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Sample records for vampire bat control

  1. Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570

  2. Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control

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    Nicholas Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control.

  3. Enzootic and Epizootic Rabies Associated with Vampire Bats, Peru

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    Streicker, Daniel G.; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002–2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non–vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans.

  4. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

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    Gerald Carter

    Full Text Available Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%, whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  5. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

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    Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  6. Dracula's children: molecular evolution of vampire bat venom.

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    Low, Dolyce H W; Sunagar, Kartik; Undheim, Eivind A B; Ali, Syed A; Alagon, Alejandro C; Ruder, Tim; Jackson, Timothy N W; Pineda Gonzalez, Sandy; King, Glenn F; Jones, Alun; Antunes, Agostinho; Fry, Bryan G

    2013-08-26

    While vampire bat oral secretions have been the subject of intense research, efforts have concentrated only on two components: DSPA (Desmodus rotundus salivary plasminogen activator) and Draculin. The molecular evolutionary history of DSPA has been elucidated, while conversely draculin has long been known from only a very small fragment and thus even the basic protein class was not even established. Despite the fact that vampire bat venom has a multitude of effects unaccounted by the documented bioactivities of DSPA and draculin, efforts have not been made to establish what other bioactive proteins are secreted by their submaxillary gland. In addition, it has remained unclear whether the anatomically distinct anterior and posterior lobes of the submaxillary gland are evolving on separate gene expression trajectories or if they remain under the shared genetic control. Using a combined proteomic and transcriptomic approach, we show that identical proteins are simultaneously expressed in both lobes. In addition to recovering the known structural classes of DSPA, we recovered a novel DSPA isoform as well as obtained a very large sequence stretch of draculin and thus established that it is a mutated version of the lactotransferrin scaffold. This study reveals a much more complex secretion profile than previously recognised. In addition to obtaining novel versions of scaffolds convergently recruited into other venoms (allergen-like, CRiSP, kallikrein, Kunitz, lysozyme), we also documented novel expression of small peptides related to calcitonin, PACAP, and statherin. Other overexpressed protein types included BPI-fold, lacritin, and secretoglobin. Further, we investigate the molecular evolution of various vampire bat venom-components and highlight the dominant role of positive selection in the evolution of these proteins. Conspicuously many of the proteins identified in the proteome were found to be homologous to proteins with known activities affecting vasodilation and

  7. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats

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    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

  8. Quantifying the burden of vampire bat rabies in Peruvian livestock.

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    Julio A Benavides

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of infectious disease burden is necessary to appropriately allocate resources for prevention and control. In Latin America, rabies is among the most important zoonoses for human health and agriculture, but the burden of disease attributed to its main reservoir, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus, remains uncertain.We used questionnaires to quantify under-reporting of livestock deaths across 40 agricultural communities with differing access to health resources and epidemiological histories of vampire bat rabies (VBR in the regions of Apurimac, Ayacucho and Cusco in southern Peru. Farmers who believed VBR was absent from their communities were one third as likely to report livestock deaths from disease as those who believed VBR was present, and under-reporting increased with distance from reporting offices. Using generalized mixed-effect models that captured spatial autocorrelation in reporting, we project 4.6 (95% CI: 4.4-8.2 rabies cases per reported case and identify geographic areas with potentially greater VBR burden than indicated by official reports. Spatially-corrected models estimate 505-724 cattle deaths from VBR in our study area during 2014 (421-444 deaths/100,000 cattle, costing US$121,797-171,992. Cost benefit analysis favoured vaccinating all cattle over the current practice of partial vaccination or halting vaccination all together.Our study represents the first estimate of the burden of VBR in Latin America to incorporate data on reporting rates. We confirm the long-suspected cost of VBR to small-scale farmers and show that vaccinating livestock is a cost-effective solution to mitigate the burden of VBR. More generally, results highlight that ignoring geographic variation in access to health resources can bias estimates of disease burden and risk.

  9. MYOSITIS OSSIFICANS TRAUMATICA IN A VAMPIRE BAT (DESMODUS ROTUNDUS).

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    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Manasse, Jorden; Churgin, Sarah; Steinberg, Howard; Clyde, Victoria L; Wallace, Roberta

    2016-09-01

    A 15-yr-old sexually intact female vampire bat ( Desmodus rotundus ) was diagnosed with myositis ossificans traumatica of the abdominal wall. The bat presented with a large ulcerated firm mass along the abdomen. Radiographs and cytology were performed, followed by surgical exploration. The mass was determined to be nonresectable and the bat was euthanized. Histopathology showed severe necrotizing, degenerative, and pyogranulomatous myositis with osseous and cartilaginous metaplasia, fibrosis, and ulceration, which were consistent with myositis ossificans traumatica. Myositis ossificans traumatica is commonly associated with previous trauma to skeletal muscle. Two years prior, this bat had an emergency Caesarian section at this site, which was postulated to elicit a marked tissue response leading to this condition. Myositis ossificans traumatica is infrequently reported in humans, dogs, cats, pigs, and horses. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of this condition in a bat.

  10. Seasonal reproduction of vampire bats and its relation to seasonality of bovine rabies.

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    Lord, R D

    1992-04-01

    Studies of pregnancy and lactation in vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) in northern Argentina over a 4 yr period showed an inverse relationship between prevalence of pregnancy and lactation, the consequence of birth and onset of lactation, which was correlated with the wet season. The seasonal influx of young susceptibles into the vampire population in the wet season coincided with the well known increase in vampire transmitted rabies in that season.

  11. Novel hemotropic mycoplasmas are widespread and genetically diverse in vampire bats.

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    Volokhov, D V; Becker, D J; Bergner, L M; Camus, M S; Orton, R J; Chizhikov, V E; Altizer, S M; Streicker, D G

    2017-11-01

    Bats (Order: Chiroptera) have been widely studied as reservoir hosts for viruses of concern for human and animal health. However, whether bats are equally competent hosts of non-viral pathogens such as bacteria remains an important open question. Here, we surveyed blood and saliva samples of vampire bats from Peru and Belize for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. (hemoplasmas), bacteria that can cause inapparent infection or anemia in hosts. 16S rRNA gene amplification of blood showed 67% (150/223) of common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were infected by hemoplasmas. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed three novel genotypes that were phylogenetically related but not identical to hemoplasmas described from other (non-vampire) bat species, rodents, humans, and non-human primates. Hemoplasma prevalence in vampire bats was highest in non-reproductive and young individuals, did not differ by country, and was relatively stable over time (i.e., endemic). Metagenomics from pooled D. rotundus saliva from Peru detected non-hemotropic Mycoplasma species and hemoplasma genotypes phylogenetically similar to those identified in blood, providing indirect evidence for potential direct transmission of hemoplasmas through biting or social contacts. This study demonstrates vampire bats host several novel hemoplasmas and sheds light on risk factors for infection and basic transmission routes. Given the high frequency of direct contacts that arise when vampire bats feed on humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, the potential of these bacteria to be transmitted between species should be investigated in future work.

  12. Using DNA metabarcoding for simultaneous inference of common vampire bat diet and population structure.

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    Bohmann, Kristine; Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Nielsen, Martin; Nielsen, Luisa Dos Santos Bay; Jones, Gareth; Streicker, Daniel G; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2018-04-19

    Metabarcoding diet analysis has become a valuable tool in animal ecology; however, co-amplified predator sequences are not generally used for anything other than to validate predator identity. Exemplified by the common vampire bat, we demonstrate the use of metabarcoding to infer predator population structure alongside diet assessments. Growing populations of common vampire bats impact human, livestock and wildlife health in Latin America through transmission of pathogens, such as lethal rabies viruses. Techniques to determine large-scale variation in vampire bat diet and bat population structure would empower locality- and species-specific projections of disease transmission risks. However, previously used methods are not cost-effective and efficient for large-scale applications. Using bloodmeal and faecal samples from common vampire bats from coastal, Andean and Amazonian regions of Peru, we showcase metabarcoding as a scalable tool to assess vampire bat population structure and feeding preferences. Dietary metabarcoding was highly effective, detecting vertebrate prey in 93.2% of the samples. Bats predominantly preyed on domestic animals, but fed on tapirs at one Amazonian site. In addition, we identified arthropods in 9.3% of samples, likely reflecting consumption of ectoparasites. Using the same data, we document mitochondrial geographic population structure in the common vampire bat in Peru. Such simultaneous inference of vampire bat diet and population structure can enable new insights into the interplay between vampire bat ecology and disease transmission risks. Importantly, the methodology can be incorporated into metabarcoding diet studies of other animals to couple information on diet and population structure. © 2018 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Hologenomic adaptations underlying the evolution of sanguivory in the common vampire bat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zepeda Mendoza, M. Lisandra; Xiong, Zijun; Escalera-Zamudio, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Adaptation to specialized diets often requires modifications at both genomic and microbiome levels. We applied a hologenomic approach to the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), one of the only three obligate blood-feeding (sanguivorous) mammals, to study the evolution of its complex dietary...... adaptation. Specifically, we assembled its high-quality reference genome (scaffold N50 = 26.9 Mb, contig N50 = 36.6 kb) and gut metagenome, and compared them against those of insectivorous, frugivorous and carnivorous bats. Our analyses showed a particular common vampire bat genomic landscape regarding...

  14. Younger vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) are more likely than adults to explore novel objects.

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    Carter, Gerald G; Forss, Sofia; Page, Rachel A; Ratcliffe, John M

    2018-01-01

    The effects of age on neophobia and exploration are best described in birds and primates, and broader comparisons require reports from other taxa. Here we present data showing age-dependent exploration in a long-lived social species, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). A previous study found that vampire bats regurgitated food to partners trapped in a cage. Interestingly, while only a few adult bats visited the trapped bat, in every trial all or most of the eight young males in the colony would visit the trapped bat without feeding it. To test whether this behavioral difference resulted from age class differences in exploration, we compared responses of the bats to a trapped conspecific versus an inanimate novel object. Some adults and young showed interest in trapped conspecifics, but only the young males explored the novel objects. Additional novel object tests in a second captive colony showed that higher rates of novel object exploration were shown by young of both sexes. Our results corroborate past findings from other mammals and birds that age predicts exploration. If age-dependent exploration is indeed adaptive, then the role of age as a predictor of exploration tendency should depend on species-specific life history traits. Finally, because younger vampire bats also appear to have higher exposure to pathogens such as rabies virus, there may be implications for pathogen transmission if younger and more exploratory vampire bats are more likely to feed on novel hosts.

  15. Experimental infection of Artibeus intermedius with a vampire bat rabies virus.

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    Obregón-Morales, Cirani; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro; Perea Martínez, Leonardo; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, Flor Olivia; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia

    2017-06-01

    Experimental infection of Artibeus intermedius, the great fruit-eating bat, was performed with vampire bat rabies isolates. Bats (n=35) were captured in the wild and quarantined prior to experimental infection. No rabies antibodies were detected by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) prior to infection. Three doses of rabies virus (RV) and three different routes of infection were used. One out of 35 bats died without showing any clinical signs at day 14 and was positive for rabies. None of the 34 other bats showed clinical signs for rabies, but high antibody titers were detected post-inoculation, suggesting either innate immune response to the vampire bat rabies virus or possible pre-exposure to RV and inoculation leading to a booster effect. Rabies virus was detected by hemi-nested RT-PCR (hnRT-PCR) in the brain (n=3), stomach (n=1) of bats that were negative by immunofluorescence and that survived rabies infection. The bat that died on day 14 was positive by hnRT-PCR on the brain, heart and liver. These results suggest that either previous non-lethal exposure to RV or natural low susceptibility to vampire bat viruses somehow protected Artibeus intermedius from clinical rabies infection leading to a marginal lethality effect on this bats species population in the wild. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reproductive seasonality, sex ratio and philopatry in Argentina's common vampire bats

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    Delpietro, H. A.; Russo, R. G.; Lord, R. D.; Delpietro, G. L.

    2017-01-01

    Common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) are a key rabies vector in South America. Improved management of this species requires long-term, region-specific information. To investigate patterns of demography and dispersal, we analysed 13 642 captures of common vampire bats in Northern Argentina from the period 1969–2004. In contrast with findings from more tropical regions, we found reproductive seasonality with peak pregnancy in September and peak lactation in February. Curiously, sex ratios were consistently male-biased both in maternity roosts and at foraging sites. Males comprised 57% of 9509 adults caught at night, 57% of 1078 juveniles caught at night, 57% of 603 juveniles caught in roosts during the day, and 55% of 103 newborns and mature fetuses. Most observed roosts were in man-made structures. Movements of 1.5–54 km were most frequent in adult males, followed by young males, adult females and young females. At night, males visited maternity roosts, and non-pregnant, non-lactating females visited bachelor roosts. Males fed earlier in the night. Finally, we report new longevity records for free-ranging vampire bats: 16 and 17 years of age for a female and male, respectively. Our results are consistent with model predictions that sex-biased movements might play a key role in rabies transmission between vampire bat populations. PMID:28484615

  17. Reproductive seasonality, sex ratio and philopatry in Argentina's common vampire bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpietro, H A; Russo, R G; Carter, G G; Lord, R D; Delpietro, G L

    2017-04-01

    Common vampire bats ( Desmodus rotundus ) are a key rabies vector in South America. Improved management of this species requires long-term, region-specific information. To investigate patterns of demography and dispersal, we analysed 13 642 captures of common vampire bats in Northern Argentina from the period 1969-2004. In contrast with findings from more tropical regions, we found reproductive seasonality with peak pregnancy in September and peak lactation in February. Curiously, sex ratios were consistently male-biased both in maternity roosts and at foraging sites. Males comprised 57% of 9509 adults caught at night, 57% of 1078 juveniles caught at night, 57% of 603 juveniles caught in roosts during the day, and 55% of 103 newborns and mature fetuses. Most observed roosts were in man-made structures. Movements of 1.5-54 km were most frequent in adult males, followed by young males, adult females and young females. At night, males visited maternity roosts, and non-pregnant, non-lactating females visited bachelor roosts. Males fed earlier in the night. Finally, we report new longevity records for free-ranging vampire bats: 16 and 17 years of age for a female and male, respectively. Our results are consistent with model predictions that sex-biased movements might play a key role in rabies transmission between vampire bat populations.

  18. Seasonal variation and food deprivation in common vampire bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

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    M. B. Freitas

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal variation and fasting on fat reserves of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA, along with lipid content of the liver and muscles, and fatty acids from the carcass were obtained from bats fed bovine blood and from whom food was subsequently withheld for 24 and 48 h. Animals were caught during both dry and rainy seasons. In general, fat tissue stores were not significantly influenced by seasonal variation. Lipid content of liver, muscles, and carcass decreased during some food deprivation periods, although the concomitant increase expected in plasma FFA was not observed. Lipid metabolism is hypothesized as being continued by the tissues themselves. In addition, free access to food sources (e.g., domestic livestock throughout the year is believed to contribute to the low seasonal variations in fat reserves observed in the common vampire bat.

  19. Iron storage disease (hemochromatosis) and hepcidin response to iron load in two species of pteropodid fruit bats relative to the common vampire bat.

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    Stasiak, Iga M; Smith, Dale A; Ganz, Tomas; Crawshaw, Graham J; Hammermueller, Jutta D; Bienzle, Dorothee; Lillie, Brandon N

    2018-07-01

    Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron homeostasis in the body. Iron storage disease (hemochromatosis) is a frequent cause of liver disease and mortality in captive Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus), but reasons underlying this condition are unknown. Hereditary hemochromatosis in humans is due to deficiency of hepcidin or resistance to the action of hepcidin. Here, we investigated the role of hepcidin in iron metabolism in one species of pteropodid bat that is prone to iron storage disease [Egyptian fruit bat (with and without hemochromatosis)], one species of pteropodid bat where iron storage disease is rare [straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum)], and one species of bat with a natural diet very high in iron, in which iron storage disease is not reported [common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus)]. Iron challenge via intramuscular injection of iron dextran resulted in significantly increased liver iron content and histologic iron scores in all three species, and increased plasma iron in Egyptian fruit bats and straw-colored fruit bats. Hepcidin mRNA expression increased in response to iron administration in healthy Egyptian fruit bats and common vampire bats, but not in straw-colored fruit bats or Egyptian fruit bats with hemochromatosis. Hepcidin gene expression significantly correlated with liver iron content in Egyptian fruit bats and common vampire bats, and with transferrin saturation and plasma ferritin concentration in Egyptian fruit bats. Induction of hepcidin gene expression in response to iron challenge is absent in straw-colored fruit bats and in Egyptian fruit bats with hemochromatosis and, relative to common vampire bats and healthy humans, is low in Egyptain fruit bats without hemochromatosis. Limited hepcidin response to iron challenge may contribute to the increased susceptibility of Egyptian fruit bats to iron storage disease.

  20. The spermatogenic process of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus under a histomorphometric view.

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    Danielle Barbosa Morais

    Full Text Available Among all bat species, Desmodus rotundus stands out as one of the most intriguing due to its exclusively haematophagous feeding habits. However, little is known about their spermatogenic cycle. This study aimed at describing the spermatogenic process of common vampire bats through testicular histomorphometric characterization of adult specimens, spermatogenic production indexes, description of stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and estimative of the spermatogenic process duration. Morphometrical and immunohistochemical analyzes for bromodeoxiuridine were conducted under light microscopy and ultrastructural analyzes were performed under transmission electron microscopy. Vampire bats showed higher investment in gonadal tissue (gonadosomatic index of 0.54% and in seminiferous tubules (tubulesomatic index of 0.49% when compared to larger mammals. They also showed a high tubular length per gram of testis (34.70 m. Approximately half of the intertubular compartment was found to be comprised by Leydig cells (51.20%, and an average of 23.77x106 of these cells was found per gram of testis. The germline cells showed 16.93% of mitotic index and 2.51% of meiotic index. The overall yield of spermatogenesis was 60% and the testicular spermatic reserve was 71.44x107 spermatozoa per gram of testis. With a total spermatogenesis duration estimated at 37.02 days, vampire bats showed a daily sperm production of 86.80x106 gametes per gram of testis. These findings demonstrate a high sperm production, which is commonly observed in species with promiscuous mating system.

  1. Chromosomal homologies among vampire bats revealed by chromosome painting (phyllostomidae, chiroptera).

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    Sotero-Caio, C G; Pieczarka, J C; Nagamachi, C Y; Gomes, A J B; Lira, T C; O'Brien, P C M; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Souza, M J; Santos, N

    2011-01-01

    Substantial effort has been made to elucidate karyotypic evolution of phyllostomid bats, mostly through comparisons of G-banding patterns. However, due to the limited number of G-bands in respective karyotypes and to the similarity of non-homologous bands, an accurate evolutionary history of chromosome segments remains questionable. This is the case for vampire bats (Desmodontinae). Despite several proposed homologies, banding data have not yet provided a detailed understanding of the chromosomal changes within vampire genera. We examined karyotype differentiation of the 3 species within this subfamily using whole chromosomal probes from Phyllostomus hastatus (Phyllostominae) and Carollia brevicauda (Carolliinae). Painting probes of P. hastatus respectively detected 22, 21 and 23 conserved segments in Diphylla ecaudata, Diaemus youngi, and Desmodus rotundus karyotypes, whereas 27, 27 and 28 were respectively detectedwith C. brevicauda paints. Based on the evolutionary relationships proposed by morphological and molecular data, we present probable chromosomal synapomorphies for vampire bats and propose chromosomes that were present in the common ancestor of the 5 genera analyzed. Karyotype comparisons allowed us to relate a number of conserved chromosomal segments among the 5 species, providing a broader database for understanding karyotype evolution in the family. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Microsatellites loci reveal heterozygosis and population structure in vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) of Mexico.

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    Romero-Nava, Claudia; León-Paniagua, Livia; Ortega, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    A limited number of studies have focused on the population genetic structure of vampire bats (Desmous rotundus) in America. This medium-sized bat is distributed in tropical areas of the continent with high prevalence in forested livestock areas. The aim of this work was to characterize the vampire population structure and their genetic differentiation. For this, we followed standard methods by which live vampires (caught by mist-netting) and preserved material from scientific collections, were obtained for a total of 15 different locations, ranging from Chihuahua (North) to Quintana Roo (Southeast). Tissue samples were obtained from both live and collected animals, and the genetic differentiation, within and among localities, was assessed by the use of seven microsatellite loci. Our results showed that all loci were polymorphic and no private alleles were detected. High levels of heterozygosis were detected when the proportion of alleles in each locus were compared. Pairwise (ST) and R(ST) detected significant genetic differentiation among individuals from different localities. Our population structure results indicate the presence of eleven clusters, with a high percentage of assigned individuals to some specific collecting site.

  3. Microsatellites loci reveal heterozygosis and population structure in vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae of Mexico

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    Claudia Romero-Nava

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A limited number of studies have focused on the population genetic structure of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus in America. This medium-sized bat is distributed in tropical areas of the continent with high prevalence in forested livestock areas. The aim of this work was to characterize the vampire population structure and their genetic differentiation. For this, we followed standard methods by which live vampires (caught by mist-netting and preserved material from scientific collections, were obtained for a total of 15 different locations, ranging from Chihuahua (North to Quintana Roo (Southeast. Tissue samples were obtained from both live and collected animals, and the genetic differentiation, within and among localities, was assessed by the use of seven microsatellite loci. Our results showed that all loci were polymorphic and no private alleles were detected. High levels of heterozygosis were detected when the proportion of alleles in each locus were compared. Pairwise F ST and R ST detected significant genetic differentiation among individuals from different localities. Our population structure results indicate the presence of eleven clusters, with a high percentage of assigned individuals to some specific collecting site. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (2: 659-669. Epub 2014 June 01.

  4. A new species of Biacantha (Nematoda: Molineidae), a parasite of the common vampire bat from the Yungas, Argentina.

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    Oviedo, Mirna C; Ramallo, Geraldine; Claps, Lucía E; Miotti, M Daniela

    2012-12-01

    A new species of Biacantha Wolfgang, 1954 (Nematoda: Molineidae), is described from the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus Geoffroy and St. Hilaire, 1810, from northwest Argentina. Biacantha normaliae n. sp. Oviedo, Ramallo, and Claps, is characterized by the disposition and number of ridges of the synlophe, the excretory pore located on a knob, 2 lateral processes on the tail of females, the male caudal bursa morphology, and lack of gubernaculum. This is the first species of nematode described in a vampire bat from Argentina.

  5. Hologenomic adaptations underlying the evolution of sanguivory in the common vampire bat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zepeda Mendoza, M. Lisandra; Xiong, Zijun; Escalera-Zamudio, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Adaptation to specialized diets often requires modifications at both genomic and microbiome levels. We applied a hologenomic approach to the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), one of the only three obligate blood-feeding (sanguivorous) mammals, to study the evolution of its complex dietary...... integrated viral elements, a dietary and phylogenetic influence on gut microbiome taxonomic and functional profiles, and that both genetic elements harbour key traits related to the nutritional (for example, vitamin and lipid shortage) and non-nutritional (for example, nitrogen waste and osmotic homeostasis...

  6. Detection of Dengue Virus in Bat Flies (Diptera: Streblidae) of Common Vampire Bats, Desmodus rotundus, in Progreso, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abundes-Gallegos, Judith; Salas-Rojas, Monica; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Perea-Martínez, Leonardo; Obregón-Morales, Cirani Y; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Chomel, Bruno B; Stuckey, Matthew J; Moreno-Sandoval, Hayde; García-Baltazar, Anahi; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamin; Zuñiga, Gerardo; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro

    2018-01-01

    Blood-feeding arthropods play a major role in the transmission of several flaviviruses, which represent an important problem for human health. Currently, dengue is one of the most important arboviral emerging diseases worldwide. Furthermore, some previous studies have reported the presence of viral nucleic acids and antibodies against dengue virus (DENV) in wild animals. Our knowledge of the role played by wildlife reservoirs in the sylvatic transmission and maintenance of DENV remains limited. Our objective was to screen blood-feeding ectoparasites (bat flies) and their common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) hosts, for flaviviruses in Hidalgo, Mexico. We detected Flavivirus sequences in 38 pools of ectoparasites (Diptera: Streblidae, Strebla wiedemanni and Trichobius parasiticus) and 8 tissue samples of D. rotundus by RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR using FlaviPF1S, FlaviPR2bis, and FlaviPF3S primers specific for NS5, a gene highly conserved among flaviviruses. Phylogenetic inference analysis performed using the maximum likelihood algorithm implemented in PhyML showed that six sequences clustered with DENV (bootstrap value = 53.5%). Although this study supports other reports of DENV detection in bats and arthropods other than Aedes mosquitoes, the role of these ectoparasitic flies and of hematophagous bats in the epidemiology of DENV still warrants further investigation.

  7. Terrestrial locomotion of the New Zealand short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata and the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Daniel K; Parsons, Stuart; Schutt, William A; Carter, Gerald G; Hermanson, John W

    2006-05-01

    Bats (Chiroptera) are generally awkward crawlers, but the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) have independently evolved the ability to manoeuvre well on the ground. In this study we describe the kinematics of locomotion in both species, and the kinetics of locomotion in M. tuberculata. We sought to determine whether these bats move terrestrially the way other quadrupeds do, or whether they possess altogether different patterns of movement on the ground than are observed in quadrupeds that do not fly. Using high-speed video analyses of bats moving on a treadmill, we observed that both species possess symmetrical lateral-sequence gaits similar to the kinematically defined walks of a broad range of tetrapods. At high speeds, D. rotundus use an asymmetrical bounding gait that appears to converge on the bounding gaits of small terrestrial mammals, but with the roles of the forelimbs and hindlimbs reversed. This gait was not performed by M. tuberculata. Many animals that possess a single kinematic gait shift with increasing speed from a kinetic walk (where kinetic and potential energy of the centre of mass oscillate out of phase from each other) to a kinetic run (where they oscillate in phase). To determine whether the single kinematic gait of M. tuberculata meets the kinetic definition of a walk, a run, or a gait that functions as a walk at low speed and a run at high speed, we used force plates and high-speed video recordings to characterize the energetics of the centre of mass in that species. Although oscillations in kinetic and potential energy were of similar magnitudes, M. tuberculata did not use pendulum-like exchanges of energy between them to the extent that many other quadrupedal animals do, and did not transition from a kinetic walk to kinetic run with increasing speed. The gait of M. tuberculata is kinematically a walk, but kinetically run-like at all speeds.

  8. Sound localization in common vampire bats: Acuity and use of the binaural time cue by a small mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Rickye S.; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E.

    2015-01-01

    Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e., broke contact with the spout) whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 13.1°—within the range of thresholds for other bats and near the mean for mammals. Common vampire bats readily localized pure tones of 20 kHz and higher, indicating they could use interaural intensity-differences. They could also localize pure tones of 5 kHz and lower, thereby demonstrating the use of interaural time-differences, despite their very small maximum interaural distance of 60 μs. A comparison of the use of locus cues among mammals suggests several implications for the evolution of sound localization and its underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. PMID:25618037

  9. Short interfering RNAs targeting a vampire-bat related rabies virus phosphoprotein mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ekaterina Alexandrovna Durymanova; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Brandão, Paulo

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo effects of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) mRNA in a post-infection treatment for rabies as an extension of a previous report (Braz J Microbiol. 2013 Nov 15;44(3):879-82). To this end, rabies virus strain RABV-4005 (related to the Desmodus rotundus vampire bat) were used to inoculate BHK-21 cells and mice, and the transfection with each of the siRNAs was made with Lipofectamine-2000™. In vitro results showed that siRNA 360 was able to inhibit the replication of strain RABV-4005 with a 1log decrease in virus titter and 5.16-fold reduction in P mRNA, 24h post-inoculation when compared to non-treated cells. In vivo, siRNA 360 was able to induce partial protection, but with no significant difference when compared to non-treated mice. These results indicate that, despite the need for improvement for in vivo applications, P mRNA might be a target for an RNAi-based treatment for rabies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Desmolaris, a novel factor XIa anticoagulant from the salivary gland of the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) inhibits inflammation and thrombosis in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ma, C.; Mizurini, D.M.; Assumpção, T.C.F.; Li, Y.; Qi, Y.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Monteiro, R.Q.; Francischetti, I.M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 25 (2013), s. 4094-4106 ISSN 0340-6245 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Desmolaris * anticolagulant * vampire bat saliva * FXIa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.760, year: 2013

  11. A rabies virus vampire bat variant shows increased neuroinvasiveness in mice when compared to a carnivore variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Leonardo Pereira; Gamon, Thais Helena Martins; Cuevas, Silvia Elena Campusano; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Fahl, Willian de Oliveira; Iamamoto, Keila; Scheffer, Karin Correa; Achkar, Samira Maria; Zanatto, Dennis Albert; Mori, Cláudia Madalena Cabrera; Maiorka, Paulo César; Mori, Enio

    2017-12-01

    Rabies is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is caused by several rabies virus (RABV) variants. These variants can exhibit differences in neurovirulence, and few studies have attempted to evaluate the neuroinvasiveness of variants derived from vampire bats and wild carnivores. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuropathogenesis of infection with two Brazilian RABV street variants (variant 3 and crab-eating fox) in mice. BALB/c mice were inoculated with RABV through the footpad, with the 50% mouse lethal dose (LD 50 ) determined by intracranial inoculation. The morbidity of rabies in mice infected with variant 3 and the crab-eating fox strain was 100% and 50%, respectively, with an incubation period of 7 and 6 days post-inoculation (dpi), respectively. The clinical disease in mice was similar with both strains, and it was characterized initially by weight loss, ruffled fur, hunched posture, and hind limb paralysis progressing to quadriplegia and recumbency at 9 to 12 dpi. Histological lesions within the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis with neuronal degeneration and necrosis were observed in mice infected with variant 3 and those infected with the crab-eating fox variant. However, lesions and the presence of RABV antigen, were more widespread within the CNS of variant-3-infected mice, whereas in crab-eating fox-variant-infected mice, RABV antigens were more restricted to caudal areas of the CNS, such as the spinal cord and brainstem. In conclusion, the results shown here demonstrate that the RABV vampire bat strain (variant 3) has a higher potential for neuroinvasiveness than the carnivore variant.

  12. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and livestock in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, J A; Shiva, C; Virhuez, M; Tello, C; Appelgren, A; Vendrell, J; Solassol, J; Godreuil, S; Streicker, D G

    2018-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) is a global threat to public health. ESBL resistance is most commonly hospital-acquired; however, infections acquired outside of hospital settings have raised concerns over the role of livestock and wildlife in the zoonotic spread of ESBL-producing bacteria. Only limited data are available on the circulation of ESBL-producing bacteria in animals. Here, we report ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in wild common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and livestock near Lima, Peru. Molecular analyses revealed that most of this resistance resulted from the expression of bla CTX-M-15 genes carried by plasmids, which are disseminating worldwide in hospital settings and have also been observed in healthy children of Peru. Multilocus sequence typing showed a diverse pool of E. coli strains carrying this resistance that were not always host species-specific, suggesting sharing of strains between species or infection from a common source. This study shows widespread ESBL resistance in wild and domestic animals, supporting animal communities as a potential source of resistance. Future work is needed to elucidate the role of bats in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains of public health importance and to understand the origin of the observed resistance. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Detection of rabies virus nucleoprotein-RNA in several organs outside the Central Nervous System in naturally-infected vampire bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. P Vieira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a neurological disease, but the rabies virus spread to several organs outside the central nervous system (CNS. The rabies virus antigen or RNA has been identified from the salivary glands, the lungs, the kidneys, the heart and the liver. This work aimed to identify the presence of the rabies virus in non-neuronal organs from naturally-infected vampire bats and to study the rabies virus in the salivary glands of healthy vampire bats. Out of the five bats that were positive for rabies in the CNS, by fluorescent antibody test (FAT, viral isolation in N2A cells and reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 100% (5/5 were positive for rabies in samples of the tongue and the heart, 80% (4/5 in the kidneys, 40% (2/5 in samples of the salivary glands and the lungs, and 20% (1/5 in the liver by RT-PCR test. All the nine bats that were negative for rabies in the CNS, by FAT, viral isolation and RT-PCR were negative for rabies in the salivary glands by RT-PCR test. Possible consequences for rabies epidemiology and pathogenesis are discussed in this work.

  14. Phylogeography of the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus: Marked population structure, Neotropical Pleistocene vicariance and incongruence between nuclear and mtDNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgante João S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus is an excellent model organism for studying ecological vicariance in the Neotropics due to its broad geographic range and its preference for forested areas as roosting sites. With the objective of testing for Pleistocene ecological vicariance, we sequenced a mitocondrial DNA (mtDNA marker and two nuclear markers (RAG2 and DRB to try to understand how Pleistocene glaciations affected the distribution of intraspecific lineages in this bat. Results Five reciprocally monophyletic clades were evident in the mitochondrial gene tree, and in most cases with high bootstrap support: Central America (CA, Amazon and Cerrado (AMC, Pantanal (PAN, Northern Atlantic Forest (NAF and Southern Atlantic Forest (SAF. The Atlantic forest clades formed a monophyletic clade with high bootstrap support, creating an east/west division for this species in South America. On the one hand, all coalescent and non-coalescent estimates point to a Pleistocene time of divergence between the clades. On the other hand, the nuclear markers showed extensive sharing of haplotypes between distant localities, a result compatible with male-biased gene flow. In order to test if the disparity between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers was due to the difference in mutation rate and effective size, we performed a coalescent simulation to examine the feasibility that, given the time of separation between the observed lineages, even with a gene flow rate close to zero, there would not be reciprocal monophyly for a neutral nuclear marker. We used the observed values of theta and an estimated mutation rate for the nuclear marker gene to perform 1000 iterations of the simulation. The results of this simulation were inconclusive: the number of iterations with and without reciprocal monophyly of one or more clades are similar. Conclusions We therefore conclude that the pattern exhibited by the common vampire bat, with marked

  15. Co-expression of cytokeratins and vimentin by highly invasive trophoblast in the white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi, and the black mastiff bat, Molossus ater, with observations on intermediate filament proteins in the decidua and intraplacental trophoblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwaik, N K; Rasweiler, J J; Muradali, F

    1998-11-01

    Histological and immunocytochemical studies of gravid reproductive tracts obtained from the white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi) and the black mastiff bat (Molossus ater) have established that both species develop unusually invasive trophoblast. This is released by the developing discoidal haemochorial placenta, expresses both cytokeratins and vimentin, and invades the myometrium and adjacent tissues (including the ovaries) via interstitial migration within the walls of maternal blood vessels. Hence, this trophoblast is noteworthy for the extent to which it undergoes an epithelial-mesenchymal transformation. In Molossus, it originates from the cytotrophoblastic shell running along the base of the placenta, is mononuclear, and preferentially invades maternal arterial vessels serving the discoidal placenta. This trophoblast may have a role in dilatation of these vessels when the discoidal placenta becomes functional. In Diaemus, the highly invasive trophoblast appears to originate instead from a layer of syncytiotrophoblast on the periphery of the placenta is multinucleated, and vigorously invades both arterial and venous vessels. During late pregnancy, it becomes extensively branched and sends attenuated processes around many of the myometrial smooth muscle fibres. In view of its distribution, this trophoblast could have important influences upon myometrial contractility and the function of blood vessels serving the gravid tract. Other aspects of intermediate filament expression in the uteri and placentae of these bats are also noteworthy. Many of the decidual giant cells in Molossus co-express cytokeratins and vimentin, while the syncytiotrophoblast lining the placental labyrinth in Diaemus late in pregnancy expresses little cytokeratin.

  16. Clinical vampirism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    form in most religions that hold a belief in a corporate existence ... moved west through Romania and Hungary. The word vampire, of Turkish or Magyar origin, was first used in English in 1734.2 ... ing period of prison sentences and the war.

  17. BATS, the readout control of UA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botlo, M.; Dorenbosch, J.; Jimack, M.; Szoncso, F.; Taurok, A.; Walzel, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1991-04-15

    A steadily rising luminosity and different readout architectures for the various detector systems of UA1 required a new data flow control to minimize the dead time. BATS, a finite state machine conceived around two microprocessors in a single VME crate, improved flexibility and reliability. Compatibility with BATS streamlined all readout branches. BATS also proved to be a valuable asset in spotting readout problems and previously undetected data flow bottlenecks. (orig.).

  18. Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about bats, including definitions and descriptions of the characteristics of bats. Provides teaching activities such as "Bat and Math,""A Bat Like That,""Bat Party,""Ears in the Dark," and "The Big Bat Mystery." Contains reproducible handouts and quizzes. (TW)

  19. Bat Rabies in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, James A.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A.; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L.; Peruski, Leonard F.; Mendonça, Mary T.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103

  20. Reports of the hairy-legged vampire bat Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera: Desmodontinae for the biogeographyc Colombian Chocó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonard David Echavarría-R

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is reported a new record of the hairy-legged vampire Diphylla ecaudata (SPIX, 1823 in the Choco region of Colombia, of which are known only few studies in the country, registered in the departments of Magdalena (1900, Vaupés (1966, Meta (1970, Caquetá (1999 y Amazonas (2016. This registry is based on two specimens that were properly analyzed and due to its curiosity, discusses the available information on this species in the country in terms of its distribution and ecology, based on specimens in collections and existing reports. This log helps fill a void of the known geographic distribution of the species in the country deposited in the Teriologica Scientific Collection Research Group on Management and Wildlife Management of the Chocó of the Technological University of Chocó (ColTer-Choco. This report extends the geographic distribution until the department of Choco, in contraendose to 464.794 km some of the record closest in Magdalena, adding the Tropical Dry Forest Ecosystem (BST to habitats that occurred for the species. Due to its curiosity, discusses the available information on this species in the country in terms of its distribution and ecology, based on specimens in collections and existing reports. This log helps fill a void of the known geographic distribution of the species in the country.

  1. Visual-Motor Control in Baseball Batting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gray

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available With margins for error of a few milliseconds and fractions of an inch it is not surprising that hitting a baseball is considered to be one of the most difficult acts in all of sports. We have been investigating this challenging behavior using a virtual baseball batting setup in which simulations of an approaching ball, pitcher, and field are combined with real-time recording of bat and limb movements. I will present evidence that baseball batting involves variable pre-programmed control in which the swing direction and movement time (MT are set prior to the initiation of the action but can take different values from swing-to-swing. This programming process utilizes both advance information (pitch history and count and optical information picked-up very early in the ball's flight (ball time to contact TTC and rotation direction. The pre-programmed value of MT is used to determine a critical value of TTC for swing initiation. Finally, because a baseball swing is an action that is occasionally interrupted online (i.e., a “check swing”, I will discuss experiments that examine when this pre-programmed action can be stopped and the sources of optical information that trigger stopping.

  2. The Vampire Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erfgen, Carsten; Zenker, Sebastian; Sattler, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Although many brand managers favor the use of celebrities in advertisements, others worry that celebrities overshadow the brand and thus impair brand recall. Practitioners refer to this overshadowing as the vampire effect, defined as a decrease in brand recall for an advertising stimulus...... that features a celebrity endorser versus the same stimulus with an unknown but equally attractive endorser. Because there is no agreement about whether this overshadowing really exists, this research analyzes the existence of the vampire effect and its moderators in a series of experiments with a total of 4...

  3. Education to Action: Improving Public Perception of Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Hoffmaster

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public perception of bats has historically been largely negative with bats often portrayed as carriers of disease. Bats are commonly associated with vampire lore and thus elicit largely fearful reactions despite the fact that they are a vital and valuable part of the ecosystem. Bats provide a variety of essential services from pest control to plant pollination. Despite the benefits of bats to the environment and the economy, bats are suffering at the hands of humans. They are victims of turbines, human encroachment, pesticides, and, most recently, white nose syndrome. Because of their critical importance to the environment, humans should do what they can to help protect bats. We propose that humans will be more likely to do so if their perceptions and attitudes toward bats can be significantly improved. In a preliminary study we found some support for the idea that people can be educated about bats through bat oriented events and exhibits, and that this greater knowledge can inspire humans to act to save bats.

  4. The erotic vampire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    popular vampire phenomenon excessive violence and softcore pornography has become popularized mainstream TV-fiction. This paper is a very short version of the article “Batailles godnathistorie – Jean Rollin, True Blood og den erotiske vampyr” [Bataille’s bedtime story – Jean Rollin, True Blood...

  5. Bacteria and vampirism in cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, O; Bourry, A; Thévenot, S; Burucoa, C

    2013-09-01

    A vampire is a non-dead and non-alive chimerical creature, which, according to various folklores and popular superstitions, feeds on blood of the living to draw vital force. Vampires do not reproduce by copulation, but by bite. Vampirism is thus similar to a contagious disease contracted by intravascular inoculation with a suspected microbial origin. In several vampire films, two real bacteria were staged, better integrated than others in popular imagination: Yersinia pestis and Treponema pallidum. Bacillus vampiris was created for science-fiction. These films are attempts to better define humans through one of their greatest fears: infectious disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The History of Rabies in Trinidad: Epidemiology and Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine F. R. Seetahal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vampire bat-transmitted rabies was first recognized in Trinidad during a major outbreak reported in 1925. Trinidad is the only Caribbean island with vampire bat-transmitted rabies. We conducted a literature review to describe the changing epidemiology of rabies in Trinidad and give a historical perspective to rabies prevention and control measures on the island. The last human case of rabies occurred in 1937 and although no case of canine-transmitted rabies was reported since 1914, sporadic outbreaks of bat-transmitted rabies still occur in livestock to date. Over the last century, seven notable epidemics were recorded in Trinidad with the loss of over 3000 animals. During the 1950s, several measures were effectively adopted for the prevention and control of the disease which led to a significant reduction in the number of cases. These measures include: vampire bat population control, livestock vaccination, and animal surveillance. However, due to lapses in these measures over the years (e.g., periods of limited vampire control and incomplete herd vaccination, epidemics have occurred. In light of the significant negative impact of rabies on animal production and human health, rabies surveillance in Trinidad should be enhanced and cases evaluated towards the design and implementation of more evidence-based prevention and control programs.

  7. A contribution to the vampire studies among Serbs or vampire stories from Luznica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Gordana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of original fieldwork performed in the village of Strelac, in southeast Serbia during August 2003. All Slavs believed in the existence of a vampire; still today, this belief is widespread among Serbs. According to the folk stories, a man can become a vampire during his life or after death. It is believed that certain persons have a predisposition to become vampires: informants argued that the condition could descend by inheritance, or if an animal steps over a deceased person. A man can also become a vampire during his lifetime if he suffers from certain illness, but does not take medications, or if, when ill, he is left alone or abandoned by his family. In most cases a vampire hunts his relatives or neighbors, or disturbs their cattle. A vampire makes noise, troubles its relatives, jumps on their back, and sometimes sucks their blood. There are two ways of protection against a vampire: to scold and push a vampire away, and to face the creature in order to "speak out". The "speak-out" method means that a vampire needs to be told about everything it did as a vampire. If a vampire is a vampire-deceased, it is possible to "lure" it with round bread, and banish it from the village. The villagers here use "vampire's bone" for this purpose. These beliefs encourage people to take care of their sick - the ones who do not do so get frequent visits from a vampire.

  8. [Hematophagous bats as reservoirs of rabies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus.

  9. Vampires and a Moco Jumbie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Vampires and a Moco Jumbie is a narrative-essay about teaching Basic Composition in New York City in the early 1990s. To the surprise and delight of the teacher, the students describe in class discussions and in their writings their beliefs in the supernatural. Contains one note.

  10. Immunological Control of Viral Infections in Bats and the Emergence of Viruses Highly Pathogenic to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Schountz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bats are reservoir hosts of many important viruses that cause substantial disease in humans, including coronaviruses, filoviruses, lyssaviruses, and henipaviruses. Other than the lyssaviruses, they do not appear to cause disease in the reservoir bats, thus an explanation for the dichotomous outcomes of infections of humans and bat reservoirs remains to be determined. Bats appear to have a few unusual features that may account for these differences, including evidence of constitutive interferon (IFN activation and greater combinatorial diversity in immunoglobulin genes that do not undergo substantial affinity maturation. We propose these features may, in part, account for why bats can host these viruses without disease and how they may contribute to the highly pathogenic nature of bat-borne viruses after spillover into humans. Because of the constitutive IFN activity, bat-borne viruses may be shed at low levels from bat cells. With large naive antibody repertoires, bats may control the limited virus replication without the need for rapid affinity maturation, and this may explain why bats typically have low antibody titers to viruses. However, because bat viruses have evolved in high IFN environments, they have enhanced countermeasures against the IFN response. Thus, upon infection of human cells, where the IFN response is not constitutive, the viruses overwhelm the IFN response, leading to abundant virus replication and pathology.

  11. Identification of Biocontrol Agents to Control the Fungal Pathogen, Geomyces destructans, in Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, S.; Cheng, T.

    2013-12-01

    The fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) causes the disease White-nose Syndrome (WNS) in bats and is estimated to have killed millions of bats since its emergence in North America in 2006. Gd is predicted to cause the local extinction of at least three bat species if rates of decline continue unabated. Given the devastating impacts of Gd to bat populations, identifying a viable method for controlling the pathogen is pertinent for conservation of affected bat species. Our work focuses on identifying naturally-occurring skin bacteria on bats that are antagonistic to Gd that could potentially be used as a biocontrol. We cultured bacteria from skin swabs taken from wild bats (Myotis lucifugus, Eptesicus fuscus, Myotis sodalis, Perimyotis subflavus). We conducted challenge experiments to identify bacterial strains that inhibited Gd growth. Bacteria that exhibited antifungal properties were identified using 16S and gyrB markers. Our methods identified several bacteria in the Pseudomonas fluorescens complex as potential biocontrol agents. Future work will continue to test the viability of these bacteria as biocontrol agents via experimental treatments with live captive bats. The failure of previous non-biocontrol methods highlights the importance of developing these bacteria as a biologically-friendly method for controlling Gd. A bat infected with Geomyces destructans. Photo by West Virginia Division of Natural Resources Bacterial culture from the swab of a bat's wings

  12. A contribution to the vampire studies among Serbs or vampire stories from Luznica

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Gordana

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the result of original fieldwork performed in the village of Strelac, in southeast Serbia during August 2003. All Slavs believed in the existence of a vampire; still today, this belief is widespread among Serbs. According to the folk stories, a man can become a vampire during his life or after death. It is believed that certain persons have a predisposition to become vampires: informants argued that the condition could descend by inheritance, or if an animal steps over a decease...

  13. Predicting bat colony survival under controls targeting multiple transmission routes of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A D; Stevens, D F; Blackwood, J C

    2016-11-21

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a lethal infection of bats caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Since the first cases of WNS were documented in 2006, it is estimated that as many as 5.5million bats have succumbed in the United States-one of the fastest mammalian die-offs due to disease ever observed, and the first known sustained epizootic of bats. WNS is contagious between bats, and mounting evidence suggests that a persistent environmental reservoir of Pd plays a significant role in transmission as well. It is unclear, however, the relative contributions of bat-to-bat and environment-to-bat transmission to disease propagation within a colony. We analyze a mathematical model to investigate the consequences of both avenues of transmission on colony survival in addition to the efficacy of disease control strategies. Our model shows that selection of the most effective control strategies is highly dependent on the primary route of WNS transmission. Under all scenarios, however, generalized culling is ineffective and while targeted culling of infected bats may be effective under idealized conditions, it primarily has negative consequences. Thus, understanding the significance of environment-to-bat transmission is paramount to designing effective management plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular diversity of rabies viruses associated with bats in Mexico and other countries of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Orciari, Lillian A; Juárez-Islas, Víctor; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Padilla-Medina, Irma; Flisser, Ana; Souza, Valeria; Castillo, Amanda; Franka, Richard; Escalante-Mañe, Maribel; Sauri-González, Isaias; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2006-05-01

    Bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in Mexico were investigated. Eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in Mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. Samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the Americas. Patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. Several lineages associated with distinctive antigenic patterns were found in rabies viruses related to rabies in vampire bats in Mexico. Vampire bat rabies virus lineages associated with antigenic variant 3 are widely spread from Mexico to South America, suggesting these lineages as the most likely ancestors of vampire bat rabies and the ones that have been moved by vampire bat populations throughout the Americas. Rabies viruses related to Lasiurus cinereus, Histiotus montanus, and some other not yet identified species of the genus Lasiurus were found circulating in Mexico. Long-range dissemination patterns of rabies are not necessarily associated with migratory bat species, as in the case of rabies in Desmodus rotundus and Histiotus montanus. Human rabies was associated with vampire bat transmission in most cases, and in one case, rabies transmission from free-tailed bats was inferred. The occurrence of rabies spillover from bats to domestic animals was also demonstrated. Genetic typing of rabies viruses allowed us to distinguish trends of disease dissemination and to address, in a preliminary fashion, aspects of the complex evolution of rabies viruses in different host-reservoir species.

  15. "I am the vampire for these times": Representations of Postmodernity in Anne Rice's The Vampire Chronicles

    OpenAIRE

    RINNE, ANTTI

    2013-01-01

    Anne Ricen The Vampire Chronicles -kirjasarjaa voidaan pitää vampyyrinarratiivien uutena aaltona 1970-luvulta lähtien. Ricen romaaneissa vampyyrit itse nousivat pääosaan kirjojen päähenkilöinä, ja romaanit tietyssä määrin irtautuivat vanhemman vampyyrikirjallisuuden kaavoista. Tutkimukseni aiheena ovat Anne Ricen romaanisarjan kolme ensimmäistä teosta, Interview with the Vampire (1976), The Vampire Lestat (1985) ja The Queen of the Damned (1988). Tutkielmani keskittyy siihen, kuinka kyseiset ...

  16. Different auditory feedback control for echolocation and communication in horseshoe bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    Full Text Available Auditory feedback from the animal's own voice is essential during bat echolocation: to optimize signal detection, bats continuously adjust various call parameters in response to changing echo signals. Auditory feedback seems also necessary for controlling many bat communication calls, although it remains unclear how auditory feedback control differs in echolocation and communication. We tackled this question by analyzing echolocation and communication in greater horseshoe bats, whose echolocation pulses are dominated by a constant frequency component that matches the frequency range they hear best. To maintain echoes within this "auditory fovea", horseshoe bats constantly adjust their echolocation call frequency depending on the frequency of the returning echo signal. This Doppler-shift compensation (DSC behavior represents one of the most precise forms of sensory-motor feedback known. We examined the variability of echolocation pulses emitted at rest (resting frequencies, RFs and one type of communication signal which resembles an echolocation pulse but is much shorter (short constant frequency communication calls, SCFs and produced only during social interactions. We found that while RFs varied from day to day, corroborating earlier studies in other constant frequency bats, SCF-frequencies remained unchanged. In addition, RFs overlapped for some bats whereas SCF-frequencies were always distinctly different. This indicates that auditory feedback during echolocation changed with varying RFs but remained constant or may have been absent during emission of SCF calls for communication. This fundamentally different feedback mechanism for echolocation and communication may have enabled these bats to use SCF calls for individual recognition whereas they adjusted RF calls to accommodate the daily shifts of their auditory fovea.

  17. 10BASE5 Ethernet Cable & Vampire Tap

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    10BASE5 Thick Ethernet Cable, 10Mbit/sec. In the 1980s and early 1990's, Ethernet became more popular and provided a much faster data transmission rate. This cable is one of the first ethernet cables from 1983, a thick, bulky affair. Computers were attached via "Vampire Taps" which were connectors screwed straight through the shielding of the cable.

  18. Preparation, quality control and physico-chemical properties of 99mTc-BAT-AV-45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiankang Zhang; Xingqin Zhou; Xiaofeng Qin

    2012-01-01

    One novel styrylpyridine derivatives(AV-45) coupled with 99m Tc complex was synthesized. 99m Tc-BAT-AV-45 was prepared by a ligand exchange reaction employing sodium glucoheptonate, and effects of the amount of ligand, stannous chloride, sodium glucoheptonate and pH value of reaction mixture on the radiolabeling yield were studied in details. Quality control was performed by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Besides the stability, partition coefficient and electrophoresis of 99m Tc-BAT-AV-45 were also investigated. The results showed that the average radiolabeling yield was (95 ± 1%) and 99m Tc-BAT-AV-45 with suitable lipophilicity was stable and uncharged at physiological pH. (author)

  19. Potential citric acid exposure and toxicity to Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) associated with Eleutherodactylus frog control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, William C; Witmer, Gary W; Jojola, Susan M; Sin, Hans

    2014-04-01

    We examined potential exposure of Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) to citric acid, a minimum risk pesticide registered for control of invasive Eleutherodactylus frog populations. Hoary bats are nocturnal insectivores that roost solitarily in foliage, federally listed as endangered, and are endemic to Hawaii. Oral ingestion during grooming of contaminated fur appears to be the principal route by which these bats might be exposed to citric acid. We made assessments of oral toxicity, citric acid consumption, retention of material on fur, and grooming using big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) as a surrogate species. We evaluated both ground application and aerial application of 16 % solutions of citric acid during frog control operations. Absorbent bat effigies exposed to ground and aerial operational spray applications retained means of 1.54 and 0.02 g, respectively, of dry citric acid, although retention by the effigies was much higher than bat carcasses drenched in citric acid solutions. A high dose delivered orally (2,811 mg/kg) was toxic to the big brown bats and emesis occurred in 1 bat dosed as low as the 759 mg/kg level. No effect was observed with the lower doses examined (≤ 542 mg/kg). Bats sprayed with 5 ml of 16 % (w/w) citric acid solution showed no evidence of intoxication. In field situations, it is unlikely that bats would be sprayed directly or ingest much citric acid retained by fur. Based on our observations, we believe Hawaiian hoary bats to be at very low risk from harmful exposure to a toxic dose of citric acid during frog control operations.

  20. Representation of Marxism in Vampires in Havana

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Aziz Turhan Kariko

    2011-01-01

    Article presents an animated film related to ideological development in Cuba. This effort brings an understanding of ideology and cultural policy of Cuba as a communist state. Presentation begins with summary of the story, history and background, ideological concepts, and the movie Vampires in Havana itself. It is concluded that the film represents ideological disputes between capitalism and Marxism in Cuba, as well as giving an ideal perspective on how the world should work.  

  1. Representation of Marxism in Vampires in Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Turhan Kariko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Article presents an animated film related to ideological development in Cuba. This effort brings an understanding of ideology and cultural policy of Cuba as a communist state. Presentation begins with summary of the story, history and background, ideological concepts, and the movie Vampires in Havana itself. It is concluded that the film represents ideological disputes between capitalism and Marxism in Cuba, as well as giving an ideal perspective on how the world should work.  

  2. The amazing bats: Friends, enemies or allies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bats are a group of extraordinarily specialized vertebrates and are the only mammals capable of flying; their nocturnal habits have stigmatized them to such an extent that in the Hollywood film productions Count Dracula of the Carpathian Mountains was considered the first vampire man; even before Batman himself. In ecosystems, bats are actors with leading roles, 70% of them are insectivores, pollinators, or frugivorous and contribute to the regeneration of forests by disseminating seeds. Some are even fish hunters. Although their large population is mostly distributed in the tropics, they are cosmopolitan and are also found in the Northern Hemisphere. The population of these bats has been displaced in the South American tropics, due to, among many factors, illegal mining, pesticide spraying, indiscriminate deforestation to provide pasture for cattle, and the invasion of their habitats by humans (1.

  3. Sexuality and gender in contemporary women's Gothic fiction - Angela Carter's and Anne Rice's Vampires: Angela Carter's and Anne Rice's Vampires

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Sousa Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    xxx In this thesis, I provide an analysis of Angela Carter's and Anne Rice's works based on their depiction of vampires. My corpus is composed by Carter's short stories 'The Loves of Lady Purple' and 'The Lady of the House of Love' and by Rice's novels The Vampire Lestat and The Queen of the Damned. My analysis of this corpus is based on four approaches: a comparison between Carter's and Rice's works, supported by their common use of vampire characters; an investigation of how this use con...

  4. Rabies surveillance in bats in Northwestern State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiene Karina Azevedo Casagrande

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rabies is an important zoonosis that occurs in mammals, with bats acting as Lyssavirus reservoirs in urban, rural and natural areas. Rabies cases in bats have been recorded primarily in urban areas in Northwestern State of São Paulo since 1998. This study investigated the circulation of rabies virus by seeking to identify the virus in the brain in several species of bats in this region and by measuring rabies-virus neutralizing antibody levels in the hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus. Methods From 2008 to 2012, 1,490 bat brain samples were sent to the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP Rabies Laboratory in Araçatuba, and 125 serum samples from vampire bats that were captured in this geographical region were analyzed. Results Rabies virus was detected in the brains of 26 (2% of 1,314 non-hematophagous bats using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT and the mouse inoculation test (MIT. None of the 176 hematophagous bat samples were positive for rabies virus when a virus detection test was utilized. Out of 125 vampire bat serum samples, 9 (7% had levels of rabies virus neutralization antibodies (RVNAs that were higher than 0.5IU/mL; 65% (81/125 had titers between 0.10IU/mL and 0.5IU/mL; and 28% (35/125 were negative for RVNAs using the simplified fluorescent inhibition microtest (SFIMT in BHK21 cells. The observed positivity rate (1.7% was higher than the average positivity rate of 1.3% that was previously found in this region. Conclusions The high percentage of vampire bats with neutralizing antibodies suggests that recent rabies virus exposure has occurred, indicating the necessity of surveillance measures in nearby regions that are at risk to avoid diffusion of the rabies virus and possible rabies occurrences.

  5. Multivariable PID controller design tuning using bat algorithm for activated sludge process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atikah Nor’Azlan, Nur; Asmiza Selamat, Nur; Mat Yahya, Nafrizuan

    2018-04-01

    The designing of a multivariable PID control for multi input multi output is being concerned with this project by applying four multivariable PID control tuning which is Davison, Penttinen-Koivo, Maciejowski and Proposed Combined method. The determination of this study is to investigate the performance of selected optimization technique to tune the parameter of MPID controller. The selected optimization technique is Bat Algorithm (BA). All the MPID-BA tuning result will be compared and analyzed. Later, the best MPID-BA will be chosen in order to determine which techniques are better based on the system performances in terms of transient response.

  6. Molecular Detection of Bartonella Species in Blood-Feeding Bat Flies from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskaluk, Alexandra E; Stuckey, Matthew J; Jaffe, David A; Kasten, Rickie W; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; Olave-Leyva, José Ignacio; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Obregón-Morales, Cirani; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; García-Flores, María Martha; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; García-Baltazar, Anahí; Chomel, Bruno B

    2018-05-01

    Bartonellae are emerging blood-borne bacteria that have been recovered from a wide range of mammalian species and arthropod vectors around the world. Bats are now recognized as a potential wildlife reservoir for a diverse number of Bartonella species, including the zoonotic Candidatus B. mayotimonensis. These bat-borne Bartonella species have also been detected in the obligate ectoparasites of bats, such as blood-feeding flies, which could transmit these bacteria within bat populations. To better understand this potential for transmission, we investigated the relatedness between Bartonella detected or isolated from bat hosts sampled in Mexico and their ectoparasites. Bartonella spp. were identified in bat flies collected on two bat species, with the highest prevalence in Trichobius parasiticus and Strebla wiedemanni collected from common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). When comparing Bartonella sequences from a fragment of the citrate synthase gene (gltA), vector-associated strains were diverse and generally close to, but distinct from, those recovered from their bacteremic bat hosts in Mexico. Complete Bartonella sequence concordance was observed in only one bat-vector pair. The diversity of Bartonella strains in bat flies reflects the frequent host switch by bat flies, as they usually do not live permanently on their bat host. It may also suggest a possible endosymbiotic relationship with these vectors for some of the Bartonella species carried by bat flies, whereas others could have a mammalian host.

  7. What Can Vampires Teach Us about Immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David S

    2016-04-01

    Speculative fiction examines the leading edge of science and can be used to introduce ideas into the classroom. For example, most students are already familiar with the fictional infectious diseases responsible for vampire and zombie outbreaks. The disease dynamics of these imaginary ailments follow the same rules we see for real diseases and can be used to remind students that they already understand the basic rules of disease ecology and immunology. By engaging writers of this sort of fiction in an effort to solve problems in immunology we may be able to perform a directed evolution experiment where we follow the evolution of plots rather than genetic traits. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Inertial attitude control of a bat-like morphing-wing air vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorado, J; Barrientos, A; Rossi, C; Parra, C

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bat-like unmanned aerial vehicle inspired by the morphing-wing mechanism of bats. The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, a modelling framework is introduced for analysing how the robot should manoeuvre by means of changing wing morphology. This allows the definition of requirements for achieving forward and turning flight according to the kinematics of the wing modulation. Secondly, an attitude controller named backstepping+DAF is proposed. Motivated by biological evidence about the influence of wing inertia on the production of body accelerations, the attitude control law incorporates wing inertia information to produce desired roll (φ) and pitch (θ) acceleration commands (desired angular acceleration function (DAF)). This novel control approach is aimed at incrementing net body forces (F net ) that generate propulsion. Simulations and wind-tunnel experimental results have shown an increase of about 23% in net body force production during the wingbeat cycle when the wings are modulated using the DAF as a part of the backstepping control law. Results also confirm accurate attitude tracking in spite of high external disturbances generated by aerodynamic loads at airspeeds up to 5 ms −1 . (paper)

  9. Inertial attitude control of a bat-like morphing-wing air vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado, J; Barrientos, A; Rossi, C; Parra, C

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a novel bat-like unmanned aerial vehicle inspired by the morphing-wing mechanism of bats. The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, a modelling framework is introduced for analysing how the robot should manoeuvre by means of changing wing morphology. This allows the definition of requirements for achieving forward and turning flight according to the kinematics of the wing modulation. Secondly, an attitude controller named backstepping+DAF is proposed. Motivated by biological evidence about the influence of wing inertia on the production of body accelerations, the attitude control law incorporates wing inertia information to produce desired roll (ϕ) and pitch (θ) acceleration commands (desired angular acceleration function (DAF)). This novel control approach is aimed at incrementing net body forces (F(net)) that generate propulsion. Simulations and wind-tunnel experimental results have shown an increase of about 23% in net body force production during the wingbeat cycle when the wings are modulated using the DAF as a part of the backstepping control law. Results also confirm accurate attitude tracking in spite of high external disturbances generated by aerodynamic loads at airspeeds up to 5 ms⁻¹.

  10. Swift BAT Thermal Recovery After Loop Heat Pipe #0 Secondary Heater Controller Failure in October 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    The Swift BAT LHP #0 primary heater controller failed on March 31, 2010. It has been disabled. On October 31, 2015, the secondary heater controller of this LHP failed. On November 1, 2015, the LHP #0 CC temperature increased to as 18.6 C, despite that the secondary heater controller set point was 8.8 C. It caused the average DM XA1 temperature to increase to 25.9 C, which was 5 C warmer than nominal. As a result, the detectors became noisy. To solve this problem, the LHP #1 secondary heater controller set point was decreased in 0.5 C decrements to 2.2 C. The set-point decrease restored the average DM XA1 temperature to a nominal value of 19.7 C on November 21.

  11. A controlled study on batted ball speed and available pitcher reaction time in slowpitch softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M; Ciocco, M

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate safety risks in slowpitch softball by conducting laboratory and experimental studies on the performance of high tech softball bats with polyurethane softballs. To compare the results with the recommended safety standards. Methods: ASTM standard compression testing of seven softball models was conducted. Using these seven softball models, bat/ball impact testing was performed using seven adult male softball players and six high tech softball bat models to determine mean batted ball speeds. Over 500 bat/ball impact measurements were recorded and analysed. Available pitcher reaction time was calculated from the mean batted ball speed measurements. Results: According to the United States Specialty Sports Association and the Amateur Softball Association, the maximum initial batted ball speed should be 137.2 km/h, which corresponds to a minimum pitcher reaction time of 0.420 second. These experiments produced mean batted ball speeds of 134.0–159.7 km/h, which correspond to available pitcher reaction times of 0.409–0.361 second. Conclusion: The use of high tech softball bats with polyurethane softballs can result in batted ball speeds that exceed the recommended safety limits, which correspond to decreased available pitcher reaction times. PMID:15793092

  12. Buffy the Vampire Slayer: A Superheroine, but not in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer, more specifically, its enormous popularity in the United States, Western Europe and Australia, and the absence of any reaction to the series in Serbia. By comparing themes regarded as important in western societies to the current situation in Serbia, the analysis shows that Buffy the Vampire Slayer is a series that could not have gained popularity in Serbia because it uses the language of fantasy to speak about reality and pose unpleasant questions, which the Serbian public does not wish to hear.

  13. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López-Hoffman

    Full Text Available Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the "economic benefits" arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function--in this case bat population numbers--is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  14. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Goldstein, Joshua; LaSharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius J.

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the “economic benefits” arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function – in this case bat population numbers – is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  15. Clinical Vampirism: a review and illustrative case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    by the many websites, books and films dedicated to it.8-10. Psychic vampirism ... 1940's and there is a paucity of research on the condition.4,16. The authors were ..... Thought content was of ..... Psycho-Analysis 1946; 27: 30 – 37. 23. Lemma A ...

  16. The Risk of Vampire Effect in Advertisements Using Celebrity Endorsement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Kuvita

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the race to get the attention of the target audience, advertisers often use special attention-getting devices. This in turn exposes them to a higher risk of creating a vampire effect when the core message about the brand or a product is “eaten up” by such devices. The concept of a vampire effect in advertising appears to be under-researched in the current literature. Therefore, this paper provides deeper insights into the vampire effect occurrences in printed advertisements using celebrity endorsement. The paper is based on a qualitative study with an eye-tracking device with 12 participants and on the following experiment with 60 university students. The research found that a significantly higher risk of creating a vampire effect exists when using an unrelated celebrity as an attention-getting device than when using a related celebrity or no celebrity at all. Marketers are advised to use related celebrities if choosing to stick to this attention-getting approach. However, the concept of “relatedness” should be pre-tested prior to launching an advertising campaign.

  17. Breaking Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  18. Bat Bonanza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Amanda J.; Scott, Catherine; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a lesson on bats developed for kindergartners, which uses models of bats to teach about their physiology, diet, and habitat. The lesson uses craft sticks, wax paper, and colored construction paper that kindergarten teachers can use to help their students compare the features of 4 different kinds of bats. The use of online…

  19. New model for gain control of signal intensity to object distance in echolocating bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørum, Ulrik; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2012-01-01

    Echolocating bats emit ultrasonic calls and listen for the returning echoes to orient and localize prey in darkness. The emitted source level, SL (estimated signal intensity 10 cm from the mouth), is adjusted dynamically from call to call in response to sensory feedback as bats approach objects. ...

  20. Assessment of the Hindlimb Membrane Musculature of Bats: Implications for Active Control of the Calcar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchak, Kathryn E; Santana, Sharlene E

    2018-03-01

    The striking postcranial anatomy of bats reflects their specialized ecology; they are the only mammals capable of powered flight. Bat postcranial adaptations include a series of membranes that connect highly-modified, or even novel, skeletal elements. While most studies of bat postcranial anatomy have focused on their wings, bat hindlimbs also contain many derived and functionally important, yet less studied, features. In this study, we investigate variation in the membrane and limb musculature associated with the calcar, a neomorphic skeletal structure found in the hindlimbs of most bats. We use diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography and standard histological techniques to examine the calcars and hindlimb membranes of three bat species that vary ecologically (Myotis californicus, a slow-flying insectivore; Molossus molossus, a fast-flying insectivore; and Artibeus jamaicensis, a slow-flying frugivore). We also assess the level of mineralization of the calcar at muscle attachment sites to better understand how muscle contraction may enable calcar function. We found that the arrangement of the calcar musculature varies among the three bat species, as does the pattern of mineral content within the calcar. M. molossus and M. californicus exhibit more complex calcar and calcar musculature morphologies than A. jamaicensis, and the degree of calcar mineralization decreases toward the tip of the calcar in all species. These results are consistent with the idea that the calcar may have a functional role in flight maneuverability. Anat Rec, 301:441-448, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A randomized controlled trial of interventions to impede date palm sap contamination by bats to prevent nipah virus transmission in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Uddin Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm's sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap. METHODS: During 2009, we used a crossover design and randomly selected 20 date palm sap producing trees and observed each tree for 2 nights: one night with a bamboo skirt intervention applied and one night without the intervention. During 2010, we selected 120 trees and randomly assigned four types of interventions to 15 trees each: bamboo, dhoincha (local plant, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the shaved part, sap stream, tap and collection pot. We enrolled the remaining 60 trees as controls. We used motion sensor activated infrared cameras to examine bat contact with sap. RESULTS: During 2009 bats contacted date palm sap in 85% of observation nights when no intervention was used compared with 35% of nights when the intervention was used [p<0.001]. Bats were able to contact the sap when the skirt did not entirely cover the sap producing surface. Therefore, in 2010 we requested the sap harvesters to use larger skirts. During 2010 bats contacted date palm sap [2% vs. 83%, p<0.001] less frequently in trees protected with skirts compared to control trees. No bats contacted sap in trees with bamboo (p<0.001 compared to control, dhoincha skirt (p<0.001 or polythene covering (p<0.001, but bats did contact sap during one night (7% with the jute stick skirt (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Bamboo, dhoincha, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the sap producing areas of a tree effectively prevented bat-sap contact. Community interventions should promote applying these skirts to prevent occasional Nipah spillovers to human.

  2. First isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, A D; Gama, A R; Sodré, M M; Savani, E S M M; Galvão-Dias, M A; Jordão, L R; Maeda, M M; Yai, L E O; Gennari, S M; Pena, H F J

    2013-03-31

    There are currently no reports on the isolation and molecular examination of Toxoplasma gondii from bats. Here, we report the isolation and genotypic characterisation of two T. gondii isolates from bats. A total of 369 bats from different municipalities in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, were captured and euthanised, and collected tissues (heart and pectoral muscle) were processed for each bat or in pools of two or three bats and bioassayed in mice (a total of 283 bioassays). Eleven PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers were used to genotype positive samples: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, CS3 and Apico. The parasite was isolated from two bats from São Paulo city: an insectivorous bat, the velvety free-tailed bat Molossus molossus, and a hematophagous bat, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Isolates were designated TgBatBr1 and TgBatBr2, respectively. The genotype of the isolate from M. molossus (TgBatBr1) has been previously described in an isolate from a capybara from São Paulo state, and the genotype from the D. rotundus isolate (TgBatBr2) has already been identified in isolates from cats, chickens, capybaras, sheep, a rodent and a common rabbit from different Brazilian states, suggesting that this may be a common T. gondii lineage circulating in some Brazilian regions. Isolation of T. gondii from a hematophagous species is striking. This study reveals that bats can share the same isolates that are found in domesticated and wild terrestrial animals. This is the first report of the isolation and genotyping of T. gondii in chiropterans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A controlled study on batted ball speed and available pitcher reaction time in slowpitch softball

    OpenAIRE

    McDowell, M; Ciocco, M

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate safety risks in slowpitch softball by conducting laboratory and experimental studies on the performance of high tech softball bats with polyurethane softballs. To compare the results with the recommended safety standards.

  4. Vespertilionid bats control the width of their biosonar sound beam dynamically during prey pursuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    Animals using sound for communication emit directional signals, focusing most acoustic energy in one direction. Echolocating bats are listening for soft echoes from insects. Therefore, a directional biosonar sound beam greatly increases detection probability in the forward direction and decreases...

  5. Mark Rein•Hagen’s Foundational Influence on 21st Century Vampiric Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Mark Rein•Hagen’s role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade, set in the World of Darkness shared universe, is foundational to the 21st Century vampire. We aim to, through the cultural analysis of how ideas have been transferred from this role-playing game to other media, clearly demonstrate Mark...... Rein•Hagen’s cultural historical significance....

  6. Monster as a Superhero: an Essay on Vampire Vogue in Contemporary Film Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Panjeta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide popular series Twilight is the mixed genre phenomenon in literature, media and cinema. After monstrous cinema interpretations of vampires, Edward Cullen becomes a vampire that women fall in love with. Narrative draws on the legend of vampires as well as on the fairy tales archetype of the love between The Lady and the Beast. Sexual connotation in the stories of vampires are not new, but the global identification of the audience with the main characters in the romantic-horror plot in this series needs to be analyzed through the evolution of the vampire genre and psychology related issues. The popularity of this series and blossoming hybrid genre is related to the artificial catharsis and fulfillment of the market demand. Contemporary audience demands “to be special” and these profitable narratives are the fulfilled promise to the audience.

  7. Monster as a Superhero: an Essay on Vampire Vogue in Contemporary Film Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Panjeta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide popular series Twilight is the mixed genre phenomenon in literature, media and cinema. After monstrous cinema interpretations of vampires, Edward Cullen becomes a vampire that women fall in love with. Narrative draws on the legend of vampires as well as on the fairy tales archetype of the love between The Lady and the Beast. Sexual connotation in the stories of vampires are not new, but the global identification of the audience with the main characters in the romantic-horror plot in this series needs to be analyzed through the evolution of the vampire genre and psychology related issues. The popularity of this series and blossoming hybrid genre is related to the artificial catharsis and fulfillment of the market demand. Contemporary audience demands “to be special” and these profitable narratives are the fulfilled promise to the audience.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Interventions to Impede Date Palm Sap Contamination by Bats to Prevent Nipah Virus Transmission in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Nahar, Nazmun; Sharker, M. A. Yushuf; Luby, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV) infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm’s sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap. Methods During 2009, we used a crossover design and randomly selected 20 date palm sap producing trees and observed each tree for 2 nights: one night with a bamboo skirt intervention applied and one night without the intervention. During 2010, we selected 120 trees and randomly assigned four types of interventions to 15 trees each: bamboo, dhoincha (local plant), jute stick and polythene skirts covering the shaved part, sap stream, tap and collection pot. We enrolled the remaining 60 trees as controls. We used motion sensor activated infrared cameras to examine bat contact with sap. Results During 2009 bats contacted date palm sap in 85% of observation nights when no intervention was used compared with 35% of nights when the intervention was used [psap when the skirt did not entirely cover the sap producing surface. Therefore, in 2010 we requested the sap harvesters to use larger skirts. During 2010 bats contacted date palm sap [2% vs. 83%, psap in trees with bamboo (psap during one night (7%) with the jute stick skirt (psap producing areas of a tree effectively prevented bat-sap contact. Community interventions should promote applying these skirts to prevent occasional Nipah spillovers to human. PMID:22905160

  9. “Monstrous Appetites and Positive Emotions in True Blood, The Vampire Diaries and The Walking Dead.”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Looking at television series True Blood (2008–), The Vampire Diaries (2009–), and The Walking Dead (2010–) the article analyzes positive emotions in horror: the sexual emotions, trust, and hope. First part substitutes the positive-negative dichotomy of emotions with seeing emotions as coming......, positive and negative, from a functional and evolutionary perspective. Comparing horror to play-fighting and fiction to the pretend of play, the article suggests four reasons why horror is attractive: we learn to feel emotions (sensation), to react to emotions (evaluation), control our emotions (action...... tendency in the here-and-now), and to experiment (action tendency and planning for what-comes-next)....

  10. Numerical analysis of biosonar beamforming mechanisms and strategies in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rolf

    2010-09-01

    Beamforming is critical to the function of most sonar systems. The conspicuous noseleaf and pinna shapes in bats suggest that beamforming mechanisms based on diffraction of the outgoing and incoming ultrasonic waves play a major role in bat biosonar. Numerical methods can be used to investigate the relationships between baffle geometry, acoustic mechanisms, and resulting beampatterns. Key advantages of numerical approaches are: efficient, high-resolution estimation of beampatterns, spatially dense predictions of near-field amplitudes, and the malleability of the underlying shape representations. A numerical approach that combines near-field predictions based on a finite-element formulation for harmonic solutions to the Helmholtz equation with a free-field projection based on the Kirchhoff integral to obtain estimates of the far-field beampattern is reviewed. This method has been used to predict physical beamforming mechanisms such as frequency-dependent beamforming with half-open resonance cavities in the noseleaf of horseshoe bats and beam narrowing through extension of the pinna aperture with skin folds in false vampire bats. The fine structure of biosonar beampatterns is discussed for the case of the Chinese noctule and methods for assessing the spatial information conveyed by beampatterns are demonstrated for the brown long-eared bat.

  11. Acute effects of various weighted bat warm-up protocols on bat velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, G Francis; Dolny, Dennis

    2009-10-01

    Although research has provided evidence of increased muscular performance following a facilitation set of resistance exercise, this has not been established for use prior to measuring baseball bat velocity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of selected weighted bat warm-up protocols to enhance bat velocity in collegiate baseball players. Nineteen collegiate baseball players (age = 20.15 +/- 1.46 years) were tested for upper-body strength by a 3-repetition maximum (RM) bench press (mean = 97.98 +/- 14.54 kg) and mean bat velocity. Nine weighted bat warm-up protocols, utilizing 3 weighted bats (light = 794 g; standard = 850 g; heavy = 1,531 g) were swung in 3 sets of 6 repetitions in different orders. A control trial involved the warm-up protocol utilizing only the standard bat. Pearson product correlation revealed a significant relationship between 3RM strength and pretest bat velocity (r = 0.51, p = 0.01). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no significant treatment effects of warm-up protocol on bat velocity. However, the order of standard, light, heavy bat sequence resulted in the greatest increase in bat velocity (+6.03%). These results suggest that upper-body muscle strength influences bat velocity. It appears that the standard, light, heavy warm-up order may provide the greatest benefit to increase subsequent bat velocity and may warrant use in game situations.

  12. A mathematical model of interaction among humans, vampires and werewolves populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarti, Novriana; Nurrizky, Insan; Nuraini, Nuning

    2018-03-01

    In every country there are many fictional creatures depicting evil. In the western world, fictional creatures who often appear in horror stories are vampires and werewolves. Many released movies expose the conflict between humans with one or both creatures. In this paper, the interaction among humans, vampires and werewolves is modeled using a system of differential equations. We consider the stability of equilibrium points of the system that represent four situations; only humans remain or a disease-free condition, either vampires or werewolves are going to extinction, and no population goes extinct. The derived model is implemented for depicting some scenarios in the movie series of Underworld. The model can describe the fluctuation of vampires and werewolves population from the beginning to their extinction at 1500 years since the story started.

  13. Desmodus rotundus and Artibeus spp. bats might present distinct rabies virus lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Oliveira Fahl

    Full Text Available In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources.

  14. Desmodus rotundus and Artibeus spp. bats might present distinct rabies virus lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Oliveira Fahl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources.

  15. Desmodus rotundus and Artibeus spp. bats might present distinct rabies virus lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahl, Willian Oliveira; Carnieli, Pedro; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete; Iamamoto, Keila; Oliveira, Rafael Novaes; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV) strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Denny G.; Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections offers readers an overview of the virus variants that cause bat rabies, and geographical patterns in occurrence of this disease. The section Species Susceptibility describes infection rates and trends among bats, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the biological and environmental dynamics of the disease in various species of bats. Points to Ponder: Interspecies Interactions in Potential Bat Rabies Transmission Settings discusses the narrowing interface of bat colonies and human society and how humans and domestic animals play a role in transmission of bat rabies. Disease Prevention and Control outlines how to limit exposure to rabid bats and other animals. Appendixes include extensive tables of reported infections in bat species and in humans, and a glossary of technical terms is included. The author, Denny G. Constantine, helped define rabies infection in insect-eating bats and has investigated bat rabies ecology for more than half a century. He has authored more than 90 papers during the course of his career and is widely considered to be the world's foremost authority on the disease. Currently, Dr. Constantine is a public health officer emeritus and veterinary epidemiologist for the California Department of Health Services Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Milt Friend, first director of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, wrote the foreword. David Blehert, a USGS microbiologist who is investigating the emergence and causes of bat white-nose syndrome, edited the volume. Bat Rabies is intended for scholars and the general public. Dr. Constantine presents the material in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. The goal of the author is to increase people's understanding of both bat and disease ecology and also provide a balanced perspective on human risks pertaining to bat rabies.

  17. Security constrained economic load dispatch in the presence of interline power flow controller using modified BAT algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.N. Vijay Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of electrical energy due to urbanization and industrialization is increasing day by day, and due to this, there is chance of increasing the uncertainties in a given power system and that affects the economy of the country. The conventional power system in the presence of flexible AC transmission system (FACTS controllers is an alternative to solve this problem and can increase the power system capability to handle rapid changes in operating conditions of the system. In general, multi-line FACTS controllers are effective than single line FACTS controllers. In this paper, a detailed mathematical modeling of IPFC is presented and the effect of an optimal location is also analyzed. A novel optimization algorithm i.e. modified BAT algorithm is proposed to solve optimal power flow problem in the presence of IPFC including system constraints and device limits. The proposed methodology has been tested on standard test systems.

  18. Transferring the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC Approach and Best Available Techniques (BAT Concepts to Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vázquez Calvo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The principles introduced by the Directive Concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC (currently known as the Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU are innovative and have raised interests in the framework of the literature debate on environmental regulation. Many articles describe and analyze the application of the Directive in European countries, but only a few articles focus on how the interest for the Directive’s principles, including the integrated approach, have reached countries outside the European Union. This paper aims to contribute to this topic, describing the experience of the authors in carrying out an EU-funded project on transferring the IPPC approach and Best Available Techniques (BAT concepts to three Arab countries, i.e., Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. The paper presents the experience referring to two sectors falling within the scope of the IPPC Directive: the textile and dairy sector. The objectives, methodologies, activities and experiences are described and can be used and valorized to integrate the IPPC approach and BAT concepts in the current environmental legislation of the three countries.

  19. Dynamic Duos? Jamaican Fruit Bats (Artibeus jamaicensis Do Not Show Prosocial Behavior in a Release Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Hoffmaster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Once thought to be uniquely human, prosocial behavior has been observed in a number of species, including vampire bats that engage in costly food-sharing. Another social chiropteran, Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis, have been observed to engage in cooperative mate guarding, and thus might be expected to display prosocial behavior as well. However, frugivory and hematophagy diets may impose different selection pressures on prosocial preferences, given that prosocial preferences may depend upon cognitive abilities selected by different ecological constraints. Thus, we assessed whether Jamaican fruit bats would assist a conspecific in an escape paradigm in which a donor could opt to release a recipient from an enclosure. The test apparatus contained two compartments—one of which was equipped with a sensor that, once triggered, released the trap door of the adjacent compartment. Sixty-six exhaustive pairs of 12 bats were tested, with each bat in each role, twice when the recipient was present and twice when absent. Bats decreased their behavior of releasing the trapdoor in both conditions over time, decreasing the behavior slightly more rapidly in the recipient absent condition. Bats did not release the door more often when recipients were present, regardless of the recipient; thus, there was no clear evidence of prosocial behavior.

  20. Reduction of emission level in approach signals of greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis): No evidence for a closed loop control system for intensity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budenz, Tobias; Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Bats lower the emission SPL when approaching a target. The SPL reduction has been explained by intensity compensation which implies that bats adjust the emission SPL to perceive the retuning echoes at the same level. For a better understanding of this control mechanism we recorded the echolocation signals of four Myotis myotis with an onboard microphone when foraging in the passive mode for rustling mealworms offered in two feeding dishes with different target strength, and determined the reduction rate for the emission SPL and the increase rate for the SPL of the returning echoes. When approaching the dish with higher target strength bats started the reduction of the emission SPL at a larger reaction distance (1.05 ± 0.21 m) and approached it with a lower reduction rate of 7.2 dB/halving of distance (hd), thus producing a change of echo rate at the ears of + 4 dB/hd. At the weaker target reaction distance was shorter (0.71 ± 0.24 m) and the reduction rate (9.1 dB/hd) was higher, producing a change of echo rate of-1.2 dB/hd. Independent of dish type, bats lowered the emission SPL by about 26 dB on average. In one bat where the echo SPL from both targets could be measured, the reduction of emission SPL was triggered when the echo SPL surpassed a similar threshold value around 41-42 dB. Echo SPL was not adjusted at a constant value indicating that Myotis myotis and most likely all other bats do not use a closed loop system for intensity compensation when approaching a target of interest. We propose that bats lower the emission SPL to adjust the SPL of the perceived pulse-echo-pairs to the optimal auditory range for the processing of range information and hypothesize that bats use flow field information not only to control the reduction of the approach speed to the target but also to control the reduction of emission SPL.

  1. Bat consumption in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Suwannarong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods: This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok, where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results: In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion: Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  2. Bat consumption in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April-August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  3. New polymorphic microsatellite markers in the greater false vampire bat Megaderma lyra (Chiroptera: Megadermatidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tereba, A.; Čížková, Dagmar; Sundari, A. A.; Rajan, K. E.; Bogdanowicz, W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2011), s. 749-751 ISSN 1877-7252 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Chiroptera * Megaderma lyra * Microsatellites * Polymorphism Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.485, year: 2011

  4. A preliminary examination of genetic diversity in the Indian false vampire bat Megaderma lyra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuvel Rajan, K.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation have serious consequences for species extinction as well as genetic diversity within a species. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was employed to assess the genetic diversity within and between four natural populations of M. lyra. Our results suggest that the genetic diversity varied from 0.21 to 0.26 with a mean of 0.11 to 0.13 (± SD. The mean Gst value of 0.15 was obtained from all four populations and estimated average Nm (1.41 showing gene flow between the populations. AMOVA analysis showed 88.96% within and 11.04% among the studied populations. Cluster analyses of RAPD phenotypes showed that specimens were not grouped by geographical origin. The genetic diversity found in the M. lyra population may be explained by its breeding behaviors. Though preliminary, the results indicate that all four populations should be considered to maintain the genetic diversity.

  5. Host-pathogen evolutionary signatures reveal dynamics and future invasions of vampire bat rabies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Streicker, D. G.; Winternitz, Jamie Caroline; Satterfield, D. A.; Condori-Condori, R. E.; Broos, A.; Tello, C.; Recuenco, S.; Velasco-Villa, A.; Altizer, S.; Valderrama, W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 39 (2016), s. 10926-10931 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Desmodus * zoonotic disease * forecasting * sex bias * spatial dynamics Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016

  6. Bat Biology, Genomes, and the Bat1K Project: To Generate Chromosome-Level Genomes for All Living Bat Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeling, Emma C; Vernes, Sonja C; Dávalos, Liliana M; Ray, David A; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Myers, Eugene

    2018-02-15

    Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants, dispersing seeds, and controlling insect pest populations, thus driving healthy ecosystems. They account for more than 20% of all living mammalian diversity, and their crown-group evolutionary history dates back to the Eocene. Despite their great numbers and diversity, many species are threatened and endangered. Here we announce Bat1K, an initiative to sequence the genomes of all living bat species (n∼1,300) to chromosome-level assembly. The Bat1K genome consortium unites bat biologists (>148 members as of writing), computational scientists, conservation organizations, genome technologists, and any interested individuals committed to a better understanding of the genetic and evolutionary mechanisms that underlie the unique adaptations of bats. Our aim is to catalog the unique genetic diversity present in all living bats to better understand the molecular basis of their unique adaptations; uncover their evolutionary history; link genotype with phenotype; and ultimately better understand, promote, and conserve bats. Here we review the unique adaptations of bats and highlight how chromosome-level genome assemblies can uncover the molecular basis of these traits. We present a novel sequencing and assembly strategy and review the striking societal and scientific benefits that will result from the Bat1K initiative.

  7. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Becoming a vampire without being bitten: the narrative collective-assimilation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Shira; Young, Ariana F

    2011-08-01

    We propose the narrative collective-assimilation hypothesis--that experiencing a narrative leads one to psychologically become a part of the collective described within the narrative. In a test of this hypothesis, participants read passages from either a book about wizards (from the Harry Potter series) or a book about vampires (from the Twilight series). Both implicit and explicit measures revealed that participants who read about wizards psychologically became wizards, whereas those who read about vampires psychologically became vampires. The results also suggested that narrative collective assimilation is psychologically meaningful and relates to the basic human need for connection. Specifically, the tendency to fulfill belongingness needs through group affiliation moderated the extent to which narrative collective assimilation occurred, and narrative collective assimilation led to increases in life satisfaction and positive mood, two primary outcomes of belonging. The implications for the importance of narratives, the need to belong to groups, and social surrogacy are discussed.

  9. Green roofs provide habitat for urban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Parkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.

  10. Top-down control of herbivory by birds and bats in the canopy of temperate broad-leaved oaks (Quercus robur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M Böhm

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensive foraging of insectivorous birds and bats is well known to reduce the density of arboreal herbivorous arthropods but quantification of collateral leaf damage remains limited for temperate forest canopies. We conducted exclusion experiments with nets in the crowns of young and mature oaks, Quercus robur, in south and central Germany to investigate the extent to which aerial vertebrates reduce herbivory through predation. We repeatedly estimated leaf damage throughout the vegetation period. Exclusion of birds and bats led to a distinct increase in arthropod herbivory, emphasizing the prominent role of vertebrate predators in controlling arthropods. Leaf damage (e.g., number of holes differed strongly between sites and was 59% higher in south Germany, where species richness of vertebrate predators and relative oak density were lower compared with our other study site in central Germany. The effects of bird and bat exclusion on herbivory were 19% greater on young than on mature trees in south Germany. Our results support previous studies that have demonstrated clear effects of insectivorous vertebrates on leaf damage through the control of herbivorous arthropods. Moreover, our comparative approach on quantification of leaf damage highlights the importance of local attributes such as tree age, forest composition and species richness of vertebrate predators for control of arthropod herbivory.

  11. Self-Identified Vampirism and Risk for False Positives: A Case Example of Team Homicide and Implications for Forensic Behavioral Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D J

    2017-05-01

    Historically, reported cases of self-identified vampirism typically have been associated with psychopathology and sometimes a propensity for violence. However, scholars recently have noted a wide range of diverse practices and meanings that all fall under the general description of self-identified vampirism. This brief report focuses on a homicide case (male and female partnered offenders), wherein a single victim was murdered and dismembered. Due to specific case evidence, there was controversy regarding whether or not the homicide was motivated by ritualistic self-identified vampirism. Court documents were reviewed and assessed, and findings suggest that the evidence used to support assertions that homicidal motivations occurred due to ritualistic vampirism was misinterpreted due to the omission of a growing multidisciplinary literature on self-identified vampirism. It is important for forensic experts to be aware of emerging research on alternative identities, including vampirism, that challenge traditional theories and assumptions. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Heide, van der R.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kramps, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and

  13. Vampirism as a Metaphor for Addiction in the Cinema of the Eighties (1987-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio RODRÍGUEZ SÁNCHEZ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of several substances, commonly known as drugs, increased considerably from the fiftiesonwards. Use, habit and dependence were linked as cause and effect to economic, health-related andpolitical implications, which contributed to the emergence of the “drug problem” and addiction. Themedia played an important part in the origin, in the decade of the seventies, of the stereotype of the drugaddict as an individual who injected heroine. This stereotype was also assumed by cinema, especially byhorror films in their postmodern tendencies in the eighties. Thus, the traditional vampire becomes acreature who is addicted to blood and whose dependence, and mainly withdrawal symptoms, are recreatedwith the same iconography and interpretations with which the most traditionalist society perceiveddrug addicts. The development of the vampire metaphor not only reflects social fears of the threateningtemptation of addiction and the fear of transgressors who use forbidden substances, but it influences theviewers in a thought-provoking way that reinforces social stereotypes.

  14. Bat in our environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Stantič-Pavlinič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: All around the world exist more than thousand species of bats. In spite of some advantageous characteristics, mostly recognised in several insectivorous species, bats can transmit different kinds of microorganisms – the causes of infectious diseases. Microbial agents, recognised in connection with bats are: lyssavirus, Nipah virus, Hystoplasma capsulatum fungus, etc. In Europe there live about 28 species of bats. The most cases of European bat lyssaviruses (EBL1 and EBL2 were demonstrated in the Eptesicus serotinus species placed in Slovenia as well. We are presenting available data on rabies prevention. The rate of post-exposure treatment against rabies after the bite of bats in Slovenia is below 1% and is comparable with the remainder of Europe.Conclusions: In most European countries, including Slovenia, the bats are included in the lists of animal species protected by the law. In spite of that, the programs of investigations of bats, including the recognition and prevention of diseases transmitted by bats are implemented. We believe that such program should be prepared in Slovenia as well. We propose for that purposes the establishment of co-operation between the medical institutions, veterinarians, cave explorers associations, societies for bat protections and other interested institutions.

  15. The Last Gender Picture Show to Closure Buffy the Vampire Slayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Grampp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents in (and especially on one detail what it means to practice gender analysis as formal image analysis in the context of television shows. The chosen example for that is the closing scene of “Buffy the Vampire Slayer” (USA 1997-2003. This television show engages in a highly self-reflexive manner with common pop cultural representations of gender, which becomes particularly prevalent and radically condensed in the series finale.

  16. Learning about Bats and Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rabies and Kids! Rabies Learning about bats and rabies Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Most bats ... might contact people and pets. Bats and human rabies in the United States Rabies in humans is ...

  17. Australian bat lyssavirus: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Joshua R; McCall, Bradley J; Hutchinson, Penny; Powell, Jodie; Vaska, Vikram L; Nourse, Clare

    2014-12-11

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infection in humans is rare but fatal, with no proven effective therapy. ABLV infection can be prevented by administration of a post-exposure prophylaxis regimen of human rabies immunoglobulin and rabies vaccine. All Australian bats (flying foxes and microbats) should be considered to be carrying ABLV unless proven otherwise. Any bat-related injury (bite, scratch or mucosal exposure to bat saliva or neural tissue) should be notified immediately to the relevant public health unit - no matter how small the injury or how long ago it occurred. Human-to-human transmission of ABLV has not been reported but is theoretically possible. Standard infection control precautions should be employed when managing patients with suspected or confirmed ABLV infection.

  18. Effects of acoustic deterrents on foraging bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua B.; Ford, W. Mark; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Edwards, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Significant bat mortality events associated with wind energy expansion, particularly in the Appalachians, have highlighted the need for development of possible mitigation practices to reduce or prevent strike mortality. Other than increasing turbine cut-in speed, acoustic deterrents probably hold the greatest promise for reducing bat mortality. However, acoustic deterrent effectiveness and practicality has not been experimentally examined and is limited to site-specific case studies. Accordingly, we used a crossover experimental design with prior control period to show that bat activity was reduced 17.1 percent by the deployment of ultrasonic deterrents placed around gauged watershed weir ponds on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. We caution that while our results should not be extrapolated to the scope of a typical wind energy production facility, the results warrant further research on the use of acoustic deterrents to reduce bat fatalities.

  19. [Viruses and bats: rabies and Lyssavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordo, N; Marianneau, M Ph

    2009-01-01

    Recent emerging zoonoses (hemorrhagic fevers due to Ebola or Marburg virus, encephalitis due to Nipah virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome due to SRAS virus...) outline the potential of bats as vectors for transmission of infectious disease to humans. Such a potential is already known for rabies encephalitis since seven out of the eight genotypes of Lyssavirus are transmitted by bats. In addition, phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that Lyssavirus have evolved in chiropters before their emergence in carnivores. Nevertheless, carnivores remain the most critical vectors for public health, in particular dogs that are originating 55.000 rabies deaths per year, essentially in developing countries. Rabies control in carnivores by parenteral (dog) or oral (wild carnivores) vaccination is efficacious and campaigns start to be more widely applied. On the other hand, rabies control in bat still remains non realistic, particularly as the pathogenicity of bat Lyssavirus for bats is still under debate, suggesting that a "diplomatic relationship" between partners would have arisen from a long term cohabitation. While comparing the interactions that humans and bats establish with Lyssavirus, scientists try to understand the molecular basis ofpathogenicity in man, a indispensable prerequisite to identify antiviral targets in a perspective of therapy.

  20. Supraclavicular skin temperature and BAT activity in lean healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lans, Anouk A J J; Vosselman, Maarten J; Hanssen, Mark J W; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    The 'gold standard' for measuring brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans is [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT-imaging. With this technique subjects are exposed to ionizing radiation and are therefore limited in the number of scans that can be performed. We investigated the relation between supraclavicular skin temperatures and BAT activity values using a strictly temperature-controlled air-cooling protocol. Data of 36 male subjects was analyzed. BAT activity was evaluated by [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT-imaging and skin temperature was measured by means of wireless temperature sensors. Supraclavicular skin temperature dropped less compared to skin temperatures at other sites (all P values BAT activity (R (2) 0.23), and the change in supraclavicular skin temperature and non-shivering thermogenesis (R (2) 0.18, both P values BAT activity and BAT thermogenesis.

  1. Bat Predation by Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyffeler, Martin; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper more than 50 incidences of bats being captured by spiders are reviewed. Bat-catching spiders have been reported from virtually every continent with the exception of Antarctica (∼90% of the incidences occurring in the warmer areas of the globe between latitude 30° N and 30° S). Most reports refer to the Neotropics (42% of observed incidences), Asia (28.8%), and Australia-Papua New Guinea (13.5%). Bat-catching spiders belong to the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and the araneomorph families Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Sparassidae. In addition to this, an attack attempt by a large araneomorph hunting spider of the family Pisauridae on an immature bat was witnessed. Eighty-eight percent of the reported incidences of bat catches were attributable to web-building spiders and 12% to hunting spiders. Large tropical orb-weavers of the genera Nephila and Eriophora in particular have been observed catching bats in their huge, strong orb-webs (of up to 1.5 m diameter). The majority of identifiable captured bats were small aerial insectivorous bats, belonging to the families Vespertilionidae (64%) and Emballonuridae (22%) and usually being among the most common bat species in their respective geographic area. While in some instances bats entangled in spider webs may have died of exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and/or hyperthermia (i.e., non-predation death), there were numerous other instances where spiders were seen actively attacking, killing, and eating the captured bats (i.e., predation). This evidence suggests that spider predation on flying vertebrates is more widespread than previously assumed. PMID:23516436

  2. Bat predation by spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyffeler, Martin; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper more than 50 incidences of bats being captured by spiders are reviewed. Bat-catching spiders have been reported from virtually every continent with the exception of Antarctica (≈ 90% of the incidences occurring in the warmer areas of the globe between latitude 30° N and 30° S). Most reports refer to the Neotropics (42% of observed incidences), Asia (28.8%), and Australia-Papua New Guinea (13.5%). Bat-catching spiders belong to the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and the araneomorph families Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Sparassidae. In addition to this, an attack attempt by a large araneomorph hunting spider of the family Pisauridae on an immature bat was witnessed. Eighty-eight percent of the reported incidences of bat catches were attributable to web-building spiders and 12% to hunting spiders. Large tropical orb-weavers of the genera Nephila and Eriophora in particular have been observed catching bats in their huge, strong orb-webs (of up to 1.5 m diameter). The majority of identifiable captured bats were small aerial insectivorous bats, belonging to the families Vespertilionidae (64%) and Emballonuridae (22%) and usually being among the most common bat species in their respective geographic area. While in some instances bats entangled in spider webs may have died of exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and/or hyperthermia (i.e., non-predation death), there were numerous other instances where spiders were seen actively attacking, killing, and eating the captured bats (i.e., predation). This evidence suggests that spider predation on flying vertebrates is more widespread than previously assumed.

  3. Bat biology, genomes, and the Bat1K project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teeling, Emma C; Vernes, Sonja C; Dávalos, Liliana M

    2018-01-01

    and endangered. Here we announce Bat1K, an initiative to sequence the genomes of all living bat species (n∼1,300) to chromosome-level assembly. The Bat1K genome consortium unites bat biologists (>148 members as of writing), computational scientists, conservation organizations, genome technologists, and any...

  4. Bats and SARS

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Bats are a natural reservoir for emerging viruses, among them henipaviruses and rabies virus variants. Dr. Nina Marano, Chief, Geographic Medicine and Health Promotion Branch, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, CDC, explains connection between horseshoe bats and SARS coronavirus transmission.

  5. Bats and SARS

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-08

    Bats are a natural reservoir for emerging viruses, among them henipaviruses and rabies virus variants. Dr. Nina Marano, Chief, Geographic Medicine and Health Promotion Branch, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, CDC, explains connection between horseshoe bats and SARS coronavirus transmission.  Created: 11/8/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/17/2006.

  6. Morphology of the axial skeleton of seven bat genera (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO J. GAUDIOSO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here we present detailed descriptions and comparisons of the axial skeleton of seven species of bats belonging to five subfamilies of Phyllostomidae of different trophic guilds. The material examined consisted of 34 complete skeletons of seven species. For five of the studied species, previous descriptions have not been conducted, and for the vampires only limited information is available, so that descriptions for these species are here completed. The axial skeleton has characters that allow grouping of the species phylogenetically of the same subfamily and by feeding habits. At the same time, there are characters that associate species from different subfamilies with different types of diet or ways to obtain food.

  7. Experimental infection of serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) with European bat lyssavirus type 1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, C; Vos, A; Johnson, N; Kaipf, I; Denzinger, A; Neubert, L; Mansfield, K; Hicks, D; Nuñez, A; Tordo, N; Rupprecht, C E; Fooks, A R; Müller, T

    2009-10-01

    The serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) accounts for the vast majority of bat rabies cases in Europe and is considered the main reservoir for European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1, genotype 5). However, so far the disease has not been investigated in its native host under experimental conditions. To assess viral virulence, dissemination and probable means of transmission, captive bats were infected experimentally with an EBLV-1a virus isolated from a naturally infected conspecific from Germany. Twenty-nine wild caught bats were divided into five groups and inoculated by intracranial (i.c.), intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection or by intranasal (i.n.) inoculation to mimic the various potential routes of infection. One group of bats was maintained as uninfected controls. Mortality was highest in the i.c.-infected animals, followed by the s.c. and i.m. groups. Incubation periods varied from 7 to 26 days depending on the route of infection. Rabies did not develop in the i.n. group or in the negative-control group. None of the infected bats seroconverted. Viral antigen was detected in more than 50% of the taste buds of an i.c.-infected animal. Shedding of viable virus was measured by virus isolation in cell culture for one bat from the s.c. group at 13 and 14 days post-inoculation, i.e. 7 days before death. In conclusion, it is postulated that s.c. inoculation, in nature caused by bites, may be an efficient way of transmitting EBLV-1 among free-living serotine bats.

  8. Bats as bushmeat in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Richard K. B. Jenkins and Paul A. Racey

    2008-12-01

    Dec 1, 2008 ... preferred, small insectivorous bats are also eaten. The national hunting season for bats is widely ignored and both unsuitable hunting practices and high offtake represent a serious threat to bat populations in some areas. Bat bushmeat may be an important source of protein for Malagasy people during ...

  9. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D.B.; Webb, C.T.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Bowen, R.A.; Smith, D.L.; Stanley, T.R.; Ellison, L.E.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  10. VAMPIR - A two-group two-dimensional diffusion computer code for burnup calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmijarevic, I.; Petrovic, I.

    1985-01-01

    VAMPIR is a computer code which simulates the burnup within a reactor coe. It computes the neutron flux, power distribution and burnup taking into account spatial variations of temperature and xenon poisoning. Its overall reactor calculation uses diffusion theory with finite differences approximation in X-Y or R-Z geometry. Two-group macroscopic cross section data are prepared by the lattice cell code WIMS-D4 and stored in the library form of multi entry tabulation against the various parameters that significantly affect the physical conditions in the reactor core. herein, the main features of the program are presented. (author)

  11. Vampiros humanizados: análise da obra Interview with the vampire de Anne Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Hradec

    2014-01-01

    Esta dissertação tem por objetivo analisar o romance Interview with the Vampire de Anne Rice que é o primeiro livro dos dez que constituem suas Crônicas Vampirescas . Pretende-se com esta pesquisa demonstrar como os vampiros apresentados por Rice são humanizados. Inicia-se com um estudo histórico sobre os vampiros, tanto lendários quanto literários, depois há um estudo sobre a vida e obra da escritora norte-americana bem como um levantamento das diferenças entre os vampiros de Rice e outros ...

  12. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

  13. The bats of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1962-01-01

    CONTENTS I. Introduction.................. 3 A. Scope of the present paper............. 3 B. Measurements................ 7 C. Nomenclature................ 8 D. Acknowledgements............... 9 II. General Part.................. 10 A. History of the study of Suriname bats.......... 10 B. Remarks on

  14. Indiana Bat (Towns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset includes towns that contain documented hibernacula or summer range occupied by federally endangered Indiana bats. Survey data used to create this...

  15. Bat Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... currently known to carry bat flu are not native to the continental United States, but are common ... by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs Email Recommend ...

  16. Sperm competition in bats.

    OpenAIRE

    Hosken, D J

    1997-01-01

    Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and investment in spermatogenesis across 31 species of microchiropteran bat using new and published data on testis mass and ...

  17. Serological Evidence of Lyssavirus Infection among Bats in Nagaland, a North-Eastern State in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, R S; Dovih, D P; Ashwini, M A; Chattopadhyay, B; Harsha, P K; Garg, K M; Sudarshan, S; Puttaswamaiah, R; Ramakrishnan, U; Madhusudana, S N

    2017-06-01

    Bats are known to be reservoirs of several medically important viruses including lyssaviruses. However, no systematic surveillance for bat rabies has been carried out in India, a canine rabies endemic country with a high burden of human rabies. Surveillance for rabies virus (RABV) infection in bats was therefore carried out in Nagaland, a north-eastern state in India at sites with intense human-bat interfaces during traditional bat harvests. Brain tissues and sera from bats were tested for evidence of infection due to RABV. Brain tissues were subjected to the fluorescent antibody test for detection of viral antigen and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for presence of viral RNA. Bat sera were tested for the presence of rabies neutralizing antibodies by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. None of the bat brains tested (n = 164) were positive for viral antigen or viral RNA. However, rabies neutralizing antibodies were detected in 4/78 (5·1%) bat sera tested, suggesting prior exposure to RABV or related lyssaviruses. The serological evidence of lyssaviral infection in Indian bats may have important implications in disease transmission and rabies control measures, and warrant extensive bat surveillance to better define the prevalence of lyssaviral infection in bats.

  18. Social communication in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, Gloriana; Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2018-05-15

    Bats represent one of the most diverse mammalian orders, not only in terms of species numbers, but also in their ecology and life histories. Many species are known to use ephemeral and/or unpredictable resources that require substantial investment to find and defend, and also engage in social interactions, thus requiring significant levels of social coordination. To accomplish these tasks, bats must be able to communicate; there is now substantial evidence that demonstrates the complexity of bat communication and the varied ways in which bats solve some of the problems associated with their unique life histories. However, while the study of communication in bats is rapidly growing, it still lags behind other taxa. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of communication in bats, from the reasons why they communicate to the diversity and application of different signal modalities. The most widespread form of communication is the transmission of a signaller's characteristics, such as species identity, sex, individual identity, group membership, social status and body condition, and because many species of bats can rely little on vision due to their nocturnal lifestyles, it is assumed that sound and olfaction are particularly important signalling modes. For example, research suggests that secretions from specialized glands, often in combination with urine and saliva, are responsible for species recognition in several species. These olfactory signals may also convey information about sex and colony membership. Olfaction may be used in combination with sound, particularly in species that emit constant frequency (CF) echolocation calls, to recognize conspecifics from heterospecifics, yet their simple structure and high frequency do not allow much information of individual identity to be conveyed over long distances. By contrast, social calls may encode a larger number of cues of individual identity, and their lower frequencies increase their range of detection. Social

  19. Effects of DDE on experimentally poisoned free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis): Lethal brain concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Kroll, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Adult female free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and shipped to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Treated mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing 107 ppm DDE were fed to 17 bats; five other bats were fed untreated mealworms. After 40 days on dosage, during which one dosed bat was killed accidentally, four dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 17 were starved to death. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE to lethality and measure these concentrations. After the feeding period, dosed bats weighed less than controls. After starvation, the body condition of dosed bats was poorer than that of controls even though there was no difference in the amounts of carcass fat. During starvation, dosed bats lost weight faster than controls. Also, four dosed bats exhibited the prolonged tremoring that characterizes DDE poisoning. DDE increased in brains of starving bats as fat was metabolized. The estimated mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was 519 ppm with a range of 458-564 ppm. These values resemble diagnostic levels known for two species of passerine birds, but they exceed published levels for two free-tailed bats from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico.

  20. Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document for the Production of Wood-based Panels: Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EU (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control)

    OpenAIRE

    STUBDRUP KAREN KRISTINE RAUNKJAER; KARLIS PANAGIOTIS; ROUDIER Serge; DELGADO SANCHO Luis

    2016-01-01

    The BAT reference document (BREF) entitled ‘Production of Wood-based Panels' forms part of a series presenting the results of an exchange of information between EU Member States, the industries concerned, non-governmental organisations promoting environmental protection, and the Commission, to draw up, review and, where necessary, update BAT reference documents as required by Article 13(1) of the Directive 2010/75/EU on industrial emissions. This document is published by the European Commissi...

  1. Ultrasonic Bat Deterrent Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzie, Kevin; Rominger, Kathryn M.

    2017-12-14

    The project objective was to advance the development and testing of an Near commercial bat-deterrent system with a goal to increase the current GE deterrent system effectiveness to over 50% with broad species applicability. Additionally, the research supported by this program has provided insights into bat behavior and ultrasonic deterrent design that had not previously been explored. Prior research and development had demonstrated the effectiveness of a commercial-grade, air-powered, ultrasonic bat deterrent to be between 30-50% depending upon the species of bat. However, the previous research provided limited insight into the behavioral responses of bats in the presence of ultrasonic deterrent sound fields that could be utilized to improve effectiveness. A unique bat flight room was utilized to observe the behavioral characteristics of bats in the presence of ultrasonic sound fields. Behavioral testing in the bat flight facility demonstrated that ultrasonic sounds similar to those produced by the GE deterrent influenced the activities and behaviors, primarily those associated with foraging, of the species exposed. The study also indicated that continuous and pulsing ultrasonic signals had a similar effect on the bats, and confirmed that as ultrasonic sounds attenuate, their influence on the bats’ activities and behavior decreases. Ground testing at Wolf Ridge Wind, LLC and Shawnee National Forest assessed both continuous and pulsing deterrent signals emitted from the GE deterrent system and further enhanced the behavioral understanding of bats in the presence of the deterrent. With these data and observations, the existing 4-nozzle continuous, or steady, emission ultrasonic system was redesigned to a 6-nozzle system that could emit a pulsing signal covering a larger air space around a turbine. Twelve GE 1.6-100 turbines were outfitted with the deterrent system and a formal three-month field study was performed using daily carcass searches beneath the 12

  2. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A. R.; McElhinney, L.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered...... putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat...... rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977–2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands...

  3. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A.R.; McElhinney, L.M.; Horton, D.; Echevarria, J.; Vázquez-Morón, S.; Kooi, E.A.; Rasmussen, T.B.; Müller, T.; Freuling, C.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered

  4. Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aréchiga Ceballos, Nidia; Vázquez Morón, Sonia; Berciano, José M; Nicolás, Olga; Aznar López, Carolina; Juste, Javier; Rodríguez Nevado, Cristina; Aguilar Setién, Alvaro; Echevarría, Juan E

    2013-05-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  5. Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Nidia Ar?chiga; Mor?n, Sonia V?zquez; Berciano, Jos? M.; Nicol?s, Olga; L?pez, Carolina Aznar; Juste, Javier; Nevado, Cristina Rodr?guez; Seti?n, ?lvaro Aguilar; Echevarr?a, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  6. Parasites of parasites of bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haelewaters, Danny; Pfliegler, Walter P.; Szentiványi, Tamara; Földvári, Mihály; Sándor, Attila D.; Barti, Levente; Camacho, Jasmin J.; Gort, Gerrit; Estók, Péter; Hiller, Thomas; Dick, Carl W.; Pfister, Donald H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bat flies (Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) are among the most specialized families of the order Diptera. Members of these two related families have an obligate ectoparasitic lifestyle on bats, and they are known disease vectors for their hosts. However, bat flies have their own

  7. Evolution and Antiviral Specificities of Interferon-Induced Mx Proteins of Bats against Ebola, Influenza, and Other RNA Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jonas; Hölzer, Martin; Schilling, Mirjam; Patzina, Corinna; Schoen, Andreas; Hoenen, Thomas; Zimmer, Gert; Marz, Manja; Weber, Friedemann; Müller, Marcel A; Kochs, Georg

    2017-08-01

    Bats serve as a reservoir for various, often zoonotic viruses, including significant human pathogens such as Ebola and influenza viruses. However, for unknown reasons, viral infections rarely cause clinical symptoms in bats. A tight control of viral replication by the host innate immune defense might contribute to this phenomenon. Transcriptomic studies revealed the presence of the interferon-induced antiviral myxovirus resistance (Mx) proteins in bats, but detailed functional aspects have not been assessed. To provide evidence that bat Mx proteins might act as key factors to control viral replication we cloned Mx1 cDNAs from three bat families, Pteropodidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae. Phylogenetically these bat Mx1 genes cluster closely with their human ortholog MxA. Using transfected cell cultures, minireplicon systems, virus-like particles, and virus infections, we determined the antiviral potential of the bat Mx1 proteins. Bat Mx1 significantly reduced the polymerase activity of viruses circulating in bats, including Ebola and influenza A-like viruses. The related Thogoto virus, however, which is not known to infect bats, was not inhibited by bat Mx1. Further, we provide evidence for positive selection in bat Mx1 genes that might explain species-specific antiviral activities of these proteins. Together, our data suggest a role for Mx1 in controlling these viruses in their bat hosts. IMPORTANCE Bats are a natural reservoir for various viruses that rarely cause clinical symptoms in bats but are dangerous zoonotic pathogens, like Ebola or rabies virus. It has been hypothesized that the interferon system might play a key role in controlling viral replication in bats. We speculate that the interferon-induced Mx proteins might be key antiviral factors of bats and have coevolved with bat-borne viruses. This study evaluated for the first time a large set of bat Mx1 proteins spanning three major bat families for their antiviral potential, including activity

  8. Temporal dynamics of European bat Lyssavirus type 1 and survival of Myotis myotis bats in natural colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual, Blanca; Bourhy, Hervé; López-Roig, Marc; Serra-Cobo, Jordi

    2007-06-27

    Many emerging RNA viruses of public health concern have recently been detected in bats. However, the dynamics of these viruses in natural bat colonies is presently unknown. Consequently, prediction of the spread of these viruses and the establishment of appropriate control measures are hindered by a lack of information. To this aim, we collected epidemiological, virological and ecological data during a twelve-year longitudinal study in two colonies of insectivorous bats (Myotis myotis) located in Spain and infected by the most common bat lyssavirus found in Europe, the European bat lyssavirus subtype 1 (EBLV-1). This active survey demonstrates that cyclic lyssavirus infections occurred with periodic oscillations in the number of susceptible, immune and infected bats. Persistence of immunity for more than one year was detected in some individuals. These data were further used to feed models to analyze the temporal dynamics of EBLV-1 and the survival rate of bats. According to these models, the infection is characterized by a predicted low basic reproductive rate (R(0) = 1.706) and a short infectious period (D = 5.1 days). In contrast to observations in most non-flying animals infected with rabies, the survival model shows no variation in mortality after EBLV-1 infection of M. myotis. These findings have considerable public health implications in terms of management of colonies where lyssavirus-positive bats have been recorded and confirm the potential risk of rabies transmission to humans. A greater understanding of the dynamics of lyssavirus in bat colonies also provides a model to study how bats contribute to the maintenance and transmission of other viruses of public health concern.

  9. Temporal dynamics of European bat Lyssavirus type 1 and survival of Myotis myotis bats in natural colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Amengual

    Full Text Available Many emerging RNA viruses of public health concern have recently been detected in bats. However, the dynamics of these viruses in natural bat colonies is presently unknown. Consequently, prediction of the spread of these viruses and the establishment of appropriate control measures are hindered by a lack of information. To this aim, we collected epidemiological, virological and ecological data during a twelve-year longitudinal study in two colonies of insectivorous bats (Myotis myotis located in Spain and infected by the most common bat lyssavirus found in Europe, the European bat lyssavirus subtype 1 (EBLV-1. This active survey demonstrates that cyclic lyssavirus infections occurred with periodic oscillations in the number of susceptible, immune and infected bats. Persistence of immunity for more than one year was detected in some individuals. These data were further used to feed models to analyze the temporal dynamics of EBLV-1 and the survival rate of bats. According to these models, the infection is characterized by a predicted low basic reproductive rate (R(0 = 1.706 and a short infectious period (D = 5.1 days. In contrast to observations in most non-flying animals infected with rabies, the survival model shows no variation in mortality after EBLV-1 infection of M. myotis. These findings have considerable public health implications in terms of management of colonies where lyssavirus-positive bats have been recorded and confirm the potential risk of rabies transmission to humans. A greater understanding of the dynamics of lyssavirus in bat colonies also provides a model to study how bats contribute to the maintenance and transmission of other viruses of public health concern.

  10. Grotesque manifestations of power in Dance of the vampires by Bole Butake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Nkealah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of Dance of the vampires by Cameroonian playwright, Bole Butake. It looked at how the play projects itself as a narrative of the nation and, conversely, how the nation in the play functions as a narrative text on which ideologies of power are inscribed or expunged. Butake’s vision of the nation encompasses various discourses of power that are explored against the backdrop of the grotesque in systems of domination, as enunciated by Achille Mbembe. This article argues that whilst the play hinges on the ambivalence in power relations, the writer’s vision is un-ambivalent in its utopian conception of political change and its gendered representation of women within nationalist discourses.

  11. Groteske manifestasies van mag in Dance of the vampires deur Bole Butake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Nkealah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel is ’n ontleding vanDance of the vampires deur die Kameroense dramaturg, Bole Butake. Dit het die maniere ondersoek waarop die toneelstuk homself projekteer as verhaal van ’n nasie en omgekeerd, hoe die nasie in die toneelstuk as ’n narratiewe teks funksioneer waarin magsideologieë ingeskryf of uitgewis word. Butake se visie van die nasie omvat verskeie magsdiskoerse wat ondersoek word teen die agtergrond van die groteske in sisteme van dominasie, soos uiteengesit deur Achille Mbembe. Die artikel voer aan dat, terwyl die stuk van die ambivalensie in magsverhoudings afhang, die skrywer se visie onambivilant is in sy Utopiese konsepsie van politiese verandering en sy geslagtelike uitbeelding van vrouens binne nasionalistiese diskoerse.

  12. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  13. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  14. Os morcegos e a raiva na região oeste do Estado de São Paulo The bats and rabies in the Western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino Albas

    2011-04-01

    characterization of daytime shelters of Desmodus rotundus vampire bats. METHODS: Samples for examination originated from nonhematophagous bats forwarded to the laboratory and subjected to direct fluorescent antibody test and mouse inoculation test. Positive samples were characterized by the monoclonal antibody test. Regarding the bats, they were identified and classified and mapping of their shelters was also performed. RESULTS: The laboratory received 1,113 nonhematophagous bats for rabies diagnosis, 11 (1% of which were positives, and among the positive samples, 5 (45.5% presented antigenic variant 3 (from the bat Desmodus rotundus and 4 (36.5% were compatible with samples derived from Brazilian insectivorous bats. Sixteen vampire bat shelters were investigated and observation confirmed the presence of another 3 species of nonhematophagous bats coexisting with them. CONCLUSIONS: The experiments showed that at least 3 antigenic variants of rabies virus are circulating in the region and that the cohabitation of vampire bats with nonhematophagous bats could be related to the dissemination of the rabies virus.

  15. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Edward B; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Huso, Manuela M P; Szewczak, Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21-51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  16. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Edward B.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Szewczak, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21–51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Edward B.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Szewczak, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21–51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  18. Will the real Robert Neville please, come out? Vampirism, the ethics of queer monstrosity, and capitalism in Richard Matheson's I am legend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Jamil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that Richard Matheson's (1954) vampire novella, I Am Legend, encodes the protagonist's, Robert Neville, traumatic recognition of his queer sexuality in its monstrosity (the unspeakability of male penetrability). Neville's identification with and desire for his undead neighbor, Ben Cortman, are symbolically codified through three different registers: intertextual references to vampiric conventions and codes, the semiotics of queer subculture, and a structure of doubling that links Neville to the queer vampire. Although Neville avoids encountering his unspeakable queer desire, which could be represented only at the level of the Lacanian Real, he must still confront Cortman's obsessive exhortations for him to come out. Only when he symbolically codifies his abnormality in its own monstrosity, by viewing himself through mutant vampires' eyes, can Neville reconfigure the ethical relationship between self and other, humans and mutant humans-vampires. However progressive Matheson's novella is in its advocacy of minority sexual rights, it still renders capitalism's problematic relationship with queer subjectivity invisible. Although capitalism overdetermines every aspect of the social field and makes Neville's daily life possible in its surplus enjoyment, the fundamental antagonism (class struggle) in capitalism is obscured by the assertion of identity politics.

  19. The status of BAT detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Amy; Markwardt, Craig B.; Krimm, Hans Albert; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, Bradley

    2018-01-01

    We will present the current status of the Swift/BAT detector. In particular, we will report the updated detector gain calibration, the number of enable detectors, and the global bad time intervals with potential calibration issues. We will also summarize the results of the yearly BAT calibration using the Crab nebula. Finally, we will discuss the effects on the BAT survey, such as the sensitivity, localization, and spectral analysis, due to the changes in detector status.

  20. Vampire Apocalypse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    , cultural ecology, and authorial identity as my main analytical tools for understanding the appeal, the power, and the significance of Matheson's classic novel, which is basically an extrapolation on peculiar yet common anxieties and a meditation on what happens when basic adaptive needs are frustrated....

  1. [Hemoparasites of bats in Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharimanga, V; Ariey, F; Cardiff, S G; Goodman, S M; Tall, A; Rousset, D; Robert, V

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and density of haemoparasites in wild malagasy bats. Among the 440 bats, belonging to 14 species sampled in 5 localities in different bio-climatic zones of the island, 93 (21%) showed at least 1 haemoparasite with, by order of frequency, Haemoproteidae (15.7% of 440 bats), microfilariae (7.0%) and Trypanosoma (0.7%). Among these 93 bats, 92 (99%) belonged to the family Vespertilionidae. Four bat species, all endemic to the Madagascar region (Madagascar and Comoros), were found to harbour parasites: Miniopterus manavi with Haemoproteidae (38% of 129 individuals), microfilariae (23%) and Trypanosoma (2%); Myotis goudoti with Haemoproteidae (24% of 68 individuals) and microfilariae (1%); Miniopterus gleni with Haemoproteidae (23% of 13 individuals); and Triaenops furculus with Haemoproteidae (4% of 28 individuals). The sex of bats was not linked to parasite prevalence. Within Miniopterus manavi, those individuals with greater weight also had a higher prevalence of microfilariae; and within the individuals harbouring microfilariae the greatest weights corresponded to the highest density of microfilariae. Ten bat species (with 202 individuals examined) were negative for any haemoparasite. This study is the first to provide evidence of haemoparasites in Malagasy bats; it provides interesting insights, especially concerning the parasite distribution per bat species and families, the pathogenicity of this type of parasitism and the parasite transmission by arthropod vectors.

  2. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

  3. Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-12-01

    Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-06-20

    The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be 'orphan' but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels.

  5. Lyssavirus surveillance in bats of southern China's Guangxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhuan-Ling; Wang, Wen; Yin, Wei-Li; Tang, Hai-Bo; Pan, Yan; Liang, Xiang; Liu, Qi; Xiong, Yi; Minamoto, Nobuyuki; Luo, Ting Rong

    2013-04-01

    Although rabies virus is widely distributed in the world, and has been the subject of extensive investigations with the objective of its ultimate prevention, control, and management, there is much less knowledge of the characteristics, distribution, and infectivity of other lyssaviruses. Since bats are known animal vectors for all but one of the known lyssavirus genotypes, we have performed an extensive survey of bats in the Guangxi Province to provide information on lyssavirus distribution in southern China. The lyssavirus nucleoprotein gene was detected in brains of 2.86 % of 2,969 bats. Nucleotide sequence homologies among isolates were 86.9-99.6 %, but only 70.0-85.0 % for lyssaviruses in GenBank. These infected bats were detected from a wide area, essentially forming a band running from the south-west to the north-east of Guangxi, and it appears that infection by new lyssaviruses is widespread in this region.

  6. Energetic benefits of enhanced summer roosting habitat for little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) recovering from white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Alana; Willis, Craig K R

    2016-01-01

    Habitat modification can improve outcomes for imperilled wildlife. Insectivorous bats in North America face a range of conservation threats, including habitat loss and white-nose syndrome (WNS). Even healthy bats face energetic constraints during spring, but enhancement of roosting habitat could reduce energetic costs, increase survival and enhance recovery from WNS. We tested the potential of artificial heating of bat roosts as a management tool for threatened bat populations. We predicted that: (i) after hibernation, captive bats would be more likely to select a roost maintained at a temperature near their thermoneutral zone; (ii) bats recovering from WNS at the end of hibernation would show a stronger preference for heated roosts compared with healthy bats; and (iii) heated roosts would result in biologically significant energy savings. We housed two groups of bats (WNS-positive and control) in separate flight cages following hibernation. Over 7.5 weeks, we quantified the presence of individuals in heated vs. unheated bat houses within each cage. We then used a series of bioenergetic models to quantify thermoregulatory costs in each type of roost under a number of scenarios. Bats preferentially selected heated bat houses, but WNS-affected bats were much more likely to use the heated bat house compared with control animals. Our model predicted energy savings of up to 81.2% for bats in artificially heated roosts if roost temperature was allowed to cool at night to facilitate short bouts of torpor. Our results are consistent with research highlighting the importance of roost microclimate and suggest that protection and enhancement of high-quality, natural roosting environments should be a priority response to a range of threats, including WNS. Our findings also suggest the potential of artificially heated bat houses to help populations recover from WNS, but more work is needed before these might be implemented on a large scale.

  7. Mineral Licks Attract Neotropical Seed-Dispersing Bats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, Ch.C.; Dechmann, D.K.N.; Dechmann, D.K.N.; Kunz, Th.H.; Bender, J.; Rinehart, B.J.; Michener, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    Unlike most terrestrial mammals, female bats must supply their offspring with all required nutrients until pups achieve virtually adult size, at which time they are able to fly and become independent. Access to nutrients may be especially challenging for reproductively active females in mineral-poor landscapes such as tropical rain forests. We hypothesized that pregnant and lactating females from tropical landscapes acquire essential nutrients from locally-available mineral licks. We captured ten times as many bats at mineral licks than at control sites in a lowland rain forest in eastern Ecuador. Among bats captured at mineral licks, the sex ratio was heavily biased toward females, and a significantly higher portion of females captured at these sites, compared to control sites, were reproductively active (pregnant and lactating). Enrichment of N 15 in relation to N 14 in wing tissue indicated that bats captured at mineral licks were mostly fruit-eating species. Given the high visitation rates of reproductive active females at mineral licks, it is likely that mineral licks are important for fruit-eating female bats as a mineral source during late pregnancy and lactation. By sustaining high population densities of fruit-eating bats that disperse seeds, mineral licks may have an indirect influence on local plant species richness.

  8. BAT Triggering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kassandra M.; Fenimore, E. E.; Palmer, D. M.; BAT Team

    2006-09-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift has detected and located about 160 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in its first twenty months of operation. BAT employs two triggering systems to find GRBs: image triggering, which looks for a new point source in the field of view, and rate triggering, which looks for a significant increase in the observed counts. The image triggering system looks at 1 minute, 5 minute, and full pointing accumulations of counts in the detector plane in the energy range of 15-50 keV, with about 50 evaluations per pointing (about 40 minutes). The rate triggering system looks through 13 different time scales (from 4ms to 32s), 4 overlapping energy bins (covering 15-350 keV), 9 regions of the detector plane (from the full plane to individual quarters), and two background sampling models to search for GRBs. It evaluates 27000 trigger criteria in a second, for close to 1000 criteria. The image triggering system looks at 1, 5, and 40 minute accumulations of counts in the detector plane in the energy range of 15-50 keV. Both triggering systems are working very well with the settings from before launch and after we turned on BAT. However, we now have more than a year and a half of data to evaluate these triggering systems and tweak them for optimal performance, as well as lessons learned from these triggering systems.

  9. Bats and bat habitats : guidelines for wind power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Bat mortality has been documented at wind power projects in a number of habitats across North America. Wind power projects in Ontario have reported annual estimates ranging from 4 to 14 bat mortalities per turbine per year. This document presented guidance on identifying and addressing potential negative effects on bats and bat habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects in Ontario. The guidelines supported the Ministry of Environment's renewable energy approval regulation and applied on both Crown and privately-owned land. The document presented the regulatory framework and discussed the assessment process for bats and bat habitats. This process included project site; records review; site investigation; and evaluation of significance. Other topics that were presented included an environmental impact study and an environmental effects monitoring plan such as post construction monitoring and post construction mitigation. Several appendices were also included regarding the potential effects of wind power project on bats; best management practices; methods for evaluating bat wildlife habitat; and post construction monitoring methods. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 appendices.

  10. Bats and bat habitats : guidelines for wind power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Bat mortality has been documented at wind power projects in a number of habitats across North America. Wind power projects in Ontario have reported annual estimates ranging from 4 to 14 bat mortalities per turbine per year. This document presented guidance on identifying and addressing potential negative effects on bats and bat habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects in Ontario. The guidelines supported the Ministry of Environment's renewable energy approval regulation and applied on both Crown and privately-owned land. The document presented the regulatory framework and discussed the assessment process for bats and bat habitats. This process included project site; records review; site investigation; and evaluation of significance. Other topics that were presented included an environmental impact study and an environmental effects monitoring plan such as post construction monitoring and post construction mitigation. Several appendices were also included regarding the potential effects of wind power project on bats; best management practices; methods for evaluating bat wildlife habitat; and post construction monitoring methods. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 appendices.

  11. Automated Acoustic Identification of Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    long-nosed bat, Leptonycteris yerbabuenae Maca California leaf-nosed bat, Macrotus californicus Myca California myotis, M. californicus Myci western...californicus ( Maca ) Nyctinomops femorosaccus (Nyfe) Leptonycteris yerbabuenae (Leye) N. macrotis (Nyma) Lasiurus blossevillii (Labl) / L. borealis (Labo...Myve Myar Chme Maca Maca Maca Leye Leye Pahe Pahe Pahe Pahe Labl Labl Labl Labl Laxa Laxa Laxa Myev Myev Anpa

  12. The aural anatomy of bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pye, Ade

    1970-01-01

    The fine structure of the ears of 62 species of bats from 13 families has been studied by means of serial sections. The bats were caught alive in Britain, West Indies, Panama, Central and North Africa and were intra-vitally perfused with fixative in order to obtain perfect preservation of the

  13. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.R. Jr.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-03-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppM DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppM Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their controls, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats.

  14. VAMPIR POLITIK INDONESIA SAMPUL DESAIN GRAFIS TABLOID DEMOKRAT EDISI 49 TANGGAL 23-30 JANUARI 2000 Representasi Senimannya Pada Masa Reformasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handriyotopo -

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Press Independency that have been opening and tend to be bold to voice feeling and all condition starts to counter each other in their news, headlines, and illustrations. Including, PDIP ( Partai Demokratik Indoesia Perjuangan shows in its tabloid ‘Demokrat’ that appears the slogan ‘yang penting srudukannya bung’ more over in which the cover illustrates Amien Rais as if a vampire creature ( makluk vampir. This illustration images encourage the PAN’ s (Partai Amanat Nasional anger. This seems to be a part of the graphics design function as a provocation to the consumers. Keyword : graphic design function

  15. Bats prove to be rich reservoirs for emerging viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisher, Charles H.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Dominguez, Samuel R.; Schountz, Tony; Cryan, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging pathogens, many of them viruses, continue to surprise us, providing many newly recognized diseases to study and to try to control. Many of these emergent viruses are zoonotic, transmitted from reservoirs in wild or domestic animals to humans, either by insect vectors or by exposure to the droppings or tissues of such animals. One rich- but, until recently, underappreciated-source of emergent viruses is bats (Chiroptera, meaning "hand wing"). Accounting for 1,116, or nearly one fourth, of the 4,600 recognized species of mammals, bats are grouped into two suborders Megachiroptera, which contains a single family, Pteropodidae, consisting of 42 genera and 186 species, and Microchiroptera, which contains 17 families, 160 genera, and 930 species. Although bats are among the most abundant, diverse, and geographically dispersed orders of terrestrial mammals, research on these flying mammals historically focused more on their habits and outward characteristics than on their role in carrying microorganisms and transmitting pathogens to other species. Even in those cases where bats were known to carry particular pathogens, the microbiologists who studied those pathogens typically knew little about the bat hosts. Hence, investigators now are seeking to explain how variations of anatomy, physiology, ecology, and behavior influence the roles of bats as hosts for viral pathogens.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Bat Lyssaviruses in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElhinney, L.M.; Marston, D.A.; Leech, S.; Freuling, C.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Echevarria, J.; Vazquez-Moron, S.; Horton, D.L.; Müller, T.; Fooks, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Bat rabies cases in Europe are principally attributed to two lyssaviruses, namely European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2). Between 1977 and 2011, 961 cases of bat rabies were reported to Rabies Bulletin Europe, with the vast majority (>97%) being

  17. Effects of DDE and PCB (Aroclor 1260) on experimentally poisoned little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus): Lethal brain concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Stafford, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Adult female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in a church attic in North East, Cecil County, Md. Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing organochlorine pollutants were fed to the bats as follows: 5 bats were dosed at 480 ppm DDE, 12 at 150 ppm DDE, 5 at 1000 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB; Aroclor 1260), and 12 at 15 ppm PCB. Seven other bats were fed untreated mealworms. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE and PCB to lethality and measure these concentrations. During 40 d of dosage, one DDE-dosed bat and two PCB-dosed bats died after exhibiting the prolonged tremor that characterizes organochlorine poisoning. After dosage, surviving bats were starved to elevate brain levels of toxicants, and three additional DDE-dosed bats had tremors before dying. The mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was estimated as 603 ppm, range 540-670 ppm. This mean is 16-18% higher than means for Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) and common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and may indicate less sensitivity. Lethal brain concentrations of Aroclor 1260 were 1300 and 1500 ppm. Such values appear to be higher than values (Aroclor 1254) for brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). During starvation, DDE-dosed bats lost weight about 24% faster than controls. If smaller amounts of stored DDE cause increases in metabolic rates of nonfeeding bats, as during hibernation or migration, the result could be premature energy depletion and increased mortality.

  18. Assessment of potential zoonotic disease exposure and illness related to an annual bat festival--Idanre, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Neil M; Osinubi, Modupe; Wallace, Ryan M; Aman-Oloniyo, Abimbola; Gbadegesin, Yemi H; Sebastian, Yennan Kerecvel; Saliman, Olugbon Abdullateef; Niezgoda, Mike; Davis, Lora; Recuenco, Sergio

    2014-04-18

    Bats provide vital ecologic services that humans benefit from, such as seed dispersal and pest control, and are a food source for some human populations. However, bats also are reservoirs for a number of high-consequence zoonoses, including paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and lyssaviruses. The variety of viruses that bats harbor might be related to their evolutionary diversity, ability to fly large distances, long lifespans, and gregarious roosting behaviors. Every year a festival takes place in Idanre, Nigeria, in which males of all ages enter designated caves to capture bats; persons are forbidden from entering the caves outside of these festivities. Festival participants use a variety of techniques to capture bats, but protective equipment rarely is used, placing hunters at risk for bat scratches and bites. Many captured bats are prepared as food, but some are transported to markets in other parts of the country for sale as bushmeat. Bats also are presented to dignitaries in elaborate rituals. The health consequences of contact with these bats are unknown, but a number of viruses have been previously identified among Nigerian bats, including lyssaviruses, pegiviruses, and coronaviruses. Furthermore, the caves are home to Rousettus aegyptiacus bats, which are reservoirs for Marburg virus in other parts of Africa.

  19. Surveillance for European bat lyssavirus in Swiss bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megali, A; Yannic, G; Zahno, M-L; Brügger, D; Bertoni, G; Christe, P; Zanoni, R

    2010-10-01

    Most countries in Western Europe are currently free of rabies in terrestrial mammals. Nevertheless, rabies remains a residual risk to public health due to the natural circulation of bat-specific viruses, such as European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs). European bat lyssavirus types 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2) are widely distributed throughout Europe, but little is known of their true prevalence and epidemiology. We report that only three out of 837 brains taken from bats submitted to the Swiss Rabies Centre between 1976 and 2009 were found by immunofluorescence (FAT) to be positive for EBLVs. All three positive cases were in Myotis daubentoni, from 1992, 1993 and 2002. In addition to this passive surveillance, we undertook a targeted survey in 2009, aimed at detecting lyssaviruses in live bats in Switzerland. A total of 237 bats of the species M. daubentoni, Myotis myotis, Eptesicus serotinus and Nyctalus noctula were captured at different sites in western Switzerland. Oropharyngeal swabs and blood from each individual were analysed by RT-PCR and rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), respectively. RNA corresponding to EBLV-2 was detected from oropharyngeal swabs of a single M. daubentoni bat, but no infectious virus was found. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the corresponding sequence was closely related to the other EBLV-2 sequences identified in previous rabies isolates from Swiss bats (particularly to that found at Geneva in 2002). Three M. daubentoni bats were found to be seropositive by RFFIT. In conclusion, even though the prevalence is low in Switzerland, continuous management and surveillance are required to assess the potential risk to public health.

  20. Falling with Style: Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations by Adjusting Wing Inertia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila J Bergou

    Full Text Available The remarkable maneuverability of flying animals results from precise movements of their highly specialized wings. Bats have evolved an impressive capacity to control their flight, in large part due to their ability to modulate wing shape, area, and angle of attack through many independently controlled joints. Bat wings, however, also contain many bones and relatively large muscles, and thus the ratio of bats' wing mass to their body mass is larger than it is for all other extant flyers. Although the inertia in bat wings would typically be associated with decreased aerial maneuverability, we show that bat maneuvers challenge this notion. We use a model-based tracking algorithm to measure the wing and body kinematics of bats performing complex aerial rotations. Using a minimal model of a bat with only six degrees of kinematic freedom, we show that bats can perform body rolls by selectively retracting one wing during the flapping cycle. We also show that this maneuver does not rely on aerodynamic forces, and furthermore that a fruit fly, with nearly massless wings, would not exhibit this effect. Similar results are shown for a pitching maneuver. Finally, we combine high-resolution kinematics of wing and body movements during landing and falling maneuvers with a 52-degree-of-freedom dynamical model of a bat to show that modulation of wing inertia plays the dominant role in reorienting the bat during landing and falling maneuvers, with minimal contribution from aerodynamic forces. Bats can, therefore, use their wings as multifunctional organs, capable of sophisticated aerodynamic and inertial dynamics not previously observed in other flying animals. This may also have implications for the control of aerial robotic vehicles.

  1. Autonomic regulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in health and disease: potential clinical applications for altering BAT thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupone, Domenico; Madden, Christopher J.; Morrison, Shaun F.

    2014-01-01

    From mouse to man, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a significant source of thermogenesis contributing to the maintenance of the body temperature homeostasis during the challenge of low environmental temperature. In rodents, BAT thermogenesis also contributes to the febrile increase in core temperature during the immune response. BAT sympathetic nerve activity controlling BAT thermogenesis is regulated by CNS neural networks which respond reflexively to thermal afferent signals from cutaneous and body core thermoreceptors, as well as to alterations in the discharge of central neurons with intrinsic thermosensitivity. Superimposed on the core thermoregulatory circuit for the activation of BAT thermogenesis, is the permissive, modulatory influence of central neural networks controlling metabolic aspects of energy homeostasis. The recent confirmation of the presence of BAT in human and its function as an energy consuming organ have stimulated interest in the potential for the pharmacological activation of BAT to reduce adiposity in the obese. In contrast, the inhibition of BAT thermogenesis could facilitate the induction of therapeutic hypothermia for fever reduction or to improve outcomes in stroke or cardiac ischemia by reducing infarct size through a lowering of metabolic oxygen demand. This review summarizes the central circuits for the autonomic control of BAT thermogenesis and highlights the potential clinical relevance of the pharmacological inhibition or activation of BAT thermogenesis. PMID:24570653

  2. Autonomic regulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in health and disease: potential clinical applications for altering BAT thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupone, Domenico; Madden, Christopher J; Morrison, Shaun F

    2014-01-01

    From mouse to man, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a significant source of thermogenesis contributing to the maintenance of the body temperature homeostasis during the challenge of low environmental temperature. In rodents, BAT thermogenesis also contributes to the febrile increase in core temperature during the immune response. BAT sympathetic nerve activity controlling BAT thermogenesis is regulated by CNS neural networks which respond reflexively to thermal afferent signals from cutaneous and body core thermoreceptors, as well as to alterations in the discharge of central neurons with intrinsic thermosensitivity. Superimposed on the core thermoregulatory circuit for the activation of BAT thermogenesis, is the permissive, modulatory influence of central neural networks controlling metabolic aspects of energy homeostasis. The recent confirmation of the presence of BAT in human and its function as an energy consuming organ have stimulated interest in the potential for the pharmacological activation of BAT to reduce adiposity in the obese. In contrast, the inhibition of BAT thermogenesis could facilitate the induction of therapeutic hypothermia for fever reduction or to improve outcomes in stroke or cardiac ischemia by reducing infarct size through a lowering of metabolic oxygen demand. This review summarizes the central circuits for the autonomic control of BAT thermogenesis and highlights the potential clinical relevance of the pharmacological inhibition or activation of BAT thermogenesis.

  3. Emerging diseases in Chiroptera: why bats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S.; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C.

    2010-01-01

    A conference entitled ‘2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases’ was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During several sessions, key note speakers and participants discussed infectious diseases associated with bats, including viral diseases caused by Henipa-, Filo-, Corona- and Lyssaviruses, the spread of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, bat immunology/immunogenetics, bat parasites, and finally, conservation and human health issues. PMID:20427329

  4. Aeromechanics of Highly Maneuverable Bats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swartz, S. M; Breuer, K. S

    2008-01-01

    Bats fly with astounding agility, maneuverability and efficiency. Their flight mechanics are completely different from those of insects and birds and characterized by several unique aeromechanical features including: (1...

  5. Human–Bat Interactions in Rural West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human–bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011–2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human–bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse. PMID:26177344

  6. Human-Bat Interactions in Rural West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Drosten, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human-bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011-2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human-bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse.

  7. Foraging in a complex naturalistic environment: capacity of spatial working memory in flower bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, York; Stich, Kai Petra

    2005-02-01

    Memory systems have evolved under selection pressures, such as the need to remember the locations of resources or past events within spatiotemporally dynamic natural environments. The full repertoire of complex behaviours exhibited by animals in dynamic surroundings are, however, difficult to elicit within simply structured laboratory environments. We have developed a computer-controlled naturalistic environment with 64 feeders for simulating dynamic patterns of water or food resource availability (depletion and replenishment) within the laboratory. The combination of feeder and cage remote control permits the automated transfer of animals between cage and test arena and, therefore, high experimental throughput and minimal disturbance to the animals (bats and mice). In the present study, we investigated spatial working memory in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina, Phyllostomidae) collecting food from a 64-feeder array. Feeders gave only single rewards within trials so that efficient foraging required bats to avoid depleted locations. Initially, bats tended to revisit feeders (win-stay), but within three trials changed towards a win-shift strategy. The significant avoidance of revisits could not be explained by algorithmic search guiding movement through the array nor by scent cues left by the bats themselves and, thus, the data suggest that bats remembered spatial locations depleted of food. An examination of the recency effect on spatial working memory after bats shifted to a win-shift strategy indicated that bats held more than 40 behaviour actions (feeder visits) in working memory without indication of decay. This result surpasses previous findings for other taxa.

  8. Bat Hunting and Bat-Human Interactions in Bangladeshi Villages: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission and Bat Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, J J; Hegde, S; Sazzad, H M S; Khan, S U; Hossain, M J; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Gurley, E S; Luby, S P

    2017-08-01

    Bats are an important reservoir for emerging zoonotic pathogens. Close human-bat interactions, including the sharing of living spaces and hunting and butchering of bats for food and medicines, may lead to spillover of zoonotic disease into human populations. We used bat exposure and environmental data gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to characterize bat exposures and hunting in Bangladesh. Eleven percent of households reported having a bat roost near their homes, 65% reported seeing bats flying over their households at dusk, and 31% reported seeing bats inside their compounds or courtyard areas. Twenty percent of households reported that members had at least daily exposure to bats. Bat hunting occurred in 49% of the villages surveyed and was more likely to occur in households that reported nearby bat roosts (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9) and villages located in north-west (aPR 7.5, 95% CI 2.5-23.0) and south-west (aPR 6.8, 95% CI 2.1-21.6) regions. Our results suggest high exposure to bats and widespread hunting throughout Bangladesh. This has implications for both zoonotic disease spillover and bat conservation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Ecosystem services provided by bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Thomas H; Braun de Torrez, Elizabeth; Bauer, Dana; Lobova, Tatyana; Fleming, Theodore H

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits obtained from the environment that increase human well-being. Economic valuation is conducted by measuring the human welfare gains or losses that result from changes in the provision of ecosystem services. Bats have long been postulated to play important roles in arthropod suppression, seed dispersal, and pollination; however, only recently have these ecosystem services begun to be thoroughly evaluated. Here, we review the available literature on the ecological and economic impact of ecosystem services provided by bats. We describe dietary preferences, foraging behaviors, adaptations, and phylogenetic histories of insectivorous, frugivorous, and nectarivorous bats worldwide in the context of their respective ecosystem services. For each trophic ensemble, we discuss the consequences of these ecological interactions on both natural and agricultural systems. Throughout this review, we highlight the research needed to fully determine the ecosystem services in question. Finally, we provide a comprehensive overview of economic valuation of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, few studies estimating the economic value of ecosystem services provided by bats have been conducted to date; however, we outline a framework that could be used in future studies to more fully address this question. Consumptive goods provided by bats, such as food and guano, are often exchanged in markets where the market price indicates an economic value. Nonmarket valuation methods can be used to estimate the economic value of nonconsumptive services, including inputs to agricultural production and recreational activities. Information on the ecological and economic value of ecosystem services provided by bats can be used to inform decisions regarding where and when to protect or restore bat populations and associated habitats, as well as to improve public perception of bats. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Prompt Emission Observations of Swift BAT Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We review the prompt emission properties of Swift BAT gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the global properties of BAT GRBs based on their spectral and temporal characteristics. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 80 and 20 s, respectively. The peak energy (Epeak) of about 60% of BAT GRBs is very likely to be less than 1.00 keV. We also present the BAT characteristics of GRBs with soft spectra, so called Xray flashes (XRFs). We will compare the BAT GRBs and XRFs parameter distribution to the other missions.

  11. Environment and host species shape the skin microbiome of captive neotropical bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromas, Nicolas; Shapiro, B. Jesse; Lapointe, François-Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background A wide range of microorganisms inhabit animal skin. This microbial community (microbiome) plays an important role in host defense against pathogens and disease. Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia) are an ecologically and evolutionarily diversified group with a relatively unexplored skin microbiome. The bat skin microbiome could play a role in disease resistance, for example, to white nose syndrome (WNS), an infection which has been devastating North American bat populations. However, fundamental knowledge of the bat skin microbiome is needed before understanding its role in health and disease resistance. Captive neotropical frugivorous bats Artibeus jamaicensis and Carollia perspicillataprovide a simple controlled system in which to characterize the factors shaping the bat microbiome. Here, we aimed to determine the relative importance of habitat and host species on the bat skin microbiome. Methods We performed high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the skin microbiome of two different bat species living in captivity in two different habitats. In the first habitat, A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata lived together, while the second habitat contained only A. jamaicensis. Results We found that both habitat and host species shape the composition and diversity of the skin microbiome, with habitat having the strongest influence. Cohabitating A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata shared more similar skin microbiomes than members of the same species (A. jamaicensis) across two habitats. Discussion These results suggest that in captivity, the skin microbial community is homogenised by the shared environments and individual proximities of bats living together in the same habitat, at the expense of the innate host species factors. The predominant influence of habitat suggests that environmental microorganisms or pathogens might colonize bat skin. We also propose that bat populations could differ in pathogen susceptibility depending on their immediate environment and

  12. Environment and host species shape the skin microbiome of captive neotropical bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Lemieux-Labonté

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background A wide range of microorganisms inhabit animal skin. This microbial community (microbiome plays an important role in host defense against pathogens and disease. Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia are an ecologically and evolutionarily diversified group with a relatively unexplored skin microbiome. The bat skin microbiome could play a role in disease resistance, for example, to white nose syndrome (WNS, an infection which has been devastating North American bat populations. However, fundamental knowledge of the bat skin microbiome is needed before understanding its role in health and disease resistance. Captive neotropical frugivorous bats Artibeus jamaicensis and Carollia perspicillataprovide a simple controlled system in which to characterize the factors shaping the bat microbiome. Here, we aimed to determine the relative importance of habitat and host species on the bat skin microbiome. Methods We performed high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the skin microbiome of two different bat species living in captivity in two different habitats. In the first habitat, A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata lived together, while the second habitat contained only A. jamaicensis. Results We found that both habitat and host species shape the composition and diversity of the skin microbiome, with habitat having the strongest influence. Cohabitating A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata shared more similar skin microbiomes than members of the same species (A. jamaicensis across two habitats. Discussion These results suggest that in captivity, the skin microbial community is homogenised by the shared environments and individual proximities of bats living together in the same habitat, at the expense of the innate host species factors. The predominant influence of habitat suggests that environmental microorganisms or pathogens might colonize bat skin. We also propose that bat populations could differ in pathogen susceptibility depending on their immediate

  13. BGD: a database of bat genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jianfei; Wang, Xuan; Mu, Shuo; Zhang, Shuyi; Dong, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we established a Bat Genome Database (BGD). BGD is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates available data of bat genomes and genes. It hosts data from six bat species, including two megabats and four microbats. Users can query the gene annotations using efficient searching engine, and it offers browsable tracks of bat genomes. Furthermore, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of genes. To the best of our knowledge, BGD is the first database of bat genomes. It will extend our understanding of the bat evolution and be advantageous to the bat sequences analysis. BGD is freely available at: http://donglab.ecnu.edu.cn/databases/BatGenome/.

  14. The Kinetics of Swinging a Baseball Bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisco, Joseph J; Osvalds, Nikolas J; Rainbow, Michael J

    2018-04-13

    The purpose of this study was to compute the three-dimensional kinetics required to swing three youth baseball bats of varying moments of inertia (MOI). 306 swings by 22 male players (13-18 yrs.) were analyzed. Inverse dynamics with respect to the batter's hands were computed given the known kinematics and physical properties of the bats. We found that peak force increased with larger bat MOI and was strongly correlated with bat tip speed. In contrast, peak moments were weakly correlated with bat MOI and bat tip speed. Throughout the swing, the force applied to the bat was dominated by a component aligned with the long axis of the bat and directed away from the bat knob, while the moment applied to the bat was minimal until just prior to ball impact. These results indicate that players act to mostly "pull" the bat during their swing until just prior to ball impact, at which point they rapidly increase the moment on the bat. This kinetic analysis provides novel insight into the forces and moments used to swing baseball bats.

  15. BGD: a database of bat genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Fang

    Full Text Available Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we established a Bat Genome Database (BGD. BGD is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates available data of bat genomes and genes. It hosts data from six bat species, including two megabats and four microbats. Users can query the gene annotations using efficient searching engine, and it offers browsable tracks of bat genomes. Furthermore, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of genes. To the best of our knowledge, BGD is the first database of bat genomes. It will extend our understanding of the bat evolution and be advantageous to the bat sequences analysis. BGD is freely available at: http://donglab.ecnu.edu.cn/databases/BatGenome/.

  16. Intra- and interspecific responses to Rafinesque’s big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) social calls.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, Susan, C.; Britzke, Eric, R.

    2010-07-01

    Bats respond to the calls of conspecifics as well as to calls of other species; however, few studies have attempted to quantify these responses or understand the functions of these calls. We tested the response of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) to social calls as a possible method to increase capture success and to understand the function of social calls. We also tested if calls of bats within the range of the previously designated subspecies differed, if the responses of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats varied with geographic origin of the calls, and if other species responded to the calls of C. rafinesquii. We recorded calls of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats at two colony roost sites in South Carolina, USA. Calls were recorded while bats were in the roosts and as they exited. Playback sequences for each site were created by copying typical pulses into the playback file. Two mist nets were placed approximately 50–500 m from known roost sites; the net with the playback equipment served as the Experimental net and the one without the equipment served as the Control net. Call structures differed significantly between the Mountain and Coastal Plains populations with calls from the Mountains being of higher frequency and longer duration. Ten of 11 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats were caught in the Control nets and, 13 of 19 bats of other species were captured at Experimental nets even though overall bat activity did not differ significantly between Control and Experimental nets. Our results suggest that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats are not attracted to conspecifics’ calls and that these calls may act as an intraspecific spacing mechanism during foraging.

  17. Progesterone transfer among cohabitating female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greville, Lucas J; Pollock, Tyler; Salter, Joseph C; Faure, Paul A; deCatanzaro, Denys

    2017-06-01

    Experiments using female mice and bats have demonstrated that tritium-labeled 17β-estradiol ( 3 H-E 2 ) can be absorbed via cutaneous and intranasal routes and distributed to reproductive and neural tissues. Radioactivity has also been measured in tissues of untreated females after 48h cohabitation with 3 H-E 2 injected males. The present study was designed to quantify steroid transfer among female bats. Radioactive quantification via liquid scintillation counting revealed absorption of tritium-labeled progesterone ( 3 H-P 4 ) in adult females 1h after cutaneous and intranasal application (10μCi). Subsequently, pairs of mature females were each housed for 48h with a single mature female that had been administered 3 H-P 4 (50μCi) via intraperitoneal injection. Radioactivity was observed in all collected tissues of all non-injected females at levels significantly greater than the control group. Following the same paradigm, radioactivity was not observed in the tissues of untreated female bats that were housed with stimulus females treated with 3 H-E 2 (50μCi). Enzyme immunoassays revealed measurable levels of unconjugated progesterone and estradiol in the urine of female bats, suggesting urine as a vector for steroid transfer. Given that bats of this species live in predominantly female roosts in very close contact, progesterone transfer among individuals is likely to occur in natural roosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Accelerated FoxP2 evolution in echolocating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    Full Text Available FOXP2 is a transcription factor implicated in the development and neural control of orofacial coordination, particularly with respect to vocalisation. Observations that orthologues show almost no variation across vertebrates yet differ by two amino acids between humans and chimpanzees have led to speculation that recent evolutionary changes might relate to the emergence of language. Echolocating bats face especially challenging sensorimotor demands, using vocal signals for orientation and often for prey capture. To determine whether mutations in the FoxP2 gene could be associated with echolocation, we sequenced FoxP2 from echolocating and non-echolocating bats as well as a range of other mammal species. We found that contrary to previous reports, FoxP2 is not highly conserved across all nonhuman mammals but is extremely diverse in echolocating bats. We detected divergent selection (a change in selective pressure at FoxP2 between bats with contrasting sonar systems, suggesting the intriguing possibility of a role for FoxP2 in the evolution and development of echolocation. We speculate that observed accelerated evolution of FoxP2 in bats supports a previously proposed function in sensorimotor coordination.

  19. Interferon production and signaling pathways are antagonized during henipavirus infection of fruit bat cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena R Virtue

    Full Text Available Bats are natural reservoirs for a spectrum of infectious zoonotic diseases including the recently emerged henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses. Henipaviruses have been observed both naturally and experimentally to cause serious and often fatal disease in many different mammal species, including humans. Interestingly, infection of the flying fox with henipaviruses occurs in the absence of clinical disease. The extreme variation in the disease pattern between humans and bats has led to an investigation into the effects of henipavirus infection on the innate immune response in bat cell lines. We report that henipavirus infection does not result in the induction of interferon expression, and the viruses also inhibit interferon signaling. We also confirm that the interferon production and signaling block in bat cells is not due to differing viral protein expression levels between human and bat hosts. This information, in addition to the known lack of clinical signs in bats following henipavirus infection, suggests that bats control henipavirus infection by an as yet unidentified mechanism, not via the interferon response. This is the first report of henipavirus infection in bat cells specifically investigating aspects of the innate immune system.

  20. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to

  1. First encounter of European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) in a bat in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakava-Viljanen, M; Lilley, T; Kyheröinen, E-M; Huovilainen, A

    2010-11-01

    In Finland, rabies in bats was suspected for the first time in 1985 when a bat researcher, who had multiple bat bites, died in Helsinki. The virus isolated from the researcher proved to be antigenically related to rabies viruses previously detected in German bats. Later, the virus was typed as EBLV-2b. Despite an epidemiological study in bats 1986 and subsequent rabies surveillance, rabies in bats was not detected in Finland until the first case in a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) was confirmed in August 2009. The bat was paralysed, occasionally crying, and biting when approached; it subsequently tested positive for rabies. The virus was genetically typed as EBLV-2. This is the northernmost case of bat rabies ever detected in Europe. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the EBLV-2b isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related, demonstrating that EBLV-2 may have been circulating in Finland for many years.

  2. Bat study in the Kharaa region, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariunbold Jargalsaikhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study objectives were to determine bat species composition and to study the genetic variations and sound characteristics in bats of the Kharaa, Shatan, and Ulgii areas of Mongolia. This study is the first bat survey in this area. Nineteen species were from Mongolia. Six bat species belonged to three genera. We performed mitochondrial DNA sequencing of Myotis bombinus, Myotis gracilis, and Myotis petax to confirm the morphological identification of these species. We also determined the sound frequencies of the six bat species, based on their echolocation calls. The conservation status was determined using World Conservation Union red list categories and criteria. Sixteen bats from three species were ringed during this study and three artificial boxes were placed on trees in the Kharaa River Valley. Other than the northern bat, all species were eastern Palearctic. The northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii species is widespread in the northern Palearctic region.

  3. European bat Lyssavirus transmission among cats, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Mailles, Alexandra; Boisseleau, Didier; Delmas, Olivier; Biron, Charlotte; Bouchier, Christiane; Capek, Isabelle; Muller, Michel; Ilari, Frédéric; Lefranc, Tanguy; Raffi, François; Goudal, Maryvonne; Bourhy, Hervé

    2009-02-01

    We identified 2 cases of European bat lyssavirus subtype 1 transmission to domestic carnivores (cats) in France. Bat-to-cat transmission is suspected. Low amounts of virus antigen in cat brain made diagnosis difficult.

  4. Wind turbines in Switzerland - Bat mortality; Eoliennes en Suisse - Mortalite de chauves-souris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuzinger, Y.; Lugon, A.; Bontadina, F.

    2008-03-15

    There are growing concerns about possible negative impact of wind turbines on bats. In this study we evaluated the occurrence of bat mortality caused by wind turbines in Switzerland. From about 20 existing wind turbines in year 2007 we selected five medium to large sized turbines in two hilly regions of Switzerland. Between June and October we searched 10 times in regular intervals for carcasses on the ground (total 50 controls) in a circle of up to 40 m distance to the tower. We measured detectability and bait removal rates by experiments at every site (using 12 dummy bats and 10 dead mice per site, respectively). Two bat carcasses were found at two sites, one of the migrating species N. leisleri in August, another in September, belonging to the non-migrating species P. pipistrellus. The detectability was 74 {+-} 13% (mean {+-} standard deviation). The removal rate was 72 {+-} 25% in the first 2-3 days and an average of 91% in the control intervals of 15 days. Estimates of seasonal bat mortality, corrected for season, detectability and removal rate, revealed an average of 8.2 (range 4.9 - 11.4) dead bats per turbine and season. This study demonstrates the occurrence of bat mortality caused by wind turbines in Switzerland. However, the estimated mortality per season remains in international comparisons small to medium at the studied sites. The mortality of individuals of endangered and protected species is a serious issue, but most important, the long-term effect on populations is difficult to assess. In the case of the investigated wind turbines the negative impact on bats does not generally preclude the development of wind energy sites in Switzerland. We recommend avoiding sites in and near woodlands. The abundance of local and migratory bats at planned sites should be evaluated, obligatory in the case of larger wind parks and at exposed sites (ridge tops, mountain passes, river valleys), in order to consider adequately bat conservation. (author)

  5. Probing the natural scene by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    -motor behaviors and flight path control, which draw upon 3-D spatial perception, attention, and memory. This article reviews field and laboratory studies that document adaptive sonar behaviors of echolocating bats, and point to the fundamental signal parameters they use to track and sort auditory objects......Bats echolocating in the natural environment face the formidable task of sorting signals from multiple auditory objects, echoes from obstacles, prey, and the calls of conspecifics. Successful orientation in a complex environment depends on auditory information processing, along with adaptive vocal...

  6. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  7. Bat lung epithelial cells show greater host species-specific innate resistance than MDCK cells to human and avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Tessa; Eckerle, Isabella; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2018-04-10

    With the recent discovery of novel H17N10 and H18N11 influenza viral RNA in bats and report on high frequency of avian H9 seroconversion in a species of free ranging bats, an important issue to address is the extent bats are susceptible to conventional avian and human influenza A viruses. To this end, three bat species (Eidolon helvum, Carollia perspicillata and Tadarida brasiliensis) of lung epithelial cells were separately infected with two avian and two human influenza viruses to determine their relative host innate immune resistance to infection. All three species of bat cells were more resistant than positive control Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to all four influenza viruses. TB1-Lu cells lacked sialic acid α2,6-Gal receptors and were most resistant among the three bat species. Interestingly, avian viruses were relatively more replication permissive in all three bat species of cells than with the use of human viruses which suggest that bats could potentially play a role in the ecology of avian influenza viruses. Chemical inhibition of the JAK-STAT pathway in bat cells had no effect on virus production suggesting that type I interferon signalling is not a major factor in resisting influenza virus infection. Although all three species of bat cells are relatively more resistant to influenza virus infection than control MDCK cells, they are more permissive to avian than human viruses which suggest that bats could have a contributory role in the ecology of avian influenza viruses.

  8. Coccidioides posadasii infection in bats, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; e Silva, Kylvia Rocha de Castro; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Cordeiro, Rebecca de Aguiar; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; de Araújo, Roberto Wagner Bezerra; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-04-01

    To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats.

  9. Coccidioides posadasii Infection in Bats, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Rocha de Castro e Silva, Kylvia; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Cordeiro, Rebecca de Aguiar; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; Bezerra de Araújo, Roberto Wagner; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats.

  10. How the bat got its buzz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratcliffe, John M; Elemans, Coen P H; Jakobsen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of echolocation in bats, the final phase of an attack on a flying insect, the 'terminal buzz', has proved enigmatic. During the buzz, bats increase information update rates by producing vocalizations up to 220 times s(-1). The buzz's ubiquity in hawking and trawling bats impli...

  11. Management of the panzootic white-nose syndrome through culling of bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Thomas G; McCracken, Gary F

    2011-02-01

    The probability of persistence of many species of hibernating bats in the United States is greatly reduced by an emerging infectious disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS). In the United States WNS is rapidly spreading and is associated with a psychrophilic fungus, Geomyces destructans. WNS has caused massive mortality of bats that hibernate. Efforts to control the disease have been ineffective. The culling of bats in hibernacula has been proposed as a way to break the transmission cycle or slow the spread of WNS. We formulated a disease model to examine the efficacy of culling to abate WNS in bat populations. We based the model dynamics on disease transmission in maternity roosts, swarms, and hibernacula, which are the arenas of contact among bats. Our simulations indicated culling will not control WNS in bats primarily because contact rates are high among colonial bats, contact occurs in multiple arenas, and periodic movement between arenas occurs. In general, culling is ineffective in the control of animal diseases in the wild. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Best Available Technology (BAT) guidance for radiological liquid effluents at US Department of Energy Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallo, A. III; Peterson, H.T. Jr.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Baker, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in DOE Order 5400.5 (1990), directs operators of DOE facilities to apply the Best Available Technology (BAT) to control radiological liquid effluents from these facilities when specific conditions are present. DOE has published interim guidance to assist facility operators in knowing when a BAT analysis is needed and how such an analysis should be performed and documented. The purpose of the guidance is to provide a uniform basis in determining BAT throughout DOE and to assist in evaluating BAT determinations during programmatic audits. The BAT analysis process involves characterizing the effluent source; identifying and selecting candidate control technologies; evaluating the potential environmental, operational, resource, and economic impacts of the control technologies; developing an evaluation matrix for comparing the technologies; selecting the BAT; and documenting the evaluation process. The BAT analysis process provides a basis for consistent evaluation of liquid effluent releases, yet allows an individual site or facility the flexibility to address site-specific issues or concerns in the most appropriate manner

  13. Does calcium constrain reproductive activity in insectivorous bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insects are a poor source of dietary calcium and since they are seasonally abundant, it has been suggested that calcium availability may play a significant role in controlling the timing of reproduction in insectivorous bats. To assess the possible role of dietary calcium, we have measured bone calcium concentrations in ...

  14. A perspective on bats (Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brock Fenton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.

  15. A perspective on bats (Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brock Fenton

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.

  16. Aestheticizing the Downfall of Industrial Capitalism: Jim Jarmusch’s Tale of Intellectual Vampires in Zombies’ World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Muratoğlu Pehlivan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to read Jim Jarmusch’s movie Only Lovers Left Alive from the perspective of downfall of industrial capitalism and ecosocialist approach. The movie mainly takes place in Detroit Michigan, which is a symbol of the collapse of Fordism and industrialization. Ecosocialist critique of industrial capitalism has common notions with Jarmusch’s tale. Thus, theoretical framework of this study has been established on ecosocialist paradigm. In the movie, Jarmusch represents vampires as intellectuals with a wide accumulation of culture and knowledge and places his critique of industrialization from their point of view. Multimodal Discourse Analysis was applied to the movie to find out how the movie did use visual and literal signifiers to establish its narrative.

  17. A One Health Message about Bats Increases Intentions to Follow Public Health Guidance on Bat Rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Lu

    Full Text Available Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521 in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health.

  18. Inconspicuous echolocation in hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Weller, Theodore J

    2018-05-16

    Echolocation allows bats to occupy diverse nocturnal niches. Bats almost always use echolocation, even when other sensory stimuli are available to guide navigation. Here, using arrays of calibrated infrared cameras and ultrasonic microphones, we demonstrate that hoary bats ( Lasiurus cinereus ) use previously unknown echolocation behaviours that challenge our current understanding of echolocation. We describe a novel call type ('micro' calls) that has three orders of magnitude less sound energy than other bat calls used in open habitats. We also document bats flying close to microphones (less than 3 m) without producing detectable echolocation calls. Acoustic modelling indicates that bats are not producing calls that exceed 70-75 dB at 0.1 m, a level that would have little or no known use for a bat flying in the open at speeds exceeding 7 m s -1 This indicates that hoary bats sometimes fly without echolocation. We speculate that bats reduce echolocation output to avoid eavesdropping by conspecifics during the mating season. These findings might partly explain why tens of thousands of hoary bats are killed by wind turbines each year. They also challenge the long-standing assumption that bats-model organisms for sensory specialization-are reliant on sonar for nocturnal navigation. © 2018 The Author(s).

  19. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  20. Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive maneuvers of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency......The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed "whispering" can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm......, duration, intensity, and directionality of echolocation signals) in unison define the search volume probed by bats and in turn how bats perceive their surroundings. Small changes to individual parameters can, in combination, drastically change the bat's perception, facilitating successful navigation...

  1. Enhanced passive bat rabies surveillance in indigenous bat species from Germany--a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Schatz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2, and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV. As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT. The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus. However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii, P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii. These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques.

  2. Enhanced Passive Bat Rabies Surveillance in Indigenous Bat Species from Germany - A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques. PMID:24784117

  3. A guide to processing bat acoustic data for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Brian; Lausen, Cori; Loeb, Susan; Weller, Ted; Allen, Ryan; Britzke, Eric; Hohoff, Tara; Siemers, Jeremy; Burkholder, Braden; Herzog, Carl; Verant, Michelle

    2018-06-14

    The North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) aims to improve the state of conservation science for all species of bats shared by the United States, Canada, and Mexico. To accomplish this goal, NABat offers guidance and standardized protocols for acoustic monitoring of bats. In this document, “A Guide to Processing Bat Acoustic Data for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat),” we provide general recommendations and specific workflows for the process of identifying bat species from acoustic files recorded using the NABat stationary point and mobile transect acoustic monitoring protocols.

  4. White-nose syndrome in bats: U.S. Geological Survey updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogall, Gail Moede; Verant, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    of G. destructans to colonize and damage large areas of wing membrane (fig. 2). A current hypothesis suggests that erosion or ulceration of wing membrane caused by the fungus has the potential to alter the physiology of hibernating bats, resulting in fatal disruption of hydration, electrolyte balance, circulation, and thermoregulation (Cryan and others, 2010). Current estimates of bat population declines in the northeastern United States since the emergence of WNS are over 80 percent (Turner and others, 2011). This sudden and widespread mortality associated with WNS is unprecedented in hibernating bats, among which large-scale disease outbreaks have not been previously documented. It is unlikely that species of bats affected by WNS will recover quickly because most are long-lived and have only a single pup per year. Consequently, repopulation after widespread mortality of breeding adults will be a slow process. Worldwide, bats play essential roles as pollinators, seed dispersers, and as primary consumers of insects. The true ecological consequences of the recent large-scale reductions in populations of hibernating bats are not yet known. However, farmers might feel the impact. A recent economic analysis indicated that insect control services (ecosystem services) provided by bats to U.S. agriculture is valued between 4 to 50 billion dollars nationwide per year (Boyles and others, 2011). The number of North American bats estimated to have died from WNS thus far had the capacity to consume up to 8,000 tons of insects per year (Boyles and others, 2011). The area of North America affected by WNS continues to expand. Within the last 2 years, the disease has been confirmed in several Central States, including Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee, and Missouri. High mortality of bats has not yet been reported at these locations, and it remains to be seen if WNS will develop and manifest in other States with the same severity as that in the Northeast.

  5. Discovery of novel bat coronaviruses in south China that use the same receptor as MERS coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chu-Ming; Wang, Ning; Yang, Xing-Lou; Liu, Hai-Zhou; Zhang, Wei; Li, Bei; Hu, Ben; Peng, Cheng; Geng, Qi-Bin; Zhu, Guang-Jian; Li, Fang; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2018-04-18

    ranges of MERS-related CoV and represents an important step toward establishing bats as the natural reservoir of MERS-CoV. These findings may lead to improved epidemiological surveillance of MERS-CoV and the prevention and control of the spread of MERS-CoV to humans. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Henipavirus RNA in African bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Felix Drexler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Feces from E. helvum roosting in an urban setting in Kumasi/Ghana were tested for Henipavirus RNA. Sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known Henipaviruses were detected. Virus RNA concentrations in feces were low. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The finding of novel putative Henipaviruses outside Australia and Asia contributes a significant extension of the region of potential endemicity of one of the most pathogenic virus genera known in humans.

  7. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-30

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses.  Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/2/2014.

  8. Preventing Australian bat lyssavirus: community knowledge and risk perception of bats in South East Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Megan K; El Saadi, Debra; McCall, Bradley J

    2014-04-01

    Ongoing potential exposure of members of the public to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) in South East Queensland, Australia, prompted investigation of community knowledge, risk perception, and intention to handle bats to inform future prevention efforts. After pilot testing, a computer-assisted telephone survey of a representative sample of 700 adults without previous potential exposure to ABLV was undertaken in the defined geographic region. Twenty-four percent of eligible contacted individuals participated. Basic knowledge of bats and ABLV was generally high, with 65% of participants answering nine or more of 12 knowledge questions correctly. The perceived risk that bats pose to human health was also high, with 93% indicating some degree of risk. Although 88% of participants indicated they would handle bats in one or more of the scripted situations, overall intention to handle bats was low, with 59% indicating they would handle a bat in four or less of the 12 scenarios. Younger males with lower risk perception of bats most frequently indicated intention to handle bats in varying situations. Knowledge score was not associated with intention to handle bats on multivariate modeling. Future public health prevention efforts, both in Australia and overseas, should focus further on conveying the risk to humans and to bats when nontrained, nonvaccinated people attempt to handle bats rather than attempting to purely convey knowledge about bats and ABLV or rabies. Suitable alternative measures to handling should be included. Younger adult males are a particular target group for prevention efforts.

  9. Bartonellae are Prevalent and Diverse in Costa Rican Bats and Bat Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, S D; Frank, H K; Hadly, E A

    2015-12-01

    Species in the bacterial genus, Bartonella, can cause disease in both humans and animals. Previous reports of Bartonella in bats and ectoparasitic bat flies suggest that bats could serve as mammalian hosts and bat flies as arthropod vectors. We compared the prevalence and genetic similarity of bartonellae in individual Costa Rican bats and their bat flies using molecular and sequencing methods targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Bartonellae were more prevalent in bat flies than in bats, and genetic variants were sometimes, but not always, shared between bats and their bat flies. The detected bartonellae genetic variants were diverse, and some were similar to species known to cause disease in humans and other mammals. The high prevalence and sharing of bartonellae in bat flies and bats support a role for bat flies as a potential vector for Bartonella, while the genetic diversity and similarity to known species suggest that bartonellae could spill over into humans and animals sharing the landscape. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  11. CONTROLE DU RISQUE ET EXPERTISE : France : la précaution entre expertise et débat public Le cas des plantes transgéniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Alexis

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Depuis 1996, la commercialisation des premières plantes transgéniques s’est accompagnée d’un large débat en France (et en Europe. La controverse qui s’est ainsi développée a été le théâtre d’un processus d’appropriation par des acteurs hétérogènes de questions qui avaient été jusqu’alors essentiellement traitées par un cercle restreint d’intervenants réunis autour de quelques instances officielles de contrôle, dont principalement la Commission du génie biomoléculaire (CGB chargée de délivrer des avis auprès des instances exécutives concernant la dissémination dans l’environnement des organismes génétiquement modifiés (OGM. Une partie des critiques émises a porté sur les évaluations qui ont conduit à autoriser ces mises sur le marché ainsi que sur le fonctionnement de la CGB. Le gouvernement français a tenté de traduire cette demande d’ouverture du processus de décision à travers l’invocation du principe de précaution. L’extension de l’espace des débats a ainsi contribué à replacer la question des risques liés aux plantes transgéniques dans une réflexion élargie aux modèles de développement agricole et à l’alimentation. La rupture ainsi amorcée avec un modèle linéaire de la décision offre l’opportunité d’explorer le rôle qu’y remplissent les experts et les évolutions que pourrait impulser l’application du principe de précaution. En effet, de plus en plus présentée comme un nouveau paradigme en termes de politique environnementale et sanitaire, la précaution impliquerait une modification des liens unissant l’expertise scientifique et la décision. Fondant l’intervention publique sur la prise en compte des indéterminations, on peut toutefois se demander dans quelle mesure l’instrumentalisation de ce principe est limitée par une culture scientifique du risque encore dominée par une appropriation linéaire et déterministe de l’incertitude ? Si la

  12. Effect of emergent aquatic insects on bat foraging in a riparian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Dai; Murakami, Masashi; Nakano, Shigeru; Aoi, Toshiki

    2006-11-01

    1. Riparian zones serve several ecological functions for bats. They provide a source of prey and likely provide favourable structural habitats and shelter from predators. Many studies have shown that bats use the space above streams, ponds or riparian vegetation as feeding habitat. These studies, however, have never distinguished between the effects of habitat structure and prey availability on the foraging activities of bats. Such effects can only be distinguished by an experimental approach. We predicted that bat activity along a stream is influenced by the number of emerged aquatic insects. 2. We evaluated the response of terrestrial consumers, insectivorous bats, to changes in the abundance of emergent aquatic insects by conducting a manipulative field experiment. In a deciduous riparian forest in Japan, aquatic insect flux from the stream to the riparian zone was controlled with an insect-proof cover over a 1.2 km stream reach. 3. We estimated the abundance of emergent aquatic and flying terrestrial arthropods near the treatment and control reaches using Malaise traps. The foraging activity of bats was evaluated in both treatment and control reaches using ultrasonic detectors. 4. The insect-proof cover effectively reduced the flux of emergent aquatic insects to the riparian zone adjacent to the treatment reach. Adjacent to the control reach, adult aquatic insect biomass was highest in spring, and then decreased gradually. Terrestrial insect biomass increased gradually during the summer at both treatment and control reaches. 5. Foraging activity of bats was correlated with insect abundance. In spring, foraging activity of bats at the control reach was significantly greater than at the treatment reach, and increased at both sites with increasing terrestrial insect abundance. 6. Our result suggests that the flux of aquatic insects emerging from streams is one of the most important factors affecting the distribution of riparian-foraging bats. As is the case with

  13. Leg structure explains host site preference in bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) parasitizing neotropical bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Thomas; Honner, Benjamin; Page, Rachel A; Tschapka, Marco

    2018-03-22

    Bat flies (Streblidae) are diverse, obligate blood-feeding insects and probably the most conspicuous ectoparasites of bats. They show preferences for specific body regions on their host bat, which are reflected in behavioural characteristics. In this study, we corroborate the categorization of bat flies into three ecomorphological groups, focusing only on differences in hind leg morphology. As no detailed phylogeny of bat flies is available, it remains uncertain whether these morphological differences reflect the evolutionary history of bat flies or show convergent adaptations for the host habitat type. We show that the division of the host bat into three distinct habitats contributes to the avoidance of interspecific competition of bat fly species. Finally, we found evidence for density-dependent competition between species belonging to the same ecomorphological group.

  14. Effects of hierarchical roost removal on northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W. Mark; Britzke, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Forest roosting bats use a variety of ephemeral roosts such as snags and declining live trees. Although conservation of summer maternity habitat is considered critical for forest-roosting bats, bat response to roost loss still is poorly understood. To address this, we monitored 3 northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies on Fort Knox Military Reservation, Kentucky, USA, before and after targeted roost removal during the dormant season when bats were hibernating in caves. We used 2 treatments: removal of a single highly used (primary) roost and removal of 24% of less used (secondary) roosts, and an un-manipulated control. Neither treatment altered the number of roosts used by individual bats, but secondary roost removal doubled the distances moved between sequentially used roosts. However, overall space use by and location of colonies was similar pre- and post-treatment. Patterns of roost use before and after removal treatments also were similar but bats maintained closer social connections after our treatments. Roost height, diameter at breast height, percent canopy openness, and roost species composition were similar pre- and post-treatment. We detected differences in the distribution of roosts among decay stages and crown classes pre- and post-roost removal, but this may have been a result of temperature differences between treatment years. Our results suggest that loss of a primary roost or ≤ 20% of secondary roosts in the dormant season may not cause northern long-eared bats to abandon roosting areas or substantially alter some roosting behaviors in the following active season when tree-roosts are used. Critically, tolerance limits to roost loss may be dependent upon local forest conditions, and continued research on this topic will be necessary for conservation of the northern long-eared bat across its range.

  15. Recolonization of bat roost by bat bugs (Cimex pipistrelli): could parasite load be a cause of bat roost switching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonička, Tomáš; Růžičková, Lucie

    2013-04-01

    Roost ectoparasites are believed to have a negative impact on fitness of their hosts as birds or mammals. Previous studies were mostly focussed on the synchronization between reproduction cycles of ectoparasites and hosts living in infested roosts. However, to date, it has not been examined how fast ectoparasites colonize new, non-infested roosts and thus increasing the impact on the local populations of hosts. The parasite-host model was studied, including bat bugs Cimex pipistrelli and soprano pipistrelles Pipistrellus pygmaeus, where bat behaviour was observed which tended to reduce the parasite load in bat roosts. We investigated (1) whether bats change their roosting behaviour when we discontinued synchronization of their reproduction and the life cycle of the bat bugs and (2) how fast and which stages of bat bugs reoccupy cleaned roosts. In a 3-year field experiment, we removed all bat bugs from six bat boxes in each spring. Pipistrelles bred young in all non-infested boxes during these 3 years. In addition, 8 years of regular observations before this experiment indicate that bats avoided breeding in the same bat boxes at all. Bat bugs were found again in clean boxes in mid-May. However, their densities did not maximise before the beginning of June, before parturition. A re-appearance of bugs was observed after 21-56 days after the first bat visit. Adult bugs, mainly females, colonised cleaned boxes first though at the same time there were a lot of younger and smaller instars in non-manipulated roosts in the vicinity.

  16. Interpretation of the concepts of ALARA and bat for radioactive effluent releases from nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoqiu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the understanding of the important concepts of both ALARA and BAT associated with the characteristics of effluent releases from the existing nuclear installations and the abatement techniques for effluents, this paper elaborates the principle of controlling radioactive effluent concentration from nuclear installation, that is based on the BAT focusing on the abatement techniques for effluents, introduces the good practice in the projects, and optimize the effluent releases with account taken of external factors such as the site condition. (authors)

  17. Bartonella species in bats (Chiroptera) and bat flies (Nycteribiidae) from Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0-45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria.

  18. Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infections among Bats, the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Arguin, Paul M.; Murray-Lillibridge, Kristy; Miranda, Mary E.G.; Smith, Jean S.; Calaor, Alan B.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Active surveillance for lyssaviruses was conducted among populations of bats in the Philippines. The presence of past or current Lyssavirus infection was determined by use of direct fluorescent antibody assays on bat brains and virus neutralization assays on bat sera. Although no bats were found to have active infection with a Lyssavirus, 22 had evidence of neutralizing antibody against the Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). Seropositivity was statistically associated with one species of bat, ...

  19. Bartonella, bats and bugs: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Matthew J; Chomel, Bruno B; de Fleurieu, Eloi Claret; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2017-12-01

    Ecological, immunological, and epidemiological factors enable bats to transmit an increasingly recognized spectrum of zoonotic agents, and bartonellae are among those emerging pathogens identified in bats and their arthropod ectoparasites. Current data reveal a multifaceted disease ecology where diverse host species distributed around the world interact with a number of Bartonella spp. and several potential vectors. This review summarizes the methods and findings of studies conducted since 2005 to illustrate that Bartonella bacteremia varies by bat species, location, and other potential variables, such as diet with a very high prevalence in hematophagous bats. Among bat families, Bartonella prevalence ranged from 7.3% among Nycteridae to 54.4% in Miniopteridae. Further research can build on these current data to better determine risk factors associated with Bartonella infection in bat populations and the role of their ectoparasites in transmission. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Presence of European bat lyssavirus RNas in apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Audry, L.; Ronsholt, L.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Bourhy, H.

    2002-01-01

    Apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats were randomly chosen from a Dutch colony naturally infected with European bat lyssavirus subgenotype 1a (EBL1a). These bats were euthanised three months after the first evidence of an EBL1a infection in the colony. EBL1a genomic and antigenomic RNAs of

  1. Endemic circulation of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in serotine bats, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Juste, Javier; Ibáñez, Carlos; Ruiz-Villamor, Eduardo; Avellón, Ana; Vera, Manuel; Echevarría, Juan E

    2008-08-01

    To determine the presence of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in southern Spain, we studied 19 colonies of serotine bats (Eptesicus isabellinus), its main reservoir, during 1998-2003. Viral genome and antibodies were detected in healthy bats, which suggests subclinical infection. The different temporal patterns of circulation found in each colony indicate independent endemic circulation.

  2. Detection of European bat lyssavirus type 2 in Danish Daubenton’s bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Chriél, Mariann; Baagøe, Hans J.

    European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) is considered to be endemic in the Danish bat populations, but limited information exists about the types of EBLV strains currently in circulation. EBLV type 1 (EBLV-1) is seen as the predominant type in the Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) with the latest case...

  3. Bat rabies surveillance in France: first report of unusual mortality among serotine bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Servat, Alexandre; Wasniewski, Marine; Gaillard, Matthieu; Borel, Christophe; Cliquet, Florence

    2017-12-13

    Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitic disease that is caused by lyssaviruses which can affect all mammals, including human and bats. In Europe, bat rabies cases are attributed to five different lyssavirus species, the majority of rabid bats being attributed to European bat 1 lyssavirus (EBLV-1), circulating mainly in serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus). In France, rabies in bats is under surveillance since 1989, with 77 positive cases reported between 1989 and 2016. In the frame of the bat rabies surveillance, an unusual mortality of serotine bats was reported in 2009 in a village in North-East France. Six juvenile bats from an E. serotinus maternity colony counting ~200 individuals were found to be infected with EBLV-1. The active surveillance of the colony by capture sessions of bats from July to September 2009 showed a high detection rate of neutralising EBLV-1 antibodies (≈ 50%) in the colony. Moreover, one out of 111 animals tested was found to shed viable virus in saliva, while lyssavirus RNA was detected by RT-PCR for five individuals. This study demonstrated that the lyssavirus infection in the serotine maternity colony was followed by a high rate of bat rabies immunity after circulation of the virus in the colony. The ratio of seropositive bats is probably indicative of an efficient virus transmission coupled to a rapid circulation of EBLV-1 in the colony.

  4. A review of fire effects on bats and bat habitat in the eastern oaks region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry

    2012-01-01

    Fire is increasingly being used in oak forests to promote oak regeneration, improve wildlife habitat, and reduce hazardous fuel loads. Although recent research has begun to shed light on the relationships among fire, bats, and bat habitat, these interactions are not yet fully understood. Fire may affect bats directly through heat and smoke during the burning process or...

  5. A review of fire effects on bats and bat habitat in the eastern oak region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry

    2012-01-01

    Fire is increasingly being used in oak forests to promote oak regeneration, improve wildlife habitat, and reduce hazardous fuel loads. Although recent research has begun to shed light on the relationships among fire, bats, and bat habitat, these interactions are not yet fully understood. Fire may affect bats directly through heat and smoke during the burning process or...

  6. Hepatozoon parasites (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, C Miguel; Helgen, Kristofer M; Fleischer, Robert C; Perkins, Susan L

    2013-08-01

    We provide the first evidence of Hepatozoon parasites infecting bats. We sequenced a short fragment of the 18S rRNA gene (~600 base pairs) of Hepatozoon parasites from 3 Hipposideros cervinus bats from Borneo. Phylogenies inferred by model-based methods place these Hepatozoon within a clade formed by parasites of reptiles, rodents, and marsupials. We discuss the scenario that bats might be common hosts of Hepatozoon.

  7. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hine, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T.S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin W.; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  8. Behavior of bats at wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M; Gorresen, P Marcos; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Diehl, Robert H; Huso, Manuela M; Hayman, David T S; Fricker, Paul D; Bonaccorso, Frank J; Johnson, Douglas H; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C

    2014-10-21

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  9. Conspecific disturbance contributes to altered hibernation patterns in bats with white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James M; Warnecke, Lisa; Wilcox, Alana; Baloun, Dylan; Bollinger, Trent K; Misra, Vikram; Willis, Craig K R

    2015-03-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome (WNS) affects both physiology and behaviour of hibernating bats. Infection with the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the first pathogen known to target torpid animals, causes an increase in arousal frequency during hibernation, and therefore premature depletion of energy stores. Infected bats also show a dramatic decrease in clustering behaviour over the winter. To investigate the interaction between disease progression and torpor expression we quantified physiological (i.e., timing of arousal, rewarming rate) and behavioural (i.e., arousal synchronisation, clustering) aspects of rewarming events over four months in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) experimentally inoculated with Pd. We tested two competing hypotheses: 1) Bats adjust arousal physiology adaptively to help compensate for an increase in energetically expensive arousals. This hypothesis predicts that infected bats should increase synchronisation of arousals with colony mates to benefit from social thermoregulation and/or that solitary bats will exhibit faster rewarming rates than clustered individuals because rewarming costs fall as rewarming rate increases. 2) As for the increase in arousal frequency, changes in arousal physiology and clustering behaviour are maladaptive consequences of infection. This hypothesis predicts no effect of infection or clustering behaviour on rewarming rate and that disturbance by normothermic bats contributes to the overall increase in arousal frequency. We found that arousals of infected bats became more synchronised than those of controls as hibernation progressed but the pattern was not consistent with social thermoregulation. When a bat rewarmed from torpor, it was often followed in sequence by up to seven other bats in an arousal "cascade". Moreover, rewarming rate did not differ between infected and uninfected bats, was not affected by clustering and did not change over time. Our results support

  10. Wind power and bats : Ontario guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuiness, F. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON (Canada). Renewable Energy Resources; Stewart, J. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto, ON (Canada). Wildlife Section

    2008-07-01

    None of the 8 species of bats in Ontario are considered as species at risk. However, all bats in Ontario are protected under the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) is responsible for identifying significant wildlife habitat for bats, including hibernacula and maternity roosts. The MNR's role in wind development includes environmental assessments (EA) and surveys. The MNR bat guideline includes a summary of Ontario species, a literature review of research related to wind turbines and bats, and a review of methods for assessing and monitoring bats. Guideline development includes a bat working group responsible for obtaining data on risk factors and monitoring requirements. The MNR has determined that site selection is critical for minimizing potential impacts. Wind farm proponents can use MNR data, information, and maps for their site selection process. Information requirements include bat species data; habitat data; and meteorological data. The presence of risk factors results in a sensitivity rating. The MNR is also developing a site sensitivity mapping project in order to assist proponents in making siting decisions. All proposed sites are required to conduct pre-construction site surveys. Acoustic detectors and radar are used to determine bat activity at the site. Monitoring and mitigation strategies include selective wind turbine shutdown during key periods or weather conditions. tabs., figs.

  11. Bat habitat research. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, B.L.; Bosworth, W.R.; Doering, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    This progress report describes activities over the current reporting period to characterize the habitats of bats on the INEL. Research tasks are entitled Monitoring bat habitation of caves on the INEL to determine species present, numbers, and seasons of use; Monitor bat use of man-made ponds at the INEL to determine species present and rates of use of these waters; If the Big Lost River is flowing on the INEL and/or if the Big Lost River sinks contain water, determine species present, numbers and seasons of use; Determine the habitat requirement of Townsend`s big-eared bats, including the microclimate of caves containing Townsend`s big-eared bats as compared to other caves that do not contain bats; Determine and describe an economical and efficient bat census technique to be used periodically by INEL scientists to determine the status of bats on the INEL; and Provide a suggestive management and protective plan for bat species on the INEL that might, in the future, be added to the endangered and sensitive list;

  12. Economic importance of bats in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

  13. Pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome in bats: a mechanistic model linking wing damage to mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M; Bollinger, Trent K; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M; Blehert, David S; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Willis, Craig K R

    2013-08-23

    White-nose syndrome is devastating North American bat populations but we lack basic information on disease mechanisms. Altered blood physiology owing to epidermal invasion by the fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) has been hypothesized as a cause of disrupted torpor patterns of affected hibernating bats, leading to mortality. Here, we present data on blood electrolyte concentration, haematology and acid-base balance of hibernating little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, following experimental inoculation with Gd. Compared with controls, infected bats showed electrolyte depletion (i.e. lower plasma sodium), changes in haematology (i.e. increased haematocrit and decreased glucose) and disrupted acid-base balance (i.e. lower CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate). These findings indicate hypotonic dehydration, hypovolaemia and metabolic acidosis. We propose a mechanistic model linking tissue damage to altered homeostasis and morbidity/mortality.

  14. Maintenance of neural activities in torpid Rhinolophus ferrumequinum bats revealed by 2D gel-based proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiuyuan; Zhang, Yijian; Dong, Dong; Lei, Ming; Zhang, Shuyi; Liao, Chen-Chung; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2017-08-01

    Bats are the only mammals capable of self-powered flying. Many bat species hibernate in winter. A reversible control of cerebral activities is critical for bats to accommodate a repeated torpor-arousal cycle during hibernation. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate neuronal activities in torpid bats. In this study, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum bat brain proteins were fractionated, and their abundance in active and torpid states was compared. Results of 2D gel-based proteomics showed that 38% of identified proteins with a significant change in abundance are involved in synaptic vesicle recycling and cytoskeletal integrity. Changes in the abundance of proteins related to RNA splicing, proteostasis, redox homeostasis, mitochondrial function, and energy metabolism were also detected. In addition, the levels of GNAO1 (guanine nucleotide-binding protein G αo subunit), an important modulator of neuronal transmembrane signaling, were significantly increased in the insoluble protein fraction of torpid bats; this may be due to GNAO1 palmitoylation making it insoluble. Our data provide molecular evidence for the maintenance of neuronal activities in torpid bats and suggest that a reversible palmitoylation of the G protein plays a role in the regulation of neuronal activities during bat hibernation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigating and managing the rapid emergence of white-nose syndrome, a novel, fatal, infectious disease of hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet; Clifford, Deana; Castle, Kevin; Cryan, Paul; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2011-04-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fatal disease of bats that hibernate. The etiologic agent of WNS is the fungus Geomyces destructans, which infects the skin and wing membranes. Over 1 million bats in six species in eastern North America have died from WNS since 2006, and as a result several species of bats may become endangered or extinct. Information is lacking on the pathogenesis of G. destructans and WNS, WNS transmission and maintenance, individual and site factors that contribute to the probability of an outbreak of WNS, and spatial dynamics of WNS spread in North America. We considered how descriptive and analytical epidemiology could be used to fill these information gaps, including a four-step (modified) outbreak investigation, application of a set of criteria (Hill's) for assessing causation, compartment models of disease dynamics, and spatial modeling. We cataloged and critiqued adaptive-management options that have been either previously proposed for WNS or were helpful in addressing other emerging diseases of wild animals. These include an ongoing program of prospective surveillance of bats and hibernacula for WNS, treatment of individual bats, increasing population resistance to WNS (through vaccines, immunomodulators, or other methods), improving probability of survival from starvation and dehydration associated with WNS, modifying hibernacula environments to eliminate G. destructans, culling individuals or populations, controlling anthropogenic spread of WNS, conserving genetic diversity of bats, and educating the public about bats and bat conservation issues associated with WNS. Conservation Biology ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology. No claim to original US government works.

  16. Role of olfactory bulb serotonin in olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Ambigapathy; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Haupt, Moritz; Marimuthu, Ganapathy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2010-09-17

    The role of olfactory bulb (OB) serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] in olfactory learning and memory was tested in the greater short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (family Pteropodidae). Graded concentrations (25, 40, and 60microg) of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) or saline were injected into the OB of bats one day before training to the novel odor. In a behavioral test, 5,7-DHT (60microg) injected bats made significantly fewer feeding attempts and bouts when compared to saline-injected bats during learning and in the memory test. Subsequent biochemical analysis showed that 5-HT level was effectively depleted in the OB of 5,7-DHT injected bats. To test odor-induced 5-HT mediated changes in 5-HT receptors and second messenger cascade in the OB, we examined the expression of 5-HT receptors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/Erk cascade after training to the novel odor. We found that odor stimulation up-regulated the expression of 5-HT(1A) receptor, Erk1 and Creb1 mRNA, and phosphorylation of ERK1 and CREB1. Odor stimulation failed to induce expression in 5-HT-depleted bats, which is similar to control bats and significantly low compared to saline-treated bats. Together these data revealed that the level of 5-HT in the OB may regulate olfactory learning and memory in C. sphinx through Erk and CREB.

  17. The IFN Response in Bats Displays Distinctive IFN-Stimulated Gene Expression Kinetics with Atypical RNASEL Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz-Rivera, Pamela C; Kanchwala, Mohammed; Liang, Hanquan; Kumar, Ashwani; Wang, Lin-Fa; Xing, Chao; Schoggins, John W

    2018-01-01

    Bats host a large number of zoonotic viruses, including several viruses that are highly pathogenic to other mammals. The mechanisms underlying this rich viral diversity are unknown, but they may be linked to unique immunological features that allow bats to act as asymptomatic viral reservoirs. Vertebrates respond to viral infection by inducing IFNs, which trigger antiviral defenses through IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. Although the IFN system of several bats is characterized at the genomic level, less is known about bat IFN-mediated transcriptional responses. In this article, we show that IFN signaling in bat cells from the black flying fox ( Pteropus alecto ) consists of conserved and unique ISG expression profiles. In IFN-stimulated cells, bat ISGs comprise two unique temporal subclusters with similar early induction kinetics but distinct late-phase declines. In contrast, human ISGs lack this decline phase and remained elevated for longer periods. Notably, in unstimulated cells, bat ISGs were expressed more highly than their human counterparts. We also found that the antiviral effector 2-5A-dependent endoribonuclease, which is not an ISG in humans, is highly IFN inducible in black flying fox cells and contributes to cell-intrinsic control of viral infection. These studies reveal distinctive innate immune features that may underlie a unique virus-host relationship in bats. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G Rowse

    Full Text Available We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS to light emitting diode (LED street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes, or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species.

  19. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Elizabeth G.; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum ‘white’ light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these ‘light-intolerant’ bat species. PMID:27008274

  20. Investigating and managing the rapid emergence of white-nose syndrome, a novel, fatal, infectious disease of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet; Clifford, Deana; Castle, Kevin; Cryan, Paul M.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fatal disease of bats that hibernate. The etiologic agent of WNS is the fungus Geomyces destructans, which infects the skin and wing membranes. Over 1 million bats in six species in eastern North America have died from WNS since 2006, and as a result several species of bats may become endangered or extinct. Information is lacking on the pathogenesis of G. destructans and WNS, WNS transmission and maintenance, individual and site factors that contribute to the probability of an outbreak of WNS, and spatial dynamics of WNS spread in North America. We considered how descriptive and analytical epidemiology could be used to fill these information gaps, including a four-step (modified) outbreak investigation, application of a set of criteria (Hill's) for assessing causation, compartment models of disease dynamics, and spatial modeling. We cataloged and critiqued adaptive-management options that have been either previously proposed for WNS or were helpful in addressing other emerging diseases of wild animals. These include an ongoing program of prospective surveillance of bats and hibernacula for WNS, treatment of individual bats, increasing population resistance to WNS (through vaccines, immunomodulators, or other methods), improving probability of survival from starvation and dehydration associated with WNS, modifying hibernacula environments to eliminate G. destructans, culling individuals or populations, controlling anthropogenic spread of WNS, conserving genetic diversity of bats, and educating the public about bats and bat conservation issues associated with WNS.

  1. Second case of European bat lyssavirus type 2 detected in a Daubenton's bat in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokireki, Tiina; Sironen, Tarja; Smura, Teemu; Karkamo, Veera; Sihvonen, Liisa; Gadd, Tuija

    2017-09-25

    European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) was detected in Finland in a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) found in the municipality of Inkoo (60°02'45″N, 024°00'20″E). The bat showed neurological signs and was later found dead. The laboratory analysis revealed the presence of lyssavirus, and the virus was characterized as EBLV-2. This isolation of EBLV-2 was the second time that the virus has been detected in a Daubenton's bat in Finland. This provides additional proof that EBLV-2 is endemic in the Finnish Daubenton's bat population.

  2. White-nose syndrome increases torpid metabolic rate and evaporative water loss in hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Liam P; Mayberry, Heather W; Willis, Craig K R

    2017-12-01

    Fungal diseases of wildlife typically manifest as superficial skin infections but can have devastating consequences for host physiology and survival. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal skin disease that has killed millions of hibernating bats in North America since 2007. Infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans causes bats to rewarm too often during hibernation, but the cause of increased arousal rates remains unknown. On the basis of data from studies of captive and free-living bats, two mechanistic models have been proposed to explain disease processes in WNS. Key predictions of both models are that WNS-affected bats will show 1 ) higher metabolic rates during torpor (TMR) and 2 ) higher rates of evaporative water loss (EWL). We collected bats from a WNS-negative hibernaculum, inoculated one group with P. destructans , and sham-inoculated a second group as controls. After 4 mo of hibernation, TMR and EWL were measured using respirometry. Both predictions were supported, and our data suggest that infected bats were more affected by variation in ambient humidity than controls. Furthermore, disease severity, as indicated by the area of the wing with UV fluorescence, was positively correlated with EWL, but not TMR. Our results provide the first direct evidence that heightened energy expenditure during torpor and higher EWL independently contribute to WNS pathophysiology, with implications for the design of potential treatments for the disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. DISPERSAL HAZARDS OF PSEUDOGYMNOASCUS DESTRUCTANS BY BATS AND HUMAN ACTIVITY AT HIBERNACULA IN SUMMER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmann, Anne E; Torkelson, Miranda R; Bohuski, Elizabeth A; Russell, Robin E; Blehert, David S

    2017-10-01

    Bats occupying hibernacula during summer are exposed to Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), and may contribute to its dispersal. Furthermore, equipment and clothing exposed to cave environments are a potential source for human-assisted spread of Pd. To explore dispersal hazards for Pd during the nonhibernal season, we tested samples that were collected from bats, the environment, and equipment at hibernacula in the eastern US between 18 July-22 August 2012. Study sites included six hibernacula known to harbor bats with Pd with varying winter-count impacts from WNS and two hibernacula (control sites) without prior history of WNS. Nucleic acid from Pd was detected from wing-skin swabs or guano from 40 of 617 bats (7% prevalence), including males and females of five species at five sites where WNS had previously been confirmed as well as from one control site. Analysis of guano collected during summer demonstrated a higher apparent prevalence of Pd among bats (17%, 37/223) than did analysis of wing-skin swabs (1%, 4/617). Viable Pd cultured from wing skin (2%, 1/56) and low recapture rates at all sites suggested bats harboring Pd during summer could contribute to pathogen dispersal. Additionally, Pd DNA was detected on clothing and trapping equipment used inside and near hibernacula, and Pd was detected in sediment more readily than in swabs of hibernaculum walls. Statistically significant differences in environmental abundance of Pd were not detected among sites, but prevalence of Pd differed between sites and among bat species. Overall, bats using hibernacula in summer can harbor Pd on their skin and in their guano, and demonstration of Pd on clothing, traps, and other equipment used at hibernacula during summertime within the WNS-affected region indicates risk for pathogen dispersal during the nonhibernal season.

  4. K-BREF(Korean BAT reference document) development : BAT and BAT-AELs for large combustion plants and waste incinerators in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Heungmin; Lee, Daegyun; Park, Jaehong

    2017-04-01

    Since the initial environmental policy namely "Regulation on assigning license for environmental pollutant emission facilities" was introduced in 1971, the previous environmental policy that assign licenses on emission facilities of each pollutant has been implementing in Korea. From this, economic standard and environmental quality of Korea are recognized as level of developed countries, even though various development activities for industrialization. However, amount of pollutant, emission route and emission source are increasing with development of various industries, and citizens recognition for environment have been changed as well. Thus, ministry of environment of Korea needs systematic policy based on scientific grounds for conversion of paradigm. For this, ministry of environment was introduced new policy namely "integrated pollution prevention and control(IPPC)", and it will be implemented from 2017 in Korea. IPPC is established for considering environment, economic and efficiency: 10 licenses on each pollutant emission will be integrated to one license, and it can be expected simplification for business licensing process. As well, this policy can be upgraded and processed while considering characteristics on location and industry types, in the future. However, to conduct this system harmoniously, policy demanders have to apply integrated control system to their facilities. Especially, the first applied industries by IPPC are two industries, such as large combustion plants for power generation and waste incineration facilities. Therefore, ministry of environment has to publish technical guideline books firstly for those industries, and they were named to "BAT reference document(BREF)". In this study, essential information for BREFs publishment, that is including emission levels, best available technique(BAT) and so on was investigated. In addition, the BAT-associated emission levels (BAT-AELs) of each industry were set using emission data obtained from

  5. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T.S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L.N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.

  6. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T. S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L. N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs. PMID:23378666

  7. Can bats sense smoke during deep torpor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Anna C; Currie, Shannon E; Stawski, Clare; Geiser, Fritz

    2018-03-01

    While torpor is a beneficial energy-saving strategy, it may incur costs if an animal is unable to respond appropriately to external stimuli, which is particularly true when it is necessary to escape from threats such as fire. We aimed to determine whether torpid bats, which are potentially threatened because they must fly to escape, can sense smoke and whether respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and reaction time of torpid bats prior to and following smoke introduction is temperature-dependent. To test this we quantified RR and HR of captive Australian tree-roosting bats, Nyctophilus gouldi (n=5, ~10g), in steady-state torpor in response to short-term exposure to smoke from Eucalyptus spp. leaves between ambient temperatures (T a ) of 11 and 23°C. Bats at lower T a took significantly longer (28-fold) to respond to smoke, indicated by a cessation of episodic breathing and a rapid increase in RR. Bats at lower T a returned to torpor more swiftly following smoke exposure than bats at higher T a . Interestingly, bats at T a <15°C never returned to thermoconforming steady-state torpor prior to the end of the experimental day, whereas all bats at T a ≥15°C did, as indicated by apnoeic HR. This shows that although bats at lower T a took longer to respond, they appear to maintain vigilance and prevent deep torpor after the first smoke exposure, likely to enable fast escape. Our study reveals that bats can respond to smoke stimuli while in deep torpor. These results are particularly vital within the framework of fire management conducted at T a <15°C, as most management burns are undertaken during winter when bats will likely respond more slowly to fire cues such as smoke, delaying the time to escape from the fire. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Schizamniogenesis in the rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schizamniogenesis in the rusty bat,. Pipistrellus rusticus. M. van der Merwe. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria,. 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 20 September 1993; accepled 3 May 1994. Rusty bats are seasonally mono estrous, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns.

  9. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

  10. Novel lyssavirus in Natterer's bat, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, Conrad M; Beer, Martin; Conraths, Franz J; Finke, Stefan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Keller, Barbara; Kliemt, Jeannette; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Mühlbach, Elke; Teifke, Jens P; Wohlsein, Peter; Müller, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    A virus isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.

  11. A study of wood baseball bat breakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Drane; James Sherwood; Renzo Colosimo; David Kretschmann

    2012-01-01

    Over the span of three months in 2008, 2232 baseball bats broke while being used during Major League Baseball (MLB) games; of which 756 were classified as Multi Piece Failures (MPFs). This rate of failure motivated Major League Baseball to explore options for potential changes in the bat regulations to reduce the rate. After a study of the information that could be...

  12. Roost characteristics of hoary bats in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    2007-01-01

    We radiotracked nine hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) and characterized 12 roosts during late spring and early summer in the Ouachita Mountains of central Arkansas. Hoary bats generally roosted on the easterly sides of tree canopies in the foliage of white oaks (Quercus alba), post oaks (Q. stellata) and shortleaf pines (Pinus...

  13. Effects of acoustic deterrents on foraging bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua B. Johnson; W. Mark Ford; Jane L. Rodrigue; John W. Edwards

    2012-01-01

    Significant bat mortality events associated with wind energy expansion, particularly in the Appalachians, have highlighted the need for development of possible mitigation practices to reduce or prevent strike mortality. Other than increasing turbine cut-in speed, acoustic deterrents probably hold the greatest promise for reducing bat mortality. However, acoustic...

  14. Concussions are associated with decreased batting performance among Major League Baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Erin B; Abar, Beau; Shah, Manish N; Wasserman, Daniel; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2015-05-01

    Concussions impair balance, visual acuity, and reaction time--all of which are required for high-level batting performance--but the effects of concussion on batting performance have not been reported. The authors examined this relationship between concussion and batting performance among Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Batting performance among concussed MLB players will be worse upon return to play than batting performance among players missing time for noninjury reasons. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The authors identified MLB players who sustained a concussion between 2007 and 2013 through league disabled-list records and a Baseball Prospectus database. For a comparison group, they identified players who went on paternity or bereavement leave during the same period. Using repeated-measures generalized linear models, the authors compared 7 batting metrics between the 2 groups for the 2 weeks upon return, as well as 4 to 6 weeks after return, controlling for pre-leave batting metrics, number of days missed, and position. The authors identified 66 concussions and 68 episodes of bereavement/paternity leave to include in the analysis. In the 2 weeks after return, batting average (.235 vs .266), on-base percentage (.294 vs .326), slugging percentage (.361 vs .423), and on-base plus slugging (.650 vs .749) were significantly lower among concussed players relative to the bereavement/paternity leave players (time×group interaction, Pperformance after concussion is adversely affected and to identify better measures to use for return-to-play decisions. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. A robotic reproduction of the dynamic sonar sensing in Horseshoe bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Brandon; Castro, Rebecca; Fu, Yanqing; Mueller, Rolf; Philen, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Horseshoe bats (family Rhinolophidae) are a group of bats with a particularly sophisticated biosonar system that allows them to navigate and pursue prey in dense and complex living areas. One conspicuous feature of horseshoe bat biosonar is that the pulses are emitted nasally and diffracted by a special baffle structure - the noseleaf - as the exit into the free field. Furthermore, the noseleaves can change their shapes while diffracting the outgoing ultrasonic waves. The aim of this research project is to determine the relationship between the deformation of the noseleaf during pulse emission and the ultrasonic field through experiments. 3D models of horseshoe bat noseleaf were obtained by tomographic imaging, reconstructed, and modified in the digital domain to meet the needs of additive manufacturing prototypes for an experimental setup. A data acquisition and instrument control system was developed and integrated with ultrasonic transducers to characterize the dynamic emission system acoustically, actuators for displacing the lower and top portion of bat noseleaf, and pan-tilt unit for orienting the noseleaf. A cone and tube waveguide was designed to match the loudspeaker to the nostrils of bat noseleaf. By using this system, it was possible to reproduce the dynamic effect of the noseleaf and characterize it as a basis for inspired dynamic acoustic devices. Future research will address the relationship between the deformations of the noseleaf and the acoustic field.

  16. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Bats from an Area of Brazil Endemic for Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, M B; Herrera, H M; Carvalho, C M E; Carvalho Anjos, E A; Ramos, C A N; de Araújo, F R; Torres, J M; de Oliveira, C E

    2017-12-01

    The multihost parasites Leishmania spp. infect a broad range of wild mammalian species including bats. Several species of bats have adapted to a variety of food resources and shelters in urban areas. This study aimed to detect Leishmania spp. DNA in bats present in forest fragments located in metropolitan areas endemic for leishmaniasis in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 80 individuals, including eight species of Phyllostomidae and one species of Vespertilionidae. Thirty of the 80 bats were positive for Leishmania spp. using conventional PCR, all belonging to the family Phyllostomidae. Eighteen samples tested by real-time PCR (qPCR) using specific primers for the kDNA of Leishmania infantum were positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report detecting Leishmania spp. in Platyrrhinus incarum in addition to being the first reported detection of L. infantum in the bat species Phyllostomus discolor, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Artibeus planirostris and Artibeus lituratus. Our results show that bats can host Leishmania spp. in areas endemic for leishmaniasis, which must be taken into account in disease control operations by public health authorities. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Molecular characterization of rabies virus isolated from non-haematophagous bats in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino Albas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rabies is an important zoonosis that causes thousands of deaths worldwide each year. Although the terrestrial cycle, mainly transmitted by dogs, is controlled in Brazil, the aerial cycle remains a serious public health issue, besides the economic problem. In the aerial cycle, the haematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus is the main source of infection, where several different species of non-haematophagous bats can be infected and can transmit the virus. METHODS: The aim of this work was to study the epidemiological pattern of rabies using antigenic characterization with monoclonal antibodies and genetic characterization by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of non-haematophagous bats' and herbivorous animals' central nervous system samples from the western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: From 27 samples, 3 antigenic variants were identified: AgV-3, AgV-4, and AgV-6; and from 29 samples, 5 different clusters were identified, all belonging to the rabies virus species. CONCLUSIONS: Although only non-haematophagous bats were evaluated in the studied region, the majority of samples were from antigenic and genetic variants related to haematophagous bats Desmodus rotundus. Samples from the same antigenic variant were segregated in more than one genetic cluster. This study demonstrated the diversity of rabies virus genetic lineages presented and circulating in non-haematophagous bats in the studied region.

  18. Innate Immune Responses of Bat and Human Cells to Filoviruses: Commonalities and Distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Schwarz, Toni M; Ilinykh, Philipp A; Jordan, Ingo; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Basler, Christopher F; Bukreyev, Alexander

    2017-04-15

    Marburg (MARV) and Ebola (EBOV) viruses are zoonotic pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. The natural reservoir of MARV is the Egyptian rousette bat ( Rousettus aegyptiacus ); that of EBOV is unknown but believed to be another bat species. The Egyptian rousette develops subclinical productive infection with MARV but is refractory to EBOV. Interaction of filoviruses with hosts is greatly affected by the viral interferon (IFN)-inhibiting domains (IID). Our study was aimed at characterization of innate immune responses to filoviruses and the role of filovirus IID in bat and human cells. The study demonstrated that EBOV and MARV replicate to similar levels in all tested cell lines, indicating that permissiveness for EBOV at cell and organism levels do not necessarily correlate. Filoviruses, particularly MARV, induced a potent innate immune response in rousette cells, which was generally stronger than that in human cells. Both EBOV VP35 and VP24 IID were found to suppress the innate immune response in rousette cells, but only VP35 IID appeared to promote virus replication. Along with IFN-α and IFN-β, IFN-γ was demonstrated to control filovirus infection in bat cells but not in human cells, suggesting host species specificity of the antiviral effect. The antiviral effects of bat IFNs appeared not to correlate with induction of IFN-stimulated genes 54 and 56, which were detected in human cells ectopically expressing bat IFN-α and IFN-β. As bat IFN-γ induced the type I IFN pathway, its antiviral effect is likely to be partially induced via cross talk. IMPORTANCE Bats serve as reservoirs for multiple emerging viruses, including filoviruses, henipaviruses, lyssaviruses, and zoonotic coronaviruses. Although there is no evidence for symptomatic disease caused by either Marburg or Ebola viruses in bats, spillover of these viruses into human populations causes deadly outbreaks. The reason for the lack of symptomatic disease in bats infected with

  19. Morphological and molecular characterizations of psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans from New York bats with White Nose Syndrome (WNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Springer, Deborah J; Behr, Melissa J; Ramani, Rama; Li, Xiaojiang; Peck, Marcia K; Ren, Ping; Bopp, Dianna J; Wood, Britta; Samsonoff, William A; Butchkoski, Calvin M; Hicks, Alan C; Stone, Ward B; Rudd, Robert J; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2010-05-24

    Massive die-offs of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) have been occurring since 2006 in hibernation sites around Albany, New York, and this problem has spread to other States in the Northeastern United States. White cottony fungal growth is seen on the snouts of affected animals, a prominent sign of White Nose Syndrome (WNS). A previous report described the involvement of the fungus Geomyces destructans in WNS, but an identical fungus was recently isolated in France from a bat that was evidently healthy. The fungus has been recovered sparsely despite plentiful availability of afflicted animals. We have investigated 100 bat and environmental samples from eight affected sites in 2008. Our findings provide strong evidence for an etiologic role of G. destructans in bat WNS. (i) Direct smears from bat snouts, Periodic Acid Schiff-stained tissue sections from infected tissues, and scanning electron micrographs of bat tissues all showed fungal structures similar to those of G. destructans. (ii) G. destructans DNA was directly amplified from infected bat tissues, (iii) Isolations of G. destructans in cultures from infected bat tissues showed 100% DNA match with the fungus present in positive tissue samples. (iv) RAPD patterns for all G. destructans cultures isolated from two sites were indistinguishable. (v) The fungal isolates showed psychrophilic growth. (vi) We identified in vitro proteolytic activities suggestive of known fungal pathogenic traits in G. destructans. Further studies are needed to understand whether G. destructans WNS is a symptom or a trigger for bat mass mortality. The availability of well-characterized G. destructans strains should promote an understanding of bat-fungus relationships, and should aid in the screening of biological and chemical control agents.

  20. Morphological and molecular characterizations of psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans from New York bats with White Nose Syndrome (WNS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Massive die-offs of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus have been occurring since 2006 in hibernation sites around Albany, New York, and this problem has spread to other States in the Northeastern United States. White cottony fungal growth is seen on the snouts of affected animals, a prominent sign of White Nose Syndrome (WNS. A previous report described the involvement of the fungus Geomyces destructans in WNS, but an identical fungus was recently isolated in France from a bat that was evidently healthy. The fungus has been recovered sparsely despite plentiful availability of afflicted animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated 100 bat and environmental samples from eight affected sites in 2008. Our findings provide strong evidence for an etiologic role of G. destructans in bat WNS. (i Direct smears from bat snouts, Periodic Acid Schiff-stained tissue sections from infected tissues, and scanning electron micrographs of bat tissues all showed fungal structures similar to those of G. destructans. (ii G. destructans DNA was directly amplified from infected bat tissues, (iii Isolations of G. destructans in cultures from infected bat tissues showed 100% DNA match with the fungus present in positive tissue samples. (iv RAPD patterns for all G. destructans cultures isolated from two sites were indistinguishable. (v The fungal isolates showed psychrophilic growth. (vi We identified in vitro proteolytic activities suggestive of known fungal pathogenic traits in G. destructans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Further studies are needed to understand whether G. destructans WNS is a symptom or a trigger for bat mass mortality. The availability of well-characterized G. destructans strains should promote an understanding of bat-fungus relationships, and should aid in the screening of biological and chemical control agents.

  1. Poxviruses in Bats … so What?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S. Baker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses are important pathogens of man and numerous domestic and wild animal species. Cross species (including zoonotic poxvirus infections can have drastic consequences for the recipient host. Bats are a diverse order of mammals known to carry lethal viral zoonoses such as Rabies, Hendra, Nipah, and SARS. Consequent targeted research is revealing bats to be infected with a rich diversity of novel viruses. Poxviruses were recently identified in bats and the settings in which they were found were dramatically different. Here, we review the natural history of poxviruses in bats and highlight the relationship of the viruses to each other and their context in the Poxviridae family. In addition to considering the zoonotic potential of these viruses, we reflect on the broader implications of these findings. Specifically, the potential to explore and exploit this newfound relationship to study coevolution and cross species transmission together with fundamental aspects of poxvirus host tropism as well as bat virology and immunology.

  2. Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.; Sato, G.; Takahashi, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Okada, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Suzuki, M.; Tashiro, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts, and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. This paper describes the spectral models and the ground calibration experiments used to determine the BAT response to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies

  3. Roles of birds and bats in early tropical-forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-Domene, Marinés; Martínez-Garza, Cristina; Palmas-Pérez, Sebastián; Rivas-Alonso, Edith; Howe, Henry F

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of tropical forest depended in large part on seed dispersal by fruit-eating animals that transported seeds into planted forest patches. We tested effectiveness of dispersal agents as revealed by established recruits of tree and shrub species that bore seeds dispersed by birds, bats, or both. We documented restoration of dispersal processes over the first 76 months of experimental restoration in southern Mexico. Mixed-model repeated-measures randomized-block ANOVAs of seedlings recruited into experimental controls and mixed-species plantings from late-secondary and mature forest indicated that bats and birds played different roles in the first years of a restoration process. Bats dispersed pioneer tree and shrub species to slowly regenerating grassy areas, while birds mediated recruitment of later-successional species into planted stands of trees and to a lesser extent into controls. Of species of pioneer trees and shrubs established in plots, seven were primarily dispersed by birds, three by bats and four by both birds and bats. Of later-successional species recruited past the seedling stage, 13 were of species primarily dispersed by birds, and six were of species dispersed by both birds and bats. No later-successional species primarily dispersed by bats established in control or planted plots. Establishment of recruited seedlings was ten-fold higher under cover of planted trees than in grassy controls. Even pre-reproductive trees drew fruit-eating birds and the seeds that they carried from nearby forest, and provided conditions for establishment of shade-tolerant tree species. Overall, after 76 months of cattle exclusion, 94% of the recruited shrubs and trees in experimental plots were of species that we did not plant.

  4. Roles of birds and bats in early tropical-forest restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinés de la Peña-Domene

    Full Text Available Restoration of tropical forest depended in large part on seed dispersal by fruit-eating animals that transported seeds into planted forest patches. We tested effectiveness of dispersal agents as revealed by established recruits of tree and shrub species that bore seeds dispersed by birds, bats, or both. We documented restoration of dispersal processes over the first 76 months of experimental restoration in southern Mexico. Mixed-model repeated-measures randomized-block ANOVAs of seedlings recruited into experimental controls and mixed-species plantings from late-secondary and mature forest indicated that bats and birds played different roles in the first years of a restoration process. Bats dispersed pioneer tree and shrub species to slowly regenerating grassy areas, while birds mediated recruitment of later-successional species into planted stands of trees and to a lesser extent into controls. Of species of pioneer trees and shrubs established in plots, seven were primarily dispersed by birds, three by bats and four by both birds and bats. Of later-successional species recruited past the seedling stage, 13 were of species primarily dispersed by birds, and six were of species dispersed by both birds and bats. No later-successional species primarily dispersed by bats established in control or planted plots. Establishment of recruited seedlings was ten-fold higher under cover of planted trees than in grassy controls. Even pre-reproductive trees drew fruit-eating birds and the seeds that they carried from nearby forest, and provided conditions for establishment of shade-tolerant tree species. Overall, after 76 months of cattle exclusion, 94% of the recruited shrubs and trees in experimental plots were of species that we did not plant.

  5. Understanding human - bat interactions in NSW, Australia: improving risk communication for prevention of Australian bat lyssavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Emma K; Massey, Peter D; Cox-Witton, Keren; Paterson, Beverley J; Eastwood, Keith; Durrheim, David N

    2014-07-02

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infects a number of flying fox and insectivorous bats species in Australia. Human infection with ABLV is inevitably fatal unless prior vaccination and/or post-exposure treatment (PET) is given. Despite ongoing public health messaging about the risks associated with bat contact, surveillance data have revealed a four-fold increase in the number of people receiving PET for bat exposure in NSW between 2007 and 2011. Our study aimed to better understand these human - bat interactions in order to identify additional risk communication messages that could lower the risk of potential ABLV exposure. All people aged 18 years or over whom received PET for non-occupation related potential ABLV exposure in the Hunter New England Local Health District of Australia between July 2011 and July 2013 were considered eligible for the study. Eligible participants were invited to a telephone interview to explore the circumstances of their bat contact. Interviews were then transcribed and thematically analysed by two independent investigators. Of 21 eligible participants that were able to be contacted, 16 consented and participated in a telephone interview. Participants reported bats as being widespread in their environment but reported a general lack of awareness about ABLV, particularly the risk of disease from bat scratches. Participants who attempted to 'rescue' bats did so because of a deep concern for the bat's welfare. Participants reported a change in risk perception after the exposure event and provided suggestions for public health messages that could be used to raise awareness about ABLV. Reframing the current risk messages to account for the genuine concern of people for bat welfare may enhance the communication. The potential risk to the person and possible harm to the bat from an attempted 'rescue' should be promoted, along with contact details for animal rescue groups. The potential risk of ABLV from bat scratches merits greater emphasis.

  6. Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Xena: Warrior Princess: reception of the texts by a sample of lesbian fans and web site users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Noelle R; Lumadue, Christine A; Wooten, H Ray

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study of television reception examined the ways in which a sample of lesbian fans of Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Xena: Warrior Princess incorporated their experiences as viewers, fans, and Internet users with relation to their sexual identity as lesbians. Specifically, this study examined the ways in which participants used these television programs to inform their sexual identity development. Results indicated that participants used television and the Internet to normalize and affirm lesbian experience, to decrease negative feelings regarding their lesbian identities, and to decrease social isolation.

  7. Překlad a stylistická analýza jedné kapitoly románu The Vampire Lestat od Anne Riceové

    OpenAIRE

    Dušková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this bachelor thesis is to point out the most common problems that the translators from English to Czech may encounter, exemplified by real solutions in the proces of translating modern fiction. This work consists of two parts. The theoretical part of is the the actual translation of one chapter of the novel The Vampire Lestat by american author Anne Rice. The theoretical part contains the stylistic analysis of the translated text and it is aimed at the probles I have encounte...

  8. Bat-mouse bone marrow chimera: a novel animal model for dissecting the uniqueness of the bat immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Kylie Su Mei; Ng, Justin Han Jia; Her, Zhisheng; Hey, Ying Ying; Tan, Sue Yee; Tan, Wilson Wei Sheng; Irac, Sergio Erdal; Liu, Min; Chan, Xue Ying; Gunawan, Merry; Foo, Randy Jee Hiang; Low, Dolyce Hong Wen; Mendenhall, Ian Hewitt; Chionh, Yok Teng; Dutertre, Charles-Antoine; Chen, Qingfeng; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2018-03-16

    Bats are an important animal model with long lifespans, low incidences of tumorigenesis and an ability to asymptomatically harbour pathogens. Currently, in vivo studies of bats are hampered due to their low reproduction rates. To overcome this, we transplanted bat cells from bone marrow (BM) and spleen into an immunodeficient mouse strain NOD-scid IL-2R -/- (NSG), and have successfully established stable, long-term reconstitution of bat immune cells in mice (bat-mice). Immune functionality of our bat-mouse model was demonstrated through generation of antigen-specific antibody response by bat cells following immunization. Post-engraftment of total bat BM cells and splenocytes, bat immune cells survived, expanded and repopulated the mouse without any observable clinical abnormalities. Utilizing bat's remarkable immunological functions, this novel model has a potential to be transformed into a powerful platform for basic and translational research.

  9. Bats of the Savannah River Site and vicinity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Menzel; J.M. Menzel; J.C. Kilgo; W.M. Ford; T.C. Carter; J.W. Edwards

    2003-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site supports a diverse bat community. Nine species occur there regularly, including the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus), southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), Seminole bat (L. seminolus), hoary bat (L. cinereus), and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). There are extralimital capture records for two additional species: little brown bat (M. lucifigus) and northern yellow bat (Lasiurus intermedius). Acoustical sampling has documented the presence of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), but none has been captured. Among those species common to the Site, the southeastern myotis and Rafinesque's big-eared bat are listed in South Carolina as threatened and endangered, respectively. The presence of those two species, and a growing concern for the conservation of forest-dwelling bats, led to extensive and focused research on the Savannah River Site between 1996 and 2002. Summarizing this and other bat research, we provide species accounts that discuss morphology and distribution, roosting and foraging behaviors, home range characteristics, habitat relations, and reproductive biology. We also present information on conservation needs and rabies issues; and, finally, identification keys that may be useful wherever the bat species we describe are found.

  10. Lyssavirus-reactive antibodies in Swedish bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Hammarin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study the presence of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV infections in bat reservoirs in Sweden, active surveillance was performed during the summers from 2008 to 2013. Material and methods: Bat specimens were collected at >20 bat colonies in the central, southeastern, and southern parts of Sweden. In total, blood and saliva of 452 bats were examined by a virus neutralization test and by reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs. Results and discussion: EBLV neutralizing antibodies were detected in 14 Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii, all trapped in Skåne or Småland (south and southeast of Sweden. The result was not unexpected since EBLV has been shown to be present in many neighboring countries, for example, Denmark, Finland, Germany, and Norway. However, Sweden has been regarded free of rabies in terrestrial mammals since 1896. Although very rare, spillover of EBLV into other animals and humans have occurred, and the risk of EBLV infection to other species including humans should not be ignored. This is the first report of lyssavirus infection in Swedish bats.

  11. Rabies virus infection in Eptesicus fuscus bats born in captivity (naïve bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April D Davis

    Full Text Available The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats, naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1. Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2.

  12. Ecological factors associated with European bat lyssavirus seroprevalence in spanish bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc; Seguí, Magdalena; Sánchez, Luisa Pilar; Nadal, Jacint; Borrás, Miquel; Lavenir, Rachel; Bourhy, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii). Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1)-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2). EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7%) ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July). EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1-prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials.

  13. Ecological factors associated with European bat lyssavirus seroprevalence in spanish bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serra-Cobo

    Full Text Available Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii. Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2. EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7% ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July. EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1-prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials.

  14. Evidence of Australian bat lyssavirus infection in diverse Australian bat taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Hume Ernest

    2018-05-21

    Historically, Australia was considered free of rabies and rabieslike viruses. Thus, the identification of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) in 1996 in a debilitated bat found by a member of the public precipitated both public health consternation and a revision of lyssavirus taxonomy. Subsequent observational studies sought to elaborate the occurrence and frequency of ABLV infection in Australian bats. This paper describes the taxonomic diversity of bat species showing evidence of ABLV infection to better inform public health considerations. Blood and/or brain samples were collected from two cohorts of bats (wild-caught and diagnostic submissions) from four Australian states or territories between April 1996 and October 2002. Fresh brain impression smears were tested for ABLV antigen using fluorescein-labelled anti-rabies monoclonal globulin (CENTOCOR) in a direct fluorescent antibody test; sera were tested for the presence of neutralising antibodies using a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. A total of 3,217 samples from 2,633 bats were collected and screened: brain samples from 1,461 wild-caught bats and 1,086 submitted bats from at least 16 genera and seven families, and blood samples from 656 wild-caught bats and 14 submitted bats from 14 genera and seven families. Evidence of ABLV infection was found in five of the six families of bats occurring in Australia, and in three of the four Australian states/territories surveyed, supporting the historic presence of the virus in Australia. While the infection prevalence in the wild-caught cohort is evidently low, the significantly higher infection prevalence in rescued bats in urban settings represents a clear and present public health significance because of the higher risk of human exposure. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. White-nose syndrome initiates a cascade of physiologic disturbances in the hibernating bat host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L; Meteyer, Carol U; Speakman, John R; Cryan, Paul M; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Blehert, David S

    2014-12-09

    The physiological effects of white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating bats and ultimate causes of mortality from infection with Pseudogymnoascus (formerly Geomyces) destructans are not fully understood. Increased frequency of arousal from torpor described among hibernating bats with late-stage WNS is thought to accelerate depletion of fat reserves, but the physiological mechanisms that lead to these alterations in hibernation behavior have not been elucidated. We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and clinical chemistry to evaluate energy use, body composition changes, and blood chemistry perturbations in hibernating little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) experimentally infected with P. destructans to better understand the physiological processes that underlie mortality from WNS. These data indicated that fat energy utilization, as demonstrated by changes in body composition, was two-fold higher for bats with WNS compared to negative controls. These differences were apparent in early stages of infection when torpor-arousal patterns were equivalent between infected and non-infected animals, suggesting that P. destructans has complex physiological impacts on its host prior to onset of clinical signs indicative of late-stage infections. Additionally, bats with mild to moderate skin lesions associated with early-stage WNS demonstrated a chronic respiratory acidosis characterized by significantly elevated dissolved carbon dioxide, acidemia, and elevated bicarbonate. Potassium concentrations were also significantly higher among infected bats, but sodium, chloride, and other hydration parameters were equivalent to controls. Integrating these novel findings on the physiological changes that occur in early-stage WNS with those previously documented in late-stage infections, we propose a multi-stage disease progression model that mechanistically describes the pathologic and physiologic effects underlying mortality of WNS in hibernating bats. This model identifies

  16. Navigation: bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Richard A; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J; Cochran, William W; Wikelski, Martin

    2006-12-07

    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation, but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances. Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark.

  17. Navigation: Bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Richard A.; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J.

    2006-01-01

    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation 1 , but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances 2 . Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting the Ea...... the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark....

  18. First isolation of a rabid bat infected with European bat lyssavirus in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servat, A; Herr, J; Picard-Meyer, E; Schley, L; Harbusch, C; Michaux, C; Pir, J; Robardet, E; Engel, E; Cliquet, F

    2015-02-01

    Rabid bats are regularly reported in Europe, especially in countries that have implemented a bat surveillance network. In May 2013, bat rabies was evidenced for the first time in Luxembourg (southern city of Differdange). The rabies virus, an EBLV-1b strain, was diagnosed in a serotine bat that bit a 29-year-old male person while he was asleep. The man received rapidly a post-exposure RABV treatment and was put under strict medical supervision. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Experimental study of European bat lyssavirus type-2 infection in Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Vos, Ad; Neubert, Larissa; Freuling, Conrad; Mansfield, Karen L; Kaipf, Ingrid; Denzinger, Annette; Hicks, Dan; Núñez, Alex; Franka, Richard; Rupprecht, Charles E; Müller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R

    2008-11-01

    European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) can be transmitted from Daubenton's bats to humans and cause rabies. EBLV-2 has been repeatedly isolated from Daubenton's bats in the UK but appears to be present at a low level within the native bat population. This has prompted us to investigate the disease in its natural host under experimental conditions, to assess its virulence, dissemination and likely means of transmission between insectivorous bats. With the exception of direct intracranial inoculation, only one of seven Daubenton's bats inoculated by subdermal inoculation became infected with EBLV-2. Both intramuscular and intranasal inoculation failed to infect the bats. No animal inoculated with EBLV-2 seroconverted during the study period. During infection, virus excretion in saliva (both viral RNA and live virus) was confirmed up to 3 days before the development of rabies. Disease was manifested as a gradual loss of weight prior to the development of paralysis and then death. The highest levels of virus were measured in the brain, with much lower levels of viral genomic RNA detected in the tongue, salivary glands, kidney, lung and heart. These observations are similar to those made in naturally infected Daubenton's bats and this is the first documented report of isolation of EBLV-2 in bat saliva. We conclude that EBLV-2 is most likely transmitted in saliva by a shallow bite.

  20. Lagos bat virus transmission in an Eidolon helvum bat colony, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, Conrad M; Binger, Tabea; Beer, Martin; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Schatz, Juliane; Fischer, Melina; Hanke, Dennis; Hoffmann, Bernd; Höper, Dirk; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Oppong, Samual K; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Thomas

    2015-12-02

    A brain sample of a straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) from Ghana without evident signs of disease tested positive by generic Lyssavirus RT-PCR and direct antigen staining. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a Lagos bat virus belonging to phylogenetic lineage A. Virus neutralization tests using the isolate with sera from the same group of bats yielded neutralizing antibodies in 74% of 567 animals. No cross-neutralization was observed against a different Lagos bat virus (lineage B). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Morphogenesis in bat wings: linking development, evolution and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rick A

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of powered flight in mammals required specific developmental shifts from an ancestral limb morphology to one adapted for flight. Through studies of comparative morphogenesis, investigators have quantified points and rates of divergence providing important insights into how wings evolved in mammals. Herein I compare growth,development and skeletogenesis of forelimbs between bats and the more ancestral state provided by the rat (Rattus norvegicus)and quantify growth trajectories that illustrate morphological divergence both developmentally and evolutionarily. In addition, I discuss how wing shape is controlled during morphogenesis by applying multivariate analyses of wing bones and wing membranes and discuss how flight dynamics are stabilized during flight ontogeny. Further, I discuss the development of flight in bats in relation to the ontogenetic niche and how juveniles effect populational foraging patterns. In addition, I provide a hypothetical ontogenetic landscape model that predicts how and when selection is most intense during juvenile morphogenesis and test this model with data from a population of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. [The role of the basophil activation test (BAT) in qualification for specific immunotherapy with inhalant allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanda, Małgorzata; Dyga, Wojciech; Rusinek, Barbara; Czarnobilska, Ewa

    Qualification for specific immunotherapy (SIT) according to the guidelines of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) includes medical history, skin prik tests (SPT) and/or measuring the concentration of sIgE. It is necessary to perform additional diagnostic tests in case of discrepancies between the history and the results of SPT/sIgE or differences between SPT and sIgE. Basophil activation test (BAT) assesses the expression of activation markers of these cells, eg. CD63 and CD203c after stimulation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of BAT in the qualification for the SIT in comparison to the SPT and sIgE and in case of discrepancies between the results of SPT and sIgE. The study included 30 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) caused by allergy to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dp) or birch pollen qualified for SIT. All patients had SPT, sIgE and BAT determination. The group of patients with allergy to birch was a control group for Dp allergic and vice versa. BAT with CD63 antigen expression was performed using a Flow2CAST test. Basophils were stimulated with allergen preparation (50, 500, and 5000 SBU/ml concentrations). BAT results were expressed as a stimulation index (SI). For optimal concentrations of 50 and 500 SBU/ml parameters comparing BAT to SPT and sIgE as the gold standards were consecutively: sensitivity 82-100% and 93-100%, specificity 50-94% and 47-89%, positive predictive value 65- 94% and 61-87%, negative predictive value 86-100% and 93-100%. Correlation BAT - SPT and BAT - sIgE ranged within 0.59 to 0.84 and 0.51 to 0.72. BAT was helpful in 2 of 30 patients with incompatible results of SPT and sIgE. Optimal concentrations for basophil stimulation are 50 and 500 SBU/ ml. BAT may be useful diagnostic tool in the qualification for the SIT in case of discrepancies between the results of SPT and sIgE.

  3. Isolation, antigenicity and immunogenicity of Lleida bat lyssavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Ashley C; Selden, David; Wu, Guanghui; Thorne, Leigh; Jennings, Daisy; Marston, Denise; Finke, Stefan; Freuling, Conrad M; Müller, Thomas; Echevarría, Juan E; Fooks, Anthony R

    2018-05-10

    The lyssaviruses are an important group of viruses that cause a fatal encephalitis termed rabies. The prototypic lyssavirus, rabies virus, is predicted to cause more than 60 000 human fatalities annually. The burden of disease for the other lyssaviruses is undefined. The original reports for the recently described highly divergent Lleida bat lyssavirus were based on the detection of virus sequence alone. The successful isolation of live Lleida bat lyssavirus from the carcass of the original bat and in vitro characterization of this novel lyssavirus are described here. In addition, the ability of a human rabies vaccine to confer protective immunity following challenge with this divergent lyssavirus was assessed. Two different doses of Lleida bat lyssavirus were used to challenge vaccinated or naïve mice: a high dose of 100 focus-forming units (f.f.u.) 30 µl -1 and a 100-fold dilution of this dose, 1 f.f.u. 30 µl -1 . Although all naïve control mice succumbed to the 100 f.f.u. 30 µl -1 challenge, 42 % (n=5/12) of those infected intracerebrally with 1 f.f.u. 30 µl -1 survived the challenge. In the high-challenge-dose group, 42 % of the vaccinated mice survived the challenge (n=5/12), whilst at the lower challenge dose, 33 % (n=4/12) survived to the end of the experiment. Interestingly, a high proportion of mice demonstrated a measurable virus-neutralizing antibody response, demonstrating that neutralizing antibody titres do not necessarily correlate with the outcome of infection via the intracerebral route. Assessing the ability of existing rabies vaccines to protect against novel divergent lyssaviruses is important for the development of future public health strategies.

  4. Bats as reservoirs of severe emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Chen, Fang-Fang; Luo, Li-Mei; Liu, Jian-wei; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2015-07-02

    In recent years severe infectious diseases have been constantly emerging, causing panic in the world. Now we know that many of these terrible diseases are caused by viruses originated from bats (Table 1), such as Ebola virus, Marburg, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV). These viruses have co-evolved with bats due to bats' special social, biological and immunological features. Although bats are not in close contact with humans, spillover of viruses from bats to intermediate animal hosts, such as horses, pigs, civets, or non-human primates, is thought to be the most likely mode to cause human infection. Humans may also become infected with viruses through aerosol by intruding into bat roosting caves or via direct contact with bats, such as catching bats or been bitten by bats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determinants of Pseudogymnoascus destructans within bat hibernacula: Implications for surveillance and management of white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L.; Bohuski, Elizabeth A.; Richgels, Katherine L. D.; Olival, Kevin J.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Blehert, David

    2018-01-01

    Fungal diseases are an emerging global problem affecting human health, food security and biodiversity. Ability of many fungal pathogens to persist within environmental reservoirs can increase extinction risks for host species and presents challenges for disease control. Understanding factors that regulate pathogen spread and persistence in these reservoirs is critical for effective disease management.White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a disease of hibernating bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), a fungus that establishes persistent environmental reservoirs within bat hibernacula, which contribute to seasonal disease transmission dynamics in bats. However, host and environmental factors influencing distribution of Pdwithin these reservoirs are unknown.We used model selection on longitudinally collected field data to test multiple hypotheses describing presence–absence and abundance of Pd in environmental substrates and on bats within hibernacula at different stages of WNS.First detection of Pd in the environment lagged up to 1 year after first detection on bats within that hibernaculum. Once detected, the probability of detecting Pd within environmental samples from a hibernaculum increased over time and was higher in sediment compared to wall surfaces. Temperature had marginal effects on the distribution of Pd. For bats, prevalence and abundance of Pd were highest on Myotis lucifugus and on bats with visible signs of WNS.Synthesis and applications. Our results indicate that distribution of Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) within a hibernaculum is driven primarily by bats with delayed establishment of environmental reservoirs. Thus, collection of samples from Myotis lucifugus, or from sediment if bats cannot be sampled, should be prioritized to improve detection probabilities for Pd surveillance. Long-term persistence of Pd in sediment suggests that disease management for white-nose syndrome should address risks of sustained

  6. Determinants of Pseudogymnoascus destructans within bat hibernacula: implications for surveillance and management of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L; Bohuski, Elizabeth A; Richgels, Katherine L D; Olival, Kevin J; Epstein, Jonathan H; Blehert, David S

    2018-01-01

    1. Fungal diseases are an emerging global problem affecting human health, food security and biodiversity. Ability of many fungal pathogens to persist within environmental reservoirs can increase extinction risks for host species and presents challenges for disease control. Understanding factors that regulate pathogen spread and persistence in these reservoirs is critical for effective disease management. 2. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a disease of hibernating bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( Pd ), a fungus that establishes persistent environmental reservoirs within bat hibernacula, which contribute to seasonal disease transmission dynamics in bats. However, host and environmental factors influencing distribution of Pd within these reservoirs are unknown. 3. We used model selection on longitudinally collected field data to test multiple hypotheses describing presence-absence and abundance of Pd in environmental substrates and on bats within hibernacula at different stages of WNS. 4. First detection of Pd in the environment lagged up to one year after first detection on bats within that hibernaculum. Once detected, the probability of detecting Pd within environmental samples from a hibernaculum increased over time and was higher in sediment compared to wall surfaces. Temperature had marginal effects on the distribution of Pd . For bats, prevalence and abundance of Pd were highest on Myotis lucifugus and on bats with visible signs of WNS. 5. Synthesis and applications . Our results indicate that distribution of Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( Pd ) within a hibernaculum is driven primarily by bats with delayed establishment of environmental reservoirs. Thus, collection of samples from Myotis lucifugus , or from sediment if bats cannot be sampled, should be prioritized to improve detection probabilities for Pd surveillance. Long-term persistence of Pd in sediment suggests that disease management for white-nose syndrome should address risks of sustained

  7. Methods and insights from the characterization of osteoprogenitor cells of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C. Ball

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoprogenitor cells contribute to the development and maintenance of skeletal tissues. Bats are unique model taxa whose cellular processes are poorly understood, especially in regards to skeletal biology. Forelimb bones of bats, unlike those of terrestrial mammals, bend during flight and function in controlled deformation. As a first step towards understanding the molecular processes governing deposition of this flexible bone matrix, we provide the first method for isolation and differentiation of cell populations derived from the bone marrow and cortical bone of bats, and compare results with those harvested from C57BL/6J mice. Osteogenic capacity of these cells was assessed via absolute quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR and through quantification of in vitro mineral deposition. Results indicate the differentiated bone cells of bats display significantly lower gene expression of known osteogenic markers (Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX2, osteocalcin (BGLAP and osterix (SP7, and deposit a less-mineralized matrix compared with murine controls. By characterizing the in vitro performance of osteoprogenitor cells throughout differentiation and matrix production, this study lays the ground work for in vitro manipulations of bat stem and osteoprogenitor cells and extends our understanding of the cellular diversity across mammals that occupy different habitats.

  8. Modification of the wake behind a bat ear with and without tubercles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrin, Christopher; Elbing, Brian

    2015-11-01

    The Mexican Free-Tailed Bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) is a highly aerobatic bat, known to dive from altitudes of several thousand feet into their home caves, reaching estimated speeds of 27 m/s (Davis et al., Ecological Monographs, 32, 1962). A series of small tubercles have been observed on the leading edge of the bat's ear, which mimic the pattern of tubercles found on the fins of the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). The tubercles on the whale fins have been proven to delay stall on the fin and allow the whale to retain better control during dives. The goal of the current study is to assess whether the bat ear tubercles fulfill a similar purpose of improving flow control, particularly at high angles of attack. This was accomplished by acquiring PIV measurements of the bat ear wake with and without the tubercles. The velocity profiles were used to assess the drag and lift as a function of angle of attack. These results will be presented and the impact of the tubercles assessed.

  9. Site 300 Bat Monitoring Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennan, Joe [Garcia and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States); Tortosa, Justin [Garcia and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-07-18

    From June 15 to 18, 2015, GANDA biologist Graham Neale assisted in programming and fieldtesting of the bat monitoring equipment. The equipment was deployed in the field on a meteorological (MET) tower within Site 300 on June 18, 2015.

  10. Investigating white-nose syndrome in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    A devastating, emergent disease afflicting hibernating bats has pread from the northeast to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States at an alarming rate. Since the winter of 2006-2007, hundreds of thousands of insect-eating bats from at least nine states have died from this new disease, named White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). The disease is named for the white fungus often seen on the muzzles, ears, and wings of bats. This disease poses a threat to cave hibernating bats of the United States and potentially all temperate regions of the world. USGS scientists from the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT), in collaboration with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and others have linked a newly described, cold-loving fungus to WNS.

  11. White-Nose Syndrome of bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Martin J. Pfeiffer; Daniel L. Lindner

    2016-01-01

    Devastating. Catastrophic. Unprecedented. This is how white-nose syndrome of bats (WNS) is characterized. It is one of the deadliest wildlife diseases ever observed and could have significant impacts on outdoor recreation, agriculture and wildlife management.

  12. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M; Holderied, Marc W; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than smaller moths. Larger moths also have lower A1 best thresholds, allowing them to detect bats at greater distances and possibly compensating for their increased conspicuousness. Interestingly, the sound frequency at the lowest threshold is lower in larger than in smaller moths, suggesting that the relationship between threshold and size might vary across frequencies used by different bat species. Here, we demonstrate that the relationships between threshold and size in moths were only significant at some frequencies, and these frequencies differed between three locations (UK, Canada and Denmark). The relationships were more likely to be significant at call frequencies used by proportionately more bat species in the moths' specific bat community, suggesting an association between the tuning of moth ears and the cues provided by sympatric predators. Additionally, we found that the best threshold and best frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold versus size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than for smaller moths. The shorter time from A1 to A2 excitation in smaller than in larger moths could potentially compensate for shorter absolute detection distances in smaller moths.

  13. Bat distribution size or shape as determinant of viral richness in african bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël D Maganga

    Full Text Available The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera in Central and West Africa for which we provide new information on virus infection and bat phylogeny. We performed the first comparative analysis testing the correlation of the fragmented geographical distribution (defined as the perimeter to area ratio with viral richness in bats. Because of their potential effect, sampling effort, host body weight, ecological and behavioural traits such as roosting behaviour, migration and geographical range, were included into the analysis as variables. The results showed that the geographical distribution size, shape and host body weight have significant effects on viral richness in bats. Viral richness was higher in large-bodied bats which had larger and more fragmented distribution areas. Accumulation of viruses may be related to the historical expansion and contraction of bat species distribution range, with potentially strong effects of distribution edges on virus transmission. Two potential explanations may explain these results. A positive distribution edge effect on the abundance or distribution of some bat species could have facilitated host switches. Alternatively, parasitism could play a direct role in shaping the distribution range of hosts through host local extinction by virulent parasites. This study highlights the importance of considering the fragmentation of bat species geographical distribution in order to understand their role in the circulation of viruses in Africa.

  14. Warm-up with weighted bat and adjustment of upper limb muscle activity in bat swinging under movement correction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions.

  15. Analyzing the effect of dynamic loads on economic dispatch in the presence of interline power flow controller using modified BAT algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.N. Vijay Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, non-uniform increase of demand on a power system turns the research toward the dynamic analysis. In this paper, to perform dynamic analysis and to solve economic load dispatch problem using optimal power flow (OPF, four realistic load levels are considered. Further, the effectiveness of the objective has been enhanced in the presence of interline power flow controller (IPFC. An optimal location identification methodology for IPFC based on line stability index (LSI is also presented. The effect of ramp-rate limits on generations and the effect of dynamic loads on generation fuel cost and transmission losses are also analyzed on standard IEEE-30 bus and real time 23 bus test systems with supporting validations, numerical and graphical results.

  16. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, L.A.; Simpson, V.R.; Rockett, L.; Wienburg, C.L.; Shore, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb

  17. Convergences in the diversification of bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brock FENTON

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five characters or suites of characters from bats are considered in light of changes in bat classification. The characters include some associated with flower-visiting (two, echolocation (12, roosting (six, reproduction (two and three are of unknown adaptive function. In both the 1998 and 2006 classifications of bats into suborders (Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera versus Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, respectively, some convergences between suborders are the same (e.g., foliage roosting, tent building, but others associated with echolocation differ substantially. In the 1998 phylogeny convergences associated with echolocation (high duty cycle echolocation, nasal emission of echolocation calls occurred among the Microchiroptera. In the 2006 phylogeny, they occur between Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera. While some traits apparently arose independently in two suborders (e.g., foliage-roosting, tent building, low intensity echolocation calls, noseleafs, nasal emission of echolocation calls, high duty cycle echolocation behaviour, others appear to have been ancestral (roosting in narrow spaces, laryngeal echolocation, stylohyal-tympanic contact, oral emission of echolocation calls, and small litter size. A narrow profile through the chest is typical of bats reflecting the thoracic skeleton. This feature suggests that the ancestors of bats spent the day in small crevices. Features associated with laryngeal echolocation appear to be ancestral, suggesting that echolocation evolved early in bats but was subsequently lost in one yinpterochiropteran lineage [Current Zoology 56 (4: 454–468, 2010].

  18. Biological correlates of extinction risk in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kate E; Purvis, Andy; Gittleman, John L

    2003-04-01

    We investigated patterns and processes of extinction and threat in bats using a multivariate phylogenetic comparative approach. Of nearly 1,000 species worldwide, 239 are considered threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and 12 are extinct. Small geographic ranges and low wing aspect ratios are independently found to predict extinction risk in bats, which explains 48% of the total variance in IUCN assessments of threat. The pattern and correlates of extinction risk in the two bat suborders are significantly different. A higher proportion (4%) of megachiropteran species have gone extinct in the last 500 years than microchiropteran bats (0.3%), and a higher proportion is currently at risk of extinction (Megachiroptera: 34%; Microchiroptera: 22%). While correlates of microchiropteran extinction risk are the same as in the order as a whole, megachiropteran extinction is correlated more with reproductive rate and less with wing morphology. Bat extinction risk is not randomly distributed phylogenetically: closely related species have more similar levels of threat than would be expected if extinction risk were random. Given the unbalanced nature of the evolutionary diversification of bats, it is probable that the amount of phylogenetic diversity lost if currently threatened taxa disappear may be greater than in other clades with numerically more threatened species.

  19. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  20. SWIFT BAT Survey of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueller, J.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barthelmy, S.; Cannizzo, J. K.; Gehrels, N.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Winter, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results1 of the analysis of the first 9 months of data of the Swift BAT survey of AGN in the 14-195 keV band. Using archival X-ray data or follow-up Swift XRT observations, we have identified 129 (103 AGN) of 130 objects detected at [b] > 15deg and with significance > 4.8-delta. One source remains unidentified. These same X-ray data have allowed measurement of the X-ray properties of the objects. We fit a power law to the logN - log S distribution, and find the slope to be 1.42+/-0.14. Characterizing the differential luminosity function data as a broken power law, we find a break luminosity logL*(ergs/s)= 43.85+/-0.26. We obtain a mean photon index 1.98 in the 14-195 keV band, with an rms spread of 0.27. Integration of our luminosity function gives a local volume density of AGN above 10(exp 41) erg/s of 2.4x10(exp -3) Mpc(sup -3), which is about 10% of the total luminous local galaxy density above M* = -19.75. We have obtained X-ray spectra from the literature and from Swift XRT follow-up observations. These show that the distribution of log nH is essentially flat from nH = 10(exp 20)/sq cm to 10(exp 24)/sq cm, with 50% of the objects having column densities of less than 10(exp 22)/sq cm. BAT Seyfert galaxies have a median redshift of 0.03, a maximum log luminosity of 45.1, and approximately half have log nH > 22.

  1. Novel Cryptosporidium bat genotypes III and IV in bats from the USA and Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kváč, Martin; Hořická, Anna; Sak, Bohumil; Prediger, Jitka; Salát, Jiří; Širmarová, Jana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Clark, Mark; Chelladurai, Jeba Rose Jennifer Jesudoss; Gillam, Erin; McEvoy, John

    2015-10-01

    Bats from the families Rhinolophidae (n = 90) and Vespertilionidae (n = 191) in the USA and Czech Republic were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium by microscopic and molecular analysis of faecal samples collected from rectum of dissected animals and from the ground beneath roosting sites. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the 281 faecal specimens examined using the aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining method. Nested PCR amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the small ribosomal subunit rRNA and actin genes were used to identify isolates and infer evolutionary relationships. Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in a western small-footed bat (Myotis ciliolabrum) from the USA and a common pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) from the Czech Republic. Two novel genotypes were identified and named Cryptosporidium bat genotype III and IV. Bat genotype III was found in two big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) from the USA. Bat genotype IV was detected in two common pipistrelle bats from the Czech Republic.

  2. Indiana bats, northern long-eared bats, and prescribed fire in the Appalachians: challenges and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Loeb; Joy O' Keefe

    2014-01-01

    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalist) is an endangered species and the northern long-eared bat (M. septentrionalis) has been proposed for listing as endangered. Both species are found throughout the Appalachians, and they commonly inhabit fire-dependent ecosystems such as pine and pine-oak forests. Due to their legal status, prescribed burns in areas where these species...

  3. Bat distribution size or shape as determinant of viral richness in African bats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maganga, G. D.; Bourgarel, M.; Vallo, Peter; Dallo, T. D.; Ngoagouni, C.; Drexler, J. F.; Drosten, C.; Nakouné, E. R.; Leroy, E. M.; Morand, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2014), e100172 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : cytochrome-b gene * fruit bats * Rousettus aegyptiacus * Eidolon helvum * species richness * Marburg virus * molecular phylogeny * infectious diseases * geographical range * neotropical bats Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  4. Phylogeny of European bat Lyssavirus 1 in Eptesicus isabellinus bats, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Moron, Sonia; Juste, Javier; Ibáñez, Carlos; Berciano, José M; Echevarria, Juan E

    2011-03-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) in Europe, we phylogenetically characterized Lyssavirus from Eptesicus isabellinus bats in Spain. An independent cluster of EBLV-1 possibly resulted from geographic isolation and association with a different reservoir from other European strains. EBLV-1 phylogeny is complex and probably associated with host evolutionary history.

  5. Phylogeny of European Bat Lyssavirus 1 in Eptesicus isabellinus Bats, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Juste, Javier; Ibáñez, Carlos; Berciano, José M.; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) in Europe, we phylogenetically characterized Lyssavirus from Eptesicus isabellinus bats in Spain. An independent cluster of EBLV-1 possibly resulted from geographic isolation and association with a different reservoir from other European strains. EBLV-1 phylogeny is complex and probably associated with host evolutionary history.

  6. Keeping bats cool in the winter: hibernating bats and their exposure to 'hot' incandescent lamplight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarsma, A.J.; Hullu, de E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to monitor bat population trends, an annual census is performed of all known underground hibernacula in Europe. During these censuses, bats are sometimes found to show signs of arousal, presumably from non-tactile stimuli caused by the observer, e.g. air currents, sound, light or an

  7. Detection of European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2) in a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) from Magdeburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, Conrad M; Kliemt, Jeannette; Schares, Susann; Heidecke, Dietrich; Driechciarz, René; Schatz, Juliane; Müller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In Europe bat rabies in Daubenton's bats (Myotisdaubentonii) and in Pond bats (Myotis dasycneme) caused by the European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2) has been confirmed in less than 20 cases to date. Here we report the second encounter of this virus species in Germany. A Daubenton's bat found grounded in the zoological garden in Magdeburg died shortly after. In the frame of a retrospective study the bat carcass was eventually transferred to the national reference laboratory for rabies at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute for rabies diagnosis. Lyssavirus was isolated and characterized as EBLV-2.

  8. BAT Exosomes: Metabolic Crosstalk with Other Organs and Biomarkers for BAT Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goody, Deborah; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2018-04-10

    In the last decade, exosomes have gained interest as a new type of intercellular communication between cells and tissues. Exosomes are circulating, cell-derived lipid vesicles smaller than 200 nm that contain proteins and nucleic acids, including microRNAs (miRNAs), and are able to modify cellular targets. Exosomal miRNAs function as signalling molecules that regulate the transcription of their target genes and can cause phenotypic transformation of recipient cells. Recent studies have shown that brown fat secretes exosomes as a form of communication with other metabolic organs such as the liver. Moreover, it has been shown that levels of miRNAs in BAT-derived exosomes change after BAT activation in vitro and in vivo. Thus, BAT-derived exosomes can be used as potential biomarkers of BAT activity. Here, we review the present knowledge about BAT-derived exosomes and their role in metabolism.

  9. Presence of artisanal gold mining predicts mercury bioaccumulation in five genera of bats (Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anjali; Divoll, Timothy J; Ganguli, Priya M; Trama, Florencia A; Lamborg, Carl H

    2018-05-01

    Mercury, a toxic trace metal, has been used extensively as an inexpensive and readily available method of extracting gold from fine-grained sediment. Worldwide, artisanal mining is responsible for one third of all mercury released into the environment. By testing bat hair from museum specimens and field collected samples from areas both impacted and unimpacted by artisanal gold mining in Perú, we show monomethylmercury (MMHg) has increased in the last 100 years. MMHg concentrations were also greatest in the highest bat trophic level (insectivores), and in areas experiencing extractive artisanal mining. Reproductive female bats had higher MMHg concentrations, and both juvenile and adult bats from mercury contaminated sites had more MMHg than those from uncontaminated sites. Bats have important ecological functions, providing vital ecosystem services such as pollination, seed dispersal, and insect control. Natural populations can act as environmental sentinels and offer the chance to expand our understanding of, and responses to, environmental and human health concerns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The perils of picky eating: dietary breadth is related to extinction risk in insectivorous bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G Boyles

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Several recent papers evaluate the relationship between ecological characteristics and extinction risk in bats. These studies report that extinction risk is negatively related to geographic range size and positively related to habitat specialization. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that extinction risk is also related to dietary specialization in insectivorous vespertilionid bats using both traditional and phylogenetically-controlled analysis of variance. We collected dietary data and The World Conservation Union (IUCN rankings for 44 Australian, European, and North American bat species. Our results indicate that species of conservation concern (IUCN ranking near threatened or above are more likely to have a specialized diet than are species of least concern. Additional analyses show that dietary breadth is not correlated to geographic range size or wing morphology, characteristics previously found to correlate with extinction risk. Therefore, there is likely a direct relationship between dietary specialization and extinction risk; however, the large variation in dietary breadth within species of least concern suggests that diet alone cannot explain extinction risk. Our results may have important implications for the development of predictive models of extinction risk and for the assignment of extinction risk to insectivorous bat species. Similar analyses should be conducted on additional bat families to assess the generality of this relationship between niche breadth and extinction risk.

  11. Uptake of dietary PCB by pregnant big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and their fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    In a previous study (CLARK and LAMONT 1976), 26 pregnant big brown bats were captured, caged, and fed uncontaminated mealworms until their litters were born. Immediately after parturition, female bats and litters were frozen. Five litters included at least one dead young, and these five litters contained significantly more of the PCB, Aroclor 1260, than did the 21 litters with only living young....The present study attempted to verify that Aroclor 1260 could cause stillbirths. I fed 18 of 36 pregnant big brown bats mealworms containing 6.36 ppm of Aroclor 1260 prior to birth of their litters. Both carcasses and litters of dosed females contained approximately 10 times more PCB than their respective controls, but no additional stillbirths resulted. Three of 18 control litters included dead young, whereas the comparable ratio among litters from dosed females was one of 18. Additional comparisons involving means of litter weight, adult female weight, parturition date, days in captivity, tooth wear, and percentage fat also failed to show any effect of the PCB....The association found earlier between PCB and dead young (CLARK and LAMONT 1976) was not one of cause and effect. In both studies, bats that had not been dosed showed greater PCB residues among younger females. Among control bats in the present series, females that produced dead young were significantly younger (that is, showed significantly less tooth wear) than other females. In sum, whereas dead young seemed to have been caused by greater residues, these two factors were actually independent of each other but associated with a third factor--age of the female parent bat.

  12. Bat guilds, a concept to classify the highly diverse foraging and echolocation behaviors of microchiropteran bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eDenzinger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share similar adaptations independent of their phylogeny. Species with similar adaptations are assigned to guilds or functional groups. Habitat type and foraging mode mainly determine the foraging tasks and thus the adaptations of bats. Therefore we use habitat type and foraging mode to define seven guilds. The habitat types open, edge and narrow space are defined according to the bats’ echolocation behavior in relation to the distance between bat and background or food item and background. Bats foraging in the aerial, trawling, flutter detecting, or active gleaning mode use only echolocation to acquire their food. When foraging in the passive gleaning mode bats do not use echolocation but rely on sensory cues from the food item to find it. Bat communities often comprise large numbers of species with a high diversity in foraging areas, foraging modes, and diets. The assignment of species living under similar constraints into guilds identifies pattern of community structure and helps to understand the factors that underlie the organization of highly diverse bat communities. Bat species from different guilds do not compete for food as they differ in their foraging behavior and in the environmental resources they use. However, sympatric living species belonging to the same guild often exploit the same class of resources. To avoid competition they should differ in their niche dimensions. The fine grain structure of bat communities below the rather coarse classification into guilds is determined by mechanisms that result in niche partitioning.

  13. Identification of Novel Betaherpesviruses in Iberian Bats Reveals Parallel Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo, Francisco; Juste, Javier; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Anar-López, Carolina; Ibáñez, Carlos; Garin, Inazio; Aihartza, Joxerra; Casas, Inmaculada; Tenorio, Antonio; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough search for bat herpesviruses was carried out in oropharyngeal samples taken from most of the bat species present in the Iberian Peninsula from the Vespertilionidae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae and Rhinolophidae families, in addition to a colony of captive fruit bats from the Pteropodidae family. By using two degenerate consensus PCR methods targeting two conserved genes, distinct and previously unrecognized bat-hosted herpesviruses were identified for the most of the tested species. ...

  14. Antioxidant Defenses in the Brains of Bats during Hibernation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyuan Yin

    Full Text Available Hibernation is a strategy used by some mammals to survive a cold winter. Small hibernating mammals, such as squirrels and hamsters, use species- and tissue-specific antioxidant defenses to cope with oxidative insults during hibernation. Little is known about antioxidant responses and their regulatory mechanisms in hibernating bats. We found that the total level of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS in the brain of each of the two distantly related hibernating bats M. ricketti and R. ferrumequinum at arousal was lower than that at torpid or active state. We also found that the levels of malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation of the two hibernating species of bats were significantly lower than those of non-hibernating bats R. leschenaultia and C. sphinx. This observation suggests that bats maintain a basal level of ROS/RNS that does no harm to the brain during hibernation. Results of Western blotting showed that hibernating bats expressed higher amounts of antioxidant proteins than non-hibernating bats and that M. ricketti bats upregulated the expression of some enzymes to overcome oxidative stresses, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. In contrast, R. ferrumequinum bats maintained a relatively high level of superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin-2 throughout the three different states of hibernation cycles. The levels of glutathione (GSH were higher in M. ricketti bats than in R. ferrumequinum bats and were significantly elevated in R. ferrumequinum bats after torpor. These data suggest that M. ricketti bats use mainly antioxidant enzymes and R. ferrumequinum bats rely on both enzymes and low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., glutathione to avoid oxidative stresses during arousal. Furthermore, Nrf2 and FOXOs play major roles in the regulation of antioxidant defenses in the brains of bats during hibernation. Our study revealed strategies used by bats

  15. Tools to study pathogen-host interactions in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arinjay; Misra, Vikram; Schountz, Tony; Baker, Michelle L

    2018-03-15

    Bats are natural reservoirs for a variety of emerging viruses that cause significant disease in humans and domestic animals yet rarely cause clinical disease in bats. The co-evolutionary history of bats with viruses has been hypothesized to have shaped the bat-virus relationship, allowing both to exist in equilibrium. Progress in understanding bat-virus interactions and the isolation of bat-borne viruses has been accelerated in recent years by the development of susceptible bat cell lines. Viral sequences similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) have been detected in bats, and filoviruses such as Marburg virus have been isolated from bats, providing definitive evidence for the role of bats as the natural host reservoir. Although viruses can be readily detected in bats using molecular approaches, virus isolation is far more challenging. One of the limitations in using traditional culture systems from non-reservoir species is that cell types and culture conditions may not be compatible for isolation of bat-borne viruses. There is, therefore, a need to develop additional bat cell lines that correspond to different cell types, including less represented cell types such as immune cells, and culture them under more physiologically relevant conditions to study virus host interactions and for virus isolation. In this review, we highlight the current progress in understanding bat-virus interactions in bat cell line systems and some of the challenges and limitations associated with cell lines. Future directions to address some of these challenges to better understand host-pathogen interactions in these intriguing mammals are also discussed, not only in relation to viruses but also other pathogens carried by bats including bacteria and fungi. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tentative novel lyssavirus in a bat in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokireki, T; Tammiranta, N; Kokkonen, U-M; Kantala, T; Gadd, T

    2018-06-01

    A tentative novel member of the genus Lyssavirus, designated as Kotalahti bat lyssavirus, was detected in a Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) in Finland. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the virus differs from other known lyssaviruses, being closely related to Khujand virus, Aravan virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus and European bat lyssavirus 2. © 2018 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Agency Enhances Body Ownership Illusion of Being a Virtual Bat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Anastassia; Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    This poster describes a within-subject study of agency´s influence on virtual body ownership (VBO) using anatomically similar but morphologically different body of a virtual bat. Paricipants were exposed to flight under four conditions: voluntary movement through virtual environment (VE......) with avatar present, voluntary movement through virtual environment (VE) with avatar absent, voluntary limbs movement without movements through VE, and finally involuntary movement of the avatar through VE. The results suggest that agency enhances VBO illusion the most under participants´ full control during...

  18. Vocal mechanisms in birds and bats: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthers Roderick A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal signals play a very important role in the life of both birds and echolocating bats, but these two unrelated groups of flying vertebrates have very different vocal systems. They nevertheless must solve many of the same problems in producing sound. This brief review examines avian and microchiropteran motor mechanisms for: 1 coordinating the timing of phonation with the vocal motor pattern that controls its acoustic properties, and 2 achieving respiratory strategies that provide adequate ventilation for pulmonary gas exchange, while also facilitating longer duration songs or trains of sonar pulses.

  19. Bats roosting in public buildings: A preliminary assessment from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar has many synanthropic bat species but relatively little is known about how people interact with them. A preliminary assessment on the presence of bats in buildings and their interactions with people was conducted in the eastern town of Moramanga. Fifty of the 156 buildings were reported to contain active bat ...

  20. Roost temperature and fidelity of Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally,Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) roost in trees or under the eaves of buildings. This study investigated the roosting dynamics of E. wahlbergi in the urban environment of Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. To determine roost fidelity bats were radiotracked to daytime roosts. Bats were found to ...

  1. Schizamniogenesis in the rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus | van der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rusty bats are seasonally monoestrous, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns. Implantation is superficial with amniogenesis initiated very early during embryogenesis. Contrary to most other bat species where the amnion is formed by folding, it is formed by cavitation in the rusty bat.

  2. Ovarian activity and early embryonic development in the rusty bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive pattern of the female rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus, was investigated by means of a histological examination of the ovarian follicles as well as early embryonic development. Bats were collected from two localities in Limpopo Province. Female rusty bats are seasonal monestrous breeders, initiating ...

  3. Multiple mortality events in bats: a global review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul; Hayman, David TH; Plowright, Raina K.; Streicker, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Despite conservation concerns for many species of bats, factors causing mortality in bats have not been reviewed since 1970. Here, we review and qualitatively describe trends in the occurrence and apparent causes of multiple mortality events (MMEs) in bats around the world.

  4. Resource selection by Indiana bats during the maternity season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn M. Womack; Sybill K. Amelon; Frank R. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    Little information exists on resource selection by foraging Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) during the maternity season. Existing studies are based on modest sample sizes because of the rarity of this endangered species and the difficulty of radio-tracking bats. Our objectives were to determine resource selection by foraging Indiana bats during the maternity season and...

  5. Food resource partitioning inb syntopic nectarivorous bats on Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Concentrations of stable ...

  6. Monitoring bat activity at the Dutch EEZ in 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.; Jonge Poerink, B.; Vries, de P.

    2015-01-01

    IMARES conducted studies in 2012 and 2013 to monitor offshore bat activity with passive acoustic ultrasonic recorders. In the follow-up project reported here, more data on the offshore occurrence of bats was collected in 2014. Using the same methodology as in 2012 and 2013, bat activity was

  7. Bat habitat use in White Mountain National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel A. Krusic; Mariko Yamasaki; Christopher D. Neefus; Peter J. Pekins

    1996-01-01

    In 1992 and 1993, we surveyed the foraging and feeding activity of bat species with broadband bat detectors at 2 foliage heights in 4 age classes of northern hardwood and spruce/fir forest stands in White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire and Maine. The association of bat activity with trails and water bodies and the effect of elevation were measured. Mist nets,...

  8. Large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations.

  9. Understanding human – bat interactions in NSW, Australia: improving risk communication for prevention of Australian bat lyssavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Emma K; Massey, Peter D; Cox-Witton, Keren; Paterson, Beverley J; Eastwood, Keith; Durrheim, David N

    2014-01-01

    Background Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infects a number of flying fox and insectivorous bats species in Australia. Human infection with ABLV is inevitably fatal unless prior vaccination and/or post-exposure treatment (PET) is given. Despite ongoing public health messaging about the risks associated with bat contact, surveillance data have revealed a four-fold increase in the number of people receiving PET for bat exposure in NSW between 2007 and 2011. Our study aimed to better understand...

  10. Harmonic-hopping in Wallacea's bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Tigga; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2004-06-10

    Evolutionary divergence between species is facilitated by ecological shifts, and divergence is particularly rapid when such shifts also promote assortative mating. Horseshoe bats are a diverse Old World family (Rhinolophidae) that have undergone a rapid radiation in the past 5 million years. These insectivorous bats use a predominantly pure-tone echolocation call matched to an auditory fovea (an over-representation of the pure-tone frequency in the cochlea and inferior colliculus) to detect the minute changes in echo amplitude and frequency generated when an insect flutters its wings. The emitted signal is the accentuated second harmonic of a series in which the fundamental and remaining harmonics are filtered out. Here we show that three distinct, sympatric size morphs of the large-eared horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus philippinensis) echolocate at different harmonics of the same fundamental frequency. These morphs have undergone recent genetic divergence, and this process has occurred in parallel more than once. We suggest that switching harmonics creates a discontinuity in the bats' perception of available prey that can initiate disruptive selection. Moreover, because call frequency in horseshoe bats has a dual function in resource acquisition and communication, ecological selection on frequency might lead to assortative mating and ultimately reproductive isolation and speciation, regardless of external barriers to gene flow.

  11. Bats of Ouray National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is located in the northeast corner of Utah along the Green River and is part of the Upper Colorado River System and the Colorado Plateau. The Colorado Plateau is home to 19 species of bats, some of which are quite rare. Of those 19 species, a few have a more southern range and would not be expected to be found at Ouray NWR, but it is unknown what species occur at Ouray NWR or their relative abundance. The assumption is that Ouray NWR provides excellent habitat for bats, since the riparian habitat consists of a healthy population of cottonwoods with plenty of older, large trees and snags that would provide foraging and roosting habitat for bats. The more than 4,000 acres of wetland habitat, along with the associated insect population resulting from the wetland habitat, would provide ideal foraging habitat for bats. The overall objective of this project is to conduct a baseline inventory of bat species occurring on the refuge using mist nets and passive acoustic monitoring.

  12. Increasing evidence that bats actively forage at wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Cecily F; Bennett, Victoria J; Hale, Amanda M; Korstian, Jennifer M; Schildt, Alison J; Williams, Dean A

    2017-01-01

    Although the ultimate causes of high bat fatalities at wind farms are not well understood, several lines of evidence suggest that bats are attracted to wind turbines. One hypothesis is that bats would be attracted to turbines as a foraging resource if the insects that bats prey upon are commonly present on and around the turbine towers. To investigate the role that foraging activity may play in bat fatalities, we conducted a series of surveys at a wind farm in the southern Great Plains of the US from 2011-2016. From acoustic monitoring we recorded foraging activity, including feeding buzzes indicative of prey capture, in the immediate vicinity of turbine towers from all six bat species known to be present at this site. From insect surveys we found Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera in consistently high proportions over several years suggesting that food resources for bats were consistently available at wind turbines. We used DNA barcoding techniques to assess bat diet composition of (1) stomach contents from 47 eastern red bat ( Lasiurus borealis ) and 24 hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus ) carcasses collected in fatality searches, and (2) fecal pellets from 23 eastern red bats that were found on turbine towers, transformers, and tower doors. We found that the majority of the eastern red bat and hoary bat stomachs, the two bat species most commonly found in fatality searches at this site, were full or partially full, indicating that the bats were likely killed while foraging. Although Lepidoptera and Orthoptera dominated the diets of these two bat species, both consumed a range of prey items with individual bats having from one to six insect species in their stomachs at the time of death. The prey items identified from eastern red bat fecal pellets showed similar results. A comparison of the turbine insect community to the diet analysis results revealed that the most abundant insects at wind turbines, including terrestrial insects such as crickets and several

  13. Bats and zoonotic viruses: can we confidently link bats with emerging deadly viruses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratelli, Ricardo; Calisher, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    An increasingly asked question is 'can we confidently link bats with emerging viruses?'. No, or not yet, is the qualified answer based on the evidence available. Although more than 200 viruses - some of them deadly zoonotic viruses - have been isolated from or otherwise detected in bats, the supposed connections between bats, bat viruses and human diseases have been raised more on speculation than on evidence supporting their direct or indirect roles in the epidemiology of diseases (except for rabies). However, we are convinced that the evidence points in that direction and that at some point it will be proved that bats are competent hosts for at least a few zoonotic viruses. In this review, we cover aspects of bat biology, ecology and evolution that might be relevant in medical investigations and we provide a historical synthesis of some disease outbreaks causally linked to bats. We provide evolutionary-based hypotheses to tentatively explain the viral transmission route through mammalian intermediate hosts and to explain the geographic concentration of most outbreaks, but both are no more than speculations that still require formal assessment. PMID:25742261

  14. Long-term survival of an urban fruit bat seropositive for Ebola and Lagos bat viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T S Hayman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses (EBOV (family Filoviridae cause viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates when they spill over from their wildlife reservoir hosts with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Fruit bats may act as reservoirs of the Filoviridae. The migratory fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is common across sub-Saharan Africa and lives in large colonies, often situated in cities. We screened sera from 262 E. helvum using indirect fluorescent tests for antibodies against EBOV subtype Zaire. We detected a seropositive bat from Accra, Ghana, and confirmed this using western blot analysis. The bat was also seropositive for Lagos bat virus, a Lyssavirus, by virus neutralization test. The bat was fitted with a radio transmitter and was last detected in Accra 13 months after release post-sampling, demonstrating long-term survival. Antibodies to filoviruses have not been previously demonstrated in E. helvum. Radio-telemetry data demonstrates long-term survival of an individual bat following exposure to viruses of families that can be highly pathogenic to other mammal species. Because E. helvum typically lives in large urban colonies and is a source of bushmeat in some regions, further studies should determine if this species forms a reservoir for EBOV from which spillover infections into the human population may occur.

  15. Rezension von: Marcus Recht: Der sympathische Vampir. Visualisierungen von Männlichkeiten in der TV-Serie Buffy. Frankfurt am Main u.a.: Campus Verlag 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Bölling

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Marcus Recht leistet als einer der ersten deutschsprachigen Autoren eine ausführliche Analyse der besonderen Darstellung alternativer Geschlechtlichkeit in der TV-Serie Buffy. Mit Hilfe ausführlicher wissenschaftlicher Methodik zeigt Recht auf, dass die Serie sowohl soziale Konstrukte analysiert, widerspiegelt und karikiert als auch eine alternative Geschlechtlichkeit etabliert, welche die männlichen Vampire in einen zur Zeit der Serienausstrahlung gänzlich neuen Gender-Kontext stellt. Viele weitere klassische filmsoziologische Theorien zu Gender-Konstruktion und -Darstellung werden kritisch aufgegriffen und in die Analyse einbezogen. Eine gute Grundlage für Einsteiger/-innen als auch für Kenner/-innen des Feldes, um sich mit dem wissenschaftlichen Potential des popkulturellen Feldes auseinanderzusetzen.

  16. Impact of maternal melatonin suppression on amount and functionality of brown adipose tissue (BAT in the newborn sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSeron-Ferre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In human and sheep newborns, brown adipose tissue (BAT accrued during fetal development is used for newborn thermogenesis. Here we explored the role of maternal melatonin during gestation on the amount and functionality of BAT in the neonate. We studied BAT from 6 lambs gestated by ewes exposed to constant light from 63% gestation until delivery to suppress melatonin (LL, 6 lambs gestated by ewes exposed to LL but receiving daily oral melatonin (12mg at 1700 hrs, LL+Mel and another 6 control lambs gestated by ewes maintained in 12h light:12h dark (LD. Lambs were in-strumented at 2 days of age. At 4-6 days of age, they were exposed to 24ºC (thermal neutrality condi-tions for 1 hr, 4ºC for 1 hr and 24ºC for 1 hr. Afterward, lambs were euthanized and BAT was dissected for mRNA measurement, histology and ex vivo experiments. LL newborns had lower central BAT and skin temperature under thermal neutrality and at 4°C, and higher plasma norepinephrine concentration than LD newborns. In response to 4°C, they had a pronounced decrease in skin temperature and did not increase plasma glycerol. BAT weight in LL newborns was about half of that of LD newborns. Ex vivo, BAT from LL newborns showed increased basal lipolysis and did not respond to NE. In addition, expression of adipogenic/thermogenic genes (UCP1, ADBR3, PPARγ, PPARα, PGC1α, C/EBPβ, and perilipin and of the clock genes Bmal1, Clock and Per2 was increased. Remarkably, the effects observed in LL newborns were absent in LL+Mel newborns. Thus, our results support that maternal melatonin during gestation is important in determining amount and normal functionality of BAT in the neonate.

  17. Impact of Maternal Melatonin Suppression on Amount and Functionality of Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) in the Newborn Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seron-Ferre, Maria; Reynolds, Henry; Mendez, Natalia Andrea; Mondaca, Mauricio; Valenzuela, Francisco; Ebensperger, Renato; Valenzuela, Guillermo J; Herrera, Emilio A; Llanos, Anibal J; Torres-Farfan, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    In human and sheep newborns, brown adipose tissue (BAT) accrued during fetal development is used for newborn thermogenesis. Here, we explored the role of maternal melatonin during gestation on the amount and functionality of BAT in the neonate. We studied BAT from six lambs gestated by ewes exposed to constant light from 63% gestation until delivery to suppress melatonin (LL), six lambs gestated by ewes exposed to LL but receiving daily oral melatonin (12 mg at 1700 h, LL + Mel) and another six control lambs gestated by ewes maintained in 12 h light:12 h dark (LD). Lambs were instrumented at 2 days of age. At 4-6 days of age, they were exposed to 24°C (thermal neutrality conditions) for 1 h, 4°C for 1 h, and 24°C for 1 h. Afterward, lambs were euthanized and BAT was dissected for mRNA measurement, histology, and ex vivo experiments. LL newborns had lower central BAT and skin temperature under thermal neutrality and at 4°C, and higher plasma norepinephrine concentration than LD newborns. In response to 4°C, they had a pronounced decrease in skin temperature and did not increase plasma glycerol. BAT weight in LL newborns was about half of that of LD newborns. Ex vivo, BAT from LL newborns showed increased basal lipolysis and did not respond to NE. In addition, expression of adipogenic/thermogenic genes (UCP1, ADBR3, PPARγ, PPARα, PGC1α, C/EBPβ, and perilipin) and of the clock genes Bmal1, Clock, and Per2 was increased. Remarkably, the effects observed in LL newborns were absent in LL + Mel newborns. Thus, our results support that maternal melatonin during gestation is important in determining amount and normal functionality of BAT in the neonate.

  18. Modeling habitat distributions of bats using GIS: wind energy and Indiana bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Jason; Jansen, Erik; Friedel, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Post-construction monitoring indicates that commercial wind energy facilities are a source of bat mortality resulting from collisions or other negative interactions with operational turbines. An understanding of the potential distribution and movement of bats on the landscape is essential to minimizing these impacts. Using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems software, we present a modelling approach that evaluates the distribution of bat roosting and foraging habitat and potential flight paths at a landscape scale which may be used to assess the risk to bats from the development of a wind energy facility. Accurate assessment of these risks can minimize schedule delays and unexpected costs. Applied to the behaviour and ecology of the United States federally endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) at two hypothetical wind farms, this method predicts the areas where the species is likely to travel while foraging, thereby highlighting the riskiest areas within a project area. The results of our modelling indicate that risk to bats is not directly proportional to habitat availability or suitability, in part because risk is associated with areas where bats are travelling. This modelling approach will assist wind energy developers in making both large-scale (e.g., choosing between different development locations) and small-scale decisions (e.g., choosing where to locate turbines) aimed at minimizing impacts to bats. Using habitat models can provide a cost-effective method for evaluating bat risk, satisfying requirements of regulatory agencies, and limiting the more intensive survey methods to projects that absolutely require them. (Author)

  19. Bat wing biometrics: using collagen–elastin bundles in bat wings as a unique individual identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Sarah E.; Womack, Kathryn M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The ability to recognize individuals within an animal population is fundamental to conservation and management. Identification of individual bats has relied on artificial marking techniques that may negatively affect the survival and alter the behavior of individuals. Biometric systems use biological characteristics to identify individuals. The field of animal biometrics has expanded to include recognition of individuals based upon various morphologies and phenotypic variations including pelage patterns, tail flukes, and whisker arrangement. Biometric systems use 4 biologic measurement criteria: universality, distinctiveness, permanence, and collectability. Additionally, the system should not violate assumptions of capture–recapture methods that include no increased mortality or alterations of behavior. We evaluated whether individual bats could be uniquely identified based upon the collagen–elastin bundles that are visible with gross examination of their wings. We examined little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), northern long-eared bats (M. septentrionalis), big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), and tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus) to determine whether the “wing prints” from the bundle network would satisfy the biologic measurement criteria. We evaluated 1,212 photographs from 230 individual bats comparing week 0 photos with those taken at weeks 3 or 6 and were able to confirm identity of individuals over time. Two blinded evaluators were able to successfully match 170 individuals in hand to photographs taken at weeks 0, 3, and 6. This study suggests that bats can be successfully re-identified using photographs taken at previous times. We suggest further evaluation of this methodology for use in a standardized system that can be shared among bat conservationists. PMID:29674784

  20. Bat wing biometrics: using collagen-elastin bundles in bat wings as a unique individual identifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelon, Sybill K; Hooper, Sarah E; Womack, Kathryn M

    2017-05-29

    The ability to recognize individuals within an animal population is fundamental to conservation and management. Identification of individual bats has relied on artificial marking techniques that may negatively affect the survival and alter the behavior of individuals. Biometric systems use biological characteristics to identify individuals. The field of animal biometrics has expanded to include recognition of individuals based upon various morphologies and phenotypic variations including pelage patterns, tail flukes, and whisker arrangement. Biometric systems use 4 biologic measurement criteria: universality, distinctiveness, permanence, and collectability. Additionally, the system should not violate assumptions of capture-recapture methods that include no increased mortality or alterations of behavior. We evaluated whether individual bats could be uniquely identified based upon the collagen-elastin bundles that are visible with gross examination of their wings. We examined little brown bats ( Myotis lucifugus ), northern long-eared bats ( M. septentrionalis ), big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus ), and tricolored bats ( Perimyotis subflavus ) to determine whether the "wing prints" from the bundle network would satisfy the biologic measurement criteria. We evaluated 1,212 photographs from 230 individual bats comparing week 0 photos with those taken at weeks 3 or 6 and were able to confirm identity of individuals over time. Two blinded evaluators were able to successfully match 170 individuals in hand to photographs taken at weeks 0, 3, and 6. This study suggests that bats can be successfully re-identified using photographs taken at previous times. We suggest further evaluation of this methodology for use in a standardized system that can be shared among bat conservationists.

  1. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M; Bollinger, Trent K; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Blehert, David S; Willis, Craig K R

    2012-05-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease of hibernating bats associated with cutaneous infection by the fungus Geomyces destructans (Gd), and responsible for devastating declines of bat populations in eastern North America. Affected bats appear emaciated and one hypothesis is that they spend too much time out of torpor during hibernation, depleting vital fat reserves required to survive the winter. The fungus has also been found at low levels on bats throughout Europe but without mass mortality. This finding suggests that Gd is either native to both continents but has been rendered more pathogenic in North America by mutation or environmental change, or that it recently arrived in North America as an invader from Europe. Thus, a causal link between Gd and mortality has not been established and the reason for its high pathogenicity in North America is unknown. Here we show that experimental inoculation with either North American or European isolates of Gd causes WNS and mortality in the North American bat, Myotis lucifugus. In contrast to control bats, individuals inoculated with either isolate of Gd developed cutaneous infections diagnostic of WNS, exhibited a progressive increase in the frequency of arousals from torpor during hibernation, and were emaciated after 3-4 mo. Our results demonstrate that altered torpor-arousal cycles underlie mortality from WNS and provide direct evidence that Gd is a novel pathogen to North America from Europe.

  2. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M.; Bollinger, Trent K.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Blehert, David S.; Willis, Craig K.R.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease of hibernating bats associated with cutaneous infection by the fungus Geomyces destructans (Gd), and responsible for devastating declines of bat populations in eastern North America. Affected bats appear emaciated and one hypothesis is that they spend too much time out of torpor during hibernation, depleting vital fat reserves required to survive the winter. The fungus has also been found at low levels on bats throughout Europe but without mass mortality. This finding suggests that Gd is either native to both continents but has been rendered more pathogenic in North America by mutation or environmental change, or that it recently arrived in North America as an invader from Europe. Thus, a causal link between Gd and mortality has not been established and the reason for its high pathogenicity in North America is unknown. Here we show that experimental inoculation with either North American or European isolates of Gd causes WNS and mortality in the North American bat, Myotis lucifugus. In contrast to control bats, individuals inoculated with either isolate of Gd developed cutaneous infections diagnostic of WNS, exhibited a progressive increase in the frequency of arousals from torpor during hibernation, and were emaciated after 3–4 mo. Our results demonstrate that altered torpor-arousal cycles underlie mortality from WNS and provide direct evidence that Gd is a novel pathogen to North America from Europe.

  3. Energy conserving thermoregulatory patterns and lower disease severity in a bat resistant to the impacts of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marianne S; Field, Kenneth A; Behr, Melissa J; Turner, Gregory G; Furze, Morgan E; Stern, Daniel W F; Allegra, Paul R; Bouboulis, Sarah A; Musante, Chelsey D; Vodzak, Megan E; Biron, Matthew E; Meierhofer, Melissa B; Frick, Winifred F; Foster, Jeffrey T; Howell, Daryl; Kath, Joseph A; Kurta, Allen; Nordquist, Gerda; Johnson, Joseph S; Lilley, Thomas M; Barrett, Benjamin W; Reeder, DeeAnn M

    2018-01-01

    The devastating bat fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), does not appear to affect all species equally. To experimentally determine susceptibility differences between species, we exposed hibernating naïve little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to the fungus that causes WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). After hibernating under identical conditions, Pd lesions were significantly more prevalent and more severe in little brown myotis. This species difference in pathology correlates with susceptibility to WNS in the wild and suggests that survival is related to different host physiological responses. We observed another fungal infection, associated with neutrophilic inflammation, that was equally present in all bats. This suggests that both species are capable of generating a response to cold tolerant fungi and that Pd may have evolved mechanisms for evading host responses that are effective in at least some bat species. These host-pathogen interactions are likely mediated not just by host physiological responses, but also by host behavior. Pd-exposed big brown bats, the less affected species, spent more time in torpor than did control animals, while little brown myotis did not exhibit this change. This differential thermoregulatory response to Pd infection by big brown bat hosts may allow for a more effective (or less pathological) immune response to tissue invasion.

  4. The effectiveness of search dogs compared with humans in searching difficult terrain at turbine sites for bat fatalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, Fiona

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Many wind farms in the UK and elsewhere in northern Europe are situated in habitat with dense tall vegetation such as arable fields and upland heaths. This makes surveying for bat fatalities extremely difficult. To facilitate a multi-centre study of the effects of wind turbines on British bats, we have therefore conducted controlled trials of the relative success of trained search dogs and ecologists in retrieving bat carcasses. Although dogs have been used previously in ecological surveys for bats, this is the first time they have been specifically trained for use in 'difficult to survey' habitats. Two ecologists and two Labrador dogs with handlers were each given the opportunity to retrieve up to 45 bat carcasses in a range of habitat types. Their efficiency in terms of overall search time, costs, and retrieval abilities were evaluated. Our results indicate that high rates of retrieval can be achieved by dogs, even in dense vegetation up to 75cm high. Further, a typical 100m2 search area can be surveyed in less than half the time taken by humans. The limitations of using search dogs, and their ability to detect the presence of bats that have been scavenged are also presented (presentation supported with video footage). (Author)

  5. Bats - findings and knowledge gaps in the field of bat behaviour; Perspektive Fledermaeuse - Erkenntnisse und Wissensluecken zum Verhalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergen, F. [ecoda Umweltgutachten GbR, Dortmund (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    There may be conflicts between wind power utilisation and the behaviour patterns of bats resp. the need for bat protection. The subject should be discussed free of emotions. Research is still required as there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the effects of wind power systems on bats. (orig.)

  6. 76 FR 67238 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by BATS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65619, File No. SR-BATS-2011-032] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. To Adopt Rules Applicable to Auctions Conducted by the Exchange for Exchange-Listed Securities October 25, 2011. I. Introduction On August 22, 2011,...

  7. Kanyawara Virus: A Novel Rhabdovirus Infecting Newly Discovered Nycteribiid Bat Flies Infesting Previously Unknown Pteropodid Bats in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Tony L; Bennett, Andrew J; Kityo, Robert; Kuhn, Jens H; Chapman, Colin A

    2017-07-13

    Bats are natural reservoir hosts of highly virulent pathogens such as Marburg virus, Nipah virus, and SARS coronavirus. However, little is known about the role of bat ectoparasites in transmitting and maintaining such viruses. The intricate relationship between bats and their ectoparasites suggests that ectoparasites might serve as viral vectors, but evidence to date is scant. Bat flies, in particular, are highly specialized obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that incidentally bite humans. Using next-generation sequencing, we discovered a novel ledantevirus (mononegaviral family Rhabdoviridae, genus Ledantevirus) in nycteribiid bat flies infesting pteropodid bats in western Uganda. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that both the bat flies and their bat hosts belong to putative new species. The coding-complete genome of the new virus, named Kanyawara virus (KYAV), is only distantly related to that of its closest known relative, Mount Elgon bat virus, and was found at high titers in bat flies but not in blood or on mucosal surfaces of host bats. Viral genome analysis indicates unusually low CpG dinucleotide depletion in KYAV compared to other ledanteviruses and rhabdovirus groups, with KYAV displaying values similar to rhabdoviruses of arthropods. Our findings highlight the possibility of a yet-to-be-discovered diversity of potentially pathogenic viruses in bat ectoparasites.

  8. Deciphering the bat virome catalog to better understand the ecological diversity of bat viruses and the bat origin of emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Li; Ren, Xianwen; He, Guimei; Zhang, Junpeng; Yang, Jian; Qian, Zhaohui; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Zhu, Yafang; Du, Jiang; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shuyi; Jin, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Studies have demonstrated that ~60%-80% of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans originated from wild life. Bats are natural reservoirs of a large variety of viruses, including many important zoonotic viruses that cause severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. However, the understanding of the viral population and the ecological diversity residing in bat populations is unclear, which complicates the determination of the origins of certain EIDs. Here, using bats as a typical wildlife reservoir model, virome analysis was conducted based on pharyngeal and anal swab samples of 4440 bat individuals of 40 major bat species throughout China. The purpose of this study was to survey the ecological and biological diversities of viruses residing in these bat species, to investigate the presence of potential bat-borne zoonotic viruses and to evaluate the impacts of these viruses on public health. The data obtained in this study revealed an overview of the viral community present in these bat samples. Many novel bat viruses were reported for the first time and some bat viruses closely related to known human or animal pathogens were identified. This genetic evidence provides new clues in the search for the origin or evolution pattern of certain viruses, such as coronaviruses and noroviruses. These data offer meaningful ecological information for predicting and tracing wildlife-originated EIDs.

  9. Bats Increase the Number of Cultivable Airborne Fungi in the "Nietoperek" Bat Reserve in Western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokurewicz, Tomasz; Ogórek, Rafał; Pusz, Wojciech; Matkowski, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    The "Nietoperek" bat reserve located in Western Poland is one of the largest bat hibernation sites in the European Union with nearly 38,000 bats from 12 species. Nietoperek is part of a built underground fortification system from WWII. The aims of the study were (1) to determine the fungal species composition and changes during hibernation season in relation to bat number and microclimatic conditions and (2) evaluate the potential threat of fungi for bat assemblages and humans visiting the complex. Airborne fungi were collected in the beginning, middle and end of hibernation period (9 November 2013 and 17 January and 15 March 2014) in 12 study sites, one outside and 11 inside the complex. Ambient temperature (T a) and relative humidity (RH) were measured by the use of data loggers, and species composition of bats was recorded from the study sites. The collision method (Air Ideal 3P) sampler was used to detect 34 species of airborne fungi including Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). The density of airborne fungi isolated from the outdoor air samples varied from 102 to 242 CFU/1 m(3) of air and from 12 to 1198 CFU in the underground air samples. There was a positive relationship between number of bats and the concentration of fungi. The concentration of airborne fungi increased with the increase of bats number. Analysis of other possible ways of spore transport to the underground indicated that the number of bats was the primary factor determining the number of fungal spores in that hibernation site. Microclimatic conditions where Pd was found (median 8.7 °C, min-max 6.1-9.9 °C and 100 %, min-max 77.5-100.0 %) were preferred by hibernating Myotis myotis and Myotis daubentonii; therefore, these species are most probably especially prone to infection by this fungi species. The spores of fungi found in the underground can be pathogenic for humans and animals, especially for immunocompromised persons, even though their concentrations did not exceed limits and

  10. Flying Under the LiDAR: Relating Forest Structure to Bat Community Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, A. C.; Weishampel, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Bats are important to many ecological processes such as pollination, insect (and by proxy, disease) control, and seed dispersal and can be used to monitor ecosystem health. However, they are facing unprecedented extinction risks from habitat degradation as well as pressures from pathogens (e.g., white-nose syndrome) and wind turbines. LiDAR allows ecologists to measure structural variables of forested landscapes with increased precision and accuracy at broader spatial scales than previously possible. This study used airborne LiDAR to classify forest habitat/canopy structure at the Ordway-Swisher Biological Station (OSBS) in north central Florida. LiDAR data were acquired by the NEON airborne observation platform in summer 2014. OSBS consists of open-canopy pine savannas, closed-canopy hardwood hammocks, and seasonally wet prairies. Multiple forest structural parameters (e.g., mean, maximum, and standard deviation of height returns) were derived from LiDAR point clouds using the USDA software program FUSION. K-means clustering was used to segregate each 5x5 m raster across the ~3765 ha OSBS area into six different clusters based on the derived canopy metrics. Cluster averages for maximum, mean, and standard deviation of return heights ranged from 0 to 19.4 m, 0 to 15.3 m, and 0 to 3.0 m, respectively. To determine the relationships among these landscape-canopy features and bat species diversity and abundances, AnaBat II bat detectors were deployed from May to September in 2015 stratified by these distinct clusters. Bat calls were recorded from sunset to sunrise during each sampling period. Species were identified using AnalookW. A statistical regression model selection approach was performed in order to evaluate how forest attributes such as understory clutter, open regions, open and closed canopy, etc. influence bat communities. This knowledge provides a deeper understanding of habitat-species interactions to better manage survival of these species.

  11. Diversity in the organization of elastin bundles and intramembranous muscles in bat wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jorn A; Allen, Justine J; Swartz, Sharon M

    2017-04-01

    Unlike birds and insects, bats fly with wings composed of thin skin that envelops the bones of the forelimb and spans the area between the limbs, digits, and sometimes the tail. This skin is complex and unusual; it is thinner than typical mammalian skin and contains organized bundles of elastin and embedded skeletal muscles. These elements are likely responsible for controlling the shape of the wing during flight and contributing to the aerodynamic capabilities of bats. We examined the arrangement of two macroscopic architectural elements in bat wings, elastin bundles and wing membrane muscles, to assess the diversity in bat wing skin morphology. We characterized the plagiopatagium and dactylopatagium of 130 species from 17 families of bats using cross-polarized light imaging. This method revealed structures with distinctive relative birefringence, heterogeneity of birefringence, variation in size, and degree of branching. We used previously published anatomical studies and tissue histology to identify birefringent structures, and we analyzed their architecture across taxa. Elastin bundles, muscles, neurovasculature, and collagenous fibers are present in all species. Elastin bundles are oriented in a predominantly spanwise or proximodistal direction, and there are five characteristic muscle arrays that occur within the plagiopatagium, far more muscle than typically recognized. These results inform recent functional studies of wing membrane architecture, support the functional hypothesis that elastin bundles aid wing folding and unfolding, and further suggest that all bats may use these architectural elements for flight. All species also possess numerous muscles within the wing membrane, but the architecture of muscle arrays within the plagiopatagium varies among families. To facilitate present and future discussion of these muscle arrays, we refine wing membrane muscle nomenclature in a manner that reflects this morphological diversity. The architecture of the

  12. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  13. Protection of bats (Eptesicus fuscus) against rabies following topical or oronasal exposure to a recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stading, Ben; Ellison, James A; Carson, William C; Satheshkumar, Panayampalli Subbian; Rocke, Tonie E; Osorio, Jorge E

    2017-10-01

    Rabies is an ancient neglected tropical disease that causes tens of thousands of human deaths and millions of cattle deaths annually. In order to develop a new vaccine for potential use in bats, a reservoir of rabies infection for humans and animals alike, an in silico antigen designer tool was used to create a mosaic glycoprotein (MoG) gene using available sequences from the rabies Phylogroup I glycoprotein. This sequence, which represents strains more likely to occur in bats, was cloned into raccoonpox virus (RCN) and the efficacy of this novel RCN-MoG vaccine was compared to RCN-G that expresses the glycoprotein gene from CVS-11 rabies or luciferase (RCN-luc, negative control) in mice and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Mice vaccinated and boosted intradermally with 1 x 107 plaque forming units (PFU) of each RCN-rabies vaccine construct developed neutralizing antibodies and survived at significantly higher rates than controls. No significant difference in antibody titers or survival was noted between rabies-vaccinated groups. Bats were vaccinated either oronasally (RCN-G, RCN-MoG) with 5x107 PFU or by topical application in glycerin jelly (RCN-MoG, dose 2x108 PFU), boosted (same dose and route) at 46 days post vaccination (dpv), and then challenged with wild-type big brown variant RABV at 65 dpv. Prior to challenge, 90% of RCN-G and 75% of RCN-MoG oronasally vaccinated bats had detectable levels of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies. Bats from the RCN-luc and topically vaccinated RCN-MoG groups did not have measurable antibody responses. The RCN-rabies constructs were highly protective and not significantly different from each other. RCN-MoG provided 100% protection (n = 9) when delivered oronasally and 83% protection (n = 6) when delivered topically; protection provided by the RCN-G construct was 70% (n = 10). All rabies-vaccinated bats survived at a significantly (P ≤ 0.02) higher rate than control bats (12%; n = 8). We have demonstrated the efficacy of

  14. North American Bats and Mines Project: A cooperative approach for integrating bat conservation and mine-land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducummon, S.L. [Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Inactive underground mines now provide essential habitat for more than half of North America`s 44 bat species, including some of the largest remaining populations. Thousands of abandoned mines have already been closed or are slated for safety closures, and many are destroyed during renewed mining in historic districts. The available evidence suggests that millions of bats have already been lost due to these closures. Bats are primary predators of night-flying insects that cost American farmers and foresters billions of dollars annually, therefore, threats to bat survival are cause for serious concern. Fortunately, mine closure methods exist that protect both bats and humans. Bat Conservation International (BCI) and the USDI-Bureau of Land Management founded the North American Bats and Mines Project to provide national leadership and coordination to minimize the loss of mine-roosting bats. This partnership has involved federal and state mine-land and wildlife managers and the mining industry. BCI has trained hundreds of mine-land and wildlife managers nationwide in mine assessment techniques for bats and bat-compatible closure methods, published technical information on bats and mine-land management, presented papers on bats and mines at national mining and wildlife conferences, and collaborated with numerous federal, state, and private partners to protect some of the most important mine-roosting bat populations. Our new mining industry initiative, Mining for Habitat, is designed to develop bat habitat conservation and enhancement plans for active mining operations. It includes the creation of cost-effective artificial underground bat roosts using surplus mining materials such as old mine-truck tires and culverts buried beneath waste rock.

  15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 aminotransferases have functionally diverged from the ancestral-like Kluyveromyces lactis orthologous enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritrini Colón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene duplication is a key evolutionary mechanism providing material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The fate of duplicated gene copies has been amply discussed and several models have been put forward to account for duplicate conservation. The specialization model considers that duplication of a bifunctional ancestral gene could result in the preservation of both copies through subfunctionalization, resulting in the distribution of the two ancestral functions between the gene duplicates. Here we investigate whether the presumed bifunctional character displayed by the single branched chain amino acid aminotransferase present in K. lactis has been distributed in the two paralogous genes present in S. cerevisiae, and whether this conservation has impacted S. cerevisiae metabolism. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results show that the KlBat1 orthologous BCAT is a bifunctional enzyme, which participates in the biosynthesis and catabolism of branched chain aminoacids (BCAAs. This dual role has been distributed in S. cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 paralogous proteins, supporting the specialization model posed to explain the evolution of gene duplications. BAT1 is highly expressed under biosynthetic conditions, while BAT2 expression is highest under catabolic conditions. Bat1 and Bat2 differential relocalization has favored their physiological function, since biosynthetic precursors are generated in the mitochondria (Bat1, while catabolic substrates are accumulated in the cytosol (Bat2. Under respiratory conditions, in the presence of ammonium and BCAAs the batbat2Δ double mutant shows impaired growth, indicating that Bat1 and Bat2 could play redundant roles. In K. lactis wild type growth is independent of BCAA degradation, since a Klbat1Δ mutant grows under this condition. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that BAT1 and BAT2 differential expression and subcellular relocalization has resulted in the distribution of the

  16. [Trematodes (Trematoda) of bats (Chiroptera) from the Middle Volga Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Iu; Vekhnik, V P

    2012-01-01

    The data on species diversity of trematodes from bats collected in the Middle Volga Region are summarized. According to original and literary data, 20 trematode species were recorded in bats of the region examined. Plagiorchis elegans, Lecithodendrium skrjabini, L. rysavyi, Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, and Pycnoporus megacotyle are specified for the bat fauna of Russia for the first time. For 11 species of parasites, new hosts are recorded. The analysis of bat helminthes demonstrated that the fauna of trematodes of the northern bat (12 species of trematodes), of the pond, and of the Brandt's bats is the most diverse, constituting more than 10 parasite species per bat species. The largest number of final hosts in the Middle Volga Region is characteristic of Plagiorchis koreanus and Prosthodendrium chilostomum; the latter species were revealed in 8 and 7 bat species, respectively. Trematodes of bats possess a high degree of host specificity. 17 species parasitize exclusively in bats out of 20 parasite species registered for the order Chiroptera. Only 3 species (Plagiorchis elegans, P. vespertilionis, and Prosthodendrium chilostomum) show wide degree of specificity, being found in other animals. Taxonomic position, the circle of hosts, collecting sites, and brief data in biology and geographical distribution for each helminth species are specified. Morphological descriptions and original figures for all the trematode species revealed in bats of the Middle Volga Region are given.

  17. Novel Bartonella Species in Insectivorous Bats, Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ju Han

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are emerging human pathogens. Bats are known to carry diverse Bartonella species, some of which are capable of infecting humans. However, as the second largest mammalian group by a number of species, the role of bats as the reservoirs of Bartonella species is not fully explored, in term of their species diversity and worldwide distribution. China, especially Northern China, harbors a number of endemic insectivorous bat species; however, to our knowledge, there are not yet studies about Bartonella in bats in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in bats in Northern China. Bartonella species were detected by PCR amplification of gltA gene in 25.2% (27/107 bats in Mengyin County, Shandong Province of China, including 1/3 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, 2/10 Rhinolophus pusillus, 9/16 Myotis fimbriatus, 1/5 Myotis ricketti, 14/58 Myotis pequinius. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Bartonella species detected in bats in this study clustered into ten groups, and some might be novel Bartonella species. An association between Bartonella species and bat species was demonstrated and co-infection with different Bartonella species in a single bat was also observed. Our findings expanded our knowledge on the genetic diversity of Bartonella in bats, and shed light on the ecology of bat-borne Bartonella species.

  18. Assessing the impacts of wind energy development on bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, E.B. [Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Research conducted by the Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative in West Virginia was presented. Bats are key pollinators, seed dispersers, and insect predators. Bats also help to protect crops and play an important role in helping to reduce pesticide use. However, bats reproduce slowly and are susceptible to mortality factors. In 2003, between 1398 and 4031 bats were killed at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Facility in West Virginia. Possible explanations why bats are killed by wind turbines include the fact that wind farms form a linear corridor. Acoustics, echolocation failure, and electromagnetic-disorientation may also play a role in bat mortalities. Unifying patterns of bat fatalities at wind facilities include the fact that fatalities are heavily skewed toward migratory bats. Peak turbine collision fatalities occur in mid-summer. Bat fatalities are highest during periods of low wind speed and seem to be related to climate variables associated with the passage of weather fronts. Studies have also shown that the changing cut-in speeds of turbines may also reduce bat fatalities. It was concluded that pre-construction assessments should be conducted to determine high risk areas. tabs., figs.

  19. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans Peter; Seidl, Hans Peter; Blehert, David S

    2010-08-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  20. Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Moreno-Valdez, A.; Mora, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is too low to reflect harmful concentrations in the bats themselves. The DDE at Ojuela may represent either lingering residues from use of DDT years ago in the Ojuela area of perhaps depuration loss from migrant bats with summer maternity roost(s) in a DDE-contaminated area such as Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. Presence of o,p-DDT at Tio Bartolo Cave, Nuevo Leon, indicates recent use of DDT, but the concentration of this contaminant was low. Possible impacts on bat colonies of the organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides now in extensive use are unknown.

  1. Extensive diversity and evolution of hepadnaviruses in bats in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Fang-Yuan; Lin, Xian-Dan; Hao, Zong-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Zhao-Xiao; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Wu, Jun; Wang, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Guoqiang; Ma, Runlin Z; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2018-01-15

    To better understand the evolution of hepadnaviruses, we sampled bats from Guizhou, Henan and Zhejiang provinces, China, and rodents from Zhejiang province. Genetically diverse hepadnaviruses were identified in a broad range of bat species, with an overall prevalence of 13.3%. In contrast, no rodent hepadnaviruses were identified. The newly discovered bat hepadnaviruses fell into two distinct phylogenetic groups. The viruses within the first group exhibited high diversity, with some closely related to viruses previously identified in Yunnan province. Strikingly, the newly discovered viruses sampled from Jiyuan city in the second phylogenetic group were most closely related to those found in bats from West Africa, suggestive of a long-term association between bats and hepadnaviruses. A co-phylogenetic analysis revealed frequent cross-species transmission among bats from different species, genera, and families. Overall, these data suggest that there are likely few barriers to the cross-species transmission of bat hepadnaviruses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. BAT2 GRB Catalog - Prompt Emission Properties of Swift GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Parsons, A.; Tueller, J.; Baumgartner, W.; Cummings, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Ukwatta, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parameters measured by the BAT. The BAT T 90 duration peaks at 70 s. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT short-duration GRBs are generally harder than those of the long-duration GRBs. The observed durations of the BAT high redshift GRBs are not systematically longer than those of the moderate redshift GRBs. Furthermore, the observed spectra of the BAT high redshift GRBs are similar to or harder than the moderate redshift GRBs.

  3. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M. [USDA Forest Service, Parsons, WV (United States); Menzel, Michael A. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Ford, W. Mark [USDA Forest Service, Parsons, WV (United States); Edwards, John W. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Sheffield, Steven R. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States); Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Bunch, Mary S. [South Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources, Pendleton, SC (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Menzel. J.M., M.A. Menzel, W.M. Ford, J.W. Edwards, S.R. Sheffield, J.C. Kilgo, and M.S. Bunch. 2003. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina. Southeastern Nat. 2(1): 121-152. There is a paucity of information available about the distribution of bats in the southeastern United States. We synthesized records from museums, bat captures, and bats submitted for rabies testing to provide a more accurate and useful distribution for natural resource managers and those planning to research bats in South Carolina. Distributional information, including maps, collection localities within counties, and literature references, for all 14 species of bats that occur in South Carolina, has never been synthesized. To provide better information on the state's bat fauna, we have updated distributions for all species that occur in South Carolina.

  4. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  5. Negative regulators of brown adipose tissue (BAT)-mediated thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bal Krishan; Patil, Mallikarjun; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2014-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for energy expenditure, a process called adaptive thermogenesis. PET-CT scans recently demonstrated the existence of metabolically active BAT in adult humans, which revitalized our interest in BAT. Increasing the amount and/or activity of BAT holds tremendous promise for the treatment of obesity and its associated diseases. PGC1α is the master regulator of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis in BAT. A number of proteins have been identified to influence thermogenesis either positively or negatively through regulating the expression or transcriptional activity of PGC1α. Therefore, BAT activation can be achieved by either inducing the expression of positive regulators of PGC1α or by inhibiting the repressors of the PGC1α/UCP1 pathway. Here, we review the most important negative regulators of PGC1α/UCP1 signaling and their mechanism of action in BAT-mediated thermogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cave- and Crevice-Dwelling Bats on USACE Projects: Townsend's Big-Eared Bat (Corynorhinus townsendii)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Wilma

    2002-01-01

    ..." (Dickerson, Martin, and Allen 1999; Kasul, Martin, and Allen 2000). This technical note provides information on selected bat species that have the potential to occur on Corps projects in the eastern United States and be impacted by Corps activities...

  7. Human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012-related viruses in bats, Ghana and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Lina, Peter H C; Godlevska, Elena V; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2013-03-01

    We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats.

  8. Human Betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012–related Viruses in Bats, Ghana and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J.; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M.; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Lina, Peter H.C.; Godlevska, Elena V.; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats. PMID:23622767

  9. Pathogenesis of bat rabies in a natural reservoir: Comparative susceptibility of the straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) to three strains of Lagos bat virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suu-Ire, Richard; Begeman, Lineke; Banyard, Ashley C; Breed, Andrew C; Drosten, Christian; Eggerbauer, Elisa; Freuling, Conrad M; Gibson, Louise; Goharriz, Hooman; Horton, Daniel L; Jennings, Daisy; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Marston, Denise; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Riesle Sbarbaro, Silke; Selden, David; Wise, Emma L; Kuiken, Thijs; Fooks, Anthony R; Müller, Thomas; Wood, James L N; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2018-03-01

    Rabies is a fatal neurologic disease caused by lyssavirus infection. People are infected through contact with infected animals. The relative increase of human rabies acquired from bats calls for a better understanding of lyssavirus infections in their natural hosts. So far, there is no experimental model that mimics natural lyssavirus infection in the reservoir bat species. Lagos bat virus is a lyssavirus that is endemic in straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Africa. Here we compared the susceptibility of these bats to three strains of Lagos bat virus (from Senegal, Nigeria, and Ghana) by intracranial inoculation. To allow comparison between strains, we ensured the same titer of virus was inoculated in the same location of the brain of each bat. All bats (n = 3 per strain) were infected, and developed neurological signs, and fatal meningoencephalitis with lyssavirus antigen expression in neurons. There were three main differences among the groups. First, time to death was substantially shorter in the Senegal and Ghana groups (4 to 6 days) than in the Nigeria group (8 days). Second, each virus strain produced a distinct clinical syndrome. Third, the spread of virus to peripheral tissues, tested by hemi-nested reverse transcriptase PCR, was frequent (3 of 3 bats) and widespread (8 to 10 tissues positive of 11 tissues examined) in the Ghana group, was frequent and less widespread in the Senegal group (3/3 bats, 3 to 6 tissues positive), and was rare and restricted in the Nigeria group (1/3 bats, 2 tissues positive). Centrifugal spread of virus from brain to tissue of excretion in the oral cavity is required to enable lyssavirus transmission. Therefore, the Senegal and Ghana strains seem most suitable for further pathogenesis, and for transmission, studies in the straw-colored fruit bat.

  10. Molecular diagnostics for the detection of Bokeloh bat lyssavirus in a bat from Bavaria, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, Conrad M; Abendroth, Björn; Beer, Martin; Fischer, Melina; Hanke, Dennis; Hoffmann, Bernd; Höper, Dirk; Just, Frank; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Schatz, Juliane; Müller, Thomas

    2013-11-06

    A brain sample of a Natterer's bat tested positive for rabies with classical virological techniques. Molecular techniques confirmed the presence of Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV) in Germany for the second time. Sequence analysis revealed a close genetic relationship to the initial German BBLV case. Using a TaqMan RT-PCR specific for BBLV viral RNA was detected in various other organs albeit with differences in the relative viral load. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    . We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains...... into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than...

  12. Skin and fur bacterial diversity and community structure on American southwestern bats: effects of habitat, geography and bat traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara S. Winter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms that reside on and in mammals, such as bats, have the potential to influence their host’s health and to provide defenses against invading pathogens. However, we have little understanding of the skin and fur bacterial microbiota on bats, or factors that influence the structure of these communities. The southwestern United States offers excellent sites for the study of external bat bacterial microbiota due to the diversity of bat species, the variety of abiotic and biotic factors that may govern bat bacterial microbiota communities, and the lack of the newly emergent fungal disease in bats, white-nose syndrome (WNS, in the southwest. To test these variables, we used 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing from swabs of external skin and fur surfaces from 163 bats from 13 species sampled from southeastern New Mexico to northwestern Arizona. Community similarity patterns, random forest models, and generalized linear mixed-effects models show that factors such as location (e.g., cave-caught versus surface-netted and ecoregion are major contributors to the structure of bacterial communities on bats. Bats caught in caves had a distinct microbial community compared to those that were netted on the surface. Our results provide a first insight into the distribution of skin and fur bat bacteria in the WNS-free environment of New Mexico and Arizona. More importantly, it provides a baseline of bat external microbiota that can be explored for potential natural defenses against pathogens.

  13. Skin and fur bacterial diversity and community structure on American southwestern bats: effects of habitat, geography and bat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Ara S; Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Kimble, Jason C; Buecher, Debbie C; Valdez, Ernest W; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Young, Jesse M; Read, Kaitlyn J H; Northup, Diana E

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms that reside on and in mammals, such as bats, have the potential to influence their host's health and to provide defenses against invading pathogens. However, we have little understanding of the skin and fur bacterial microbiota on bats, or factors that influence the structure of these communities. The southwestern United States offers excellent sites for the study of external bat bacterial microbiota due to the diversity of bat species, the variety of abiotic and biotic factors that may govern bat bacterial microbiota communities, and the lack of the newly emergent fungal disease in bats, white-nose syndrome (WNS), in the southwest. To test these variables, we used 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing from swabs of external skin and fur surfaces from 163 bats from 13 species sampled from southeastern New Mexico to northwestern Arizona. Community similarity patterns, random forest models, and generalized linear mixed-effects models show that factors such as location (e.g., cave-caught versus surface-netted) and ecoregion are major contributors to the structure of bacterial communities on bats. Bats caught in caves had a distinct microbial community compared to those that were netted on the surface. Our results provide a first insight into the distribution of skin and fur bat bacteria in the WNS-free environment of New Mexico and Arizona. More importantly, it provides a baseline of bat external microbiota that can be explored for potential natural defenses against pathogens.

  14. Bat Accelerated Regions Identify a Bat Forelimb Specific Enhancer in the HoxD Locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty M Booker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular events leading to the development of the bat wing remain largely unknown, and are thought to be caused, in part, by changes in gene expression during limb development. These expression changes could be instigated by variations in gene regulatory enhancers. Here, we used a comparative genomics approach to identify regions that evolved rapidly in the bat ancestor, but are highly conserved in other vertebrates. We discovered 166 bat accelerated regions (BARs that overlap H3K27ac and p300 ChIP-seq peaks in developing mouse limbs. Using a mouse enhancer assay, we show that five Myotis lucifugus BARs drive gene expression in the developing mouse limb, with the majority showing differential enhancer activity compared to the mouse orthologous BAR sequences. These include BAR116, which is located telomeric to the HoxD cluster and had robust forelimb expression for the M. lucifugus sequence and no activity for the mouse sequence at embryonic day 12.5. Developing limb expression analysis of Hoxd10-Hoxd13 in Miniopterus natalensis bats showed a high-forelimb weak-hindlimb expression for Hoxd10-Hoxd11, similar to the expression trend observed for M. lucifugus BAR116 in mice, suggesting that it could be involved in the regulation of the bat HoxD complex. Combined, our results highlight novel regulatory regions that could be instrumental for the morphological differences leading to the development of the bat wing.

  15. Echolocation The Strange Ways of Bats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. Echolocation The Strange Ways of Bats. G Marimuthu. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 40-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/05/0040-0048. Author Affiliations.

  16. The innervation of the bat cochlea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firbas, Wilhelm

    1970-01-01

    For different species of bats, fixed in 5 % formaldehyd, an estimation of the number of neurons in the spiral ganglion was made. The cochleae were decalcified in EDTA and embedded in paraffin. The complete series of sections were stained with hematoxylin. On the sections through the ganglion, the

  17. Economic dispatch using chaotic bat algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adarsh, B.R.; Raghunathan, T.; Jayabarathi, T.; Yang, Xin-She

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a new metaheuristic optimization algorithm, the chaotic bat algorithm for solving the economic dispatch problem involving a number of equality and inequality constraints such as power balance, prohibited operating zones and ramp rate limits. Transmission losses and multiple fuel options are also considered for some problems. The chaotic bat algorithm, a variant of the basic bat algorithm, is obtained by incorporating chaotic sequences to enhance its performance. Five different example problems comprising 6, 13, 20, 40 and 160 generating units are solved to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. The algorithm requires little tuning by the user, and the results obtained show that it either outperforms or compares favorably with several existing techniques reported in literature. - Highlights: • The chaotic bat algorithm, a new metaheuristic optimization algorithm has been used. • The problem solved – the economic dispatch problem – is nonlinear, discontinuous. • It has number of equality and inequality constraints. • The algorithm has been demonstrated to be applicable on high dimensional problems.

  18. Bats of the Colorado oil shale region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, R.B. Jr.; Caire, W.; Wilhelm, D.E.

    1984-10-31

    New records for Myotis californicus, M. evotis, M. leibii, M. lucifugus, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasiurus cinereus, Plecotus townsendii, and Antrozous pallidus and their habitat occurrence in northwestern Colorado are reported. Mortality of 27 bats of six species trapped in an oil sludge pit is described. 7 references.

  19. The distribution of bats in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, S.

    1970-01-01

    The Research Institute for Nature Management (R.I.N.) has compiled all available information on the distribution of bats in the Netherlands up till 1968. The data were derived from literature and museum specimens, as well as from numerous unpublished observations. Around 1960 much was known already

  20. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Xiang Tian

    Full Text Available How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here, the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT, despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05. Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.

  1. Bat records from Malawi (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Wim; Jachmann, Hugo

    1983-01-01

    Five species of bats are recorded from Kasungu National Park, Malawi: Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792); Epomophorus anurus Heuglin, 1864; Epomophorus minor Dobson, 1880; Epomops dobsonii (Bocage, 1889); and Scotoecus hindei Thomas, 1901. Some other Malawian records of these species, based on literature

  2. Analysis of bat wings for morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leylek, Emily A.; Manzo, Justin E.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-03-01

    The morphing of wings from three different bat species is studied using an extension of the Weissinger method. To understand how camber affects performance factors such as lift and lift to drag ratio, XFOIL is used to study thin (3% thickness to chord ratio) airfoils at a low Reynolds number of 100,000. The maximum camber of 9% yielded the largest lift coefficient, and a mid-range camber of 7% yielded the largest lift to drag ratio. Correlations between bat wing morphology and flight characteristics are covered, and the three bat wing planforms chosen represent various combinations of morphological components and different flight modes. The wings are studied using the extended Weissinger method in an "unmorphed" configuration using a thin, symmetric airfoil across the span of the wing through angles of attack of 0°-15°. The wings are then run in the Weissinger method at angles of attack of -2° to 12° in a "morphed" configuration modeled after bat wings seen in flight, where the camber of the airfoils comprising the wings is varied along the span and a twist distribution along the span is introduced. The morphed wing configurations increase the lift coefficient over 1000% from the unmorphed configuration and increase the lift to drag ratio over 175%. The results of the three different species correlate well with their flight in nature.

  3. Fire and the endangered Indiana bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Dickinson; Michael J. Lacki; Daniel R. Cox

    2009-01-01

    Fire and Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) have coexisted for millennia in the central hardwoods region, yet past declines in populations of this endangered species, and the imperative of fire use in oak silviculture and ecosystem conservation, call for an analysis of both the risks and opportunities associated with using fires on landscapes in...

  4. Summer ecology of Indiana bats in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) is a tree roosting species found throughout the eastern United States that is federally listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. A more detailed understanding of summer roosting and foraging habitat...

  5. Bats are rare reservoirs of Staphylococcus aureus complex in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Jana; Gmeiner, Markus; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Matsiégui, Pierre-Blaise; Schaer, Juliane; Eckerle, Isabella; Weber, Natalie; Matuschewski, Kai; Bletz, Stefan; Schaumburg, Frieder

    2017-01-01

    The colonization of afro-tropical wildlife with Staphylococcus aureus and the derived clade Staphylococcus schweitzeri remains largely unknown. A reservoir in bats could be of importance since bats and humans share overlapping habitats. In addition, bats are food sources in some African regions and can be the cause of zoonotic diseases. Here, we present a cross-sectional survey employing pharyngeal swabs of captured and released bats (n=133) in a forest area of Gabon. We detected low colonization rates of S. aureus (4-6%) and S. schweitzeri (4%) in two out of four species of fruit bats, namely Rousettus aegyptiacus and Micropteropus pusillus, but not in insectivorous bats. Multilocus sequence typing showed that S. aureus from Gabonese bats (ST2984, ST3259, ST3301, ST3302) were distinct from major African human associated clones (ST15, ST121, ST152). S. schweitzeri from bats (ST1697, ST1700) clustered with S. schweitzeri from other species (bats, monkeys) from Nigeria and Côte d'Ivoire. In conclusion, colonization rates of bats with S. aureus and S. schweitzeri were low in our study. Phylogenetic analysis supports an intense geographical dispersal of S. schweitzeri among different mammalian wildlife hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mercury accumulation in bats near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaripuddin, Khairunnisa; Kumar, Anjali; Sing, Kong-Wah; Halim, Muhammad-Rasul Abdullah; Nursyereen, Muhammad-Nasir; Wilson, John-James

    2014-09-01

    In large man-made reservoirs such as those resulting from hydroelectric dam construction, bacteria transform the relatively harmless inorganic mercury naturally present in soil and the submerged plant matter into toxic methylmercury. Methylmercury then enters food webs and can accumulate in organisms at higher trophic levels. Bats feeding on insects emerging from aquatic systems can show accumulation of mercury consumed through their insect prey. In this study, we investigated whether the concentration of mercury in the fur of insectivorous bat species was significantly higher than that in the fur of frugivorous bat species, sampled near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia. Bats were sampled at Temenggor Lake and Kenyir Lake and fur samples from the most abundant genera of the two feeding guilds-insectivorous (Hipposideros and Rhinolophus) and frugivorous (Cynopterus and Megaerops) were collected for mercury analysis. We found significantly higher concentrations of total mercury in the fur of insectivorous bats. Mercury concentrations also differed significantly between insectivorous bats sampled at the two sites, with bats from Kenyir Lake, the younger reservoir, showing higher mercury concentrations, and between the insectivorous genera, with Hipposideros bats showing higher mercury concentrations. Ten bats (H. cf. larvatus) sampled at Kenyir Lake had mercury concentrations approaching or exceeding 10 mg/kg, which is the threshold at which detrimental effects occur in humans, bats and mice.

  7. Renewed mining and reclamation: Imapacts on bats and potential mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Berry, R.D. [Brown-Berry Biological Consulting, Bishop, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Historic mining created new roosting habitat for many bat species. Now the same industry has the potential to adversely impact bats. Contemporary mining operations usually occur in historic districts; consequently the old workings are destroyed by open pit operations. Occasionally, underground techniques are employed, resulting in the enlargement or destruction of the original workings. Even during exploratory operations, historic mine openings can be covered as drill roads are bulldozed, or drills can penetrate and collapse underground workings. Nearby blasting associated with mine construction and operation can disrupt roosting bats. Bats can also be disturbed by the entry of mine personnel to collect ore samples or by recreational mine explorers, since the creation of roads often results in easier access. In addition to roost disturbance, other aspects of renewed mining can have adverse impacts on bat populations, and affect even those bats that do not live in mines. Open cyanide ponds, or other water in which toxic chemicals accumulate, can poison bats and other wildlife. The creation of the pits, roads and processing areas often destroys critical foraging habitat, or change drainage patterns. Finally, at the completion of mining, any historic mines still open may be sealed as part of closure and reclamation activities. The net result can be a loss of bats and bat habitat. Conversely, in some contemporary underground operations, future roosting habitat for bats can be fabricated. An experimental approach to the creation of new roosting habitat is to bury culverts or old tires beneath waste rock. Mining companies can mitigate for impacts to bats by surveying to identify bat-roosting habitat, removing bats prior to renewed mining or closure, protecting non-impacted roost sites with gates and fences, researching to identify habitat requirements and creating new artificial roosts.

  8. A decade of U.S. Air Force bat strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Stepko, Laura

    2009-01-01

    From 1997 through 2007, 821 bat strikes were reported to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Safety Center by aircraft personnel or ground crew and sent to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for identification. Many samples were identified by macroscopic and or microscopic comparisons with bat specimens housed in the museum and augmented during the last 2 years by DNA analysis. Bat remains from USAF strikes during this period were received at the museum from 40 states in the United States and from 20 countries. We confirmed that 46% of the strikes were caused by bats, but we did not identify them further; we identified 5% only to the family or genus level, and 49% to the species level. Fifty-five of the 101 bat-strike samples submitted for DNA analysis have been identified to the species level. Twenty-five bat species have been recorded striking USAF planes worldwide. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis; n = 173) is the species most commonly identified in USAF strike impacts, followed by the red bat (Lasiurus borealis; n = 83). Bat strikes peak during the spring and fall, with >57% occurring from August through October; 82% of the reports that included time of strike were recorded between 2100 and 0900 hours. More than 12% of the bat strikes were reported at >300 m above ground level (AGL). Although $825,000 and >50% of this sum was attributable to 5 bat-strike incidents. Only 5 bats from the 10 most damaging bat strikes were identified to the species level, either because we did not receive remains with the reports or the sample was insufficient for identification.

  9. Cowboys and Vampires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    investments. This territory was soon explored by a number of American novels: John Beckman’s The Winter Zoo (2002), Dave Eggers’s You Shall Know Our Velocity (2002), Jonathan Safran Foer’s Everything Is Illuminated (2002), Jonathan Franzen’s The Corrections (2001), William Gibson’s Pattern Recognition (2003......During half of the twentieth century, the socialist states in Eastern and Central Europe functioned as a political Other that helped shape collective identities in the USA. The collapse of the socialist regimes in the early 1990s opened up a new territory for economic, personal and imaginary......), Arthur Phillips’s Prague (2002) and Gary Shteyngart’s The Russian Debutante’s Handbook (2002). This article argues that in these novels post-communist Eastern Europe functions as a region off the symbolic map, a wilderness, often violent, replete with traces of an insistent past. The novels often view...

  10. Survey of bat populations from Mexico and Paraguay for rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeler-Gordon, L L; Smith, J S

    2001-07-01

    A mammalian survey was conducted in Mexico (October 1994-January 1996) and in Paraguay (August 1996-March 1997); a complete specimen was collected for each bat in the survey, including primary voucher specimen, ectoparasites, karyotype, and various frozen tissues. The surveys combined provided 937 brain samples (65 bat species) for rabies diagnosis. One male Lasiurus ega, collected in Paraguay, tested positive for the rabies virus (overall prevalence rate of 0.1%). Nucleotide sequence from a 300 bp region of the rabies nucleoprotein gene was compared with sequence obtained from representative rabies virus samples in the repository at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, Georgia, USA). Rabies virus extracted from the brain material of L. ega differed by only one nucleotide from a 300 bp consensus sequence (>99% homology) derived from samples for the variant of rabies virus transmitted by Lasiurus cinereus. Lasiurus ego differed by approximately 15% for the variant transmitted by Desmodus rotundus. Phylogenetic analysis found no evidence to suggest L. ego is a reservoir for rabies antigenic variant 6. The most likely explanation for rabies in L. ega was infection following contact with a rabid L. cinereus.

  11. Mitochondrial genome of Pteronotus personatus (Chiroptera: Mormoopidae): comparison with selected bats and phylogenetic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Wilchis, Ricardo; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel Ángel; Guevara-Chumacero, Luis Manuel

    2017-02-01

    We described the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Wagner's mustached bat, Pteronotus personatus, a species belonging to the family Mormoopidae, and compared it with other published mitogenomes of bats (Chiroptera). The mitogenome of P. personatus was 16,570 bp long and contained a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and one control region (D-loop). Most of the genes were encoded on the H-strand, except for eight tRNA and the ND6 genes. The order of protein-coding and rRNA genes was highly conserved in all mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes started with an ATG codon, except for ND2, ND3, and ND5, which initiated with ATA, and terminated with the typical stop codon TAA/TAG or the codon AGA. Phylogenetic trees constructed using Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods showed an identical topology and indicated the monophyly of different families of bats (Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, Vespertilionidae, Rhinolophidae, and Pteropopidae) and the existence of two major clades corresponding to the suborders Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera. The mitogenome sequence provided here will be useful for further phylogenetic analyses and population genetic studies in mormoopid bats.

  12. The electrocardiogram signal of Seba's short-tailed bat, Carollia perspicillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihova, Diana; Hechavarría, Julio C

    2016-07-01

    A number of studies have successfully used electrocardiogram (ECG) signals to characterize complex physiological phenomena such as associative learning in bats. However, at present, no thorough characterization of the structure of ECG signals is available for these animals. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively characterize features of the ECG signals in the bat species Carollia perspicillata, a species that is commonly used in neuroethology studies. Our results show that the ECG signals of C. perspicillata follow the typical mammalian pattern, in that they are composed by a P wave, QRS complex and a T wave. Peak-to-peak amplitudes in the bats' ECG signals were larger in measuring configurations in which one of the electrodes was attached to the right thumb. In addition, large differences in the instantaneous heart rate (HR) distributions were observed between ketamine/xylazine anesthetized and awake bats. Ketamine/xylazine might target the neural circuits that control HR, therefore, instantaneous HR measurements should only be used as physiological marker in awake animals.

  13. Bat detective—Deep learning tools for bat acoustic signal detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Kate E.; Firman, Michael; Freeman, Robin; Harder, Briana; Kinsey, Libby; Mead, Gary R.; Newson, Stuart E.; Pandourski, Ivan; Russ, Jon; Szodoray-Paradi, Abigel; Tilova, Elena; Girolami, Mark; Jones, Kate E.

    2018-01-01

    Passive acoustic sensing has emerged as a powerful tool for quantifying anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity, especially for echolocating bat species. To better assess bat population trends there is a critical need for accurate, reliable, and open source tools that allow the detection and classification of bat calls in large collections of audio recordings. The majority of existing tools are commercial or have focused on the species classification task, neglecting the important problem of first localizing echolocation calls in audio which is particularly problematic in noisy recordings. We developed a convolutional neural network based open-source pipeline for detecting ultrasonic, full-spectrum, search-phase calls produced by echolocating bats. Our deep learning algorithms were trained on full-spectrum ultrasonic audio collected along road-transects across Europe and labelled by citizen scientists from www.batdetective.org. When compared to other existing algorithms and commercial systems, we show significantly higher detection performance of search-phase echolocation calls with our test sets. As an example application, we ran our detection pipeline on bat monitoring data collected over five years from Jersey (UK), and compared results to a widely-used commercial system. Our detection pipeline can be used for the automatic detection and monitoring of bat populations, and further facilitates their use as indicator species on a large scale. Our proposed pipeline makes only a small number of bat specific design decisions, and with appropriate training data it could be applied to detecting other species in audio. A crucial novelty of our work is showing that with careful, non-trivial, design and implementation considerations, state-of-the-art deep learning methods can be used for accurate and efficient monitoring in audio. PMID:29518076

  14. Bat detective-Deep learning tools for bat acoustic signal detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Aodha, Oisin; Gibb, Rory; Barlow, Kate E; Browning, Ella; Firman, Michael; Freeman, Robin; Harder, Briana; Kinsey, Libby; Mead, Gary R; Newson, Stuart E; Pandourski, Ivan; Parsons, Stuart; Russ, Jon; Szodoray-Paradi, Abigel; Szodoray-Paradi, Farkas; Tilova, Elena; Girolami, Mark; Brostow, Gabriel; Jones, Kate E

    2018-03-01

    Passive acoustic sensing has emerged as a powerful tool for quantifying anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity, especially for echolocating bat species. To better assess bat population trends there is a critical need for accurate, reliable, and open source tools that allow the detection and classification of bat calls in large collections of audio recordings. The majority of existing tools are commercial or have focused on the species classification task, neglecting the important problem of first localizing echolocation calls in audio which is particularly problematic in noisy recordings. We developed a convolutional neural network based open-source pipeline for detecting ultrasonic, full-spectrum, search-phase calls produced by echolocating bats. Our deep learning algorithms were trained on full-spectrum ultrasonic audio collected along road-transects across Europe and labelled by citizen scientists from www.batdetective.org. When compared to other existing algorithms and commercial systems, we show significantly higher detection performance of search-phase echolocation calls with our test sets. As an example application, we ran our detection pipeline on bat monitoring data collected over five years from Jersey (UK), and compared results to a widely-used commercial system. Our detection pipeline can be used for the automatic detection and monitoring of bat populations, and further facilitates their use as indicator species on a large scale. Our proposed pipeline makes only a small number of bat specific design decisions, and with appropriate training data it could be applied to detecting other species in audio. A crucial novelty of our work is showing that with careful, non-trivial, design and implementation considerations, state-of-the-art deep learning methods can be used for accurate and efficient monitoring in audio.

  15. Migration of bats past a remote island offers clues toward the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Brown, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Wind energy is rapidly becoming a viable source of alternative energy, but wind turbines are killing bats in many areas of North America. Most of the bats killed by turbines thus far have been migratory species that roost in trees throughout the year, and the highest fatality events appear to coincide with autumn migration. Hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) are highly migratory and one of the most frequently killed species at wind turbines. We analyzed a long-term data set to investigate how weather and moonlight influenced the occurrence of hoary bats at an island stopover point along their migration route. We then related our results to the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines. We found that relatively low wind speeds, low moon illumination, and relatively high degrees of cloud cover were important predictors of bat arrivals and departures, and that low barometric pressure was an additional variable that helped predict arrivals. Slight differences in the conditions under which bats arrived and departed from the island suggest that hoary bats may be more likely to arrive on the island with passing storm fronts in autumn. These results also indicate that fatalities of hoary bats at wind turbines may be predictable events, that the species may be drawn to prominent landmarks that they see during migration, and that they regularly migrate over the ocean. Additional observations from this and other studies suggest that the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines may be associated with flocking and autumn mating behaviors.

  16. Leishmania (V.) braziliensis infecting bats from Pantanal wetland, Brazil: First records for Platyrrhinus lineatus and Artibeus planirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Ferreira, Eduardo; Pereira, Agnes Antônio Sampaio; Silveira, Maurício; Margonari, Carina; Marcon, Glaucia Elisete Barbosa; de Oliveira França, Adriana; Castro, Ludiele Souza; Bordignon, Marcelo Oscar; Fischer, Erich; Tomas, Walfrido Moraes; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira

    2017-08-01

    In the New World genus Leishmania parasites are etiological agents of neglected zoonoses known as leishmaniasis. Its epidemiology is very complex due to the participation of several species of sand fly vectors and mammalian hosts, and man is an accidental host. Control is very difficult because of the different epidemiological patterns of transmission observed. Studies about Leishmania spp. infection in bats are so scarce, which represents a large gap in knowledge about the role of these animals in the transmission cycle of these pathogens, especially when considering that Chiroptera is one of the most abundant and diverse orders among mammals. Leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil are remarkably frequent, probably due to the abundance of its regional mastofauna. The recent record of L. braziliensis in bats from this state indicates the need to clarify the role of these mammals in the transmission cycle. In this study we evaluated the presence of Leishmania parasites in the skin of different species of bats, using PCR directed to Leishmania spp. kDNA for screening followed by PCR/RFLP analysis of the hsp70 gene for the identification of parasite species. Leishmania species identification was confirmed by PCR directed to the G6PD gene of L. braziliensis, followed by sequencing of the PCR product. Samples from 47 bats were processed, of which in three specimens (6.38%) was detected the presence of Leishmania sp. kDNA. PCR/RFLP and sequencing identified the species involved in the infection as L. braziliensis in all of them. This is the first report of Leishmania braziliensis in bats from Pantanal ecosystem and the first record of this species in Platyrrhinus lineatus and Artibeus planirostris, bats with a wide distribution in South America. These results reinforce the need to deepen the knowledge about the possibility of bats act as reservoirs of Leishmania spp. especially considering their ability of dispersion and occupation of anthropic environments

  17. Molecular inferences suggest multiple host shifts of rabies viruses from bats to mesocarnivores in Arizona during 2001-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V Kuzmin

    Full Text Available In nature, rabies virus (RABV; genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae represents an assemblage of phylogenetic lineages, associated with specific mammalian host species. Although it is generally accepted that RABV evolved originally in bats and further shifted to carnivores, mechanisms of such host shifts are poorly understood, and examples are rarely present in surveillance data. Outbreaks in carnivores caused by a RABV variant, associated with big brown bats, occurred repeatedly during 2001-2009 in the Flagstaff area of Arizona. After each outbreak, extensive control campaigns were undertaken, with no reports of further rabies cases in carnivores for the next several years. However, questions remained whether all outbreaks were caused by a single introduction and further perpetuation of bat RABV in carnivore populations, or each outbreak was caused by an independent introduction of a bat virus. Another question of concern was related to adaptive changes in the RABV genome associated with host shifts. To address these questions, we sequenced and analyzed 66 complete and 20 nearly complete RABV genomes, including those from the Flagstaff area and other similar outbreaks in carnivores, caused by bat RABVs, and representatives of the major RABV lineages circulating in North America and worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that each Flagstaff outbreak was caused by an independent introduction of bat RABV into populations of carnivores. Positive selection analysis confirmed the absence of post-shift changes in RABV genes. In contrast, convergent evolution analysis demonstrated several amino acids in the N, P, G and L proteins, which might be significant for pre-adaptation of bat viruses to cause effective infection in carnivores. The substitution S/T₂₄₂ in the viral glycoprotein is of particular merit, as a similar substitution was suggested for pathogenicity of Nishigahara RABV strain. Roles of the amino acid changes, detected in our

  18. Loss of dorsomedial hypothalamic GLP-1 signaling reduces BAT thermogenesis and increases adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin J; Sanchez-Watts, Graciela; Krieger, Jean-Philippe; Pignalosa, Angelica; Norell, Puck N; Cortella, Alyssa; Pettersen, Klaus G; Vrdoljak, Dubravka; Hayes, Matthew R; Kanoski, Scott; Langhans, Wolfgang; Watts, Alan G

    2018-05-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neurons in the hindbrain densely innervate the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), a nucleus strongly implicated in body weight regulation and the sympathetic control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Therefore, DMH GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are well placed to regulate energy balance by controlling sympathetic outflow and BAT function. We investigate this possibility in adult male rats by using direct administration of GLP-1 (0.5 ug) into the DMH, knocking down DMH GLP-1R mRNA with viral-mediated RNA interference, and by examining the neurochemical phenotype of GLP-1R expressing cells in the DMH using in situ hybridization. GLP-1 administered into the DMH increased BAT thermogenesis and hepatic triglyceride (TG) mobilization. On the other hand, Glp1r knockdown (KD) in the DMH increased body weight gain and adiposity, with a concomitant reduction in energy expenditure (EE), BAT temperature, and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. Moreover, DMH Glp1r KD induced hepatic steatosis, increased plasma TG, and elevated liver specific de-novo lipogenesis, effects that collectively contributed to insulin resistance. Interestingly, DMH Glp1r KD increased neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA expression in the DMH. GLP-1R mRNA in the DMH, however, was found in GABAergic not NPY neurons, consistent with a GLP-1R-dependent inhibition of NPY neurons that is mediated by local GABAergic neurons. Finally, DMH Glp1r KD attenuated the anorexigenic effects of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4, highlighting an important role of DMH GLP-1R signaling in GLP-1-based therapies. Collectively, our data show that DMH GLP-1R signaling plays a key role for BAT thermogenesis and adiposity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  19. Survey for bats in the Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park, with special emphasis on the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrell, K.; Brack, V. Jr.

    1992-10-29

    To increase knowledge about the presence of endangered species and their habitat at the LANL, 3D/Environmental Services, Inc. conducted a mist net survey for bats on Laboratory lands. In addition to documenting the presence of threatened and endangered species, this survey was conducted to gain more knowledge about the diversity and distribution of the bat fauna existing on the Laboratory. There are 25 species of bats found in New Mexico, about 16 of which are likely to occur in the region of the Laboratory. Of particular interest was documentation of the presence of the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum. The spotted bat is listed as Endangered, Group 2 by the State of New Mexico, and is a Federal Candidate for listing as endangered. As such, conservation of this species and its habitat should be a management priority on the Laboratory. A total of 94 bats were captured in 16 net nights, between 30 June and 05 July 1992. Thirteen species of bats were caught during the study: Antrozous pallidus (pallid bat), 10.6 percent; Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat), 10.6 percent; Lasionycteris noctivigans (silver-haired bat), 16 percent; Lasiurus cinereus (hoary bat), 11.7 percent; Myotis californicus (California myotis), 4.3 percent; M. evotis (long-eared myotis), 7.4 percent; M. leibii (small-footed myotis), 5.3 percent; M. thysanodes (fringed myotis), 13.8 percent; M. volans (long-legged myotis), 7.4 percent of the catch; M. yumanensis,(Yuma myotis), 5.3 percent; Pipistrellus hesperus (western pipistrelle), 1.1 percent; Plecotus townsendii (Townsend`s big-eared bat), 1.1 percent, and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat), 5.3 percent.

  20. Survey for bats in the Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park, with special emphasis on the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrell, K.; Brack, V. Jr.

    1992-10-29

    To increase knowledge about the presence of endangered species and their habitat at the LANL, 3D/Environmental Services, Inc. conducted a mist net survey for bats on Laboratory lands. In addition to documenting the presence of threatened and endangered species, this survey was conducted to gain more knowledge about the diversity and distribution of the bat fauna existing on the Laboratory. There are 25 species of bats found in New Mexico, about 16 of which are likely to occur in the region of the Laboratory. Of particular interest was documentation of the presence of the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum. The spotted bat is listed as Endangered, Group 2 by the State of New Mexico, and is a Federal Candidate for listing as endangered. As such, conservation of this species and its habitat should be a management priority on the Laboratory. A total of 94 bats were captured in 16 net nights, between 30 June and 05 July 1992. Thirteen species of bats were caught during the study: Antrozous pallidus (pallid bat), 10.6 percent; Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat), 10.6 percent; Lasionycteris noctivigans (silver-haired bat), 16 percent; Lasiurus cinereus (hoary bat), 11.7 percent; Myotis californicus (California myotis), 4.3 percent; M. evotis (long-eared myotis), 7.4 percent; M. leibii (small-footed myotis), 5.3 percent; M. thysanodes (fringed myotis), 13.8 percent; M. volans (long-legged myotis), 7.4 percent of the catch; M. yumanensis,(Yuma myotis), 5.3 percent; Pipistrellus hesperus (western pipistrelle), 1.1 percent; Plecotus townsendii (Townsend's big-eared bat), 1.1 percent, and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat), 5.3 percent.

  1. Monitoring Sensitive Bat Species at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberg, Kari M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Bats play a critical role in ecosystems and are vulnerable to disturbance and disruption by human activities. In recent decades, bat populations in the United States and elsewhere have decreased tremendously. There are 47 different species of bat in the United States and 28 of these occur in New Mexico with 15 different species documented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and surrounding areas. Euderma maculatum(the spotted bat) is listed as “threatened” by the state of New Mexico and is known to occur at LANL. Four other species of bats are listed as “sensitive” and also occur here. In 1995, a four year study was initiated at LANL to assess the status of bat species of concern, elucidate distribution and relative abundance, and obtain information on roosting sites. There have been no definitive studies since then. Biologists in the Environmental Protection Division at LANL initiated a multi-year monitoring program for bats in May 2013 to implement the Biological Resources Management Plan. The objective of this ongoing study is to monitor bat species diversity and seasonal activity over time at LANL. Bat species diversity and seasonal activity were measured using an acoustic bat detector, the Pettersson D500X. This ultrasound recording unit is intended for long-term, unattended recording of bat and other high frequency animal calls. During 2013, the detector was deployed at two locations around LANL. Study sites were selected based on proximity to water where bats may be foraging. Recorded bat calls were analyzed using Sonobat, software that can help determine specific species of bat through their calls. A list of bat species at the two sites was developed and compared to lists from previous studies. Species diversity and seasonal activity, measured as the number of call sequences recorded each month, were compared between sites and among months. A total of 17,923 bat calls were recorded representing 15 species. Results indicate that there is a

  2. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Turner, Gregory G; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle; Russell, Robin E; Castle, Kevin T

    2013-04-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  3. Wind turbines and bats: towards a peaceful coexistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitz, P.

    2013-01-01

    The most important hazard for a bat is the collision with a rotating blade. The risk of collision depends on the wrong positioning of a wind turbine in the hunting area of a local population of bats and on the complex behaviour of bats. All the 34 species of bats living in France are protected species. Recommendations issued by the ministry of ecology include to perform preliminary impact studies on bat population before the installation of a wind turbine farm, to perform impact studies during wind turbine operations and to take measures to have the least impact as possible. The number of wind farms being on the rise, the knowledge of the behaviour of bats is getting more accurate through the use of dedicated instruments. (A.C.)

  4. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Turner, Gregory G.; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle L.; Russell, Robin E.; Castle, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  5. Great tits search for, capture, kill and eat hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estók, Péter; Zsebők, Sándor; Siemers, Björn M.

    2010-01-01

    Ecological pressure paired with opportunism can lead to surprising innovations in animal behaviour. Here, we report predation of great tits (Parus major) on hibernating pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) at a Hungarian cave. Over two winters, we directly observed 18 predation events. The tits specifically and systematically searched for and killed bats for food. A substantial decrease in predation on bats after experimental provisioning of food to the tits further supports the hypothesis that bat-killing serves a foraging purpose in times of food scarcity. We finally conducted a playback experiment to test whether tits would eavesdrop on calls of awakening bats to find them in rock crevices. The tits could clearly hear the calls and were attracted to the loudspeaker. Records for tit predation on bats at this cave now span more than ten years and thus raise the question of whether cultural transmission plays a role for the spread of this foraging innovation. PMID:19740892

  6. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in bats: Molecular investigation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Cerva, Cristine; Rosa, Júlio; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Pacheco, Susi Missel; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Brazilian bats and to determine possible risk factors associated to it. Ninety two bats of 12 species were evaluated. Whole genomic DNA from kidneys was extracted and real-time PCR specific to pathogenic Leptospira spp. was applied. Association between the frequency of specimens positive for Leptospira spp. and sex, age, bat species or family, season of collection, geographic localization and feeding habits was evaluated. The results showed that 39.13% of analyzed bats were found positive for Leptospira spp. Nine bat species had at least one positive result. There was no association among the evaluated variables and frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Although the limitations due to lack of Leptospira spp. isolation, leptospiral carriage was demonstrated in bats of different species from southern Brazil, which reinforces the need for surveillance of infectious agents in wild animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Innate recognition of water bodies in echolocating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Stefan; Siemers, Björn M

    2010-11-02

    In the course of their lives, most animals must find different specific habitat and microhabitat types for survival and reproduction. Yet, in vertebrates, little is known about the sensory cues that mediate habitat recognition. In free flying bats the echolocation of insect-sized point targets is well understood, whereas how they recognize and classify spatially extended echo targets is currently unknown. In this study, we show how echolocating bats recognize ponds or other water bodies that are crucial for foraging, drinking and orientation. With wild bats of 15 different species (seven genera from three phylogenetically distant, large bat families), we found that bats perceived any extended, echo-acoustically smooth surface to be water, even in the presence of conflicting information from other sensory modalities. In addition, naive juvenile bats that had never before encountered a water body showed spontaneous drinking responses from smooth plates. This provides the first evidence for innate recognition of a habitat cue in a mammal.

  8. Group A Rotaviruses in Chinese Bats: Genetic Composition, Serology, and Evidence for Bat-to-Human Transmission and Reassortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Biao; Huang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Fuqiang; Tan, Weilong; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Qin, Shaomin; Xu, Lin; Zhao, Zihan; Yang, Ling'en; Wang, Quanxi; Hu, Tingsong; Bao, Xiaolei; Wu, Jianmin; Tu, Changchun

    2017-06-15

    Bats are natural reservoirs for many pathogenic viruses, and increasing evidence supports the notion that bats can also harbor group A rotaviruses (RVAs), important causative agents of diarrhea in children and young animals. Currently, 8 RVA strains possessing completely novel genotype constellations or genotypes possibly originating from other mammals have been identified from African and Chinese bats. However, all the data were mainly based on detection of RVA RNA, present only during acute infections, which does not permit assessment of the true exposure of a bat population to RVA. To systematically investigate the genetic diversity of RVAs, 547 bat anal swabs or gut samples along with 448 bat sera were collected from five South Chinese provinces. Specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) screening found four RVA strains. Strain GLRL1 possessed a completely novel genotype constellation, whereas the other three possessed a constellation consistent with the MSLH14-like genotype, a newly characterized group of viruses widely prevalent in Chinese insectivorous bats. Among the latter, strain LZHP2 provided strong evidence of cross-species transmission of RVAs from bats to humans, whereas strains YSSK5 and BSTM70 were likely reassortants between typical MSLH14-like RVAs and human RVAs. RVA-specific antibodies were detected in 10.7% (48/448) of bat sera by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA). Bats in Guangxi and Yunnan had a higher RVA-specific antibody prevalence than those from Fujian and Zhejiang provinces. These observations provide evidence for cross-species transmission of MSLH14-like bat RVAs to humans, highlighting the impact of bats as reservoirs of RVAs on public health. IMPORTANCE Bat viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses, are important pathogens causing outbreaks of severe emerging infectious diseases. However, little is known about bat viruses capable

  9. Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: Hypotheses and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  10. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences...

  11. Genetic Characteristics of Coronaviruses from Korean Bats in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Saemi; Jo, Seong-Deok; Son, Kidong; An, Injung; Jeong, Jipseol; Wang, Seung-Jun; Kim, Yongkwan; Jheong, Weonhwa; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2018-01-01

    Bats have increasingly been recognized as the natural reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), coronavirus, and other coronaviruses found in mammals. However, little research has been conducted on bat coronaviruses in South Korea. In this study, bat samples (332 oral swabs, 245 fecal samples, 38 urine samples, and 57 bat carcasses) were collected at 33 natural bat habitat sites in South Korea. RT-PCR and sequencing were performed for specific coronavirus genes to identify the bat coronaviruses in different bat samples. Coronaviruses were detected in 2.7% (18/672) of the samples: 13 oral swabs from one species of the family Rhinolophidae, and four fecal samples and one carcass (intestine) from three species of the family Vespertiliodae. To determine the genetic relationships of the 18 sequences obtained in this study and previously known coronaviruses, the nucleotide sequences of a 392-nt region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene were analyzed phylogenetically. Thirteen sequences belonging to SARS-like betacoronaviruses showed the highest nucleotide identity (97.1-99.7%) with Bat-CoV-JTMC15 reported in China. The other five sequences were most similar to MERS-like betacoronaviruses. Four nucleotide sequences displayed the highest identity (94.1-95.1%) with Bat-CoV-HKU5 from Hong Kong. The one sequence from a carcass showed the highest nucleotide identity (99%) with Bat-CoV-SC2013 from China. These results suggest that careful surveillance of coronaviruses from bats should be continued, because animal and human infections may result from the genetic variants present in bat coronavirus reservoirs.

  12. Pliocene bats (Chiroptera) from Kanapoi, Turkana Basin, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, Gregg F; Manthi, Fredrick K

    2018-04-05

    Fossil bats from the Pliocene of Africa are extremely rare, especially in East Africa where meager records have been reported only from two localities in the Omo River Basin Shungura Formation and from a scattering of localities in the Afar Depression, both in Ethiopia. Here we report on a diverse assemblage of bats from Kanapoi in the Turkana Basin that date to approximately 4.19 million years ago. The Kanapoi bat community consists of four different species of fruit bats including a new genus and two new species as well as five species of echolocating bats, the most common of which are two new species of the molossid genus Mops. Additionally, among the echolocating bats, a new species of the emballonurid Saccolaimus is documented at Kanapoi along with an additional Saccolaimus species and a potentially new species of the nycterid Nycteris. Compared to other East African Pliocene bat assemblages, the Kanapoi bat community is unique in preserving molossids and curiously lacks any evidence of cave dwelling bats like rhinolophids or hipposiderids, which are both common at other East African sites. The bats making up the Kanapoi community all typically roost in trees, with some preferring deeper forests and larger trees (molossids), while the others (pteropodids, nycterids and emballonurids) roost in trees near open areas. Living fruit bats that are related to Kanapoi species typically forage for fruits along the margins of forests and in open savannah. The echolocating forms from Kanapoi consist of groups that aerially hawk for insects in open areas between patches of forest and along water courses. The habitats preferred by living relatives of the Kanapoi bats are in agreement with those constructed for Kanapoi based on other lines of evidence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer M. Menzel; Michael A. Menzel; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards; Steven R. Sheffield; John C. Kilgo; Mary S. Bunch

    2003-01-01

    There is a paucity of information available about the distribution of bats in the southeastern United States. Golley (1966) recorded the distribution and gave a brief summary of the natural history of 11 of 14 species of bats that occur in South Carolina and DiSalvo et al. (2002) recently reported on the distribution of 13 species of bats that occur in South Carolina...

  14. Leishmania (L.) mexicana Infected Bats in Mexico: Novel Potential Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R.; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729

  15. Leishmania (L. mexicana infected bats in Mexico: novel potential reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Berzunza-Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L. mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L. mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%, belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus, and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L. mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L. mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology.

  16. Models of Eucalypt phenology predict bat population flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, John R; Plowright, Raina K; Eby, Peggy; Peel, Alison J; McCallum, Hamish

    2016-10-01

    Fruit bats (Pteropodidae) have received increased attention after the recent emergence of notable viral pathogens of bat origin. Their vagility hinders data collection on abundance and distribution, which constrains modeling efforts and our understanding of bat ecology, viral dynamics, and spillover. We addressed this knowledge gap with models and data on the occurrence and abundance of nectarivorous fruit bat populations at 3 day roosts in southeast Queensland. We used environmental drivers of nectar production as predictors and explored relationships between bat abundance and virus spillover. Specifically, we developed several novel modeling tools motivated by complexities of fruit bat foraging ecology, including: (1) a dataset of spatial variables comprising Eucalypt-focused vegetation indices, cumulative precipitation, and temperature anomaly; (2) an algorithm that associated bat population response with spatial covariates in a spatially and temporally relevant way given our current understanding of bat foraging behavior; and (3) a thorough statistical learning approach to finding optimal covariate combinations. We identified covariates that classify fruit bat occupancy at each of our three study roosts with 86-93% accuracy. Negative binomial models explained 43-53% of the variation in observed abundance across roosts. Our models suggest that spatiotemporal heterogeneity in Eucalypt-based food resources could drive at least 50% of bat population behavior at the landscape scale. We found that 13 spillover events were observed within the foraging range of our study roosts, and they occurred during times when models predicted low population abundance. Our results suggest that, in southeast Queensland, spillover may not be driven by large aggregations of fruit bats attracted by nectar-based resources, but rather by behavior of smaller resident subpopulations. Our models and data integrated remote sensing and statistical learning to make inferences on bat ecology

  17. Seroprevalence Dynamics of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in a Multispecies Bat Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc López-Roig

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an active surveillance study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1 in bat species, scarcely studied hitherto, that share the same refuge. From 2004 to 2012, 406 sera were obtained from nine bat species. Blood samples were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine the antibody titer. EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six of the nine species analyzed (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Hypsugo savii, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus serotinus and Tadarida teniotis. Among all bats sampled, female seroprevalence (20.21%, 95% CI: 14.78%–26.57% was not significantly higher than the seroprevalence in males (15.02%, 95% CI: 10.51%–20.54%. The results showed that the inter-annual variation in the number of seropositive bats in T. teniotis and P. austriacus showed a peak in 2007 (>70% of EBLV-1 prevalence. However, significant differences were observed in the temporal patterns of the seroprevalence modeling of T. teniotis and P. austriacus. The behavioral ecology of these species involved could explain the different annual fluctuations in EBLV-1 seroprevalence.

  18. Seroprevalence dynamics of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in a multispecies bat colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Roig, Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Lavenir, Rachel; Serra-Cobo, Jordi

    2014-09-04

    We report an active surveillance study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1) in bat species, scarcely studied hitherto, that share the same refuge. From 2004 to 2012, 406 sera were obtained from nine bat species. Blood samples were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine the antibody titer. EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six of the nine species analyzed (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Hypsugo savii, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus serotinus and Tadarida teniotis). Among all bats sampled, female seroprevalence (20.21%, 95% CI: 14.78%-26.57%) was not significantly higher than the seroprevalence in males (15.02%, 95% CI: 10.51%-20.54%). The results showed that the inter-annual variation in the number of seropositive bats in T. teniotis and P. austriacus showed a peak in 2007 (>70% of EBLV-1 prevalence). However, significant differences were observed in the temporal patterns of the seroprevalence modeling of T. teniotis and P. austriacus. The behavioral ecology of these species involved could explain the different annual fluctuations in EBLV-1 seroprevalence.

  19. Characterization of a Novel Bat Adenovirus Isolated from Straw-Colored Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hirohito; Kajihara, Masahiro; Nao, Naganori; Shigeno, Asako; Fujikura, Daisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Mutemwa, Alisheke; Squarre, David; Yamada, Masao; Higashi, Hideaki; Sawa, Hirofumi; Takada, Ayato

    2017-12-04

    Bats are important reservoirs for emerging zoonotic viruses. For extensive surveys of potential pathogens in straw-colored fruit bats ( Eidolon helvum ) in Zambia, a total of 107 spleen samples of E. helvum in 2006 were inoculated onto Vero E6 cells. The cell culture inoculated with one of the samples (ZFB06-106) exhibited remarkable cytopathic changes. Based on the ultrastructural property in negative staining and cross-reactivity in immunofluorescence assays, the virus was suspected to be an adenovirus, and tentatively named E. helvum adenovirus 06-106 (EhAdV 06-106). Analysis of the full-length genome of 30,134 bp, determined by next-generation sequencing, showed the presence of 28 open reading frames. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that EhAdV 06-106 represented a novel bat adenovirus species in the genus Mastadenovirus . The virus shared similar characteristics of low G + C contents with recently isolated members of species Bat mastadenoviruses E , F and G , from which EhAdV 06-106 diverged by more than 15% based on the distance matrix analysis of DNA polymerase amino acid sequences. According to the taxonomic criteria, we propose the tentative new species name " Bat mastadenovirus H ". Because EhAdV 06-106 exhibited a wide in vitro cell tropism, the virus might have a potential risk as an emerging virus through cross-species transmission.

  20. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  1. Bat white-nose syndrome: An emerging fungal pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Behr, M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Buckles, E.L.; Coleman, J.T.H.; Darling, S.R.; Gargas, A.; Niver, R.; Okoniewski, J.C.; Rudd, R.J.; Stone, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychro-philic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.

  2. Alterations in the health of hibernating bats under pathogen pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Berkova, Hana; Brichta, Jiri; Kokurewicz, Tomasz; Kovacova, Veronika; Linhart, Petr; Piacek, Vladimir; Pikula, Jiri; Zahradníková, Alexandra; Zukal, Jan

    2018-04-17

    In underground hibernacula temperate northern hemisphere bats are exposed to Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungal agent of white-nose syndrome. While pathological and epidemiological data suggest that Palearctic bats tolerate this infection, we lack knowledge about bat health under pathogen pressure. Here we report blood profiles, along with body mass index (BMI), infection intensity and hibernation temperature, in greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis). We sampled three European hibernacula that differ in geomorphology and microclimatic conditions. Skin lesion counts differed between contralateral wings of a bat, suggesting variable exposure to the fungus. Analysis of blood parameters suggests a threshold of ca. 300 skin lesions on both wings, combined with poor hibernation conditions, may distinguish healthy bats from those with homeostatic disruption. Physiological effects manifested as mild metabolic acidosis, decreased glucose and peripheral blood eosinophilia which were strongly locality-dependent. Hibernating bats displaying blood homeostasis disruption had 2 °C lower body surface temperatures. A shallow BMI loss slope with increasing pathogen load suggested a high degree of infection tolerance. European greater mouse-eared bats generally survive P. destructans invasion, despite some health deterioration at higher infection intensities (dependant on hibernation conditions). Conservation measures should minimise additional stressors to conserve constrained body reserves of bats during hibernation.

  3. Bats and Emerging Infections: An Ecological and Virological Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc

    2017-01-01

    More than 200 viruses have been detected in bats. Some unique bat characteristics can explain the roles played in the maintenance and transmission of viruses: long phylogenetic history can have originated coevolution processes, great number of species are adapted to live in different environments, big mobility, long lifespan and gregarious behaviour of many species.To analyse zoonoses long longitudinal studies are needed with a multidisciplinary approximation to obtain the following eco-epidemiological data: colony size, number of bats per species, population structure, behaviour of each species, degree of contact between bats, social structure, remaining time of bats in the colony, colony type, foraging area, turnover rate of individuals, shelter temperature, relationship with other colonies and co-infection processes. These data allows assessing the epidemiological risk and which preventive measures are necessary to take.The structure and functionality of ecosystems are changing worldwide at an unprecedented rate and can modify the interactions between humans and infected bats. There are more or less local factors that can affect the emergence and spread of diseases (environmental alterations, changes in land use, human population growth, changes in human socioeconomic behavior or social structure, people mobility increase, trade increase, forest fires, extreme weather events, wars, breakdown in public health infrastructure, etc.).Twenty-three percent of all bat species in the world are decreasing. How does the regression of bat species affect the dynamic of viruses? The dichotomy between health risk and bat preservation is compatible with a preventive task based on more information and training.

  4. Bacteria isolated from bats inhibit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Joseph R; Cheng, Tina L; Langwig, Kate E; Hee, Mallory M; Frick, Winifred F; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2015-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to wildlife. Several fungal skin pathogens have recently emerged and caused widespread mortality in several vertebrate groups, including amphibians, bats, rattlesnakes and humans. White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies. The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome. We isolated bacteria from the skin of four bat species, and co-cultured these isolates with P. destructans to identify bacteria that might inhibit or kill P. destructans. We then conducted two reciprocal challenge experiments in vitro with six bacterial isolates (all in the genus Pseudomonas) to quantify the effect of these bacteria on the growth of P. destructans. All six Pseudomonas isolates significantly inhibited growth of P. destructans compared to non-inhibitory control bacteria, and two isolates performed significantly better than others in suppressing P. destructans growth for at least 35 days. In both challenge experiments, the extent of suppression of P. destructans growth was dependent on the initial concentration of P. destructans and the initial concentration of the bacterial isolate. These results show that bacteria found naturally occurring on bats can inhibit the growth of P. destructans in vitro and should be studied further as a possible probiotic to protect bats from white-nose syndrome. In addition, the presence of these bacteria may influence disease outcomes among individuals, populations, and species.

  5. Algebraic reasoning and bat-and-ball problem variants: Solving isomorphic algebra first facilitates problem solving later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Jerome D; Healy, Alice F

    2017-12-01

    The classic bat-and-ball problem is used widely to measure biased and correct reasoning in decision-making. University students overwhelmingly tend to provide the biased answer to this problem. To what extent might reasoners be led to modify their judgement, and, more specifically, is it possible to facilitate problem solution by prompting participants to consider the problem from an algebraic perspective? One hundred ninety-seven participants were recruited to investigate the effect of algebraic cueing as a debiasing strategy on variants of the bat-and-ball problem. Participants who were cued to consider the problem algebraically were significantly more likely to answer correctly relative to control participants. Most of this cueing effect was confined to a condition that required participants to solve isomorphic algebra equations corresponding to the structure of bat-and-ball question types. On a subsequent critical question with differing item and dollar amounts presented without a cue, participants were able to generalize the learned information to significantly reduce overall bias. Math anxiety was also found to be significantly related to bat-and-ball problem accuracy. These results suggest that, under specific conditions, algebraic reasoning is an effective debiasing strategy on bat-and-ball problem variants, and provide the first documented evidence for the influence of math anxiety on Cognitive Reflection Test performance.

  6. Bacteria isolated from bats inhibit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Hoyt

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to wildlife. Several fungal skin pathogens have recently emerged and caused widespread mortality in several vertebrate groups, including amphibians, bats, rattlesnakes and humans. White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies. The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome. We isolated bacteria from the skin of four bat species, and co-cultured these isolates with P. destructans to identify bacteria that might inhibit or kill P. destructans. We then conducted two reciprocal challenge experiments in vitro with six bacterial isolates (all in the genus Pseudomonas to quantify the effect of these bacteria on the growth of P. destructans. All six Pseudomonas isolates significantly inhibited growth of P. destructans compared to non-inhibitory control bacteria, and two isolates performed significantly better than others in suppressing P. destructans growth for at least 35 days. In both challenge experiments, the extent of suppression of P. destructans growth was dependent on the initial concentration of P. destructans and the initial concentration of the bacterial isolate. These results show that bacteria found naturally occurring on bats can inhibit the growth of P. destructans in vitro and should be studied further as a possible probiotic to protect bats from white-nose syndrome. In addition, the presence of these bacteria may influence disease outcomes among individuals, populations, and species.

  7. Potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus is unlikely to prevent future bat handling among adults in South East Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M K; Banu, S; McCall, B J; Vlack, S; Carroll, H; Bennett, S; Davison, R; Francis, D

    2018-02-01

    Despite ongoing public health messages about the risks associated with bat contact, the number of potential exposures to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) due to intentional handling by members of the general public in Queensland has remained high. We sought to better understand the reasons for intentional handling among these members of the public who reported their potential exposure to inform future public health messages. We interviewed adults who resided in a defined geographic area in South East Queensland and notified potential exposure to ABLV due to intentional handling of bats by telephone between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. The participation rate was 54%. Adults who reported they had intentionally handled bats in South East Queensland indicated high levels of knowledge and perception of a moderately high risk associated with bats with overall low intentions to handle bats in the future. However, substantial proportions of people would attempt to handle bats again in some circumstances, particularly to protect their children or pets. Fifty-two percent indicated that they would handle a bat if a child was about to pick up or touch a live bat, and 49% would intervene if a pet was interacting with a bat. Future public health communications should recognize the situations in which even people with highrisk perceptions of bats will attempt to handle them. Public health messages currently focus on avoidance of bats in all circumstances and recommend calling in a trained vaccinated handler, but messaging directed at adults for circumstances where children or pets may be potentially exposed should provide safe immediate management options. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Identifying Hendra virus diversity in pteropid bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Smith

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV causes a zoonotic disease with high mortality that is transmitted to humans from bats of the genus Pteropus (flying foxes via an intermediary equine host. Factors promoting spillover from bats to horses are uncertain at this time, but plausibly encompass host and/or agent and/or environmental factors. There is a lack of HeV sequence information derived from the natural bat host, as previously sequences have only been obtained from horses or humans following spillover events. In order to obtain an insight into possible variants of HeV circulating in flying foxes, collection of urine was undertaken in multiple flying fox roosts in Queensland, Australia. HeV was found to be geographically widespread in flying foxes with a number of HeV variants circulating at the one time at multiple locations, while at times the same variant was found circulating at disparate locations. Sequence diversity within variants allowed differentiation on the basis of nucleotide changes, and hypervariable regions in the genome were identified that could be used to differentiate circulating variants. Further, during the study, HeV was isolated from the urine of flying foxes on four occasions from three different locations. The data indicates that spillover events do not correlate with particular HeV isolates, suggesting that host and/or environmental factors are the primary determinants of bat-horse spillover. Thus future spillover events are likely to occur, and there is an on-going need for effective risk management strategies for both human and animal health.

  9. Win(d)-Win(d) Solutions for wind developers and bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Cris; Schirmacher, Michael; Arnett, Ed; Huso, Manuela

    2011-10-31

    Bat Conservation International initiated a multi-year, pre-construction study in mid-summer 2009 to investigate patterns of bat activity and evaluate the use of acoustic monitoring to predict mortality of bats at the proposed Resolute Wind Energy Project (RWEP) in east-central Wyoming. The primary objectives of this study were to: (1) determine levels and patterns of activity for three phonic groups of bats (high-frequency emitting bats, low-frequency emitting bats, and hoary bats) using the proposed wind facility prior to construction of turbines; (2) determine if bat activity can be predicted based on weather patterns; correlate bat activity with weather variables; and (3) combine results from this study with those from similar efforts to determine if indices of pre-construction bat activity can be used to predict post-construction bat fatalities at proposed wind facilities. We report results from two years of pre-construction data collection.

  10. Detection of bat hepatitis E virus RNA in microbats in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoya; Murakami, Shin; Yamamoto, Terumasa; Mineshita, Ko; Sakuyama, Muneki; Sasaki, Reiko; Maeda, Ken; Horimoto, Taisuke

    2018-05-29

    Several recent studies have reported that various bat species harbor bat hepatitis E viruses (BatHEV) belonging to the family Hepeviridae, which also contains human hepatitis E virus (HEV). The distribution and ecology of BatHEV are not well known. Here, we collected and screened 81 bat fecal samples from nine bat species in Japan to detect BatHEV RNA by RT-PCR using HEV-specific primers, and detected three positive samples. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that these three viruses were BatHEVs belonging to genus Orthohepevirus D like other BatHEV strains reported earlier in various countries. These data support the first detection of BatHEVs in Japanese microbats, indicating their wide geographical distribution among multiple bat species.

  11. Repeated detection of European bat lyssavirus type 2 in dead bats found at a single roost site in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Ashley C; Johnson, N; Voller, K; Hicks, D; Nunez, A; Hartley, M; Fooks, A R

    2009-01-01

    In August 2007, European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) was isolated from a Daubenton's bat found at Stokesay Castle. In September 2008, another bat from the same vicinity of Stokesay Castle also tested positive for EBLV-2. This is the first occurrence of repeated detection of EBLV-2 from a single site. Here, we report the detection of low levels of viral RNA in various bat organs by qRT-PCR and detection of viral antigen by immunohistochemistry. We also report sequence data from both cases and compare data with those derived from other EBLV-2 isolations in the UK.

  12. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  13. Persistent producer-scrounger relationships in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harten, Lee; Matalon, Yasmin; Galli, Naama; Navon, Hagit; Dor, Roi; Yovel, Yossi

    2018-02-01

    Social foraging theory suggests that group-living animals gain from persistent social bonds, which lead to increased tolerance in competitive foraging and information sharing. Bats are among the most social mammals, often living in colonies of tens to thousands of individuals for dozens of years, yet little is known about their social foraging dynamics. We observed three captive bat colonies for over a year, quantifying >13,000 social foraging interactions. We found that individuals consistently used one of two foraging strategies, either producing (collecting) food themselves or scrounging it directly from the mouth of other individuals. Individual foraging types were consistent over at least 16 months except during the lactation period when females shifted toward producing. Scroungers intentionally selected whom to interact with when socially foraging, thus generating persistent nonrandom social relationships with two to three specific producers. These persistent producer-scrounger relationships seem to reduce aggression over time. Finally, scrounging was highly correlated with vigilance, and we hypothesize that vigilant-prone individuals turn to scrounging in the wild to mitigate the risk of landing on a potentially unsafe fruit tree. We find the bat colony to be a rich and dynamic social system, which can serve as a model to study the role that social foraging plays in the evolution of mammalian sociality. Our results highlight the importance of considering individual tendencies when exploring social behavior patterns of group-living animals. These tendencies further emphasize the necessity of studying social networks over time.

  14. Structures of bats; Komori no kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natori, M. [Institute of the Space and Astronautical Science,Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, N. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-12-05

    This paper gives an outline of the structures of bats. Unlike birds, bats have a wing membrane structure. The membrane constituted of the skin is spread between five fingers to form the wing. The wing membrane is seen in the forelimbs and the tail. In the chest and the shoulder, the ligament sheet supports the muscles. The wing membrane is about 0.5mm in thickness, with a fiber net woven through reflecting a tension field in flying. The fiber net is composed of compound materials of elastin and collagen. The shoulder joints consists of the clavicle, scapula and humerus, which is close to human beings. The elbow joints rotate only inside the plane of the wings. The leg joints are hook-shaped, with the tendon sheath provided with ruggedness. The carpus is made up of eight bones and is characterized by the ability of spreading and storing the wings. At the time of storing the wing membrane, the finger joints are stored and, during the flight after the wings are spread, it forms the flapping wing plane. Lightweight and formation of the sturdy front edge are characteristics common to other flying creatures. The spreading and the storing are possible through the direct motion of the hands. The shoulder joints and the carpus of the human beings are closer to those of bats than to those of birds. (NEDO)

  15. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (Preversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  16. Australian bat lyssavirus infection in two horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinwari, Mustaghfira Wafa; Annand, Edward J; Driver, Luke; Warrilow, David; Harrower, Bruce; Allcock, Richard J N; Pukallus, Dennis; Harper, Jennifer; Bingham, John; Kung, Nina; Diallo, Ibrahim S

    2014-10-10

    In May 2013, the first cases of Australian bat lyssavirus infections in domestic animals were identified in Australia. Two horses (filly-H1 and gelding-H2) were infected with the Yellow-bellied sheathtail bat (YBST) variant of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). The horses presented with neurological signs, pyrexia and progressing ataxia. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Negri bodies) were detected in some Purkinje neurons in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections from the brain of one of the two infected horses (H2) by histological examination. A morphological diagnosis of sub-acute moderate non-suppurative, predominantly angiocentric, meningo-encephalomyelitis of viral aetiology was made. The presumptive diagnosis of ABLV infection was confirmed by the positive testing of the affected brain tissue from (H2) in a range of laboratory tests including fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and real-time PCR targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Retrospective testing of the oral swab from (H1) in the real-time PCR also returned a positive result. The FAT and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed an abundance of ABLV antigen throughout the examined brain sections. ABLV was isolated from the brain (H2) and oral swab/saliva (H1) in the neuroblastoma cell line (MNA). Alignment of the genome sequence revealed a 97.7% identity with the YBST ABLV strain. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in growth and yield attributes of two selected maize varieties as influenced by application of chemical (npk) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers in pala (chad) grown field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridine, W.; Ngakou, A.; Mbaiguinam, M.; Namba, F.; Anna, P

    2014-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted in Pala, region of the Mayo-Kebi West division, in a contribution to improve maize production in Chad. The work was oriented towards the evaluation of the interactions between chemical (NPK) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers on growth and yield attributes of TZEE-W and IB selected maize varieties. The experimental design was a (5x2)x4 factorial design in which the main factor was the proportion of organic/chemical fertilizer (%), and the maize variety as the secondary factor, comprising the following six treatments repeated four times: control (T0) with 0 % NPK and 0 % bat's manure; T1 with 100% NPK; T2 with 100% bat's manure; T3 with 75% NPK and 25% bat's manure; T4 with 75% bat's manure and 25% NPK; T5 with 50% bat's manure and 50% NPK. Results show a variation in experimental soils pH of treatments from 5.91 to 7.92, depending on the proportion of the fertilizers applied. There were significant yield differences among treatments, as well as maize varieties. The 50% NPK+50% bat's manure was found as the best treatment to significantly (p<0.0001) enhance the yield of IB (51.2 t/ha) and TZEE-W (37.9 t/ha) maize varieties compared to their respective controls (7.25 t/ha and 6.76 t/ha). These results suggest that the combination at equal proportion of NPK and bat's manure could be recommended to sustainably improve maize production in Pala-Chad, thus with a considerable alleviation of the pollution risks that have been attributed to chemical fertilizer. (author)

  18. The effects of baseball bat mass properties on swing mechanics, ground reaction forces, and swing timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Walter A; Fleisig, Glenn S; Aune, Kyle T; Diffendaffer, Alek Z

    2016-01-01

    Swing trajectory and ground reaction forces (GRF) of 30 collegiate baseball batters hitting a pitched ball were compared between a standard bat, a bat with extra weight about its barrel, and a bat with extra weight in its handle. It was hypothesised that when compared to a standard bat, only a handle-weighted bat would produce equivalent bat kinematics. It was also hypothesised that hitters would not produce equivalent GRFs for each weighted bat, but would maintain equivalent timing when compared to a standard bat. Data were collected utilising a 500 Hz motion capture system and 1,000 Hz force plate system. Data between bats were considered equivalent when the 95% confidence interval of the difference was contained entirely within ±5% of the standard bat mean value. The handle-weighted bat had equivalent kinematics, whereas the barrel-weighted bat did not. Both weighted bats had equivalent peak GRF variables. Neither weighted bat maintained equivalence in the timing of bat kinematics and some peak GRFs. The ability to maintain swing kinematics with a handle-weighted bat may have implications for swing training and warm-up. However, altered timings of kinematics and kinetics require further research to understand the implications on returning to a conventionally weighted bat.

  19. Bat Acoustic Survey Report for ORNL: Bat Species Distribution on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, Kitty [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giffen, Neil R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Haines, Angelina [XCEL Engineering Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guge, B. J. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Evans, James W. [Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA), Nashville, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes results of a three-year acoustic survey of bat species on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The survey was implemented through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Natural Resources Management Program and included researchers from the ORNL Environmental Sciences Division and ORNL Facilities and Operations Directorate, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency’s ORR wildlife manager, a student from Tennessee Technological University, and a technician contracted through Excel Corp. One hundred and twenty-six sites were surveyed reservation-wide using Wildlife Acoustics SM2+ Acoustic Bat Detectors.

  20. Identification of Novel Betaherpesviruses in Iberian Bats Reveals Parallel Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pozo

    Full Text Available A thorough search for bat herpesviruses was carried out in oropharyngeal samples taken from most of the bat species present in the Iberian Peninsula from the Vespertilionidae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae and Rhinolophidae families, in addition to a colony of captive fruit bats from the Pteropodidae family. By using two degenerate consensus PCR methods targeting two conserved genes, distinct and previously unrecognized bat-hosted herpesviruses were identified for the most of the tested species. All together a total of 42 potentially novel bat herpesviruses were partially characterized. Thirty-two of them were tentatively assigned to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily while the remaining 10 were allocated into the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily. Significant diversity was observed among the novel sequences when compared with type herpesvirus species of the ICTV-approved genera. The inferred phylogenetic relationships showed that most of the betaherpesviruses sequences fell into a well-supported unique monophyletic clade and support the recognition of a new betaherpesvirus genus. This clade is subdivided into three major clades, corresponding to the families of bats studied. This supports the hypothesis of a species-specific parallel evolution process between the potentially new betaherpesviruses and their bat hosts. Interestingly, two of the betaherpesviruses' sequences detected in rhinolophid bats clustered together apart from the rest, closely related to viruses that belong to the Roseolovirus genus. This suggests a putative third roseolo lineage. On the contrary, no phylogenetic structure was detected among several potentially novel bat-hosted gammaherpesviruses found in the study. Remarkably, all of the possible novel bat herpesviruses described in this study are linked to a unique bat species.

  1. Identification of Novel Betaherpesviruses in Iberian Bats Reveals Parallel Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Francisco; Juste, Javier; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Aznar-López, Carolina; Ibáñez, Carlos; Garin, Inazio; Aihartza, Joxerra; Casas, Inmaculada; Tenorio, Antonio; Echevarría, Juan Emilio

    2016-01-01

    A thorough search for bat herpesviruses was carried out in oropharyngeal samples taken from most of the bat species present in the Iberian Peninsula from the Vespertilionidae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae and Rhinolophidae families, in addition to a colony of captive fruit bats from the Pteropodidae family. By using two degenerate consensus PCR methods targeting two conserved genes, distinct and previously unrecognized bat-hosted herpesviruses were identified for the most of the tested species. All together a total of 42 potentially novel bat herpesviruses were partially characterized. Thirty-two of them were tentatively assigned to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily while the remaining 10 were allocated into the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily. Significant diversity was observed among the novel sequences when compared with type herpesvirus species of the ICTV-approved genera. The inferred phylogenetic relationships showed that most of the betaherpesviruses sequences fell into a well-supported unique monophyletic clade and support the recognition of a new betaherpesvirus genus. This clade is subdivided into three major clades, corresponding to the families of bats studied. This supports the hypothesis of a species-specific parallel evolution process between the potentially new betaherpesviruses and their bat hosts. Interestingly, two of the betaherpesviruses' sequences detected in rhinolophid bats clustered together apart from the rest, closely related to viruses that belong to the Roseolovirus genus. This suggests a putative third roseolo lineage. On the contrary, no phylogenetic structure was detected among several potentially novel bat-hosted gammaherpesviruses found in the study. Remarkably, all of the possible novel bat herpesviruses described in this study are linked to a unique bat species.

  2. Corked bats, juiced balls, and humidors: The physics of cheating in baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan M.; Smith, Lloyd V.; Faber, Warren L.; Russell, Daniel A.

    2011-06-01

    Three questions of relevance to Major League Baseball are investigated from a physics perspective. Can a baseball be hit farther with a corked bat? Is there evidence that the baseball is more lively today than in earlier years? Can storing baseballs in a temperature- or humidity-controlled environment significantly affect home run production? These questions are subjected to a physics analysis, including an experiment and an interpretation of the data. The answers to the three questions are no, no, and yes, respectively.

  3. Bats host diverse parvoviruses as possible origin of mammalian dependoparvoviruses and source for bat-swine interspecies transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Ahmed, Syed Shakeel; Tsoi, Hoi-Wah; Yeung, Hazel C; Li, Kenneth S M; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Zhao, Pyrear S H; Lau, Candy C C; Lam, Carol S F; Choi, Kelvin K F; Chan, Ben C H; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wong, Samson S Y; Chen, Honglin; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Libiao; Wang, Ming; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-11-06

    Compared to the enormous species diversity of bats, relatively few parvoviruses have been reported. We detected diverse and potentially novel parvoviruses from bats in Hong Kong and mainland China. Parvoviruses belonging to Amdoparvovirus, Bocaparvovirus and Dependoparvovirus were detected in alimentary, liver and spleen samples from 16 different chiropteran species of five families by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of partial helicase sequences showed that they potentially belonged to 25 bocaparvovirus, three dependoparvovirus and one amdoparvovirus species. Nearly complete genome sequencing confirmed the existence of at least four novel bat bocaparvovirus species (Rp-BtBoV1 and Rp-BtBoV2 from Rhinolophus pusillus, Rs-BtBoV2 from Rhinolophus sinicus and Rol-BtBoV1 from Rousettus leschenaultii) and two novel bat dependoparvovirus species (Rp-BtAAV1 from Rhinolophus pusillus and Rs-BtAAV1 from Rhinolophus sinicus). Rs-BtBoV2 was closely related to Ungulate bocaparvovirus 5 with 93, 72.1 and 78.7 % amino acid identities in the NS1, NP1 and VP1/VP2 genes, respectively. The detection of bat bocaparvoviruses, including Rs-BtBoV2, closely related to porcine bocaparvoviruses, suggests recent interspecies transmission of bocaparvoviruses between bats and swine. Moreover, Rp-BtAAV1 and Rs-BtAAV1 were most closely related to human AAV1 with 48.7 and 57.5 % amino acid identities in the rep gene. The phylogenetic relationship between BtAAVs and other mammalian AAVs suggests bats as the ancestral origin of mammalian AAVs. Furthermore, parvoviruses of the same species were detected from multiple bat species or families, supporting the ability of bat parvoviruses to cross species barriers. The results extend our knowledge on the diversity of bat parvoviruses and the role of bats in parvovirus evolution and emergence in humans and animals.

  4. Interspecies variation in the risks of metals to bats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernout, Béatrice V.; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Arnold, Kathryn E.; McClean, Colin J.; Aegerter, James; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2015-01-01

    A modeling framework was used to assess the risk of four metals to UK bat species. Eight species of bats were predicted to be “at risk” from one or more of the metals in over 5% of their ranges. Species differed significantly in their predicted risk. Contamination by Pb was found to pose the greatest risk, followed by Cu, Cd and Zn. A sensitivity analysis identified the proportion of invertebrates ingested as most important in determining the risk. We then compared the model predictions with a large dataset of metals concentrations in the tissues (liver, kidney) of Pipistrellus sp. from across England and Wales. Bats found in areas predicted to be the most “at risk” contained higher metal concentrations in their tissues than those found in areas predicted “not at risk” by the model. Our spatially explicit modeling framework provides a useful tool for further environmental risk assessment studies for wildlife species. - Highlights: • Spatial variation in risk of exposure to metals was modeled for 14 UK bat species. • Interspecific differences in metal exposure across bat species were found. • Sensitivity analyses revealed that the bat diet data was important in driving risk. • Pb exposure poses the greatest risk, followed by Cu, Cd and Zn. • The model is able to partially predict areas where bats are the most exposed. - Modeling exposure to trace metals for bats: interspecies variation and model evaluation.

  5. European Bats as Carriers of Viruses with Zoonotic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Kohl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bats are being increasingly recognized as reservoir hosts of highly pathogenic and zoonotic emerging viruses (Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Rabies virus, and coronaviruses. While numerous studies have focused on the mentioned highly human-pathogenic bat viruses in tropical regions, little is known on similar human-pathogenic viruses that may be present in European bats. Although novel viruses are being detected, their zoonotic potential remains unclear unless further studies are conducted. At present, it is assumed that the risk posed by bats to the general public is rather low. In this review, selected viruses detected and isolated in Europe are discussed from our point of view in regard to their human-pathogenic potential. All European bat species and their roosts are legally protected and some European species are even endangered. Nevertheless, the increasing public fear of bats and their viruses is an obstacle to their protection. Educating the public regarding bat lyssaviruses might result in reduced threats to both the public and the bats.

  6. Observations on the Distribution and Ecology of Bats in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bat community patterns in Uganda are examined in relation to their occurrence in the different vegetation zones of the country. The data available so far cover only three of the country's floristic regions. These data suggest that the northern drier region U1 has more microchiropteran bats and that species diversity of ...

  7. Resource use by two morphologically similar insectivorous bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of morphologically dissimilar insectivorous bats have lead to the conclusion that morphology is the prime correlate of habitat use, and consequently of diet. This has lead to the prediction that morphologically similar bats should have similar diets. We examined the diet and morphology of two morphologically similar ...

  8. Notes on bat diversity at Berenty Private Reserve and Beza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys of bat diversity are rare for the southern domain of Madagascar. Mistnetting for bats took place at Berenty Private Reserve in southeastern Madagascar during a six months study in 2009 and at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar for one month in 2011. At Berenty, Hipposideros ...

  9. Blood plasma glucose regulation in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frugivores feed on fruits and nectars that contain different types of sugars in different proportions, which provide these animals with energy. Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) has a high glucose intake irrespective of sugar concentration of nectar. It is not known how these bats regulate their blood ...

  10. Response of bats to light with different spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Kamiel; Grunsven, van Roy H.A.; Ramakers, Jip J.C.; Ferguson, Kim B.; Raap, Thomas; Donners, Maurice; Veenendaal, Elmar M.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2017-01-01

    Artificial light at night has shown a remarkable increase over the past decades. Effects are reported for many species groups, and include changes in presence, behaviour, physiology and life-history traits. Among these, bats are strongly affected, and how bat species react to light is likely to

  11. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bat, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puechmaille, Sébastien J.; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michaël

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding. PMID:20113562

  12. Echolocating bats cry out loud to detect their prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2008-01-01

    Echolocating bats have successfully exploited a broad range of habitats and prey. Much research has demonstrated how time-frequency structure of echolocation calls of different species is adapted to acoustic constraints of habitats and foraging behaviors. However, the intensity of bat calls has b...

  13. Lead poisoning in Australian fruit bats (Pteropus poliocephalus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1970-09-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed in 3 Australian fruit bats. Diagnoses were indicated by the finding of large acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal and hepatic cells, and toxic amounts of lead in tissues. The source of lead was believed to be peeling leaded paint from the walls of the bats' cage.

  14. The distribution of bats on the Adriatic islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulić, Beatrica; Tvrtković, Nikola

    1970-01-01

    The bat fauna of the Adriatic islands is very poorly known in comparison with that of the coastal continental regions (Kolombatović, 1882, 1884; Dulić, 1959). Although ten species of bats are recorded, the data for most of the islands except the island of Lastovo (Dulić, 1968) are scarce, and of an

  15. Site-occupany of bats in relation to forested corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris D Hein; Steven B Castleberry; Karl V. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Although use of corridors by some wildlife species has been extensively examined, use by bats is poorly understood. From 1 June to 31 August (2004~200S), we used Anabat II detectors to examine bat activity and species occupancy relative to forested corridors on an intensively managed forest landscape in southern South Carolina, USA. We...

  16. Wild, insectivorous bats might be carriers of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeleger, Wilma C; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F; Lina, Peter H C; de Boer, Albert G; Bosch, Thijs; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Beumer, Rijkelt R

    2018-01-01

    The transmission cycles of the foodborne pathogens Campylobacter and Salmonella are not fully elucidated. Knowledge of these cycles may help reduce the transmission of these pathogens to humans. The presence of campylobacters and salmonellas was examined in 631 fresh fecal samples of wild insectivorous bats using a specially developed method for the simultaneous isolation of low numbers of these pathogens in small-sized fecal samples (≤ 0.1 g). Salmonella was not detected in the feces samples, but thermotolerant campylobacters were confirmed in 3% (n = 17) of the bats examined and these pathogens were found in six different bat species, at different sites, in different ecosystems during the whole flying season of bats. Molecular typing of the 17 isolated strains indicated C. jejuni (n = 9), C. coli (n = 7) and C. lari (n = 1), including genotypes also found in humans, wildlife, environmental samples and poultry. Six strains showed unique sequence types. This study shows that insectivorous bats are not only carriers of viral pathogens, but they can also be relevant for the transmission of bacterial pathogens. Bats should be considered as carriers and potential transmitters of Campylobacter and, where possible, contact between bats (bat feces) and food or feed should be avoided.

  17. Bats aloft: Variation in echolocation call structure at high altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bats alter their echolocation calls in response to changes in ecological and behavioral conditions, but little is known about how they adjust their call structure in response to changes in altitude. This study examines altitudinal variation in the echolocation calls of Brazilian free-tailed bats, T...

  18. The use of edge habitats by commuting and foraging bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, B.

    1998-01-01

    Travelling routes and foraging areas of many bat species are mainly along edge habitats, such as treelines, hedgerows, forest edges, and canal banks. This thesis deals with the effects of density, configuration, and structural features of edge habitats on the occurrence of bats. Four

  19. Bats: Swift Shadows in the Twilight. The Wonder Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ann C.

    This curriculum guide is all about bats and provides information through the telling of stories about bats and their history and folklore. The activities contained in this guide employ an interdisciplinary approach and use mazes, puzzles, model-building, and board games to interest and inform students. Topics covered include the physical…

  20. Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator’s ability to exploit available prey in space and time. Using a qPCR faecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consumin...

  1. Bat Activity in a Forest Landscape of central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brooks; W. Mark Ford

    2005-01-01

    Nine species of bat are known to occur across the six New England a states, but most aspects of their natural history, such as foraging habitat use, are poorly understood. Recent published research has documented the importance of still-water habitats as foci of bat flight activity. To better understand and document habitat use in southern New England, we used the...

  2. Going, Going, Gone! The Making of a Baseball Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Diana

    2012-01-01

    From little league players to professional athletes, baseball has become a sport that is not only fun to play and watch, but also a sport driven by innovation and technology. One particular piece of baseball equipment that has undergone many changes is the baseball bat. Prior to the early 1970s, wooden bats were the only choice available. Today,…

  3. Bat Rabies in Massachusetts, USA, 1985–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xingtai; DeMaria, Alfred; Smole, Sandra; Brown, Catherine M.; Han, Linda

    2010-01-01

    To investigate rabies in Massachusetts, we analyzed bat rabies test results before and after introduction of raccoon variant rabies and after release of revised 1999 US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations for rabies postexposure prophylaxis. Bat submissions were associated with level of rabies awareness and specific postexposure recommendations.

  4. Bat Dynamics of Female Fast Pitch Softball Batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Stephen P.; Owen, Marjorie G.

    1984-01-01

    Female fast pitch softball batters served in an examination of the dynamic characteristics of the bat during the swing through the use of three-dimensional cinematographic analysis techniques. These results were compared with those from previous studies of baseball batting. Findings are listed. (Author/DF)

  5. Bat diversity and abundance in Omo Forest Reserve, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bats are yet to be incorporated in management plans in Nigeria. This is attributed to dearth in information as well as social stigma. This study was designed to determine bat species diversity, abundance and the relation of both indices to habitat structure. The survey was carried out in Omo forest reserve between May and ...

  6. Novel Lyssavirus in Natterer’s Bat, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Freuling, Conrad M.; Beer, Martin; Conraths, Franz J.; Finke, Stefan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Keller, Barbara; Kliemt, Jeannette; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Mühlbach, Elke; Teifke, Jens P.; Wohlsein, Peter; Müller, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A virus isolated from a Natterer’s bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.

  7. Australian Bat Lyssavirus in a child: the first reported case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Joshua R; Nourse, Clare; Vaska, Vikram L; Calvert, Sophie; Northill, Judith A; McCall, Brad; Mattke, Adrian C

    2014-04-01

    Human infection with Australian Bat Lyssavirus is extremely rare and has not previously been reported in a child. We describe a fatal case of Australian Bat Lyssavirus in an 8-year-old child, and review the literature pertaining to the diagnosis and management of lyssavirus infection with consideration of its applicability to this emerging strain.

  8. Novel hantavirus identified in European bat species Nyctalus noctula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straková, Petra; Dufková, L.; Širmarová, J.; Salát, J.; Bartonička, T.; Klempa, B.; Pfaff, F.; Höper, D.; Hoffmann, B.; Ulrich, R. G.; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, March (2017), s. 127-130 ISSN 1567-1348 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hantavirus * Bat * Phylogenetic analysis * Emerging virus * Bat-borne virus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases; Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.885, year: 2016

  9. Anthropogenic impacts on Costa Rican bat parasitism are sex specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Hannah K; Mendenhall, Chase D; Judson, Seth D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    While anthropogenic impacts on parasitism of wildlife are receiving growing attention, whether these impacts vary in a sex-specific manner remains little explored. Differences between the sexes in the effect of parasites, linked to anthropogenic activity, could lead to uneven sex ratios and higher population endangerment. We sampled 1108 individual bats in 18 different sites across an agricultural mosaic landscape in southern Costa Rica to investigate the relationships between anthropogenic impacts (deforestation and reductions in host species richness) and bat fly ectoparasitism of 35 species of Neotropical bats. Although female and male bat assemblages were similar across the deforestation gradient, bat fly assemblages tracked their hosts closely only on female bats. We found that in female hosts, parasite abundance per bat decreased with increasing bat species richness, while in male hosts, parasite abundance increased. We hypothesize the differences in the parasite-disturbance relationship are due to differences in roosting behavior between the sexes. We report a sex-specific parasite-disturbance relationship and argue that sex differences in anthropogenic impacts on wildlife parasitism could impact long-term population health and survival.

  10. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L. Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3-5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance. We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than previous wake studies have suggested.

  11. The role of amateurs in the growth of bat conservation and research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the 1980s and 1990s, Britain experienced an unprecedented increase in scientific and public interest in bat conservation, culminating in 90 'bat groups' by 1992. In South Africa, bats are poorly protected or unprotected, and most of the country's 54 species are poorly known. With the formation of bat interest groups in ...

  12. 76 FR 12155 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63969; File No. SR-BATS-2011-007] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. to Adopt BATS Rule 11.21, entitled ``Input of Accurate Information...

  13. 75 FR 57097 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-62901; File No. SR-BATS-2010-024] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt BATS Rule 2.12, Entitled ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Inbound Router'' and To Make Related...

  14. Diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) in Arizona as indicated by fecal analysis and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum (J.A. Allen, 1891)) by visual analysis of bat feces and stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of bat feces, wing, hair, and insect prey. We collected 33 fecal samples from spotted bats and trapped 3755 insect...

  15. Habitat use by forest bats in South Carolina in relation to local, stand, and landscape characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan C. Loeb; Joy M. O' Keefe

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge and understanding of bat habitat associations and the responses of bats to forest management are critical for effective bat conservation and management. Few studies have been conducted on bat habitat use in the southeast, despite the high number of endangered and sensitive species in the region. Our objective was to identify important local, stand, and...

  16. 78 FR 9409 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...-FF03E00000] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines... documents related to the draft revised summer survey guidelines for the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) for an... U.S. mail address; Email: indiana_bat@fws.gov ; or Fax: 812-334-4273. Include ``Indiana Bat Summer...

  17. Detection of novel gammaherpesviruses from fruit bats in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yuji; Sasaki, Michihito; Setiyono, Agus; Handharyani, Ekowati; Rahmadani, Ibenu; Taha, Siswatiana; Adiani, Sri; Latief, Munira; Kholilullah, Zainal Abidin; Subangkit, Mawar; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Nakamura, Ichiro; Kimura, Takashi; Orba, Yasuko; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2018-03-01

    Bats are an important natural reservoir of zoonotic viral pathogens. We previously isolated an alphaherpesvirus in fruit bats in Indonesia, and here establish the presence of viruses belonging to other taxa of the family Herpesviridae. We screened the same fruit bat population with pan-herpesvirus PCR and discovered 68 sequences of novel gammaherpesvirus, designated 'megabat gammaherpesvirus' (MgGHV). A phylogenetic analysis of approximately 3.4 kbp of continuous MgGHV sequences encompassing the glycoprotein B gene and DNA polymerase gene revealed that the MgGHV sequences are distinct from those of other reported gammaherpesviruses. Further analysis suggested the existence of co-infections of herpesviruses in Indonesian fruit bats. Our findings extend our understanding of the infectious cycles of herpesviruses in bats in Indonesia and the phylogenetic diversity of the gammaherpesviruses.

  18. Lessons learned from post-construction bird and bat monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, D.E. [Natural Resource Solutions, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation presented recommendations for a successful post-construction bat mortality monitoring strategy. A range of metrics are offered in the literature for establishing a search radius from the base of wind turbines, and changes in radius can have a significant impact on the outcomes of bat monitoring programs. Changes in ground-cover or areas with agricultural crops can obscure bat carcasses. Scavengers can also remove carcasses. Frequent scavenger tests are required to ensure that bat mortality rates are accurately represented. The full area under wind turbines must be regularly monitored instead of radial subsamples. A search radius must be established as part of an accurate strategy. Monitoring crews must be trained to look for carcasses in varied terrains, including under foliage, plants, and crops. Turbine operators must also consider that the presence of a single bat carcass may, after applying adjustments, represent 5 dead animals. Conservative adjustment assumptions may overwhelm the collected data. tabs., figs.

  19. A plan for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susan C.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ellison, Laura E.; Lausen, Cori L.; Reichard, Jonathan D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Ingersoll, Thomas E.; Coleman, Jeremy; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Sauer, John R.; Francis, Charles M.; Bayless, Mylea L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is to create a continent-wide program to monitor bats at local to rangewide scales that will provide reliable data to promote effective conservation decisionmaking and the long-term viability of bat populations across the continent. This is an international, multiagency program. Four approaches will be used to gather monitoring data to assess changes in bat distributions and abundances: winter hibernaculum counts, maternity colony counts, mobile acoustic surveys along road transects, and acoustic surveys at stationary points. These monitoring approaches are described along with methods for identifying species recorded by acoustic detectors. Other chapters describe the sampling design, the database management system (Bat Population Database), and statistical approaches that can be used to analyze data collected through this program.

  20. Watching the dark: New surveillance cameras are changing bat research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

    2014-01-01

    It is, according to an old proverb, “better to light a candle than to curse the darkness.” And those of us trying to discover new insights into the mysterious lives of bats often do a lot of cursing in the darkness. Bats do most things under cover of night, and often in places where humans and most other animals can’t go. This dark inaccessibility is great for bats, but not so great for those of us trying to study them. Successful conservation hinges on understanding bat behaviors and needs, as well as identifying and addressing the things that threaten them in the darkness. But how do we light a candle without scaring the bats away or altering their behavior?