands. With the rise of newer GPU and MIC architectures, however, the performance of high resolution line-by-line radiative transfer models may soon approach those of the physical parameterizations currently employed in GCMs. Here we present an analysis of the current performance of a new line-by-line radiative transfer model currently under development at GFDL. Although originally designed to specifically exploit GPU architectures through the use of CUDA, the radiative transfer model has recently been extended to include OpenMP in an effort to also effectively target MIC architectures such as Intel's Xeon Phi. Using input data provided by the upcoming Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP, as part of CMIP 6), we compare model results and performance data for various model configurations and spectral resolutions run on both GPU and Intel Knights Landing architectures to analogous runs of the standard Oxford Reference Forward Model on traditional CPUs.

  8. Management and control of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the oil and gas industry-Overview and a North Sea case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Eckert, Richard B; Rodrigues, Edgar

    2017-08-20

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is the terminology applied where the actions of microorganisms influence the corrosion process. In literature, terms such as microbial corrosion, biocorrosion, microbially influenced/induced corrosion, and biodegradation are often applied. MIC research in the oil and gas industry has seen a revolution over the past decade, with the introduction of molecular microbiological methods: (MMM) as well as new industry standards and procedures of sampling biofilm and corrosion products from the process system. This review aims to capture the most important trends the oil and gas industry has seen regarding MIC research over the past decade. The paper starts out with an overview of where in the process stream MIC occurs - from the oil reservoir to the consumer. Both biotic and abiotic corrosion mechanisms are explained in the context of managing MIC using a structured corrosion management (CM) approach. The corrosion management approach employs the elements of a management system to ensure that essential corrosion control activities are carried out in an effective, sustainable, well-planned and properly executed manner. The 3-phase corrosion management approach covering of both biotic and abiotic internal corrosion mechanisms consists of 1) corrosion assessment, 2) corrosion mitigation and 3) corrosion monitoring. Each of the three phases are described in detail with links to recent field cases, methods, industry standards and sampling protocols. In order to manage the corrosion threat, operators commonly use models to support decision making. The models use qualitative, semi-quantitative or quantitative measures to help assess the rate of degradation caused by MIC. The paper reviews four existing models for MIC Threat Assessment and describe a new model that links the threat of MIC in the oil processing system located on an offshore platform with a Risk Based Inspection (RBI) approach. A recent field case highlights and explains

  9. Notas de filología micénica, III: el silabograma *86

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    José L. Melena

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of various efforts, a few syllabograms in the Mycenaean Linear B signary are still unidentified and hence they remain untransliterated. The following is an attempt to deciphering the value of the syllabogram *86 attested exclusively in personal and place names, a fact that increases the difficulties in discovering its value, since contextual hints are not at work. After reviewing the dossier of *86, the author puts forward a transliteration dwa for this sign, which is therefore to be aligned with such compound signs as dwe and dwo. The existence of such a triplet of signs (dwa dwe dwo prompts the subsequent search for a sign twa to be similarly aligned with the extant twe and two. In an excursus the author thinks of the syllabogram *82 as the most tempting candidate to fill the slot for twa in the Linear B signary.

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Metronidazole Monotherapy versus Vancomycin Monotherapy or Combination Therapy in Patients with Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI has become a global epidemiological problem for both hospitalized patients and outpatients. The most commonly used drugs to treat CDI are metronidazole and vancomycin. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of metronidazole monotherapy with vancomycin monotherapy and combination therapy in CDI patients.A comprehensive search without publication status or other restrictions was conducted. Studies comparing metronidazole monotherapy with vancomycin monotherapy or combination therapy in patients with CDI were considered eligible. Meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects model, and odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated and reported.Of the 1910 records identified, seventeen studies from thirteen articles (n = 2501 patients were included. No statistically significant difference in the rate of clinical cure was found between metronidazole and vancomycin for mild CDI (OR = 0.67, 95% CI (0.45, 1.00, p = 0.05 or between either monotherapy and combination therapy for CDI (OR = 1.07, 95% CI (0.58, 1.96, p = 0.83; however, the rate of clinical cure was lower for metronidazole than for vancomycin for severe CDI (OR = 0.46, 95% CI (0.26, 0.80, p = 0.006. No statistically significant difference in the rate of CDI recurrence was found between metronidazole and vancomycin for mild CDI (OR = 0.99, 95% CI (0.40, 2.45, p = 0.98 or severe CDI (OR = 0.98, 95% CI (0.63, 1.53, p = 0.94 or between either monotherapy and combination therapy for CDI (OR = 0.91, 95% CI (0.66, 1.26, p = 0.56. In addition, there was no significant difference in the rate of adverse events (AEs between metronidazole and vancomycin (OR = 1.18, 95% CI (0.80, 1.74, p = 0.41. In contrast, the rate of AEs was significantly lower for either monotherapy than for combination therapy (OR = 0.30, 95% CI (0.17, 0.51, p < 0.0001.Metronidazole and vancomycin are equally effective for the

  11. Use of 8.4% Sodium Bicarbonate in Buffering Commonly Administered Vancomycin Hydrochloride Solutions for Use with Midline or Peripheral Line Catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertos, Enrique; Spencer, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the use of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate in the buffering of commonly administered vancomycin hydrochloride solutions for use with midline or peripheral line catheters. Nine admixtures of vancomycin hydrochloride were aseptically prepared for this study. Vancomycin hydrochloride solutions were prepared in triplicates in the following strengths, 1 gram, 2 grams, and 3 grams, which were added to 250-mL bags of sodium chloride 0.9% injection (with overfill). To each prepared solution of vancomycin hydrochloride, 0.5 mL of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate was added. The pH was measured to obtain a baseline level. At day 9, the pH of each sample was measured and compared to those at baseline. The osmolality of each sample was also measured. There was no statistical difference in the pH at baseline and at day 9 (α = 0.05, P = 0.347). A solution of vancomycin hydrochloride that is compounded in 250 mL of sodium chloride 0.9% injection (including overfill) and buffered with 0.5 mL of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate maintained a pH in the range of 5 to 9 and an osmolality in the range of 150 mOsm/kg to 500 mOsm/kg.

  12. Mastite micótica em ruminantes causada por leveduras Mycotic mastitis in ruminants caused by yeasts

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    Andréia Spanamberg

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de casos esporádicos de mastite causados por microrganismos de origem ambiental pode ser considerada como emergente e as leveduras, os fungos leveduriformes e os filamentosos são alguns dos principais agentes envolvidos. Em relação à mastite micótica, as leveduras são freqüentemente causas de infecções da glândula mamária em animais produtores de leite. A maior parte dos casos ocorre sob a forma de surtos localizados e/ou após tratamento com antimicrobianos. Os principais gêneros envolvidos são Candida e Cryptococcus, além de outros como Geotrichum, Pichia e Trichosporon. O objetivo do trabalho é revisar os aspectos gerais sobre a mastite micótica causada por leveduras e fungos leveduriformes, tais como etiologia, causas predisponentes, patogenicidade, diagnóstico, tratamento e profilaxia por meio de uma abordagem cronológica dos primeiros relatos, mas com enfoque principal nos resultados descritos recentemente na literatura veterinária nacional e internacional. O controle da mastite micótica é fundamentado em métodos preventivos, como adequado manejo da ordenha, correta higienização dos equipamentos e das instalações, com a finalidade de reduzir o número de animais acometidos, além de garantir a qualidade e a inocuidade dos produtos lácteos.The veterinary literature registers sporadic cases of infections caused by environmental microorganisms in which the main agents involved are yeasts, yeasts-like and filamentous fungi. In relation to dairy animals, the yeasts are more frequently incriminated as the aetiological agents of mycotic mastitis. Most cases occur under the form of localized outbreaks and / or after treatment with antimicrobial agents. The main genera involved in mastitis are Candida and Cryptococcus, besides others such as Geotrichum, Pichia and Trichosporon. The purpose of this review is to point out the main aspects of mastitis caused by yeasts and yeast-like fungi, such as etiology

  13. Elemental and Isotopic Analysis of Uranium Oxide an NIST Glass Standards by FEMTOSECOND-LA-ICP-MIC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Chris; Zamzow, Daniel S.; McBay, Eddie H.; Bostick, Debra A.; Bajic, Stanley J.; Baldwin, David P.; Houk, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to test and demonstrate the analytical figures of merit of a femtosecond-laser ablation (fs-LA) system coupled with an inductively coupled plasma-multi-ion collector-mass spectrometer (ICP-MIC-MS). The mobile fs-LA sampling system was designed and assembled at Ames Laboratory and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), where it was integrated with an ICP-MIC-MS. The test period of the integrated systems was February 2-6, 2009. Spatially-resolved analysis of particulate samples is accomplished by 100-shot laser ablation using a fs-pulsewidth laser and monitoring selected isotopes in the resulting ICP-MS transient signal. The capability of performing high sensitivity, spatially resolved, isotopic analyses with high accuracy and precision and with virtually no sample preparation makes fs-LA-ICP-MIC-MS valuable for the measurement of actinide isotopes at low concentrations in very small samples for nonproliferation purposes. Femtosecond-LA has been shown to generate particles from the sample that are more representative of the bulk composition, thereby minimizing weaknesses encountered in previous work using nanosecond-LA (ns-LA). The improvement of fs- over ns-LA sampling arises from the different mechanisms for transfer of energy into the sample in these two laser pulse-length regimes. The shorter duration fs-LA pulses induce less heating and cause less damage to the sample than the longer ns pulses. This results in better stoichiometric sampling (i.e., a closer correlation between the composition of the ablated particles and that of the original solid sample), which improves accuracy for both intra- and inter-elemental analysis. The primary samples analyzed in this work are (a) solid uranium oxide powdered samples having different 235 U to 238 U concentration ratios, and (b) glass reference materials (NIST 610, 612, 614, and 616). Solid uranium oxide samples containing 235 U in depleted, natural, and enriched abundances were

  14. Evaluation of contact precautions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardossy, Ana Cecilia; Alsafadi, Muhammad Yasser; Starr, Patricia; Chami, Eman; Pietsch, Jennifer; Moreno, Daniela; Johnson, Laura; Alangaden, George; Zervos, Marcus; Reyes, Katherine

    2017-12-01

    There are limited controlled data demonstrating contact precautions (CPs) prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infections in endemic settings. We evaluated changes in hospital-acquired MRSA and VRE infections after discontinuing CPs for these organisms. This is a retrospective study done at an 800-bed teaching hospital in urban Detroit. CPs for MRSA and VRE were discontinued hospital-wide in 2013. Data on MRSA and VRE catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), surgical site infections (SSIs), and hospital-acquired MRSA bacteremia (HA-MRSAB) rates were compared before and after CPs discontinuation. There were 36,907 and 40,439 patients hospitalized during the two 12-month periods: CPs and no CPs. Infection rates in the CPs and no-CPs periods were as follows: (1) MRSA infections: VAP, 0.13 versus 0.11 (P = .84); CLABSI, 0.11 versus 0.19 (P = .45); SSI, 0 versus 0.14 (P = .50); and CAUTI, 0.025 versus 0.033 (P = .84); (2) VRE infections: CAUTI, 0.27 versus 0.13 (P = .19) and CLABSI, 0.29 versus 0.3 (P = .94); and (3) HA-MRSAB rates: 0.14 versus 0.11 (P = .55), respectively. Discontinuation of CPs did not adversely impact endemic MRSA and VRE infection rates. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Proactive infection control measures to prevent nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent Chi-Chung; Tai, Josepha Wai-Ming; Chen, Jonathan Hon-Kwan; So, Simon Yung-Chun; Ng, Wing-Chun; Hung, Ivan Fan-Ngan; Leung, Sally Sau-Man; Wong, Sally Cheuk-Ying; Chan, Tuen-Ching; Chan, Felix Hon-Wai; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-10-01

    The study describes a proactive infection control approach to prevent nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and tests if this approach is effective for controlling multiple-drug resistant organisms in a nonendemic setting. In response to the increasing prevalence of VRE in Hong Kong since 2011, we adopted a multifaceted assertive approach in our health care network. This included active surveillance culture, extensive contact tracing, directly observed hand hygiene in conscious patients before they received meals and medications, stringent hand hygiene and environmental cleanliness, and an immediate feedback antimicrobial stewardship program. We report the occurrence of VRE outbreaks in our hospital after institution of these measures and compared with the concurrent occurrence in other public hospitals in Hong Kong. Between July 1, 2011 and November 13, 2013, VRE was identified in 0.32% (50/15,851) of admission episodes by active surveillance culture. The risk of VRE carriage was three times higher in patients with a history of hospitalization outside our hospital networks in the past 3 months (0.56% vs. 0.17%; p = 0.001) compared with those who were not. Extensive contact tracing involving 3277 patient episodes was performed in the investigation for the 25 VRE index patients upon whom implementation of contact precautions was delayed (more than 48 hours of hospitalization). One episode of VRE outbreak was identified in our hospital network, compared with the 77 VRE outbreaks reported in the other hospital networks (controls) without these proactive infection control measures. Our multifaceted assertive proactive infection control approach can minimize the nosocomial transmission and outbreak of VRE in a nonendemic area. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Occurrence of airborne vancomycin- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria in various hospital wards in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhoseini, Seyed Hamed; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Airborne transmission of pathogenic resistant bacteria is well recognized as an important route for the acquisition of a wide range of nosocomial infections in hospitals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of airborne vancomycin and gentamicin (VM and GM) resistant bacteria in different wards of four educational hospitals. A total of 64 air samples were collected from operating theater (OT), Intensive Care Unit (ICU), surgery ward, and internal medicine ward of four educational hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. Airborne culturable bacteria were collected using all glass impingers. Samples were analyzed for the detection of VM- and GM-resistant bacteria. The average level of bacteria ranged from 99 to 1079 CFU/m(3). The highest level of airborne bacteria was observed in hospital 4 (628 CFU/m(3)) and the highest average concentration of GM- and VM-resistant airborne bacteria were found in hospital 3 (22 CFU/m(3)). The mean concentration of airborne bacteria was the lowest in OT wards and GM- and VM-resistant airborne bacteria were not detected in this ward of hospitals. The highest prevalence of antibiotic-resistant airborne bacteria was observed in ICU ward. There was a statistically significant difference for the prevalence of VM-resistant bacteria between hospital wards (P = 0.012). Our finding showed that the relatively high prevalence of VM- and GM-resistant airborne bacteria in ICUs could be a great concern from the point of view of patients' health. These results confirm the necessity of application of effective control measures which significantly decrease the exposure of high-risk patients to potentially airborne nosocomial infections.

  17. Uso del EcoMic® y el producto bioactivo Pectimorf® en el establecimiento de dos especies forrajeras Use of EcoMic® and the bioactive product Pectimorf® in the establishment of two forage species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Pentón

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de EcoMic®, Pectimorf® y/o su combinación en el establecimiento de las especies forrajeras Morus alba L. (morera y Sorghum bicolor L. (sorgo, se realizaron dos experimentos. El primero se hizo con M. alba, inoculada o no con HMA, y se evaluaron las variables del rendimiento y la supervivencia de las plantas a los 90 y 240 días. El experimento con S. bicolor se realizó durante 30 días a partir de la siembra, y se evaluó la germinación de las semillas y las variables del rendimiento a los 7, 15 y 30 días. Los tratamientos fueron: testigo, inoculación con HMA, imbibición en Pectimorf, y su combinación. Se empleó un diseño en bloques al azar, con tres repeticiones. Se obtuvo respuesta de la morera a la inoculación con HMA a los 90 días de establecimiento, en términos de peso verde de las raicillas y las raíces, que triplicaron los resultados del testigo. A los 240 días las plantas inoculadas duplicaron el rendimiento del testigo y no hubo diferencias significativas en la supervivencia, en el incremento de biomasa comestible por unidad de área foliar, ni en la relación del sistema asimilativo por unidad de biomasa comestible. En el sorgo, el empleo combinado del Pectimorf® y el EcoMic® produjo un aumento significativo, respecto al testigo, en la germinación de las semillas a los 30 días (89 vs 58%, la altura efectiva (4,04 vs 3,55 cm, el grosor de la base del tallo (0,18 vs 0,15 cm, el área del limbo, el número de hojas abiertas (4 vs 3 y el largo de las hojas. Se concluye que los productos EcoMic® y Pectimorf®, así como su combinación constituyen una alternativa efectiva para el establecimiento de las especies forrajeras estudiadas.In order to evaluate the effect of EcoMic®, Pectimorf® and/or their combination on the establishment of the forage species Morus alba L. (mulberry and Sorghum bicolor L. (sorghum, two trials were conducted. The first one was done with M. alba

  18. Cefazolin-Gentamicin versus Vancomycin-Ceftazidime Eye Drops for Bacterial Corneal Ulcers; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Reza Dehghani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of topical cefazolin-gentamicin versus vancomycin-ceftazidime for treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. METHODS: This randomized double-masked clinical trial was performed on consecutive patients with bacterial corneal ulcers referred to Feiz Hospital, Isfahan, Iran from 2004 to 2005. Patients were randomly assigned to cefazolin-gentamicin or vancomycin-ceftazidime eye drops in a masked fashion. Outcome measures included time for resolution of stromal infiltration, re-epithelization of the epithelial defect, and clearance of anterior chamber inflammation as well as culture results and complications. RESULTS: The study included 89 eyes of 89 patients with bacterial corneal ulcers consisting of 57 (64% male and 32 (36% female subjects. Specimens were culture-negative in 46% of cases. Forty-one eyes received cefazolin-gentamicin and 48 eyes were treated with vancomycin-ceftazidime. Time for resolution of stromal infiltration was 17.7±4.3 days versus 13.8±3.6 days (P=0.04, time to complete re-epithelization was 13.2±3.1 days versus 9.6±2.7 days (P=0.01 and time for clearing of the anterior chamber was 11.6±2.9 days versus 8.1±2.3 days (P

  19. Plasma MIC-1 correlates with systemic inflammation but is not an independent determinant of nutritional status or survival in oesophago-gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipworth, R J E; Deans, D A C; Tan, B H L; Sangster, K; Paterson-Brown, S; Brown, D A; Hunter, M; Breit, S N; Ross, J A; Fearon, K C H

    2010-02-16

    Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1(MIC-1) is a potential modulator of systemic inflammation and nutritional depletion, both of which are adverse prognostic factors in oesophago-gastric cancer (OGC). Plasma MIC-1, systemic inflammation (defined as plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) of > or =10 mg l(-1) or modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) of > or =1), and nutritional status were assessed in newly diagnosed OGC patients (n=293). Healthy volunteers (n=35) served as controls. MIC-1 was elevated in patients (median=1371 pg ml(-1); range 141-39 053) when compared with controls (median=377 pg ml(-1); range 141-3786; Pgastric tumours (median=1592 pg ml(-1); range 141-12 643) showed higher MIC-1 concentrations than patients with junctional (median=1337 pg ml(-1); range 383-39 053) and oesophageal tumours (median=1180 pg ml(-1); range 258-31 184; P=0.015). Patients showed a median weight loss of 6.4% (range 0.0-33.4%), and 42% of patients had an mGPS of > or =1 or plasma CRP of > or =10 mg l(-1) (median=9 mg l(-1); range 1-200). MIC-1 correlated positively with disease stage (r(2)=0.217; Pnutritional status or survival in OGC.

  20. Evaluation of protective effect of multiantigenic DNA vaccine encoding MIC3 and ROP18 antigen segments of Toxoplasma gondii in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Daofeng; Han, Jianzhong; Du, Aifang

    2013-07-01

    The high incidence and severe damage caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection clearly indicates the need for the development of a vaccine. In this study, we evaluated the immune responses and protection against toxoplasmosis by immunizing ICR mice with a multiantigenic DNA vaccine. To develop the multiantigenic vaccine, two T. gondii antigens, MIC3 and ROP18, selected on the basis of previous studies were chosen. ICR mice were immunized subcutaneously with PBS, empty pcDNA3.1 vector, pMIC3, pROP18, and pROP18-MIC3, respectively. The results of lymphocyte proliferation assay, cytokine, and antibody determinations showed that mice immunized with pROP18-MIC3 elicited stronger humoral and Th1-type cellular immune responses than those immunized with single-gene plasmids, empty plasmid, or phosphate-buffered saline. After a lethal challenge with the highly virulent T. gondii RH strain, a prolonged survival time in pROP18-MIC3-immunized mice was observed in comparison to control groups. Our study indicates that the introduction of multiantigenic DNA vaccine is more powerful and efficient than single-gene vaccine, and deserves further evaluation and development.

  1. Identification of putative drug targets in Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) using computer aided protein data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Anayet; Khan, Md Arif; Sharmin, Tahmina; Hasan Mazumder, Md Habibul; Chowdhury, Afrin Sultana

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) is a Gram-positive, facultative aerobic bacterium which is evolved from the extensive exposure of Vancomycin to Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) that had become the most common cause of hospital and community-acquired infections. Due to the emergence of different antibiotic resistance strains, there is an exigency to develop novel drug targets to address the provocation of multidrug-resistant bacteria. In this study, in-silico genome subtraction methodology was used to design potential and pathogen specific drug targets against VRSA. Our study divulged 1987 proteins from the proteome of 34,549 proteins, which have no homologues in human genome after sequential analysis through CD-HIT and BLASTp. The high stringency analysis of the remaining proteins against database of essential genes (DEG) resulted in 169 proteins which are essential for S. aureus. Metabolic pathway analysis of human host and pathogen by KAAS at the KEGG server sorted out 19 proteins involved in unique metabolic pathways. 26 human non-homologous membrane-bound essential proteins including 4 which were also involved in unique metabolic pathway were deduced through PSORTb, CELLO v.2.5, ngLOC. Functional classification of uncharacterized proteins through SVMprot derived 7 human non-homologous membrane-bound hypothetical essential proteins. Study of potential drug target against Drug Bank revealed pbpA-penicillin-binding protein 1 and hypothetical protein MQW_01796 as the best drug target candidate. 2D structure was predicted by PRED-TMBB, 3D structure and functional analysis was also performed. Protein-protein interaction network of potential drug target proteins was analyzed by using STRING. The identified drug targets are expected to have great potential for designing novel drugs against VRSA infections and further screening of the compounds against these new targets may result in the discovery of novel therapeutic compounds that can be

  2. Clinical and economic consequences of vancomycin and fidaxomicin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Monika; Lavoie, Louis; Goetghebeur, Mireille

    2014-03-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) represents a public health problem with increasing incidence and severity. To evaluate the clinical and economic consequences of vancomycin compared with fidaxomicin in the treatment of CDI from the Canadian health care system perspective. A decision-tree model was developed to compare vancomycin and fidaxomicin for the treatment of severe CDI. The model assumed identical initial cure rates and included first recurrent episodes of CDI (base case). Treatment of patients presenting with recurrent CDI was examined as an alternative analysis. Costs included were for study medication, physician services and hospitalization. Cost effectiveness was measured as incremental cost per recurrence avoided. Sensitivity analyses of key input parameters were performed. In a cohort of 1000 patients with an initial episode of severe CDI, treatment with fidaxomicin led to 137 fewer recurrences at an incremental cost of $1.81 million, resulting in an incremental cost of $13,202 per recurrence avoided. Among 1000 patients with recurrent CDI, 113 second recurrences were avoided at an incremental cost of $18,190 per second recurrence avoided. Incremental costs per recurrence avoided increased with increasing proportion of cases caused by the NAP1/B1/027 strain. Results were sensitive to variations in recurrence rates and treatment duration but were robust to variations in other parameters. The use of fidaxomicin is associated with a cost increase for the Canadian health care system. Clinical benefits of fidaxomicin compared with vancomycin depend on the proportion of cases caused by the NAP1/B1/027 strain in patients with severe CDI.

  3. Postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Wang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The postantibiotic effects (PAEs and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA SMEs of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus suis (M phenotype were investigated in vitro. Tilmicosin and tiamulin induced significantly longer PAE and PA SME against both erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains than did erythromycin. The durations of PAE and PA SMEs were proportional to the concentrations of drugs used for exposure. The PA SMEs were substantially longer than PAEs on S. suis (P<0.05 regardless of the antimicrobial used for exposure. The results indicated that the PAE and PA SME could help in the design of efficient control strategies for infection especially caused by erythromycin-resistant S. suis and that they may provide additional valuable information for the rational drug use in clinical practice.

  4. Postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2009-10-01

    The postantibiotic effects (PAEs) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA SMEs) of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus suis (M phenotype) were investigated in vitro. Tilmicosin and tiamulin induced significantly longer PAE and PA SME against both erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains than did erythromycin. The durations of PAE and PA SMEs were proportional to the concentrations of drugs used for exposure. The PA SMEs were substantially longer than PAEs on S. suis (P<0.05) regardless of the antimicrobial used for exposure. The results indicated that the PAE and PA SME could help in the design of efficient control strategies for infection especially caused by erythromycin-resistant S. suis and that they may provide additional valuable information for the rational drug use in clinical practice.

  5. Mathematical model for the growth of P. aeruginosa and four mutator strains in sub-MIC concentration of Ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Madsen, Henrik

    growing under sub-MIC Ciprofloxacin concentration (0.1 μg/ml), in order to describe the growth pattern under the presence of antibiotic. Data available for the modelling process is bioscreen measurements of the bacterial content as a function of time for each bacteria strain growing in LB media...... is that the presence of antibiotic results in selection of mutators in the lungs of CF patients, as these bacteria has a higher fitness under the presence of antibiotics. The goal of this study is to model the growth of P. aeruginosa and four different mutator strains (PAO1 mutT, mutY, mutM and mutM-mutY mutants) when......P. aeruginosa causes very critical and complicated infections, for which treatment is strongly dependent on successful antibiotic treatment. Therefore the evolution of antibiotic resistant P. aeruginosa does have serious consequences. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by the chronic P...

  6. Performance of a 100V Half-Bridge MOSFET Driver, Type MIC4103, Over a Wide Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The operation of a high frequency, high voltage MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors) driver was investigated over a wide temperature regime that extended beyond its specified range. The Micrel MIC4103 is a 100V, non-inverting, dual driver that is designed to independently drive both high-side and low-side N-channel MOSFETs. It features fast propagation delay times and can drive 1000 pF load with 10ns rise times and 6 ns fall times [1]. The device consumes very little power, has supply under-voltage protection, and is rated for a -40 C to +125 C junction temperature range. The floating high-side driver of the chip can sustain boost voltages up to 100 V. Table I shows some of the device manufacturer s specification.

  7. Performance of a radio link between a base station and a medical implant utilising the MICS standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anders J

    2004-01-01

    Modern medical implants are of increasing complexity and with that, the need for fast and flexible communication with them grows. A wireless system is preferable and an inductive link is the most commonly used. But it has the drawback of a very short range, essentially limited to having the external transceiver touching the patient. The Medical Implant Communication System, MICS, is a standard aimed at improving the communication distance. It operates at a higher frequency band between 402 MHz and 405 MHz. We have by simulations and measurements investigated the channel properties of this band and calculated the link performance for a typical implant application. The result is a link speed between a base station and a bedridden patient of 600 kbit bits per second with a bit error rate of 2% in the downlink to the implant and 1 % in the uplink to the base station. Conclusions on the necessary complexity of the base station are also given.

  8. La rentabilidad del cómic en la enseñanza de la cultura en E/LE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Brines Gandía

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre el uso del cómic como recurso didáctico en la clase de E/LE para enseñar cultura. Aunque la cultura en la clase de E/LE muchas veces pasa desapercibida, constituye un excelente instrumento para la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera y, sobre todo, para que el futuro aprendiente sepa cómo, cuándo y de qué modo usar la lengua. Antes de desarrollar la presente experiencia práctica, es necesario que tratemos el término cultura y las distintas acepciones que supone.

  9. La rentabilidad del cómic en la enseñanza de la cultura en E/LE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Brines Gandía

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre el uso del cómic como recurso didáctico en la clase de E/LE para enseñar cultura. Aunque la cultura en la clase de E/LE muchas veces pasa desapercibida, constituye un excelente instrumento para la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera y, sobre todo, para que el futuro aprendiente sepa cómo, cuándo y de qué modo usar la lengua. Antes de desarrollar la presente experiencia práctica, es necesario que tratemos el término cultura y las distintas acepciones que supone.

  10. Estudio de actinomicetos marinos aislados de la costa central del Perú y su actividad antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus Meticilina Resistentes y Enterococcus faecalis Vancomicina Resistentes Study of marine actinomycetes isolated from the central coast of Peru and their antibacterial activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León

    2011-06-01

    methods. Strains of actinomycetes (29 isolated from marine sediment were evaluated by their characteristics in two culture media and by testing their inhibitory capacity by in vitro antagonism against multi-drug resistant (MDR pathogenic bacteria for MRSA and VRE. Organic extracts of 3 selected actinomicetes were processed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the active compound. Results. Most isolated actinomycetes belong to a homogeneous group of write-gray actinomycetes with a good growth in Marine Agar. The inhibitory rates of the isolates were above 85% for both pathogens with inhibition zones greater than 69 and 78 mm in diameter for MRSA and VRE respectively. Dichloromethane extracts of 3 isolates (I-400A, B1-T61, M10-77 showed strong inhibitory activity of both pathogens, M10-77 being the highest actinomycete strain with antibiotic activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis ATCC 51299 with a minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of 7.9 and 31.7 μg/ml respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of M10-77 strain showed 99% similarity with the marine species Streptomyces erythrogriseus. Conclusions. Marine sediments of the central coast of Peru, are a source of actinomycetes strains showing high capacity to produce bioactive compounds able to inhibit pathogens classified as multi-drugresistant such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis.

  11. Impacto de la resistencia a la meticilina sobre la mortalidad y vigilancia de la sensibilidad a la vancomicina en bacteriemias causadas por Staphylococcus aureus Impact of methicillin resistance on mortality and surveillance of vancomycin susceptibility in bacteremias caused by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Traverso

    2010-12-01

    blood cultures of hospitalized patients with bacteremia were studied in Nueva Clínica Chacabuco Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina during 01/2006-12/2008. The overall mortality was 51.3%, which was significantly associated with methicillin resistance (OR: 4.20, IC95%: 1.08-16.32, p: 0.05, even though it was not an independent mortality predictor as it was the mechanical ventilation (OR: 15.99, IC95%: 3.24 - 78.86. Previous surgery (OR: 17.23, IC95%: 1.80-164.60 and hospitalization in intensive care units (OR: 21.12, IC95%: 2.33-191.30 were independent predictors of meticillin-resistance. No isolates were found with reduced vancomycin susceptibility. All the studied isolates were in vitro susceptible to vancomycin with a MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 μg/ml.

  12. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What......As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency...... and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...

  13. CONSIDERAȚII TEORETICO-METODOLOGICE PRIVIND DESFĂȘURAREA AUTOEDUCAȚIEI ȘCOLARULUI MIC

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    Natalia POPA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Analiza literaturii de specialitate, observațiile noastre, rezultatele chestionării și ale conversației cu cadrele didactice demonstrează posibilitățile realizării unei auto/educații de calitate și necesitatea depunerii unui efort intelectual și moral-volitiv atât din partea elevilor, cât și a părinților și pedagogilor în direcția autoinstruirii, autoeducației și învățării pe parcursul vieții. În acest sens a fost elaborată matricea achizițiilor principale ale școlarului mic, care orientează adulții în direcția strategiilor ce pot fi aplicate în stimularea autoeducației școlarului mic.THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS ON UNFOLDING PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN SELF-EDUCATIONThe literature analysis, our observations, results of questioning and conversation with teachers demonstrate the possibilities of achieving quality self/education and the need to make an intellectual and moral-volitional effort, both from students, parents and teachers towards self-training, self-education and lifelong learning. In this respect, the matrix of main achievements of small pupil, guiding adults towards strategies that can be applied to stimulate self-education primary school children has been developed.

  14. Endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin: Clinical settings, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and treatment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde Sharat Shivaramaiah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical settings, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and treatment outcomes of patients with endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin. Methods: Retrospective case series of all patients with culture-proven endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin between January 2010 and December 2016 in LV Prasad Eye Institute, Visakhapatnam, India. Results: The current study included 14 patients. The clinical settings were post-cataract surgery in 8/14 (57.1% and open globe injury in 6/14 (42.8%. Primary intervention for all patients included tap and intravitreal antibiotic injection. During subsequent follow-up, pars plana vitrectomy was performed in 6 patients and one patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty. Mean number of intravitreal antibiotic injections performed were 3.4 per patient. The most common organisms isolated were coagulase-negative Staphylococci in 6/14 (42.8%, Staphylococcus aureus in 5/14 (35.7%, Streptococcus sp in 2/14 (14.2% and Bacillus sp in 1/14 (7.14%. In addition to vancomycin, resistance to multiple drugs (three or more groups of antibiotics was found in all 14 cases. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed susceptibility to amikacin in 7/14 (50.0%, gatifloxacin in 6/14 (42.8%, moxifloxacin in 3/13 (23.0%, cefazoline in 5/14 (35.7%, cefuroxime in 3/14 (21.4%, ciprofloxacin in 2/14 (14.2% and linezolid in 5/5 (100%. The mean duration of follow-up was 30.7 weeks (6 weeks–90 weeks. At last follow-up, visual acuity (VA of 20/200 or better was recorded in 7/14 (50% and VA < 5/200 occurred in 7/14 (50%. Conclusion and importance: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing may help in selection of suitable antimicrobial agents for repeat intravitreal injection. Inspite of retreatment with intravitreal antibiotics, these patients generally had poor VA outcomes. Keywords: Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Endophthalmitis

  15. Staphylococcus aureus: methicillin-susceptible S. aureus to methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Susan J; Tice, Alan

    2010-09-15

    The evolution of methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has demanded serious review of antimicrobial use and development of new agents and revised approaches to prevent and overcome drug resistance. Depending on local conditions and patient risk factors, empirical therapy of suspected S. aureus infection may require coverage of drug-resistant organisms with newer agents and novel antibiotic combinations. The question of treatment with inappropriate antibiotics raises grave concerns with regard to methicillin-resistant S. aureus selection, overgrowth, and increased virulence. Several strategies to reduce the nosocomial burden of resistance are suggested, including shortened hospital stays and outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy of the most serious infections.

  16. Ceftaroline-Resistant, Daptomycin-Tolerant, and Heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Causing Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigo, Masayuki; Diaz, Lorena; Carvajal, Lina P; Tran, Truc T; Rios, Rafael; Panesso, Diana; Garavito, Juan D; Miller, William R; Wanger, Audrey; Weinstock, George; Munita, Jose M; Arias, Cesar A; Chambers, Henry F

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of infective endocarditis (IE) caused by ceftaroline-resistant, daptomycin-tolerant, and heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Resistance to ceftaroline emerged in the absence of drug exposure, and the E447K substitution in the active site of PBP2a previously associated with ceftaroline resistance was identified. Additionally, we present evidence of patient-to-patient transmission of the strain within the same unit. This case illustrates the difficulties in treating MRSA IE in the setting of a multidrug-resistant phenotype. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Linezolid Versus Vancomycin in the Empiric Treatment of Nosocomial Pneumonia: A Cost-Utility Analysis Incorporating Results from the ZEPHyR Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Curtis D; Schwemm, Ann K

    2015-07-01

    To examine the cost-effectiveness of vancomycin versus linezolid in the empiric treatment of nosocomial pneumonias incorporating results from a recent prospective, double-blind, multicenter, controlled trial in adults with suspected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nosocomial pneumonia. A decision-analytic model examining the cost-effectiveness of linezolid versus vancomycin for the empiric treatment of nosocomial pneumonia was created. Publicly available cost, efficacy, and utility data populated relevant model variables. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis varied parameters in 10,000 Monte-Carlo simulations, and univariate sensitivity analyses assessed the impact of model uncertainties and the robustness of our conclusions. Results indicated that the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) increased 6% ($22,594 vs. $23,860) by using linezolid versus vancomycin for nosocomial pneumonia. The incremental cost per QALY gained by using linezolid over vancomycin was $6,089, and the incremental cost per life saved was $68,615 with the use of linezolid. Vancomycin dominated linezolid in the subset of patients with documented MRSA. The incremental cost per QALY gained using linezolid if no mortality benefit exists between agents or a 60-day time horizon was analyzed was $19,608,688 and $443,662, respectively. Linezolid may be a cost-effective alternative to vancomycin in the empiric treatment of patients with suspected MRSA nosocomial pneumonia; however, results of our model were highly variable on a number of important variables and assumptions including mortality differences and time frame analyzed. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuevos lenguajes para nuevas tecnologías. El cómic, una publicación electrónica de entretenimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Virginia Luzón Fernández

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Hasta hoy día el cómic ha sido concebido como un medio narrativo de comunicación social que comprende gráficos y textos con un desarrollo secuencial y una narrativa interna. Ha estado relacionado con unos códigos particulares y una serie de convenciones expresivas, como los globos. Pero, el cómic de papel que leíamos, coleccionábamos e incluso algunos veneraban, está dejando paso a un nuevo tipo de cómic que nace con el desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías y encaja a la perfección en la que denominamos, no sólo sociedad de la información, sino también nueva sociedad de la velocidad.

  19. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant S aureus strains isolated from hospital effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Santi M; Ghosh, Ananta K; Pati, Bikas R

    2015-12-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) strains were examined in hospital effluents. Most S aureus strains are resistant to methicillin (MRSA), followed by tetracycline. Approximately 15% of MRSA strains are also resistant to vancomycin (VRSA). All VRSA strains developed a VanR/VanS-regulated 2-component system of VanA-type resistance in their genome. Results indicate that there is a possibility of developing resistance to aminoglycosides by VRSA strains in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. mic como instrumento didáctico. La narración gráfica en ámbito universitario

    OpenAIRE

    Baile López, Eduard; Maestre-Brotons, Antoni; Ortiz Hernández, Francisco Javier; Rovira-Collado, José; Pomares Puig, María Pilar; Soler-Quílez, Guillermo; Villaverde Pérez, Abel; Bernabé Gallardo, Carlos; Rovira Collado, Joan Miquel; Sánchez Verdú, Ramón; Serna-Rodrigo, Rocío; Vidal Martín-Toledano, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Mediante la red 3489, se ha pretendido dar, tal como ya se hizo en la convocatòria anterior de Redes de la UA, presencia académica a la labor de estudio y difusión sobre las posibilidades didácticas del cómic que se viene desarrollando desde los núcleos de Unicómic y CLUECA. En este sentido, la memoria pretende ser testimonio del trabajo investigador y docente llevado a cabo por los diversos miembros en el curso académico 2015-2016. A nuestro juicio, hacer recuento del camino recorrido es con...

  1. Evaluation of MIC Strip Isavuconazole test for susceptibility testing of wild-type and non-wild-type Aspergillus fumigatus isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Verweij, Paul; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the MIC Strip Isavuconazole test against EUCAST E.Def 9.3 by using 40 wild-type and 39 CYP51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus strains. The strip full inhibition endpoint (FIE) and 80% growth inhibition endpoint were determined by two independent readers, reader 1 (R1) and R2. The essent......We evaluated the MIC Strip Isavuconazole test against EUCAST E.Def 9.3 by using 40 wild-type and 39 CYP51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus strains. The strip full inhibition endpoint (FIE) and 80% growth inhibition endpoint were determined by two independent readers, reader 1 (R1) and R2...

  2. Daptomycin versus linezolid for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteraemia: implications of daptomycin dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Y-C; Lin, H-Y; Chen, P-Y; Lin, C-Y; Wang, J-T; Chang, S-C

    2016-10-01

    Treatment options for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) bloodstream infection are limited. Studies comparing daptomycin or linezolid in treating VRE bloodstream infection have conflicting results and suggest daptomycin underdosing. The responses to different daptomycin doses have not been studied. We conducted a multicentre prospective cohort study to compare linezolid and daptomycin (≥6 mg/kg) for the treatment of VRE bloodstream infection. The primary outcome was 14-day mortality. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis for outcome analysis and a generalized additive model for dose-dependent response estimation. Two hundred twelve patients were included (daptomycin, n = 141; linezolid, n = 71). All-cause 14-day mortality was higher in the daptomycin group (36.9% vs. 21.1%; p 0.03). After adjusting for confounders in logistic regression, mortality was lower in the linezolid group (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 0.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.21-0.96; p 0.04). The generalized additive model showed that higher-dose daptomycin (≥9 mg/kg) was associated with better survival than lower-dose daptomycin (6-9 mg/kg). Logistic regression showed that linezolid (aOR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.17-0.79; p 0.01) and higher-dose daptomycin (aOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09-0.74; p 0.01) independently predicted lower mortality compared to lower-dose daptomycin. Linezolid was not superior to higher-dose daptomycin in terms of mortality (aOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.45-4.37; p 0.57). Higher-dose daptomycin had lower mortality than lower-dose daptomycin. Despite higher mortality for lower-dose daptomycin than linezolid, linezolid conferred no survival benefit compared to higher-dose daptomycin. Our findings suggest that the recommended daptomycin dose is suboptimal for treating VRE bacteraemia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The effect of antibiotic use on prevalence of nosocomial vancomycin-resistant enterococci- an ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Remschmidt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE are among the most common antimicrobial-resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infections. Although antibiotic use has been identified as a risk factor for VRE, it remains unclear which antimicrobial agents particularly facilitate VRE selection. Here, we assessed whether use of specific antimicrobial agents is independently associated with healthcare-associated (HA VRE rates in a university hospital setting in Berlin, Germany. Methods We conducted the study between January 2014 and December 2015 at the Charité-university hospital of Berlin, Germany. From the hospital pharmacy, we extracted data for all antibacterials for systemic use (anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC-classification J01 and calculated ward specific antibiotic consumption in defined daily doses (DDDs per 100 patient-days (PD. We used the microbiology laboratory database to identify all patients with isolation of invasive or non-invasive VRE and calculated HA-VRE incidence as nosocomial VRE-cases per 100 patients and HA-VRE incidence density as nosocomial VRE-cases per 1000 PD. We defined VRE isolates as hospital-acquired if they were identified three days or later after hospital admission and otherwise as community-acquired (CA-VRE. We performed univariable and multivariable regression analyses to estimate the association of the frequency of HA-VRE per month with antibiotic use and other parameters such as length of stay, type of ward or presence of at least one CA-VRE on ward. In a second analysis, we considered only patients with VRE infections. Results We included data from 204,054 patients with 948,380 PD from 61 wards. Overall, 1430 VRE-cases were identified of which 409 (28.6% were considered hospital-acquired (HA. We found that carbapenem use in the current month and prior-month use of glycopeptides increased the risk for HA-VRE by 1% per 1 DDD/100 PD and 3% per 1 DDD/100 PD, respectively. However, when only VRE

  4. Healthcare-associated vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium infections in the Mansoura University Hospitals intensive care units, Egypt

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    Dalia Moemen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF ia an emerging and challenging nosocomial pathogen. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clonal relationships between different VREF isolates in the intensive care units (ICUs of the university hospitals in our geographic location. This prospective study was conducted from July, 2012 until September, 2013 on 781 patients who were admitted to the ICUs of the Mansoura University Hospitals (MUHs, and fulfilled the healthcare-associated infection (HAI criteria. Susceptibility testing was determined using the disk diffusion method. The clonal relationships were evaluated with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Out of 52 E. faecium isolates, 12 (23.1% were vancomycin resistant. The significant risk factors for the VREF infections were: transfer to the ICU from a ward, renal failure, an extended ICU stay and use of third-generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, or ciprofloxacin. PFGE with the 12 isolates showed 9 different patterns; 3 belonged to the same pulsotype and another 2 carried a second pulsotypes. The similar pulsotypes isolates were isolated from ICUs of one hospital (EICUs; however, all of the isolates from the other ICUs had different patterns. Infection control policy, in conjunction with antibiotic stewardship, is important to combat VREF transmission in these high-risk patients.

  5. Elimination of Routine Contact Precautions for Endemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus: A Retrospective Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elise M; Russell, Dana; Rubin, Zachary; Humphries, Romney; Grogan, Tristan R; Elashoff, David; Uslan, Daniel Z

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of discontinuation of contact precautions (CP) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and expansion of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) use on the health system. DESIGN Retrospective, nonrandomized, observational, quasi-experimental study. SETTING Two California hospitals. PARTICIPANTS Inpatients. METHODS We compared hospital-wide laboratory-identified clinical culture rates (as a marker of healthcare-associated infections) 1 year before and after routine CP for endemic MRSA and VRE were discontinued and CHG bathing was expanded to all units. Culture data from patients and cost data on material utilization were collected. Nursing time spent donning personal protective equipment was assessed and quantified using time-driven activity-based costing. RESULTS Average positive culture rates before and after discontinuing CP were 0.40 and 0.32 cultures/100 admissions for MRSA (P=.09), and 0.48 and 0.40 cultures/100 admissions for VRE (P=.14). When combining isolation gown and CHG costs, the health system saved $643,776 in 1 year. Before the change, 28.5% intensive care unit and 19% medicine/surgery beds were on CP for MRSA/VRE. On the basis of average room entries and donning time, estimated nursing time spent donning personal protective equipment for MRSA/VRE before the change was 45,277 hours/year (estimated cost, $4.6 million). CONCLUSION Discontinuing routine CP for endemic MRSA and VRE did not result in increased rates of MRSA or VRE after 1 year. With cost savings on materials, decreased healthcare worker time, and no concomitant increase in possible infections, elimination of routine CP may add substantial value to inpatient care delivery. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-8.

  6. [Evaluation of the methodological quality of the Rémic (microbiology guidelines - bacteriology and mycology) of the Société française de microbiologie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonfrède, Michèle; Couaillac, Jean Paul; Augereau, Christine; De Moüy, Danny; Lepargneur, Jean Pierre; Szymanowicz, Anton; Watine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We have evaluated the methodological quality of the Rémic (microbiology guidelines - bacteriology and mycology) of the Société française de microbiologie (edition2007), using to AGREE criteria, which are consensual at an international level, in particular at the the World Health Organisation (WHO) and at the European Union. The methodological quality of the Rémic appears to be sub-optimal. These shortcomings in quality are mainly observed in AGREE domain n° 5 (applicability), in AGREE item n° 5 (patients' opinions were not considered), and in AGREE item n° 23 (conflicts of interest were not declared). The users of the Rémic must be aware of these few methodological shortcomings in order for them to be careful before they put its recommendation in practice. In conclusion, we advise the editors of the Rémic to insert at least a methodological chapter in their next edition.

  7. National and gender measurement invariance of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) : A 10-nation study with university students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, E.; Cieciuch, J.; Gao, C.-H.; Klimstra, T.A.; Lin, C.-L.; Mena de Matos, P.; Morsünbül, U.; Negru, O.; Sugimura, K.; Zimmermann, G.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS), a self-report measure aimed at assessing identity processes of commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. We tested its factor structure in

  8. National and Gender Measurement Invariance of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) : A 10-Nation Study With University Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Cieciuch, Jan; Gao, Cheng Hai; Klimstra, Theo; Lin, Ching Ling; Matos, Paula Mena; Morsünbül, Ümit; Negru, Oana; Sugimura, Kazumi; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Meeus, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS), a self-report measure aimed at assessing identity processes of commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. We tested its factor structure in

  9. Brief report: The Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS): Gender and age measurement invariance and convergent validity of the Turkish version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsunbul, Umit; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Cok, Figen; Meeus, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure and convergent validity of the Turkish version of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS). Participants were 1201 (59.6% females) youth aged between 12 and 24 years (Mage=17.53 years, SDage=3.25). Results indicated

  10. Brief report: The Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) : Gender and age measurement invariance and convergent validity of the Turkish version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsunbul, Umit; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Cok, Figen; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure and convergent validity of the Turkish version of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS). Participants were 1201 (59.6% females) youth aged between 12 and 24 years (Mage = 17.53 years, SDage = 3.25). Results

  11. Spectrophotometric Determination of Microamounts of Uranium previous Extraction with TBP-MIC; Determinacion Espectrofotometrica de Microcantidades de Uranio previa extraccin con Metilisobutilcetona-Fosfato de Tributilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Palomino, J; Palomares Delgado, F; Petrement, J; Fernandez Cellini, R

    1962-07-01

    Selective extraction of uranium in nitric acid medium with a mixture of Tbp-MIC (1:10) has been achieved. Aluminium nitrate was used as salting agent. Complexing agents were added in order to avoid extraction of impurities. Extraction conditions have been studied so that extraction is almost practically complete in a single run. (Author) 19 refs.

  12. Luces y sombras de la amazona de cómic Wonder Woman, la mujer maravilla = Lights and shadows of the comic Wonderwoman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Inmaculada Concepción Marfil Díaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La mujer constituye una parte determinante que sustenta el tejido social de todas las culturas y, sin embargo, no ha sido protagonista principal en el mundo del cómic de superhéroes. Pero hay excepciones, como Wonder Woman, la Mujer Maravilla. ¿Qué sucede con este personaje que forma trinidad con Batman y Superman sin apenas resonancia en el universo del cómic? ¿Qué relación existe entre el mito y el cómic? ¿Quién crea esta superheroina? Este trabajo es una aproximación al mito de las amazonas junto a la evolución de este personaje de cómic norteamericano.Even though women are crucial to the sustainability of the social fabric in every culture, they have not been the main protagonists in the world of Comic Superheroes. There are, of course, exceptions such as Wonder Woman but, who is this character that, in spite of forming a trinity with Batman and Superman, has hardly had any relevance in the universe of Comics? What is the relationship between the myth and the comic? Who created this Superheroine? This work intends to shed a light on the myth of the Amazons as well as on the evolution of this American comic character.

  13. Efficacy of linezolid compared to vancomycin in an experimental model of pneumonia induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ventilated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Olondris, Pilar; Rigol, Montserrat; Soy, Dolors; Guerrero, Laura; Agusti, Carlos; Quera, Maria Angels; Li Bassi, Gianluigi; Esperatti, Mariano; Luque, Nestor; Liapikou, Manto; Filella, Xavier; Marco, Francesc; de la Bellacasa, Jordi Puig; Torres, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of linezolid compared with vancomycin in an experimental model of pneumonia induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in ventilated pigs. Forty pigs (30 kg) were intubated and challenged via bronchoscopy with a suspension of 106 colony forming units of MRSA into every lobe. Afterwards, pigs were ventilated up to 96 hours. Twelve hours after bacterial inoculation, the animals were randomized into 4 groups of treatment: group 1, control; group 2, vancomycin twice daily; group 3, continuous infusion of vancomycin; and group 4, linezolid. Clinical and laboratory parameters were monitored throughout the study. Bacterial cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples were performed at the end of the study. Measurements of histopathology derangements of lung samples and studies of intrapulmonary drug penetration were performed. A total of 34 animals completed the study. No differences in clinical and laboratory parameters were observed. The percentage of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples with positive cultures for MRSA in controls and groups 2, 3, and 4 was respectively 75%, 11%, 11%, and 0% (p pneumonia in 95%, 69%, 58%, and 57% and signs of severe pneumonia in 48%, 29%, 22%, and 0% of controls and groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively (p treatments. In this animal model of MRSA pneumonia, linezolid showed a better efficacy than vancomycin showed because of a better pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics index.

  14. Screening municipal wastewater effluent and surface water used for drinking water production for the presence of ampicillin and vancomycin resistant enterococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taucer-Kapteijn, M.; Hoogenboezem, Wim; Heiliegers, Laura; de Bolster, Danny; Medema, G.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of clinical enterococcal isolates that are resistant to both ampicillin and vancomycin is a cause of great concern, as therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of infections caused by such organisms are becoming limited. Aquatic environments could play a role in the dissemination

  15. Empiric guideline-recommended weight-based vancomycin dosing and mortality in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Ronald G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No studies have evaluated the effect of guideline-recommended weight-based dosing on in-hospital mortality of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Methods This was a multicenter, retrospective, cohort study of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia receiving at least 48 hours of empiric vancomycin therapy between 01/07/2002 and 30/06/2008. We compared in-hospital mortality for patients treated empirically with weight-based, guideline-recommended vancomycin doses (at least 15 mg/kg/dose to those treated with less than 15 mg/kg/dose. We used a general linear mixed multivariable model analysis with variables identified a priori through a conceptual framework based on the literature. Results A total of 337 patients who were admitted to the three hospitals were included in the cohort. One-third of patients received vancomycin empirically at the guideline-recommended dose. Guideline-recommended dosing was not associated with in-hospital mortality in the univariable (16% vs. 13%, OR 1.26 [95%CI 0.67-2.39] or multivariable (OR 0.71, 95%CI 0.33-1.55 analysis. Independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were ICU admission, Pitt bacteremia score of 4 or greater, age 53 years or greater, and nephrotoxicity. Conclusions Empiric use of weight-based, guideline-recommended empiric vancomycin dosing was not associated with reduced mortality in this multicenter study.

  16. Cost Comparison of Linezolid Versus Vancomycin for Treatment of Complicated Skin and Skin-Structure Infection Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Pettigrew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Canada, complicated skin and skin-structure infection (cSSSI caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is usually treated with antibiotics in hospital, with a follow-up course at home for stable patients. The cost implications of using intravenous and oral linezolid instead of intravenous vancomycin in Canadian clinical practice have not been examined.

  17. Silver(I)-promoted conversion of thioamides to amidines: divergent synthesis of a key series of vancomycin aglycon residue 4 amidines that clarify binding behavior to model ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Akinori; James, Robert C; Pierce, Joshua G; Xie, Jian; Boger, Dale L

    2012-05-30

    Development of a general Ag(I)-promoted reaction for the conversion of thioamides to amidines is disclosed. This reaction was employed to prepare a key series of vancomycin aglycon residue 4 substituted amidines that were used to clarify their interaction with model ligands of peptidoglycan precursors and explore their resulting impact on antimicrobial properties.

  18. The relationship between the use of flucloxacillin, vancomycin, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin and the susceptibility patterns of coagulase-negative staphylococci recovered from blood cultures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, JG; Kosterink, JGW; Degener, JE

    1997-01-01

    Antibiotic use is a cause of selection of multiresistant bacterial strains. Over three years (1990-1992) we studied the relation between the use of flucloxacillin, vancomycin, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin and the susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) recovered from blood

  19. Persistence of Vancomycin Resistance in Multiple Clones of Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Danish Broilers 15 Years after the Ban of Avoparcin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, Valeria; Mander, Manuela; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2015-01-01

    associated with a transferable nontypeable plasmid lineage occurring in multiple E. faecium clones. Coselection of sequence type 842 by tetracycline use only partly explained the persistence of vancomycin resistance in the absence of detectable plasmid coresistance and toxin-antitoxin systems....

  20. Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase-Producing E-coli and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in the Northern Dutch-German Cross-Border Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Xuewei; Garcia-Cobos, Silvia; Ruijs, Gijs J. H. M.; Kampinga, Greetje A.; Arends, Jan P.; Borst, Dirk M.; Moller, Lieke V.; Holman, Nicole D.; Schuurs, Theo A.; van Coppenraet, Lesla E. Bruijnesteijn; Weel, Jan F.; van Zeijl, Jan H.; Koeck, Robin; Rossen, John W. A.; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To reveal the prevalence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or plasmid AmpC (pAmpC)- and carbapenemase (CP) producing Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) across the Northern Dutch-German border region. Methods: A point-prevalence study

  1. Resolved Dual-Frequency Observations of the Debris Disk Around AU Mic: Strengths of Bodies in the Collisional Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Evan; Hughes, A. Meredith; Daley, Cail; Flaherty, Kevin; Pan, Margaret; Schlichting, Hilke; Chiang, Eugene; MacGregor, Meredith Ann; Wilner, David; Dent, Bill; Carpenter, John; Andrews, Sean; Moor, Attila; Kospal, Agnes

    2018-01-01

    Debris disks are hallmarks of mature planetary systems, with second-generation dust produced via collisions between pluto-like planetesimals. The vertical structure of a debris disk encodes unique information about the dynamical state of the system, particularly at millimeter wavelengths where gravitational effects dominate over the effects of stellar radiation. We present 450 μm Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the edge-on debris disk around AU Mic, a nearby (d = 9.91 ± 0.10 pc) M1-type star. The 0.3'' angular resolution of the data allows us to spatially resolve the scale height of the disk, complementing previous observations at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. By resolving the vertical structure of the disk at these two widely-separated frequencies, we are able to spatially resolve the spectral index and study variations in the grain size distribution as a function of disk radius. The comparison of scale heights for two different wavelengths and therefore particle sizes also constrains the velocity dispersion as a function of grain size, which allows us to probe the strengths of bodies in the collisional cascade for the first time outside the Solar System.

  2. A library of MiMICs allows tagging of genes and reversible, spatial and temporal knockdown of proteins in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar-Jaiswal, Sonal; Lee, Pei-Tseng; Campbell, Megan E; Chen, Kuchuan; Anguiano-Zarate, Stephanie; Cantu Gutierrez, Manuel; Busby, Theodore; Lin, Wen-Wen; He, Yuchun; Schulze, Karen L; Booth, Benjamin W; Evans-Holm, Martha; Venken, Koen JT; Levis, Robert W; Spradling, Allan C; Hoskins, Roger A; Bellen, Hugo J

    2015-01-01

    Here, we document a collection of ∼7434 MiMIC (Minos Mediated Integration Cassette) insertions of which 2854 are inserted in coding introns. They allowed us to create a library of 400 GFP-tagged genes. We show that 72% of internally tagged proteins are functional, and that more than 90% can be imaged in unfixed tissues. Moreover, the tagged mRNAs can be knocked down by RNAi against GFP (iGFPi), and the tagged proteins can be efficiently knocked down by deGradFP technology. The phenotypes associated with RNA and protein knockdown typically correspond to severe loss of function or null mutant phenotypes. Finally, we demonstrate reversible, spatial, and temporal knockdown of tagged proteins in larvae and adult flies. This new strategy and collection of strains allows unprecedented in vivo manipulations in flies for many genes. These strategies will likely extend to vertebrates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05338.001 PMID:25824290

  3. El cómic en la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Catalá Carrasco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La experiencia práctica que voy a relatar pretende mostrar las posibilidades que el cómic tiene, como producto cultural, dentro de las clases de español para extranjeros. Mi relación con las clases de español como lengua extranjera (E/LE se ciñe a estudiantes universitarios de un nivel avanzado, esto es, aquellos que han cursado las clases básicas de gramática y quieren profundizar en la lengua y la cultura hispánicas. Dentro de este marco es donde encuadro la presente experiencia. Los estudiantes con los que he trabajado provienen, en su mayoría, de The University of Georgia en los EE.UU. y cursan un semestre en Valencia (España para perfeccionar el idioma. Mi relación profesional con esta universidad norteamericana data de hace más de 4 años, primero como profesor asistente de español en los EE.UU. y luego como coordinador y profesor dentro del programa académico UGA en España, en Valencia.

  4. El cómic en la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Catalá Carrasco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La experiencia práctica que voy a relatar pretende mostrar las posibilidades que el cómic tiene, como producto cultural, dentro de las clases de español para extranjeros. Mi relación con las clases de español como lengua extranjera (E/LE se ciñe a estudiantes universitarios de un nivel avanzado, esto es,  aquellos que han cursado las clases básicas de gramática y quieren profundizar en la lengua y la cultura hispánicas. Dentro de este marco es donde encuadro la presente experiencia. Los estudiantes con los que he trabajado provienen, en su mayoría, de The University of Georgia en los EE.UU. y cursan un semestre en Valencia (España para perfeccionar el idioma. Mi relación profesional con esta universidad norteamericana data de hace más de 4 años, primero como profesor asistente de español en los EE.UU. y luego como  coordinador y profesor dentro del programa académico UGA en España, en Valencia.

  5. La intertextualidad en el cine de Álex de la Iglesia:El caso del cómic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neftalí Pérez Franco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo repasa la influencia del tebeo en las películas del director vasco, Alex de la Iglesia, cuyas primeras obras artísticas se deben a su condición de joven autor de historietas. El cine de este cineasta está marcado por claras reminiscencias provenientes de las viñetas: los superhéroes patéticos de Acción mutante se mueven por un contexto futurista muy del cómic de ciencia ficción; el humor estereotipado y los personajes grotescos del tebeo de la editorial Bruguera inundan todas sus comedias; o también son destacables los diversos homenajes narrativos o estéticos a la escuela franco-belga de Hergé y Goscinny. Esta fuerte influencia recorre toda su filmografía desde la mencionada ópera prima Acción mutante, hasta Crimen Ferpecto, pasando por títulos como El día de la bestia, Perdita Durango, Muertos de risa o La comunidad, hasta convertirse en un autor abanderado del fenómeno freak que marca tendencia en el cine español.

  6. El discurso político del Cómic sobre el pasado nacional. Tres lecturas del Siglo de Oro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Touton

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone mostrar cómo la representación del pasado en el cómic, por medio de opciones estéticas y de recursos específicos a este arte, conlleva como cualquier relectura una dimensión política no siempre explícita. Para ello, nos hemos centrado en la reelaboración de tres “lugares de memoria” del Siglo de Oro (la España y la figura de Felipe II; los tercios de Flandes en tiempos de Felipe IV; Santa Teresa de Jesús en tres obras con objetivos, tonos, modalidades formales y dimensiones plásticas bastante alejados unos de otros: Felipe II (1999 de Antonio Hernández Palacios; El capitán Alatriste (2005, adaptación de la primera novela del ciclo de Pérez-Reverte, con guión Carlos Giménez y dibujos de Joan Mundet, y La vie passionnée de Thérèse d’Avila (1980 de la historietista francesa Claire Brétécher.

  7. Antipneumococcal activity of ceftobiprole, a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowska, Klaudia; Hoellman, Dianne B; Lin, Gengrong; Clark, Catherine; Credito, Kim; McGhee, Pamela; Dewasse, Bonifacio; Bozdogan, Bülent; Shapiro, Stuart; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2005-05-01

    Ceftobiprole (previously known as BAL9141), an anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cephalosporin, was very highly active against a panel of 299 drug-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci, with MIC(50) and MIC(90) values (microg/ml) of 0.016 and 0.016 (penicillin susceptible), 0.06 and 0.5 (penicillin intermediate), and 0.5 and 1.0 (penicillin resistant). Ceftobiprole, imipenem, and ertapenem had lower MICs against all pneumococcal strains than amoxicillin, cefepime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, or cefdinir. Macrolide and penicillin G MICs generally varied in parallel, whereas fluoroquinolone MICs did not correlate with penicillin or macrolide susceptibility or resistance. All strains were susceptible to linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, daptomycin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. Time-kill analyses showed that at 1x and 2x the MIC, ceftobiprole was bactericidal against 10/12 and 11/12 strains, respectively. Levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were each bactericidal against 10 to 12 strains at 2x the MIC. Azithromycin and clarithromycin were slowly bactericidal, and telithromycin was bactericidal against only 5/12 strains at 2x the MIC. Linezolid was mainly bacteriostatic, whereas quinupristin-dalfopristin and daptomycin showed marked killing at early time periods. Prolonged serial passage in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of ceftobiprole failed to yield mutants with high MICs towards this cephalosporin, and single-passage selection showed very low frequencies of spontaneous mutants with breakthrough MICs towards ceftobiprole.

  8. Evaluating the Effect of a Web-Based E-Learning Tool for Health Professional Education on Clinical Vancomycin Use: Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Stuart Evan; Crowther, Shelley P; Adhikari, Suman; Chubaty, Adriana J; Yu, Ping; Borchard, Jay P; Boutlis, Craig Steven; Yeo, Wilfred Winston; Miyakis, Spiros

    2018-02-26

    Internet-based learning for health professional education is increasing. It offers advantages over traditional learning approaches, as it enables learning to be completed at a time convenient to the user and improves access where facilities are geographically disparate. We developed and implemented the Vancomycin Interactive (VI) e-learning tool to improve knowledge on the clinical use of the antibiotic vancomycin, which is commonly used for treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of the VI e-learning tool on (1) survey knowledge scores and (2) clinical use of vancomycin among health professionals. We conducted a comparative pre-post intervention study across the 14 hospitals of two health districts in New South Wales, Australia. A knowledge survey was completed by nurses, doctors, and pharmacists before and after release of a Web-based e-learning tool. Survey scores were compared with those obtained following traditional education in the form of an email intervention. Survey questions related to dosing, administration, and monitoring of vancomycin. Outcome measures were survey knowledge scores among the three health professional groups, vancomycin plasma trough levels, and vancomycin approvals recorded on a computerized clinical decision support system. Survey response rates were low at 26.87% (577/2147) preintervention and 8.24% (177/2147) postintervention. The VI was associated with an increase in knowledge scores (maximum score=5) among nurses (median 2, IQR 1-2 to median 2, IQR 1-3; Pe-learning tool achieved higher overall scores than those who did not (Pe-learning tool was not shown to be significantly more effective than the comparator email in the clinical use of vancomycin, as measured by plasma levels within the therapeutic range. The e-learning tool was associated with improved knowledge scores among nurses, whereas the comparator email was associated with

  9. Pharmacist-led implementation of a vancomycin guideline across medical and surgical units: impact on clinical behavior and therapeutic drug monitoring outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips CJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cameron J Phillips,1–3 David L Gordon3,4 1Division of Pharmacy, SA Pharmacy, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, 2School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, 3Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Flinders University, Adelaide, 4Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, SA Pathology, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, SA, Australia Background: Vancomycin is the antibiotic of choice for the treatment of serious infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Inappropriate prescribing of vancomycin can lead to therapeutic failure, antibiotic resistance, and drug toxicity. Objective: To examine the effectiveness of pharmacist-led implementation of a clinical practice guideline for vancomycin dosing and monitoring in a teaching hospital. Methods: An observational pre–post study design was undertaken to evaluate the implementation of the vancomycin guideline. The implementation strategy principally involved education, clinical vignettes, and provision of pocket guidelines to accompany release of the guideline to the hospital Intranet. The target cohort for clinical behavioral change was junior medical officers, as they perform the majority of prescribing and monitoring of vancomycin in hospitals. Assessment measures were recorded for vancomycin prescribing, therapeutic drug monitoring, and patient outcomes. Results: Ninety-nine patients, 53 pre- and 46 post-implementation, were included in the study. Prescribing of a loading dose increased from 9% to 28% (P=0.02, and guideline adherence to starting maintenance dosing increased from 53% to 63% (P=0.32. Dose adjustment by doctors when blood concentrations were outside target increased from 53% to 71% (P=0.12, and correct timing of initial concentration measurement increased from 43% to 57% (P=0.23. Appropriately timed trough concentrations improved from 73% to 81% (P=0.08. Pre-dose (trough

  10. Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture optimization strategies for a memory-bound Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Goddard microphysics scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    The Goddard cloud microphysics scheme is a sophisticated cloud microphysics scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The WRF is a widely used weather prediction system in the world. It development is a done in collaborative around the globe. The Goddard microphysics scheme is very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. Compared to the earlier microphysics schemes, the Goddard scheme incorporates a large number of improvements. Thus, we have optimized the code of this important part of WRF. In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the Goddard microphysics scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The Intel MIC is capable of executing a full operating system and entire programs rather than just kernels as the GPU do. The MIC coprocessor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is familiar one to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of MICs will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discusses in this paper. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 4.7x. Furthermore, the same optimizations improved performance on a dual socket Intel Xeon E5-2670 system by a factor of 2.8x compared to the original code.

  11. Anorexia-cachexia syndrome in hepatoma tumour-bearing rats requires the area postrema but not vagal afferents and is paralleled by increased MIC-1/GDF15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Tito; Arnold, Myrtha; Ruud, Johan; Breit, Samuel N; Langhans, Wolfgang; Lutz, Thomas A; Blomqvist, Anders; Riediger, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The cancer-anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) negatively affects survival and therapy success in cancer patients. Inflammatory mediators and tumour-derived factors are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of CACS. However, the central and peripheral mechanisms contributing to CACS are insufficiently understood. The area postrema (AP) and the nucleus tractus solitarii are two important brainstem centres for the control of eating during acute sickness conditions. Recently, the tumour-derived macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) emerged as a possible mediator of cancer anorexia because lesions of these brainstem areas attenuated the anorectic effect of exogenous MIC-1 in mice. Using a rat hepatoma tumour model, we examined the roles of the AP and of vagal afferents in the mediation of CACS. Specifically, we investigated whether a lesion of the AP (APX) or subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) attenuate anorexia, body weight, muscle, and fat loss. Moreover, we analysed MIC-1 levels in this tumour model and their correlation with tumour size and the severity of the anorectic response. In tumour-bearing sham-operated animals mean daily food intake significantly decreased. The anorectic response was paralleled by a significant loss of body weight and muscle mass. APX rats were protected against anorexia, body weight loss, and muscle atrophy after tumour induction. In contrast, subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation did not attenuate cancer-induced anorexia or body weight loss. Tumour-bearing rats had substantially increased MIC-1 levels, which positively correlated with tumour size and cancer progression and negatively correlated with food intake. These findings demonstrate the importance of the AP in the mediation of cancer-dependent anorexia and body weight loss and support a pathological role of MIC-1 as a tumour-derived factor mediating CACS, possibly via an AP-dependent action. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle

  12. Biosafety of the Novel Vancomycin-loaded Bone-like Hydroxyapatite/Poly-amino Acid Bony Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Dong Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, local sustained-release antibiotics systems have been developed because they can increase local foci of concentrated antibiotics without increasing the plasma concentration, and thereby effectively decrease any systemic toxicity and side effects. A vancomycin-loaded bone-like hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid (V-BHA/PAA bony scaffold was successfully fabricated with vancomycin-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres and BHA/PAA, which was demonstrated to exhibit both porosity and perfect biodegradability. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the biosafety of this novel scaffold by conducting toxicity tests in vitro and in vivo. Methods: According to the ISO rules for medical implant biosafety, for in vitro tests, the scaffold was incubated with L929 fibroblasts or rabbit noncoagulant blood, with simultaneous creation of positive control and negative control groups. The growth condition of L929 cells and hemolytic ratio were respectively evaluated after various incubation periods. For in vivo tests, a chronic osteomyelitis model involving the right proximal tibia of New Zealand white rabbits was established. After bacterial identification, the drug-loaded scaffold, drug-unloaded BHA/PAA, and poly (methyl methacrylate were implanted, and a blank control group was also set up. Subsequently, the in vivo blood drug concentrations were measured, and the kidney and liver functions were evaluated. Results: In the in vitro tests, the cytotoxicity grades of V-BHA/PAA and BHA/PAA-based on the relative growth rate were all below 1. The hemolysis ratios of V-BHA/PAA and BHA/PAA were 2.27% and 1.