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Sample records for values ph 5-6

  1. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis using narrow pH 3-5.6 immobilised pH gradient strips identifies potential novel disease biomarkers in plasma or serum

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Bevin Gangadharan & Nicole Zitzmann ### Abstract Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is a protein separation technique often used to separate plasma or serum proteins in an attempt to identify novel biomarkers. This protocol describes how to run 2-DE gels using narrow pH 3-5.6 immobilised pH gradient strips to separate 2 mg of serum proteins. pH 3-6 ampholytes are used to enhance the solubility of proteins in this pH range before the serum proteins are separated in the...

  2. Accelerating the dissolution of enteric coatings in the upper small intestine: evolution of a novel pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer system to assess drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varum, Felipe J O; Merchant, Hamid A; Goyanes, Alvaro; Assi, Pardis; Zboranová, Veronika; Basit, Abdul W

    2014-07-01

    Despite rapid dissolution in compendial phosphate buffers, gastro resistant (enteric coated) products can take up to 2 h to disintegrate in the human small intestine, which clearly highlights the inadequacy of the in vitro test method to predict in vivo behaviour of these formulations. The aim of this study was to establish the utility of a novel pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer, stabilized by an Auto pH™ System, as a better surrogate of the conditions of the proximal small intestine to investigate the dissolution behaviour of standard and accelerated release enteric double coating formulations. Prednisolone tablets were coated with 3 or 5 mg/cm(2) of partially neutralized EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55, HP-55 or HPMC adjusted to pH 6 or 8. An outer layer of EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 was applied at 5mg/cm(2). For comparison purposes, a standard single layer of EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 was applied to the tablets. Dissolution was carried out using USP II apparatus in 0.1 M HCl for 2 h, followed by pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer. EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 single-coated tablets showed a slow drug release with a lag time of 75 min in buffer, whereas release from the EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 double-coated tablets was accelerated. These in vitro lag times closely match the in vivo disintegration times for these coated tablets reported previously. Drug release was further accelerated from modified double coatings, particularly in the case of coatings with a thinner inner layer of HP-55 or HPMC (pH 8 and KH2PO4). This study confirms that the pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer system offers significant advantages during the development of dosage forms designed to release the drug in the upper small intestine. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The Ph.D. Value Proposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Atlanta University launched its doctor of arts in humanities (DAH) programs almost 40 years ago, and, since the 1988 merger with Clark College, Clark Atlanta University has continued to award the degrees. This fall, for the first time, its students will be able to earn Ph.D.s in humanities instead. In DAH programs around the country, there's been…

  4. THE IMPACT OF CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID ADDITION ON PH VALUE OF LONGISSIMUS DORSI MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław WASILEWSKI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research was 60 crossbred gilts, divided into 6 groups, fed the fodder with addition of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA or sunflower oil (SFO in amount: 0.5; 1.0; and 2.0 %, respectively. Animals were slaughtered with the body weight ca. 95 kg. The aim of research was to determine pH value of loin meat tissue (Longissimus dorsi of right half-carcass in 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours and 24 hours after slaughter. Results were statistically elaborated using one-way variance analysis. Longissimus dorsi muscle pH values measured 45 minutes after slaughter in case of all groups of pigs were in range from 6.34 up to 6.47, what shows good meat quality. The lowest pH1 (measured 45 minutes after slaughter had meat of fatteners where addition of 2 % sunflower oil was given into fodder and the highest value of this trait was in group of individuals where also was given sunflower oil in 1 % amount. Statistical significant differences in pH value measured in different time after slaughter i.e. after 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 hours between tested groups of pigs were not stated. The exception is the result of pH measurement 5 hours after slaughter. Statistical significant differences were between group of pigs getting 0.5 % addition of conjugated linoleic acid characterized by the highest pH value of meat and group of animals fed the fodder with 1 % addition of conjugated linoleic acid (P≤0.01. On the basis of the results obtained in presented paper may be stated that feeding pigs with addition of conjugated linoleic acid in amounts 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 % did not impact negatively on meat quality defined by pH value.

  5. Interaction between exo-nido-ruthenacarborane [Cl(Ph3P)2Ru]-5,6,10-(μ-H)3-10-H-7,8-C2B9H8 and bromine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, S.V.; Lobanova, I.A.; Petrovskij, P.V.; Starikova, Z.A.; Bregadze, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    Interaction between exo-nido-ruthenacarborane [Cl(Ph 3 P) 2 Ru]-5,6,10-(μ-H) 3 -10-H-7,8-C 2 B 9 H 8 with bromine in CH 2 Cl 2 solutions at 0 deg C studied using the methods of elementary analysis, NMR, IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was ascertained that the reaction gives rise to bromine atom substitution for chlorine atom in octahedral surrounding of ruthenium atom with formation of complex [Br(Ph 3 P) 2 Ru]-5,6,10-(μ-H) 3 -10-H-7,8-C 2 B 9 H 8 . The complex is crystallized in monoclinic crystal system with the following unit cell parameters a = 12.592 (1), b = 20.687 (2), c = 16.628 (2) A, β = 94.372 (3) deg, sp. gr. P2 1 /n, Z = 4. Coordination octahedron of ruthenium atom is formed by three hydrogen atoms bound with boron atoms in one triangular face of carborane, two phosphorus atoms and one bromine atom [ru

  6. Unified pH values of liquid chromatography mobile phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suu, Agnes; Jalukse, Lauri; Liigand, Jaanus; Kruve, Anneli; Himmel, Daniel; Krossing, Ingo; Rosés, Martí; Leito, Ivo

    2015-03-03

    This work introduces a conceptually new approach of measuring pH of mixed-solvent liquid chromatography (LC) mobile phases. Mobile phase pH is very important in LC, but its correct measurement is not straightforward, and all commonly used approaches have deficiencies. The new approach is based on the recently introduced unified pH (pH(abs)) scale, which enables direct comparison of acidities of solutions made in different solvents based on chemical potential of the proton in the solutions. This work represents the first experimental realization of the pH(abs) concept using differential potentiometric measurement for comparison of the chemical potentials of the proton in different solutions (connected by a salt bridge), together with earlier published reference points for obtaining the pH(abs) values (referenced to the gas phase) or pH(abs)(H₂O) values (referenced to the aqueous solution). The liquid junction potentials were estimated in the framework of Izutsu's three-component method. pH(abs) values for a number of common LC and LC-MS mobile phases have been determined. The pH(abs) scale enables for the first time direct comparison of acidities of any LC mobile phases, with different organic additives, different buffer components, etc. A possible experimental protocol of putting this new approach into chromatographic practice has been envisaged and its applicability tested. It has been demonstrated that the ionization behavior of bases (cationic acids) in the mobile phases can be better predicted by using the pH(abs)(H₂O) values and aqueous pKa values than by using the alternative means of expressing mobile phase acidity. Description of the ionization behavior of acids on the basis of pH(abs)(H₂O) values is possible if the change of their pKa values with solvent composition change is taken into account.

  7. Effect of degumming ph value on electrospining of silk fibroin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Shen-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerated silk fibroin fibers show properties dependent on the molecular weight of fibroin. The cocoon-degumming approaches had great impact on the degradation of silk fibroin. The effect of degumming pH value to electrospining of fibroin was studied in this paper. The viscosity and molecular weight of regenerated silk fibroin were studied using rheometer and gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the weaker the alkalinity of degumming reagent, there was the milder the effect on silk fibroin molecular. The fibroin fibers can be prepared by electrospining with low concentration of regenerated silk fibroin solution.

  8. The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education Programme…

  9. Platinum complexes of 5,6-Dihydroacenaphtho[5,6-cd]-1,2-dichalcogenoles

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Callum G. M.; Schofield, Catherine M.; Randall, Rebecca A. M.; Wakefield, Lucy; Knight, Fergus R.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Woollins, J. Derek

    2013-01-01

    Six bis(phosphane) platinum complexes bearing dichalcogen acenaphthene ligands have been prepared by metathesis from cis-[PtCl2(PR3)(2)] (R-3 = Ph-3, Ph2Me, PhMe2) and the dilithium salts of the parent 5,6-dihydroacenaphtho[5,6-cd]-1,2-dichalcogenoles (AcenapE(2), L1 E = S, L2 E = Se). For their synthesis, the appropriate disulfide or diselenide species was treated with super hydride [LiBEt3H] to afford the dilithium salt by in situ reduction of the AcenapE(2) E-E bond. Further reaction, by m...

  10. Effects of pH values on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldaiem, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of pH values (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 and 7 on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads. Sensory evaluation of the samples decreased with an increase in pH values and during the storage periods. In addition, phase separation occurred with pH 6, 6.5 and 7. The differences in peroxide values and oil stability index among the samples compared to the control samples were slight, while peroxide values and oil stability index decreased during the storage periods. Changes in fatty acid composition among the pH treatments and during the storage periods were detected. Differences in solid fat contents among pH treatments separately and during the storage periods were negligible. A decline in the hardness and viscosity of the samples were accompanied by an increase in pH values, and the treatments had increased effects during the storage periods. Generally, an increase of pH values did not affect the melting profiles of the spreads. Additionally, changes between the melting profiles of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads were detected.El objetivo fue determinar los efectos del pH (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 y 7 en las propiedades de mantequillas para untar bajas en grasa de búfalos y vacas. La puntuación sensorial de las muestras disminuyó con el aumento del pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento, además, la separación de fases se produjo con pH de 6, 6,5 y 7. Se observaron diferencias en los valores de peróxido e índice de estabilidad de la grasa de las muestras en comparación con las muestras control, mientras que los valores de peróxido incrementaron, el índice de estabilidad de la grasa disminuyó durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Se observan cambios en la composición de ácidos grasos entre los tratamientos de pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Las diferencias en el contenido de grasa sólida entre los tratamientos de pH por separado y durante los

  11. Fluorescent probes and nanoparticles for intracellular sensing of pH values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wen; Li, Xiaohua; Ma, Huimin

    2014-12-01

    Intracellular pH regulates a number of cell metabolism processes and its sensing is thus of great importance for cell studies. Among various methods, fluorescent probes have been widely used for sensing intracellular pH values because of their high sensitivity and spatiotemporal resolution capability. In this article, the development of fluorescent probes with good practicability in sensing intracellular pH values and pH variation during 2009 - 2014 is reviewed. These fluorescence probes are divided into two kinds: small molecules and nanoparticles. Photophysical properties, advantages/disadvantages and applications of the two kinds of probes are discussed in detail.

  12. Fluorescent probes and nanoparticles for intracellular sensing of pH values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Wen; Li, Xiaohua; Ma, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pH regulates a number of cell metabolism processes and its sensing is thus of great importance for cell studies. Among various methods, fluorescent probes have been widely used for sensing intracellular pH values because of their high sensitivity and spatiotemporal resolution capability. In this article, the development of fluorescent probes with good practicability in sensing intracellular pH values and pH variation during 2009 − 2014 is reviewed. These fluorescence probes are divided into two kinds: small molecules and nanoparticles. Photophysical properties, advantages/disadvantages and applications of the two kinds of probes are discussed in detail. (topical review)

  13. Yogurt made from milk heated at different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Tulay; Horne, David S; Lucey, John A

    2015-10-01

    Milk for yogurt manufacture is subjected to high heat treatment to denature whey proteins. Low milk pH values (≤ 6.5) at heating result in most denatured whey proteins becoming associated with casein micelles, whereas high milk pH values (≥ 7.0) at heating result in the formation of mostly soluble (nonmicellar) denatured whey protein complexes. There are conflicting reports on the relative importance of soluble and casein-bound whey protein aggregates on the properties of acid gels. Prior studies investigating the effect of pH of milk at heating used model gels in which milk was acidified by glucono-δ-lactone; in this study, we prepared yogurt gels using commercial starter cultures. Model acid gels can have very different texture and physical properties from those made by fermentation with starter cultures. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pH values of milk at heating on the rheological, light backscatter, and microstructural properties of yogurt gels. Reconstituted skim milk was adjusted to pH values 6.2, 6.7, and 7.2 and heated at 85°C for 30 min. A portion of the heated milk samples was readjusted back to pH 6.7 after heating. Milks were inoculated with 3% (wt/wt) yogurt starter culture and incubated at 40°C until pH 4.6. Gel formation was monitored using dynamic oscillatory rheology, and parameters measured included the storage modulus (G') and loss tangent (LT) values. Light-backscattering properties, such as the backscatter ratio (R) and the first derivative of light backscatter ratio (R'), were also monitored during fermentation. Fluorescence microscopy was used to observe gel microstructure. The G' values at pH 4.6 were highest in gels made from milk heated at pH 6.7 and lowest in milk heated at pH 6.2, with or without pH adjustment after heating. The G' values at pH 4.6 were lower in samples after adjustment back to pH 6.7 after heating. No maximum in the LT parameter was observed during gelation for yogurts made from milk

  14. Effect of pH value of applied solution on radioiodine sorption by soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabova, T.

    1976-01-01

    Sorption of radioiodine by soils was followed under static conditions at different pH values of the initial solution in five soil types. Sorption of radioiodine by soils is affected by the amount of the organic mass and by the pH of solutions. With the same pH, soils containing a higher amount of the organic mass absorb more radioiodine. The highest sorption percentage of 131 I - for all pH values was found in meadow chernozem soil and the lowest in the rendzina and in carboniferous meadow soils. The highest sorption of 131 I - for degraded chernozem, meadow chernozem soils and brown soil was recorded at pH 5 and for carboniferous meadow soil and rendzina at pH 7. (author)

  15. The pH Value of Fungicide, Insecticide and Mineral Fertilizer Mixtures Depending on Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanka Inđić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the effect of water quality on the pH value of fungicides, insecticides, mineral fertilizers and their mixtures. The fungicides propineb (Antracol WP-70 and mancozeb (Dithane M-70, insecticides pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic-50 and imidacloprid(Confidor 200-SL, several fertilizers (Ferticare I, Ferticare II, Ferticare III and Wuxal Super and their mixtures were analyzed for pH value under laboratory conditions using a potentiometric pH meter. Measurements were made directly after preparation or mixing with tap and well water and 24 hours later. Tap water exhibited a neutral reaction. A slightly alkaline reaction of well water was mostlikely due to high ammonium content. The suspensions of Antracol WP-70 exhibited slightly alkaline reactions with both water types during 24 hours. The spray liquids of Dithane M-70 mixed with tap or well water had neutral reaction after preparation and slightly alkaline reaction after 24 hours. The emulsions of Actellic-50 showed neutral reaction with both water types, followed by a pH increase in tap water after 24 hours. The solutions of Confidor200-SL had a slightly alkaline reaction after mixing and the pH value increased with both water types after 24 hours. It is therefore recommended to apply these insecticides directly after preparation. Mineral fertilizers considerably reduced pH values of the fungicide and insecticide components in double and triple mixtures, especially Ferticare nutrients which had a moderately acid reaction. Wuxal Super had a neutral reaction with both water types.The mixtures with well water increased pH values, which indicates that water pH does affect the pH value of the mixture. Both individual fertilizers and all mixtures (double and triple with Ferticare had pH values between 2.4 and 6, which allows their active liquids to be stored for 12 to 24 hours. The suspensions (Antracol WP-70, double and triple mixtures, emulsions (Actellic-50 and Actellic-50+Wuxal Super

  16. Reassessment of pH reference values with improved methodology for the evaluation of ionic strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lito, M.J. Guiomar H.M.; Camoes, M. Filomena G.F.C.

    2005-01-01

    The conflict between pH as empirical number in routine control and the pH value regarded as conveying some information concerning the effective concentration or activity of hydrogen ions, a H , has caused much confusion. There are, however, reasons to conclude that the overwhelming amount of thermodynamic data is not sufficiently accurate--either due to ignorance of metrological concepts or due to insufficiently specified measurement processes of fundamental chemical quantities pH. The commonly used seven reference buffer solutions to which primary pH values have been conventional assigned, represent a selection out of a more extensive list, recommended by NBS (now NIST) in 1962. From then onwards conventions concerning the Debye-Hueckel model of electrolyte solutions and ionic strength have been revised and the pH(S) values reassessed in conformity but only for these seven reference buffer solutions. The others have, so far remained unchanged, locking harmonisation of the conventionally assigned pH(S) values. In this work, ionic strength is calculated through complete equations derived from the acidity constants. Concentrations of the various species involved in the conventional assignment of pH and their corresponding activity coefficients are therefore, more rigorously known. The process proves particularly useful for poliprotic acids with overlapping acidity constants, where the ratio is less than 10 3 . As a consequence, conventionally assigned pH values of reference buffer solutions are recalculated and corrections are introduced as appropriate

  17. Soluble polymeric dual sensor for temperature and pH value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietsch, C.; Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    Two birds with one stone: A thermoresponsive copolymer (see picture, blue beads) bearing a pH-responsive solvatochromic dye (red beads) acts as the first dual sensor for temperature and pH value (black curve). When the hydrophilicity of the copolymer is increased by using a monomer with more

  18. Effects of particle size and pH value on the hydrophilicity of graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xuebing [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China); Yu, Yun, E-mail: yunyush@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Hou, Weimin [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China); Zhou, Jianer [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001 (China); Song, Lixin, E-mail: lxsong@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Graphene-based material has attracted extensive attention from both experimental and theoretical scientific communities due to its extraordinary properties. As a derivative of graphene, graphene oxide has also become an attractive material and been investigated widely in many areas since the ease of synthesizing graphene oxide and its solution processability. In this paper, we prepared graphene oxide by the modified Hummers method. The hydrophilicity of graphene oxide with different particle sizes and pH values was characterized with water contact angle. And we find the water contact angle of the different graphene oxides decreases from 61.8° to 11.6°, which indicates graphene oxide has the excellent hydrophilicity. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta potential and dynamic light scattering measurements were taken to study the chemical state of elements and the performances of graphene oxide in this experiment. The results show the hydrophilicity of graphene oxide is sensitive to particle size and pH value, which result in the variations of the ionizable groups of graphene oxide. Our work provides a simple ways to control the hydrophilicity of graphene oxide by adjusting particle size and pH value.

  19. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day...

  20. Effects of pH value on composition structure and catalytic activity of Pt-SnO{sub x}/C prepared by ethylene glycol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.H. [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081 Beijing (China); Wu, F.; Wu, C. [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081 Beijing (China); National Development Center for High Technology Green Materials, 100081 Beijing (China)

    2012-06-15

    Pt-SnO{sub x} nanoparticles were synthesized by the ethylene glycol (EG) method in solution of H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} and SnCl{sub 2}, with the same concentrations of Pt and Sn, but different pH values. The pH value after the end of platinum reduction reaction was not changed any more, except that a certain amount of water was added to deposit the Pt-SnO{sub x} nanoparticles on the carbon support. The pre-nanocatalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate the contents of Pt and Sn, and their catalytic activities for ethanol electrooxidation were tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The result was that the Sn contents were increasing as the Pt/Sn atomic ratios of 2.2, 2.6, 5.1, 7.4, 8.7, with the decreasing end pH values of 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, and the Pt contents became less than the addition in the preparation solution while the end pH values were <5.5, but the catalytic activities for ethanol electrooxidation were not so much regularly changed. Besides, from the end pH value of 5.5 to the increasing 9.0, all the platinum nanoparticles could be completely deposited on the carbon support, under the condition that only a certain amount of water was added. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. COLOUR AND pH VALUE OF ISTRIAN SHEEP LAMBS MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Držaić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sex and slaughter weight of Istrian sheep lambs on pH value and meat colour. The study included 118 lambs of both sexes (64 male and 54 female which were, prior slaughter, divided into two groups: light (17.76 kg; 28 male and 32 female and heavy (20.17 kg; 3 male and 22 female. Carcass weight was determined immediately after carcass processing and after 24 hours, while the pH value and meat colour were determined 45 minutes and 24 hours after slaughter. Average hot and cold carcass weights in light lambs were 9.76 and 9.47 kg, and in heavy lambs 11.80 and 11.49 kg, with chilling loss of 2.96 and 2.60% respectively. Istrian sheep lambs carcasses are quite uniform in relation to sex in terms of all the investigated traits, except value of L* and a* colour parameters. For the production of larger lamb meat quantities it might be recommended to increase lambs slaughter weight since the higher slaughter weight has the positive effect on carcass weight and chilling loss while retaining the desirable values of meat quality parameters.

  2. Micro Electrochemical pH Sensor Applicable for Real-Time Ratiometric Monitoring of pH Values in Rat Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Limin; Tian, Yang

    2016-02-16

    To develop in vivo monitoring meter for pH measurements is still the bottleneck for understanding the role of pH plays in the brain diseases. In this work, a selective and sensitive electrochemical pH meter was developed for real-time ratiometric monitoring of pH in different regions of rat brains upon ischemia. First, 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) was employed and optimized as a selective pH recognition element to establish a 2H(+)/2e(-) approach over a wide range of pH from 5.8 to 8.0. The pH meter demonstrated remarkable selectivity toward pH detection against metal ions, amino acids, reactive oxygen species, and other biological species in the brain. Meanwhile, an inner reference, 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol (FcHT), was selected as a built-in correction to avoid the environmental effect through coimmobilization with 1,2-NQ. In addition, three-dimensional gold nanoleaves were electrodeposited onto the electrode surface to amplify the signal by ∼4.0-fold and the measurement was achieved down to 0.07 pH. Finally, combined with the microelectrode technique, the microelectrochemical pH meter was directly implanted into brain regions including the striatum, hippocampus, and cortex and successfully applied in real-time monitoring of pH values in these regions of brain followed by global cerebral ischemia. The results demonstrated that pH values were estimated to 7.21 ± 0.05, 7.13 ± 0.09, and 7.27 ± 0.06 in the striatum, hippocampus, and cortex in the rat brains, respectively, in normal conditions. However, pH decreased to 6.75 ± 0.07 and 6.52 ± 0.03 in the striatum and hippocampus, upon global cerebral ischemia, while a negligible pH change was obtained in the cortex.

  3. Effect of pH value on electromagnetic loss properties of Co–Zn ferrite prepared via coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaogu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Wei; Sang, Tianyi; Song, Bo; Zhu, Hongli; Rao, Weifeng; Wong, Chingping

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the cobalt zinc ferrite was prepared by coprecipitation method at different pH conditions. The influence of pH values on the coprecipitation reaction was theoretically analyzed at first. The calculated results showed that the pH values should be controlled in the range of 9–11 to form the stable precipitation. The XRD investigation was used to further confirm the formation of the composite on specific pH values. In addition, the morphological study revealed that the average particle size of the composite decreased from 40 nm to 30 nm when the pH value increased from 9–11. The variation of microstructure plays a critical role in controlling the electromagnetic properties. From the electromagnetic analysis, the dielectric loss factor was 0.02–0.07 and magnetic loss factor was 0.2–0.5 for the composite synthesized at pH of 9, which presents dramatically improved dielectric loss and magnetic loss properties than the samples prepared at pH of 10 and 11. The as-prepared cobalt zinc ferrite are highly promising to be used as microwave absorption materials. - Highlights: • Co–Zn ferrite was prepared by coprecipitation method with different pH values. • To obtain pure Co–Zn ferrite, the theoretical pH values were 9–11. • Microstructure and electromagnetic properties can be tuned by varying pH values. • Co–Zn ferrite prepared with pH=9 performed well electromagnetic loss properties.

  4. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... used in connection with any business. (b) The use of government roads within park areas by commercial...

  5. Effect of pH values on the extracellular polysaccharide secreted by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans during chalcopyrite bioleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Run-lan; Liu, Jing; Tan, Jian-xi; Zeng, Wei-min; Shi, Li-juan; Gu, Guo-hua; Qin, Wen-qing; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2014-04-01

    The pH value plays an important role in the bioleaching of sulphide minerals. The effect of pH values on the extracellular polysaccharide secreted by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was investigated in different phases of bacterial growth during chalcopyrite bioleaching. It is found that extracellular polysaccharide secretion from the cells attached to chalcopyrite is more efficiently than that of the free cells in the bioleaching solution. Three factors, pH values, the concentration of soluble metal ions, and the bacterial growth and metabolism, affect extracellular polysaccharide secretion in the free cells, and are related to the bacterial growth phase. Extracellular polysaccharide secretion from the attached cells is mainly dependent on the pH value of the bacterial culture.

  6. Estimation of neonatal outcome artery pH value according to CTG interpretation of the last 60 min before delivery: a retrospective study. Can the outcome pH value be predicted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, S; Kuehnle, E; Schippert, C; von Ehr, J; Hillemanns, P; Staboulidou, Ismini

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether the umbilical artery pH value can be estimated throughout CTG assessment 60 min prior to delivery and if the estimated umbilical artery pH value correlates with the actual one. This includes analysis of correlation between CTG trace classification and actual umbilical artery pH value. Intra-and interobserver agreement and the impact of professional experience on visual analysis of fetal heart rate tracing were evaluated. This was a retrospective study. 300 CTG records of the last 60 min before delivery were picked randomly from the computer database with the following inclusion criteria; singleton pregnancy >37 weeks, no fetal anomalies, vaginal delivery either spontaneous or instrumental-assisted. Five obstetricians and two midwives of different professional experience classified 300 CTG traces according to the FIGO criteria and estimated the postnatal umbilical artery pH. The results showed a significant difference (p pH value, independent of professional experience. Analysis and correlation of CTG assessment and actual umbilical artery pH value showed significantly (p pH value and consequently of neonatal outcome on the basis of a present CTG seems to be difficult. Therefore, not only CTG training but also clinical experience and the collaboration and consultation within the whole team is important.

  7. Complexometric determination of aluminium and scandium using fluorides as masking agent at low pH value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    A complexometric method is suggested to determine Al and Sc by back titration of Bi(NO 3 ) 3 solution with xylenol orange indicator at low pH values. To increase selectivity fluoride additions were used which were masked by boron acid at the end titration point. EDTA was used as a complexing agent. Metals which create at low pH values stable complexes with EDTA undestroyed by fluoride, do not interfere with Al and Sc determination. Scandium is shown to be determined more selectively than aluminium

  8. Probiotic and lactulose: influence on gastrointestinal flora and pH value in minimal hepatic encephalopathy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Man; Jia, Lin; Zhang, Mei-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the influence on gastrointestinal flora, counts of bifidobacteria and Enterobacterceae in colon and pH value of gastrointestinal after lactulose and probiotic treatment on rat experimental minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) induced by thioactamide (TAA). MHE was induced by intraperitoneal injection of TAA. 48 male MHE models were then randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (n = 12); MHE group (n = 12) received tap water ad libitum only; lactulose group (n = 12) and probiotics group (n = 12) gavaged respectively with 8 ml/kg of lactulose and 1.5 g/kg of probiotic preparation Golden Bifid (highly concentrated combination probiotic) dissolved in 2 ml of normal saline, once a day for 8 days. The latency of Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) I was used as objective index of MHE. Counts of gastrointestinal flora, counts of bifidobacteria and Enterobacterceae in colon and pH value of gastrointestinal were examined respectively. Compared to MHE group, counts of gastrointestinal flora has greatly decreased, ratio of bifidobacteria and Enterobacterceae has greatly increased, pH value of colon has greatly descended (P 0.05). Both lactulose and probiotics can effectively prevent bacteria translocation and overgrowth, intensify CR, improved value of B/E, and acidify intestinal, decreased pH value of colon. Probiotic compound Golden Bifid is as useful as lactulose for the prevention and treatment of MHE. Probiotic therapy may be a safe, natural, well-tolerated therapy appropriate for the long-term treatment of MHE.

  9. Uranium fate in wetland mesocosms: Effects of plants at two iron loadings with different pH values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small-scale continuous flow wetland mesocosms (~0.8 L) were used to evaluate how plant roots under different iron loadings affect uranium (U) mobility. When significant concentrations of ferrous iron (Fe) were present at circumneutral pH values, U concentrations in root exposed ...

  10. Ratiometric fluorescent sensing of pH values in living cells by dual-fluorophore-labeled i-motif nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Ying, Le; Yang, Xiaohai; Yang, Yanjing; Quan, Ke; Wang, He; Xie, Nuli; Ou, Min; Zhou, Qifeng; Wang, Kemin

    2015-09-01

    We designed a new ratiometric fluorescent nanoprobe for sensing pH values in living cells. Briefly, the nanoprobe consists of a gold nanoparticle (AuNP), short single-stranded oligonucleotides, and dual-fluorophore-labeled i-motif sequences. The short oligonucleotides are designed to bind with the i-motif sequences and immobilized on the AuNP surface via Au-S bond. At neutral pH, the dual fluorophores are separated, resulting in very low fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency. At acidic pH, the i-motif strands fold into a quadruplex structure and leave the AuNP, bringing the dual fluorophores into close proximity, resulting in high FRET efficiency, which could be used as a signal for pH sensing. The nanoprobe possesses abilities of cellular transfection, enzymatic protection, fast response and quantitative pH detection. The in vitro and intracellular applications of the nanoprobe were demonstrated, which showed excellent response in the physiological pH range. Furthermore, our experimental results suggested that the nanoprobe showed excellent spatial and temporal resolution in living cells. We think that the ratiometric sensing strategy could potentially be applied to create a variety of new multicolor sensors for intracellular detection.

  11. Binding of sodium dodecyl sulfate with linear and branched polyethyleneimines in aqueous solution at different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yilin; Yan, Haike; Zhang, Jin; Thomas, Robert K

    2006-02-14

    Isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC), conductivity, and turbidity measurements have been carried out to study the interaction of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with polyethyleneimines (PEI) including linear PEI and branched PEI at different pH values of 3, 7, and 10. In all cases, the polymers show a remarkable affinity toward SDS. At pH 3, the polymer PEI is a strong polycation, and the binding is dominated by electrostatic 1:1 charge neutralization with the anionic surfactant. At pH 7, the electrostatic attraction between SDS and PEI is weak, and the hydrophobic interaction becomes stronger. At the natural pH of 10, PEI is essentially nonionic and binds SDS in the form of polymer-bound surfactant aggregates. The charge neutralization concentration (C1) of SDS for the PEI-SDS complex can be derived from the curves of variation of the enthalpy, conductivity, and turbidity with SDS concentration. There is good agreement between the results from the three methods and all show a decrease with increasing pH. The total interaction enthalpies (deltaH(total)) of PEI with SDS are obtained from the observed enthalpy curves and the difference enthalpy (deltaH*) between the total enthalpy of branched PEI with SDS, and the total enthalpy of linear PEI with SDS can be derived from the obtained deltaH(total). The difference deltaH* increases dramatically as pH increases, which indicates that the interactions are different for linear PEI and branched PEI at high pH values. A schematic map of the different states of aggregation is presented.

  12. Determination of free acid in high level liquid wastes by means of fixed pH value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jifu; Duan Shirong; Wu Xi; Yu Xueren

    1991-01-01

    For the determination of free acid in high level liquid wastes, 8% potassium oxalate solution with pH 6.50 as a complex agent of hydrolizable ion is added to 1 AW and the solution is titrated with standard sodium hydroxide to reach the original pH value. The quantity of free acid is calculated by standard sodium hydroxide consumed. This method is simple, rapid and accurate. The relative error of analysis is less than ±4%. The average percentage of recovery is 99.6-101.0%

  13. Enthalpies of formation of 5,6-dihydro-5-methyluracil and 5,6-dihydro-6-methyluracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Luísa M.P.F.; Szterner, Piotr; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Δ c H m ° of two methyl-5,6-dihydrouracils have been determined by combustion calorimetry. • Vapor pressures were measured by the Knudsen effusion technique. • Gas phase enthalpies of formation of methyl-5,6-dihydrouracils, have been derived. -- Abstract: The standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of combustion, Δ c H m ° , of two crystalline compounds, 5,6-dihydro-5-methyluracil and 5,6-dihydro-6-methyluracil, were determined, at T = 298.15 K, using a static bomb combustion calorimeter. The vapor pressures as a function of the temperature were measured for those compounds, by the Knudsen effusion technique, and the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation at the mean temperature of the vapor pressure measurements were derived from the Clausius–Clapeyron equation, and corrected to T = 298.15 K using an estimated value for Δ cr g C p,m ° . These values were used to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the two compounds studied, in the condensed and gaseous phases. Some considerations about the relative stability of the two isomers were made and compared with similar compounds

  14. Core-shell fluorescent silica nanoparticles for sensing near-neutral pH values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, F.; Chen, X.; Ye, Q.; Yao, Z.; Guo, X.; Wang, L.

    2011-01-01

    pH-responsive fluorescent core-shell silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were prepared by encapsulating the pH-sensitive fluorophore 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3, 6-trisulfonate into their silica shell via a facile reverse microemulsion method. The resulting SiNPs were characterized by SEM, TEM, fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy, photobleaching experiments, and photoluminescence. The core-shell structure endows the SiNPs with reduced photobleaching, excellent photostability, minimized solvatachromic shift, and increased fluorescence efficiency compared to the free fluorophore in aqueous solution. The dynamic range for sensing pH ranges from 5. 5 to 9. 0. The nanosensors show excellent stability, are highly reproducible, and enable rapid detection of pH. The results obtained with the SiNPs are in good agreement with data obtained with a glass electrode. (author)

  15. X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of trivalent and tetravalent actinides in solution at varying pH values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendebach, B.; Banik, N.L.; Marquardt, C.M.; Rothe, J.; Denecke, M.A.; Geckeis, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung

    2009-07-01

    We perform X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigations to monitor the stabilization of redox sensitive trivalent and tetravalent actinide ions in solution at acidic conditions in a pH range from 0 to 3 after treatment with holding reductants, hydroxylamine hydrochloride (NH{sub 2}OHHCl) and Rongalite (sodium hydroxymethanesulfinate, CH{sub 3}NaO{sub 3}S). X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements clearly demonstrate the stability of the actinide species for several hours under the given experimental conditions. Hence, structural parameters can be accurately derived by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) investigations. The coordination structure of oxygen atoms belonging to water ligands surrounding the actinide ions does not change with increasing pH value (approximately 11 O atoms at 2.42 A in the case of U(IV) at pH 1, 9 0 atoms at 2.52 A for Np(III) at pH 1.5, and 10 O atoms at 2.49 A for Pu(III) up to pH 3), indicating that hydrolysis reactions are suppressed under the given chemical conditions. (orig.)

  16. Continuous control of pH value and chloride concentration in a water coolant of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, L.N.; Krasnoperov, V.M.; Fokina, K.G.; Vilkov, N.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    Potentiometry method with the use of flowing cells with two identical electrodes is the simplest and most safe for continuous pH value and chloride control in nuclear reactor circulating circuits. The constant potential on the comparison electrode may be provided by supplying the analyzed solution to it through the ion resin filter of mixed operation. The pos--sibility of a continuous pH value monitoring in a flowing cell with two glass electrodes in parallel is considered. To monitor clorides a cell with two porous chlorine-silver electrodes positioned in series is used. The cells of the design described are shown to be workable in water simulating coolants for water-cooled reactors

  17. Influence of the pH value of anthocyanins on the electrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irén Juhász Junger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the harvesting of renewable energies became of great importance. This led to a rapid development of dye-sensitized solar cells which can be produced from low-purity materials. The best electrical properties are provided by cells prepared using synthetical, ruthenium based dyes. Unfortunately, most of them are toxic and expensive. The anthocyanins extracted for example from hibiscus flowers yield a more cost-effective and eco-friendly alternative to toxic dyes, however, with a loss of solar cell efficiency. In this article the possibility of improvement of the conversion efficiency by modification of the pH value of the dye is investigated. By decrease of the pH value, an increase of efficiency by a factor of two was achieved.

  18. Influence of lactic acid bacteria, probiotic cultures and pH value in fermented yoghurt drink to sensory quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šulcerová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we can see on market mainly fermented milk products with addition of probiotic microorganisms, especially strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. We can meet also other types of pro­bio­tic products. It is recommended to consume at least 100 grams of fermented milk products with mi­ni­mal concentration of 106 of probiotics in one gram or mililitr of product daily for reaching positive effect on men’s health. During fermentation of the carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are disunite and many of aromatic compounds ane compose. They give a typical sensory characteristic to fermented milk products. For quality and quantity level of probiotics, changes of pH value and sensory qua­li­ty of five kinds of fermented milk product Yoghurt Drink with different flavour were analyzed during the whole expiration period (28 days. Obtained results were statistically evaluated via the analysis of variance and the method of multiple comparison according to Tukey test (P < 0,010 and (P < 0,001. During the minimal endurance time lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium sp. were evaluated and changes of descriptors and pH value were detected. Number of LAB was up to 107 CFU/ml in all samples during 28 days of analysis. Only at sample 2 the number of LAB was 106 CFU/ml. Bifidobacterium sp. grew about degree. The number of LAB and Bifidobacterium sp. of yoghurt drink correspond with public notice number 77/2003 Sb, LAB 107 nad Bifidobacterium sp. 106 KTJ / ml. During 28 days of storage the pH value decreased. The biggest pH drop was recorded between 21. and 28. days of sto­ra­ge in all samples. The beginning pH value was 4.03–4.07 and the final value was between 3.80–3.95.The results of sensory evaluation processed by analysis of dispersion according to type were statistically conlusive in descriptors thickness, texture, intensity of smell, pleasantness of taste and general impression. The results of sensory evaluation processed by

  19. Comparison of Interstitial Fluid pH, PCO2, PO2 with Venous Blood Values During Repetitive Handgrip Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Ronald Donald; Soller, Babs R.; Shear, Michael; Walz, Matthias; Landry, Michelle; Heard, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the use of a small, fiber optic sensor to measure pH, PCO2 and PO2 from forearm muscle interstitial fluid (IF) during handgrip dynamometry. PURPOSE: Compare pH, PCO2 and PO2 values obtained from venous blood with those from the IF of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) during three levels of exercise intensity. METHODS: Six subjects (5M/1F), average age 29+/-5 yrs, participated in the study. A venous catheter was placed in the retrograde direction in the antecubital space and a fiber optic sensor (Paratrend, Diametrics Medical, Inc.) was placed through a 22 G catheter into the FDS muscle under ultrasound guidance. After a 45 min rest period, subjects performed three 5-min bouts of repetitive handgrip exercise (2s contraction/1 s relaxation) at attempted levels of 15%, 30% and 45% of maximal voluntary contraction. The order of the exercise bouts was random with the second and third bouts started after blood lactate had returned to baseline. Venous blood was sampled every minute during exercise and analyzed with an I-Stat CG-4+ cartridge, while IF fiber optic sensor measurements were obtained every 2 s. Change from pre-exercise baseline to end of exercise was computed for pH, PCO2 and PO2. Blood and IF values were compared with a paired t-test. RESULTS: Baseline values for pH, PCO2 and PO2 were 7.37+/-0.02, 46+/-4 mm Hg, and 36+/-6 mm Hg respectively in blood and 7.39+/-0.02, 44+/-6 mm Hg, and 35+/-14 mm Hg in IF. Average changes over all exercise levels are noted in the Table below. For each parameter the exercise-induced change was at least twice as great in IF as in blood. In blood and IF, pH and PCO2 increases were directly related to exercise intensity. Change in venous PO2 was unrelated to exercise intensity, while IF PO2 decreased with increases in exercise intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of IF pH, PCO2 and PO2 is more sensitive to exercise intensity than measurement of the same parameters in venous blood and provides continuous

  20. ESTIMATION OF GIARDIA CT VALUES AT HIGH PH FOR THE SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency currently recommends Ct (disinfectant concentration multiplied by the exposure time) values to achieve required levels of inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts by different disinfectants including free chlorine. Current guidance covers ina...

  1. Microencapsulation of butyl stearate with melamine-formaldehyde resin: Effect of decreasing the pH value on the composition and thermal stability of microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krajnc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to investigate how different decreasing of pH regimes during microencapsulation process with melamine-formaldehyde (MF resin affects the composition, morphology and thermal stability of microcapsules containing a phase-change material (PCM. Technical butyl stearate was used as PCM. Microencapsulation was carried out at 70°C. For all experiments the starting pH value was 6.0. After one hour of microencapsulation at the starting pH value, the pH value was lowered to final pH value (5.5; 5.0; 4.5 in a stepwise or linear way. The properties of microcapsules were monitored during and after the microencapsulation process. The results showed that pH value decreasing regime was critical for the morphology and stability of microcapsules. During microencapsulations with a stepwise decrease of pH value we observed faster increase of the amount of MF resin in the microencapsulation product compared to the microencapsulations with a linear pH value decrease. However, faster deposition in the case of microencapsulations with stepwise decrease of pH value did not result in thicker MF shells. The shell thickness increased much faster when the pH value was decreased in a linear way or in several smaller steps. It was shown that for the best thermal stability of microcapsules, the pH value during microencapsulation had to be lowered in a linear way or in smaller steps to 5.0 or lower.

  2. The electrochemical property of the electrodeposited magnetite electrode with different pH values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myong-Jin; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Hong Pyo

    2014-01-01

    Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is influenced by many factors such as the water chemistry (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (D.O.) in a solution, and etc.), chemical composition of carbon steel, and fluid dynamics. Magnetite is formed at the inner surface of carbon steel, and protects the integrity of pipes from damage. The magnetite has a stable state at each equilibrium condition, so that it can be dissolved into the fluid under conditions that satisfy the equilibrium state. The iron solubility can be calculated by considering the reaction equilibrium constants for prediction of the change in the magnetite layer. On the other hand, it is necessary to measure the experimental solubility to compare the theoretical data and the experimental data. In addition, the solubility of magnetite can be predicted by measuring the electrochemical experiments. However, there are few studies related to the electrochemical property of magnetite owing to the difficulty of the electrode fabrication. In the present work, a magnetite electrode was prepared using the electrochemical-assisted precipitation method, and the electrochemical property of the fabricated magnetite electrode was measured in an alkaline solution. The magnetite electrode was fabricated by using the electrochemical-assisted precipitation method for the measurement of the solubility of the magnetite. The prepared magnetite electrode showed the characteristic of the magnetite by an XRD spectrum

  3. Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama)

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund, Eva; Manley, Timothy R.; Littlejohn, Roger P.

    2004-01-01

    The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter) gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy) levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama) w...

  4. Influence of pH value on microstructure of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by chickpea protein flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Manuel; Isurralde, Nadia; Romero, Alberto; Guerrero, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Food industry is highly interested in the development of healthier formulations of oil-in-water emulsions, stabilized by plant proteins instead of egg or milk proteins. These emulsions would avoid allergic issues or animal fat. Among other plant proteins, legumes are a cost-competitive product. This work evaluates the influence of pH value (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5) on emulsions stabilized by chickpea-based emulsions at two different protein concentration (2.0 and 4.0 wt%). Microstructure of chickpea-based emulsions is assessed by means of backscattering, droplet size distributions and small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements. Visual appearances as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy images are obtained to provide useful information on the emulsions structure. Interestingly, results indicate that the pH value and protein concentration have a strong influence on emulsion microstructure and stability. Thus, the system which contains protein surfaces positively charged shows the highest viscoelastic properties, a good droplet size distribution profile and non-apparent destabilization phenomena. Interestingly, results also reveal the importance of rheological measurements in the prediction of protein interactions and emulsion stability since this technique is able to predict destabilization mechanisms sooner than other techniques such as backscattering or droplet size distribution measurements.

  5. Continuous measurement of reticuloruminal pH values in dairy cows during the transition period from barn to pasture feeding using an indwelling wireless data transmitting unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiner, J; Horn, M; Steinwidder, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of the transition from barn feeding to pasture on the pattern of reticuloruminal pH values in 8 multiparous dairy cows. A indwelling wireless data transmitting system for pH measurement was given to 8 multiparous cows orally. Reticuloruminal pH values were measured every 600 s over a period of 42 days. After 7 days of barn feeding (period 1), all of the animals were pastured with increasing grazing times from 2 to 7 h/day over 7 days (period 2). From day 15 to day 21 (period 3), the cows spent 7 h/day on pasture. Beginning on day 22, the animals had 20 h/day access to pasture (day and night grazing). To study reticuloruminal adaptation to pasture feeding, the phase of day and night grazing was subdivided into another 3 weekly periods (periods 4-6). Despite a mild transition period from barn feeding to pasture, significant effects on reticuloruminal pH values were observed. During barn feeding, the mean reticuloruminal pH value for all of the cows was 6.44 ± 0.14, and the pH values decreased significantly (p pH values increased again (pH 6.25 ± 0.22; pH 6.31 ± 0.17; pH 6.37 ± 0.16). Our results showed that the animals had significantly lowered reticuloruminal pH during the periods of feed transition from barn to pasture feeding. Despite these significant changes, the decrease was not harmful, as indicated by data of feed intake and milk production. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8≤ pH<6.2 was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH≥ 6.2 was much lower in red deer (3.8% than in fallow deer (54.5%. A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hållbarhet, färg, vattenhållande förmåga och m

  7. Utilization of slaked lime for the regulation of pH value in the process of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Aleksandar V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigations of used lime at plant from company Messer-Tehnogas, Belgrade, were in the aim to improvement technologically results from flotation concentration of copper minerals in flotation plant Veliki Krivelj. This paper shows usage of slaked lime, which is waste in the process of technical gas production, for regulation of pH value in the process of copper minerals flotation concentration. It is important to point out that slaked lime is a waste material that is not dangerous. Preparation and dosage includes preparation procedures, which enable introduction into flotation process with the aim of achieving better results. Lime from Limekiln Zagrađe is brought into four storage places in flotation. Volume of each storage place is 80 m3. Lime in pieces from storage place is added by airbladders on transportation line and by system of transportation lines lime gets to the ball mill. At the mill entrance water is added and then follows lime grinding. Milk glass of lime thus prepared goes to the pump basket from where is transported by pipeline to conditioner, and then by manual and (or automatic valves it is dosed to the flotation concentration of copper minerals process. Prospect of advancement and rationalization of the used lime in flotation plant Bor, Veliki Krivelj and Majdanpek as well as a way to link different branches of industry was demonstrated. Total cost of lime supplying, transporting, preparation and distribution related slaked lime is lower for 2.955 din/kg. Particularly, using lime from Messer in content of 2.1 g/l value of pH 11.82 is possible to obtain.

  8. Diurnal variation in ruminal pH on the digestibility of highly digestible perennial ryegrass during continuous culture fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, W J; Kolver, E S; Thorne, P L; Egan, A R

    2004-06-01

    Dairy cows grazing high-digestibility pastures exhibit pronounced diurnal variation in ruminal pH, with pH being below values considered optimal for digestion. Using a dual-flow continuous culture system, the hypothesis that minimizing diurnal variation in pH would improve digestion of pasture when pH was low, but not at a higher pH, was tested. Four treatments were imposed, with pH either allowed to exhibit normal diurnal variation around an average pH of 6.1 or 5.6, or maintained at constant pH. Digesta samples were collected during the last 3 d of each of four, 9-d experimental periods. A constant pH at 5.6 compared with a constant pH of 6.1 reduced the digestibility of organic matter (OM), neutral detergent (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) by 7, 14, and 21%, respectively. When pH was allowed to vary (averaging 5.6), digestion of OM, NDF, and ADF were reduced by 15,30, and 36%, respectively, compared with pH varying at 6.1. There was little difference in digestion parameters when pH was either constant or varied with an average pH of 6.1. However, when average pH was 5.6, maintaining a constant pH significantly increased digestion of OM, NDF, and ADF by 5, 25, and 24% compared with a pH that exhibited normal diurnal variation. These in vitro results show that gains in digestibility and potential milk production can be made by minimizing diurnal variation in ruminal pH, but only when ruminal pH is low (5.6). However, larger gains in productivity can be achieved by increasing average daily ruminal pH from 5.6 to 6.1.

  9. Effect of pH Value on the Electrochemical and Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of X70 Pipeline Steel in the Dilute Bicarbonate Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z. Y.; Liu, Z. Y.; Wang, L. W.; Ma, H. C.; Du, C. W.; Li, X. G.; Wang, X.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, effects of pH value on the electrochemical and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of X70 pipeline steel in the dilute bicarbonate solutions were investigated using electrochemical measurements, slow strain rate tensile tests and surface analysis techniques. Decrease of the solution pH from 6.8 to 6.0 promotes the anodic dissolution and cathodic reduction simultaneously. Further decrease of the pH value mainly accelerates the cathodic reduction of X70 pipeline steel. As a result, when the solution pH decreases form 6.8 to 5.5, SCC susceptibility decreases because of the enhancement of the anodic dissolution. When the solution pH decreases from 5.5 to 4.0, SCC susceptibility increases gradually because of the acceleration of cathodic reactions.

  10. Optimum pH and pH Stability of Crude Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pH on the activity and stability of crude polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extracted from garden egg (Solanum aethiopicum), pawpaw (Carica papaya), pumpkin ... Optimum pH values were found to be 6.0,6.5,6.0, 4.5 and 4.0/or 8.0 for the enzyme extracted from Solanum aethiopicum, Carica papaya, Cucurbita pepo, ...

  11. Birth asphyxia measured by the pH value of the umbilical cord blood may predict an increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Susanne Hvolgaard; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Wu, Chunsen; Liew, Zeyan; Gissler, Mika; Obel, Carsten; Arah, Onyebuchi

    2017-06-01

    Although birth asphyxia is a major risk factor for neonatal and childhood morbidity and mortality, it has not been investigated much in relation to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined whether birth asphyxia measured by the pH of the blood in the umbilical artery cord was associated with childhood ADHD. A population-based cohort of 295 687 children born in Finland between 1991 and 2002 was followed until December 31, 2007. ADHD was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, as a diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorder. We examined the risk of ADHD with varying pH values using Cox regression, taking time trends into consideration. When compared to the reference group, a pH value below 7.10 was significantly associated with an increased risk of ADHD. The strongest risks were observed among children with a pH value value did not contribute much to the risk among children with an Apgar score of 0-3. Birth asphyxia, defined by low pH value, may predict an increased risk of ADHD in childhood. The association between the pH value and ADHD was homogenous when stratified by gestational age and the Apgar score. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of pH value on particle morphology and electrochemical properties of LiFePO4 by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Qingzhu; Ou, Xiuqin; Wang, Li; Liang, Guangchuan; Wang, Zuorui

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The pH value of system is adjusted in the range of 2.5-8.8 by using dilute sulfuric acid and ammonia water. The results indicated that the particle exhibits acute angle diamond flake-like morphology at pH = 2.5. With increase of pH value, the particle gradually becomes to round flake-like and irregular flake-like morphology. The optimal sample synthesized at pH = 6.4 exhibits discharge capacities of 151.8 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C rate and 129.3 mAh g -1 at 3 C rate. Highlights: → The pH value of solution affects greatly on particle morphology. → The solubility product determined the transition of interphases. → The disorder of atoms in crystal is affected by pH value. → LiFePO 4 with high capacity could be synthesized at slight acid or neutral conditions. -- Abstract: Lithium iron phosphate was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis using LiOH.H 2 O, FeSO 4 .7H 2 O and H 3 PO 4 as raw materials. The effects of pH value of reaction solution on particle morphology and electrochemical property were investigated. The pH value of the reaction solution was adjusted in the range of 2.5-8.8 by dilute sulfuric acid and ammonia water. The samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electronic microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), constant-current charge/discharge cycling tests and chemical analysis. The results indicated that the particles exhibited acute angle diamond flake-like morphology at pH = 2.5, and as the pH value increased, the particle became hexagon flake-like, round flake-like and irregular flake-like morphology gradually. The optimal sample synthesized at pH = 6.4 exhibited discharge capacities of 151.8 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C rate and 129.3 mAh g -1 at 3 C rate. It was found that pH value affected the morphologies and properties of the product by means of different crystal growth rates.

  13. Health bill and MDGS 4, 5, & 6 | Daru | Tropical Journal of Obstetrics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Health bill and MDGS 4, 5, & 6. PH Daru ...

  14. Optimizing isothiocyanate formation during enzymatic glucosinolate breakdown by adjusting pH value, temperature and dilution in Brassica vegetables and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschen, Franziska S.; Klopsch, Rebecca; Oliviero, Teresa; Schreiner, Monika; Verkerk, Ruud; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of glucosinolate-rich Brassicales vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cancer with enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates playing a key role. However, formation of health-promoting isothiocyanates is inhibited by the epithiospecifier protein in favour of nitriles and epithionitriles. Domestic processing conditions, such as changes in pH value, temperature or dilution, might also affect isothiocyanate formation. Therefore, the influences of these three factors were evaluated in accessions of Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. Mathematical modelling was performed to determine optimal isothiocyanate formation conditions and to obtain knowledge on the kinetics of the reactions. At 22 °C and endogenous plant pH, nearly all investigated plants formed nitriles and epithionitriles instead of health-promoting isothiocyanates. Response surface models, however, clearly demonstrated that upon change in pH to domestic acidic (pH 4) or basic pH values (pH 8), isothiocyanate formation considerably increases. While temperature also affects this process, the pH value has the greatest impact. Further, a kinetic model showed that isothiocyanate formation strongly increases due to dilution. Finally, the results show that isothiocyanate intake can be strongly increased by optimizing the conditions of preparation of Brassicales vegetables.

  15. Stereoselective Degradation and Molecular Ecological Mechanism of Chiral Pesticides Beta-Cypermethrin in Soils with Different pH Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Ji, Guo-Dong

    2015-12-15

    For decades, pesticides have been widely used for agricultural activities around the world, and the environmental problems caused by these compounds have raised widespread concern. However, the different enantioselective behaviors of chiral pesticide enantiomers are often ignored. Here, the selective degradation patterns and mechanisms of chiral pesticide enantiomers were successfully investigated for the first time in the soils of three cultivation areas with different pH values. Beta-cypermethrin was chosen as the target analyte. We found that the degradation rates of the four isomers of beta-cypermethrin were different. We used stepwise regression equations between degradation rates and functional genes to quantitatively study their relationships. Quantitative response analysis revealed that different isomers have different equations even under identical conditions. The results of path analysis showed that a single functional gene can make different direct and indirect contributions to the degradation of different isomers. Finally, the high-throughput technology was used to analysis the genome of the three tested soils and then compared the main microbial communities in them. We have successfully devised a method to investigate the molecular biological mechanisms of the selective degradation behavior of chiral compounds, thus enabling us to better understand these mechanisms.

  16. Changes of pH and peroxide value in carp (Cyprinus carpio) cuts packaged in modified atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milijašević, M.; Babić Milijašević, J.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Vesković Moračanin, S.; Lilić, S.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of our research was to examine the influence of packaging in modified atmosphere on the pH and peroxide value in muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), as well as to determine the most suitable gas mixtures for packing of that freshwater species. Three sample groups of carp cuts were investigated. One group of carp cuts was placed on top of flaked ice placed in polystyrene boxes. Two other groups were packaged in modified atmosphere with different gas ratios: 80%O2+20%CO2 (MAP 1) and 90%CO2+10%N2 (MAP 2). All carp cuts were stored in the same conditions at 3±0.5°C, and on 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15. and 17 days of storage, chemical testing was performed. The results obtained indicate that the packaging of common carp under 90%CO2+10%N2 slowed proteolytic reaction as well as secondary lipid oxidation.

  17. Kinetics of an acid-base catalyzed reaction (aspartame degradation) as affected by polyol-induced changes in buffer pH and pK values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuy, S; Bell, L N

    2009-01-01

    The kinetics of an acid-base catalyzed reaction, aspartame degradation, were examined as affected by the changes in pH and pK(a) values caused by adding polyols (sucrose, glycerol) to phosphate buffer. Sucrose-containing phosphate buffer solutions had a lower pH than that of phosphate buffer alone, which contributed, in part, to reduced aspartame reactivity. A kinetic model was introduced for aspartame degradation that encompassed pH and buffer salt concentrations, both of which change with a shift in the apparent pK(a) value. Aspartame degradation rate constants in sucrose-containing solutions were successfully predicted using this model when corrections (that is, lower pH, lower apparent pK(a) value, buffer dilution from the polyol) were applied. The change in buffer properties (pH, pK(a)) from adding sucrose to phosphate buffer does impact food chemical stability. These effects can be successfully incorporated into predictive kinetic models. Therefore, pH and pK(a) changes from adding polyols to buffer should be considered during food product development.

  18. [pH values in the pharynx of the patients presenting with compromised nasal breathing of inflammatory and non-inflammatory genesis concomitant with gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, M V; Temnikova, I V; Onuchina, E V

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) on the pH values in the pharynx and nose. It included 87 patients at the age varying from 18 to 81 years admitted to the Irkutsk-based Railway Clinical Hospital and allocated to four groups. Group 1 was comprised of 25 patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), group 2 consisted of 29 patients with CRS in the absence of GERD, group 3 included 22 patients with nasal septum deformations (NSD) and GERD, group 4 included 11 patients with NSD and motor rhinitis without GERD. The control group was formed from 10 volunteers. pH was measured by the contact method with the use ofEkokhim indicator paper. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed following the recommendations of the Montreal consensus. It was shown that pH values in the pharynx of the patients with compromised nasal breathing of any origin in combination with GERD were lower than in the absence of GERD and in the healthy volunteers. The study groups did not differ in terms of pH values in the nasal cavity. It is concluded that pH values 4 or lower may serve as the criterion for pharyngo-laryngeal reflux (PLR) concomitant with HERD while pH 5 occurs more frequently in the patients with compromised nasal breathing of any etiology, regardless of the presence or absence of GERD.Disordered nasal breathing of any genesis in the patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease was associated with the feeling of the lump in the throat, congestion of the respiratory tract and the nose, pain in the ears, cardialgia, and irregular heartbeat. It isrecommended to use pH measurements as a criterion for diagnostics of pharyngo-laryngeal reflux in the patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  19. Lower pH values of weakly acidic refluxes as determinants of heartburn perception in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with normal esophageal acid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bortoli, N; Martinucci, I; Savarino, E; Franchi, R; Bertani, L; Russo, S; Ceccarelli, L; Costa, F; Bellini, M; Blandizzi, C; Savarino, V; Marchi, S

    2016-01-01

    Multichannel impedance pH monitoring has shown that weakly acidic refluxes are able to generate heartburn. However, data on the role of different pH values, ranging between 4 and 7, in the generation of them are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether different pH values of weakly acidic refluxes play a differential role in provoking reflux symptoms in endoscopy-negative patients with physiological esophageal acid exposure time and positive symptom index and symptom association probability for weakly acidic refluxes. One hundred and forty-three consecutive patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, nonresponders to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), were allowed a washout from PPIs before undergoing: upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and multichannel impedance pH monitoring. In patients with both symptom index and symptom association probability positive for weakly acidic reflux, each weakly acidic reflux was evaluated considering exact pH value, extension, physical characteristics, and correlation with heartburn. Forty-five patients with normal acid exposure time and positive symptom association probability for weakly acidic reflux were identified. The number of refluxes not heartburn related was higher than those heartburn related. In all distal and proximal liquid refluxes, as well as in distal mixed refluxes, the mean pH value of reflux events associated with heartburn was significantly lower than that not associated. This condition was not confirmed for proximal mixed refluxes. Overall, a low pH of weakly acidic reflux represents a determinant factor in provoking heartburn. This observation contributes to better understand the pathophysiology of symptoms generated by weakly acidic refluxes, paving the way toward the search for different therapeutic approaches to this peculiar condition of esophageal hypersensitivity. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  20. Stabilization of Organic Matter by Biochar Application in Compost-amended Soils with Contrasting pH Values and Textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hao Jien

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Food demand and soil sustainability have become urgent concerns because of the impacts of global climate change. In subtropical and tropical regions, practical management that stabilizes and prevents organic fertilizers from rapid decomposition in soils is necessary. This study conducted a short-term (70 days incubation experiment to assess the effects of biochar application on the decomposition of added bagasse compost in three rural soils with different pH values and textures. Two rice hull biochars, produced through slow pyrolization at 400 °C (RHB-400 and 700 °C (RHB-700, with application rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% (w/w, were separately incorporated into soils with and without compost (1% (w/w application rate. Experimental results indicated that C mineralization rapidly increased at the beginning in all treatments, particularly in those involving 2% and 4% biochar. The biochar addition increased C mineralization by 7.9%–48% in the compost-amended soils after 70 days incubation while the fractions of mineralized C to applied C significantly decreased. Moreover, the estimated maximum of C mineralization amount in soils treated with both compost and biochar were obviously lower than expectation calculated by a double exponential model (two pool model. Based on the micromorphological observation, added compost was wrapped in the soil aggregates formed after biochar application and then may be protected from decomposing by microbes. Co-application of compost with biochar may be more efficient to stabilize and sequester C than individual application into the studied soils, especially for the biochar produced at high pyrolization temperature.

  1. Stability of the calcium hydroxyzincate protective layer developed on galvanized reinforcements after a further increase of the pH value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade, C.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous works on galvanized reinforcements in contact with Ca- containing highly alkaline media, the authors have reported the existence of a threshold pH of 13,3 ± 0,1, below which the Zn in contact with such a medium is passivated by formation of a continuous layer of calcium hydroxyzincate, but at pH values above this it corrodes continuously until it totally disappears. The investigation on the stability of the calcium hydroxyzincate layer after an increase of the pH to very high alkaline values, is the aim of the present paper. It has been establised that if the calcium hydroxyzincate is perfectly developed, a later increase of the pH does not affect the stability.

    En trabajos anteriores que estudian el comportamiento de armaduras galvanizadas en contacto con medios muy alcalinos que contienen calcio, los autores han señalado la existencia de un umbral de pH = 13,3 ±0,1 por debajo del cual el Zn en contacto con tales medios se pasiva por formación de una capa continua de hidroxizincato calcico, mientras que para valores de pH superiores se corroe continuamente hasta su total desaparición. Establecer la estabilidad del recubrimiento protector de hidroxizincato calcico a un aumento de pH a valores muy alcalinos posterior a su formación, es el objetivo del presente artículo. Como resultado de las investigaciones realizadas ha podido concluirse que si el recubrimiento de hidroxizincato cálcico se ha desarrollado perfectamente, un posterior incremento del pH del medio no afecta su estabilidad.

  2. Heat-denaturation and aggregation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) globulins as affected by the pH value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Koehler, Peter; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-04-01

    The influence of heating (100 °C; 0-15 min) on the relative molecular mass, protein unfolding and secondary structure of quinoa globulins was studied at pH 6.5 (low solubility), 8.5 and 10.5 (high solubility). The patterns of denaturation and aggregation varied with pH. Heating triggered the disruption of the disulfide bonds connecting the acidic and basic chains of the chenopodin subunits at pH 8.5 and 10.5, but not at pH 6.5. Large aggregates unable to enter a 4% SDS-PAGE gel were formed at pH 6.5 and 8.5, which became soluble under reducing conditions. Heating at pH 10.5 lead to a rapid dissociation of the native chenopodin and to the disruption of the subunits, but no SDS-insoluble aggregates were formed. No major changes in secondary structure occurred during a 15 min heating, but an increase in hydrophobicity indicated unfolding of the tertiary structure in all samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The clinical value of pharyngeal pH monitoring using a double-probe, triple-sensor catheter in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muderris, Togay; Gokcan, M Kursat; Yorulmaz, Irfan

    2009-02-01

    To determine the clinical value of pharyngeal pH monitoring for the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) by using a double-probe, triple-sensor catheter in patients with symptoms of LPR. Prospective review of pH values recorded at the pharyngeal sensor, with the sensor placed in the proximal esophagus in patients with suspected LPR. Tertiary care university hospital. Thirty-three consecutive patients with symptoms of LPR. A pH test result was considered abnormal if a single reflux episode was detected in the hypopharynx and if, in the proximal esophagus, the total percentage of time the pH value was below 4 was 1.0% or higher. Data obtained from sensors were compared to determine the validity of pharyngeal sensor. Correlation between patients' reflux finding scores, reflux finding indexes, and reflux episodes were analyzed. Of 33 patients, 17 had more than 1 reflux episode detected by the pharyngeal sensor and 19 had pathological reflux detected by the proximal esophageal sensor. Four patients who had pharyngeal reflux had a normal esophageal acid exposure time, and 6 patients who had pathological reflux detected by the proximal esophageal sensor did not experienced any pharyngeal reflux episode. Four patients would have had a false-negative test result and 6 subjects would have had a false-positive test result if a hypopharyngeal pH sensor was not implemented. The adjustable, bifurcated, triple-sensor pH probe allows identifying true hypopharyngeal reflux episodes. If single-probe, double-sensor pH monitoring is to be performed, the proximal probe should be placed in the pharynx, not in the upper esophagus.

  4. A STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FOAM-WASHING AGENT SPECIMENS AT ACIDIC pH VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strilets O. P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is well-known that any parapharmaceutical substance, in particular, foam-washing agents comprising water in combination with detergents, extracts, water-soluble vitamins, viscosity regulators, pH, etc., is the ideal environment for microbial growth. Therefore, it is indispensable to use preservatives to protect any foam-washing agent from possible contamination by microorganisms. Their main advantages are: presence of a single antimicrobial and antifungal effect, expanded range of effects, decrease in the risk of resistance of microorganisms and decrease in the toxicity and concentration of the preserving mixture. In this regard, the shelf life of parapharmaceutical substances is not provided through the use of large quantities of preservatives, but thanks to their rational combination. Materials and Methods. For this study, we have made a number of samples of foam washing bases with a number of preservatives, which are often used in developing foam-washing agents with acidic pH value, namely: sample number 1 – foam washing base + sodium benzoate; sample number 2 – foam washing base + «Euxyl K300» (phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, bulylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, isobutylaraben; sample number 3 – foam washing base + «Germaben II» (polypropylene glycol, diazolium dinomovine, methylparaben, propylparaben; sample number 4 – foam washing base + «Nipaquard CMB» (benzyl alcohol, triethylene glycol, chloromethylisothiazoline, methylisothiazoline. The concentration of preservative in each sample was 0.1% (average concentration that is recommended for developing foam-washing agents. The antimicrobial activity of prototype gels was studied in vitro by diffusion in agar (“wells” method. The antimicrobial activity was measured immediately after sample preparation. All the studies were performed in aseptic conditions using a laminar box (biological safety cabinet AS2-4E1 "Esco" Indonesia. Results. According to the

  5. [Effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase, total protein, salivary flow rate and pH value in Pi deficiency children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-min; Chen, Long-hui; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-rong; Chen, Wei-wen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), total protein (TP), salivary flow rate, and pH value between Pi deficiency (PD) children and healthy children, thereby providing evidence for Pi controlling saliva theory. Twenty PD children were recruited, and 29 healthy children were also recruited at the same time. Saliva samples from all subjects were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. The sAA activity and amount, TP contents, salivary flow rate, and pH value were determined and compared. (1) Citric acid stimulation was able to significantly increase salivary flow rate, pH value, sAA activities, sAA specific activity and sAA amount (including glycosylated and non-glycosylated sAA amount) in healthy children (Psalivary flow rate, pH value, and glycosylated sAA levels in PD children (Psalivary indices between the two groups (P>0.05), salivary indices except salivary flow rate and glycosylated sAA levels decreased more in PD children. There was statistical difference in sAA activity ratio, sAA specific activity ratio, and the ratio of glycosylated sAA levels between PD children and healthy children (P<0.05). PD children had decreased response to citric acid stimulation.

  6. The influence of surface modification, coating agents and pH value of aqueous solutions on physical properties of magnetite nanoparticles investigated by ESR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobosz, Bernadeta, E-mail: benia@amu.edu.pl [Medical Physics Division, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Krzyminiewski, Ryszard [Medical Physics Division, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Kurczewska, Joanna; Schroeder, Grzegorz [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2017-05-01

    The article presents the results of electron spin resonance (ESR) studies for aqueous solutions of functionalized superparamagnetic iron(II,III) oxide nanoparticles. The samples studied differed in type of organic ligands at the magnetite surface, type of coating agent and pH value of aqueous solutions. The ESR spectra of the samples were obtained at room temperature and at 230 K. The field cooling (FC) experiment was performed for selected samples, and the effective anisotropy field (H{sub K2}) and the first order magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K{sub 1}) was calculated. The process of the nanoparticles diffusion in different environments (human blood, human serum) forced by an inhomogeneous magnetic field was monitored and their interactions with different solvents have been discussed. It has been shown that ESR method is useful to observe the impact of organic ligands at the magnetite surface, type of coating agent and pH value of aqueous solutions on the properties of iron(II,III) oxide nanoparticles. - Highlights: • The influence of different organic ligands, coatings and pH values of aqueous solutions on the physical properties of the magnetite nanoparticles studied by ESR method. • Nanoparticles diffusion forced by inhomogeneous magnetic field monitored by ESR and explained. • A narrow line separated in ESR spectra by CREM. • The influence of different coatings and pH values of aqueous solutions on ESR spectra of TEMPO attached to the magnetite core.

  7. Soil pH in fruit trees in relation to specific apple replant disorder (SARD). II. The first five years at Wageningen research plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, H.; Hoestra, H.; Borsboom, O.; Pouwer, A.

    1980-01-01

    Field plots were established with 4 target pH values, viz. 4, 5, 6 and 7, to study the effect of pH on specific apple replant disorder (SARD). The target pH levels were not stable and frequently showed fluctuations. Although no significant differences have been found on tree performance, the

  8. Whitefly feeding behavior and retention of a foregut-borne crinivirus exposed to artificial diets with different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jaclyn S; Chen, Angel Y S; Drucker, Martin; Lopez, Nicole H; Carpenter, Alyssa; Ng, James C K

    2017-12-01

    Transmission of plant viruses by phytophagous hemipteran insects encompasses complex interactions underlying a continuum of processes involved in virus acquisition, retention and inoculation combined with vector feeding behavior. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary pH on whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) feeding behavior and release of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) virions retained in the vector's foregut. Electrical penetration graph analysis revealed that variables associated with whitefly probing and ingestion did not differ significantly in pH (4, 7.4, and 9) adjusted artificial diets. To investigate virus retention and release, whiteflies allowed to acquire LIYV virions in a pH 7.4 artificial diet were fed pH 4, 7.4, or 9 virion-free artificial (clearing) diets. Immunofluorescent localization analyses indicated that virions remained bound to the foreguts of approximately 20%-24% of vectors after they fed on each of the 3 pH-adjusted clearing diets. When RNA preparations from the clearing diets were analyzed by reverse transcription (RT) nested-PCR and, in some cases, real-time qPCR, successful amplification of LIYV-specific sequence was infrequent but consistently repeatable for the pH 7.4 diet but never observed for the pH 4 and 9 diets, suggesting a weak pH-dependent effect for virion release. Viruliferous vectors that fed on each of the 3 pH-adjusted clearing diets transmitted LIYV to virus-free plants. These results suggest that changes in pH values alone in artificial diet do not result in observable changes in whitefly feeding behaviors, an observation that marks a first in the feeding of artificial diet by whitefly vectors; and that there is a potential causal and contingent relationship between the pH in artificial diet and the release/inoculation of foregut bound virions. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Changes in composition and enamel demineralization inhibition activities of gallic acid at different pH values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Huang, X.; Huang, S.; Deng, M.; Xie, X.; Liu, M.; Liu, H.; Zhou, X.; Li, J.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Gallic acid (GA) has been shown to inhibit demineralization and enhance remineralization of enamel; however, GA solution is highly acidic. This study was to investigate the stability of GA solutions at various pH and to examine the resultant effects on enamel demineralization. Methods.

  10. Pasteurization of fruit juices of different pH values by combined high hydrostatic pressure and carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wang; Pan, Jian; Xie, Huiming; Yang, Yi; Zhou, Dianfei; Zhu, Zhaona

    2012-10-01

    The inactivation of the selected vegetative bacteria Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Lactobacillus plantarum by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in physiological saline (PS) and in four fruit juices with pHs ranging from 3.4 to 6.3, with or without dissolved CO(2), was investigated. The inactivation effect of HHP on the bacteria was greatly enhanced by dissolved CO(2). Effective inactivation (>7 log) was achieved at 250 MPa for E. coli and 350 MPa for L. innocua and L. plantarum in the presence of 0.2 M CO(2) at room temperature for 15 min in PS, with additional inactivation of more than 4 log for all three bacteria species compared with the results with HHP treatment alone. The combined inactivation by HHP and CO(2) in tomato juice of pH 4.2 and carrot juice of pH 6.3 showed minor differences compared with that in PS. By comparison, the combined effect in orange juice of pH 3.8 was considerably promoted, while the HHP inactivation was enhanced only to a limited extent. In another orange juice with a pH of 3.4, all three strains lost their pressure resistance. HHP alone completely inactivated E. coli at relatively mild pressures of 200 MPa and L. innocua and L. plantarum at 300 MPa. Observations of the survival of the bacteria in treated juices also showed that the combined treatment caused more sublethal injury, which increased further inactivation at a relatively mild pH of 4.2 during storage. The results indicated that the combined treatment of HHP with dissolved CO(2) may provide an effective method for the preservation of low- or medium-acid fruit and vegetable juices at relatively low pressures. HHP alone inactivated bacteria effectively in high-acid fruit juice.

  11. Superior magnetic properties of Ni ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by capping agent-free one-step coprecipitation route at different pH values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, P.; Tabatabai Yazdi, Sh.; Mehran, M.; Saeednia, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, well-dispersed nanoparticles of NiFe2O4 with diameters less than 10 nm and good crystallinity and excellent magnetic properties were synthesized via a simple one-step capping agent-free coprecipitation route from metal chlorides. The ammonia was used as the precipitating agent and also the solution basicity controller. The effect of pH value during the coprecipitation process was investigated by details through microstructural, optical and magnetic characterizations of the synthesized particles using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and UV-vis spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that the particle size, departure from the inverse spinel structure, the band gap value and the magnetization of Ni ferrite samples increase with pH value from 9 to 11 indicating the more pronounced surface effects in the smaller nanoparticles.

  12. Inhibitory Effects of 5,6,7-Trihydroxyflavones on Tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kawabata

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Baicalein (1, 6-hydroxyapigenin (6, 6-hydroxygalangin (13 and 6-hydroxy-kaempferol (14, which are naturally occurring flavonoids from a set of 14 hydroxy-flavones tested, exhibited high inhibitory effects on tyrosinase with respect to L-DOPA,while each of the 5,6,7-trihydroxyflavones 1, 6, 13 or 14 acted as a cofactor tomonophenolase. Moreover, 6-hydroxykaempferol (14 showed the highest activity andwas a competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase compared to L-DOPA. 5,6,7-Trihydroxyflavones 1, 6, 13 or 14 showed also high antioxidant activities. Hence, weconclude that the 5,6,7-trihydroxy-flavones are useful as good depigmentation agentswith inhibitory effects in addition to their antioxidant properties.

  13. Modulation of leak K(+) channel in hypoglossal motoneurons of rats by serotonin and/or variation of pH value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xue-Feng; Tsai, Hao-Jan; Li, Lin; Chen, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Guang-Fa

    2009-08-25

    The cloned TWIK-related acid-sensitive K(+) channel (TASK-1) is sensitive to the pH changes within physiological pH range (pK~7.4). Recently, the native TASK-1-like channel was suggested to be the main contributor to the background (or leak) K(+) conductance in the motoneurons of the brain stem. Serotonin (5-HT) and variation of pH value in perfused solution could modulate these currents. Here we aimed to examine the properties and modulation of the currents by serotonin or variation of pH value in hypoglossal motoneurons of rats. Transverse slices were prepared from the brainstem of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal days 7-8). Hypoglossal motoneurons were used for the study. The leak K(+) current (TASK-1-like current) and hyperpolarization-activated cationic current (I(h)) were recorded with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The results showed that these currents were inhibited by acidified artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF, pH 6.0) and activated by alkalized ACSF (pH 8.5). 5-HT (10 mumol/L) significantly inhibited both leak K(+) current and I(h) with depolarization of membrane potential and the occurrence of oscillation and/or spikes. Bath application of Ketanserine, an antagonist of 5-HT₂ receptor, reversed or reduced the inhibitory effect of acidified solution on leak K(+) current and I(h). The results suggest that 5-HT₂ receptors mediate the effects of acidified media on leak K(+) current and I(h) in hypoglossal motoneurons.

  14. Radiological demonstration of gastroesophageal reflux. Diagnostic value of barium and bread studies compared with 24-hour pH monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksglaede, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P.

    1999-01-01

    To correlate gastroesophageal reflux (GER), demonstrated by a radiological method using food, with the reflux events, as determined by 24-h pH monitoring. One hundred and seventeen patients with a median age of 47 years (86 male and 31 female) were examined. In the supine left position, the patient consumed 360 ml of barium contrast. Fluoroscopy was performed with the patient in the supine right oblique position during mastication and swallowing a piece of rye bread with liver pate and barium. The test was positive if barium was observed >= 5 cm proximal to the gastroesophageal junction. An antimony pH-probe was placed 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter, previously determined by manometry. The position was controlled by radiography after positioning and before removal. The total time of esophageal pH<4 exceeding 5.0% was considered pathological. The radiological method had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 52% compared to 24-h pH monitoring. The high specificity of this radiological method justify direct therapeutic consequence of a positive test. However, a negative test still renders the problem unsolved

  15. Antibacterial protection by enterocin AS-48 in sport and energy drinks with less acidic pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Pilar Martinez; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ben Omar, Nabil; López, Rosario Lucas; Valdivia, Eva; Gálvez, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    The low pH and acid content found in sports and energy drinks are a matter of concern in dental health. Raising the pH may solve this problem, but at the same time increase the risks of spoilage or presence of pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, commercial energy drinks were adjusted to pH 5.0 and challenged with Listeria monocytogenes (drinks A to F), Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus licheniformis (drink A) during storage at 37 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was able to grow in drink A and survived in drinks D and F for at least 2 days. Addition of enterocin AS-48 (1 microg/ml final concentration) rapidly inactivated L. monocytogenes in all drinks tested. S. aureus and B. cereus also survived quite well in drink A, and were completely inactivated by 12.5 microg/ml enterocin AS-48 after 2 days of storage or by 25 microg/ml bacteriocin after 1 day. B. licheniformis was able to multiply in drink A, but it was completely inactivated by 5 microg/ml enterocin AS-48 after 2 days of storage or by 12.5 microg/ml bacteriocin after 1 day. Results from the present study suggest that enterocin AS-48 could be used as a natural preservative against these target bacteria in less acidic sport and energy drinks.

  16. Radiological demonstration of gastroesophageal reflux. Diagnostic value of barium and bread studies compared with 24-hour pH monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksglaede, K.; Thommesen, P.; Funch-Jensen, P.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate gastroesophageal reflux (GER), demonstrated by a radiological method using food, with the reflux events, as determined by 24-h pH monitoring. Material and Methods: One hundred and seventeen patients with a median age of 47 years (86 male and 31 female) were examinated. In the supine left position, the patient consumed 360 ml of barium contrast. Fluoroscopy was performed with the patient in the supine right oblique position during mastication and swallowing a piece of rye bread with liver pate and barium. The test was positive if barium was observed ≥5 cm proximal to the gastroesophageal junction. An antimony pH-probe was placed 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter, previously determined by manometry. The position was controlled by radiography after positioning and before removal. The total time of esophageal pH<4 exceeding 5.0% was considered pathological. Results: The radiological method had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 52% compared to 24-h pH monitoring. Conclusion: The high specificity of this radiological method justify direct therapeutic consequence of a positive test. However, a negative test still renders the problem unsolved. (orig.)

  17. Radiological demonstration of gastroesophageal reflux. Diagnostic value of barium and bread studies compared with 24-hour pH monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksglaede, K.; Thommesen, P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology R, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Funch-Jensen, P. [Surgical Gastroenterology L, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: To correlate gastroesophageal reflux (GER), demonstrated by a radiological method using food, with the reflux events, as determined by 24-h pH monitoring. Material and Methods: One hundred and seventeen patients with a median age of 47 years (86 male and 31 female) were examinated. In the supine left position, the patient consumed 360 ml of barium contrast. Fluoroscopy was performed with the patient in the supine right oblique position during mastication and swallowing a piece of rye bread with liver pate and barium. The test was positive if barium was observed {>=}5 cm proximal to the gastroesophageal junction. An antimony pH-probe was placed 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter, previously determined by manometry. The position was controlled by radiography after positioning and before removal. The total time of esophageal pH<4 exceeding 5.0% was considered pathological. Results: The radiological method had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 52% compared to 24-h pH monitoring. Conclusion: The high specificity of this radiological method justify direct therapeutic consequence of a positive test. However, a negative test still renders the problem unsolved. (orig.)

  18. Effects of pH value and substrate concentration on hydrogen production from the anaerobic fermentation of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi; Wang, Hui; Tang, Zongxun; Wang, Xiaofang [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemisty, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Bai, Jinbo [Lab. MSS/MAT, CNRS UMR 8579, Ecole Centrale Paris, 92295 Chatenay Malabry (France)

    2008-12-15

    A series of batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of pH and glucose concentrations on biological hydrogen production by using the natural sludge obtained from the bed of a local river as inoculant. Batch experiments numbered series I and II were designed at an initial and constant pH of 5.0-7.0 with 1.0 increment and four different glucose concentrations (5.0, 7.5, 10 and 20 g glucose/L). The results showed that the optimal condition for anaerobic fermentative hydrogen production is 7.5 g glucose/L and constant pH 6.0 with a maximum H{sub 2} production rate of 0.22 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose h{sup -1}, a cumulative H{sub 2} yield of 1.83 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose and a H{sub 2} percentage of 63 in biogas. (author)

  19. The effect of gamma irradiation on the degree of ripening of mango by comparing the parameter of colour index, texture firmness and pH value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Hafiz Hanafi

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of low dose gamma irradiation on the ripening degree of cv Chokanan mangoes through the comparison of colour index changes, texture firmness and pH value. Harvested mature mango was studied through the storage period for 14 days. Dose level used were 0.00 kGy (control), 0.25 kGy, 0.50 kGy, 0.75 kGy and 1.00 kGy of gamma cell 220. All fruits were wrapped using plastic after irradiated. There was no change in 0 day. However, there are changes in colour index, firmness and pH value of fruits in after 3 days. Dose of 0.75 kGy and 1.00 kGy gave positive effect to storage extension period and rate deceleration compared to 0.00 kGy (control), 0.25 kGy and 0.50 kGy. After 10 days storage, 0.00, 0.25 and 0.50 kGy of fruits became rot which affects quality of organoleptic. Whereas 0.75 and 1.00 kGy still retained organoleptic quality . When the ripening rate of fruit was fast, this would lead to faster of the colour change. The firmness value of fruit became decrease and the value of pH was increase. (author)

  20. [Concentration of calcium ions in the saliva and the value of the pH of the saliva in female and male smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Rogowska, Wanda

    2009-01-01

    Dental decay is a pathological process of extrasomatic origin which leads to demineralization and proteolytic degradation of hard surfaces of a tooth susceptible to this disease. Saliva composition, including calcium ion concentration and its pH value, is of importance in the development of the carious process. Tobacco smoke contains toxic compounds which negatively influence oral health. The aim of the study was evaluation of the selected saliva components: protein concentration, Ca2+ concentration, pH value both in male and female smokers. The investigated group included 65 patients reporting for the treatment to the Department of Conservative Dentistry of Medical University in Lublin. In the investigated group male smokers constituted 15.38%, female smokers--20.00%, male nicotine abstinents 21.54% and female nicotine abstinent 43.08%. The study included both survey examinations of patients and biochemical examinations of the saliva. Mixed, non-stimulated saliva was used as a material for biochemical examinations. Ca2+ concentration and pH of the saliva were assayed with the use of Rapidlab 348 analyzer. Protein in the saliva was assayed with calorimetric method according to Lowry. Saliva was collected from smokers 10-120 minutes after smoking of several cigarettes. It was stated that Ca2+ and protein concentration as well as pH of the saliva were not correlated with sex and cigarette smoking or non-smoking.

  1. Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel and Hot Dip Galvanized Steel in Simulated Concrete Solution with Different pH Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchen XIE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hot dip galvanizing technology is now widely used as a method of protection for steel rebars. The corrosion behaviors of Q235 carbon steel and hot galvanized steel in a Ca(OH2 solution with a pH from 10 to 13 was investigated by electrode potential and polarization curves testing. The results indicated that carbon steel and hot galvanized steel were all passivated in a strong alkaline solution. The electrode potential of hot dip galvanized steel was lower than that of carbon steel; thus, hot dip galvanized steel can provide very good anodic protection for carbon steel. However, when the pH value reached 12.5, a polarity reversal occurred under the condition of a certain potential. Hot dip galvanized coating became a cathode, and the corrosion of carbon steel accelerated. The electrochemical behaviors and passivation abilities of hot dip galvanized steel and carbon steel were affected by pH. The higher the pH value was, the more easily they were passivated.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.3.16675

  2. ) m /SrVO3 ( m = 5, 6) Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Qingqing; Lü ders, Ulrike; Fré sard, Raymond; Eckern, Ulrich; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2018-01-01

    The (LaV3+O3)m/SrV4+O3 (m = 5, 6) superlattices are investigated by first principles calculations. While bulk LaVO3 is a C‐type antiferromagnetic semiconductor and bulk SrVO3 is a paramagnetic metal, semiconducting A‐type antiferromagnetic states

  3. Field robot event, Wageningen, 5-6 June 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, van G.

    2004-01-01

    A brief report is given of the field robot contest held in Wageningen, 5-6 June 2003. The experience of the student competitors sheds light on a number of issues that need to be addressed before autonomous vehicles will become a reality

  4. Nigerian Medical Practitioner - Vol 58, No 5-6 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacts of long-term indwelling urinary catherization on the sexual functions of males low socio-economic country · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AA Popoola, AA Aderounmu, OS Olajide. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/nmp.v58i5-6.66775 ...

  5. Nigerian Hospital Practice - Vol 7, No 5-6 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness of Sickle Cell Disease amongst Mothers of Under-Fives in Ekosodin community, Edo state, Nigeria. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. BI Abhulimhen-Iyoba, ME Odunvbun, AA Okolo, 57-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/nhp.v7i5-6.70347 ...

  6. A model to explain high values of pH in an alkali sodic soil Modelo para explicar valores elevados de pH em um solo sódico alcalino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guerrero-Alves

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available For alkali sodic soils (pH>8.5, the "hydrolysis of exchangeable sodium" has been used as a possible explanation for the alkalinity production and rise in pH of these soils. As an alternative to this hypothesis, a model was developed to simulate and to explain that the alkalinity production and rise in pH is possible in a soil that accumulates alkaline sodium salts and CaCO3. Several simulations were performed by using different combinations of CO2 partial pressures (P, presence or absence of MgCO3, along with experimental values of exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP and ion concentrations in saturation extracts from an alkali sodic soil (named Pantanal. A hypothetical system with similar conditions to the Pantanal soil but with a Gapon selectivity coefficient (KG of 0.01475 (mmol L-1-1/2 was also considered. Good agreement was obtained between experimental and predicted values for pH and ion concentrations in the soil solution when the model (without MgCO3 was applied to the Pantanal soil. However, KG values calculated for the Pantanal soil were generally higher than 0.01475 (mmol L-1-1/2. Moreover, high pH values and elevated ionic strength were obtained when a KG of 0.01475 (mmol L-1-1/2 was used at high ESP (similar to those found in the Pantanal soil. KG values obtained for the Pantanal soil and the results obtained in the simulation of the hypothetical system are suggesting that a value higher than 0.01475 (mmol L-1-1/2 should be used to adequately simulate the behavior of the Pantanal soil at low ionic strength and high ESP values.Em solos alcalino sódicos (pH>8,5, a "hidrólise de sódio trocável" tem sido usada como uma possível explicação para a produção de álcali e elevação do pH nestes solos. Como uma alternativa a essa hipótese, um modelo foi desenvolvido para simular e explicar que a produção de álcali e elevação do pH é possível num solo que acumula sais alcalinos de sódio e CaCO3. Várias simulações foram

  7. Reference value standards and primary standards for pH measurements in D2O and aqueous-organic solvent mixtures: new accessions and assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussini, P.R.; Mussini, T.; Rondinini, S.

    1997-01-01

    Recommended Reference Value Standards based on the potassium hydro-genphthalate buffer at various temperatures are reported for pH measurements in various binary solvent mixtures of water with eight organic solvents: methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, 1,2-ethanediol, 2-methoxyethanol (''methylcellosolve''), acetonitrile, 1,4-dioxane, and dimethyl sulfoxide, together with Reference Value Standard based on the potassium deuterium phthalate buffer for pD measurements in D 2 O. In addition are reported Primary Standards for pH based on numerous buffers in various binary solvent mixtures of water with methanol, ethanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide, together with Primary Standards for pD in D 2 O based on the citrate, phosphate and carbonate buffers. (author)

  8. The effect of aluminium nanocoating and water pH value on the wettability behavior of an aluminium surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Naser; Teixeira, Joao A.; Addali, Abdulmajid; Al-Zubi, Feras; Shaban, Ehab; Behbehani, Ismail

    2018-06-01

    Experimental investigation was performed to highlight the influence of ionic bounding and surface roughness effects on the surface wettability. Nanocoating technique via e-beam physical vapor deposition process was used to fabricate aluminium (Al) film of 50, 100, and 150 nm on the surface of an Al substrate. Microstructures of the samples before and after deposition were observed using an atomic force microscopy. A goniometer device was later on used to examine the influence of surface topography on deionised water of pH 4, 7 and 9 droplets at a temperature ranging from 10 °C to 60 °C through their contact angles with the substrate surface, for both coated and uncoated samples. It was found that, although the coated layer has reduced the mean surface roughness of the sample from 10.7 nm to 4.23 nm, by filling part of the microstructure gaps with Al nanoparticles, the wettability is believed to be effected by the ionic bounds between the surface and the free anions in the fluid. As the deionised water of pH 4, and 9 gave an increase in the average contact angles with the increase of the coated layer thickness. On the other hand, the deionised water of pH 7 has showed a negative relation with the film thickness, where the contact angle reduced as the thickness of the coated layer was increased. The results from the aforementioned approach had showed that nanocoating can endorse the hydrophobicity (unwitting) nature of the surface when associated with free ions hosted by the liquid.

  9. The value of early wireless esophageal pH monitoring in diagnosing functional heartburn in refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Baeg, Meonggi; Lim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Jinsu; Cho, Yukyung; Park, Jaemyung; Lee, Inseok; Kim, Sangwoo; Choi, Kyuyong

    2013-10-01

    It is difficult to differentiate functional heartburn from proton pump inhibitor (PPI) failure. The aims of this study were to assess the role of early wireless esophageal pH monitoring in patients referred with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to identify differences in the clinical spectrum among GERD subtypes. We enrolled consecutive referred patients with suspected GERD. After endoscopy on the first visit, all underwent wireless esophageal pH monitoring when off the PPI. Two hundred thirty patients were enrolled. These patients were classified into a reflux esophagitis group (20, 8.7 %) and a normal endoscopic findings group (210, 91.3 %). Among the 210 patients in the normal endoscopic findings group, 63 (27.4 %) were diagnosed with pathological reflux, 35 (15.2 %) with hypersensitive esophagus, 87 (37.8 %) with normal acid exposure with negative symptom association, and 25 (10.9 %) with test failure. These groups did not differ in age, body mass index, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, symptom severity, quality of life, presence of atypical symptoms, overlap with irritable bowel syndrome, and the frequency of somatization, depression, and anxiety. PPI responses were evaluated in 135 patients. Fifty patients (37.0 %) were not responsive to the 4-week treatment; 26 (19.3 %) were diagnosed with refractory non-erosive gastroesophageal disease, and 24 (17.8 %) with functional heartburn. The demographics and clinical and psychological characteristics did not differ between the two groups. Demographic characteristics and symptom patterns alone cannot differentiate functional heartburn from various subtypes of GERD. Wireless esophageal pH monitoring should be considered for the initial evaluation of GERD in the tertiary referral setting.

  10. Optimizing isothiocyanate formation during enzymatic glucosinolate breakdown by adjusting pH value, temperature and dilution in Brassica vegetables and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Hanschen, Franziska S.; Klopsch, Rebecca; Oliviero, Teresa; Schreiner, Monika; Verkerk, Ruud; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of glucosinolate-rich Brassicales vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cancer with enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates playing a key role. However, formation of health-promoting isothiocyanates is inhibited by the epithiospecifier protein in favour of nitriles and epithionitriles. Domestic processing conditions, such as changes in pH value, temperature or dilution, might also affect isothiocyanate formation. Therefore, the influences of these three factors were eva...

  11. Improved chemical syntheses of 5,6-dihydro-5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFrate, Andrew L; Katzenellenbogen, John A

    2007-10-26

    5,6-dihydro-5-fluorouracil (5-DHFU) is a metabolite of the chemotherapy drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) of importance for biological studies. 5-DHFU has been prepared by enzymatic reduction of 5-FU and in very low yield by hydrogenation of 5-FU; however, a practical chemical synthesis is not available. Facile racemic syntheses of 5-DHFU from 5-FU or uracil, using p-methoxybenzyl protecting groups followed by L-Selectride reduction, are reported.

  12. Examining the Value Master's and PhD Students Place on Various Instructional Methods in Educational Leadership Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen P.; Oliver, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value that graduate students place on different types of instructional methods used by professors in educational leadership preparation programs, and to determine if master's and doctoral students place different values on different instructional methods. The participants included 87 graduate…

  13. The influence of pilocarpine and biperiden on pH value and calcium, phosphate, and bicarbonate concentrations in saliva during and after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, M; smid, L; Budihna, M; Gassperssic, D; Rode, M; Soba, E

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of parasympathomimetic pilocarpine and anticholinergic biperiden on salivation, pH value, and calcium, phosphate, and bicarbonate concentrations in saliva in patients irradiated for malignant tumors of the head and neck region. Sixty-nine patients were randomly assigned into 3 groups. Group A consisted of patients receiving pilocarpine, group B of those who were receiving biperiden during radiotherapy and pilocarpine for 6 weeks after its completion, and group C comprised patients receiving neither of the mentioned drugs. The quantity of secreted unstimulated saliva, its pH value, as well as calcium, phosphate, and bicarbonate concentrations in saliva were measured before the beginning of radiotherapy, after 30 Gy of irradiation, at completed irradiation, and 3, 6, and 12 months after completion of radiotherapy. Saliva secretion was found to be the least affected in the group of patients receiving biperiden throughout the course of radiotherapy. One year after completion of therapy, the quantity of secreted saliva could only be measured in the patients receiving biperiden during radiotherapy; it amounted to 16% of the average initial quantity of saliva secreted before the beginning of irradiation. In all 3 groups of patients, mean pH value decreased during radiotherapy and started to increase again after completion of irradiation. In group B the decrease in pH value after radiotherapy was statistically significantly smaller than that in group C (P =.01). During and after irradiation, calcium concentration was increased in all 3 groups of patients. Phosphate concentration decreased during radiotherapy in all 3 groups. In group B it started to increase again 3 months after completion of radiotherapy. Bicarbonate concentration showed a slight increase during radiotherapy and started to decrease again after completion of irradiation. The results of our study indicate that the inhibition of saliva

  14. Estimation of redox potentials of Fe(III)- gallic acid complexes at different pH by spectrophotometric titration with ascorbate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Tasneem, Z.; Kazmi, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Fe(III) is strongly chelated by Gallic acid. This equilibrium as well as the kinetics of reduction of the complex is strongly pH dependent. The complex was prepared in acetate buffers of pH 4.6, 5.0 and 5.6 and in Tris buffer of pH 7.0.The complex was reduced by ascorbate. The reduced absorbance was taken to be a measure of reaction. Nernst equation was then applied to determine the standard redox potentials of the complex taking the literature values of the redox potentials of ascorbate at different pH. The values of redox potentials of complex were found to be 0.197 V at pH 4.6. 0.181 V at pH 5.0 1.132 V at pH 5.6 and 0.092 V at pH 7.0. (author)

  15. Determination of indium(III) with 3,4,5,6-tetrachlorogallein and cetylpyridinium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Itsuo; Fujita, Yoshikazu; Ida, Masako; Enoki, Takehisa

    1976-01-01

    Rapid and highly sensitive methods have been developed for the spectrophotometric and titrimetric determination of indium(III) with 3,4,5,6-tetrachlorogallein(3,4,5,6-T. Cl, Gal.) and cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC) in aqueous solutions of pH 4.2--5.2. The absorbance of the indium(III)-3,4,5,6-T. Cl. Gal. complex at 620 nm and the color change (pure blue - weak violetish red) were used to indicate the end point in the EDTA titration. The calibration curve for the spectrophotometry was linear in the range 0--45.0 μg In(III)/10 ml. According to Sandell's expression, the sensitivity was 0.0032 μg In(III)/cm 2 for an absorbance of 0.001. To the solution containing less than 45.0 μg of indium(III), 2.0 ml of 1.0x10 -2 M CPC solution, 3.0 ml of Walpole buffer solution(pH 4.4; acetic acid-sodium acetate), and 2.0 ml of 1.0x10 -3 M 3,4,5,6-T.Cl.Gal. methanol solution were added and the volume was made up to 10.0 ml with water. The solution was kept at (20--25) 0 C for 30 minutes and then the absorbance was measured at 620 nm against the reagent blank. The mole ratio of indium(III), 3,4,5,6-T.Cl.Gal. and CPC in the complex was estimated to be 1 : 2 : 2 by the continuous variation and the mole ratio methods. (auth.)

  16. AGR-5/6/7 Irradiation Test Predictions using PARFUME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skerjanc, William F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-09-14

    PARFUME, (PARticle FUel ModEl) a fuel performance modeling code used for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), was used to model the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-5/6/7 irradiation test using predicted physics and thermal hydraulics data. The AGR-5/6/7 test consists of the combined fifth, sixth, and seventh planned irradiations of the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The AGR-5/6/7 test train is a multi-capsule, instrumented experiment that is designed for irradiation in the 133.4-mm diameter north east flux trap (NEFT) position of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Each capsule contains compacts filled with uranium oxycarbide (UCO) unaltered fuel particles. This report documents the calculations performed to predict the failure probability of tristructural isotropic (TRISO)-coated fuel particles during the AGR-5/6/7 experiment. In addition, this report documents the calculated source term from the driver fuel. The calculations include modeling of the AGR-5/6/7 irradiation that is scheduled to occur from October 2017 to April 2021 over a total of 13 ATR cycles, including nine normal cycles and four Power Axial Locator Mechanism (PALM) cycle for a total between 500 – 550 effective full power days (EFPD). The irradiation conditions and material properties of the AGR-5/6/7 test predicted zero fuel particle failures in Capsules 1, 2, and 4. Fuel particle failures were predicted in Capsule 3 due to internal particle pressure. These failures were predicted in the highest temperature compacts. Capsule 5 fuel particle failures were due to inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) cracking causing localized stresses concentrations in the SiC layer. This capsule predicted the highest particle failures due to the lower irradiation temperature. In addition, shrinkage of the buffer and IPyC layer during irradiation resulted in formation of a buffer-IPyC gap. The two capsules at the two ends of the test train, Capsules 1 and 5 experienced the smallest buffer-IPyC gap

  17. Diagnostic value of combined esophageal multi-channel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring for gastroesophageal reflux in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi JIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To compare the diagnostic value of using 24-hour combined esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring (MII-pH in the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER and pH monitoring alone in critically ill patients. Methods  A prospective observational study was performed including 116 critically ill adult patients admitted to ICU of Peking Haidian Hospital from Jul. 2013 to Dec. 2014. All the patients underwent 24-hour combined MⅡ-pH monitoring. GER episodes were recorded and its pH was recorded (acidic, weakly acidic and weakly alkaline and its composition was recorded (liquid, mixed and gas reflux. The results of the MⅡ-pH and the pH were monitored and compared. The demographic characteristics and clinical information were recorded. Results  MⅡ-pH was monitored for 5024 episodes of GER in 115 of 116(99.1% patients, with a mean of 43.28±3.96 episodes per patient (median, 34 episodes; range, 0-196 episodes. The pH monitoring detected 1868 episodes (100% acid in only 54 of 116(46.6% patients, with a mean of 7.66±1.65 episodes per patient (median, 0 episodes; range, 0-81 episodes. The number of episode of all reflux and liquid reflux diagnosed by pH monitoring alone was less than those diagnosed by MⅡ-pH monitoring (P=0.000, and there was no correlation in the episodes number of all reflux and liquid reflux between the two techniques (r=0.119, 0.231. Only a moderate correlation was found in the number of episodes of acidic reflux between the two techniques (r=0.656. Conclusion  MⅡ-pH monitoring is more sensitive than pH monitoring alone for establishing the diagnosis of GER. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.05.12

  18. Lapsestani on tullut murkku! Opas 5. - 6.-luokkalaisten vanhemmille

    OpenAIRE

    Rahikainen, Essi; Piipponen, Mirka

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyömme tarkoituksena oli tuottaa seksuaalikasvatusopas 5. - 6.-luokkalaisten vanhemmille. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiannon saimme Ristiinan yhtenäiskoulun kouluterveydenhoitajalta. Opas on hyödyllinen apuväline ja tietopaketti vanhemmille, jotka tarvitsevat tukea murrosikäisen kanssa keskusteluun. Oppaan tarkoituksena on antaa vanhemmille luotettavaa perustietoa lapsen murrosiän fyysisestä, psyykkisestä ja sosiaalisesta kehityksestä. Oppaassa on myös vinkkejä murrosikäisten vanhemmille pu...

  19. The effects of work-related values on communication between R and D groups, part 1. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douds, C. F.

    1970-01-01

    The research concerned with the liaison, interface, coupling, and technology transfer processes that occur in research and development is reported. Overviews of the functions of communication and coupling in the R and D processes, and the theoretical considerations of coupling, communication, and values are presented along with descriptions of the field research program and the instrumentation.

  20. Cadmium availability in rice paddy fields from a mining area: The effects of soil properties highlighting iron fractions and pH value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Liu, Chuanping; Zhu, Jishu; Li, Fangbai; Deng, Dong-Mei; Wang, Qi; Liu, Chengshuai

    2016-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) availability can be significantly affected by soil properties. The effect of pH value on Cd availability has been confirmed. Paddy soils in South China generally contain high contents of iron (Fe). Thus, it is hypothesized that Fe fractions, in addition to pH value, may play an important role in the Cd bioavailability in paddy soil and this requires further investigation. In this study, 73 paired soil and rice plant samples were collected from paddy fields those were contaminated by acid mine drainage containing Cd. The contents of Fe in the amorphous and DCB-extractable Fe oxides were significantly and negatively correlated with the Cd content in rice grain or straw (excluding DCB-extractable Fe vs Cd in straw). In addition, the concentration of HCl-extractable Fe(II) derived from Fe(III) reduction was positively correlated with the Cd content in rice grain or straw. These results suggest that soil Fe redox could affect the availability of Cd in rice plant. Contribution assessment of soil properties to Cd accumulation in rice grain based on random forest (RF) and stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) showed that pH value should be the most important factor and the content of Fe in the amorphous Fe oxides should be the second most important factor in affecting Cd content in rice grain. Overall, compared with the studies from temperate regions, such as Europe and northern China, Fe oxide exhibited its unique role in the bioavailability of Cd in the reddish paddy soil from our study area. The exploration of practical remediation strategies for Cd from the perspective of Fe oxide may be promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of the pH value of a colloidal gold solution on the absorption spectra of an LSPR-assisted sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jin; Li, Wenbin; Zhu, Mao; Zhang, Wei; Niu, Wencheng; Liu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    The localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of gold particles assembled on a crystal plate are a powerful tool for biological sensors. Here, we prepare gold colloids in different pH solutions. We monitor the effects of the particle radius and particle coverage on the absorption spectra of AT-cut (r-face dihedral angle of about 3°) crystal plates supporting gold nanoparticles. The surface morphologies were monitored on silicon dioxide substrates using ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the gold particle coverage decreases with increasing pH value of the gold colloid solution. This phenomenon demonstrates that self-assembled gold surfaces were formed via the electrostatic adsorption of gold particles on the positively charged, ionized amino groups on the crystal plates in the acidic solution. The spectrum of gold nanoparticles with different coverage degree on the crystal plates showed that the LSPR properties are highly dependent on pH

  2. ) m /SrVO3 ( m = 5, 6) Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Qingqing

    2018-05-04

    The (LaV3+O3)m/SrV4+O3 (m = 5, 6) superlattices are investigated by first principles calculations. While bulk LaVO3 is a C‐type antiferromagnetic semiconductor and bulk SrVO3 is a paramagnetic metal, semiconducting A‐type antiferromagnetic states for both superlattices are found due to epitaxial strain. At the interfaces, however, the V spins couple antiferromagnetically for m = 5 and ferromagnetically for m = 6 (m‐dependence of the magnetization). Electronic reconstruction in form of charge ordering is predicted to occur with V3+ and V4+ states arranged in a checkerboard pattern on both sides of the SrO layer. As compared to bulk LaVO3, the presence of V4+ ions introduces in‐gap states that strongly reduce the bandgap and influence the orbital occupation and ordering.

  3. Enzyme-regulated the changes of pH values for assembling a colorimetric and multistage interconnection logic network with multiple readouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanyan; Ran, Xiang; Lin, Youhui [Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Division of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Graduate School of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ren, Jinsong, E-mail: jren@ciac.ac.cn [Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Division of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Qu, Xiaogang [Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Division of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2015-04-22

    Highlights: • A colorimetric and multistage biological network has been developed. • This system was on the basis of the enzyme-regulated changes of pH values. • This enzyme-based system could assemble large biological circuit. • Two signal transducers (DNA/AuNPs and acid–base indicators) were used. • The compositions of samples could be detected through visual output signals. - Abstract: Based on enzymatic reactions-triggered changes of pH values and biocomputing, a novel and multistage interconnection biological network with multiple easy-detectable signal outputs has been developed. Compared with traditional chemical computing, the enzyme-based biological system could overcome the interference between reactions or the incompatibility of individual computing gates and offer a unique opportunity to assemble multicomponent/multifunctional logic circuitries. Our system included four enzyme inputs: β-galactosidase (β-gal), glucose oxidase (GOx), esterase (Est) and urease (Ur). With the assistance of two signal transducers (gold nanoparticles and acid–base indicators) or pH meter, the outputs of the biological network could be conveniently read by the naked eyes. In contrast to current methods, the approach present here could realize cost-effective, label-free and colorimetric logic operations without complicated instrument. By designing a series of Boolean logic operations, we could logically make judgment of the compositions of the samples on the basis of visual output signals. Our work offered a promising paradigm for future biological computing technology and might be highly useful in future intelligent diagnostics, prodrug activation, smart drug delivery, process control, and electronic applications.

  4. Enzyme-regulated the changes of pH values for assembling a colorimetric and multistage interconnection logic network with multiple readouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yanyan; Ran, Xiang; Lin, Youhui; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A colorimetric and multistage biological network has been developed. • This system was on the basis of the enzyme-regulated changes of pH values. • This enzyme-based system could assemble large biological circuit. • Two signal transducers (DNA/AuNPs and acid–base indicators) were used. • The compositions of samples could be detected through visual output signals. - Abstract: Based on enzymatic reactions-triggered changes of pH values and biocomputing, a novel and multistage interconnection biological network with multiple easy-detectable signal outputs has been developed. Compared with traditional chemical computing, the enzyme-based biological system could overcome the interference between reactions or the incompatibility of individual computing gates and offer a unique opportunity to assemble multicomponent/multifunctional logic circuitries. Our system included four enzyme inputs: β-galactosidase (β-gal), glucose oxidase (GOx), esterase (Est) and urease (Ur). With the assistance of two signal transducers (gold nanoparticles and acid–base indicators) or pH meter, the outputs of the biological network could be conveniently read by the naked eyes. In contrast to current methods, the approach present here could realize cost-effective, label-free and colorimetric logic operations without complicated instrument. By designing a series of Boolean logic operations, we could logically make judgment of the compositions of the samples on the basis of visual output signals. Our work offered a promising paradigm for future biological computing technology and might be highly useful in future intelligent diagnostics, prodrug activation, smart drug delivery, process control, and electronic applications

  5. Effect of pectin, lecithin, and antacid feed supplements (Egusin®) on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH and blood gas values in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of two commercial feed supplements, Egusin 250® [E-250] and Egusin SLH® [E-SLH], on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH, and blood gas values in stall-confined horses undergoing feed-deprivation. Methods Nine Thoroughbred horses were used in a three-period crossover study. For the three treatment groups, sweet feed was mixed with E-250, E-SLH, or nothing (control group) and fed twice daily. Horses were treated for 21 days, then an additional 7 days while on an alternating feed-deprivation model to induce or worsen ulcers (period one). In periods two and three, horses (n=6) were treated for an additional 7 days after feed-deprivation. Gastroscopies were performed on day -1 (n=9), day 21 (n=9), day 28 (n=9) and day 35 (n=6). Gastric juice pH was measured and gastric ulcer scores were assigned. Venous blood gas values were also measured. Results Gastric ulcers in control horses significantly decreased after 21 days, but there was no difference in ulcer scores when compared to the Egusin® treated horses. NG gastric ulcer scores significantly increased in E-250 and control horses on day 28 compared to day 21 as a result of intermittent feed-deprivation, but no treatment effect was observed. NG ulcer scores remained high in the control group but significantly decreased in the E-SLH- and E-250-treated horses by day 35. Gastric juice pH values were low and variable and no treatment effect was observed. Mean blood pCO2 values were significantly increased two hours after feeding in treated horses compared to controls, whereas mean blood TCO2 values increased in the 24 hour sample, but did not exceed 38 mmol/l. Conclusions The feed-deprivation model increased NG gastric ulcer severity in the horses. However, by day 35, Egusin® treated horses had less severe NG gastric ulcers compared to untreated control horses. After 35 days, Egusin® products tested here ameliorate the severity of gastric ulcers in

  6. The Effect of MSG (Monosodium Glutamate Addition on The Quality of Yoghurt Frozen Culture Starter Viewed Viability, pH Value and Acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Sri Widati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate wether the effect of percentage monosodium glutamat addition on the quality of yoghurt frozen culture starter viewed viability, pH value and acidity.The experimental design used in this study was Randomised Complete Design and the treatment were four levels of monosodium glutamate concentration respectively 0% (without monosodium glutamat 10%, 15% and 20% from medium. Each treatment were three times replicated. The research result showed that the difference of monosodium glutamate concentration  did not gave a significant effect (P>0.05 on viability of yoghurt frozen culture starter and acidity of yoghurt made by frozen culture starter but it gave a significant effect (P<0.05 on pH value. It can be concluded that different monosodium glutamate concentration had a different quality on frozen culture starter yoghurt. The addition of monosodium glutamate up to 20% necessarily indicate increase on quality of yoghurt frozen culture starter. Keywords: culture starter yoghurt, freezing, cryoprotectant

  7. RuP{sub 2}-based catalysts with platinum-like activity and higher durability for the hydrogen evolution reaction at all pH values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Zonghua; Amiinu, Ibrahim Saana; Kou, Zongkui; Li, Wenqiang; Mu, Shichun [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology (China)

    2017-09-11

    Highly active, stable, and cheap Pt-free catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are under increasing demand for future energy conversion systems. However, developing HER electrocatalysts with Pt-like activity that can function at all pH values still remains as a great challenge. Herein, based on our theoretical predictions, we design and synthesize a novel N,P dual-doped carbon-encapsulated ruthenium diphosphide (RuP{sub 2} rate at NPC) nanoparticle electrocatalyst for HER. Electrochemical tests reveal that, compared with the Pt/C catalyst, RuP{sub 2} rate at NPC not only has Pt-like HER activity with small overpotentials at 10 mA cm{sup -2} (38 mV in 0.5 m H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 57 mV in 1.0 m PBS and 52 mV in 1.0 m KOH), but demonstrates superior stability at all pH values, as well as 100 % Faradaic yields. Therefore, this work adds to the growing family of transition-metal phosphides/heteroatom-doped carbon heterostructures with advanced performance in HER. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Exercise 5+6 - Introduction to Control and Lab Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Exercises for the 2nd AAU and ECN EWTEC affiliated PhD course. The laboratory exercises are including both numerical and experimental work. A simulink model is provided to make realtime control on the laboratory setups. The groups are welcome to modify the program during the exercises. The groups...... are expected to make their own programs for numerical simulations on the device. Hydrodynamic parameters found using WAMIT are provided, but the groups are of course welcome to calculate their own parameters (e.g. using Nemoh). Exercise 5: Simple control and regular wave Exercise 6: Advanced control...

  9. Ultimate pH values and bacteriological condition of meat and stress metabolites in blood of transported reindeer bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wiklund

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three reindeer bulls, aged 2-3 years, fed during two winter months at the Vuolda reindeer research station in Arjeplog, Sweden, were used in the study. The first group of eight reindeer was moved from their feeding corral to a selection corral, captured by lasso and stunned with a captive bolt outside the selection corral. The second group of seven reindeer was moved to the selection corral, captured by lasso and restrained, after which they were loaded onto a lorry- and transported for 1 hour and then slaughtered. The third group of eight reindeer was moved to the selection corral and herded directly onto the lorry, without any manual handling. They were transported for 5 h and then slaughtered. In both transport groups, four reindeer were fitted with pre-programmed automatic blood sampling equipment (ABSE. ABSE sampled blood at predetermined times via a jugular vein catheter. Ultimate pH-values in three muscles (Mm. longissimus, triceps brachii and biceps femoris were significantly lower in the group carefully handled and transported for 5 h compared with the other two groups. The physiological mechanisms behind these results are discussed. Samples from M. semimembranosus were collected at slaughter and after 2, 6 and 10 days of refrigerated storage (+4 °C. The samples were analysed for total counts of aerobic bacteria (pour-plated in Tryptone Glucose Extract Agar, Difco, incubated at 20 °C and 30 °C, respectively for 72 h, coliform bacteria 37 °C (pour-plated in Violet Red Bile Agar, Oxoid, incubated at 37 °C for 24 h, Enterococci (surface-plated onto Slantez and Bartley Agar, Oxoid, incubated at 44 °C for 48 h and Bacillus cereus (surface-plated onto Blood Agar Plates (Blood Agar Base, Difco, supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood 30 °C for 24 h. All samples fell in the range 'fit for consumption'. At slaughter, there was no difference in ASAT activity, urea and Cortisol concentrations between the two transported groups

  10. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing: Interactions among coagulant and flocculant concentrations and pH value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luis G; Belloc, Claudia; Vaca, Mabel; Iturbe, Rosario; Bandala, Erick R

    2009-11-01

    Wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. The wastewater contained petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as well as salts, brownish organic matter and other constituents that were lixiviated from the soil during the washing process. The main goal of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and also be disposed at the end of the process properly. A second objective was to study the relationship among the coagulant and flocculant doses and the pH at which the CF process is developed, for systems where methylene blue active substances (MBAS) as well as oil and greases were present. The results for the selection of the right coagulant and flocculant type and dose, the optimum pH value for the CF process and the interactions among the three parameters are detailed along this work. The best coagulant and flocculant were FeCl(3) and Tecnifloc 998 at doses of 4,000 and 1 mg/L, correspondingly at pH of 5. These conditions gave color, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conductivity removals of 99.8, 99.6, 97.1 and 35%, respectively. It was concluded that it is feasible to treat the wastewaters generated in the contaminated soil washing process through CF process, and therefore, wastewaters could be recycled to the washing process or disposed to drainage.

  11. Enzyme-regulated the changes of pH values for assembling a colorimetric and multistage interconnection logic network with multiple readouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Ran, Xiang; Lin, Youhui; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-04-22

    Based on enzymatic reactions-triggered changes of pH values and biocomputing, a novel and multistage interconnection biological network with multiple easy-detectable signal outputs has been developed. Compared with traditional chemical computing, the enzyme-based biological system could overcome the interference between reactions or the incompatibility of individual computing gates and offer a unique opportunity to assemble multicomponent/multifunctional logic circuitries. Our system included four enzyme inputs: β-galactosidase (β-gal), glucose oxidase (GOx), esterase (Est) and urease (Ur). With the assistance of two signal transducers (gold nanoparticles and acid-base indicators) or pH meter, the outputs of the biological network could be conveniently read by the naked eyes. In contrast to current methods, the approach present here could realize cost-effective, label-free and colorimetric logic operations without complicated instrument. By designing a series of Boolean logic operations, we could logically make judgment of the compositions of the samples on the basis of visual output signals. Our work offered a promising paradigm for future biological computing technology and might be highly useful in future intelligent diagnostics, prodrug activation, smart drug delivery, process control, and electronic applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The examination of biophysical parameters of skin (transepidermal water loss, skin hydration and pH value) in different body regions of normal cats of both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanik, Marcin P; Wilkołek, Piotr M; Adamek, Lukasz R; Pomorski, Zbigniew J H

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration and skin pH in normal cats. Twenty shorthaired European cats of both sexes were examined in the study. Measurements were taken from five different sites: the lumbar region, the axillary fossa, the inguinal region, the ventral abdominal region and the left thoracic region. In each of the regions, TEWL, skin hydration and skin pH were measured. The highest TEWL value was observed in the axillary fossa (18.22g/h/m(2)) and the lowest in the lumbar region (10.53g/h/m(2)). The highest skin hydration was found in the inguinal region (18.29CU) and the lowest in the lumbar region (4.62CU). The highest skin pH was observed in the inguinal region (6.64) and the lowest in the lumbar region (6.39). Statistically significant differences in TEWL were observed between the lumbar region and the left side of the thorax region (P=0.016), the axillary fossa (P=0.0004), the ventral region (P=0.005), and the inguinal region (P=0.009). There were significant differences in skin hydration between the lumbar region and the left thorax (P=0.000003), the axillary fossa (P=0.002), the ventral abdomen (P=0.03), and the inguinal region (P=0.0003) as well as between the thorax and the ventral abdomen (P=0.005). TEWL was higher in females (15g/h/m(2)) than in males (4.57g/h/m(2)). Skin hydration was higher in females (13.89CU) than in males (12.28CU). Significant differences were not found between males and females for TEWL and skin hydration. Skin pH was higher in males (6.94) than in females (6.54), which was significant (P=0.004). Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Crystallization and evaluation of hen egg-white lysozyme crystals for protein pH titration in the crystalline state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Wakari; Yagi, Daichi; Ishikawa, Takuya; Ohnishi, Yuki; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo

    2008-05-01

    To observe the ionized status of the amino acid residues in proteins at different pH (protein pH titration in the crystalline state) by neutron diffraction, hen egg-white lysozyme was crystallized over a wide pH range (2.5-8.0). Crystallization phase diagrams at pH 2.5, 6.0 and 7.5 were determined. At pH diagram, and at pH > 4.5 the border shifted to the right (higher precipitant concentration). The qualities of these crystals were characterized using the Wilson plot method. The qualities of all crystals at different pH were more or less equivalent (B-factor values within 25-40). It is expected that neutron diffraction analysis of these crystals of different pH provides equivalent data in quality for discussions of protein pH titration in the crystalline state of hen egg-white lysozyme.

  14. Sensory meat quality, ultimate pH values, blood metabolites and carcass parametersin reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. fed various diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was made to study and compare the effects of different diets on sensory meat quality and ultimate pH values in reindeer muscles and to relate stress-induced blood metabolites and carcass parameters to the meat quality traits measured. Altogether 23 female reindeer calves were included in the study. During an adaptation period, all reindeer were allowed free access to a mimicked natural diet containing 80% lichens (lichen diet. On January 28, 8 reindeer (group Cjan were slaughtered. Five reindeer (group C.Mar were allowed continuous free access to the lichen diet throughout the experiment. During 8 days, the other reindeer (groups PL and PS were given the lichen diet, half of the amount offered to the control group, and were then starved for one day. Thereafter, these reindeer were fed 80% commercial reindeer feed (pellets and either 20% lichens (group PL, or 20% silage (group PS for 5 weeks. After this, all animals were slaughtered. The average carcass weight and dressing percentage in the group fed commercial reindeer feed and lichens (PL were higher than in group CMar- Fat registrations were generally higher in groups PL and PS than in the groups Cj2n and CMar- Ultimate pH values in M. triceps brachii and M. longissimus were significantly lower in the group CMST than in PL. The levels of all blood metabolites (urea, ASAT and Cortisol were generally higher in groups PL and PS than in groups Cja„ and CMEF- NO significant differences were found in any of sensory attributes of the meat (monitored according to ISO standards. The present study shows that muscle and fat depots in reindeer can be improved by feeding a diet based on reindeer pellets but suggests that a feeding period of 35 days might be too short to affect the sensory properties of reindeer meat.

  15. The Effect of Limestone and Stabilized Nitrogen Fertilizers Application on Soil pH Value and on the Forage Production of Permanent Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ryant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of soil pH and dry forage yield of permanent grassland after application of dolomitic limestone and stabilized nitrogen fertilizers are described in this paper. The small‑plot experiment was located on semi‑natural grassland at Bohemian‑Moravian Highlands, near village Kameničky (Czech Republic, with poor and acidic soil. The experiment was divided into two blocks, within one of whose dolomitic limestone was applied in autumn 2013. In each block, 4 experimental treatments were applied: 1. control (untreated, 2. Urea, 3. Urea with inhibitor of urease, 4. Urea with inhibitor of nitrification. After liming, the pH/CaCl2 soil values increased in both the first as well as the second year after application. Fertilizing by urea, namely urea with inhibitors, did not significantly influence the pH/CaCl2 values. Dry forage productions in both years were comparable. In comparison to the untreated variants, significant increase in dry forage yield was achieved after application of urea and urea with urease inhibitors. The impact of stabilized fertilizers on the yield was not proven. In case of the limed variants, yield drop by 1.12 t/ha (average of both years was observed; the yield decrease may be connected with disturbance of production potential of the stable community of plant species that had been adapted to acidic locations.

  16. Shear bond strength of self-etching adhesive systems with different pH values to bleached and/or CPP-ACP-treated enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoee, Siavash Savadi; Bahari, Mahmoud; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Navimipour, Elmira Jafari; Firouzmandi, Maryam

    2012-08-01

    To compare shear bond strengths of three different self-etching adhesive systems of different pH values to enamel bleached with carbamide peroxide, treated with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), or treated with CPP-ACP subsequent to bleaching with carbamide peroxide. Thirty-six human third molars were cut into 4 sections and randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 36): group I: no treatment; group II: bleaching; group III: CPP-ACP; group IV: bleaching and CPP-ACP. After surface treatments, the samples of each group were further divided into three subgroups (n = 12) based on the adhesive used. The adhesives Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), AdhesE (ADE), and Adper SE Plus (ADP) were applied, and resin composite cylinders with a diameter of 2 mm and a height of 4 mm were bonded to the enamel. Then the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing. Two-way ANOVA and a post-hoc Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis (α = 0.05). There were significant differences between the adhesive systems (p system showed the highest bond strength, and the bleaching procedure reduced bond strengths (p = 0.001). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in shear bond strength values between the control and CPP groups. However, the differences between other groups were statistically significant (p material dependent.

  17. [Influences of the mobile phase constitution, salt concentration and pH value on retention characters of proteins on the metal chelate column].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R; Di, Z M; Chen, G L

    2001-09-01

    The effects of the nature and concentration of salts, pH value and competitive eluent in the mobile phase on the protein retention have been systematically investigated. A mathematical expression describing the protein retention in metal chelate chromatography has been derived. It is proposed that the eluting power of the salt solution can be expressed by the eluent strength exponent epsilon. According to the retention characters of protein under different chromatographic conditions, the interaction between the various metal chelate ligands and proteins is discussed. The protein retention on the metal chelate column is a cooperative interactions of coordination, electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction. For the strong combined metal column with proteins such as IDA-Cu, the coordination is the most important, and the electrostatic interaction is secondary in chromatographic process. However, for the weak combined metal columns with proteins such as IDA-Ni, IDA-Co and IDA-Zn, the electrostatic interaction between the metal chelate ligands and proteins is the chief one, while the coordination is the next in importance. When the mobile phase contains high concentration of salt which can't form complex with the immobilized metal, the hydrophobic interaction between the protein and stationary phase will be increased. As the interaction between the metal chelate ligand and proteins relates to chromatographic operating conditions closely, different elution processes may be selected for different metal chelate columns. The gradient elution is generally performed by the low concentration of salt or different pH for weakly combined columns with proteins, however the competitive elution procedure is commonly utilized for strongly combined column. The experiment showed that NH3 is an excellent competitive eluent. It isn't only give the efficient separation of proteins, but also has the advantages of cheapness, less bleeding of the immobilized metals and ease of controlling NH3

  18. Observation of pH Value in Electrokinetic Remediation using various electrolyte (MgSO4, KH2PO4 and Na(NO3)) for Barren Acidic Soil at Ayer Hitam, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norashira, J.; Zaidi, E.; Aziman, M.; Saiful Azhar, A. T.

    2016-07-01

    Barren acidic soil collected at Ayer Hitam, Johor Malaysia was recorded at pH value of 2.36 with relative humidity of 86%. This pH value is not suitable for the growth of any plants especially for the soil stabilization purposes. Gradation weathering within the range of 4 to 6 indicates an incomplete/partial weathering process. The soil grade in this range is known as a black shale mudstone. Beside, this also influences to a factor of the high surface water runoff at this particular soil species. As the acidic pH become a major problem for soil fertilizing hence an appropriate technique was implemented known as using ‘Electrokinetic Remediation’, EKR. This technique has a great potential in changing the soil pH value from acidic to less acidic and also kept maintain the pH at the saturated rate of electrochemical process. This research study presents the monitoring data of pH value due to the effect of various electrolyte consist of 0.5M of MgSO4, KH2PO4, and Na(NO3). Here, the distilled water (DW) was used as reference solution. The electric field was provided by dipping two pieces of identical rectangular aluminum foil as anode and cathode. The EKR was conducted under a constant voltage gradient of 50 V/m across the sample bulk at 0.14 m length measured between both electrodes. The data collection was conducted during the total period of 7 days surveillance. The variation of pH values at the remediation area between anode and cathode for various type of electrolyte indicates that there are a significant saturated value as it reaches 7 days of treatment. During the analysis, it is found that the highest pH value at the remediation area after 7 days treatment using Na(NO3), KH2PO4 and MgSO4 was 3.93, 3.33 and 3.39 respectively. Hence from the last stage of pH value observation, it can be conclude that the best electrolyte for barren soil treatment is Na(NO3) whereby it contribute to highest pH value and turn the soil to be less acidic.

  19. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Grades 5--6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: safe and unsafe conditions for chemical combinations; growth rates and environmental needs of plants; photosynthesis and effects of ozone-layer depletion; the circulatory system, the importance of exercise to the heart, and selected circulatory diseases; the nervous system; specific nutritional values of the different food groups; significance of including, reducing, or eliminating certain foods for a healthy diet; effects of some common chemicals on plant growth and animal life; plants` and animals` natural habitats; and dangers of non-biodegradable garbage.

  20. Effect molybdenum (5, 6) compounds on hydrolysis and reorganization rates of ammonium and potassium triphosphates in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovskaya, L.I.; Prodan, E.A.; Lesnikovich, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Method of thin-layer chromatography was used to investigate the kinetics of hydrolytic decomposition of triphosphate-anion in aqueous solutions of M 5 P 3 O 10 -(NH 4 ) 6 xMo 7 O 24 -H 2 O systems (M - NH 4 , pH 5.9-6.4; M - K, pH 6.5-6.8) and (NH 4 ) 5 P 3 O 10 -(NH 4 ) 2 MoOCl 5 -H 2 O system (pH 2.5 and 4.5) at 20 deg C and 0.2 mol% concnetration. It is shown that oxoions Mo 5 produce less accelerating effect on hydrolysis, as compared to Mo 6 oxoions, and are able to initiate anion reorganization with formation of tetraphosphate under certain conditions

  1. Mn-doped NiP2 nanosheets as an efficient electrocatalyst for enhanced hydrogen evolution reaction at all pH values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodeng; Zhou, Hongpeng; Zhang, Dingke; Pi, Mingyu; Feng, Jiajia; Chen, Shijian

    2018-05-01

    Developing stable and high-efficiency hydrogen generation electrocatalysts, particularly for the cathode hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), is an urgent challenge in energy conversion technologies. In this work, we have successfully synthesized Mn-doped NiP2 nanosheets on carbon cloth (Mn-NiP2 NSs/CC), which behaves as a higher efficient three dimensional HER electrocatalyst with better stability at all pH values than pure NiP2. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the catalytic activity of NiP2 is enhanced by Mn doping. In 0.5 M H2SO4, this Mn-NiP2 NSs/CC catalyst drives 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 69 mV, which is 20 mV smaller than pure NiP2. To achieve the same current density, it demands overpotentials of 97 and 107 mV in 1.0 M KOH and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), respectively. Compared with pure NiP2, higher HER electrocatalytic performance for Mn-NiP2 NSs/CC can be attributed to its lower thermo-neutral hydrogen adsorption free energy, which is supported by density functional theory calculations.

  2. On the value of foreign PhDs in the developing world : Training versus selection effects in the case of South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M.; Cowan, R.; Barnard, H.

    2018-01-01

    When seeking to improve science in emerging economies, uncertainty exists whether PhD training in an emerging economy can yield comparable results to PhD training in the developed world. Scientific achievements may vary because of excellent training at good universities, but also because excellent

  3. What Do I Want to Be with My PhD? The Roles of Personal Values and Structural Dynamics in Shaping the Career Interests of Recent Biomedical Science PhD Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Kenneth D., Jr.; Griffin, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in faculty careers decreases as graduate training progresses; however, the process underlying career-interest formation remains poorly defined. To better understand this process and whether/how it differs across social identity (i.e., race/ethnicity, gender), we conducted focus groups with 38 biomedical scientists who received PhDs…

  4. Crystallization and evaluation of hen egg-white lysozyme crystals for protein pH titration in the crystalline state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Wakari; Yagi, Daichi; Ishikawa, Takuya; Ohnishi, Yuki; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo

    2008-01-01

    Hen egg-white lysozyme was crystallized over a wide pH range (2.5–8.0) and the quality of the crystals was characterized. Crystallization phase diagrams at pH 2.5, 6.0 and 7.5 were determined To observe the ionized status of the amino acid residues in proteins at different pH (protein pH titration in the crystalline state) by neutron diffraction, hen egg-white lysozyme was crystallized over a wide pH range (2.5–8.0). Crystallization phase diagrams at pH 2.5, 6.0 and 7.5 were determined. At pH < 4.5 the border between the metastable region and the nucleation region shifted to the left (lower precipitant concentration) in the phase diagram, and at pH > 4.5 the border shifted to the right (higher precipitant concentration). The qualities of these crystals were characterized using the Wilson plot method. The qualities of all crystals at different pH were more or less equivalent (B-factor values within 25–40). It is expected that neutron diffraction analysis of these crystals of different pH provides equivalent data in quality for discussions of protein pH titration in the crystalline state of hen egg-white lysozyme

  5. MRI based thrombolysis for FLAIR-negative stroke patients within 4.5-6h after symptom onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Er; Zhou, Jia; Li, Wen-Bin; Zhao, Yu-Wu; Li, Ming-Hua; Li, Yue-Hua

    2017-01-15

    To investigate the feasibility of DWI-FLAIR mismatch in identifying patients who might benefit from thrombolytic therapy within 4.5-6h, we analyzed the data of 105 ischemic stroke patients with known time of symptom onset who underwent MRI within 6h of stroke and thrombolysis between December 2006 and December 2013. They were divided into three groups: symptom onset within 4.5h (n=66); 4.5-6h and FLAIR images negative (n=9); and 4.5-6h and FLAIR images positive (n=30). Outcome of thrombolysis was assessed for each group by recanalization rate, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. The results showed that mismatch between positive DWI and negative FLAIR images identified patients within 4.5h of symptom onset with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 40.9%, 76.9%, and 75% and 43.5%. Recanalization rate, NIHSS score and mRS score were all better in both the 0-4.5h and 4.5-6h FLAIR-negative groups than in the 4.5-6h FLAIR-positive group (psymptom onset, patients with negative FLAIR images may benefit from thrombolysis therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in ice cream at different pH values, stored at -18°c Isolamento e sobrevivência de Yersinia enterocolitica em sorvetes de distintos pH, armazenados a -18°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma B. Barbini de Pederiva

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Yersinia enterocolitica was investigated in 203 samples of industrial (123 and non-industrial ice cream (80. Two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from non-industrial ice cream, which suggests the possibility of post-manufacturing contamination. One strain was typed as B:1A, O: 3,50,51; lis Xz, while the other one was biotyped as: B:1A but not serologically typed. Survival of Y. enterocolitica was investigated by inoculating nine samples of industrially manufactured ice cream to contain 20 CFU/ml of Y. enterocolitica and stored at -18°C for 480 days. The inoculated samples were classified into three different groups according to their pH (Group 1: pH 4-5; Group 2: pH 5-6 and Group 3: pH 6-7. Viability was determined by a combination of direct plating and enrichment. In Group 1, Y. enterocolitica was not detected after 150 days of storage, while in Groups 2 and 3, this microorganism was isolated until day 480 of storage. These findings suggest that the survival time of Y. enterocolitica in ice cream stored at -18°C is significantly (p Neste estudo pesquisou-se a presença de Yersinia enterocolitica em 203 amostras de sorvetes, sendo 123 de fabricação industrial e 80 de fabricação artesanal. Isolaram-se 2 cepas a partir de sorvetes artesanais, uma das quais foi caracterizada como B:1A, O:3,50, 51; lis Xz e a outra se tipificou como Y. enterocolitica B:1A mas não se tipificou sorologicamente, o que sugere uma contaminação pós processo. Em 9 dos sorvetes de fabricação industrial de distintos pH, estudou-se a sobrevivência desse microrganismo, inoculando-os com 20 UFC/ml de Y. enterocolitica, quando armazenados durante 480 dias a -18°C. Esses sorvetes, segundo seu pH, agruparam-se em: Grupo 1: pH: 4-5, Grupo 2: pH 5-6 e Grupo 3: pH: 6-7. Determinou-se a viabilidade pelas curvas de morte usando semeadura direta e enriquecimento. Nos sorvetes do grupo 1, Y. enterocolitica só foi detectada até o 150° dia de

  7. PH sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Artero, C.; Nogueras Cervera, Marc; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a design of a marine instrument for the measurement of pH in seawater. The measurement system consists of a pH electrode connected to the underwater observatory OBSEA. The extracted data are useful for scientists researching ocean acidification. Peer Reviewed

  8. Assessment of the Binding of Protons, Al and Fe to Biochar at Different pH Values and Soluble Metal Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Dang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochar can retain large amounts of protons and metals in the drainage water from acid sulfate soils and mine sites. Metal sorption can, however, be influenced by many factors, such as pH and metal composition. This study investigated proton, Al, and Fe retention capacity of eucalyptus biochar (1% w/v at different pH and metal concentrations. In the absence of metals, the biochar had a high proton binding capacity, (up to 0.035 mmol of H+, whereas its capacity to retain hydroxide ions was limited. A batch experiment was carried out at pH 4 and pH 7 with 10−6, 10−5, 10−4, 10−3, and 10−2 M of added Fe or Al. Added metals precipitated considerably prior to addition of the biochar except that Al remained highly soluble at pH 4. The biochar had a high retention capacity for Al and Fe; at high (>1 mM concentrations, over 80% of soluble metals were retained. Metal competition for binding sites of both Al and Fe at different ratios was investigated, but increasing concentrations of one metal did not reduce retention of the other. The results confirmed that biochar has high metal binding capacity under both acidic and neutral conditions.

  9. Direct modulation of tracheal Cl--channel activity by 5,6- and 11,12-EET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvail, D; Dumoulin, M; Rousseau, E

    1998-09-01

    Using microelectrode potential measurements, we tested the involvement of Cl- conductances in the hyperpolarization induced by 5,6- and 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. 5,6-EET and 11,12-EET (0.75 microM) caused -5.4 +/- 1.1- and -3.34 +/- 0.95-mV hyperpolarizations, respectively, of rabbit tracheal cells (from a resting membrane potential of -53.25 +/- 0.44 mV), with significant residual repolarizations remaining after the Ca2+-activated K+ channels had been blocked by 10 nM iberiotoxin. In bilayer reconstitution experiments, we demonstrated that the EETs directly inhibit a Ca2+-insensitive Cl- channel from bovine ASM; 1 microM 5,6-EET and 1.5 microM 11,12-EET lowered the unitary current amplitude by 40 (n = 6 experiments) and 44.7% (n = 4 experiments), respectively. Concentration-dependent decreases in channel open probability were observed, with estimated IC50 values of 0.26 microM for 5,6- and 1.15 microM for 11,12-EET. Furthermore, pharmacomechanical tension measurements showed that both regioisomers induced significant bronchorelaxations in epithelium-denuded ASM strips. These results suggest that 5,6- and 11,12-EET can act in ASM as epithelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors.

  10. Effect of weak acid preservatives on growth of bakery product spoilage fungi at different water activities and pH values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2004-01-01

    moisture sponge cake types (a(w) 0.80-0.95, pH 4.7-7.4). Initially, rye bread conditions (a(w) 0.94-0.97 and pH 4.4-4.8) in combination with calcium propionate were investigated. Results showed that the highest concentration of propionate (0.3%) at all conditions apart from high a(w) (0.97) and high pH (4...... enhanced at high water activity levels. The effect of propionate on production of secondary metabolites (mycophenolic acid, rugulovasine, echinulin, flavoglaucin) was also studied, and variable or isolate dependent results were found. Subsequently, a screening experiment representing a wider range...

  11. Clinical Evaluation of the Effect of pH Values of Hydrogen Peroxide (35% on the Ability of Whitening Teeth in Office Bleaching Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Danesh Kazemi

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Due to the limitations of this study, it seems that there is a similar effect in improving the color of teeth in three groups, soit is better to prevent the destruction of tooth enamel it is used the pH above the critical level of demineralization

  12. Use of D(acid)-, D(bile)-, z(acid)-, and z(bile)-values in evaluating Bifidobacteria with regard to stomach pH and bile salt sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Li; Shigwedha, Nditange; Mwandemele, Osmund D

    2010-01-01

    The survival of bifidobacteria in simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was studied based on the D- and z-value concept. Some Bifidobacterium spp. are probiotics that improve microbial balance in the human GI tract. Because they are sensitive to low pH and bile salt concentrations, their viability in the GI tract is limited. The D- and z-value approach was therefore adopted as a result of observing constant log-cell reduction (90%) when Bifidobacterium spp. were exposed to these 2 different stressing factors. Survivals of one strain each or 4 species of Bifidobacterium was studied at pH between 3.0 and 4.5 and in ox-bile between 0.15% and 0.60% for times up to 41 h. From the D(acid)- and D(bile)-values, the order of resistance to acid and bile was B. bifidum > B. infantis > B. longum > B. adolescentis. While the former 3 strains retained high cell viability at pH 3.5 (>5.5 log CFU/mL after 5 h) and at elevated bile salt concentration of 0.6% (>4.5 log CFU/mL after 3 h), B. adolescentis was less resistant (pH units and 0.40% to 0.49%, respectively. The results suggest that the D(acid)-, D(bile)-, z(acid)-, and z(bile)-value approach could be more appropriate than the screening and selection method in evaluating survival of probiotic bacteria, and in measuring their tolerance or resistance to gastric acidity and the associated bile salt concentration in the small intestine. The evaluation of the tolerance of bifidobacteria to bile salts and low pH has been made possible by use of D- and z-value concept. The calculated z(acid)- and z(bile)-values were all fairly similar for the strains used and suggest the effect of increasing the bile salt concentration or decreasing the pH on the D(acid)- and D(bile)-values. This approach would be useful for predicting the suitability of bifidobacteria and other lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as probiotics for use in real-life situations.

  13. The Effects of the Parenting Styles on Social Skills of Children Aged 5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Suat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the parenting styles on social skills of children aged 5-6. The problem sentence of the research is; Do the parenting styles' have any effects on social skills of children aged 5-6?. The sub-problems of the research are in the form as; Does the social skills of children aged 5-6 differs from…

  14. A facile microwave assisted one-pot synthesis of novel 1-methylhexahydroquinazolin-5(6H-ones and bis-1-methylhexahydroquinazolin-5(6H-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan Saha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Novel hexahydroquinazolin-5(6H-ones 3a-j have been synthesized in good yields by the reaction of enaminones 2a-b with primary amines and formaldehyde under the influence microwaves. Enaminones 2a-b have also been reacted with diamines and formaldehyde under similar conditions resulting in hitherto unreported bis- hexahydroquinazolin-5(6H-ones 4a-d and 5a-d. The structures of the molecules have been established with the help of spectral and analytical data.

  15. Resilience and recovery of Dehalococcoides mccartyi following low pH exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Cápiro, Natalie L; Yan, Jun; Marcet, Tyler F; Pennell, Kurt D; Löffler, Frank E

    2017-12-01

    Bioremediation treatment (e.g. biostimulation) can decrease groundwater pH with consequences for Dehalococcoides mccartyi (Dhc) reductive dechlorination activity. To explore the pH resilience of Dhc, the Dhc-containing consortium BDI was exposed to pH 5.5 for up to 40 days. Following 8- and 16-day exposure periods to pH 5.5, dechlorination activity and growth recovered when returned to pH 7.2; however, the ability of the culture to dechlorinate vinyl chloride (VC) to ethene was impaired (i.e. decreased rate of VC transformation). Dhc cells exposed to pH 5.5 for 40 days did not recover the ethene-producing phenotype upon transfer to pH 7.2 even after 200 days of incubation. When returned to pH 7.2 conditions after an 8-, a 16- and a 40-day low pH exposure, tceA and vcrA genes showed distinct fold increases, suggesting Dhc strain-specific responses to low pH exposure. Furthermore, a survey of Dhc biomarker genes in groundwater samples revealed the average abundances of Dhc 16S rRNA, tceA and vcrA genes in pH 4.5-6 groundwater were significantly lower (P-value pH 6-8.3 groundwater. Overall, the results of the laboratory study and the assessment of field data demonstrate that sustained Dhc activity should not be expected in low pH groundwater, and the duration of low pH exposure affects the ability of Dhc to recover activity at circumneutral pH. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Metabolism of 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid by the human platelet. Formation of novel thromboxane analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazy, M

    1991-12-15

    Radiolabeled cis-(+-)-5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (5(6)-EpETrE) was incubated with a suspension of isolated human platelets in order to study its metabolic fate. The epoxide slowly disappeared from the suspension and was completely metabolized within 30 min. After extraction and analysis by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, seven metabolites were found. Addition of either indomethacin (0.01 mM, cyclooxygenase inhibitor) or BW755C (0.1 mM, cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitor) to the incubations blocked the formation of four and six metabolites, respectively, 1,2-Epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane (inhibitor of microsomal epoxide hydrolase) failed to inhibit the formation of 5,6-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (5,6-DiHETrE), a hydrolysis product of the precursor 5(6)-EpETrE. The metabolites were characterized by UV spectroscopy, negative ion chemical ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and, in one instance, coelution with synthetic standard. Three primary platelet metabolites were structurally determined to be 5,6-epoxy-12-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, 5,6-epoxy-12-hydroxyheptadecadienoic acid, and a unique bicyclic metabolite, 5-hydroxy-6,9-epoxy-thromboxane B1, which originated from intramolecular hydrolysis of 5,6-epoxythromboxane-B1. This thromboxane analog was partially separated into stereoisomers and coeluted with the racemic synthetic standard in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Three other metabolites were characterized as 5,6,12-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, 5,6,12-trihydroxyheptadecadienoic acid, and 5,6-dihydroxythromboxane-B1, and resulted from the hydrolysis of the corresponding epoxides rather than from the metabolism of 5,6-DiHETrE. The latter was not metabolized by platelet cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase. The biosynthesis of two cyclooxygenase metabolites indicated the formation of unstable 5,6-epoxythromboxane-A1 as an intermediate

  17. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with a pH-responsive molecule to produce a pH sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Liping; Nakayama, Tomonobu; Tomimoto, Hiroyuki; Shingaya, Yoshitaka; Huang Qing

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes were functionalized with the ratiometric pH-responsive dye molecule 6,8-dihydroxy-1,3-pyrenedisulfonic acid disodium salt, which enabled them to indicate pH values over the range of pH 5.6-8.3. The nanotubes were coated with a layer of electron-donating ZnPc, which strengthened the CNT-dye interaction. The range of pH response is relevant for biological systems, which makes the nanotubes suitable for a wide range of applications within nanobiotechnology.

  18. Resolving complex chromosome structures during meiosis: versatile deployment of Smc5/6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, Dideke E.; Hwang, Grace H.; Jordan, Philip W.; Hamer, Geert

    2016-01-01

    The Smc5/6 complex, along with cohesin and condensin, is a member of the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) family, large ring-like protein complexes that are essential for chromatin structure and function. Thanks to numerous studies of the mitotic cell cycle, Smc5/6 has been implicated to

  19. Resolving complex chromosome structures during meiosis: versatile deployment of Smc5/6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verver, Dideke E; Hwang, Grace H; Jordan, Philip W; Hamer, Geert

    2016-03-01

    The Smc5/6 complex, along with cohesin and condensin, is a member of the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) family, large ring-like protein complexes that are essential for chromatin structure and function. Thanks to numerous studies of the mitotic cell cycle, Smc5/6 has been implicated to have roles in homologous recombination, restart of stalled replication forks, maintenance of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and heterochromatin, telomerase-independent telomere elongation, and regulation of chromosome topology. The nature of these functions implies that the Smc5/6 complex also contributes to the profound chromatin changes, including meiotic recombination, that characterize meiosis. Only recently, studies in diverse model organisms have focused on the potential meiotic roles of the Smc5/6 complex. Indeed, Smc5/6 appears to be essential for meiotic recombination. However, due to both the complexity of the process of meiosis and the versatility of the Smc5/6 complex, many additional meiotic functions have been described. In this review, we provide a clear overview of the multiple functions found so far for the Smc5/6 complex in meiosis. Additionally, we compare these meiotic functions with the known mitotic functions in an attempt to find a common denominator and thereby create clarity in the field of Smc5/6 research.

  20. Jeremiah 33:15-16 as a reinterpretation of Jeremiah 23:5-6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are striking similarities between Jeremiah 23:5-6 and Jeremiah 33:15-16. A comparison, however, also shows interesting differences and 33:14-26, furthermore is lacking in the Septuagint tradition. Jeremiah 33:15-16 seems to be a reinterpretation of 23:5-6. This is done by generalising the content, widening the ...

  1. Effect of pH on optic and structural characterization of chemical deposited AgI thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezel, Fatma Meydaneri [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Karabük University (Turkey); Kariper, İshak Afşin [Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2017-11-15

    AgI thin films were grown on amorphous commercial glass substrates with chemical bath deposition (CBD) at different pH values (2, 3, 4, 5, 6), 6 hours deposition time and 60 °C. The structure of the nanocrystals was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The ratio of Ag{sup +} and I{sup -} ions changed the crystalline structures. The presence of the Ag{sup +} ions produces the γ-phase of AgI and excess of iodine concentration produces β-phase of AgI. The pH: 4 was like a transition pH for these phases. The number of crystallites per unit area has maximum value at pH: 5, as the structure is re-crystallization to hexagonal phase. Also, the thicknesses of produced thin films were decreased with increased pH values. Therefore, transmission, reflection, extinction coefficients and refractive index of the materials were affected by thicknesses, and calculated to be 32, 35, 3, 11, 9 (%) - 27, 25, 61, 45, 49 (%) - 0.036, 0.032, 0.067, 0.107, 0.075 and 3.21, 3.02, 5.16, 8.35, 5.70 in 550 nm at pH: 2-3-4-5-6 values, respectively. The exciton peaks of AgI were observed at between 320 and 420 nm. Surface properties were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (author)

  2. Birth asphyxia measured by the pH value of the umbilical cord blood may predict an increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Susanne Hvolgaard; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Although birth asphyxia is a major risk factor for neonatal and childhood morbidity and mortality, it has not been investigated much in relation to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined whether birth asphyxia measured by the pH of the blood in the umbilical artery cord...... was associated with childhood ADHD. METHOD: A population-based cohort of 295 687 children born in Finland between 1991 and 2002 was followed until December 31, 2007. ADHD was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, as a diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorder. We examined the risk...

  3. Incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with ascites. Diagnostic value of white blood cell count and pH measurement in ascitic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, J S; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Hegnhøj, J

    1991-01-01

    During a 21-month period, 65 consecutive patients admitted with ascites were included in a prospective study of the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and paracentesis was performed on admission. The ascitic fluid was cultured, ascitic leucocytes were counted and pH was measured....... Bacterial growth was found in five patients with chronic liver disease, who were diagnosed as having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), since no intra-abdominal focus could be demonstrated. Thus, the incidence of SBP in this material was 7.7% (95% confidence limits: 2.5-17%). SBP was caused...

  4. Determination of the pK values of 5-aminosalicylic acid and N-acetylaminosalicylic acid and comparison of the pH dependent lipid-water partition coefficients of sulphasalazine and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgayer, H; Sonnenbichler, J; Kruis, W; Paumgartner, G

    1985-01-01

    Sulphasalazine (SASP), used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, is split into sulphapyridine (SP) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in the colon. Lower plasma levels of SASP and 5-ASA as compared to those of SP may be due to different absorption rates from the colon because of different pK values and pH dependent lipid-water partition coefficients. In this study we determined the pK values of 5-ASA and its major metabolite, N-acetyl amino-salicylic acid (AcASA), by 13C-NMR spectroscopy and compared the pH dependent apparent benzene-water partition coefficients (Papp) of SASP, SP and 5-ASA with respect to their different plasma levels. The COOH group of 5-ASA had a pK value of 3.0, the -NH3+ group had 6.0, the -OH group 13.9; the -COOH group of AcASA had 2.7 and the -OH group 12.9; The Papp of SASP (0.042 +/- 0.004) and 5-ASA (0.059 +/- 0.01) were significantly lower than that of SP (0.092 +/- 0.03) (at pH 5.5).

  5. Binary boronic acid-functionalized attapulgite with high adsorption capacity for selective capture of nucleosides at acidic pH values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huihui; Zhu, Shuqiang; Cheng, Ting; Wang, Shuxia; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    Boronate affinity materials have been widely used for selective capture of cis-diols such as nucleosides. Adsorbents with features of low binding pH and high adsorption capacity are highly desired. However, most reported materials only possess one of the two features. We have synthesized a 1,3,5-triazine-containing binary boronic acid by reacting cyanuric chloride with 3-amino phenylboronic acid, and the product was then grafted onto attapulgite (a fibrous aluminum-magnesium silicate). The resulting functionalized attapulgite exhibit low binding pH (5.0) and display high adsorption capacity (19.5 ± 1.1 mg⋅g"−"1 for adenosine). The material exhibits high selectivity for cis-diols even in the presence of a 1000-fold excess of interferences. It was applied to the selective extraction of nucleosides from human urine. Typical features of the method include (a) limits of detection in the range from 4 to 17 ng⋅mL"−"1, (b) limits of quantification between 13 and 57 ng⋅mL"−"1, (c) relative standard deviations of ≤9.1 %, and (d) recoveries of nucleosides from spiked human urine between 85.0 and 112.9 %. In our perception, the material and method offer a promising strategy for selective capture of cis-diols in the areas of proteomics, metabolomics and glycomics. (author)

  6. Adsorption of La(III) onto GMZ bentonite. Effect of contact time, bentonite content, pH value and ionic strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonggui Chen; Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha; Chunming Zhu; Weimin Ye; Yanhong Sun; Huiying Duan; Dongbei Wu

    2012-01-01

    Bentonite has been studied extensively because of its strong adsorption capacity. A local Na-bentonite named GMZ bentonite, collected from Gaomiaozi County (Inner Mongolia, China), was selected as the first choice of buffer/backfill material for the high-level radioactive waste repository in China. In this research, the adsorption of La (III) onto GMZ bentonite was performed as a function of contact time, pH, solid content and metal ion concentrations by using the batch experiments. The results indicate that the adsorption of La (III) on GMZ bentonite achieves equilibration quickly and the kinetic adsorption follows the pseudo-second-order model; the adsorption of La (III) on the adsorbent is strongly dependent on pH and solid content, the adsorption process follows Langmuir isotherm. The equilibrium batch experiment data demonstrate that GMZ bentonite is effective adsorbent for the removal of La (III) from aqueous solution with the maximum adsorption capacity of 26.8 mg g -1 under the given experimental conditions. (author)

  7. Biosorption of U(VI) by the green algae Chlorella vulgaris in dependence of pH value and cell activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, M., E-mail: M.Vogel@fzd.de; Guenther, A.; Rossberg, A.; Li, B.; Bernhard, G.; Raff, J.

    2010-12-15

    Biosorption of uranium(VI) by the green alga Chlorella vulgaris was studied at varying uranium concentrations from 5 {mu}M to 1 mM, and in the environmentally relevant pH range of 4.4 to 7.0. Living cells bind in a 0.1 mM uranium solution at pH 4.4 within 5 min 14.3 {+-} 5.5 mg U/g dry biomass and dead cells 28.3 {+-} 0.6 mg U/g dry biomass which corresponds to 45% and 90% of total uranium in solution, respectively. During 96 h of incubation with uranium initially living cells died off and with 26.6 {+-} 2.1 mg U/g dry biomass bound similar amounts of uranium compared to dead cells, binding 27.0 {+-} 0.7 mg U/g dry biomass. In both cases, these amounts correspond to around 85% of the initially applied uranium. Interestingly, at a lower and more environmentally relevant uranium concentration of 5 {mu}M, living cells firstly bind with 1.3 {+-} 0.2 mg U/g dry biomass to 1.4 {+-} 0.1 mg U/g dry biomass almost all uranium within the first 5 min of incubation. But then algal cells again mobilize up to 80% of the bound uranium during ongoing incubation in the time from 48 h to 96 h. The release of metabolism related substances is suggested to cause this mobilization of uranium. As potential leachates for algal-bound uranium oxalate, citrate and ATP were tested and found to be able to mobilize more than 50% of the algal-bound uranium within 24 h. Differences in complexation of uranium by active and inactive algae cells were investigated with a combination of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Obtained results demonstrated an involvement of carboxylic and organic/inorganic phosphate groups in the uranium complexation with varying contributions dependent on cell status, uranium concentration and pH.

  8. Biosorption of U(VI) by the green algae Chlorella vulgaris in dependence of pH value and cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, M.; Guenther, A.; Rossberg, A.; Li, B.; Bernhard, G.; Raff, J.

    2010-01-01

    Biosorption of uranium(VI) by the green alga Chlorella vulgaris was studied at varying uranium concentrations from 5 μM to 1 mM, and in the environmentally relevant pH range of 4.4 to 7.0. Living cells bind in a 0.1 mM uranium solution at pH 4.4 within 5 min 14.3 ± 5.5 mg U/g dry biomass and dead cells 28.3 ± 0.6 mg U/g dry biomass which corresponds to 45% and 90% of total uranium in solution, respectively. During 96 h of incubation with uranium initially living cells died off and with 26.6 ± 2.1 mg U/g dry biomass bound similar amounts of uranium compared to dead cells, binding 27.0 ± 0.7 mg U/g dry biomass. In both cases, these amounts correspond to around 85% of the initially applied uranium. Interestingly, at a lower and more environmentally relevant uranium concentration of 5 μM, living cells firstly bind with 1.3 ± 0.2 mg U/g dry biomass to 1.4 ± 0.1 mg U/g dry biomass almost all uranium within the first 5 min of incubation. But then algal cells again mobilize up to 80% of the bound uranium during ongoing incubation in the time from 48 h to 96 h. The release of metabolism related substances is suggested to cause this mobilization of uranium. As potential leachates for algal-bound uranium oxalate, citrate and ATP were tested and found to be able to mobilize more than 50% of the algal-bound uranium within 24 h. Differences in complexation of uranium by active and inactive algae cells were investigated with a combination of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Obtained results demonstrated an involvement of carboxylic and organic/inorganic phosphate groups in the uranium complexation with varying contributions dependent on cell status, uranium concentration and pH.

  9. Effect of pH values on surface modification and solubility of phosphate bioglass-ceramics in the CaO-P 2O 5-Na 2O-SrO-ZnO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xudong; Cai, Shu; Zhang, Wenjuang; Xu, Guohua; Zhou, Wei

    2009-08-01

    The bioactive glass-ceramics in the CaO-P 2O 5-Na 2O-SrO-ZnO system were synthesized by the sol-gel technique, and then chemically treated at different pH values to study the solubility and surface modification. Samples sintered at 650 °C for 4 h consisted of the crystalline phase β-Ca 2P 2O 7 and the glass matrix. After soaking in the solution at pH 1.0, the residual glass matrix on the surface appeared entirely dissolved and no new phase could be detected. Whereas at pH 3.0, web-like layer exhibiting peaks corresponding to CaP 2O 6 was formed and covered the entire surface of the sample. When conducted at pH 10.0, only part of the glass matrix was dissolved and a new phase Ca 4P 6O 19 was precipitated, forming the petaline layer. The chemical treatment can easily change the surface morphologies and phase composition of this bioactive glass-ceramics. The higher level of surface roughness resulting from the new-formed layer would improve the interface bonding and benefit for cell adhesion.

  10. [Allergic asthma and interleukins 2, 4, 5, 6 and 12 and gamma interferon levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida Segura, Diana Lyzbeth; López Velásquez, Benjamin; Castrejón Vázquez, María Isabel; Galicia Tapía, Jorge; Cano Altamirano, Silvia; Miranda Feria, Alfonso Javier

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory chronic illness, in which mastocyt cells, basophils, T lymphocytes, eosinophils and cytokines play a role. Its association with the production of TH2 cytokines is not well known, but it is considered an aberrant immune response, yielding the activation and recruitment of a number of effector cells (mastocyts/eosinophils) and the appearance of clinical symptoms. To determine the serum values of the interleukins 2, 4, 5, 6 and 12 and gamma interferon in relation to the severity degree of asthma and the time of immunotherapy in patients with stable chronic allergic bronchial asthma. Clinical records of allergic asthmatic patients from the external consultation at Servicio de Alergia e Immunología Clínica were reviewed in a period of 12 months (1st January 2002 to 1st January 2003) and those of healthy volunteers, forming three groups: Group 1, allergic asthmatics with immunotherapy less than 24 months; Group 2, allergic asthmatics with more than 24 months of immunotherapy, and Group 3, healthy volunteers (control group). Previous informed consent, a serum sample was taken of all subjects. Ninety-two subjects were included: 41 (45%) allergic asthmatics and 51 (55%) healthy volunteers. Significant differences were found in interleukins 2, 4, 5, 6 and 12 levels between healthy volunteers and asthmatics without relating the immunotherapy time. In the total group gamma interferon levels were not found. A relation of interleukins Th2 levels with the severity degree of asthma was not found. Differences of serum interleukins Th1 and Th2 in allergic patients related to immunotherapy time were not significant; even though, irrespective of immunotherapy time, IgG levels were always high. Patients with allergic asthma have a predominance of serum interleukins Th2 and, despite of the immunotherapy, in the maintaining phase, these continue high, which may be due to an immune system dysregulation maybe including other factors. Immunotherapy continues

  11. Evaluation of the relation between lipid coat, transepidermal water loss, and skin pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algiert-Zielińska, Barbara; Batory, Mirella; Skubalski, Janusz; Rotsztejn, Helena

    2017-11-01

    The epidermis is an epidermal barrier which accumulates lipid substances and participates in skin moisturizing. An evaluation of the epidermal barrier efficiency can be made, among others, by the measurement of the following values: the lipid coat, the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) index, and pH. The study involved 50 Caucasian, healthy women aged 19-35 years (mean 20.56). Measurements were made using Courage & Khazaka Multi Probe Adapter MPA 580: Tewameter TM 300, pH-Meter PH 905, Sebumeter SM 815. The areas of measurements included forehead, nose, left cheek, right cheek, chin, and thigh. In the T-zone, the lipid coat was in the range between 0 and 270 μg/cm 2 (mean 128 μg/cm 2 ), TEWL between 1 and 55 g/m 2 /h (mean 11.1 g/m 2 /h), and pH 4.0-5.6 (mean 5.39). Lower values of the lipid coat up to 100 μg/cm 2 were accompanied by TEWL greater than 30 g/m 2 /h and less acidic pH of 5.6-9.0. In the U-zone the range of lipid coat was up to 200 μg/cm 2 (mean 65.2 μg/cm 2 ), the skin pH remained 4.0-5.6 (mean 5.47), and TEWL was in the range between 1 and 20 g/m 2 /h (mean 8.7 g/m 2 /h). Lower values of the lipid coat up to 100 μg/cm 2 were accompanied by TEWL between 1 and 20 g/m 2 /h and less acidic pH of 5.6-9.0. High values of the lipid coat between 180 and 200 μg/cm 2 were connected with TEWL of 1-15 g/m 2 /h. On the skin of the thigh, we observed a very thin lipid coat - 35 μg/cm 2 (mean 5.6 μg/cm 2 ), pH (mean 5.37), and TEWL (mean 8.5 g/m 2 /h) were considered by us to be within regular limits. In the T-zone, a thinner lipid coat resulted in relatively high TEWL and pH levels changing toward alkaline. In the U-zone, thinner lipid coat was accompanied by lower TEWL and pH changing toward alkaline. We also observed that lower values of lipid coat up to 100 μg/cm 2 were associated with higher pH values ranging toward the basic character pH 5.6-9.0). © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. The role of pH in lethal effect of glucose load malignant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmakova, N.L.; Yarmonenko, S.P.; Laser, K.; Fomenkova, T.E.; Kozubek, S.; Korogodin, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    The lethal effect of variuos pH values on Erlich ascites tumour (EAT) calls has been investigated. Different pH values were obtained by means of both glucose load and phosphate buffers. The effect has been investigated by observing cell death in vitro, determining cancerogenity of EAT cells and determining their radiosensitivity. The results of all methods enabled us to conclude that the same values of pH lead to the same effect on EAT cells independently of the way by which the given pH value was reached. The lethal effect markedly increased when the value of pH was lower than 5.6. It is concluded that the basis of the mechanism of glucose load lethal effect is their ''self-acidisation''. The measurement of pH in tumours is proposed as a basic test for determining the suitability of the use of hyperglycemia in clinics and for comparison of the efficiency of various modes of treatment

  13. Characterization of Frex as an NADH sensor for in vivo applications in the presence of NAD+ and at various pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Svea; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Horch, Marius; Zebger, Ingo; Lenz, Oliver; Friedrich, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The fluorescent biosensor Frex, recently introduced as a sensitive tool to quantify the NADH concentration in living cells, was characterized by time-integrated and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy regarding its applicability for in vivo measurements. Based on the purified sensor protein, it is shown that the NADH dependence of Frex fluorescence can be described by a Hill function with a concentration of half-maximal sensor response of K D  ≈ 4 µM and a Hill coefficient of n ≈ 2. Increasing concentrations of NADH have moderate effects on the fluorescence lifetime of Frex, which changes by a factor of two from about 500 ps in the absence of NADH to 1 ns under fluorescence-saturating NADH concentrations. Therefore, the observed sevenfold rise of the fluorescence intensity is primarily ascribed to amplitude changes. Notably, the dynamic range of Frex sensitivity towards NADH highly depends on the NAD + concentration, while the apparent K D for NADH is only slightly affected. We found that NAD + has a strong inhibitory effect on the fluorescence response of Frex during NADH sensing, with an apparent NAD + dissociation constant of K I  ≈ 400 µM. This finding was supported by fluorescence lifetime measurements, which showed that the addition of NAD + hardly affects the fluorescence lifetime, but rather reduces the number of Frex molecules that are able to bind NADH. Furthermore, the fluorescence responses of Frex to NADH and NAD + depend critically on pH and temperature. Thus, for in vivo applications of Frex, temperature and pH need to be strictly controlled or considered during data acquisition and analysis. If all these constraints are properly met, Frex fluorescence intensity measurements can be employed to estimate the minimum NADH concentration present within the cell at sufficiently low NAD + concentrations below 100 µM.

  14. 盾构管片在不同pH值水养下质量研究%Study of Curing Quality of Shield Segment in Water with Different pH Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾锋; 宋天田; 苏华友

    2017-01-01

    The raw material control, concrete mixing proportions and skilled level of manual operation are the main factors for quality of shield segment manufacturing.The practice shows that the pH value of curing water also has some influence on it.In order to obtain the optimal pH value of segment curing water, segments and test pieces produced at a same time are divided into 6 groups and cured for 7 days in water with pH values of 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12.After 28 days, the colour of the appearance of segments and test pieces are observed;and then the compressive test and anti-permeability test are carried out.The results show that: 1) The colour of segment appearance darkened (from gray to dark) and the compressive strength and anti-permeability strength of segment decrease as pH value of segment curing water increases.2) The colour of segment appearance remains original and the compressive strength and anti-permeability strength of segment vary little under the pH value of 7-10 of the segment curing water.3) The colour of segment appearance darkened and the compressive strength and anti-permeability strength of segment decrease rapidly under the pH value of segment curing water larger than 10.Thereby, the rational pH value range of segment curing water is 7-10.%原材料控制、混凝土配合比、模具结构以及人工操作的熟练程度是影响盾构管片质量的主要因素,实践表明水养池中水的pH值对其也有一定的影响.为了得到养护水最佳pH值,取一定数量同期生产的管片和试块,均分为6组,分别在pH值为7、8、9、10、11、12的水中养护7 d,达到龄期28 d后,观察各组管片和试块的外观颜色,并对其做抗压和抗渗实验.结果表明: 1)随着养护水的pH值变大,管片的外观颜色由灰白色变成浅黑色,抗压和抗渗强度逐渐变小;2)当pH值在7~10时,管片颜色正常,抗压和抗渗强度变化较小;3)当pH>10时,管片颜色变为浅黑色,抗压和抗渗强度急剧变小.

  15. Highly Sensitive and Reproducible SERS Sensor for Biological pH Detection Based on a Uniform Gold Nanorod Array Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Liyan; Wang, Yunqing; Yang, Ying; Li, Yuling; Mo, Shanshan; Zheng, Qingyin; Chen, Lingxin

    2018-05-09

    Conventional research on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based pH sensors often depends on nanoparticle aggregation, whereas the variability in nanoparticle aggregation gives rise to poor repeatability in the SERS signal. Herein, we fabricated a gold nanorod array platform via an efficient evaporative self-assembly method. The platform exhibits great SERS sensitivity with an enhancement factor of 5.6 × 10 7 and maintains excellent recyclability and reproducibility with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of less than 8%. On the basis of the platform, we developed a highly sensitive bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPy)-linked (BMP) SERS-based pH sensor to report pH ranging from pH 3.0 to pH 8.0. The intensity ratio variation of 1004 and 1096 cm -1 in 4-MPy showed excellent pH sensitivity, which decreased as the surrounding pH increased. Furthermore, this BMP SERS-based pH sensor was employed to measure the pH value in C57BL/6 mouse blood. We have demonstrated that the pH sensor has great advantages such as good stability, reliability, and accuracy, which could be extended for the design of point-of-care devices.

  16. ANALISIS PENGEMBANGAN KECERDASAN LOGIS MATEMATIS ANAK USIA 5-6 TAHUN MENGGUNAKAN PERMAINAN TRADISIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    LESTARININGRUM, ANIK; HANDINI, MYRNAWATI CRIE

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The research aims to describe the traditional game in development of logical-mathematical intelligence to children aged 5-6 years, then what kind of traditional games that can be applied in the development of logical-mathematical intelligence to children aged 5-6 years. The research method was descriptive qualitative and quantitative to describe the complete exposure of research results through observation techniques conducted in the field in detail and description related to the de...

  17. Peningkatan Kemampuan Kognitif pada Anak Usia 5-6 Tahun di Paud Mutiara Ummi Melawi

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti, Sri Widayati Linda; Thamrin; Yuniarni, Desni

    2015-01-01

    Tujuan umum penelitian ini untuk meningkatkan kemampuan kognitif melalui permainan tebak ABC pada anak usia 5-6 tahun. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskripti dengan jenis penelitian tindakan kelas. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang telah dilakukan dan melalui hasil yang diperoleh setelah diadakan analisis data, secara umum dapat ditarik suatu kesimpulan bahwa: 1) Perencanaan pembelajaran melalui permainan tebak ABC pada anak usia 5-6 tahun dapat dikategorikan “baik sekali”, 2) Pelaksanaa...

  18. [Molecular genetics in chronic myeloid leukemia with variant Ph translocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Li, Jian-yong; Zhu, Yu; Qiu, Hai-rong; Pan, Jin-lan; Xu, Wei; Chen, Li-juan; Shen, Yun-feng; Xue, Yong-quan

    2007-08-01

    To explore the value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) techniques in the detection of genetic changes in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with variant Philadelphia translocation (vPh). Cytogenetic preparations from 10 CML patients with vPh confirmed by R banding were assayed with dual color dual fusion FISH technique. If only one fusion signal was detected in interphase cells, metaphase cells were observed to determine if there were derivative chromosome 9[der (9)] deletions. Meanwhile, the same cytogenetic preparations were assayed with M-FISH technique. Of the 10 CML patients with vPh, 5 were detected with der (9) deletions by FISH technique. M-FISH technique revealed that besides the chromosome 22, chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11 and 17 were also involved in the vPh. M-FISH technique also detected the abnormalities which were not found with conventional cytogenetics (CC), including two never reported abnormalities. The combination of CC, FISH and M-FISH technique could refine the genetic diagnosis of CML with vPh.

  19. Microstructure of hydroxyapatite- and octacalcium phosphate-coatings formed on magnesium by a hydrothermal treatment at various pH values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomozawa, Masanari; Hiromoto, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings with and without octacalcium phosphate (OCP) were uniformly formed on pure magnesium by a hydrothermal treatment using a Ca-EDTA solution. The crystal structure, crystallographic orientation and lattice images were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM. It was demonstrated that the crystal phase and microstructure of the calcium phosphate-coatings can vary with the pH of the treatment solution. In a weak acid treatment solution, a dual-layer structure was formed: an outer coarse layer consisting of plate-like OCP crystals and an inner dense layer consisting primarily of HAp crystals. One piece of the OCP plate corresponded to a single OCP crystal growing parallel to the (1 0 0) OCP . In a weak alkali treatment solution, a dual-layer structure was also formed: an outer coarse layer consisting of rod-like HAp crystals and an inner dense layer consisting of HAp crystals. One piece of the HAp rod corresponded to a single HAp crystal growing along [0 0 2] HAp . In a strong alkali treatment solution, needle-like HAp crystals were formed. No defect was observed in the lattice image of the OCP and HAp. The corrosion current density of pure magnesium in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution decreased with the HAp coating more significantly than the OCP + HAp coating. It is revealed that the degree of protection afforded by calcium phosphate-coatings varies with their crystal phase and microstructure.

  20. Nonenzymatic sensing of glucose at neutral pH values using a glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene nanosheets and Pt-Pd bimetallic nanocubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiaomei; Tian, Xiaotian; Zhao, Limin; Huang, Zhiyong; Oyama, Munetaka

    2014-01-01

    We report on a nonenzymatic method for the determination of glucose using an electrode covered with graphene nanosheets (GNs) modified with Pt-Pd nanocubes (PtPdNCs). The latter were prepared on GNs by using N,N-dimethylformamide as a bifunctional solvent for the reduction of both metallic precursors and graphene oxide, and for confining the growth of PtPdNCs on the surface. The modified electrode displays strong and sensitive current response to the electrooxidation of glucose, notably at pH 7. The sensitivities increase in the order of Pt 1 Pd 5 NCs< Pt 1 Pd 3 NCs< Pt 5 Pd 1 NCs< Pt 3 Pd 1 NCs< Pt 1 Pd 1 NCs. At an applied potential of +0.25 V, the electrode responds linearly (R = 0.9987) to glucose in up to 24.5 mM concentration, with a sensitivity of 1.4 μA cm −2 M −1 . The sensor is not poisoned by chloride, and not interfered by ascorbic acid, uric acid and p-acetamidophenol under normal physiological conditions. The modified electrode also displays a wide linear range, good stability and fast amperometric response, thereby indicating the potential of the bimetallic materials for nonenzymatic sensing of glucose. (author)

  1. Diagnostic Value of Vaginal Discharge, Wet Mount and Vaginal pH – An Update on the Basics of Gynecologic Infectiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobenius, W.; Bogdan, C.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of uncomplicated vulvovaginal complaints (e.g. bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis) can be detected with uncomplicated basic infectiological tests and can usually be treated effectively without requiring further diagnostic procedures. Tests include measurement of vaginal pH, preparation and assessment of wet mount slides prepared from vaginal or cervical discharge, and the correct clinical and microbiological classification of findings. In Germany, at least in recent years, this has not been sufficiently taught or practiced. As new regulations on specialist gynecologic training in Germany are currently being drawn up, this overview provides basic information on gynecologic infectiology and summarizes clinically relevant aspects of recent microbiological findings on the physiology and pathology of vaginal flora. The clinical signs and symptoms of aerobic vaginitis, the pathogenesis of which is still not completely understood, are also reviewed. Finally, the symptoms, indications and risk factors for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are presented. In contrast to the above-listed infections, PID requires immediate culture of the pathogen from samples (e.g. obtained by laparoscopy) with microbiological diagnostic procedures carried out by specialist laboratories. A schematic summary of all pathologies discussed here is presented. PMID:26028693

  2. Meia-vida do ametryn em argissolo vermelho-amarelo e latossolo vermelho-amarelo, com diferentes valores de pH Determination of half-life of ametryn on red-yellow latosol and red-yellow ultisol with different pH values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.B. Andrade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a meia-vida (t½ do herbicida ametryn em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo e Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, com diferentes valores de pH. Foram utilizados vasos revestidos internamente com filme plástico e preenchidos com 330,0 g de amostras dos solos em estudo (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo - LVA com valores de pH corrigidos para 4,4, 4,9 e 5,8, e Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo - PVA com pH 5,9. As amostras desses solos foram coletadas em pastagens degradadas isentas da aplicação de herbicidas. A essas amostras foi aplicado o ametryn na dose de 2,5 L ha-1. Doze horas após essa aplicação, foram retiradas as primeiras amostras de solo dos vasos, para determinação da concentração no tempo zero, e a cada cinco dias foram retiradas novas amostras de outros vasos, visando à determinação da concentração de ametryn ao longo do tempo. A extração do ametryn da matriz solo foi realizada por Extração Sólido Líquido com Partição em Baixa Temperatura (ESL-PBT, e o herbicida, quantificado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência - CLAE. Foi realizado, em paralelo, um teste biológico para determinação indireta da persistência do herbicida. A análise dos dados indicou que a meia-vida (t½ do ametryn nos solos avaliados foi de 26, 19, 12 e 11 dias para os solos LVA pH 4,4; LVA pH 4,9; LVA pH 5,8; e PVA pH 5,9, respectivamente. Ambos os métodos (cromatografia ou bioensaios utilizados para avaliação da persistência do ametryn nos solos evidenciaram que a degradação desse herbicida é muito influenciada pelo pH do solo e pelo teor de matéria orgânica.The objective of this study was to determine the half-life (t½ for the herbicide ametryn in Red-Yellow Latosol (LVA and Red-Yellow Ultisol (PVA with different pH values. Thus, plastic pots coated inside with plastic film were filled with 330 g of samples from the soils under study (LVA with pH values adjusted to 4.4, 4.9 and 5.8, and PVA pH 5

  3. Effects of K3[Fe(CN)6] slurry's pH value and applied potential on tungsten removal rate for chemical-mechanical planarization application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akonko, S.B.; Li, D.Y.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, J.A.; Miller, A.; Cadien, K.

    2005-07-01

    Chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) is an important process for building multilevel interconnections for electronic devices. Directly planarizing tungsten, which is used as via or contact in microelectronic circuits, by wear is a difficult process because of its high hardness. Therefore, an effective approach has been developed to facilitate planarizing tungsten surface by removing a continuously growing passive film on tungsten when exposed to a low-pH potassium ferricyanide slurry. Since the passive film is softer than tungsten, this chemical mechanical planarization process is effective. In this work, in order to determine effects of corrosion and wear on tungsten removal rate, attempts were made to investigate corrosion, wear, and corrosive wear behavior of tungsten in K3[Fe(CN)6] slurries. Electrochemical and tribological experiments were carried out for different slurry pH values and potentials using a rotating pin-on-disc tribometer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize surface films formed at the different pH levels and potentials. It was demonstrated that the tungsten removal rate increased with increasing slurry pH and potential. Mechanisms involved are discussed.

  4. Sugar-based gemini surfactant with a vesicle-to-micelle transition at acidic pH and a reversible vesicle flocculation near neutral pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnsson, M; Wagenaar, A; Engberts, JBFN

    2003-01-01

    A sugar-based (reduced glucose) gemini surfactant forms vesicles in dilute aqueous solution near neutral pH. At lower pH, there is a vesicle-to-micelle transition within a narrow pH region (pH 6.0-5.6). The vesicles are transformed into large cylindrical micelles that in turn are transformed into

  5. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium Vivax revealed by the merozoite surface protein-1 icb5-6 fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Wei; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Hua-Liang; Lu, Qiao-Yi; Yao, Li-Nong; Hu, Wei

    2017-06-05

    Plasmodium vivax remains a potential cause of morbidity and mortality for people living in its endemic areas. Understanding the genetic diversity of P. vivax from different regions is valuable for studying population dynamics and tracing the origins of parasites. The PvMSP-1 gene is highly polymorphic and has been used as a marker in many P. vivax population studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of the PvMSP-1 gene icb5-6 fragment and to provide more genetic polymorphism data for further studies on P. vivax population structure and tracking of the origin of clinical cases. Nested PCR and sequencing of the PvMSP-1 icb5-6 marker were performed to obtain the nucleotide sequences of 95 P. vivax isolates collected from Zhejiang province, China. To investigate the genetic diversity of PvMSP-1, the 95 nucleotide sequences of the PvMSP-1 icb5-6 fragment were genotyped and analyzed using DnaSP v5, MEGA software. The 95 P. vivax isolates collected from Zhejiang province were either indigenous cases or imported cases from different regions around the world. A total of 95 sequences ranging from 390 to 460 bp were obtained. The 95 sequences were genotyped into four allele-types (Sal I, Belem, R-III and R-IV) and 17 unique haplotypes. R-III and Sal I were the predominant allele-types. The haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (Pi) were estimated to be 0.729 and 0.062, indicating that the PvMSP-1 icb5-6 fragment had the highest level of polymorphism due to frequent recombination processes and single nucleotide polymorphism. The values of dN/dS and Tajima's D both suggested neutral selection for the PvMSP-1icb5-6 fragment. In addition, a rare recombinant style of R-IV type was identified. This study presented high genetic diversity in the PvMSP-1 marker among P. vivax strains from around the world. The genetic data is valuable for expanding the polymorphism information on P. vivax, which could be helpful for further study on

  6. The Bibliophilic value of a manuscript from Ştefan Ciobanu's library (Ph. Wieghel, Observations on the present state of affairs in Bessarabia, 1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Danilov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For almost five years Philip Philipovich Wieghel (Russified Finnish Estonian, 1786-1856, writer, famous memoirist of the time, member of the Arzamas Society, was the Bessarabian vice-governor and a member from the Crown in the Supreme Council for the Administration of Bessarabia (1823-1828. During his stay in Bessarabia, Wiegel wrote his famous essay “Observations on the present state of affairs in Bessarabia” (1823, which was nothing more than a pamphlet, a sarcastic satire on the Bessarabian society containing allusions to many representatives of local authorities who for various reasons were unpleasant to the author. Moreover, the notes are full of slander and contempt towards the natives. Apparently, Wigel intended to keep his pamphlet in secret, but could not resist distributing several copies among friends – a mistake that brought him a lot of misery later on in life. Wieghel’s memoirs are vast and can serve as a source of information for those wishing to know the atmosphere that prevailed at the beginning of the 19th century in the newly annexed province of the Russian Empire. Our study aims to determine the bibliophilic value of the manuscript relative to other valuable books stored in the Central Scientific Library of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova. The manuscript entered the library of Ştefan Ciobanu in 1931, from the books of the passionate Bessarabian bibliophile Paul Gore. Thus, books often speak of other books.

  7. Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile at age 5-6 years: the ABCD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke L A de Hoog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in early age, and explore whether such differences can be explained by differences in body mass index (BMI or waist circumference (WC. METHOD: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and (in a subsample fasting blood were collected during a health check of 2,509 children aged 5-6 years. Four ethnic groups were distinguished: Dutch (n=2,008; blood n=1,300, African descent (n=199; blood n=105, Turkish (n=108; blood n=57 and Moroccan (n=194; blood n=94. Ethnic differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP/SBP, fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride levels were determined and the explanatory role of BMI and WC was examined with regression analysis. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, African descent children showed higher DBP (β2.22 mmHg; 95%CI:1.09-3.36 and HDL levels (β:0.09 mmol/l; 95%CI:0.03-0.16 compared to Dutch children (reference group. Turkish children showed higher SBP (β:1.89 mmHg; 95%CI:0.25-3.54, DBP (β:2.62 mmHg; 95%CI:1.11-4.13, glucose (β:0.12 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.00-0.25 and triglyceride levels (β:0.13 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.02-0.25. Higher BMI values were found in all non-Dutch groups (differences ranged from 0.53-1.03 kg/m(2 and higher WC in Turkish (β:1.68 cm; 95%CI:0.99-2.38 and Moroccan (β:1.65 cm; 95%CI:1.11-2.19 children. BMI and WC partly explained the higher SBP/DBP and triglyceride levels in Turkish children. CONCLUSION: Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic profile exist early in life and are partly explained by differences in BMI and WC. African children showed favourable HDL levels and Turkish children the most unfavourable overall profile, whereas their Moroccan peers have less increased cardiometabolic risk in spite of their high BMI and WC.

  8. Objective determination of pH thresholds in the analysis of 24 h ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusten, B. L.; Roelofs, J. M.; Akkermans, L. M.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    In 24 h oesophageal pH monitoring, pH 4 is widely but arbitrarily used as the threshold between reflux and non-reflux pH values. The aim of the study was to define pH thresholds objectively, based on Gaussian curve fitting of pH frequency distributions. Single-channel 24 h oesophageal pH monitoring

  9. MillionTreesNYC, green infrastructure and urban ecology symposium March 5-6, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Jacqueline W.T. Lu

    2010-01-01

    On March 5-6, 2010, over two hundred researchers and practitioners came together at The New School to showcase scientific innovation in the field of urban forestry and greening. The MillionTreesNYC, Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecology Research Symposium engaged professionals from a broad range of disciplines including sociology, planning,...

  10. The SMC5/6 complex is involved in crucial processes during human spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, Dideke E.; Langedijk, Nathalia S. M.; Jordan, Philip W.; Repping, Sjoerd; Hamer, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Genome integrity is crucial for safe reproduction. Therefore, chromatin structure and dynamics should be tightly regulated during germ cell development. Chromatin structure and function are in large part determined by the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein complexes, of which SMC5/6

  11. SMC5/6: Shaping, protecting and preparing the genome for safe reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    SMC5/6 is one of the three structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein complexes and is involved in numerous processes involving DNA damage repair and genomic integrity maintenance. Although such DNA damage control mechanisms, together with highly dynamic changes in chromatin composition and

  12. The Effects of Folk Dance Training on 5-6 Years Children's Physical and Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of folk dance training on 5-6 year old Pre-school children's physical and social development. The experimental design with an experimental and control group was used in accordance with the quantitative research methods in this research. The research has been conducted with the participation of 40…

  13. Formation of 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine-type products in DNA by hydroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remsen, J.F.; Roti, J.L.R.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine whether 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine type products in purified DNA and in intact cells results from direct or indirect action and, if indirect, which radical species is primarily responsible. It is concluded that hydroxyl radical is primarily responsible. (U.K.)

  14. The extracellular domain of Lrp5/6 inhibits noncanonical Wnt signaling in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Vítězslav; Andersson, E.R.; Schambony, A.; Esner, M.; Bryjová, Lenka; Biris, K.K.; Hall, A.C.; Kraft, B.; Čajánek, L.; Yamaguchi, T.P.; Buckingham, M.; Arenas, E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2009), s. 924-936 ISSN 1059-1524 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : non-canonical Wnt signaling * Lrp5/6 * mouse Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.979, year: 2009

  15. Imidazopyridine-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-8-quinolinamine derivatives with potent activity against HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Kristjan S; Boggs, Sharon D; Catalano, John G; Svolto, Angilique; Spaltenstein, Andrew; Thomson, Michael; Wheelan, Pat; Jenkinson, Stephen

    2009-11-15

    Synthesis of several novel imidazopyridine-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-8-quinolinamine derivatives with potent activity against HIV are described. Synthetic approaches allowing for variation of the substitution pattern are outlined and resulting changes in antiviral activity and pharmacokinetics are highlighted. Several compounds with low nanomolar anti-HIV activity and oral bioavailability are described.

  16. 2-tert-Butyl-5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydrocyclohepta[b]indole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Wobbe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available 2-tert-Butyl-5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydrocyclohepta[b]indole was synthesized by reaction of cycloheptanone and (4-tert-butylphenylhydrazine hydrochloride in the presence of sodium acetate and sulfuric acid in glacial acetic acid via Fischer indole synthesis.

  17. DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL (TCP) BY ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sensitive, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 3,5,6-trichloro-2pyridinol (TCP) has been developed to quantitate parts per billion (ppb) amounts of the analyte in urine. TCP is a major metabolite and environmental degradation product of the insecticide c...

  18. Drie nuwe verklaringsopsies in die Jakobusbrief (Jak 2:1; 4:5; 5:6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New options in the understanding of the Epistle of James (Js 2:1; 4:5; 5:6) New methods of interpretation occasionally lead to new options in the understanding of texts. In the case of the Epistle of James, the interpretation has until recently stood under the spell of the 'comparative' method of Dibelius. Greater emphasis on ...

  19. INFLUÊNCIA DE DIFERENTES pH DO MEIO DE AQUECIMENTO NA RESISTÊNCIA TÉRMICA DE Neosartorya fischeri ISOLADO DO PROCESSO PRODUTIVO DE NÉCTAR DE MAÇÃ INFLUENCE OF DISTINCT PH VALUES IN THE THERMAL RESISTANCE OF NEOSARTORYA FISCHERI ISOLATED FROM APPLE NECTAR PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. M. SALOMÃ?O

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    A resistência térmica de ascósporos de N. fischeri, isolados do concentrado de maçã, foi verificada utilizando-se tubos TDT (Thermal Death Time selados, e suco de maçã, a diferentes pHs, como meio de aquecimento. As curvas obtidas a 80, 85 e 90°C mostraram um “ombro” inicial evidenciando comportamento de morte não logarítmica. Assim, o cálculo dos parâmetros cinéticos foi realizado através da linearização das mesmas. Os valores de “1/k” obtidos em pH 2,5 foram 81,3; 16,0 e 0,9 minutos para 80, 85 e 90°C, respectivamente; em pH 3,5 foram de 153,8; 22,0 e 1,0 minutos e em pH 4,5 foram de 312,5; 38,6 e 2,2 minutos, para as mesmas respectivas temperaturas. O valor de Z* (equivalente a Z foi 5,0°C a pH 2,5 e o mesmo valor (4,6°C foi encontrado em pH 3,5 e 4,5. Os valores de esterilização F(95°C nos pHs 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 foram respectivamente 44,6; 36,8, e 77,0 segundos, considerando-se a redução da população inicial em 6 ciclos logarítmicos. Como o tratamento térmico comercial normalmente aplicado ao suco de maçã é de 95°C/30s, pode-se concluir que este não será suficientemente seguro para atingir a probabilidade de sobrevivência de 1 ascósporo a cada 105 embalagens, o que seria esperado.

    The heat resistance of N. fischeri ascospores isolated from apple concentrate was verified using closed TDT (Thermal Death Time tubes, and apple juice as heating medium (at different pHs. The curves at 80, 85 and 90°C showed an initial “shoulder” due to non logarithmic death behavior. Then, the kinetic parameters calculation was performed by linearization .The 1/k values obtained at pH 2.5 were 81.3, 16 and 0.9 minutes at 80, 85 and 90°C, respectively; at pH 3.5 were

  20. The diagnostic utility of CK5/6 and p63 in fine-needle aspiration of the breast lesions diagnosed as proliferative fibrocystic lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maghraby, Hatem; Ghorab, Zeina; Khalbuss, Walid; Wong, John; Silverman, Jan F; Saad, Reda S

    2012-02-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy (FNAB) in the preoperative assessment of breast lesions has shown diagnostic limitations with false-positive and false-negative diagnoses. We investigated the diagnostic value of cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) and p63 in a series of breast FNABs, diagnosed as proliferative breast lesions with or without atypia, to see whether these ancillary studies enhance the ability to make an accurate diagnosis by FNAB. Sixty-four breast FNABs were retrieved between January 2000 and December 2005 and included in the study as follows: 29/64 (45%) cases as proliferative with atypia and 35/64 (55%) without atypia. We also included 10 cases of fibroadenoma. All cases had histological follow-up available for correlation. Immunostaining for CK5/6 and p63 was performed on the cell block material in all cases. The percentage of staining cells in the specimen was graded as 0 (0-10%), 1 (11-25%), 2 (26-50%), and 3 (>50%). There were 9/29 (31%) cases in the atypical group that were found to be malignant on resection, compared with 6/35 (17%) in the cases without atypia. In histologically proven malignant cases, CK5/6 was negative in 11/15 (73%) or showed 1+ stain in 2/15 (13%) cases. In benign breast lesions, CK5/6 stained more than 25% of cell proliferation in 44/49 (90%). p63 showed characteristic staining for single naked bipolar nuclei in the background of the specimen (not appreciated by CK5/6) in all fibroadenoma cases. In conclusion, CK5/6 may enhance the ability to differentiate between benign and malignant epithelial proliferations in breast FNABs. In fibroepithelial lesions, p63 may be more useful than CK5/6. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Determination of calcium salt solubility with changes in pH and P(CO(2)), simulating varying gastrointestinal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Sandra L; Lemons, Karen A; Kerstetter, Jane E; Bogner, Robin H

    2007-11-01

    The amount of calcium available for absorption is dependent, in part, on its sustained solubility in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Many calcium salts, which are the calcium sources in supplements and food, have pH-dependent solubility and may have limited availability in the small intestine, the major site of absorption. The equilibrium solubility of four calcium salts (calcium oxalate hydrate, calcium citrate tetrahydrate, calcium phosphate, calcium glycerophosphate) were determined at controlled pH values (7.5, 6.0, 4.5 and solubility of calcium carbonate was also measured at pH 7.5, 6.0 and 4.5 with two CO(2) environments (0.3 and 152 mmHg) above the solution. The precipitation profile of CaCO(3) was calculated using in-vivo data for bicarbonate and pH from literature and equilibrium calculations. As pH increased, the solubility of each calcium salt increased. However, in distilled water each salt produced a different pH, affecting its solubility value. Although calcium citrate does have a higher solubility than CaCO(3) in water, there is little difference when the pH is controlled at pH 7.5. The partial pressure of CO(2) also played a role in calcium carbonate solubility, depressing the solubility at pH 7.5. The calculations of soluble calcium resulted in profiles of available calcium, which agreed with previously published in-vivo data on absorbed calcium. The experimental data illustrate the impact of pH and CO(2) on the solubility of many calcium salts in the presence of bicarbonate secretions in the intestine. Calculated profiles using in-vivo calcium and bicarbonate concentrations demonstrate that large calcium doses may not further increase intestinal calcium absorption once the calcium carbonate solubility product has been reached.

  2. Examination of the Effects of Activated Carbon Produced from Coal Using Single-Step H3PO4/N2+H2O Vapor Activation on the Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin at Different Temperatures and pH Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan Toprak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined protein adsorption equilibrium and kinetics on activated carbon (AC that we obtained from coal by single-step H3PO4 activation under N2+H2O vapor at 800 °C. Surface properties, pore size distribution, and volumes of AC were determined using the volumetric method with N2 adsorption at 77 K. Also, the textural properties were characterized by SEM-EDAX and XRD. The zeta potential values were measured to elucidate the electrostatic interactions between the protein and AC. The obtained AC discrete system was also used as an adsorbent for adsorbing bovine serum albumin (BSA from aqueous solution. The effects of pH (4.0, 5.0, and 7.4 and temperatures (20, 30 and 40 °C on the adsorption of BSA on AC were examined. The surface area, micropore, mesopore and total pore volumes of AC were found to be 1175 m2/g, 0.477 cm3/g, 0.061 cm3/g and 0.538 cm3/g, respectively. The optimum temperature for AC in BSA adsorption was found to be 40 °C and the pH was found to be 4.0. The highest BSA adsorption was found to be 159 mg/g and pH to be 4.0. The experimental equilibrium data were compared with the Langmuir and Freundlich models and found to be compatible with both models. The adsorption process is best described by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. As a result, it was found out that AC obtained by single step H3PO4/N2+H2O vapor activation is an effective adsorbent for the adsorption of BSA from aqueous solution.

  3. Excision repair of 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine from the DNA of Micrococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targovnik, H.S.; Hariharan, P.V.

    1980-01-01

    One of the major ionizing radiation products, 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine (thymine glycol), was measured in the DNA of Micrococcus radiodurans following exposure of cells to 6.8-MeV electrons or 254-nm ultraviolet light. Removal of 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine was measured in both an ionizing radiation-sensitive strain (262) and a highly radioresistant strain (the wild type W + ) of Micrococcus radiodurans. Within 30 min of incubation (33 0 C) following exposure to ultraviolet light (2400 J/m 2 ) approximately 60% of the thymine glycols were excised, whereas in the case of ionizing radiation (250 krad) only 35% were removed from the cellular DNA of the wild-type strain. In contrast less than 50% of the thymine glycols were excised from the sensitive strain. The amount of DNA degradation induced by radiation was less than 10% in both strains. The results suggest a possible correlation between reduced excision repair of base damage and increased radiation sensitivity

  4. Levels in Gd156 excited in the decay of 5.6 d Tb156

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P.Gregers; Nielsen, O.B.; Sheline, R.K.

    1959-01-01

    The decay of 5.6 day Tb156 has been studied by means of a six gap β-ray spectrometer, scintillation spectrometers, and coincidence techniques. Conversion electron and γ-ray coincidence measurements have been used extensively for obtaining quantitative estimates of γ-ray intensities. A description...... for transitions to a rotational band are observed. These features are discussed in terms of a probable mixing of the rotational bands....

  5. The contract of design of an atomic reactor system in Yonggwang - 5, 6 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This is a contract of design of an atomic reactor system in Yonggwang 5, 6 nuclear power plant. It has the general contract condition. In the appendix, it indicates the detail regulations between two parties which are the coverage of division on the responsibility, schedule of the delivery, standard of the technology, guarantee, drawing and paper support of the Korea Electric Power Corporation, support of technology drill, test, regulations of code and standard and list of items and prices.

  6. Identification of Novel 5,6-Dimethoxyindan-1-one Derivatives as Antiviral Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Siddappa A; Patil, Vikrant; Patil, Renukadevi; Beaman, Kenneth; Patil, Shivaputra A

    2017-01-01

    Discovery of novel antiviral agents is essential because viral infection continues to threaten human life globally. Various heterocyclic small molecules have been developed as antiviral agents. The 5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-on nucleus is of considerable interest as this ring is the key constituent in a range of bioactive compounds, both naturally occurring and synthetic, and often of considerable complexity. The main purpose of this research was to discover and develop small molecule heterocycles as broad-spectrum of antiviral agents. A focused small set of 5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-one analogs (6-8) along with a thiopene derivative (9) was screened for selected viruses (Vaccinia virus - VACA, Human papillomavirus - HPV, Zika virus - ZIKV, Dengue virus - DENV, Measles virus - MV, Poliovirus 3 - PV, Rift Valley fever virus - RVFV, Tacaribe virus - TCRV, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus - VEEV, Herpes simplex virus 1 -HSV-1 and Human cytomegalovirus - HCMV) using the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)'s Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) antiviral screening program. These molecules demonstrated moderate to excellent antiviral activity towards variety of viruses. The 5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-one analog (7) demonstrated high efficacy towards vaccinia virus (EC50: 30.00 µM) in secondary plaque reduction assay. The thiophene analog (9) has shown very good viral inhibition towards several viruses such as Human papillomavirus, Measles virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Tacaribe virus and Herpes simplex virus 1. Our research identified a novel 5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-one analog (compound 7), as a potent antiviral agent for vaccinia virus, and heterocyclic chalcone analog (compound 9) as a broad spectrum antiviral agent. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Sleep quality, duration and behavioral symptoms among 5?6-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the present study was to examine whether parent-reported short sleep duration and sleeping difficulties are related to behavioral symptoms among pre-school aged children. The study is a cross-sectional survey of 297 families with 5?6-year-old children. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for children was used to measure sleep duration and sleeping difficulties, and the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher?s Report Form were used to measure attention problems, and ...

  8. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  9. Supplementing lactating dairy cows with a vitamin B12 precursor, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, increases the apparent ruminal synthesis of vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, A; Chiquette, J; Stabler, S P; Allen, R H; Girard, C L

    2015-01-01

    Cobalamin (CBL), the biologically active form of vitamin B12, and its analogs, are produced by bacteria only if cobalt supply is adequate. The analogs differ generally by the nucleotide moiety of the molecule. In CBL, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (5,6-DMB) is the base in the nucleotide moiety. The present study aimed to determine if a supplement of 5,6-DMB could increase utilization of dietary cobalt for synthesis of CBL and change ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, omasal flow of nutrients and ruminal protozoa counts. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows (mean±standard deviation=238±21 days in milk and 736±47 kg of BW) were used in a crossover design. Cows were randomly assigned to a daily supplement of a gelatin capsule containing 1.5 g of 5,6-DMB via the rumen cannula or no supplement. Each period lasted 29 days and consisted of 21 days for treatment adaptation and 8 days for data and samples collection. Five corrinoids, CBL and four cobamides were detected in the total mixed ration and the omasal digesta from both treatments. The dietary supplement of 5,6-DMB increased (P=0.02) apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL from 14.6 to 19.6 (s.e.m. 0.8) mg/day but had no effect (P>0.1) on apparent ruminal synthesis of the four analogs. The supplement of 5,6-DMB had no effect (P>0.1) on milk production and composition, or on protozoal count, ruminal pH and concentrations of volatile fatty acids and ammonia nitrogen in rumen content. The supplement had also no effect (P>0.1) on intake, omasal flow and apparent ruminal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF, ADF and nitrogenous fractions. Plasma concentration of CBL was not affected by treatments (P=0.98). Providing a preformed part of the CBL molecule, that is, 5,6-DMB, increased by 34% the apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL by ruminal bacteria but had no effect on ruminal fermentation or protozoa count and it was not sufficient to increase plasma concentrations of the vitamin. Even though

  10. Electrochemical biosensor based on glucose oxidase encapsulated within enzymatically synthesized poly(1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Hakan; Oztekin, Yasemin; Tamer, Ugur; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2014-11-01

    This study is focused on the investigation of electrocatalytic effect of glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized on the graphite rod (GR) electrode. The enzyme modified electrode was prepared by encapsulation of immobilized GOx within enzymatically formed poly(1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione) (pPD) film. The electrochemical responses of such enzymatic electrode (pPD/GOx/GR) vs. different glucose concentrations were examined chronoamperometrically in acetate-phosphate buffer solution (A-PBS), pH 6.0, under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Amperometric signals of the pPD/GOx/GR electrode exhibited well-defined hyperbolic dependence upon glucose concentration. Amperometric signals at 100mM of glucose were 41.17 and 32.27 μA under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Amperometric signals of the pPD/GOx/GR electrode decreased by 6% within seven days. The pPD/GOx/GR electrode showed excellent selectivity in the presence of dopamine and uric acid. Furthermore it had a good reproducibility and repeatability with standard deviation of 9.4% and 8.0%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 2,2,3,3,5,5,6,6-Octa-p-tolyl-1,4-dioxa-2,3,5,6-tetragermacyclohexane dichloromethane disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika L. Amadoruge

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C56H56Ge4O2·2CH2Cl2 or Tol8Ge4O2·2CH2Cl2 (Tol = p-CH3C6H4, was obtained serendipitously during the attempted synthesis of a branched oligogermane from Tol3GeNMe2 and PhGeH3. The molecule contains an inversion center in the middle of the Ge4O2 ring which is in a chair conformation. The Ge—Ge bond distance is 2.4418 (5 Å and the Ge—O bond distances are 1.790 (2 and 1.785 (2 Å. The torsion angles within the Ge4O2 ring are −56.7 (1 and 56.1 (1° for the Ge—Ge—O—Ge angles and −43.9 (1° for the O—Ge—Ge—O angle.

  12. cis,trans-Dicarbonyldichlorido(1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione-κ2N,N′ruthenium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsugiko Takase

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [RuCl2(C12H6N2O2(CO2], the RuII atom (site symmetry ..2 adopts a distorted octahedral coordination sphere defined by two carbonyl C atoms, two Cl− anions and two N atoms from the chelating 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (phendione ligand. The carbonyl ligands are cis to each other, while the Cl atoms are trans. In the phendione ligand, the C=O [1.239 (5 Å] and the C—C [1.537 (5 Å] bond lengths in the diketone moiety have typical values. In the crystal, C—H...Cl and C—H...O hydrogen bonds lead to the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  13. Determination of the enthalpy of vaporization and prediction of surface tension for ionic liquid 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium propionate [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 4, 5, 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Yang, Hong-Xu; Liu, Ru-Jing; Li, Chi; Xia, Li-Xin; Yang, Jia-Zhen

    2014-11-13

    With the use of isothermogravimetrical analysis, the enthalpies of vaporization, Δ(g)lH(o)m(T(av)), at the average temperature, T(av) = 445.65 K, for the ionic liquids (ILs) 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium propionate [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 4, 5, 6) were determined. Using Verevkin's method, the difference of heat capacities between the vapor phase and the liquid phase, Δ(g)lC(p)(o)m, for [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), were calculated based on the statistical thermodynamics. Therefore, with the use of Δ(g)lC(p)(o)m, the values of Δ(g)lH(o)m(T(av)) were transformed into Δ(g)lH(o)m(298), 126.8, 130.3, and 136.5 for [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 4, 5, 6), respectively. In terms of the new scale of polarity for ILs, the order of the polarity of [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) was predicted, that is, the polarity decreases with increasing methylene. A new model of the relationship between the surface tension and the enthalpy of vaporization for aprotic ILs was put forward and used to predict the surface tension for [C(n)mim][Pro](n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) and others. The predicted surface tension for the ILs is in good agreement with the experimental one.

  14. Poly[[aqua(μ5-3,4,5,6-tetracarboxycyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylatostrontium] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Cheng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Sr(C12H10O12(H2O]·H2O}n, the SrII ion is coordinated by six O atoms of five symmetry-related 3,4,5,6-tetracarboxycyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate ligands and one water molecule in a slightly distorted monocapped trigonal–prismatic environment. The ligands bridge the SrII ions, forming a two-dimensional structure. In the crystal, O—H...O hydrogen bonds further connect the structure into a three-dimensional network. The H atoms of two of the carboxyl groups were refined as half-occupancy.

  15. Readiness Review of BWXT for Fabrication of AGR 5/6/7 Compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Douglas William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sharp, Michelle Tracy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In support of preparations for fabricating compacts for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel qualification irradiation experiments (AGR-5/6/7), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted a readiness review of the BWX Technology (BWXT) procedures, processes, and equipment associated with compact fabrication activities at the BWXT Nuclear Operations Group (BWXT-NOG) facility outside Lynchburg, VirginiaVA. The readiness review used quality assurance requirements taken from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Nuclear Quality Assurance Standard (NQA-1-2008/1a-2009) as a basis to assess readiness to start compact fabrication.

  16. Ion recombination characteristics of the MDH 10X5-6 ionisation chamber under continuous exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerra, F.

    1982-01-01

    Volume recombination of the induced ionization in an X-ray ionization chamber is an important factor affecting the collection efficiency of the charge when such chambers are operated at atmospheric pressure. The volume recombination process is also dependent on the X-ray exposure rate. The theory for recombination in a cylindrical ionization chamber is shown to be in agreement with experimental measurements. For the MDH 10X5-6 cylindrical ionization chamber, the recombination loss is unimportant at exposure rates consistent with its intended usage. (U.K.)

  17. A Concise Synthesis and the Antibacterial Activity of 5,6-Dimethoxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKSU, Süleyman; UĞUZ, Metin Tansu

    2014-01-01

    5,6-Dimethoxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid was synthesized in 7 steps and with an overall yield of 46%. Bromination of 2-naphthol, and methylation with dimethyl sulfate followed by Friedel-Crafts acylation with AcCl gave 2-acetyl-5-bromo-6-methoxynaphthalene. 2-Acetyl-5-bromo-6-methoxynaphthalene was converted to 5-bromo-6- methoxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid by a haloform reaction. The esterification of the acid with methanol, methoxylation with NaOCH3 in the presence of CuI and s...

  18. A Self-Interaction Leading to Fluctuations of Order $n^{5/6}$

    OpenAIRE

    Gorny, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In arXiv:1301.6911, we built and studied a Curie-Weiss model exhibiting self-organized criticality : it is a model with a self-interaction leading to fluctuations of order $n^{3/4}$ and a limiting law proportional to $\\exp(-x^4/12)$. In this paper we modify our model in order to "kill the term $x^4$" and to obtain a self-interaction leading to fluctuations of order $n^{5/6}$ and a limiting law $C\\,\\exp(-\\lambda x^6)\\,dx$, for suitable positive constants $C$ and $\\lambda$.

  19. Selective Tandem Synthesis of Oximes from Benzylic Alcohols Catalyzed with 2, 3-Dichloro-5, 6-dicyanobenzoquinone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghapour, Ghasem; Mohamadian, Samaneh [Damghan University, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    In spite of many reports in the literature concerning with oxidation of benzylic alcohols to carbonyl compounds with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) in stoichiometric amounts or even more, we surprisingly found that benzylic alcohols are directly oxidized to oximes using a catalytic amount of DDQ in the presence of hydroxylamine hydrochloride under solvent-free conditions. The present tandem catalytic method can be efficiently used for preparation of oximes in the presence of some other functional groups with excellent chemoselectivity

  20. Efficient degradation of sulfamethazine in simulated and real wastewater at slightly basic pH values using Co-SAM-SCS /H2O2 Fenton-like system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Min; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Danlian; Lai, Cui; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Chen; Wan, Jia; Hu, Liang; Zhou, Chengyun; Xiong, Weiping

    2018-07-01

    The presence of antibiotics in aquatic environments has attracted global concern. Fenton process is an attractive yet challenging method for antibiotics degradation, especially when such a reaction can be conducted at neutral pH values. In this study, a novel composite Fe/Co catalyst was synthesized via the modification of steel converter slag (SCS) by salicylic acid-methanol (SAM) and cobalt nitrate (Co(NO 3 ) 2 ). The catalysts were characterized by N 2 -Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results indicated that the Co-SAM-SCS/H 2 O 2 Fenton-like system was very effective for sulfamethazine (SMZ) degradation at a wide pH range. At initial pH of 7.0, the degradation rate of SMZ in Co-SAM-SCS/H 2 O 2 system was 2.48, 3.20, 6.18, and 16.21 times of that in Fe-SAM-SCS/H 2 O 2 , SAM-SCS/H 2 O 2 , Co(NO 3 ) 2 /H 2 O 2 and SCS/H 2 O 2 system, respectively. The preliminary analysis suggested that high surface area of Co-SAM-SCS sample and synergistic effect between introduced Co and SAM-SCS are responsible for the efficient catalytic activity. During the degradation, three main intermediates were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis. Based on this, a possible degradation pathway was proposed. The SEM images, XRD patterns and XPS spectra before and after the reactions demonstrate that the crystal and chemical structure of Co-SAM-SCS after five cycles are almost unchanged. Besides, the Co-SAM-SCS presented low iron and cobalt leaching (0.17 mg/L and 2.36 mg/L, respectively). The studied Fenton-like process also showed high degradation of SMZ in river water and municipal wastewater. The progress will bring valuable insights to develop high-performance heterogeneous Fenton-like catalysts for environmental remediation. Copyright © 2018

  1. Destabilized SMC5/6 complex leads to chromosome breakage syndrome with severe lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Crabben, Saskia N.; Hennus, Marije P.; McGregor, Grant A.; Ritter, Deborah I.; Nagamani, Sandesh C.S.; Wells, Owen S.; Harakalova, Magdalena; Chinn, Ivan K.; Alt, Aaron; Vondrova, Lucie; Hochstenbach, Ron; van Montfrans, Joris M.; Terheggen-Lagro, Suzanne W.; van Lieshout, Stef; van Roosmalen, Markus J.; Renkens, Ivo; Duran, Karen; Nijman, Isaac J.; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; Hennekam, Eric; van Hasselt, Peter M.; Wheeler, David A.; Palecek, Jan J.; Lehmann, Alan R.; Oliver, Antony W.; Pearl, Laurence H.; Plon, Sharon E.; Murray, Johanne M.

    2016-01-01

    The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family of proteins supports mitotic proliferation, meiosis, and DNA repair to control genomic stability. Impairments in chromosome maintenance are linked to rare chromosome breakage disorders. Here, we have identified a chromosome breakage syndrome associated with severe lung disease in early childhood. Four children from two unrelated kindreds died of severe pulmonary disease during infancy following viral pneumonia with evidence of combined T and B cell immunodeficiency. Whole exome sequencing revealed biallelic missense mutations in the NSMCE3 (also known as NDNL2) gene, which encodes a subunit of the SMC5/6 complex that is essential for DNA damage response and chromosome segregation. The NSMCE3 mutations disrupted interactions within the SMC5/6 complex, leading to destabilization of the complex. Patient cells showed chromosome rearrangements, micronuclei, sensitivity to replication stress and DNA damage, and defective homologous recombination. This work associates missense mutations in NSMCE3 with an autosomal recessive chromosome breakage syndrome that leads to defective T and B cell function and acute respiratory distress syndrome in early childhood. PMID:27427983

  2. Peran Pembelajaran Regulasi Diri dalam Menumbuhkan Motivasi Belajar Anak Usia 5-6 Tahun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fika Septiana Sari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems could hamper the child to achieve the goals or ideals. One of these problems was due to low motivation to learn children. Motivation could affect a person to perform a certain activity. Activities would be meaningful and successful if a child was motivated to learn. One alternative to foster motivation to learn was by self-regulated learning. The purpose of writing this article was to examine the role of self-regulation learning in the motivation to learn, especially for children aged 5-6 years. The method of writing this article was through the study of literature by searching several sources of literature relevant to the purpose of writing the article. From several literature were synthesized to see the relationship between learning motivation and self-regulation learning. The results of these discussions show that self-regulation learning with a learning technique that emphasized self-reliance and responsibility of children to regulate their own learning process that include analysis of tasks, planning, setting strategy, and reflection. Through self-regulation, the encouragement contained in the child both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation would be stronger so that it could assist in realizing the goal achievement in learning activities. Learning self-regulation could also transform the mental abilities of children aged 5-6 to be able to learn independently.

  3. Features of tennis methods of teaching 5-6 years old children in the initial stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Kurmaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : theoretical and methodological justification for the existing teaching methods tennis of 5-6 years old children. Material : 17 special analysis and scientific and methodological sources. Results : the features of the existing methods of teaching children at an early stage of training. The main theses of the existing methods: 1 the training process is carried out in the form of games; 2 the level of general physical preparedness level exceeds special; 3 The first two years of the children do not participate in official competitions; 4 education of children begins with " School Ball ", with a gradual transition to employment with racket and ball; 5 training is built on two levels: theoretical - each " part" in the form of pre- formation of a mental model of rational behavior, and practical - the formation of the ability to perform motor actions. Conclusions : it was found that the existing methods of constructing the training process for children 5-6 years do not account for their physiological characteristics, therefore proposed to use computer technology and animation, that will shorten the formation of motor skills of children.

  4. Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3PO AND Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3AsO: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOU MBAYE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mixture of ethanolic solutions of Ph3CCOOSnPh3 and Ph3PO or Ph3AsO gives Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3PO and Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3AsO adducts which have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy. A discrete structure is suggested for both, the environment around the tin centre being trigonal bipyramidal, the triphenylacetate anion behaving as a mondentate ligand.

  5. Influence of extracellular pH on growth, viability, cell size, acidification activity, and intracellular pH of Lactococcus lactis in batch fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gunda; Johansen, Claus Lindvald; Marten, Gunvor; Wilmes, Jacqueline; Jespersen, Lene; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of three extracellular pH (pHex) values (i.e., 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5) on the growth, viability, cell size, acidification activity in milk, and intracellular pH (pHi) of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DGCC1212 during pH-controlled batch fermentations. A universal parameter (e.g., linked to pHi) for the description or prediction of viability, specific acidification activity, or growth behavior at a given pHex was not identified. We found viability as determined by flow cytometry to remain high during all growth phases and irrespectively of the pH set point. Furthermore, regardless of the pHex, the acidification activity per cell decreased over time which seemed to be linked to cell shrinkage. Flow cytometric pHi determination demonstrated an increase of the averaged pHi level for higher pH set points, while the pH gradient (pHi-pHex) and the extent of pHi heterogeneity decreased. Cells maintained positive pH gradients at a low pHex of 5.5 and even during substrate limitation at the more widely used pHex 6.5. Moreover, the strain proved able to grow despite small negative or even absent pH gradients at a high pHex of 7.5. The larger pHi heterogeneity at pHex 5.5 and 6.5 was associated with more stressful conditions resulting, e.g., from higher concentrations of non-dissociated lactic acid, while the low pHi heterogeneity at pHex 7.5 most probably corresponded to lower concentrations of non-dissociated lactic acid which facilitated the cells to reach the highest maximum active cell counts of the three pH set points.

  6. One-dimensional σ-models with N = 5, 6, 7, 8 off-shell supersymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, M.; Toppan, F.; Rojas, M.

    2008-12-01

    We computed the actions for the 1D N = 5 σ-models with respect to the two inequivalent (2, 8, 6) multiplets. 4 supersymmetry generators are manifest, while the constraint originated by imposing the 5-th supersymmetry automatically induces a full N = 8 off-shell invariance. The resulting action coincides in the two cases and corresponds to a conformally flat 2D target satisfying a special geometry of rigid type. To obtain these results we developed a computational method (for Maple 11) which does not require the notion of superfields and is instead based on the nowadays available list of the inequivalent representations of the 1D N-extended supersymmetry. Its application to systematically analyze the σ-models off-shell invariant actions for the remaining N = 5, 6, 7, 8 (k, 8, 8 - k) multiplets, as well as for the N > 8 representations, only requires more cumbersome computations. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional supramolecular architecture in imidazolium hydrogen 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoroterephthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-Li; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Chen, Qun

    2010-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt formed between 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoroterephthalic acid (H(2)tfbdc) and imidazolium (ImH), C(3)H(5)N(2)(+).C(8)HF(4)O(4)(-), contains one Htfbdc(-) anion and one ImH(2)(+) cation, joined by a classical N-H...O hydrogen bond. The acid and base subunits are further linked by N-H...O and O-H...O hydrogen bonds into infinite two-dimensional layers with R(6)(5)(32) hydrogen-bond motifs. The resulting (4,4) network layers interpenetrate to produce an interlocked three-dimensional structure. The final three-dimensional supramolecular architecture is further stabilized by the linkages of two C-H...O interactions.

  8. Novel fluorinated polymer materials based on 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-methoxystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Borkar, Sachin; Siesler, HW

    2003-01-01

    2,3,5,6-Tetrafluoro-4-methoxystyrene (TFMS) has been polymerized in bulk and in xylene solution by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) in a conventional protocol at 110 degreesC. Relatively good control has been achieved with number-average molecular mass (M) up to 17,000 and correspondin...... with different azobenzene side chains. The azobenzene derivatized polymer has additionally been copolymerized with St. Both homo- and block copolymers with azobenzene side chains form materials exhibiting liquid crystallinity.......) resulting in block copolymers with controlled characteristics. TFMS homo- and block copolymers with PS have better thermal stability than PS. The solubility of the PTFMS containing polymers is lower than that of PS. Furthermore, PTFMS has been demethylated and the resulting hydroxyl sites alkylated...

  9. MillionTreesNYC, Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecology Symposium March 5-6, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika S. Svendsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The MillionTreesNYC Subcommittee on Research and Evaluation was formed shortly following the 2007 launch of MillionTreesNYC, a citywide, public-private initiative with an ambitious goal: to plant and care for one million new trees across New York City’s five boroughs by 2017. Members of this committee are comprised of academics, government researchers and local practitioners with experience in the fields of natural resource management and community development.On March 5-6, 2010, over two hundred researchers and practitioners came together at The New School to showcase scientific innovation in the field of urban forestry and greening. The MillionTreesNYC, Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecology Research Symposium engaged professionals from a broad range of disciplines including sociology, planning, epidemiology, earth sciences, hydrology, forestry, ecology, and design who were uniquely positioned to discuss new ideas.

  10. Construction of Fullerenes and Pogorelov Polytopes with 5-, 6- and one 7-Gonal Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Erokhovets

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A Pogorelov polytope is a combinatorial simple 3-polytope realizable in the Lobachevsky (hyperbolic space as a bounded right-angled polytope. These polytopes are exactly simple 3-polytopes with cyclically 5-edge connected graphs. A Pogorelov polytope has no 3- and 4-gons and may have any prescribed numbers of k-gons, k ≥ 7 . Any simple polytope with only 5-, 6- and at most one 7-gon is Pogorelov. For any other prescribed numbers of k-gons, k ≥ 7 , we give an explicit construction of a Pogorelov and a non-Pogorelov polytope. Any Pogorelov polytope different from k-barrels (also known as Löbel polytopes, whose graphs are biladders on 2 k vertices can be constructed from the 5- or the 6-barrel by cutting off pairs of adjacent edges and connected sums with the 5-barrel along a 5-gon with the intermediate polytopes being Pogorelov. For fullerenes, there is a stronger result. Any fullerene different from the 5-barrel and the ( 5 , 0 -nanotubes can be constructed by only cutting off adjacent edges from the 6-barrel with all the intermediate polytopes having 5-, 6- and at most one additional 7-gon adjacent to a 5-gon. This result cannot be literally extended to the latter class of polytopes. We prove that it becomes valid if we additionally allow connected sums with the 5-barrel and 3 new operations, which are compositions of cutting off adjacent edges. We generalize this result to the case when the 7-gon may be isolated from 5-gons.

  11. Crystal structure of tetraethylammonium chloride 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Viger-Gravel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Equimolar quantities of tetraethylammonium chloride (Et4NCl and 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene (o-DITFB or o-C6F4I2 have been co-crystallized in a solution of dichloromethane yielding a pure halogen-bonded compound, 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene–tetraethyl ammonium chloride (2/1, Et4N+·Cl−·2C6F4I2, in the form of translucent needles. [(Et4NCl(o-C6F4I22] packs in the C2/c space group. The asymmetric unit includes one molecule of DITFB, one Et4N+ cation located on a twofold rotation axis, and one chloride anion also located on a twofold rotation symmetry axis. This compound has an interesting halogen-bonding environment surrounding the halide. Here, the chloride anion acts as a tetradentate halogen bond acceptor and forms a distorted square-pyramidal geometry, with I...Cl−...I angles of 80.891 (6 and 78.811 (11°, where two crystallographically distinct iodine atoms form halogen bonds with the chloride anion. Resulting from that square-pyramidal geometry are short contacts between some of the adjacent F atoms. Along the b axis, the halogen-bonding interaction results in a polymeric network, producing a sheet in which the two closest chloride ions are 7.8931 (6 Å apart. The Et4N+ cation alternates in columns with the halide ion. The expected short contacts (shorter than the sum of their van der Waals radii are observed for the halogen bonds [3.2191 (2 and 3.2968 (2 Å], as well as almost linear angles [170.953 (6 and 173.529 (6°].

  12. Fecal osmotic gap and pH in experimental diarrhea of various causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eherer, A J; Fordtran, J S

    1992-08-01

    Although the osmotic gap of fecal fluid is often used to distinguish osmotic diarrhea from secretory diarrhea, there has never been a scientific evaluation of the validity of this concept. Similarly, although a low fecal fluid pH value is used to indicate that diarrhea is mediated by carbohydrate malabsorption, the validity of this method is unproven. Therefore, in the present study, diarrhea was induced in normal subjects by different mechanisms and fecal fluid osmotic gap (using an assumed fecal fluid osmolality of 290 mOsm/kg) and pH were measured. In secretory diarrhea caused by phenolphthalein, the osmotic gap was always less than 50 mOsm/kg, whereas in osmotic diarrhea caused by polyethylene glycol, magnesium hydroxide, lactulose, and sorbitol, the osmotic gap always exceeded 50 mOsm/kg. In osmotic diarrhea caused by sodium sulfate, the fecal fluid osmotic gap was less than 50 mOsm/kg, but phenolphthalein-induced secretory diarrhea could be distinguished from sodium sulfate-induced osmotic diarrhea by the fecal chloride concentration. When diarrhea was caused by carbohydrate malabsorption (lactulose or sorbitol), the fecal fluid pH was always less than 5.6 and usually less than 5.3; by contrast, other causes of diarrhea rarely caused a fecal pH as low as 5.6 and never caused a pH less than 5.3. It is concluded that measurement of fecal fluid osmotic gap and pH can distinguish various mechanisms of experimental diarrhea in normal subjects. The concepts on which these tests are based are therefore verified experimentally.

  13. Effect of annealing temperatures on the electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of Ni1.5Fe1.5O4 spinel ferrite prepared by chemical reaction at different pH values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneesh Kumar, K. S.; Bhowmik, R. N.

    2017-12-01

    The electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of Ni1.5Fe1.5O4 ferrite has been controlled by varying the annealing temperature of the chemical routed samples. The frequency activated conductivity obeyed Jonscher’s power law and universal scaling suggested semiconductor nature. An unusual metal like state has been revealed in the measurement temperature scale in between two semiconductor states with different activation energy. The metal like state has been affected by thermal annealing of the material. The analysis of electrical impedance and modulus spectra has confirmed non-Debye dielectric relaxation with contributions from grains and grain boundaries. The dielectric relaxation process is thermally activated in terms of measurement temperature and annealing temperature of the samples. The hole hopping process, due to presence of Ni3+ ions in the present Ni rich ferrite, played a significant role in determining the thermal activated conduction mechanism. This work has successfully applied the technique of a combined variation of annealing temperature and pH value during chemical reaction for tuning electrical parameters in a wide range; for example dc limit of conductivity ~10-4-10-12 S cm-1, and unusually high activation energy ~0.17-1.36 eV.

  14. Effect of biochar on mineral nitrogen content in soils with different pH values%生物质炭对不同pH值土壤矿质氮含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗煜; 赵小蓉; 李贵桐; 赵立欣; 孟海波; 林启美

    2014-01-01

    concentration. The causes for high fertility of these soils are multiple, but the source of the large amounts of organic matter and their high nutrient retention has been attributed to the extraordinarily high proportions of black carbon. Besides, the high available nitrogen (N) is from both direct nutrient addition by the biochar and greater nutrient retention. It is also reported biochar can influence soil N concentrations via affecting soil process, such as N transformation. However, it remains largely unknown how biochar affect N transformations.In this study, biochars were produced at 350°C (BC350) and 700°C (BC700) by using Miscanthus giganteus, and applied with and without ryegrass into soils with low (pH=3.8) and high pH values (pH=7.6) incubated for 180 days. Our results showed that the addition of biochar to soils had an average increase of total N content of 22% and 17%, respectively in acid and alkaline soils. Biochars had obvious effect on NH4+-N in acid soil. After 87 days of incubation, NH4+-N was declined to very low concentration. BC350 had a slight increase of NO3--N in acid soil. Compared with BC350, soils with BC700 significantly (p0.05) was observed in treatments with and without ryegrass, neither between day 87 and 180, suggesting mineralization was largely occurred at the early incubation time in the soil with biochar added. The effects of biochar on the form and content of soil mineral nitrogen were closely related to the biochar’s abilities including ammonium adsorption, enhancing soil pH value, enhancing ammonia volatilization, and microbial biomass nitrogen formation. In the practical application, using biochar as coating materials in producing the slow-release fertilizer to improve nitrogen use efficiency seems to be very promised, and more research is needed in this area in the near future.

  15. Simple formation of products of exo-nido→closo-regrouping during substitution of PPh3-ligands by bis(diphenyl phosphino)alkanes in three-bridging ruthena carborane 5,6,10-[RuCl(PPh3)2]-5,6,10-(μ-H)3-10-H-exo-nido-7,8-C2B9H8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheredilin, D.N.; Balagurova, E.V.; Godovikov, I.A.; Solodovnikov, S.P.; Chizhevskij, I.T.

    2005-01-01

    It is established that the substitution of PPh 3 -ligands by diphosphines [Ph 2 P(CH 2 ) n PPh] (n=3, 4) in three-bridging exo-nido-ruthena carborane 5,6,10-[RuCl(PPh 3 ) 2 ]-5,6,10-(μ-H) 3 -10-H-exo-nido-7,8-C 2 B 9 H 8 (1) decreases temperature of exo-nido→closo-regrouping (22 Deg C). It is demonstrated that the exo-nido-ruthena carborane complex (1) is well suited and available as reagent for preparation of closo-ruthena carboranes with different chelate diphosphines. Formation of closo-products follows through the stage of exo-nido→closo-regrouping of diphosphine complexes with exo-nido-structure [ru

  16. The 2012 Mw5.6 earthquake in Sofia seismogenic zone - is it a slow earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykova, Plamena; Solakov, Dimcho; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Simeonova, Stela; Aleksandrova, Irena

    2017-04-01

    Recently our understanding of tectonic faulting has been shaken by the discoveries of seismic tremor, low frequency earthquakes, slow slip events, and other models of fault slip. These phenomenas represent models of failure that were thought to be non-existent and theoretically impossible only a few years ago. Slow earthquakes are seismic phenomena in which the rupture of geological faults in the earth's crust occurs gradually without creating strong tremors. Despite the growing number of observations of slow earthquakes their origin remains unresolved. Studies show that the duration of slow earthquakes ranges from a few seconds to a few hundred seconds. The regular earthquakes with which most people are familiar release a burst of built-up stress in seconds, slow earthquakes release energy in ways that do little damage. This study focus on the characteristics of the Mw5.6 earthquake occurred in Sofia seismic zone on May 22nd, 2012. The Sofia area is the most populated, industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria that faces considerable earthquake risk. The Sofia seismic zone is located in South-western Bulgaria - the area with pronounce tectonic activity and proved crustal movement. In 19th century the city of Sofia (situated in the centre of the Sofia seismic zone) has experienced two strong earthquakes with epicentral intensity of 10 MSK. During the 20th century the strongest event occurred in the vicinity of the city of Sofia is the 1917 earthquake with MS=5.3 (I0=7-8 MSK64).The 2012 quake occurs in an area characterized by a long quiescence (of 95 years) for moderate events. Moreover, a reduced number of small earthquakes have also been registered in the recent past. The Mw5.6 earthquake is largely felt on the territory of Bulgaria and neighbouring countries. No casualties and severe injuries have been reported. Mostly moderate damages were observed in the cities of Pernik and Sofia and their surroundings. These observations could be assumed indicative for a

  17. Indeks Massa Tubuh (IMT/U berhubungan dengan daya ingat anak usia 5-6 tahun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Palupi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of nutrient during the early-life might impair the brain development which is not able to be paid-off on later life.  Objectives: To explore the potential relationship between a series of nutritional status (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age and a series of brain development indicators (memory, learning, attention, IQ and EQ. Methods: Brain development indicators were assessed using Projective Multi-phase Orientation method. This study was conducted among 118 boys and 103 girls age 5-6 years old from 5 different rural and urban areas in Bogor, West-Java, Indonesia, between November 2012 to December 2013. Non-parametric test and Principal Component Analysis were applied for data analysis. Results: There was a positive relationship (p<0.05 between BMI and memory ability but failed to reveal any significant differences between the cognitive abilities assessed and two other child growth indicators (weight-for-age and height-for-age. A Mann-Whitney U test showed that children with BMI-for-age z score ≥ -3 (n=170 had significantly (p<0.05 better memory’s ability (50.49±11.92 compared to children with BMI-for-age z score < -3 (n=51 (46.65±11.13. Conclusions: BMI-for-age was potential as a predictor for brain development of children age 5-6 years old. Correlation between the balance proportion of weight and height and the optimal hippocampal development in early-life stage was suspected as the reason behind this evidence.Latar belakang: Kekurangan gizi pada masa awal kehidupan diprediksi mampu mempengaruhi perkembangan otak yang tidak mungkin untuk diperbaiki pada tahap perkembangan berikutnya.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis potensi hubungan antara status gizi (BB/U, TB/, dan IMT/U dengan beberapa indikator perkembangan otak (memory, learning, attention, intelligence quotient (IQ, dan emotional quotient (EQ. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan desain cross sectional study yang melibatkan 118 anak laki

  18. 31P NMR studies of pH homeostasis in intact adult Fasciola hepatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, A.G.M.; Nicolaij, K.; Bergh, van S.G.

    1982-01-01

    31P NMR was used to measure the intracellular pH in live adult Fasciola hepatica. The results demonstrate that at external pH values above 7.0, pH homeostasis keeps the intracellular pH at 7.0. At external pH values below 7.0 the intracellular pH is less strictly regulated.

  19. X-ray Analysis of Defects and Anomalies in AGR-5/6/7 TRISO Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmreich, Grant W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skitt, Darren J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dyer, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schumacher, Austin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Coated particle fuel batches J52O-16-93164, 93165, 93166, 93168, 93169, 93170, and 93172 were produced by Babcock and Wilcox Technologies (BWXT) for possible selection as fuel for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program’s AGR-5/6/7 irradiation test in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), or may be used for other tests. Each batch was coated in a 150-mm-diameter production-scale fluidized-bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace. Tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coatings were deposited on 425-μm-nominal-diameter spherical kernels from BWXT lot J52R-16-69317 containing a mixture of 15.4%-enriched uranium carbide and uranium oxide (UCO), with the exception of Batch 93164, which used similar kernels from BWXT lot J52L-16-69316. The TRISO-coatings consisted of a ~50% dense carbon buffer layer with 100-μmnominal thickness, a dense inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layer with 40-μm-nominal thickness, a silicon carbide (SiC) layer with 35-μm-nominal thickness, and a dense outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer with 40-μm-nominal thickness. Each coated particle batch was sieved to upgrade the particles by removing over-sized and under-sized material, and the upgraded batch was designated by appending the letter A to the end of the batch number (e.g., 93164A). Secondary upgrading by sieving was performed on the upgraded batches to remove specific anomalies identified during analysis for Defective IPyC, and the upgraded batches were designated by appending the letter B to the end of the batch number (e.g., 93165B). Following this secondary upgrading, coated particle composite J52R-16-98005 was produced by BWXT as fuel for the AGR Program’s AGR-5/6/7 irradiation test in the INL ATR. This composite was comprised of coated particle fuel batches J52O-16-93165B, 93168B, 93169B, and 93170B.

  20. On $R^4$ terms and MHV amplitudes in N = 5,6 supergravity vacua of Type II superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    We compute one-loop threshold corrections to $R^4$ terms in N= 5,6 supergravity vacua of Type II superstrings. We then discuss non-perturbative corrections generated by asymmetric D-brane instantons. Finally we derive generating functions for MHV amplitudes at tree level in N = 5, 6 supergravities.

  1. Investigations of Ferritic Nodular Cast Iron Containing About 5-6% Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soiński M.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work presents results of investigations concerning the production of cast iron containing about 5-6% aluminium, with the ferritic matrix in the as-cast state and nodular or vermicular graphite precipitates. The examined cast iron came from six melts produced under the laboratory conditions. It contained aluminium in the amount of 5.15% to 6.02% (carbon in the amount of 2.41% to 2.87%, silicon in the amount of 4.50% to 5.30%, and manganese in the amount of 0.12% to 0.14%. After its treatment with cerium mixture and graphitization with ferrosilicon (75% Si, only nodular and vermicular graphite precipitates were achieved in the examined cast iron. Moreover, it is possible to achieve the alloy of pure ferritic matrix, even after the spheroidizing treatment, when both the aluminium and the silicon occur in cast iron in amounts of about 5.2÷5.3%.

  2. 3,4,5,6-Tetrafluorophenylnitren-2-yl: a ground-state quartet triradical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Dirk; Finke, Christopher; Kossmann, Simone; Neese, Frank; Sander, Wolfram

    2010-04-19

    The photochemistry of 2-iodo-3,4,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl azide (7 d) has been investigated in argon and neon matrices at 4 K, and the products characterized by IR and EPR spectroscopy. The primary photochemical step is loss of a nitrogen molecule and formation of phenyl nitrene 1 d. Further irradiation with UV or visible light results in mixtures of 1 d with azirine 5 d', ketenimine 6 d', nitreno radical 2 d, and azirinyl radical 9. The relative amounts of these products strongly depend on the matrix and on the irradiation conditions. Nitreno radical 2 d with a quartet ground state was characterized by EPR spectroscopy. Electronic structure calculations in combination with the experimental results allow for a detailed understanding of the properties of this unusual new type of organic high-spin molecules. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effects of the May 5-6, 1973, storm in the Greater Denver area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1973-01-01

    Rain began falling on the Greater Denver area the evening of Saturday, May 5, 1973, and continued through most of Sunday, May 6. Below about 7,000 feet altitude, the precipitation was mostly rain; above that altitude, it was mostly snow. Although the rate of fall was moderate, at least 4 inches of rain or as much as 4 feet of snow accumulated in some places. Sustained precipitation falling at a moderate rate thoroughly saturated the ground and by midday Sunday sent most of the smaller streams into flood stage. The South Platte River and its major tributaries began to flood by late Sunday evening and early Monday morning. Geologic and hydrologic processes activated by the May 5-6 storm caused extensive damage to lands and to manmade structures in the Greater Denver area. Damage was generally most intense in areas where man had modified the landscape--by channel constrictions, paving, stripping of vegetation and topsoil, and oversteepening of hillslopes. Roads, bridges, culverts, dams, canals, and the like were damaged or destroyed by erosion and sedimentation. Streambanks and structures along them were scoured. Thousands of acres of croplands, pasture, and developed urban lands were coated with mud and sand. Flooding was intensified by inadequate storm sewers, blocked drains, and obstructed drainage courses. Saturation of hillslopes along the Front Range caused rockfalls, landslides, and mudflows as far west as Berthoud Pass. Greater attention to geologic conditions in land-use planning, design, and construction would minimize storm damage in the future.

  4. Brazilian red propolis attenuates hypertension and renal damage in 5/6 renal ablation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Teles

    Full Text Available The pathogenic role of inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease (CKD is well known. Anti-inflammatories and antioxidant drugs has demonstrated significant renoprotection in experimental nephropathies. Moreover, the inclusion of natural antioxidants derived from food and herbal extracts (such as polyphenols, curcumin and lycopene as an adjuvant therapy for slowing CKD progression has been largely tested. Brazilian propolis is a honeybee product, whose anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects have been widely shown in models of sepsis, cancer, skin irritation and liver fibrosis. Furthermore, previous studies demonstrated that this compound promotes vasodilation and reduces hypertension. However, potential renoprotective effects of propolis in CKD have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a subtype of Brazilian propolis, the Red Propolis (RP, in the 5/6 renal ablation model (Nx. Adult male Wistar rats underwent Nx and were divided into untreated (Nx and RP-treated (Nx+RP groups, after 30 days of surgery; when rats already exhibited marked hypertension and proteinuria. Animals were observed for 90 days from the surgery day, when Nx+RP group showed significant reduction of hypertension, proteinuria, serum creatinine retention, glomerulosclerosis, renal macrophage infiltration and oxidative stress, compared to age-matched untreated Nx rats, which worsened progressively over time. In conclusion, RP treatment attenuated hypertension and structural renal damage in Nx model. Reduction of renal inflammation and oxidative stress could be a plausible mechanism to explain this renoprotection.

  5. THE EXON 5, 6, 7, 8 OF P53 MUTATIONS IN ORAL SQUAMOUS CELLS CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno P Rahayu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic instability may underlie the etiology of multistep carcinogenesis. The altered p53 gene observed in tumors may represent the expression of such instability and may allow the accumulation of other gene alterations caused by multiple mechanism. p53 gene is the guardian of the genome, that is why we pay more attention to this gene. In this study, we evaluated the significance of p53 mutation in 55 patient with oral squamous carcinoma. Thirty among them underwent well-differentiated carcinoma, while the remaining 25 patients underwent poorly differentiated carcinoma. The mutations were detected by PCR-SSCP (Single strand Conformational Polymorphism analysis in the region between exon 5 and exon 8. The results indicated that the p53 mutation in exon 5 (40%, exon 6 (28%, exon 7 (24% and exon 8 (8% were associated with poorly differentiated carcinoma, whereas mutation in exon 5 (10%, exon 6 (30%, exon 7 (40% and exon 8 (20% were associated with well-differentiated carcinoma. These observations suggest that p53 mutation in exon 5, 6, and 7 have strong correlation with poorly differentiated in oral squamous carcinoma while well-differentiated level was related with mutation in exon 6,7 and 8.

  6. Preliminary studies on the extraction of 95Zr(IV) with alizarin into n-octanol (Paper No. AL-5 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, D.S.; Turel, Z.R.

    1990-02-01

    A rapid and selective method is described for the extraction of Zr(IV) with alizarin into n-octanol. The extraction coefficient value(E) of Zr(IV) between n-octanol and aqueous phase shows a maximum value of (E=118) at pH of 0.4. The percentage of extraction was found to be better than 99% over pH range of 3.5 to 4.5 at an equilibrium time of 3 min. (author)

  7. Normal values in ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring at two levels in Spain Valores normales en pHmetría esofágica ambulatoria a dos niveles en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: upper oesophageal pH monitoring may play a significant role in the study of extra-oesophageal GERD, but limited normal data are available to date. Our aim was to develop a large series of normal values of proximal oesophageal acidification. Methods: 155 healthy volunteers (74 male participated in a multi-centre national study including oesophageal manometry and 24 hours oesophageal pH monitoring using two electrodes individually located 5 cm above the LOS and 3 cm below the UOS. Results: 130 participants with normal manometry completed all the study. Twelve of them were excluded for inadequate pH tests. Twenty-seven subjects had abnormal conventional pH. The remaining 91 subjects (37 M; 18-72 yrs age range formed the reference group for normality. At the level of the upper oesophagus, the 95th percentile of the total number of reflux events was 30, after eliminating the meal periods 22, and after eliminating also the pseudo-reflux events 18. Duration of the longest episodes was 5, 4 and 4 min, respectively (3.5 min in upright and 0.5 min in supine. The upper limit for the percentage of acid exposure time was 1.35, 1.05 and 0.95%, respectively. No reflux events were recorded in the upper oesophagus in 8 cases. Conclusion: this is the largest series of normal values of proximal oesophageal reflux that confirm the existence of acid reflux at that level in healthy subjects, in small quantity and unrelated to age or gender. Our data support the convenience of excluding pseudo-reflux events and meal periods from analysis.Objetivo: la pHmetría con electrodo proximal puede jugar un papel importante en el estudio de las manifestaciones extraesofágicas de la ERGE, pero no existen series amplias que permitan establecer los valores de referencia con fiabilidad. Métodos: se incluyeron 155 voluntarios sanos (74 H en un estudio multicéntrico a nivel nacional con manometría esofágica y pHmetría de 24 horas con dos electrodos individuales a 5 cm por

  8. Characterization of a newly isolated highly effective 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol degrading strain Cupriavidus pauculus P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Liu, Hongming; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Ke; Gu, Tao; Ni, Haiyan; Hong, Qing; Li, Shunpeng

    2012-09-01

    A bacterial strain P2 capable of degrading 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) was isolated and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it belonged to the genus of Cupriavidus, because it showed the highest sequence similarity to Cupriavidus pauculus LMG 3413(T) (99.7 %) and DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain P2 and C. pauculus LMG 3413(T) was 76.8 %. In combination with morphological, physiological and biochemical characters, strain P2 was identified as C. pauculus. It could use TCP as the sole carbon source and energy source for its growth. It showed a high average degradation rate of 10 mg/L h in mineral salt medium amended with TCP (50-800 mg/L). During TCP degradation, chloridion was released into the medium in two obvious discontinuous stages. Along with this, two colorful metabolites were produced. Finally, the molarity of the total released chloridion was three times that of the initial TCP in the medium. This is the first report of TCP-degrading strain from the genus of Cupriavidus and the detection of two colorful metabolites during TCP degradation. Strain P2 might be a promising candidate for its application in the bioremediation of TCP-polluted environments.

  9. Rapid and sensitive spectrofluorimetric determination of enrofloxacin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro- p-benzoquinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

    2009-06-01

    A highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the first time, for the analysis of three fluoroquinolones (FQ) antibacterials, namely enrofloxacin (ENR), levofloxacin (LEV) and ofloxacin (OFL) in pharmaceutical preparations through charge transfer (CT) complex formation with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro- p-benzoquinone (chloranil,CLA). At the optimum reaction conditions, the FQ-CLA complexes showed excitation maxima ranging from 359 to 363 nm and emission maxima ranging from 442 to 488 nm. Rectilinear calibration graphs were obtained in the concentration range of 50-1000, 50-1000 and 25-500 ng mL -1 for ENR, LEV and OFL, respectively. The detection limit was found to be 17 ng mL -1 for ENR, 17 ng mL -1 for LEV, 8 ng mL -1 for OFL, respectively. Excipients used as additive in commercial formulations did not interfere in the analysis. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using the official method; no significant difference in the accuracy and precision as revealed by the accepted values of t- and F-tests, respectively.

  10. Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel 2,5,6-trisubstituted benzimidazoles targeting FtsZ as antitubercular agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bora; Awasthi, Divya; Chowdhury, Soumya R; Melief, Eduard H; Kumar, Kunal; Knudson, Susan E; Slayden, Richard A; Ojima, Iwao

    2014-05-01

    Filamenting temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ), an essential cell division protein, is a promising target for the drug discovery of new-generation antibacterial agents against various bacterial pathogens. As a part of SAR studies on benzimidazoles, we have synthesized a library of 376 novel 2,5,6-trisubstituted benzimidazoles, bearing ether or thioether linkage at the 6-position. In a preliminary HTP screening against Mtb H37Rv, 108 compounds were identified as hits at a cut off concentration of 5 μg/mL. Among those hits, 10 compounds exhibited MIC values in the range of 0.63-12.5 μg/mL. Light scattering assay and TEM analysis with the most potent compound 5a clearly indicate that its molecular target is Mtb-FtsZ. Also, the Kd of 5a with Mtb-FtsZ was determined to be 1.32 μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoionization of gallium at 3d-4p and 4s-np (n = 5,6) resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, C.D.; Krause, M.O.; Jimenez-Mier, J.

    1988-01-01

    The simplest atoms having nonspherical symmetry are those with a single p electron in a valence shell. Of these, the group IIIB elements are excellent examples. As such, they form test cases for photoionization from open-shell systems. Through photoelectron-spectroscopy techniques, we have examined both partial cross sections and angular-distribution parameters for autoionization corresponding to promotion of a 3d electron to the 4p shell of gallium. The resulting dp 2 configuration gives rise to a complicated multiplet structure across which the angular-distribution parameter varies considerably. We have also looked at the simpler structure resulting from promotion of one s electron to an np level, n = 5,6. For these cases, the multiplet structure is simpler, but the influence of the resonance on the cross section and the angular distribution is pronounced. For the 4s4p( 3 P)5p resonance we find a value of β = -1 at the cross-section minimum. No calculations have been performed for this system, so we attempt a qualitative interpretation of our results based on an angular-momentum-transfer analysis

  12. Preliminary observations from the 3 January 2017, MW 5.6 Manu, Tripura (India) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbarma, Jimmi; Martin, Stacey S.; Suresh, G.; Ahsan, Aktarul; Gahalaut, Vineet K.

    2017-10-01

    On 3 January 2017, a MW 5.6 earthquake occurred in Dhalai district in Tripura (India), at 14:39:03 IST (09:09:03 UTC) with an epicentre at 24.018°N ± 4.9 km and 91.964°E ± 4.4 km, and a focal depth of 31 ± 6.0 km. The focal mechanism solution determined after evaluating data from seismological observatories in India indicated a predominantly strike-slip motion on a steeply dipping plane. The estimated focal depth and focal mechanism solution places this earthquake in the Indian plate that lies beneath the overlying Indo-Burmese wedge. As in the 2016 Manipur earthquake, a strong motion record from Shillong, India, appears to suggest site amplification possibly due to topographic effects. In the epicentral region in Tripura, damage assessed from a field survey and from media reports indicated that the macroseismic intensity approached 6-7 EMS with damage also reported in adjacent parts of Bangladesh. A striking feature of this earthquake were the numerous reports of liquefaction that were forthcoming from fluvial locales in the epicentral region in Tripura, and at anomalous distances farther north in Bangladesh. The occurrence of the 2017 Manu earthquake emphasises the hazard posed by intraplate earthquakes in Tripura and in the neighbouring Bengal basin region where records of past earthquakes are scanty or vague, and where the presence of unconsolidated deltaic sediments and poor implementation of building codes pose a significant societal and economic threat during larger earthquakes in the future.

  13. Probiotic Amelioration of Azotemia in 5/6th Nephrectomized Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Ranganathan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to test the hypothesis that selected bacteria instilled into the gastrointestinal tract could help in converting nitrogenous wastes accumulated due to renal insufficiency into nontoxic compounds; thereby, ameliorating the biochemical imbalance. Herein we describe a prospective, blinded, placebo-controlled pilot study, using 5/6th nephrectomized Sprague Dawley rat as a chronic renal failure model. The study group consisted of 36 nephrectomized and 7 non-nephrectomized (control rats. After two-week nephrectomy stabilization, cohorts of six nephrectomized rats were fed casein-based diet plus one of the following regimens: (A Control, (B Placebo (casein-based diet without probiotics, (C Bacillus pasteurii, (D Sporolac®, (E Kibow cocktail, (F CHR Hansen Cocktail, and (G ECONORMTM. Subsequently, blood (retro-orbital and urine (collected for measurements of blood urea-nitrogen and creatinine respectively, body weight and bacterial counts (feces were obtained at regular intervals. The study end-points were to determine if any of the probiotic dietary supplements facilitated, (1 decreased blood concentrations of uremic toxins, (2 altered renal function, and (3 prolonged survival. After 16 weeks of treatment, regimens C and D significantly prolonged the life span of uremic rats, in addition to showing a reduction in blood urea-nitrogen levels, concluding that supplementation of probiotic formulation to uremic rats slows the progression of azotemia, which may correlate with prolonged life span of uremic rats. Derivative trials of probiotic treatment of larger animals and humans will further assess the potential role of probiotic formulations in delaying the onset and clinical severity of clinical illness at different stages of renal failure.

  14. High performance 5.6μm quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttinger, M.; Go, R.; Figueiredo, P.; Todi, A.; Shu, Hong; Lyakh, A.

    2017-02-01

    5.6 μm quantum cascade lasers based on Al 0.78 In 0.22 As/In 0.69 Ga 0.31 As active region composition with measured pulsed room temperature wall plug efficiency of 28.3% are reported. Injection efficiency for the upper laser level of 75% was measured for the new design by testing devices with variable cavity length. Threshold current density of 1.7kA/cm2 and slope efficiency of 4.9W/A were measured for uncoated 3.15mm × 9μm lasers. Threshold current density and slope efficiency dependence on temperature in the range from 288K to 348K for the new structure can be described by characteristic temperatures T0 140K and T1 710K, respectively. Experimental data for inverse slope efficiency dependence on cavity length for 15-stage quantum cascade lasers with the same design are also presented. When combined with the 40-stage device data, the new data allowed for separate evaluation of the losses originating from the active region and from the cladding layers of the laser structure. Specifically, the active region losses for the studied design were found to be 0.77 cm-1, while cladding region losses - 0.33 cm-1. The data demonstrate that active region losses in mid wave infrared quantum cascade lasers largely define total waveguide losses and that their reduction should be one of the main priorities in the quantum cascade laser design.

  15. Development of Hybrid pH sensor for long-term seawater pH monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Y.; Egashira, T.; Miwa, T.; Kimoto, H.

    2016-02-01

    We have been developing the in situ pH sensor (Hybrid pH sensor: HpHS) for the long-term seawater pH monitoring. We are planning to provide the HpHS for researchers and environmental consultants for observation of the CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) monitoring system, the coastal environment monitoring system (e.g. Blue Carbon) and ocean acidification. The HpHS has two types of pH sensors (i.e. potentiometric pH sensor and spectrophotometric pH sensor). The spectrophotometric pH sensor can measure pH correctly and stably, however it needs large power consumption and a lot of reagents in a long period of observation. The pH sensor used m-cresol purple (mCP) as an indicator of pH (Clayton and Byrne, 1993 and Liu et al., 2011). We can choose both coefficients before deployment. On the other hand, although the potentiometric pH sensor is low power consumption and high-speed response (within 10 seconds), drifts in the pH of the potentiometric measurements may possibly occur for a long-term observation. The HpHS can measure in situ pH correctly and stably combining advantage of both pH sensors. The HpHS consists of an aluminum pressure housing with optical cell (main unit) and an aluminum silicon-oil filled, pressure-compensated vessel containing pumps and valves (diaphragm pump and valve unit) and pressure-compensated reagents bags (pH indicator, pure water and Tris buffer or certified reference material: CRM) with an ability to resist water pressure to 3000m depth. The main unit holds system control boards, pump drivers, data storage (micro SD card), LED right source, photodiode, optical cell and pressure proof windows. The HpHS also has an aluminum pressure housing that holds a rechargeable lithium-ion battery or a lithium battery for the power supply (DC 24 V). The HpHS is correcting the value of the potentiometric pH sensor (measuring frequently) by the value of the spectrophotometric pH sensor (measuring less frequently). It is possible to calibrate in

  16. Response surface optimization of pH and ionic strength for emulsion characteristics of egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, S; Zorba, O

    2009-11-01

    Effects of pH (3.5, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 8.5) and ionic strength (0.05, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, and 0.55 M NaCl) on emulsion capacity, emulsion stability (ES), apparent yield stress of emulsion (AYS), and emulsion density (ED) of egg yolk were studied by using a model system. Ionic strength and pH had significant (P emulsion characteristics of egg yolk. Their interaction effects also have been found significant on ES, AYS, and ED. Predicted solutions of ES, emulsion capacity, and ED were minimum. The critical point of ES was determined to be at pH 6.08 and an ionic strength of 0.49 (M NaCl). Predicted solution for AYS was a maximum, which was determined to be at pH 6.04 and an ionic strength of 0.29 (M NaCl). Optimum values of pH and ionic strenght were 4.61 to 7.43 and 0.10 to 0.47, respectively.

  17. Non-SMC Element 2 (NSMCE2 of the SMC5/6 Complex Helps to Resolve Topological Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dideke E. Verver

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC protein complexes shape and regulate the structure and dynamics of chromatin, thereby controlling many chromosome-based processes such as cell cycle progression, differentiation, gene transcription and DNA repair. The SMC5/6 complex is previously described to promote DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs repair by sister chromatid recombination, and found to be essential for resolving recombination intermediates during meiotic recombination. Moreover, in budding yeast, SMC5/6 provides structural organization and topological stress relief during replication in mitotically dividing cells. Despite the essential nature of the SMC5/6 complex, the versatile mechanisms by which SMC5/6 functions and its molecular regulation in mammalian cells remain poorly understood. By using a human osteosarcoma cell line (U2OS, we show that after the CRISPR-Cas9-mediated removal of the SMC5/6 subunit NSMCE2, treatment with the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide triggered an increased sensitivity in cells lacking NSMCE2. In contrast, NSMCE2 appeared not essential for a proper DNA damage response or cell survival after DSB induction by ionizing irradiation (IR. Interestingly, by way of immunoprecipitations (IPs and mass spectrometry, we found that the SMC5/6 complex physically interacts with the DNA topoisomerase II α (TOP2A. We therefore propose that the SMC5/6 complex functions in resolving TOP2A-mediated DSB-repair intermediates generated during replication.

  18. Molybdenum (6) determination by the method of high-frequency and pH titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukianets, I.G.; Kulish, N.G.

    1981-01-01

    A possibility to determine Mo(6) using the method of high frequency and pH-metric titration is investigated. By means of the high frequency contact R-cell Mo(6) titration is performed using different precipitators: 8-oxiquinoline, lead nitrate and acetate and silver nitrate. It is established that the best conditions are achieved during titration of 67.2-1343 mg/10 ml Mo(6) with lead acetate (pH 4.5-6.5). Relative standard deviation Ssub(r) constitutes 0.005 pH-metric titration of Mo(6) with complexone 3 is studied. The range of Mo(6) concentrations determined constitutes 13.43-134.3 mg at pH initial value of 3.5-5.5. Relative standard deviation Ssub(r) constitutes 0.003. Techniques of molybdenum determination in ferromolybdenum using the method of high frequency and pH-metric titration are developed [ru

  19. Differences in functional traits between invasive and native Amaranthus species under simulated acid deposition with a gradient of pH levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Wu, Bingde; Jiang, Kun; Zhou, Jiawei

    2018-05-01

    Co-occurring invasive plant species (invaders hereafter) and natives receive similar or even the same environmental selection pressures. Thus, the differences in functional traits between natives and invaders have become widely recognized as a major driving force of the success of plant invasion. Meanwhile, increasing amounts of acid are deposited into ecosystems. Thus, it is important to elucidate the potential effects of acid deposition on the functional traits of invaders in order to better understand the potential mechanisms for the successful invasion. This study aims to address the differences in functional traits between native red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.; amaranth hereafter) and invasive redroot pigweed (A. retroflexus L.; pigweed hereafter) under simulated acid deposition with a gradient of pH levels. Pigweed was significantly taller than amaranth under most treatments. The greater height of pigweed can lead to greater competitive ability for resource acquisition, particularly for sunlight. Leaf shape index of pigweed was also significantly greater than that of amaranth under all treatments. The greater leaf shape index of pigweed can enhance the efficiency of resource capture (especially sunlight capture) via adjustments to leaf shape and size. Thus, the greater height and leaf shape index of pigweed can significantly enhance its competitive ability, especially under acid deposition. Acid deposition of pH 5.6 significantly increased amaranth leaf width in the co-cultivation due to added nutrients. The pH 4.5 acid deposition treatment significantly increased the specific leaf area of amaranth in the monoculture compared with the pH 5.6 acid deposition treatment and the control. The main mechanism explaining this pattern may be due to acid deposition mediating a hormesis effect on plants, promoting plant growth. The values of the relative competition intensity between amaranth and pigweed for most functional traits were lower than zero under most

  20. Familial pathways to early-onset suicide attempt: a 5.6-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, David A; Melhem, Nadine M; Oquendo, Maria; Burke, Ainsley; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Biernesser, Candice; Keilp, John; Kolko, David; Ellis, Steve; Porta, Giovanna; Zelazny, Jamie; Iyengar, Satish; Mann, J John

    2015-02-01

    Suicide attempts are strong predictors of suicide, a leading cause of adolescent mortality. Suicide attempts are highly familial, although the mechanisms of familial transmission are not understood. Better delineation of these mechanisms could help frame potential targets for prevention. To examine the mechanisms and pathways by which suicidal behavior is transmitted from parent to child. In this prospective study conducted from July 15, 1997, through June 21, 2012, a total of 701 offspring aged 10 to 50 years (mean age, 17.7 years) of 334 clinically referred probands with mood disorders, 191 (57.2%) of whom had also made a suicide attempt, were followed up for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary outcome was a suicide attempt. Variables were examined at baseline, intermediate time points, and the time point proximal to the attempt. Participants were assessed by structured psychiatric assessments and self-report and by interview measures of domains hypothesized to be related to familial transmission (eg, mood disorder and impulsive aggression). Among the 701 offspring, 44 (6.3%) had made a suicide attempt before participating in the study, and 29 (4.1%) made an attempt during study follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that proband suicide attempt was a predictor of offspring suicide attempt (odds ratio [OR], 4.79; 95% CI, 1.75-13.07), even controlling for other salient offspring variables: baseline history of mood disorder (OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.37-12.86), baseline history of suicide attempt (OR, 5.69; 95% CI, 1.94-16.74), and mood disorder at the time point before the attempt (OR, 11.32; 95% CI, 2.29-56.00). Path analyses were consistent with these findings, revealing a direct effect of proband attempt on offspring suicide attempt, a strong effect of offspring mood disorder at each time point, and impulsive aggression as a precursor of mood disorder. Parental history of a suicide attempt conveys a nearly 5-fold increased odds of suicide attempt

  1. The 2012 MW5.6 earthquake in the vicinity of the city of Sofia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Aleksandrova, Irena; Dimitrova, Liliya; Popova, Iliana; Raykova, Plamena

    2013-04-01

    The territory of Bulgaria represents a typical example of high seismic risk area in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. The neotectonic movements on the Balkan Peninsula were controlled by extensional collapse of the Late Alpin orogen, and were influenced by extension behind the Aegean arc and by the complicated vertical and horizontal movements in the Pannonian region. The city of Sofia is the capital of Bulgaria. It is situated in the centre of the Sofia seismic zone that is the most populated (more than 1.2 mil. inhabitants), industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria that faces considerable earthquake risk. Seismicity in the zone is related mainly to the marginal neotectonic faults of Sofia graben. The available historical documents prove the occurrence of destructive earthquakes during the 15th-18th centuries in the Sofia zone. In 19th century the city of Sofia has experienced two strong earthquakes: the 1818 earthquake with epicentral intensity I0=8-9 MSK and the 1858 earthquake with I0=IX-X MSK64. The 1858 earthquake caused heavy destruction in the town of Sofia and the appearance of thermal springs in the western part of the town. After a quiescence of about 50 years a strong event with M=6.5 occurred in 1905 near the western marginal part of the Sofia zone. During the 20th century the strongest event occurred in the vicinity of the city of Sofia is the 1917 earthquake with MS=5.3 (I0=7-8 MSK64). The earthquake caused a lot of damages in the town and changed the capacity of the thermal mineral springs in Sofia and the surrounding villages. The earthquake was felt in an area of 50000 km2 and followed by aftershocks, which lasted more than one year. Almost a century later (95 years) an earthquake of moment magnitude 5.6 hit Sofia seismic zone, on May 22nd, 2012, at 25 km south west of the city of Sofia. This shallow earthquake was largely felt in the region and up to Greece, FYROM, Serbia and Romania. No severe injuries have been reported so far, though

  2. Grouting of the cracks in the Arch 5-6 Daniel Johnson dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lariviere, R.; Routhier, L.; Roy, V.; Saleh, K.; Tremblay, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Daniel-Johnson dam is located 800 km northeast of Montreal, PQ, and is 1314 m in length and 214 m high. Just after completion of dam construction different types of cracks started to appear on the upstream and downstream faces. During and after the construction of the dam, numerous cracks and joints were grouted in order to reduce water infiltration. In some cases, as a result of high injection pressures and inaccurate methods, the injections provoked the propagation of the existing cracks or the initiation of new ones. Because of this situation and to determine the contribution of injection to dam safety, in 1985, Hydro-Quebec applied a moratorium on all future injection work on the dam. Research work was initiated in 1986 in the areas of grouting materials, methods, equipment and behavioral analysis to establish a safe method for the injection of the cracks. A committee was formed in 1993 with members from various groups, in order to: carry out extensive behavioral analysis of the Arch 5-6 dam, carry out an investigation program in order to determine the cause of the increase of the water infiltration, undertake a structural analysis program in order to evaluate the impact of an injection on the safety of the dam, and identify the proper method and injection products to use. In 1997, as a result of the progress of the structural analysis studies and the injection research project, a decision was made to proceed with the injection of the dam. A description is included of the results of the investigation, recommendations and results of the injection research project, as well as some details of the grouting campaign carried out in January 1999. On the whole, a better knowledge was acquired of the structure, of the plunging cracks and the behaviour of the dam during the injection. In the field of injection methods, materials and equipment, research work was invaluable when it came to the injection of micro-fine cracks in concrete dams. 5 refs., 8 figs

  3. Structural, magnetic and electronic properties of FexCoyIrz (x + y + z = 5, 6) clusters: an ab initio study

    KAUST Repository

    Devi, Assa Aravindh Sasikala

    2014-01-01

    Investigations on freestanding binary and ternary clusters of Fe (x) Co (y) Ir (z) (x + y + z = 5, 6) are carried out using ab initio density functional theory techniques. The geometry, chemical order, binding energy, magnetic moment and electronic

  4. Vaccine-Induced Anti-HBs Level in 5-6 Year-Old Malnourished Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mehran; Raee, Ali; Baghianimoghadam, Behnam; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Malnutrition is the most common cause of immune deficiency. It results in reduced secretion of T-cells and B-cell-stimulating factors leading to declining of special immunoglobulins. On the other hand, hepatitis B, as a major world health problem, can be prevented effectively by vaccination. Three doses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine induce protective levels of anti-hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) in 95% of healthy children. This level decreases gradually over time. The goal of this study was to assess anti-HBs in malnourished children, who confronted to some degrees of immune deficiency. This is a cross-sectional study conducted during May to August 2010 in therapeutic clinics of Yazd, Iran. Samples were selected simply and consecutively among 5-6 year-old children with a history of three doses of HBV vaccine in infancy. On the basis of World Health Organization's definition on malnutrition, which considers anthropometric measurements, malnourished children entered the study. Totally 83 cases (37 boys and 46 girls) were gathered and classified into three groups of mild, moderate, and severe malnutrition. One milliliter of venous blood was taken and anti-HBs were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Overall, seroprotection rate and geometric mean titer (GMT) of anti-HBs were 60.2% and 15.47 ± 10.92 mIU/mL, respectively. Seroprotection rate was 71.4%, 55.2%, and 72.7% in mild, moderate, and severe malnourished children, respectively. GMT was 30.78 mIU/mL, 12.15 mIU/mL, and 22.95 mIU/mL in these groups, respectively. None of these two indices were significant in these groups (P = 0.471, P = 0.364). Seroprotection rate and GMT were 54.1% and 13.26 ± 11.59 mIU/mL in boys, and 65.2% and 17.5 ± 10.59 mIU/mL in girls, respectively, showing no significant relationship with gender (P = 0.302, P = 0.602). Lowest seroprotection rate was in stunted cases (47.1%) and highest in wasted children (77.8%). This difference also was not significant (P = 0

  5. A Reliable and Non-destructive Method for Monitoring the Stromal pH in Isolated Chloroplasts Using a Fluorescent pH Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Hsiang Su

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The proton gradient established by the pH difference across a biological membrane is essential for many physiological processes, including ATP synthesis and ion and metabolite transport. Currently, ionophores are used to study proton gradients, and determine their importance to biological functions of interest. Because of the lack of an easy method for monitoring the proton gradient across the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts (ΔpHenv, whether the concentration of ionophores used can effectively abolish the ΔpHenv is not proven for most experiments. To overcome this hindrance, we tried to setup an easy method for real-time monitoring of the stromal pH in buffered, isolated chloroplasts by using fluorescent pH probes; using this method the ΔpHenv can be calculated by subtracting the buffer pH from the measured stromal pH. When three fluorescent dyes, BCECF-AM [2′,7′-bis-(2-carboxyethyl-5-(and-6-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester], CFDA-SE [5(6-Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester] and SNARF-1 carboxylic acid acetate succinimidyl ester were incubated with isolated chloroplasts, BCECF-AM and CFDA-SE, but not the ester-formed SNARF-1 were taken up by chloroplasts and digested with esterase to release high levels of fluorescence. According to its relatively higher pKa value (6.98, near the physiological pH of the stroma, BCECF was chosen for further development. Due to shielding of the excitation and emission lights by chloroplast pigments, the ratiometric fluorescence of BCECF was highly dependent on the concentration of chloroplasts. By using a fixed concentration of chloroplasts, a highly correlated standard curve of pH to the BCECF ratiometric fluorescence with an r-square value of 0.98 was obtained, indicating the reliability of this method. Consistent with previous reports, the light-dependent formation of ΔpHenv can be detected ranging from 0.15 to 0.33 pH units upon illumination. The concentration of the ionophore

  6. Effect of Shenkang granules on the progression of chronic renal failure in 5/6 nephrectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, YU; ZHOU, NAN; WANG, HONGYING; WANG, SICEN; HE, JIANYU

    2015-01-01

    Shenkang granules (SKGs) are a Chinese herbal medicinal formula, consisting of rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), Salvia miltiorrhiza, milkvetch root [Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge] and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of SKG on chronic renal failure (CRF) in 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6 Nx) rats. The rats were randomly divided into seven groups (n=10 per group) as follows: (i) 5/6 Nx (model group; 2.25 ml/kg/day normal saline); (ii) SKGL (low dose; 5/6 Nx treated with 2 g crude drug/kg/day SKG); (iii) SKGM (moderate dose; 5/6 Nx treated with 4 g crude drug/kg/day SKG); (iv) SKGH (high dose; 5/6 Nx treated with 8 g crude drug/kg/day SKG); (v) benazepril treatment group (5/6 Nx treated with 5 mg/kg/day benazepril); (vi) Shenkang injection (SKI) group (5/6 Nx with 13.3 ml/kg/day SKI); and (vii) sham-operated group (2.25 ml/kg/day normal saline). After 30 days, the levels of microalbumin, total protein, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and serum lipid were found to be significantly decreased in the SKGL and SKGM rats, showing histological improvement compared with the untreated 5/6 Nx rats, as determined by hematoxylin and eosin, and Masson's trichrome staining. In addition, SKG was found to significantly improve the levels of glutathione peroxidase and reduce the damage caused by free radicals to the kidney tissues. Furthermore, SKG prevented the accumulation of extracellular matrix by decreasing the expression of collagen I and III and inhibiting the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and −9 in the renal tissue, as determined by western blot analysis. SKG was also shown to decrease the concentrations of serum transforming growth factor-β1, as determined by ELISA, and kidney angiotensin II, as determined using a radioimmunoassay kit. In conclusion, SKG was demonstrated to ameliorate renal injury in a 5/6 Nx rat model of CRF. Thus, SKG may exert a good therapeutic effect on CRF. PMID:26136932

  7. Synergistic effect of wire bending and salivary pH on surface properties and mechanical properties of orthodontic stainless steel archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbelink, Marieke G; He, Yan; Xu, Jia; Xie, Huixu; Stoll, Richard; Ye, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the corrosive behaviour of stainless steel archwires in a more clinically relevant way by bending and exposing to various pH. One hundred and twenty pieces of rectangular stainless steel wires (0.43 × 0.64 mm) were randomly assigned into four groups. In each group, there were 15 pieces of bent wires and 15 straight ones. Prior to measurements of the wires, as individual experimental groups (group 1, 2, and 3), the wires were exposed to artificial saliva for 4 weeks at pH 5.6, 6.6, and 7.6, respectively. A control group of wires (group 4) remained in air for the same period of time before sent for measurements. Surface roughness (Ra-value) was measured by a profilometer. Young's modulus and maximum force were determined by a four-point flexural test apparatus. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the surface morphology of straight wire. Differences between groups were examined using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mean surface roughness values, flexural Young's moduli, and maximum force values of bent wires are significantly different from those of the straight wires, which was the main effect of wire bending, ignoring the influence of pH. A significant effect was found between Ra-values regarding the main effect of pH, ignoring the influence of shape. There was a significant interaction effect of bending and pH on flexural Young's moduli of stainless steel archwires, while pH did not show much impact on the maximum force values of those stainless steel wires. Bigger surface irregularities were seen on SEM images of straight wires immersed in artificial saliva at pH 5.6 compared to artificial saliva at other pH values. Surface depth (Rz) was more sensitive than Ra in revealing surface roughness, both measured from 3D reconstructed SEM images. Ra showed a comparable result of surface roughness to Ra-value measured by the profilometer. Bending has a significant influence on surface roughness and mechanical

  8. Etoricoxib selective sensor based on uracil-5,6-diamino-2-thio hydrochloride as neutral carrier for potentiometric analysis in pharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Fares Rassi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A construction and electrochemical behavior of novel potentiometric membrane sensor responsive to the etoricoxib was described. The sensor was based on the ion-pair complex of etoricoxib (ET with Uracil-5,6-diamino-2-thio hydrochloride UDTH (ET-UDTH as exchange sites in a PVC matrix with different plasticizers dibutylphthalate (DBP (electrode B tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP (electrode C, and dioctylphthalate (DOP (electrode A. The electrodes exhibited near-Nernstian response for ET-UDTH over the concentration range 0.051-40.042 mM. The electrode offered significant advantages including long lifetime (about 2 months, excellent stability and reproducibility, good response time (10-25 s, and wide pH working range (pH 5-12. Selectivity coefficients of ET related to a number of interfering cation and some organic compounds were investigated, and there were negligible interference caused by most of the investigated species. The direct determination of 0.5-10 mM of ET showed an average recovery of 99.03-101.75% and a mean relative standard deviation 0.40-1.88. The results were obtained by determination of ET in tablets using the proposed electrodes which were comparable favorably with those obtained by spectrophotometric method

  9. Liquid-containing Refluxes and Acid Refluxes May Be Less Frequent in the Japanese Population Than in Other Populations: Normal Values of 24-hour Esophageal Impedance and pH Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Osamu; Kohata, Yukie; Kawami, Noriyuki; Iida, Hiroshi; Kawada, Akiyo; Hosaka, Hiroko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Inamori, Masahiko; Kusano, Motoyasu; Hongo, Micho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Twenty-four-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring allows detection of all types of reflux episodes and is considered the best technique for identifying gastroesophageal refluxes. However, normative data for the Japanese population are lacking. This multicenter study aimed to establish the normal range of 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH data both in the distal and the proximal esophagus in Japanese subjects. Methods Forty-two healthy volunteers (25 men and 17 women) with a mean ± standard deviation age of 33.3 ± 12.4 years (range: 22–72 years) underwent a combined 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. According to the physical and pH properties, distal or proximal esophageal reflux events were categorized. Results Median 45 reflux events occurred in 24 hours, and the 95th percentile was 85 events. Unlike previous reports, liquid-containing reflux events are median 25/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 62/24 hours. Acidic reflux events were median 11/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Non-acidic gas reflux events were median 15/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Proximal reflux events accounted for 80% of the total reflux events and were mainly non-acidic gas refluxes. About 19% of liquid and mixed refluxes reached the proximal esophagus. Conclusions Unlike previous studies, liquid-containing and acidic reflux events may be less frequent in the Japanese population. Non-acidic gas reflux events may be frequent and a cause of frequent proximal reflux events. This study provides important normative data for 24-hour impedance and pH monitoring in both the distal and the proximal esophagus in the Japanese population. PMID:27247103

  10. Improvement of the respiration efficiency of Lactococcus lactis by decreasing the culture pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weijia; Li, Yu; Gao, Xueling; Fu, Ruiyan

    2016-03-01

    The growth characteristics and intracellular hemin concentrations of Lactococcus lactis grown under different culture pH and aeration conditions were examined to investigate the effect of culture pH on the respiration efficiency of L. lactis NZ9000 (pZN8148). Cell biomass and biomass yield of L. lactis grown with 4 μg hemin/ml and O2 were higher than those without aeration when the culture pH was controlled at 5-6.5. The culture pH affected the respiratory efficiency in the following order of pH: 5 > 5.5 > 6 > 6.5; the lag phase increased as the culture pH decreased. Hemin accumulation was sensitive to culture pH. Among the four pH conditions, pH 5.5 was optimal for hemin accumulation in the cells. The highest intracellular hemin level in L. lactis resting cells incubated at different pH saline levels (5-6.5) was at pH 5.5. The respiration efficiency of L. lactis under respiration-permissive conditions increases markedly as the culture pH decreases. These results may help develop high cell-density L. lactis cultures. Thus, this microorganism may be used for industrial applications.

  11. Basal cell carcinoma: CD56 and cytokeratin 5/6 staining patterns in the differential diagnosis with Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panse, Gauri; McNiff, Jennifer M; Ko, Christine J

    2017-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) can resemble Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) on histopathological examination and while CK20 is a useful marker in this differential, it is occasionally negative in MCC. CD56, a sensitive marker of neuroendocrine differentiation, is sometimes used to identify MCC, but has been reportedly variably positive in BCC as well. In contrast, CK5/6 consistently labels BCC but is not expressed in neuroendocrine tumors. We evaluated 20 cases of BCC for the pattern of CD56 and cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) staining, hypothesizing that these 2 stains could differentiate BCC from MCC in difficult cases. Seventeen cases of MCC previously stained with CD56 were also examined. All BCCs showed patchy expression of CD56 except for 2 cases, which showed staining of greater than 70% of tumor. CK5/6 was diffusely positive in all cases of BCC. Fifteen of 17 MCCs were diffusely positive for CD56. The difference in the pattern of CD56 expression between MCC and BCC (diffuse vs patchy, respectively) was statistically significant (P < .05). BCC typically shows patchy CD56 expression and diffuse CK5/6 positivity. These 2 markers can be used to distinguish between BCC and MCC in challenging cases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Spectroscopic determination of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanu, A.; Glover, E.T.; Bailey, E.; Rochelle, C.

    2009-01-01

    A technique of measuring pH at temperature range of 20 - 70 0 C and high pressure conditions of 1 - 200 atmospheres has been developed by relating the ratio of absorbance peaks of indicator solutions (basic and acidic) as a function of pH, using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The pH values of the buffer solutions measured at 20 0 C and 70 0 C indicated slight temperature dependence, while the pressure had no effect. The pH of the buffer solutions increased with temperature with relative standard deviations in the range 0.4 - 0.5 % at 95 % confidence interval. The possible causes of the temperature dependence were attributed to changes in pH values as the temperature changed. (au)

  13. Electron-impact excitation cross sections of the higher argon 3p5np (n=5,6,7) levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Tobin; Boffard, John B.; Lin, Chun C.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the electron-impact excitation cross sections for argon into the ten levels of 3p 5 5p configuration, as well as numerous levels of the 3p 5 6p and 3p 5 7p configurations. Fluorescence from the decay of the excited atoms to the levels of 3p 5 4s configuration was used to determine the optical-emission cross sections. These results were combined with transition probabilities to find apparent cross sections into the 3p 5 5p and 3p 5 6p levels. These new cross sections of the Ar(3p 5 np) levels along with the available Ne(2p 5 3p), Kr(4p 5 5p), and Xe(5p 5 6p) data help provide a global view of the excitation behaviors of the np 5 n ' p levels of the rare-gas series

  14. Influence of substrates, light, filter paper and pH on the sporulation of Cercospora sojina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Erica Gómez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungi require special substrates for their isolation, vegetative growth and sporulation. In experiments conducted in the laboratory, the influence of substrates, light, filter paper and pH on the sporulation of Cercospora sojina conidia, the causal agent of soybean frogeye leaf spot, was assessed. The media potato sucrose agar, V-8 agar, tomato extract agar, soybean leaf extract agar, soybean seed extract agar, soybean meal agar, soybean flour agar and wheat flour agar were tested, added on the surface, with and without filter paper and under two light regimes, with 12 h light at 25°± 2°C and in the dark. A triple factorial 8x2x2 (substrates x light/dark x with/without filter paper design with four replicates was used. V-8 agar medium was employed and the pH was adjusted with HCl 0.1N or NaOH 0.1N before autoclaving to the values: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, and the pH of V-8 agar medium is 6.7. The evaluation was done on the seventh day of incubation. Data underwent regression analysis. Sporulation was maximized on the agar media V-8, seed extract, oat flour, tomato extract, and potato sucrose in the presence of filter paper and 12h light. On V-8 medium, maximal sporulation was obtained with pH 6.7.

  15. Novel derivatives of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone coupled with substituted pyridine as potential antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal M. Patel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of novel derivatives of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone was carried out via its Schiff’s base using 2-cyanoacetohydrazide followed by cyclization with 2-arylidenemalononitrile in the presence of a catalytical amount of piperidine to get 6-amino-1-(5,6-dimethoxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-ylideneamino-2-oxo-4-aryl-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile derivatives. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of their spectral and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were also screened for antimicrobial activity and found to have promising antibacterial activity.

  16. Novel derivatives of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone coupled with substituted pyridine as potential antimicrobial agents

    OpenAIRE

    Vimal M. Patel; Nilay D. Bhatt; Pralav V. Bhatt; Hasmukh D. Joshi

    2018-01-01

    Synthesis of novel derivatives of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone was carried out via its Schiff’s base using 2-cyanoacetohydrazide followed by cyclization with 2-arylidenemalononitrile in the presence of a catalytical amount of piperidine to get 6-amino-1-(5,6-dimethoxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-ylideneamino)-2-oxo-4-aryl-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile derivatives. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of their spectral and elemental analysis. The synthesized ...

  17. Change in the level of strength and endurance development of 5-6 grades pupils under cheerleading exercises influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Bala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the degree of change in the level of strength and endurance development of 5-6 grades pupils under cheerleading exercises influence. Material and Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical testing, pedagogical experiment and mathematical statistics methods. Results: parameters of strength and endurance development level are presented with their degree of change under cheerleading exercises influence for 5-6 grades pupils of secondary school. Conclusions: cheerleading exercises usage has positive influence on demonstrated strength and endurance degree of secondary school children by all investigated parameters.

  18. NMR studies of Costa-type organocobalt compounds. Structural characterization of several 1,5,6-trimethylbenzimidazole complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W.O. Jr.; Zangrando, E.; Bresciani-Pahor, N.; Marzilli, P.A.; Randaccio, E.; Marzilli, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    The structure of L exchange data have been examined for Costa models containing 1,5,6-trimethylbenzimidazole, the base most appropriate for comparison with cobaltamines. The crystal structure and 1 H and 13 C NMR data for the complexes are also presented. The 1 H and 13 C NMR data are compared with data available for cobaloximes. 45 references, 5 figures, 16 tables

  19. Dechlorination and chlorine rearrangement of 1,2,5,5,6,9,10-heptachlorodecane mediated by the whole pumpkin seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanlin; Hou, Xingwang; Yu, Miao; Zhou, Qunfang; Liu, Jiyan; Schnoor, Jerald L; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-05-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are ubiquitously present as persistent organic pollutants in the environment. However, little information on the interaction of SCCPs with plants is currently available. In this work, young pumpkin plants (Cucurbita maxima × C. Moschata) were hydroponically exposed to the congener of chlorinated decane, 1,2,5,5,6,9,10-heptachlorodecane (1,2,5,5,6,9,10-HepCD), to investigate the uptake, translocation and transformation of chlorinated decanes in the intact plants. It was found that parent HepCD was taken up by the pumpkin roots, translocated from root to shoots, and phytovolatilized from pumpkin plants to air via the plant transpiration flux. Our data suggested that dechlorination of 1,2,5,5,6,9,10-HepCD to lower chlorinated decanes and rearrangement of chlorine atoms in the molecule were all mediated by the whole pumpkin seedlings. Chlorinated decanes were found in the shoots and roots of blank controls, indicating that chlorinated decanes in the air could be absorbed by leaves and translocated from shoots to roots. Lower chlorinated congeners (C 10 H 17 Cl 5 ) tended to detain in air compared to higher chlorinated congeners (C 10 H 16 Cl 6 and other C 10 H 15 Cl 7 ). Potential transformation pathway and behavior of 1,2,5,5,6,9,10-HepCD in pumpkin were proposed based on these experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiferroic Double Perovskites ScFe1-xCrxO3 (1 /6 ≤x ≤5 /6 ) for Highly Efficient Photovoltaics and Spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tian-Yi; Liu, Shi-Chen; Ju, Sheng; Liu, Cheng-You; Guo, Guang-Yu

    2017-09-01

    Ferroelectric oxides are attractive materials for constructing efficient solar cells. Nevertheless, a wide band gap of nearly 3.0 eV in these ferroelectric oxides would result in poor overall sunlight absorption and, hence, low energy conversion efficiency. Here, by systematic first-principles density-functional calculations, we demonstrate that double-perovskite semiconductors ScFe1-xCrxO3 (1 /6 ≤x ≤5 /6 ) with a narrow band gap of approximately 1.8 eV would simultaneously exhibit large ferroelectric polarization (100 μ C /cm2 ) and ferrimagnetic magnetization (170 emu/cm3 ). Within a Schottky-based model for a typical sandwich solar-cell structure, a power-conversion efficiency of 9.0% can be reached by neglecting all other sources of photovoltaicity in ferroelectric materials. This value is larger than the largest value of 8.1% observed in ferroelectric oxides. Furthermore, these double perovskites are found to be single-spin semiconductors, and the obtained photocurrent is fully spin polarized over almost the entire Sun spectrum. These fascinating advantages would make ScFex Cr1 -xO3 (1 /6 ≤x ≤5 /6 ) semiconductors promising candidates for highly efficient solar cells and spin photovoltaic devices.

  1. Lithic technological responses to Late Pleistocene glacial cycling at Pinnacle Point Site 5-6, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyle S.; Oestmo, Simen; Pereira, Telmo; Ranhorn, Kathryn L.; Schoville, Benjamin J.; Marean, Curtis W.

    2017-01-01

    There are multiple hypotheses for human responses to glacial cycling in the Late Pleistocene, including changes in population size, interconnectedness, and mobility. Lithic technological analysis informs us of human responses to environmental change because lithic assemblage characteristics are a reflection of raw material transport, reduction, and discard behaviors that depend on hunter-gatherer social and economic decisions. Pinnacle Point Site 5–6 (PP5-6), Western Cape, South Africa is an ideal locality for examining the influence of glacial cycling on early modern human behaviors because it preserves a long sequence spanning marine isotope stages (MIS) 5, 4, and 3 and is associated with robust records of paleoenvironmental change. The analysis presented here addresses the question, what, if any, lithic assemblage traits at PP5-6 represent changing behavioral responses to the MIS 5-4-3 interglacial-glacial cycle? It statistically evaluates changes in 93 traits with no a priori assumptions about which traits may significantly associate with MIS. In contrast to other studies that claim that there is little relationship between broad-scale patterns of climate change and lithic technology, we identified the following characteristics that are associated with MIS 4: increased use of quartz, increased evidence for outcrop sources of quartzite and silcrete, increased evidence for earlier stages of reduction in silcrete, evidence for increased flaking efficiency in all raw material types, and changes in tool types and function for silcrete. Based on these results, we suggest that foragers responded to MIS 4 glacial environmental conditions at PP5-6 with increased population or group sizes, ‘place provisioning’, longer and/or more intense site occupations, and decreased residential mobility. Several other traits, including silcrete frequency, do not exhibit an association with MIS. Backed pieces, once they appear in the PP5-6 record during MIS 4, persist through MIS

  2. Synthesis of [5,6-13C2, 1-14C]olivetolic acid, methyl [1'-13C]olivetolate and [5,6-13C2, 1-14C]cannabigerolic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porwoll, J.P.; Leete, E.

    1985-01-01

    Potential advanced intermediates in the biosynthesis of delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, the major psychoactive principle of marijuana, have been synthesized labeled with two contiguous 13 C atoms and 14 C. Methyl [5,6- 13 C 2 , 1- 14 C]olivetolate was prepared from lithium [ 13 C 2 ]acetylide and dimethyl [2- 14 C]malonate. Reaction with geranyl bromide afforded methyl [5,6- 13 C 2 , 1- 14 C]cannabigerolate, and hydrolysis of these methyl esters with lithium propyl mercaptide yielded the corresponding labeled acids. The 13 C- 13 C couplings observable in the 13 C NMR spectra of these 13 C-enriched compounds and their synthetic precursors are recorded. Methyl [1'- 14 C]olivetolate was prepared from 13 CO 2 to confirm assignments of the 13 C chemical shifts in the pentyl side chain of these compounds. (author)

  3. Variations of thiaminase I activity pH dependencies among typical Great Lakes forage fish and Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek, J.L.; Brown, L.; Brown, S.B.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    The source of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web remains unknown. Biochemical characterization of the thiaminase I activities observed in forage fish was undertaken to provide insights into potential thiaminase sources and to optimize catalytic assay conditions. We measured the thiaminase I activities of crude extracts from five forage fish species and one strain of Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus over a range of pH values. The clupeids, alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, had very similar thiaminase I pH dependencies, with optimal activity ranges (> or = 90% of maximum activity) between pH 4.6 and 5.5. Rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax and spottail shiner Notropis hudsonius had optimal activity ranges between pH 5.5-6.6. The thiaminase I activity pH dependence profile of P. thiaminolyticus had an optimal activity range between pH 5.4 and 6.3, which was similar to the optimal range for rainbow smelt and spottail shiners. Incubation of P. thiaminolyticus extracts with extracts from bloater Coregonus hoyi (normally, bloaters have little or no detectable thiaminase I activity) did not significantly alter the pH dependence profile of P. thiaminolyticus-derived thiaminase I, such that it continued to resemble that of the rainbow smelt and spottail shiner, with an apparent optimal activity range between pH 5.7 and 6.6. These data are consistent with the hypothesis of a bacterial source for thiaminase I in the nonclupeid species of forage fish; however, the data also suggest different sources of thiaminase I enzymes in the clupeid species.

  4. PH og modernismen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen kaster et kritisk blik på Poul Henningsens samfundsanalyse og dennes sammenhæng med hans design. PH ses i en bredere national og international sammenhæng. Diskussion af designmetoder, æstetik og Bauhaus.......Artiklen kaster et kritisk blik på Poul Henningsens samfundsanalyse og dennes sammenhæng med hans design. PH ses i en bredere national og international sammenhæng. Diskussion af designmetoder, æstetik og Bauhaus....

  5. The effects of pH and temperature on phosphate and nitrate uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the effects of pH and temperature on nutrient uptake efficiency of 3 wastewater protozoan isolates (Aspidisca (A), Trachelophyllum (B) and Peranema (C)) that have previously been screened for nutrient uptake ability. The study was carried out in shake flask at pH 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 ...

  6. Agreement between children aged 5-6 years and their mothers in rating child oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanto, Jenny; Tsakos, Georgios; Paiva, Saul Martins; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Celiberti, Paula; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2014-09-01

    Studies have assessed parent-child agreement on ratings of school-aged children's OHRQoL. There are, however, no studies on children younger than 7 years of age. The aim was to assess the agreement between children aged 5-6 years and their mothers regarding child's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). In this cross-sectional study, a total of 298 mother-child pairs (MCP), seeking the pediatric dental screening at the Dental School, University of São Paulo, completed the Brazilian version of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5), validated for children aged 5-6 years in Brazil. Agreement between total and items' scores was assessed using comparison and correlation analyses, by comparing the mean directional differences and by computing the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values, respectively. The mean directional difference in the total scores was 0.13 (CI 95% -0.076; 0.338) and therefore not significant for MCP. The mean absolute difference for MCP was 1.26, representing 11% of the maximum possible score. The ICC for total score was 0.84 (CI 95% 0.798; 0.867) for MCP. Mothers do rate their young children's OHRQoL similarly to children's self-reports. When assessing OHRQoL of children aged 5-6 years, mothers may be reliable proxies for their young children. © 2013 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Investigating the influence of pH, temperature and agitation speed on yellow pigment production by Penicillium aculeatum ATCC 10409.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Majid; Shahidi, Fakhri; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Tabatabai, Farideh; Es'haghi, Zarin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the combined effect of pH, temperature and agitation speed on yellow pigment production and mycelial growth of Penicillium aculeatum ATCC 10409 was investigated in whey media. Different pH levels (5, 6.5 and 8), temperatures (25, 30 and 35°C) and agitation speed levels (100 and 150 rpm) were tested to determine the best conditions to produce a fungal yellow pigment under submerged fermentation. The best production of yellow pigment (1.38 g/L) was obtained with a pH value of 6.5, a temperature of 30°C and an agitation speed of 150 rpm. In contrast, the maximal biomass concentration (11.12 g/L) was obtained at pH value of 8, a temperature of 30°C and an agitation speed of 100 rpm. These results demonstrated that biomass and yellow pigment production were not directly associated. The identification of the structure of unknown P. aculeatum yellow pigment was detected using UV absorption spectrum and FT-IR spectroscopy.

  8. Binding of 3,4,5,6-Tetrahydroxyazepanes to the Acid-[beta]-glucosidase Active Site: Implications for Pharmacological Chaperone Design for Gaucher Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orwig, Susan D.; Tan, Yun Lei; Grimster, Neil P.; Yu, Zhanqian; Powers, Evan T.; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Lieberman, Raquel L. (Scripps); (GIT)

    2013-03-07

    Pharmacologic chaperoning is a therapeutic strategy being developed to improve the cellular folding and trafficking defects associated with Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disorder caused by point mutations in the gene encoding acid-{beta}-glucosidase (GCase). In this approach, small molecules bind to and stabilize mutant folded or nearly folded GCase in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), increasing the concentration of folded, functional GCase trafficked to the lysosome where the mutant enzyme can hydrolyze the accumulated substrate. To date, the pharmacologic chaperone (PC) candidates that have been investigated largely have been active site-directed inhibitors of GCase, usually containing five- or six-membered rings, such as modified azasugars. Here we show that a seven-membered, nitrogen-containing heterocycle (3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyazepane) scaffold is also promising for generating PCs for GCase. Crystal structures reveal that the core azepane stabilizes GCase in a variation of its proposed active conformation, whereas binding of an analogue with an N-linked hydroxyethyl tail stabilizes GCase in a conformation in which the active site is covered, also utilizing a loop conformation not seen previously. Although both compounds preferentially stabilize GCase to thermal denaturation at pH 7.4, reflective of the pH in the ER, only the core azepane, which is a mid-micromolar competitive inhibitor, elicits a modest increase in enzyme activity for the neuronopathic G202R and the non-neuronopathic N370S mutant GCase in an intact cell assay. Our results emphasize the importance of the conformational variability of the GCase active site in the design of competitive inhibitors as PCs for Gaucher disease.

  9. Refractive properties of imidazolium ionic liquids with alanine anion [C n mim][Ala] ( n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cai-bin; Li, Jing; Yi, Zhe; Ai, Hong-jun

    2017-10-01

    Imidazolium ionic liquids with alanine anion, [C n mim][Ala] ( n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), were prepared and characterized. The standard addition method was used to measure refractivity of the synthesized ionic liquids in order to eliminate the effect of water traces in the ionic liquids. The molar refraction and molecular polarizability were also calculated by Lorentz-Lorenz's method. Using liner extrapolation, the semiempirical estimation method for optical properties of other ionic liquids with amino acid anions was established.

  10. From polyethylene waxes to HDPE using an α,α'-bis(arylimino)-2,3:5,6-bis(pentamethylene)pyridyl-chromium(iii) chloride pre-catalyst in ethylene polymerisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanbing; Du, Shizhen; Solan, Gregory A; Sun, Yang; Sun, Wen-Hua

    2017-05-30

    Five examples of α,α'-bis(arylimino)-2,3:5,6-bis(pentamethylene)pyridyl-chromium(iii) chlorides (aryl = 2,6-Me 2 Ph Cr1, 2,6-Et 2 Ph Cr2, 2,6-i-Pr 2 Ph Cr3, 2,4,6-Me 3 Ph Cr4, 2,6-Et 2 -4-MePh Cr5) have been synthesized by the one-pot template reaction of α,α'-dioxo-2,3:5,6-bis(pentamethylene)pyridine, CrCl 3 ·6H 2 O and the corresponding aniline. The molecular structures of Cr1 and Cr4 reveal distorted octahedral geometries with the N,N,N-ligand adopting a mer-configuration. On activation with an aluminium alkyl co-catalyst, Cr1-Cr5 exhibited high catalytic activities in ethylene polymerization and showed outstanding thermal stability operating effectively at 80 °C with activities up to 1.49 × 10 7 g of PE (mol of Cr) -1 h -1 . Significantly, the nature of the co-catalyst employed had a dramatic effect on the molecular weight of the polymeric material obtained. For example, using diethylaluminium chloride (Et 2 AlCl) in combination with Cr4 gave high density/high molecular weight polyethylene with broad molecular weight distributions (30.9-39.3). By contrast, using modified methylaluminoxane (MMAO), strictly linear polyethylene waxes of lower molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution (1.6-2.0) were obtained with vinyl end-groups.

  11. Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P; Maslov, Konstantin I; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-10-01

    pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, an imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. In this paper, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of a commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (SNARF-5F carboxylic acid) in tissue phantoms. We demonstrated that PAM is capable of pH imaging in absolute values at tissue depths of up to 2.0 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

  12. Morphological characteristic of the conventional and melt-spun Al-10Ni-5.6Cu (in wt.%) alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakoese, Ercan [Erciyes University, Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Erciyes University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    The Al-10Ni-5.6Cu alloy was prepared by conventional casting and further processed melt-spinning technique. The resulting conventional cast and melt-spun ribbons were characterized using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and microhardness techniques. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that ingot samples were {alpha}-Al, intermetallic Al{sub 3}Ni and Al{sub 2}Cu phases. The optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy results show that the microstructures of rapidly solidified ribbons are clearly different from their ingot alloy. Al-10Ni-5.6Cu ribbons reveal a very fine cellular structure with intermetallic Al{sub 3}Ni particles. Moreover, at high solidification rates the melt-spun ribbons have a polygonal structure dispersed in a supersaturated aluminum matrix. The differential scanning calorimetry measurements revealed that exothermic reaction was between 290 deg. C and 440 deg. C which are more pronounced in the ternary Al-10Ni-5.6Cu alloy.

  13. Morphological characteristic of the conventional and melt-spun Al-10Ni-5.6Cu (in wt.%) alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakoese, Ercan; Keskin, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The Al-10Ni-5.6Cu alloy was prepared by conventional casting and further processed melt-spinning technique. The resulting conventional cast and melt-spun ribbons were characterized using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and microhardness techniques. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that ingot samples were α-Al, intermetallic Al 3 Ni and Al 2 Cu phases. The optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy results show that the microstructures of rapidly solidified ribbons are clearly different from their ingot alloy. Al-10Ni-5.6Cu ribbons reveal a very fine cellular structure with intermetallic Al 3 Ni particles. Moreover, at high solidification rates the melt-spun ribbons have a polygonal structure dispersed in a supersaturated aluminum matrix. The differential scanning calorimetry measurements revealed that exothermic reaction was between 290 deg. C and 440 deg. C which are more pronounced in the ternary Al-10Ni-5.6Cu alloy.

  14. Relationship between changes of serum leptin levels and degree of glomerulosclerosis in rats after 5/6 nephrectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Licai; Zhang Daoyou; Zhu Xinjian; Wang Yuwei; Gao Chaoqing; Xu Haihong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between changes of serum leptin levels and glomerulosclerosis index, TGF-β 1 expression at glomerulus as well as degree of ECM proliferation in rats after 5/6 nephrectomy. Methods: Eight rats underwent two-stage 5/6 nephrectomy to establish a progressive glomeruloselerosis model. Six weeks after the second operation, the rats were sacrificed, the renal tissue was examined with routine pathological sections for study of glomerulosclerosis as well as with immunohistochemical studies for TGF-β 1 , collagen IV and fibronectin expressions. Six rats underwent sham operation served as controls. Serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and leptin levels were measured in all these animals. Results: The serum levels of leptin were significantly higher in rats after 5/6 nephrectomy than the rats with sham operations (14.88 ± 1.46ng/ml vs 10.84 ± 2.67ng/ml, P < 0. 01 ). Serum levels of leptin were positively correlated with the glomeruloselerosis index and collagen IV, fibronectin expressions ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion: Hyperleptinemia may be one of the causative factors of development of glomerulosclerosis. (authors)

  15. Optimization of urinary dipstick pH: Are multiple dipstick pH readings reliably comparable to commercial 24-hour urinary pH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Joel E; Miller, Daniel L; Shi, William; Wenzler, David; Elkhoury, Fuad F; Patel, Nishant D; Sur, Roger L

    2017-09-01

    Accurate measurement of pH is necessary to guide medical management of nephrolithiasis. Urinary dipsticks offer a convenient method to measure pH, but prior studies have only assessed the accuracy of a single, spot dipstick. Given the known diurnal variation in pH, a single dipstick pH is unlikely to reflect the average daily urinary pH. Our goal was to determine whether multiple dipstick pH readings would be reliably comparable to pH from a 24-hour urine analysis. Kidney stone patients undergoing a 24-hour urine collection were enrolled and took images of dipsticks from their first 3 voids concurrently with the 24-hour collection. Images were sent to and read by a study investigator. The individual and mean pH from the dipsticks were compared to the 24-hour urine pH and considered to be accurate if the dipstick readings were within 0.5 of the 24-hour urine pH. The Bland-Altman test of agreement was used to further compare dipstick pH relative to 24-hour urine pH. Fifty-nine percent of patients had mean urinary pH values within 0.5 pH units of their 24-hour urine pH. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference between dipstick pH and 24-hour urine pH of -0.22, with an upper limit of agreement of 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-1.59) and a lower limit of agreement of -1.47 (95% CI, -2.04 to -0.90). We concluded that urinary dipstick based pH measurement lacks the precision required to guide medical management of nephrolithiasis and physicians should use 24-hour urine analysis to base their metabolic therapy.

  16. Identification of two combined genes responsible for dechlorination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in Cupriavidus pauculus P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Xu, Jianhong; Wu, Guang; Li, Mingxing; Jiang, Jiandong; He, Jian; Li, Shunpeng; Hong, Qing

    2013-09-15

    Dehalogenation is an important mechanism for degrading and detoxifying halogenated aromatics in microbes. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of dehalogenation of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) are still unknown. In this study, a novel 6012 bp gene cluster was cloned from TCP-degrading strain P2, which was responsible for the dehalogenation of TCP. The cluster included a monooxygenase gene (tcpA1), a flavin reductase gene (tcpB1), tcpR1, orf1 and orf2. TcpA1 and TcpB1 were indispensable for the dehalogenation of TCP. They worked together to catalyze the dehalogenation of three chlorine of TCP, and generated a more readily biodegradable product of 3,6-dihydroxypyridine-2,5-dione. TcpA1 displayed the highest activity against TCP at 40°C and at pH 8.0. Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Hg(2+) significantly inhibited enzyme activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a gene cluster responsible for TCP degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Crystal structure of 4′-allyl-4,5,6,7,2′,7′-hexachlorofluorescein allyl ester unknown solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, 4′-allyl-4,5,6,7,2′,7′-hexachlorofluorescein allyl ester {systematic name: prop-2-en-1-yl 2,3,4,5-tetrachloro-6-[2,7-dichloro-6-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-en-1-yl-3H-xanthen-9-yl]benzoate}, C26H14Cl6O5, accompanied by unknown solvate molecules, the dihedral angle between the xanthene ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.046 Å and the pentasubstituted benzene ring is 71.67 (9°. Both allyl groups are disordered over two sets of sites in statistical ratios. The scattering contributions of the disordered solvent molecules (both Ph2O and CHCl3, as identified by NMR were removed with the PLATON SQUEEZE algorithm [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18]. In the crystal, tetrameric supramolecular aggregates linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds occur; these further interact with neighboring aggregates through C—Cl...π interactions arising from the benzene rings, forming infinite two-dimensional sheets. Each C6Cl4 ring shifts in the direction perpendicular to the two-dimensional sheet, exhibiting a helical chain in which every C6Cl4 ring is utilized as both a donor and an acceptor of Cl...π contacts. Thus, these two-dimensional sheets pack in a helical fashion, constructing a three-dimensional network.

  18. Some observations of the pH of precipitation elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsberg, H

    1954-01-01

    A year of observations of pH values of individual rain drops and snowflakes near Boston, Mass., showed acidic values ranging from 3 to 5.5 with a mean value of 4. There was no systematic relation between pH and the duration of rainfall. Drizzle and light rain had the lowest values, heavy rain and solid precipitation had the highest. There is a tendency for smaller drops to have lower values of pH than the larger ones. Measurements of dew and frost showed also a range from 3 to 5.5 with a mean value of 4.3.

  19. Polymeric gel nanoparticle pH sensors for intracellular measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Kristoffer; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Benjaminsen, Rikke Vicki

    pH range is approximately 4 pH units and thus a nanoparticle sensor with two pH sensitive fluorophores is appropriate. With one pH sensitive fluorophore the output from the sensor follows R=R0+R1/10(pKa-pH), where R is the ratio of fluorescence for the two fluorophores, R0 is the minimum value of R...

  20. Lixiviação do picloram em argissolo vermelho-amarelo e latossolo vermelho-amarelo com diferentes valores de pH Picloram leaching on red-yellow latosol and red-yellow ultisol with different pH values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D'Antonino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de lixiviação do picloram em solos utilizados em pastagens no Brasil (Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo e Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, com dois valores de pH. Para isso, amostras desses solos coletadas à profundidade de 0-20 cm (incubadas ou não com calcário por um período de 70 dias foram utilizadas como substrato para preenchimento de colunas de PVC de 10 cm de diâmetro por 50 cm de comprimento. Realizou-se um experimento em esquema de parcela subsubdividida, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos compreenderam a combinação de uma dose do herbicida picloram (160 g ha-1, três intensidades de chuva (40, 80 e 120 mm, três tipos de solo e 10 profundidades de amostragem nas colunas. As avaliações realizadas foram relativas ao desenvolvimento das plantas indicadoras nos substratos das colunas nas profundidades de 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-45 e 45-50 cm. Após o preparo das colunas, estas foram umedecidas e colocadas na posição vertical para drenagem do excesso de água. Após esse período, aplicou-se no topo delas o herbicida e, 12 horas depois, foram feitas as simulações das chuvas, especificadas de acordo com o tratamento. Elas permaneceram na posição vertical por mais 72 horas, para drenagem e lixiviação do herbicida. Após esse período, as colunas foram abertas longitudinalmente e colocadas na posição horizontal, semeando-se ao longo delas a espécie indicadora (Cucumis sativus. Conclui-se que o picloram apresentou alta taxa de lixiviação em todos os solos estudados e que sua movimentação no perfil dos solos foi influenciada pelo volume de chuva simulado, pelo pH do solo e, também, por outras características do solo, possivelmente pelo teor de matéria orgânica. O solo com baixo teor de matéria orgânica e pH mais elevado apresentou maior índice de lixiviação do picloram aplicado à camada

  1. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  2. Evaluation of citric acid and GDL in the recovery at different pH levels of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 spores subjected to HTST treatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla Santos, M H; Torres Zarzo, J

    1996-04-01

    Spores of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 were treated at different temperatures (121, 126, 130 and 135 degrees C) in white asparagus purée (pH 5.8) and acidified with glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) and citric acid to pH levels of 5.5, 5.0 and 4.5. Afterwards, the spores were recovered in MPA3679 medium in various conditions: unacidified (pH 7.5), acidified with GDL (500 ppm) and acidified with citric acid (500 and 250 ppm) to pH levels of 6.5, 6.0 and 5.0. The results indicated that the pH levels, concentration and type of acid used act synergistically rather than independently. Citric acid has a stronger inhibiting effect than GDL on the recovery of C. sporogenes PA 3679 spores. At the higher heat treatments (130 and 135 degrees C) the major injury on the spores sensitize more than against the acids and low pH values.

  3. Determination of the human cytochrome P450 monooxygenase catalyzing the enantioselective oxidation of 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95) and 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB 183).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Haruna; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Nakano, Takeshi

    2017-10-17

    2,2',3,5',6-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95) and 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB 183) possess axial chirality and form the aS and aR enantiomers. The enantiomers of these congeners have been reported to accumulate in the human body enantioselectively via unknown mechanisms. In this study, we determined the cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase responsible for the enantioselective oxidization of PCB 95 and PCB 183, using a recombinant human CYP monooxygenase. We evaluated 13 CYP monooxygenases, namely CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, CYP2J2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP4F2, and aromatase (CYP19), and revealed that CYP2A6 preferably oxidizes aS-PCB 95 enantioselectively; however, it did not oxidize PCB 183. The enantiomer composition was elevated from 0.5 (racemate) to 0.54. In addition, following incubation with CYP2A6, the enantiomer fraction (EF) of PCB 95 demonstrated a time-dependent increase.

  4. Average rainwater pH, concepts of atmospheric acidity, and buffering in open systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljestrand, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    The system of water equilibrated with a constant partial pressure of CO/sub 2/, as a reference point for pH acidity-alkalinity relationships, has nonvolatile acidity and alkalinity components as conservative quantities, but not (H/sup +/). Simple algorithms are presented for the determination of the average pH for combinations of samples both above and below pH 5.6. Averaging the nonconservative quantity (H/sup +/) yields erroneously low mean pH values. To extend the open CO/sub 2/ system to include other volatile atmospheric acids and bases distributed among the gas, liquid and particulate matter phases, a theoretical framework for atmospheric acidity is presented. Within certain oxidation-reduction limitations, the total atmospheric acidity (but not free acidity) is a conservative quantity. The concept of atmospheric acidity is applied to air-water systems approximating aerosols, fogwater, cloudwater and rainwater. The buffer intensity in hydrometers is described as a function of net strong acidity, partial pressures of acid and base gases and the water to air ratio. For high liquid to air volume ratios, the equilibrium partial pressures of trace acid and base gases are set by the pH or net acidity controlled by the nonvolatile acid and base concentrations. For low water to air volume ratios as well as stationary state systems such as precipitation scavenging with continuous emissions, the partial pressures of trace gases (NH/sub 3/, HCl, NHO/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/, and CH/sub 3/COOH) appear to be of greater or equal importance as carbonate species as buffers in the aqueous phase.

  5. Average rainwater pH, concepts of atmospheric acidity, and buffering in open systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljestrand, Howard M.

    The system of water equilibrated with a constant partial pressure of CO 2, as a reference point for pH acidity-alkalinity relationships, has nonvolatile acidity and alkalinity components as conservative quantities, but not [H +]. Simple algorithms are presented for the determination of the average pH for combinations of samples both above and below pH 5.6. Averaging the nonconservative quantity [H +] yields erroneously low mean pH values. To extend the open CO 2 system to include other volatile atmospheric acids and bases distributed among the gas, liquid and particulate matter phases, a theoretical framework for atmospheric acidity is presented. Within certain oxidation-reduction limitations, the total atmospheric acidity (but not free acidity) is a conservative quantity. The concept of atmospheric acidity is applied to air-water systems approximating aerosols, fogwater, cloudwater and rainwater. The buffer intensity in hydrometeors is described as a function of net strong acidity, partial pressures of acid and base gases and the water to air ratio. For high liquid to air volume ratios, the equilibrium partial pressures of trace acid and base gases are set by the pH or net acidity controlled by the nonvolatile acid and base concentrations. For low water to air volume ratios as well as stationary state systems such as precipitation scavenging with continuous emissions, the partial pressures of trace gases (NH 3, HCl, HNO 3, SO 2 and CH 3COOH) appear to be of greater or equal importance as carbonate species as buffers in the aqueous phase.

  6. Influence of soil pH on the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Lofts, Stephen; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-12-01

    The effects of soil pH on the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus were evaluated. Isopods were exposed to a natural soil amended with CaCO3 to reach 3 different pH(CaCl2) levels (4.5, 6.2, and 7.3) and to standard LUFA 2.2 soil (pH 5.5) spiked with ZnO NPs (30 nm), non-nano ZnO (200 nm), and ionic Zn as ZnCl₂. Toxicity was expressed based on total Zn concentration in soil, as well as total Zn and free Zn²⁺ ion concentrations in porewater. Compared with ZnO-spiked soils, the ZnCl₂-spiked soils had lower pH and higher porewater Ca²⁺ and Zn levels. Isopod survival did not differ between Zn forms and soils, but survival was higher for isopods exposed to ZnO NPs at pH 4.5. Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for biomass change showed similar trends for all Zn forms in all soils, with higher values at intermediate pH. Median lethal concentration (LC50) and EC50 values based on porewater Zn or free Zn ion concentrations were much lower for ZnO than for ionic zinc. Zn body concentrations increased in a dose-related manner, but no effect of soil pH was found. It is suggested not only that dissolved or free Zn in porewater contributed to uptake and toxicity, but also that oral uptake (i.e., ingestion of soil particles) could be an important additional route of exposure. © 2013 SETAC.

  7. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5-6 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5-6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5-6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5-6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Managing the screen-viewing behaviours of children aged 5-6 years: a qualitative analysis of parental strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, R; Zahra, J; Edwards, M J; Kesten, J M; Solomon-Moore, E; Thompson, J L; Sebire, S J

    2016-03-01

    The present study used qualitative methods to: (1) examine the strategies that were used by parents of children aged 5-6 years to manage screen viewing; (2) identify key factors that affect the implementation of the strategies and (3) develop suggestions for future intervention content. Telephone interviews were conducted with parents of children aged 5-6 years participating in a larger study. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an inductive and deductive content analysis. Coding and theme generation was iterative and refined throughout. Parents were recruited through 57 primary schools located in the greater Bristol area (UK). 53 parents of children aged 5-6 years. Parents reported that for many children, screen viewing was a highly desirable behaviour that was difficult to manage, and that parents used the provision of screen viewing as a tool for reward and/or punishment. Parents managed screen viewing by setting limits in relation to daily events such as meals, before and after school, and bedtime. Screen-viewing rules were often altered depending on parental preferences and tasks. Inconsistent messaging within and between parents represented a source of conflict at times. Potential strategies to facilitate reducing screen viewing were identified, including setting screen-viewing limits in relation to specific events, collaborative rule setting, monitoring that involves mothers, fathers and the child, developing a family-specific set of alternative activities to screen viewing and developing a child's ability to self-monitor their own screen viewing. Managing screen viewing is a challenge for many parents and can often cause tension in the home. The data presented in this paper provide key suggestions of new approaches that could be incorporated into behaviour change programmes to reduce child screen viewing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Fragrance material review on 1-(3,5,6-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethan-1-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(3,5,6-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethan-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(3,5,6-Trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethan-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(3,5,6-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethan-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients (submitted for publication)) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis of Novel Heterocyclic Compounds Incorporate 4,5,6,7-Tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene Together with Their Cytotoxic Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Amira Elsayed Mahmoud; Mohareb, Rafat Milad; Khalil, Eid Metwally; Elshamy, Menna Alla Mohamed Abd Elaleem

    2017-01-01

    The 2-amino-3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene was the key starting compound used to synthesize new thiazole, pyrimidine, pyran, pyridine and thiazine derivatives. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized compounds was studied towards the three cancer cell lines namely MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer) and SF-268 (central nervous system (CNS) cancer) in addition to the normal cell line (WI-38) using doxorubicin as the reference drug. The study showed that compounds 5, 9a, 15b, 17c, 18 and 21b were the most potent compounds.

  11. SPORT-RECREATIVE ACTIVITIES 5-6 YEARS OLD CHILDREN IN KINDERGARDEN ’’CVRČAK’’ IN NIŠ

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Petrović; Zoran Jonić; Jadranka Kocić

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that body activities are needed in child such as food and drink. Nowadays way of life causes reduced movement in whole population, such as in preeschool children. Reducing movement in preeschool children can result many postural disturbances and body deformities. In that case it was made systematic medical chackup in children 5-6 years old from ’’Cvrčak’’- Niš kindergarden on food deformities during last seven years (2004-2010). Received results showed desastrous level on foo...

  12. Synthesis of polysubstituted 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrofuro[2,3-c]pyridines by a novel multicomponent reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, Aude; Zhu, Jieping

    2004-01-08

    [reaction: see text] A novel three-component synthesis of tetrahydrofuro[2,3-c]pyridines from readily accessible starting materials is described. Simply heating a toluene solution of an aminopentynoate, an aldehyde, and an alpha-isocyanoacetamide in the presence of ammonium chloride provided the 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrofuro[2,3-c]pyridines in good to excellent yield. The fused ring system is produced in this one-pot process by the concomitant formation of five chemical bonds.

  13. N-(4-Bromobenzyl-2-(5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzo[d]imid-azol-2-ylbenzeneamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dziełak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available N-(4-Bromobenzyl-2-(5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylbenzeneamine was obtained by condensation of N-(4-bromobenzyl-3,1-benzoxazine-2,4-dione (N-(4-bromobenzylisatoic anhydride with 4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine in refluxing acetic acid. This is a rare example of condensation of N-substituted 3,1-benzoxazine-2,4-dione with 1,2-phenylenediamine, which resulted in the formation of a benzimidazole derivative with a moderate yield. Crystallographic studies and initial biological screening were performed for the obtained product.

  14. The in vitro digestibility of beef varies with its inherent ultimate pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Mustafa M; Wu, Guojie; Frost, Deborah A; Clerens, Stefan; Knowles, Scott O

    2014-11-01

    Animal carcasses and cuts of meat are usually differentiated and valued according to size and compositional attributes. An underappreciated variable of red meat is its inherent ultimate pH (pHu) value, which affects organoleptic and processing characteristics. This study tests the hypothesis that high pHu aged meat would be more digestible than low pHu unaged (fresh) meat. Longissimus dorsi muscles collected from 59 bull carcasses had pHu values of 5.6-6.9. These were aged for 21 days at -1.5 °C, then raw and cooked (72 °C) samples were enzymatically digested at 37 °C with pepsin (pH 1.9 for 90 min) followed by pancreatin (pH 8.0 for an additional 120 min) to simulate conditions in the stomach and small intestine, respectively. Meat proteins and peptides in the digests were separated by 1D SDS PAGE. Regardless of pHu, ageing or cooking, most sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were rapidly digested by pepsin, with concomitant release of products identified by LC-MS/MS as mainly myosin-1, -2 and -7, α-actinin-2 or -3 and tropomyosin beta and alpha chains. These products were resistant to further digestion for the entire 210 min duration of the incubation. In terms of rate and extent of digestibility of these resistant products, high pHu > low pHu (P unaged (P meat samples increased with increasing pHu (P meat was highly digestible but could be further differentiated on the basis of its pHu and the ease of digestibility of proteins. Specific carcasses or cuts could be targeted to consumer groups in order to provide benefits and add value.

  15. 1,3-dialkyl- and 1,3-diaryl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene rhodium(i) and palladium(II) complexes: synthesis, structure, and reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Monika; Wurst, Klaus; Ongania, Karl-Hans; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2004-03-05

    The synthesis of novel 1,3-diaryl- and 1,3-dialkylpyrimidin-2-ylidene-based N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and their rhodium(i) and palladium(II) complexes is described. The rhodium compounds bromo(cod)[1,3-bis(2-propyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene]rhodium (7), bromo(cod)(1,3-dimesityl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene)rhodium (8) (cod=eta(4)-1,5-cyclooctadiene, mesityl=2,4,6-trimethylphenyl), chloro(cod)(1,3-dimesityl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene)rhodium (9), and chloro(cod)[1,3-bis(2-propyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene]rhodium (10) were prepared by reaction of [[Rh(cod)Cl](2)] with lithium tert-butoxide followed by addition of 1,3-dimesityl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium bromide (3), 1,3-dimesityl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium tetrafluoroborate (4), 1,3-di-2-propyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium bromide (6), and 1,3-di-2-propyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium tetrafluoroborate, respectively. Complex 7 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n, and 8 in the monoclinic space group P2(1). Complexes 9 and 10 were used for the synthesis of the corresponding dicarbonyl complexes dicarbonylchloro(1,3-dimesityl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene)rhodium (11), and dicarbonylchloro[1,3-bis(2-propyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene]rhodium (12). The wavenumbers nu(CO I)/nu(CO II) for 11 and 12 were used as a quantitative measure for the basicity of the NHC ligand. The values of 2062/1976 and 2063/1982 cm(-1), respectively, indicate that the new NHCs are among the most basic cyclic ligands reported so far. Compounds 3 and 6 were additionally converted to the corresponding cationic silver(i) bis-NHC complexes [Ag(1,3-dimesityl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene)(2)]AgBr(2) (13) and [Ag[1,3-bis(2-propyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene](2)]AgBr(2) (14), which were subsequently used in transmetalation reactions for the synthesis of the corresponding palladium(II) complexes Pd(1,3-dimesityl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2

  16. Local pH Monitoring of Small Cluster of Cells using a Fiber-Optic Dual-Core Micro-Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sisi; Yang, Qingbo; Xiao, Hai; Shi, Honglan; Ma, Yinfa

    2017-03-31

    Biological studies of tissues and cells have enabled numerous discoveries, but these studies still bear potential risks of invalidation because of cell heterogeneity. Through high-accuracy techniques, recent studies have demonstrated that discrepancies do exist between the results from low-number-cell studies and cell-population-based results. Thus the urgent need to re-evaluate key principles on limited number of cells has been provoked. In this study, a novel designed dual-core fiber-optic pH micro-probe was fabricated and demonstrated for niche environment pH sensing with high spatial resolution. An organic-modified silicate (OrMoSils) sol-gel thin layer was functionalized by entrapping a pH indicator, 2', 7'-Bis (2-carbonylethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), on a ~70 μm sized probe tip. Good linear correlation between fluorescence ratio of I 560 nm /I 640 nm and intercellular pH values was obtained within a biological-relevant pH range from 6.20 to 7.92 (R 2 = 0.9834), and with a pH resolution of 0.035 ± 0.005 pH units. The probe's horizontal spatial resolution was demonstrated to be less than 2mm. Moreover, the probe was evaluated by measuring the localized extracellular pH changes of cultured human lung cancer cells (A549) when exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs). Results showed that the probe has superior capability for fast, local, and continual monitoring of a small cluster of cells, which provides researchers a fast and accurate technique to conduct local pH measurements for cell heterogeneity-related studies.

  17. [Androgen levels, parenting styles and aggressive behavior in 5-6-year-old boys and girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, José R; Azurmendi Imaz, Aitziber; Fano Ardanaz, Eduardo; Braza Lloret, Francisco; Muñoz Sánchez, José M; Carreras de Alba, María R

    2009-02-01

    Androgen levels, parenting styles and aggressive behavior in 5-6-year-old boys and girls. This study explores the relationship between androgen levels, parenting styles, and physical, verbal, and indirect aggression measures in 5-6-year-old children. 129 children (60 boys and 69 girls) were assessed in relation to their aggression levels using a peer-rating technique. Parents completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire, from which the different parenting styles were obtained. Testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured using an enzymoimmunoassay technique in saliva samples. A regression analysis indicated that the directive mother-androstenedione interaction at the age of 5 was predictive of physical aggression at the age of 6. In specific terms, the results showed that, in boys with high androstenedione levels, directive maternal behavior is associated with physical aggression. The results are subsequently discussed in light of postulates related to parenting characteristic of developmental psychology and we suggest a potential link of our results with the hypothesis of maternal dominance.

  18. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  19. Protonation mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-malic enzyme reaction from isotope effects and pH studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiick, D.M.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters and the primary deuterium isotope effects with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and also thionicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (thio-NAD) as the nucleotide substrates were determined in order to obtain information about the chemical mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme reaction. The maximum velocity with thio-NAD as the nucleotide is pH-independent from pH 4.2 to 9.6, while with NAD, V decreases below a pK of 4.8. V/K for both nucleotides decreases below a pK of 5.6 and above a pK of 8.9. Both the tartronate pKi and V/Kmalate decrease below a pK of 4.8 and above a pK of 8.9. Oxalate is competitive vs. malate above pH 7 and noncompetitive below pH 7 with NAD as the nucleotide. The oxalate Kis increases from a constant value above a pK of 4.9 to another constant value above a pK of 6.7. The oxalate Kii also increases above a pK of 4.9, and this inhibition is enhanced by NADH. In the presence of thio-NAD the inhibition by oxalate is competitive vs. malate below pH 7. For thio-NAD, both DV and D(V/K) are pH-independent and equal to 1.7. With NAD as the nucleotide, DV decreases to 1.0 below a pK of 4.9, while D(V/KNAD) and D(V/Kmalate) are pH-independent. Above pH 7 the isotope effects on V and the V/K values for NAD and malate are equal to 1.45, the pH-independent value of DV above pH 7. Results indicate that substrates bind to only the correctly protonated form of the enzyme. Two enzyme groups are necessary for binding of substrates and catalysis. Both NAD and malate are released from the Michaelis complex at equal rates which are equal to the rate of NADH release from E-NADH above pH 7. Below pH 7 NADH release becomes more rate-determining as the pH decreases until at pH 4.0 it completely limits the overall rate of the reaction

  20. CNT fibers p-doped with F4TCNQ (2,3,5,6-Tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Sandra; Boncel, Sławomir; Jóźwik, Iwona; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Koziol, Krzysztof; Łekawa-Raus, Agnieszka

    2017-08-01

    Films and fibers made of carbon nanotubes were found to be promising materials for future electrical and electronic engineering. Despite of many advantages provided by these materials, they are not without problems. The biggest issue is that the macroscopic CNT structures, such as films or fibers, have much lower electrical conductivity values than it is for individual carbon nanotubes. And therefore researchers worldwide try to increase electrical properties of those macroscopic structures. One of the approaches scientists are currently investigating is chemical doping. Despite chemical doping has been already reported there is still a huge list of compounds that are capable to increase the conductivity values and has not been tested yet. In this work one of such compounds has been examined. It is a strong p-dopant 2,3,5,6-Tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ). The solution of F4TCNQ in three different solvents (chloroform, acetic acid and dimethylsulfoxide) has been prepared and applied on purified CNT films. Both electrical conductivity and specific conductivity was measured. The best electrical conductivity value achieved is 5,24·106 S·m-1. Samples were also observed under SEM.

  1. Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardinelli, Paola A; Morelatto, Rosana A; Benavidez, Tomás E; Baruzzi, Ana M; López de Blanc, Silvia A

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacter R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva.

  2. Experimental investigation of highly excited states of the 5,6He and 5,6Li nuclei in the (6Li, 7Be) and (6Li, 7Li) one-nucleon-pick-up reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuta, S.B.; Novatskij, B.G.; Stepanov, D.N.; Aleksandrov, D.V.; Glukhov, Yu.A.; Nikol'skij, E.Yu.

    2002-01-01

    ( 6 Li, 7 Be) and ( 6 Li, 7 Li) reactions on the 6 Li, 7 Li nuclei have been investigated in the angular range of 0-20 deg in laboratory system at the 93-MeV 6 Li energy. Besides low-lying states of 5,6 He and 5,6 Li nuclei, broad structures have been observed in the measured spectra close to the t( 3 He) + d and t( 3 He) + t threshold at excitation energies of 16.75 (3/2 + ) and ∼ 20 MeV ( 5 He), 16.66 (3/2 + ) and ∼ 20 MeV ( 5 Li), 14.0 and 25 MeV ( 6 He), and ∼ 20 MeV ( 6 Li). Angular distributions, which have been measured for transitions to the ground (0 + ) and exited states at E x =1.8 MeV (2 + ) and 14.0 MeV of the 6 He nucleus in the 7 Li( 6 Li, 7 Be) 6 He reaction, have been analyzed in the framework of the finite-range distorted-waves method assuming the 1p- and 1s-proton pick-up mechanism. It has been shown that ( 6 Li, 7 Be) and ( 6 Li, 7 Li) reactions predominately proceed by one-step pick-up mechanism and broad structures which are observed at high excitation energies should be considered as quasimolecular states of the t( 3 He) + d and t( 3 He) + t type [ru

  3. Acute Smc5/6 depletion reveals its primary role in rDNA replication by restraining recombination at fork pausing sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao P Peng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smc5/6, a member of the conserved SMC family of complexes, is essential for growth in most organisms. Its exact functions in a mitotic cell cycle are controversial, as chronic Smc5/6 loss-of-function alleles produce varying phenotypes. To circumvent this issue, we acutely depleted Smc5/6 in budding yeast and determined the first cell cycle consequences of Smc5/6 removal. We found a striking primary defect in replication of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA array. Each rDNA repeat contains a programmed replication fork barrier (RFB established by the Fob1 protein. Fob1 removal improves rDNA replication in Smc5/6 depleted cells, implicating Smc5/6 in the management of programmed fork pausing. A similar improvement is achieved by removing the DNA helicase Mph1 whose recombinogenic activity can be inhibited by Smc5/6 under DNA damage conditions. DNA 2D gel analyses further show that Smc5/6 loss increases recombination structures at RFB regions; moreover, mph1∆ and fob1∆ similarly reduce this accumulation. These findings point to an important mitotic role for Smc5/6 in restraining recombination events when protein barriers in rDNA stall replication forks. As rDNA maintenance influences multiple essential cellular processes, Smc5/6 likely links rDNA stability to overall mitotic growth.

  4. Curcumin Induces Nrf2 Nuclear Translocation and Prevents Glomerular Hypertension, Hyperfiltration, Oxidant Stress, and the Decrease in Antioxidant Enzymes in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilia Tapia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal injury resulting from renal ablation induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6NX is associated with oxidant stress, glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, and impaired Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. The purpose of this work was to know if the bifunctional antioxidant curcumin may induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and prevents 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress, renal injury, decrease in antioxidant enzymes, and glomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration. Four groups of rats were studied: (1 control, (2 5/6NX, (3 5/6NX +CUR, and (4 CUR (n=8–10. Curcumin was given by gavage to NX5/6 +CUR and CUR groups (60 mg/kg/day starting seven days before surgery. Rats were studied 30 days after NX5/6 or sham surgery. Curcumin attenuated 5/6NX-induced proteinuria, systemic and glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and increase in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. This protective effect was associated with enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and with prevention of 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that the protective effect of curcumin against 5/6NX-induced glomerular and systemic hypertension, hyperfiltration, renal dysfunction, and renal injury was associated with the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the prevention of both oxidant stress and the decrease of antioxidant enzymes.

  5. ph Sensitive hydrogel as colon specific drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarifi, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    γ-radiation induced graft copolymerization and crosslinking was for the synthesis of ph-sensitive hydrogels composed of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) acrylic acid. The prepared hydrogels were subjected to swelling test to evaluate the effects of ph and ionic strength of the surrounding solution. Drastic changes in the swelling parameters where observed by changing the surrounding solution ph values. The release of ibuprofen from hydrogels was monitored as a function of time at ph 1 and ph 7 in order to evaluate the prepared copolymer ability for colon- specific drug carrier uses.

  6. Structural, magnetic and electronic properties of FexCoyIrz (x + y + z = 5, 6) clusters: an ab initio study

    KAUST Repository

    Devi, Assa Aravindh Sasikala

    2014-05-01

    Investigations on freestanding binary and ternary clusters of Fe (x) Co (y) Ir (z) (x + y + z = 5, 6) are carried out using ab initio density functional theory techniques. The geometry, chemical order, binding energy, magnetic moment and electronic structure of the clusters are analyzed for the entire range of composition. Composition dependent structural transition is observed in the five atom clusters, while octahedral geometry prevailed in clusters with six atoms. Both the clusters show increment in binding energy with the increase in number of heterogeneous bonds. Analysis based on the chemical order parameter indicates that clusters favor mixing rather than segregation. The clusters exhibit ferromagnetic ordering and the inter-dependence of optimal cluster geometry to the magnetic moments and electronic structure is observed.

  7. Constraining Reionization with the z ˜ 5-6 Lyα Forest Power Spectrum: The Outlook after Planck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñorbe, J.; Hennawi, J. F.; Lukić, Z.; Walther, M.

    2017-09-01

    The latest measurements of cosmic microwave background electron-scattering optical depth reported by Planck significantly reduces the allowed space of {{H}} {{I}} reionization models, pointing toward a later ending and/or less extended phase transition than previously believed. Reionization impulsively heats the intergalactic medium (IGM) to ˜ {10}4 {{K}}, and owing to long cooling and dynamical times in the diffuse gas that are comparable to the Hubble time, memory of reionization heating is retained. Therefore, a late-ending reionization has significant implications for the structure of the z˜ 5{--}6 Lyα forest. Using state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations that allow us to vary the timing of reionization and its associated heat injection, we argue that extant thermal signatures from reionization can be detected via the Lyα forest power spectrum at 5noise ratio will allow distinguishing between different reionization scenarios.

  8. Negative differential resistance and switch behavior of T-BxNy (x, y = 5, 6, 11) molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Liang; Yang, Chuan-Lu; Wang, Mei-Shan; Ma, Xiao-Guang; Xin, Jian-Guo

    2017-05-01

    The electronic transport properties of T-BxNy (x, y = 5, 6, 11) molecular junction are investigated based on first-principle density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method. Strong negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior is observed for T-B5N6 molecule under negative and positive bias voltages, with an obvious switch effect for T-B6N5. However, only small NDR is shown for the complex of the two molecules. The projected device density of states, the spatial distribution of molecular orbitals, and the effect of transmission spectra under various bias voltages on the electronic transport properties are analyzed. The obvious effect of bias voltage on the changes in the electronic distribution of frontier molecular orbitals is responsible for the NDR or switch behavior. Therefore, different functional molecular devices can be obtained with different structures of T-BxNy.

  9. Simple and Regioselective Bromination of 5,6-Disubstituted-indan-1-ones with Br2 Under Acidic and Basic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsook Ma

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromination of 5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-one with Br2 in acetic acid at room temperature produced exclusively the corresponding 2,4-dibromo compound in 95% yield. Reaction of 5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-one with Br2 in the presence of KOH, K2CO3 or Cs2CO3 at ~0°C gave the monobrominated product 4-bromo-5,6-dimethoxyindan-3-one in 79%, 81% and 67% yield, respectively. 5,6-Dihydroxyindan-1-one was dibrominated on the aromatic ring affording 4,7-dibromo-5,6-dihydroxyindan-1-one both in acetic acid at room temperature and in the presence of KOH at ~0°C. 5,6-Difluoroindan-1-one and 1-indanone were α-monobrominated in acetic acid and α,α-dibrominated under KOH conditions at room temperature.

  10. ALMA Reveals Weak [N II] Emission in "Typical" Galaxies and Intense Starbursts at z = 5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Riccardo; Riechers, Dominik A.; Capak, Peter L.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Sharon, Chelsea E.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Karim, Alexander; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Smolčić, Vernesa

    2016-12-01

    We report interferometric measurements of [N II] 205 μm fine-structure line emission from a representative sample of three galaxies at z = 5-6 using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). These galaxies were previously detected in [C II] and far-infrared continuum emission and span almost two orders of magnitude in star formation rate (SFR). Our results show at least two different regimes of ionized interstellar medium properties for galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time, separated by their {L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}[{{N}{{II}}]} ratio. We find extremely low [N II] emission compared to [C II] ({L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}[{{N}{{II}}]}={68}-28+200) from a “typical” ˜ {L}{UV}* star-forming galaxy, likely directly or indirectly (by its effect on the radiation field) related to low dust abundance and low metallicity. The infrared-luminous modestly star-forming Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) in our sample is characterized by an ionized-gas fraction ({L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}[{{N}{{II}}]}≲ 20) typical of local star-forming galaxies and shows evidence for spatial variations in its ionized-gas fraction across an extended gas reservoir. The extreme SFR, warm and compact dusty starburst AzTEC-3 shows an ionized fraction higher than expected given its SFR surface density ({L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}[{{N}{{II}}]}=22+/- 8) suggesting that [N II] dominantly traces a diffuse ionized medium rather than star-forming H II regions in this type of galaxy. This highest redshift sample of [N II] detections provides some of the first constraints on ionized and neutral gas modeling attempts and on the structure of the interstellar medium at z = 5-6 in “normal” galaxies and starbursts.

  11. Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos and Its Hydrolysis Product 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol by a New Fungal Strain Cladosporium cladosporioides Hu-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chuyan; Liu, Hongmei; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Intensive use of chlorpyrifos has resulted in its ubiquitous presence as a contaminant in surface streams and soils. It is thus critically essential to develop bioremediation methods to degrade and eliminate this pollutant from environments. We present here that a new fungal strain Hu-01 with high chlorpyrifos-degradation activity was isolated and identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides based on the morphology and 5.8S rDNA gene analysis. Strain Hu-01 utilized 50 mg·L−1 of chlorpyrifos as the sole carbon of source, and tolerated high concentration of chlorpyrifos up to 500 mg·L−1. The optimum degradation conditions were determined to be 26.8°C and pH 6.5 based on the response surface methodology (RSM). Under these conditions, strain Hu-01 completely metabolized the supplemented chlorpyrifos (50 mg·L−1) within 5 d. During the biodegradation process, transient accumulation of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) was observed. However, this intermediate product did not accumulate in the medium and disappeared quickly. No persistent accumulative metabolite was detected by gas chromatopraphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis at the end of experiment. Furthermore, degradation kinetics of chlorpyrifos and TCP followed the first-order model. Compared to the non-inoculated controls, the half-lives (t 1/2) of chlorpyrifos and TCP significantly reduced by 688.0 and 986.9 h with the inoculum, respectively. The isolate harbors the metabolic pathway for the complete detoxification of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product TCP, thus suggesting the fungus may be a promising candidate for bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated water, soil or crop. PMID:23056611

  12. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol by a new fungal strain Cladosporium cladosporioides Hu-01.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Chen

    Full Text Available Intensive use of chlorpyrifos has resulted in its ubiquitous presence as a contaminant in surface streams and soils. It is thus critically essential to develop bioremediation methods to degrade and eliminate this pollutant from environments. We present here that a new fungal strain Hu-01 with high chlorpyrifos-degradation activity was isolated and identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides based on the morphology and 5.8S rDNA gene analysis. Strain Hu-01 utilized 50 mg·L(-1 of chlorpyrifos as the sole carbon of source, and tolerated high concentration of chlorpyrifos up to 500 mg·L(-1. The optimum degradation conditions were determined to be 26.8°C and pH 6.5 based on the response surface methodology (RSM. Under these conditions, strain Hu-01 completely metabolized the supplemented chlorpyrifos (50 mg·L(-1 within 5 d. During the biodegradation process, transient accumulation of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP was observed. However, this intermediate product did not accumulate in the medium and disappeared quickly. No persistent accumulative metabolite was detected by gas chromatopraphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis at the end of experiment. Furthermore, degradation kinetics of chlorpyrifos and TCP followed the first-order model. Compared to the non-inoculated controls, the half-lives (t(1/2 of chlorpyrifos and TCP significantly reduced by 688.0 and 986.9 h with the inoculum, respectively. The isolate harbors the metabolic pathway for the complete detoxification of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product TCP, thus suggesting the fungus may be a promising candidate for bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated water, soil or crop.

  13. Nikkaji Dictionary: 5,6-デヒドロカワイン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 5,6-デヒドロカワイン 名詞 一般 * * * * 5,6-デヒドロカワイン... ... Nikkaji J81.846A 200906025517317372 C CA06 UNKNOWN_2 5 , 6 - デヒドロカワイン

  14. Novel pH control strategy for glutathione overproduction in batch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of pH values on cell growth and glutathione (GSH) production were studied in batch cultivation of Candida utilis. According to the fact that lower pH value favors cells growth but retards GSH production and higher pH value promotes GSH production while inhibits cells growth, a pH-shift strategy, optimized via ...

  15. Six Month In Situ High-Resolution Carbonate Chemistry and Temperature Study on a Coral Reef Flat Reveals Asynchronous pH and Temperature Anomalies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Kline

    Full Text Available Understanding the temporal dynamics of present thermal and pH exposure on coral reefs is crucial for elucidating reef response to future global change. Diel ranges in temperature and carbonate chemistry parameters coupled with seasonal changes in the mean conditions define periods during the year when a reef habitat is exposed to anomalous thermal and/or pH exposure. Anomalous conditions are defined as values that exceed an empirically estimated threshold for each variable. We present a 200-day time series from June through December 2010 of carbonate chemistry and environmental parameters measured on the Heron Island reef flat. These data reveal that aragonite saturation state, pH, and pCO2 were primarily modulated by biologically-driven changes in dissolved organic carbon (DIC and total alkalinity (TA, rather than salinity and temperature. The largest diel temperature ranges occurred in austral spring, in October (1.5 - 6.6°C and lowest diel ranges (0.9 - 3.2°C were observed in July, at the peak of winter. We observed large diel total pH variability, with a maximum range of 7.7 - 8.5 total pH units, with minimum diel average pH values occurring during spring and maximum during fall. As with many other reefs, the nighttime pH minima on the reef flat were far lower than pH values predicted for the open ocean by 2100. DIC and TA both increased from June (end of Fall to December (end of Spring. Using this high-resolution dataset, we developed exposure metrics of pH and temperature individually for intensity, duration, and severity of low pH and high temperature events, as well as a combined metric. Periods of anomalous temperature and pH exposure were asynchronous on the Heron Island reef flat, which underlines the importance of understanding the dynamics of co-occurrence of multiple stressors on coastal ecosystems.

  16. Six Month In Situ High-Resolution Carbonate Chemistry and Temperature Study on a Coral Reef Flat Reveals Asynchronous pH and Temperature Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, David I; Teneva, Lida; Hauri, Claudine; Schneider, Kenneth; Miard, Thomas; Chai, Aaron; Marker, Malcolm; Dunbar, Rob; Caldeira, Ken; Lazar, Boaz; Rivlin, Tanya; Mitchell, Brian Gregory; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the temporal dynamics of present thermal and pH exposure on coral reefs is crucial for elucidating reef response to future global change. Diel ranges in temperature and carbonate chemistry parameters coupled with seasonal changes in the mean conditions define periods during the year when a reef habitat is exposed to anomalous thermal and/or pH exposure. Anomalous conditions are defined as values that exceed an empirically estimated threshold for each variable. We present a 200-day time series from June through December 2010 of carbonate chemistry and environmental parameters measured on the Heron Island reef flat. These data reveal that aragonite saturation state, pH, and pCO2 were primarily modulated by biologically-driven changes in dissolved organic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA), rather than salinity and temperature. The largest diel temperature ranges occurred in austral spring, in October (1.5 - 6.6°C) and lowest diel ranges (0.9 - 3.2°C) were observed in July, at the peak of winter. We observed large diel total pH variability, with a maximum range of 7.7 - 8.5 total pH units, with minimum diel average pH values occurring during spring and maximum during fall. As with many other reefs, the nighttime pH minima on the reef flat were far lower than pH values predicted for the open ocean by 2100. DIC and TA both increased from June (end of Fall) to December (end of Spring). Using this high-resolution dataset, we developed exposure metrics of pH and temperature individually for intensity, duration, and severity of low pH and high temperature events, as well as a combined metric. Periods of anomalous temperature and pH exposure were asynchronous on the Heron Island reef flat, which underlines the importance of understanding the dynamics of co-occurrence of multiple stressors on coastal ecosystems.

  17. Detection of surface mobility of poly (2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentafluorostyrene) films by in situ variable-temperature ToF-SIMS and contact angle measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yi; Lau, Yiu-Ting R; Weng, Lu-Tao; Ng, Kai-Mo; Chan, Chi-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Poly (2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentafluorostyrene) (5FPS) was prepared by bulk radical polymerization. The spin-cast films of this polymer were analyzed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) at various temperatures ranging from room temperature to 120°C. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the ToF-SIMS data revealed a transition temperature (T(T)) at which the surface structure of 5FPS was rearranged. A comparison between the results of the PCA of ToF-SIMS spectra obtained on 5FPS and polystyrene (PS) indicate that the pendant groups of 5FPS and PS moved in exactly opposite directions as the temperature increased. More pendant groups of 5FPS and PS migrated from the bulk to the surface and verse versa, respectively, as the temperature increased. These results clearly support the view that the abrupt changes in the normalized principal component 1 value was caused by the surface reorientation of the polymers and not by a change in the ion fragmentation mechanism at temperatures above the T(T). Contact angle measurement, which is another extremely surface sensitive technique, was used to monitor the change in the surface tension as a function of temperature. A clear T(T) was determined by the contact angle measurements. The T(T) values determined by contact angle measurements and ToF-SIMS were very similar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. PhD Dissertations

    OpenAIRE

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di)

    2010-01-01

    Report of PhD Dissertations.Anna Airò La scrittura delle regole. Politica e istituzioni a Taranto nel Quattrocento, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 Pasquale Arfé La Clavis Physicae II (316-529) di Honorius Augustodunensis. Studio ed edizione critica, Tesi di dottorato in Storia della filosofia medievale, Università degli Studi di Napoli "L'Orientale", 2005 Alessandro Azzimonti Scrittura agiografica e strutture di potere nell'Italia c...

  19. Esophageal pH monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    pH monitoring - esophageal; Esophageal acidity test ... Esophageal pH monitoring is used to check how much stomach acid is entering the esophagus. It also checks how well the acid is cleared downward into the ...

  20. Skin pH, Atopic Dermatitis, and Filaggrin Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandier, Josefine; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup

    2014-01-01

    mutations may influence skin pH. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the epidermal pH in different groups stratified by filaggrin mutations and atopic dermatitis. Further, we investigated the changes in pH according to severity of mutational status among patients with dermatitis, irrespective of skin condition....... METHODS: pH was measured with a multiprobe system pH probe (PH 905), and the study population was composed of 67 individuals, who had all been genotyped for 3 filaggrin mutations (R501X, 2282del4, R2447X). RESULTS: We found no clear pattern in relation to filaggrin mutation carrier status. Individuals...... with wild-type filaggrin displayed both the most acidic and most alkaline values independent of concomitant skin disease; however, no statistical differences between the groups were found. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of significant diversity in skin pH in relation to filaggrin mutation carrier status suggests...

  1. Synthesis of 1-benzyl-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy[2-14C]-1-indanon)-2-YL]-methylpiperidine hydrochloride (E2020-14C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimura, Youichi; Mishima, Mannen; Sugimoto, Hachiro

    1989-01-01

    1-Benzyl-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy[2- 14 C]-1-indanon)-2-yl]-methylpiperidine hydrochloride (E2020- 14 C), and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor for studying the pharmacokinetic profiles of E2020, was synthesized from 5,6-dimethoxy[2- 14 C]-1-indanone as the labelled starting material. (author)

  2. Synthesis of 1-benzyl-4-((5,6-dimethoxy(2- sup 14 C)-1-indanon)-2-YL)-methylpiperidine hydrochloride (E2020- sup 14 C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimura, Youichi; Mishima, Mannen; Sugimoto, Hachiro (Eisai Co., Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Labs.)

    1989-07-01

    1-Benzyl-4-((5,6-dimethoxy(2-{sup 14}C)-1-indanon)-2-yl)-methylpiperidine hydrochloride (E2020-{sup 14}C), and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor for studying the pharmacokinetic profiles of E2020, was synthesized from 5,6-dimethoxy(2-{sup 14}C)-1-indanone as the labelled starting material. (author).

  3. Synthesis and muscarinic receptor pharmacology of a series of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisothiazolo[4,5-c]pyridine bioisosteres of arecoline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H; Bräuner-Osborne, H; Ball, R G

    1999-01-01

    A series of O- and ring-alkylated derivatives of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisothiazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-3-ol was synthesized via treatment of appropriately substituted 4-benzylamino-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carboxamides with hydrogen sulfide and subsequent ring closure by oxidation with bromine. The mus...

  4. COMPARISON OF IMMUNOASSAY AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY METHODS FOR MEASURING 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by a commercial RaPID immunoassay testing kit. ...

  5. Vitamin D Receptor Activation Mitigates the Impact of Uremia on Endothelial Function in the 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ruth Wu-Wong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction increases cardiovascular disease risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD. This study investigates whether VDR activation affects endothelial function in CKD. The 5/6 nephrectomized (NX rats with experimental chronic renal insufficiency were treated with or without paricalcitol, a VDR activator. Thoracic aortic rings were precontracted with phenylephrine and then treated with acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside. Uremia significantly affected aortic relaxation (−50.0±7.4% in NX rats versus −96.2±5.3% in SHAM at 30 M acetylcholine. The endothelial-dependent relaxation was improved to –58.2±6.0%, –77.5±7.3%, and –90.5±4.0% in NX rats treated with paricalcitol at 0.021, 0.042, and 0.083 g/kg for two weeks, respectively, while paricalcitol at 0.042 g/kg did not affect blood pressure and heart rate. Parathyroid hormone (PTH suppression alone did not improve endothelial function since cinacalcet suppressed PTH without affecting endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation. N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester completely abolished the effect of paricalcitol on improving endothelial function. These results demonstrate that VDR activation improves endothelial function in CKD.

  6. Prenatal stress and balance of the child's cardiac autonomic nervous system at age 5-6 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée E van Dijk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autonomic nervous system (ANS misbalance is a potential causal factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. The ANS may be programmed during pregnancy due to various maternal factors. Our aim is to study maternal prenatal psychosocial stress as a potential disruptor of cardiac ANS balance in the child. METHODS: Mothers from a prospective birth cohort (ABCD study filled out a questionnaire at gestational week 16 [IQR 12-20], that included validated instruments for state anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain. A cumulative stress score was also calculated (based on 80(th percentiles. Indicators of cardiac ANS in the offspring at age 5-6 years are: pre-ejection period (PEP, heart rate (HR, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA and cardiac autonomic balance (CAB, measured with electrocardiography and impedance cardiography in resting supine and sitting positions. RESULTS: 2,624 mother-child pairs, only single births, were available for analysis. The stress scales were not significantly associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.17. Accumulation of maternal stress was also not associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.07. CONCLUSION: Results did not support the hypothesis that prenatal maternal psychosocial stress deregulates cardiac ANS balance in the offspring, at least in rest, and at the age of five-six years.

  7. Differential Sensor for PH Monitoring of Environmental Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanenko Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential pH sensor is proposed. Reference electrode and measuring electrode are the same type. Reference electrode is immersed in standard buffer solution with known pH value. The differential pH sensor has longer service life as compared with the traditionally used sensors with silver chloride reference electrode. Ultrasonic cleaning system is proposed to clean the primary measuring transducer from pollution that form as result of silting during long-term operation with the sensor.

  8. Effect of nitrogen form and pH of nutrient solution on the changes in pH and EC of spinach rhizosphere in hydroponic culture

    OpenAIRE

    M. Parsazadeh; N. Najafi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of nitrate to ammonium ratio and pH of nutrient solution on the changes in pH and EC of rhizosphere during spinach growth period in perlite culture, under greenhouse conditions, was investigated. A split factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with four replications was conducted with three factors including nutrient solution’s pH in three levels (4.5, 6.5 and 8), nitrate to ammonium ratio of nutrient solution in five levels (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75...

  9. Characterizing the variation in pH measurements with apheresis platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroff, Gary; Seetharaman, Shalini; Kurtz, James; Wagner, Stephen J

    2011-11-01

    pH measurements of platelet (PLT) components remain a key parameter when assessing how storage and shipping conditions influence the retention of PLT properties. Studies were conducted to characterize variations in pH measured with two pH meters and a blood gas analyzer. Samples were obtained from apheresis PLT units that were stored with or without continuous agitation to measure a range of pH values. pH values were determined with pH meters at room temperature (20-24°C) upon placing of samples in 5-mL sterile polypropylene tubes and with the blood gas analyzer at 37°C upon injection of identical samples, with conversion to 22°C. The calculated coefficient of variation (%CV) of pH measurements using pH meters (n = 10) was 0.43% or less. The %CV values were comparable with different samples having pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.4. The %CV levels with the blood gas analyzer were comparable to those observed with the pH meters. The difference in the mean pH values for the two pH meters was no greater than 0.10 units, with 9 of 10 samples having differences in values of 0.05 or less; however, greater differences of values (0.1 to 0.2) were observed between pH measured using the blood gas analyzer and pH meters. Our data show good precision and comparability of pH measurements with two pH meters. Differences in pH values were greater on comparison of the blood gas analyzer with the pH meters. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  10. Sacarose e pH na germinação in vitro de grãos de pólen de citros Sucrose and pH on in vitro pollen germination of citros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Aparecida Salles

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da sacarose e pH na germinação in vitro de grãos de pólen das cultivares Valência, Natal e Pêra. Para testar o efeito da sacarose, os grãos de pólen foram distribuídos uniformemente em placas de Petri contendo meio de cultura básico constituído de 10 gL-1 de ágar, 800 mgL-1 de nitrato de cálcio e 200 mgL-1 de ácido bórico, acrescido de sacarose (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 gL-1. Para verificação do pH satisfatório, os grãos de pólen foram inoculados em meio de cultura contendo 10 gL-1 de ágar e 800 mgL-1 de nitrato de cálcio, 200 mgL-1 de ácido bórico,100 gL-1 de sacarose e pH de 3,5; 4,0; 4,5; 5,0; 5,5; 6,0; 6,5. Após inoculação, os grãos de pólen foram incubados em BOD a 25ºC por 12 horas. A porcentagem de germinação foi obtida com auxílio de microscópio óptico com objetiva de 10 X. Para todas as cultivares estudadas, a maior porcentagem de germinação foi obtida com 100 gL-1 de sacarose e o maior número de grãos de pólen germinados foi verificado em pH 6,5, sendo observado que maiores valores de pH aumentaram também a quantidade de polens estourados para as cultivares Natal e Pêra e diminuíram para Valência.This work was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of sucrose and pH on in vitro pollen germination of cultivars Valencia, Natal and Pera (Citrus sinensis Osbeck. Pollens were distributed in Petri dishes containing culture medium with 10 gL-1 of agar 800 mgL-1 calcium nitrate, 200 mgL-1 boric acid, added of sucrose (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 gL-1 In order to verify the satisfactory pH, the pollen were inoculated in culture middle containing 10 agar gL-1 and 800 mgL-1 calcium nitrate, 200 mgL-1 acid bórico,100 sucrose gL-1 and pH values of 3,5; 4,0; 4,5; 5,0; 5,5; 6,0; 6,5. After inoculation, pollen were incubated at 25ºC for 12 hours B.O.D. The largest germination percentage was obtained with an aid of optical microscope with lens of 10 X. For all the studied

  11. Strengthening effect of nano-scale precipitates in a die-cast Mg–4Al–5.6Sm–0.3Mn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Bu, Fanqiang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qiu, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yangzhou Hongfu Aluminium Co. Ltd, Yangzhou 100049 (China); Li, Yangde; Li, Weirong [E-ande Scientific & Technology Co. Ltd, Dongguan 523000 (China); Sun, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Liu, Xiaojuan, E-mail: lxjuan@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Meng, Jian, E-mail: jmeng@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-04-25

    In this paper we report a quantitative study of the age-hardening in the high-pressure die-cast Mg–4Al−5.6Sm−0.3Mn alloy. The results indicate that a number of nano-scale spherical precipitates identified as Al{sub 3}Sm using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, precipitated in Mg matrix after aging at 150–225 °C, with no obvious changes on grain sizes, intermetallic phases formed during solidification, and dislocation densities. From the existing strengthening theory equations in which some lacking parameters were taken from the first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, a quantitative insight into the strengthening mechanisms of the nano-scale precipitate was formulated. The results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values, and the operative mechanism of precipitation strengthening was revealed as Orowan dislocation bypassing. - Highlights: • The yield strength of Mg–Al–Sm alloy was improved by aging treatment. • A number of nano-scale precipitates formed in matrix after aging treatments. • The nanoscale precipitate was confirmed as Al{sub 3}Sm based on the data of HAADF-STEM study. • The strengthening mechanisms of the nano-scale precipitate were quantitatively formulated. • The operative mechanism of precipitate strengthening is Orowan dislocation bypassing.

  12. Predicting Transport of 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol Into Saliva Using a Combination Experimental and Computational Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan Ned; Carver, Zana A.; Weber, Thomas J.; Timchalk, Charles

    2017-04-11

    A combination experimental and computational approach was developed to predict chemical transport into saliva. A serous-acinar chemical transport assay was established to measure chemical transport with non-physiological (standard cell culture medium) and physiological (using surrogate plasma and saliva medium) conditions using 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) a metabolite of the pesticide chlorpyrifos. High levels of TCPy protein binding was observed in cell culture medium and rat plasma resulting in different TCPy transport behaviors in the two experimental conditions. In the non-physiological transport experiment, TCPy reached equilibrium at equivalent concentrations in apical and basolateral chambers. At higher TCPy doses, increased unbound TCPy was observed, and TCPy concentrations in apical and basolateral chambers reached equilibrium faster than lower doses, suggesting only unbound TCPy is able to cross the cellular monolayer. In the physiological experiment, TCPy transport was slower than non-physiological conditions, and equilibrium was achieved at different concentrations in apical and basolateral chambers at a comparable ratio (0.034) to what was previously measured in rats dosed with TCPy (saliva:blood ratio: 0.049). A cellular transport computational model was developed based on TCPy protein binding kinetics and accurately simulated all transport experiments using different permeability coefficients for the two experimental conditions (1.4 vs 0.4 cm/hr for non-physiological and physiological experiments, respectively). The computational model was integrated into a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and accurately predicted TCPy concentrations in saliva of rats dosed with TCPy. Overall, this study demonstrates an approach to predict chemical transport in saliva potentially increasing the utility of salivary biomonitoring in the future.

  13. Breastfeeding, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in Colostrum and Child Intelligence Quotient at Age 5-6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jonathan Y; Armand, Martine; Peyre, Hugo; Garcia, Cyrielle; Forhan, Anne; De Agostini, Maria; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    To examine the relationship of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in breast milk with children's IQ. In the French Etude des Déterminants pré- et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'Enfant (EDEN) mother-child cohort, colostrum samples were collected at the maternity unit. Colostrum omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA were analyzed by gas chromatography. At age 5-6 years, the IQs of 1080 children were assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III. The relationships of breastfeeding duration and PUFA levels with children's IQs were examined by linear regression. Full scale IQ of ever breastfed children was 4.5 (95% CI: 2.7, 6.2) higher than never breastfed children in the unadjusted model, but this was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (1.3 points higher [-0.4, 3.0]). Any breastfeeding duration was associated with full scale (0.20 [0.00, 0.41] points/month) and verbal (0.31 [0.09, 0.52]) IQ. Colostrum linoleic acid (LA) levels were negatively associated with Verbal IQ (-0.6 [-1.1, 0.0] points per 1% level increase). Children exposed to colostrum high in LA and low in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had lower IQs than those exposed to colostrum high in DHA (3.0 [0.5, 5.5] points) and those exposed to colostrum low in LA and DHA (4.4 [1.6, 7.3] points). Finally, the association between breastfeeding duration and child IQ was stronger when LA levels were high. Duration of breastfeeding and colostrum PUFA levels were associated with children's IQs in the EDEN cohort. These data support breastfeeding and add evidence for the role of early PUFA exposure on childhood cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibition of bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA synthesis by thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eliana F; Fabian, Lucas E; Caputto, María E; Gagey, Dolores; Finkielsztein, Liliana M; Moltrasio, Graciela Y; Moglioni, Albertina G; Campos, Rodolfo H; Cavallaro, Lucía V

    2011-06-01

    In the present work, we described the activity of the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC), which we previously characterized as a new compound that inhibits bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection. We showed that TSC acts at a point of time that coincides with the onset of viral RNA synthesis and that it inhibits the activity of BVDV replication complexes (RCs). Moreover, we have selected five BVDV mutants that turned out to be highly resistant to TSC but still susceptible to ribavirin (RBV). Four of these resistant mutants carried an N264D mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The remaining mutant showed an A392E mutation within the same protein. Some of these mutants replicated slower than the wild-type (wt) virus in the absence of TSC, whereas others showed a partial reversion to the wt phenotype over several passages in the absence of the compound. The docking of TSC in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed a close contact between the indane ring of the compound and several residues within the fingers domain of the enzyme, some hydrophobic contacts, and hydrogen bonds with the thiosemicarbazone group. Finally, in the mutated RdRp from resistant BVDV, these interactions with TSC could not be achieved. Interestingly, TSC inhibited BVDV replication in cell culture synergistically with RBV. In conclusion, TSC emerges as a new nonnucleoside inhibitor of BVDV RdRp that is synergistic with RBV, a feature that turns it into a potential compound to be evaluated against hepatitis C virus (HCV).

  15. Inhibition of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus RNA Synthesis by Thiosemicarbazone Derived from 5,6-Dimethoxy-1-Indanone▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eliana F.; Fabian, Lucas E.; Caputto, María E.; Gagey, Dolores; Finkielsztein, Liliana M.; Moltrasio, Graciela Y.; Moglioni, Albertina G.; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, we described the activity of the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC), which we previously characterized as a new compound that inhibits bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection. We showed that TSC acts at a point of time that coincides with the onset of viral RNA synthesis and that it inhibits the activity of BVDV replication complexes (RCs). Moreover, we have selected five BVDV mutants that turned out to be highly resistant to TSC but still susceptible to ribavirin (RBV). Four of these resistant mutants carried an N264D mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The remaining mutant showed an A392E mutation within the same protein. Some of these mutants replicated slower than the wild-type (wt) virus in the absence of TSC, whereas others showed a partial reversion to the wt phenotype over several passages in the absence of the compound. The docking of TSC in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed a close contact between the indane ring of the compound and several residues within the fingers domain of the enzyme, some hydrophobic contacts, and hydrogen bonds with the thiosemicarbazone group. Finally, in the mutated RdRp from resistant BVDV, these interactions with TSC could not be achieved. Interestingly, TSC inhibited BVDV replication in cell culture synergistically with RBV. In conclusion, TSC emerges as a new nonnucleoside inhibitor of BVDV RdRp that is synergistic with RBV, a feature that turns it into a potential compound to be evaluated against hepatitis C virus (HCV). PMID:21430053

  16. π–π-Induced aggregation and single-crystal fluorescence anisotropy of 5,6,10b-triazaacephenanthrylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Ostrowska

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The structural origin of absorption and fluorescence anisotropy of the single crystal of the π-conjugated heterocyclic system 5,6,10b-triazaacephenanthrylene, TAAP, is presented in this study. X-ray analysis shows that the crystal framework in the space group P\\overline{1} is formed by centrosymmetric dimers of face-to-face mutually oriented TAAP molecules joined by π–π non-covalent interactions. The conformation of the TAAP molecule is stabilized by intramolecular C—H...N(sp2, N(sp2H...π(CN, and C—H...O(sp2 hydrogen bonds. The presence of weak π–π interactions is confirmed by quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM and non-covalent interaction (NCI analysis. The analysis of the optical spectra of TAAP in solution and in the solid state does not allow the specification of the aggregation type. DFT calculations for the dimer in the gas phase indicate that the lowest singlet excitation is forbidden by symmetry, suggesting H-type aggregation, even though the overall absorption spectrum is bathochromically shifted as for the J-type. The experimental determination of the permanent dipole moment of a TAAP molecule in 1,4-dioxane solution indicates the presence of the monomer form. The calculated absorption and emission spectra of the crystal in a simple approximation are consistent with the experimentally determined orientation of the absorption and emission transition dipole moments in TAAP single crystals. The electrostatic interaction between monomers with a permanent dipole moment (ca 4 D each could result in the unusual spectroscopic JH-aggregate behaviour of the TAAP dimer.

  17. Predicting Transport of 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol Into Saliva Using a Combination Experimental and Computational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan Ned; Carver, Zana A; Weber, Thomas J; Timchalk, Charles

    2017-06-01

    A combination experimental and computational approach was developed to predict chemical transport into saliva. A serous-acinar chemical transport assay was established to measure chemical transport with nonphysiological (standard cell culture medium) and physiological (using surrogate plasma and saliva medium) conditions using 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) a metabolite of the pesticide chlorpyrifos. High levels of TCPy protein binding were observed in cell culture medium and rat plasma resulting in different TCPy transport behaviors in the 2 experimental conditions. In the nonphysiological transport experiment, TCPy reached equilibrium at equivalent concentrations in apical and basolateral chambers. At higher TCPy doses, increased unbound TCPy was observed, and TCPy concentrations in apical and basolateral chambers reached equilibrium faster than lower doses, suggesting only unbound TCPy is able to cross the cellular monolayer. In the physiological experiment, TCPy transport was slower than nonphysiological conditions, and equilibrium was achieved at different concentrations in apical and basolateral chambers at a comparable ratio (0.034) to what was previously measured in rats dosed with TCPy (saliva:blood ratio: 0.049). A cellular transport computational model was developed based on TCPy protein binding kinetics and simulated all transport experiments reasonably well using different permeability coefficients for the 2 experimental conditions (1.14 vs 0.4 cm/h for nonphysiological and physiological experiments, respectively). The computational model was integrated into a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and accurately predicted TCPy concentrations in saliva of rats dosed with TCPy. Overall, this study demonstrates an approach to predict chemical transport in saliva, potentially increasing the utility of salivary biomonitoring in the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights

  18. SPORT-RECREATIVE ACTIVITIES 5-6 YEARS OLD CHILDREN IN KINDERGARDEN ’’CVRČAK’’ IN NIŠ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Petrović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that body activities are needed in child such as food and drink. Nowadays way of life causes reduced movement in whole population, such as in preeschool children. Reducing movement in preeschool children can result many postural disturbances and body deformities. In that case it was made systematic medical chackup in children 5-6 years old from ’’Cvrčak’’- Niš kindergarden on food deformities during last seven years (2004-2010. Received results showed desastrous level on food arch, reduced function of food muscules. The idea was that reason for that was childs` reduced body activities, from 2008. year it was made and start to realize the project „komunication and culture in sport“, in regard to grow up sport culture level in children, parents and teachers. As all of us is born having some predispozitions, it was given chance to sport clubs to present to children, teachers and parents all of sport-recreative bases. In cooperation with physical education expert service Office and coatches from sport clubs in Niš, it was made the sport-recreative Project. In one cyclus during one year children are included in next sports: rhythmic gymnastics, judo, tennis, basketball, vollyball, foodball, athledics, skating, skiing. The project gave wonderfull results: a great number of children joined sport clubs, more sport-recreative activities in children, growing right mind about body exercises needs, such as better statistic results after childrens` systematic medical chackup in 2009. and 2010. year. Mentioned Project is lasted till now.

  19. An in vitro and in silico study on the flavonoid-mediated modulation of the transport of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) through Caco-2 monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, Maaike E.; Freidig, Andreas P.; Sandt, Johannes J.M. van de; Alink, Gerrit M.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Groten, John P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study describes the effect of different flavonoids on the absorption of the pro-carcinogen PhIP through Caco-2 monolayers and the development of an in silico model describing this process taking into account passive diffusion and active transport of PhIP. Various flavonoids stimulated the apical to basolateral PhIP transport. Using the in silico model for flavone, kaempferol and chrysoeriol, the apparent Ki value for inhibition of the active transport to the apical side was estimated to be below 53 μM and for morin, robinetin and taxifolin between 164 and 268 μM. For myricetin, luteolin, naringenin and quercetin, the apparent Ki values were determined more accurately and amounted to 37.3, 12.2, 11.7 and 5.6 μM respectively. Additional experiments revealed that the apical to basolateral PhIP transport was also increased in the presence of a typical BCRP or MRP inhibitor with apparent Ki values in the same range as those of the flavonoids. This observation together with the fact that flavonoids are known to be inhibitors of MRPs and BCRP, corroborates that inhibition of these apical membrane transporters is involved in the flavonoid-mediated increased apical to basolateral PhIP transport. Based on the apparent Ki values obtained, it is concluded that the flavonols, at the levels present in the regular Western diet, are capable of stimulating the transport of PhIP through Caco-2 monolayers from the apical to the basolateral compartment. This points to flavonoid-mediated stimulation of the bioavailability of PhIP and, thus, a possible adverse effect of these supposed beneficial food ingredients

  20. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  1. Proteolytische activiteit bij neutrale pH in rundermilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrink, Jan

    1969-01-01

    Intracellular enzymes, hydrolysing proteins optimally at acid pH values (acid proteases), have been studied in detail by several investigators. The existence of proteolytic activity at neutral pH in animal tissue extracts, on the other hand, has often been mentioned, but with few reports on the

  2. Electrical conductivity and pH of groundwater: important exploratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical conductivity and pH of groundwater: important exploratory tools in groundwater surveys. ... Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... An analysis of the spatial variation of these parameters indicates that the EC and pH values of groundwater allow us to make deductions not only on the changes in the ...

  3. A microbent fiber optic pH sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas Lee, S.; Aneeshkumar, B.N.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Vallabhan, C.P.G.; Nampoori, V.P.N.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber sensors developed for measuring pH values usually employ an unclad and unstrained section of the fiber. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of a microbent fiber optic sensor that can be used for pH sensing. In order to obtain the desired performance, a permanently

  4. Comparative investigation of the solution species [U(CO3)5]6- and the crystal structure of Na6[U(CO3)5].12H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Christoph; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Emmerling, Fanziska; Kraus, Werner; Bernhard, Gert

    2010-04-21

    The limiting U(IV) carbonate species in aqueous solution was investigated by comparing its structure parameters with those of the complex preserved in a crystal structure. The solution species prevails in aqueous solution of 0.05 M U(IV) and 1 M NaHCO(3) at pH 8.3. Single crystals of Na(6)[U(CO(3))(5)].12H(2)O were obtained directly from this mother solution. The U(IV) carbonate complex in the crystal structure was identified as a monomeric [U(CO(3))(5)](6-) anionic complex. The interatomic distances around the U(IV) coordination polyhedron show average distances of U-O = 2.461(8) A, U-C = 2.912(4) A and U-O(dist) = 4.164(6) A. U L(3)-edge EXAFS spectra were collected from the solid Na(6)[U(CO(3))(5)].12H(2)O and the corresponding solution. The first shell of the Fourier transforms (FTs) revealed, in both samples, a coordination of ten oxygen atoms at an average U-O distance of 2.45 +/- 0.02 A, the second shell originates from five carbon atoms with a U-C distance of 2.91 +/- 0.02 A, and the third shell was fit with single and multiple scattering paths of the distal oxygen at 4.17 +/- 0.02 A. These data indicate the identity of the [U(CO(3))(5)](6-) complex in solid and solution state. The high negative charge of the [U(CO(3))(5)](6-) anion is compensated by Na(+) cations. In solid state the Na(+) cations form a bridging network between the [U(CO(3))(5)](6-) units, while in liquid state the Na(+) cations seem to be located close to the anionic complex. The average metal-oxygen distances of the coordination polyhedron show a linear correlation to the radius contraction of the neighbouring actinide(IV) ions and indicate the equivalence of the [An(CO(3))(5)](6-) coordination within the series of thorium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium.

  5. SMC5/6 is required for the formation of segregation-competent bivalent chromosomes during meiosis I in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Grace; Sun, Fengyun; O'Brien, Marilyn; Eppig, John J; Handel, Mary Ann; Jordan, Philip W

    2017-05-01

    SMC complexes include three major classes: cohesin, condensin and SMC5/6. However, the localization pattern and genetic requirements for the SMC5/6 complex during mammalian oogenesis have not previously been examined. In mouse oocytes, the SMC5/6 complex is enriched at the pericentromeric heterochromatin, and also localizes along chromosome arms during meiosis. The infertility phenotypes of females with a Zp3-Cre -driven conditional knockout (cKO) of Smc5 demonstrated that maternally expressed SMC5 protein is essential for early embryogenesis. Interestingly, protein levels of SMC5/6 complex components in oocytes decline as wild-type females age. When SMC5/6 complexes were completely absent in oocytes during meiotic resumption, homologous chromosomes failed to segregate accurately during meiosis I. Despite what appears to be an inability to resolve concatenation between chromosomes during meiosis, localization of topoisomerase IIα to bivalents was not affected; however, localization of condensin along the chromosome axes was perturbed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the SMC5/6 complex is essential for the formation of segregation-competent bivalents during meiosis I, and findings suggest that age-dependent depletion of the SMC5/6 complex in oocytes could contribute to increased incidence of oocyte aneuploidy and spontaneous abortion in aging females. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Production of antimatter 5,6Li nuclei in central Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jia Sun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining the covariant coalescence model and a blast-wave-like analytical parametrization for (anti-nucleon phase–space freezeout configuration, we explore light (anti-nucleus production in central Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV. Using the nucleon freezeout configuration (denoted by FO1 determined from the measured spectra of protons (p, deutrons (d and 3He, we find the predicted yield of 4He is significantly smaller than the experimental data. We show this disagreement can be removed by using a nucleon freezeout configuration (denoted by FO2 in which the nucleons are assumed to freeze out earlier than those in FO1 to effectively consider the effect of large binding energy value of 4He. Assuming the binding energy effect also exists for the production of 5Li, Li‾5, 6Li and Li‾6 due to their similar binding energy values as 4He, we find the yields of these heavier (anti-nuclei can be enhanced by a factor of about one order, implying that although the stable (anti-6Li nucleus is unlikely to be observed, the unstable (anti-5Li nucleus could be produced in observable abundance in Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV where it may be identified through the p–4He (p‾–He‾4 invariant mass spectrum. The future experimental measurement on (anti-5Li would be very useful to understand the production mechanism of heavier antimatter.

  7. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations. Francesco Barone Istituzioni, società ed economia a Catania nel tardo medioevo (XIV-XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Laura Berti Ceroni Il territorio e le strutture di Cesarea e Classe tra tarda antichità e alto medioevo in rapporto con Ravenna, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia e Informatica, Università degli studi di Bologna, 2002-2003.   Marco Bicchierai Poppi dalla signoria dei conti Guidi al vicariato del Casentino (1360-1480, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XIV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Emanuela Garimberti Spatiosa ad habitandum loca. Luoghi e identità nella Historia Langobardorum di Paolo Diacono, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2004   Lorenzo Tanzini Sistemi normativi e pratiche istituzionali a Firenze dalla fine del XIII all’inizio del XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Stefania Tarquini Pellegrinaggio e asseto urbano di Roma, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dei centri, delle vie e della cultura dei pellegrinaggi nel Medioevo euro mediterraneo (XV ciclo, Università degli studi di Lecce, 2003

  8. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD dissertations. Andrea Brugnoli Una storia locale: l’organizzazione del territorio veronese nel medioevo: trasformazioni della realtà e schemi notarili (IX-metà XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Scienze Storiche e Antropologiche (XXII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Verona, 2010   Luca Filangieri Famiglie e gruppi dirigenti a Genova (secoli XII-metà XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XXII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2010   Jakub Kujawi ski Wernakularna kolekcja historiograficzna z rękopisu francuskiego nr 688 z Biblioteki Narodowej w Paryżu. Studium źródłoznawcze (La raccolta dei volgarizzamenti delle opere storiografiche nel manoscritto francese 688 della Biblioteca Nazionale di Parigi, Tesi di dottorato, Università “Adam Mickiewicz”, Facoltà di Storia, Pozna, a.a. 2009/2010   Marta Longhi I signori “de Radicata”. Strategie di affermazione familiare e patrimoniale nel Piemonte dei secoli XII-XIV, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Istituzioni, Società, Religioni dal Tardo Antico alla fine del Medioevo (XX ciclo, Università di Torino, 2008

  9. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Reporto of PhD Dissertations.   Mario Dalle Carbonare Società, potere e clientele nell’Irlanda altomedievale (secoli V-IX, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia sociale europea, Università "Ca' Foscari" di Venezia, 2003 Vieri Mazzoni La legislazione antighibellina e la politica oligarchica della Parte Guelfa di Firenze nel secondo Trecento (1347-1378, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia Medievale (ciclo XII, Università degli Studi di Firenze   Alma Poloni Pisa dalle origini del movimento popolare alla discesa di Ludovico il Bavaro. I gruppi dirigenti cittadini tra continuità e trasformazione, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dell'Europa nel medioevo, Università degli studi di Pisa, 2003   Andrea Puglia Potere marchionale, amministrazione del territorio, società locali dalla morte di Ugo di Tuscia a Guelfo VI di Baviera (1001-1160, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Milano, 2003

  10. Enkephalins: Raman spectral analysis and comparison as function of pH 1-13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Refstrup, Pia; Nielsen, O.F.

    2003-01-01

    Raman spectral studies are carried out on Leu- and Met-enkephalin as a function of the pH value in the range of 1-13. The molecules are dissolved in KCI solvent and the pH is controlled at each value. Spectral analyses reveal the dependence of the structural conformation on the pH, and a comparis...

  11. Focusing Cosmic Telescopes: Exploring Redshift z ~ 5-6 Galaxies with the Bullet Cluster 1E0657 - 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradač, Maruša; Treu, Tommaso; Applegate, Douglas; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Clowe, Douglas; Forman, William; Jones, Christine; Marshall, Phil; Schneider, Peter; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-12-01

    The gravitational potential of clusters of galaxies acts as a cosmic telescope allowing us to find and study galaxies at fainter limits than otherwise possible and thus probe closer to the epoch of formation of the first galaxies. We use the Bullet cluster 1E0657 - 56 (z = 0.296) as a case study, because its high mass and merging configuration makes it one of the most efficient cosmic telescopes we know. We develop a new algorithm to reconstruct the gravitational potential of the Bullet cluster based on a non-uniform adaptive grid, combining strong and weak gravitational lensing data derived from deep Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys F606W-F775W-F850LP and ground-based imaging. We exploit this improved mass map to study z ~ 5-6 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), which we detect as dropouts. One of the LBGs is multiply imaged, providing a geometric confirmation of its high redshift, and is used to further improve our mass model. We quantify the uncertainties in the magnification map reconstruction in the intrinsic source luminosity, and in the volume surveyed, and show that they are negligible compared to sample variance when determining the luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies. With shallower and comparable magnitude limits to Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) and Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), the Bullet cluster observations, after correcting for magnification, probe deeper into the luminosity function of the high-redshift galaxies than GOODS and only slightly shallower than HUDF. We conclude that accurately focused cosmic telescopes are the most efficient way to sample the bright end of the luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies and—in case they are multiply imaged—confirm their redshifts. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5

  12. Molecular aspects of bacterial pH sensing and homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulwich, Terry A.; Sachs, George; Padan, Etana

    2011-01-01

    Diverse mechanisms for pH-sensing and cytoplasmic pH homeostasis enable most bacteria to tolerate or grow at external pH values that are outside the cytoplasmic pH range they must maintain for growth. The most extreme cases are exemplified by the extremophiles that inhabit environments whose pH is below 3 or above 11. Here we describe how recent insights into the structure and function of key molecules and their regulators reveal novel strategies of bacterial pH-homeostasis. These insights may help us better target certain pathogens and better harness the capacities of environmental bacteria. PMID:21464825

  13. Temporal and spatial variability of rainfall pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard G. Semonin

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of average rainwater pH over an area of 1,800 km² containing 81 collectors was determined from 25 storm events. The areal average of the data was pH 4.9, with a range of values from 4.3 to 6.8. A single storm event was studied to determine the change of pH as a function of time. The initial rain was pH 7.1, decreasing to 4.1. An excellent...

  14. Understanding thermostability and pH dependent properties of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galberg, Pernille

    The work performed in this thesis is part of a larger project (“Computational design of stable enzymes”) involving several research teams, which aimed to improve PROPKA (http://propka.ki.ku.dk) and to provide the scientific community with a computational protocol and associated PROPKA program......, which could be used for predicting mutations with expectation of increased thermostability at a certain pH value or a shifted pH activity optimum. The ability of a Bacillus circulans xylanase (BCX) mutant (N35D/A115E) to induce a decrease in pH activity optimum was evaluated by a pH dependent xylanase...

  15. European Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement--SMi's 21st Annual Meeting (October 5-6, 2015--London, UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, A; D'Souza, P

    2015-10-01

    Translating perceived market value for pharmaceutical products into a willingness to pay remains the key factor in ensuring market access and return on investment. How price is managed in the context of new market entrants or new approval settings can create complex challenges, and further complexity is added through diverse global reimbursement structures and the myriad of stakeholders involved at every step of value identification. SMi's 21st Annual Meeting on European Pricing and Reimbursement presented a program focused on the measures being taken by European healthcare systems as they seek to facilitate access to the latest treatments while delivering value for payers and patients. Supporting patient access to life-changing medicines is a challenge, and funders are responding in many different ways; however, while the pharma industry continues to focus its efforts on high cost drugs that treat diseases of the few, the disconnect will be not be resolved. The speakers and delegates at the annual meeting believe success is possible by focusing on value for patients, driven by provider experience, scale and learning. Instead of simply lowering costs, companies, providers and payers can more adequately contribute to the goals of funders as well as the treatment needs of patients. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell wall pH and auxin transport velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Rayle, D.

    1984-01-01

    According to the chemiosmotic polar diffusion hypothesis, auxin pulse velocity and basal secretion should increase with decreasing cell wall pH. Experiments were designed to test this prediction. Avena coleoptile sections were preincubated in either fusicoccin (FC), cycloheximide, pH 4.0, or pH 8.0 buffer and subsequently their polar transport capacities were determined. Relative to controls, FC enhanced auxin (IAA) uptake while CHI and pH 8.0 buffer reduced IAA uptake. Nevertheless, FC reduced IAA pulse velocity while cycloheximide increased velocity. Additional experiments showed that delivery of auxin to receivers is enhanced by increased receiver pH. This phenomenon was overcome by a pretreatment of the tissue with IAA. Our data suggest that while acidic wall pH values facilitate cellular IAA uptake, they do not enhance pulse velocity or basal secretion. These findings are inconsistent with the chemiosmotic hypothesis for auxin transport.

  17. Investigation of the Effect of Story-Based Social Skills Training Program on the Social Skill Development of 5-6 Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Story-Based Social Skills Training Program on the social skill development of 5-6 year-old children. In the study, the pre-test/post-test and retention test experimental design with a control group was used. 5-6 year-old 60 (30 experimental, 30 control) preschool children participated in the…

  18. Planarizing cytosine: The S1 state structure, vibrations, and nonradiative dynamics of jet-cooled 5,6-trimethylenecytosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, Maria A.; Lobsiger, Simon; Schär, Tobias; Blancafort, Lluís; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    We measure the S0 → S1 spectrum and time-resolved S1 state nonradiative dynamics of the "clamped" cytosine derivative 5,6-trimethylenecytosine (TMCyt) in a supersonic jet, using two-color resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI), UV/UV holeburning, and ns time-resolved pump/delayed ionization. The experiments are complemented with spin-component scaled second-order approximate coupled cluster (SCS-CC2), time-dependent density functional theory, and multi-state second-order perturbation-theory (MS-CASPT2) ab initio calculations. While the R2PI spectrum of cytosine breaks off ˜500 cm-1 above its 000 band, that of TMCyt extends up to +4400 cm-1 higher, with over a hundred resolved vibronic bands. Thus, clamping the cytosine C5-C6 bond allows us to explore the S1 state vibrations and S0 → S1 geometry changes in detail. The TMCyt S1 state out-of-plane vibrations ν1', ν3', and ν5' lie below 420 cm-1, and the in-plane ν11', ν12', and ν23' vibrational fundamentals appear at 450, 470, and 944 cm-1. S0 → S1 vibronic simulations based on SCS-CC2 calculations agree well with experiment if the calculated ν1', ν3', and ν5' frequencies are reduced by a factor of 2-3. MS-CASPT2 calculations predict that the ethylene-type S1 ⇝ S0 conical intersection (CI) increases from +366 cm-1 in cytosine to >6000 cm-1 in TMCyt, explaining the long lifetime and extended S0 → S1 spectrum. The lowest-energy S1 ⇝ S0 CI of TMCyt is the "amino out-of-plane" (OPX) intersection, calculated at +4190 cm-1. The experimental S1 ⇝ S0 internal conversion rate constant at the S1(v'=0 ) level is kI C=0.98 -2.2 ṡ1 08 s-1, which is ˜10 times smaller than in 1-methylcytosine and cytosine. The S1(v'=0 ) level relaxes into the T1(3π π *) state by intersystem crossing with kI S C=0.41 -1.6 ṡ1 08 s-1. The T1 state energy is measured to lie 24 580 ±560 cm-1 above the S0 state. The S1(v'=0 ) lifetime is τ =2.9 ns, resulting in an estimated fluorescence quantum yield of Φf l=24 %. Intense

  19. Response of Syntrophic Propionate Degradation to pH Decrease and Microbial Community Shifts in an UASB Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liguo; Ban, Qiaoying; Li, Jianzheng; Jha, Ajay Kumar

    2016-08-28

    The effect of pH on propionate degradation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor containing propionate as a sole carbon source was studied. Under influent propionate of 2,000 mg/l and 35ºC, propionate removal at pH 7.5-6.8 was above 93.6%. Propionate conversion was significantly inhibited with stepwise pH decrease from pH 6.8 to 6.5, 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, 4.5, and then to 4.0. After long-term operation, the propionate removal at pH 6.5-4.5 maintained an efficiency of 88.5%-70.1%, whereas propionate was hardly decomposed at pH 4.0. Microbial composition analysis showed that propionate-oxidizing bacteria from the genera Pelotomaculum and Smithella likely existed in this system. They were significantly reduced at pH ≤5.5. The methanogens in this UASB reactor belonged to four genera: Methanobacterium, Methanospirillum, Methanofollis, and Methanosaeta. Most detectable hydrogenotrophic methanogens were able to grow at low pH conditions (pH 6.0-4.0), but the acetotrophic methanogens were reduced as pH decreased. These results indicated that propionate-oxidizing bacteria and acetotrophic methanogens were more sensitive to low pH (5.5-4.0) than hydrogenotrophic methanogens.

  20. Effect of low pH on the survival and emergence of aquatic insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, H L

    1971-01-01

    Mature larvae and nymphs of 9 species of aquatic insects (dragonflies, stoneflies, caddisflies, and mayfly) were tested in the laboratory at pH values from 1.0 to 7.0. The tl/sub 50/ values (pH at which 50 per cent of the organisms died) at 30 days ranged from pH 2.45 (Brachycentrus americanus) to pH 5.38 (Ephemeralla subvaria). The range at which 50 per cent of the insects emerged was pH 4.0 -5.9. The 9 species tested were all more sensitive to low pH during the period of emergence.

  1. FLEXIBLE PH SENSOR WITH POLYANILINE LAYER BASED ON IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Cheng-Hsin; Wu, Hsun-Pei; Chen, Cheng-Ho; Wu, Peng-Rong

    2012-01-01

    A flexible sensor with conducting polyaniline layer for detecting pH value based on the impedance measurement is fabricated and demonstrated in this study. The pH sensor consists of an interdigital electrode array on a flexible printed circuit and a thin-film polyaniline as the sensing layer. As the conductivity of polyaniline depends on the redox state, the impedance change of the polyaniline after it has reacted with different pH value solutions works as the sensing mechanism. In order to o...

  2. Influence of temperature, water activity and pH on growth of some xerophilic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gock, Melissa A; Hocking, Ailsa D; Pitt, John I; Poulos, Peter G

    2003-02-25

    The combined effects of water activity (aw), pH and temperature on the germination and growth of seven xerophilic fungi important in the spoilage of baked goods and confectionery were examined. Eurotium rubrum, E. repens, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus penicillioides, Penicillium roqueforti, Chrysosporium xerophilum and Xeromyces bisporus were grown at 25, 30 and 37 degrees C on media with pH values of 4.5, 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5 and a range of water activities (aw) from 0.92 to 0.70. The aw of the media was controlled with a mixture of equal parts of glucose and fructose. Temperature affected the minimum aw for germination for most species. For example, P. roqueforti germinated at 0.82 aw at 25 degrees C, 0.86 aw at 30 degrees C and was unable to germinate at 37 degrees C. E. repens germinated at 0.70 aw at 30 degrees C, but at 25 and 37 degrees C, its minimum aw for germination was 0.74. C. xerophilum and X. bisporus germinated at 0.70 aw at all three temperatures. The optimum growth occurred at 25 degrees C for P. roqueforti and W. sebi, at 30 degrees C for Eurotium species, A. penicillioides and X. bisporus and at 37 degrees C for C. xerophilum. These fungi all grew faster under acidic than neutral pH conditions. The data presented here provide a matrix that will be used in the development of a mathematical model for the prediction of the shelf life of baked goods and confectionery.

  3. Multimodality pH imaging in a mouse dorsal skin fold window chamber model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Hui Min; Schafer, Rachel; Pagel, Mark M.; Robey, Ian F.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2013-03-01

    Upregulate levels of expression and activity of membrane H+ ion pumps in cancer cells drives the extracellular pH (pHe,) to values lower than normal. Furthermore, disregulated pH is indicative of the changes in glycolytic metabolism in tumor cells and has been shown to facilitate extracellular tissue remodeling during metastasis Therefore, measurement of pHe could be a useful cancer biomarker for diagnostic and therapy monitoring evaluation. Multimodality in-vivo imaging of pHe in tumorous tissue in a mouse dorsal skin fold window chamber (DSFWC) model is described. A custom-made plastic window chamber structure was developed that is compatible with both imaging optical and MR imaging modalities and provides a model system for continuous study of the same tissue microenvironment on multiple imaging platforms over a 3-week period. For optical imaging of pHe, SNARF-1 carboxylic acid is injected intravenously into a SCID mouse with an implanted tumor. A ratiometric measurement of the fluorescence signal captured on a confocal microscope reveals the pHe of the tissue visible within the window chamber. This imaging method was used in a preliminary study to evaluate sodium bicarbonate as a potential drug treatment to reverse tissue acidosis. For MR imaging of pHe the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) was used as an alternative way of measuring pHe in a DSFWC model. ULTRAVIST®, a FDA approved x-ray/CT contrast agent has been shown to have a CEST effect that is pH dependent. A ratiometric analysis of water saturation at 5.6 and 4.2 ppm chemical shift provides a means to estimate the local pHe.

  4. Complexing agents and pH influence on chemical durability of type I moulded glass containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biavati, Alberto; Poncini, Michele; Ferrarini, Arianna; Favaro, Nicola; Scarpa, Martina; Vallotto, Marta

    2017-06-16

    Among the factors that affect the glass surface chemical durability, pH and complexing agents presence in aqueous solution have the main role (1). Glass surface attack can be also related to the delamination issue with glass particles appearance in the pharmaceutical preparation. A few methods to check for glass containers delamination propensity and some control guidelines have been proposed (2,3). The present study emphasizes the possible synergy between a few complexing agents with pH on the borosilicate glass chemical durability. Hydrolytic attack was performed in small volume 23 ml type I glass containers autoclaved according to EP or USP for 1 hour at 121°C, in order to enhance the chemical attack due to time, temperature and the unfavourable surface/volume ratio. 0,048 M or 0.024 M (moles/liter) solutions of the acids citric, glutaric, acetic, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and sodium phosphate with water for comparison, were used for the trials. The pH was adjusted ± 0,05 units at fixed values 5,5-6,6-7-7,4-8-9 by LiOH diluted solution. Since silicon is the main glass network former, silicon release into the attack solutions was chosen as the main index of the glass surface attack and analysed by ICPAES. The work was completed by the analysis of the silicon release in the worst attack conditions, of moulded glass, soda lime type II and tubing borosilicate glass vials to compare different glass compositions and forming technologies. Surface analysis by SEM was finally performed to check for the surface status after the worst chemical attack condition by citric acid. Copyright © 2017, Parenteral Drug Association.

  5. A PhD is a PhD is a PhD

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrow, Deborah Anne

    2017-01-01

    A PhD is a PhD is a PhD is a practice-based project that interrogates the process of an artist undertaking PhD research under established criteria. It consists of an exegesis, an original screenplay, and a digital film made for online viewing, with images drawn from a range of documentaries and films found on YouTube. They have been dissected, re-assembled and then re-embedded to YouTube. The source material covers topics such as medicalization of madness, the conspicuous appropriation of uni...

  6. Static electric dipole polarizabilities of An5+/6+ and AnO2+/2+ (An = U, Np, and Pu) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Payal; Peterson, Kirk A.; Clark, Aurora E.

    2014-01-01

    The parallel components of static electric dipole polarizabilities have been calculated for the lowest lying spin-orbit states of the penta- and hexavalent oxidation states of the actinides (An) U, Np, and Pu, in both their atomic and molecular diyl ion forms (An 5+/6+ and AnO 2 +/2+ ) using the numerical finite-field technique within a four-component relativistic framework. The four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock method formed the reference for MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations, while multireference Fock space coupled-cluster (FSCC), intermediate Hamiltonian Fock space coupled-cluster (IH-FSCC) and Kramers restricted configuration interaction (KRCI) methods were used to incorporate additional electron correlation. It is observed that electron correlation has significant (∼5 a.u. 3 ) impact upon the parallel component of the polarizabilities of the diyls. To the best of our knowledge, these quantities have not been previously reported and they can serve as reference values in the determination of various electronic and response properties (for example intermolecular forces, optical properties, etc.) relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle and material science applications. The highest quality numbers for the parallel components (α zz ) of the polarizability for the lowest Ω levels corresponding to the ground electronic states are (in a.u. 3 ) 44.15 and 41.17 for UO 2 + and UO 2 2+ , respectively, 45.64 and 41.42 for NpO 2 + and NpO 2 2+ , respectively, and 47.15 for the PuO 2 + ion

  7. 1,10-Phenanthroline-5,6-Dione–Based Compounds Are Effective in Disturbing Crucial Physiological Events of Phialophora verrucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Marcela Queiroz; Gonçalves, Diego de Souza; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; McCann, Malachy; Devereux, Michael; dos Santos, André Luis Souza; Kneipp, Lucimar Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Phialophora verrucosa is a dematiaceous fungus able to cause chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and mycetoma. All these fungal diseases are extremely difficult to treat and often refractory to the current therapeutic approaches. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity to develop new antifungal agents to combat these mycoses. In this context, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (phendione) and its metal-based derivatives [Ag(phendione)2]ClO4 = ([Ag(phendione)2]+) and [Cu(phendione)3](ClO4)2.4H2O = ([Cu(phendione)3]2+) on crucial physiological events of P. verrucosa conidial cells. Using the CLSI protocol, we have shown that phendione, [Ag(phendione)2]+ and [Cu(phendione)3]2+ were able to inhibit fungal proliferation, presenting MIC/IC50 values of 12.0/7.0, 4.0/2.4, and 5.0/1.8 μM, respectively. [Cu(phendione)3]2+ had fungicidal action and when combined with amphotericin B, both at sub-MIC (½ × MIC) concentrations, significantly reduced (~40%) the fungal growth. Cell morphology changes inflicted by phendione and its metal-based derivatives was corroborated by scanning electron microscopy, which revealed irreversible ultrastructural changes like surface invaginations, cell disruption and shrinkages. Furthermore, [Cu(phendione)3]2+ and [Ag(phendione)2]+ were able to inhibit metallopeptidase activity secreted by P. verrucosa conidia by approximately 85 and 40%, respectively. Ergosterol content was reduced (~50%) after the treatment of P. verrucosa conidial cells with both phendione and [Ag(phendione)2]+. To different degrees, all of the test compounds were able to disturb the P. verrucosa conidia-into-mycelia transformation. Phendione and its Ag+ and Cu2+ complexes may represent a promising new group of antimicrobial agents effective at inhibiting P. verrucosa growth and morphogenesis. PMID:28194139

  8. Static electric dipole polarizabilities of An{sup 5+/6+} and AnO{sub 2}{sup +/2+} (An = U, Np, and Pu) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Payal, E-mail: payal.parmar@wsu.edu, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu, E-mail: auclark@wsu.edu; Peterson, Kirk A., E-mail: payal.parmar@wsu.edu, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu, E-mail: auclark@wsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States); Clark, Aurora E., E-mail: payal.parmar@wsu.edu, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu, E-mail: auclark@wsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States); Material Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2014-12-21

    The parallel components of static electric dipole polarizabilities have been calculated for the lowest lying spin-orbit states of the penta- and hexavalent oxidation states of the actinides (An) U, Np, and Pu, in both their atomic and molecular diyl ion forms (An{sup 5+/6+} and AnO{sub 2}{sup +/2+}) using the numerical finite-field technique within a four-component relativistic framework. The four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock method formed the reference for MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations, while multireference Fock space coupled-cluster (FSCC), intermediate Hamiltonian Fock space coupled-cluster (IH-FSCC) and Kramers restricted configuration interaction (KRCI) methods were used to incorporate additional electron correlation. It is observed that electron correlation has significant (∼5 a.u.{sup 3}) impact upon the parallel component of the polarizabilities of the diyls. To the best of our knowledge, these quantities have not been previously reported and they can serve as reference values in the determination of various electronic and response properties (for example intermolecular forces, optical properties, etc.) relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle and material science applications. The highest quality numbers for the parallel components (α{sub zz}) of the polarizability for the lowest Ω levels corresponding to the ground electronic states are (in a.u.{sup 3}) 44.15 and 41.17 for UO{sub 2}{sup +} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, respectively, 45.64 and 41.42 for NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, respectively, and 47.15 for the PuO{sub 2}{sup +} ion.

  9. Static electric dipole polarizabilities of An(5+/6+) and AnO2 (+/2+) (An = U, Np, and Pu) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Payal; Peterson, Kirk A; Clark, Aurora E

    2014-12-21

    The parallel components of static electric dipole polarizabilities have been calculated for the lowest lying spin-orbit states of the penta- and hexavalent oxidation states of the actinides (An) U, Np, and Pu, in both their atomic and molecular diyl ion forms (An(5+/6+) and AnO2 (+/2+)) using the numerical finite-field technique within a four-component relativistic framework. The four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock method formed the reference for MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations, while multireference Fock space coupled-cluster (FSCC), intermediate Hamiltonian Fock space coupled-cluster (IH-FSCC) and Kramers restricted configuration interaction (KRCI) methods were used to incorporate additional electron correlation. It is observed that electron correlation has significant (∼5 a.u.(3)) impact upon the parallel component of the polarizabilities of the diyls. To the best of our knowledge, these quantities have not been previously reported and they can serve as reference values in the determination of various electronic and response properties (for example intermolecular forces, optical properties, etc.) relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle and material science applications. The highest quality numbers for the parallel components (αzz) of the polarizability for the lowest Ω levels corresponding to the ground electronic states are (in a.u.(3)) 44.15 and 41.17 for UO2 (+) and UO2 (2+), respectively, 45.64 and 41.42 for NpO2 (+) and NpO2 (2+), respectively, and 47.15 for the PuO2 (+) ion.

  10. Measuring and validation for isothermal solubility data of solid 2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxychromen-4-one (nobiletin) in supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, Adolfo L.; Toledo, Alma R.; Valle, José M. del; Fuente, Juan C. de la

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of nobiletin in supercritical carbon dioxide was obtained. • Measured at T = (313, 323, and 333) K and at (17.97 to 31.40) MPa. • Correlated with empirical equation expressed in terms of SC-CO_2 density. • Binary interaction parameters were fitted from experimental data using PR-EOS with Wong–Sandler mixing rule. • Thermodynamic consistency of phase equilibria data was evaluated using the G–D equation. - Abstract: Isothermal solubility of 2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxychromen-4-one (nobiletin) in supercritical carbon dioxide at temperatures of (313, 323 and 333) K and pressures from (18 to 31) MPa was measured using an analytic-recirculation methodology, with direct determination of the molar composition of the carbon dioxide-rich phase by using high performance liquid chromatography. Results indicated that the range of the measured solubility of nobiletin was from 107 · 10"−"6 mol · mol"−"1 at T = 333 K and 18.35 MPa to 182 · 10"−"6 mol · mol"−"1 at T = 333 K and 31.40 MPa, with a temperature crossover around 18 MPa. The validation of the experimental solubility data was carried out by using three approaches, namely, estimation of combined expanded uncertainty for each solubility data point from experimental parameters values (⩽77 · 10"−"6 mol · mol"−"1); thermodynamic consistency, verified utilizing a test adapted from tools based on Gibbs–Duhem equation and solubility modelling results; and, self-consistency, proved by correlating the solubility data with a semi-empirical model as a function of temperature, pressure and pure CO_2 density.

  11. The pH Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemecology, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

  12. Ultrahigh-resolution (1+1) photoionization spectroscopy of Kr I: Hyperfine structures, isotope shifts, and lifetimes for the n = 5,6,7 4p5ns Rydberg levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trickl, T.; Vrakking, M.J.J.; Cromwell, E.; Lee, Y.T.; Kung, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution measurements of the hyperfine structures and isotope shifts are reported for Kr I n = 5,6,7 4p 5 ns Rydberg levels, obtained using an extreme-ultraviolet laser with a bandwidth of 210 MHz in a resonant two-photon-ionization scheme. Use of known I 2 frequencies yields an improved absolute calibration of the Kr energy levels by more than one order of magnitude. The nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure indicates that the 4p 5 6s and 4p 5 7s states are described by a pure jj-coupling scheme, whereas the 4p 5 5s states depart from a pure jj-coupling scheme by 0.37(6)%. The magnetic hyperfine structure shows that the 4p 5 ns states are mixed with 4p 5 n'd states. The isotope shifts can be described as pure mass effects within the precision of our experiment. For the 4p 5 6s and 4p 5 7s states, lifetimes were determined that differ markedly from theoretical literature values

  13. Variation in pH optima of hydrolytic enzyme activities in tropical rain forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Benjamin L

    2010-10-01

    Extracellular enzymes synthesized by soil microbes play a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in the environment. The pH optima of eight hydrolytic enzymes involved in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, were assessed in a series of tropical forest soils of contrasting pH values from the Republic of Panama. Assays were conducted using 4-methylumbelliferone-linked fluorogenic substrates in modified universal buffer. Optimum pH values differed markedly among enzymes and soils. Enzymes were grouped into three classes based on their pH optima: (i) enzymes with acidic pH optima that were consistent among soils (cellobiohydrolase, β-xylanase, and arylsulfatase), (ii) enzymes with acidic pH optima that varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima in the most acidic soils (α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase), and (iii) enzymes with an optimum pH in either the acid range or the alkaline range depending on soil pH (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase). The optimum pH values of phosphomonoesterase were consistent among soils, being 4 to 5 for acid phosphomonoesterase and 10 to 11 for alkaline phosphomonoesterase. In contrast, the optimum pH for phosphodiesterase activity varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima (3.0) in the most acidic soils and the most alkaline pH optima (pH 10) in near-neutral soils. Arylsulfatase activity had a very acidic optimum pH in all soils (pH ≤3.0) irrespective of soil pH. The differences in pH optima may be linked to the origins of the enzymes and/or the degree of stabilization on solid surfaces. The results have important implications for the interpretation of hydrolytic enzyme assays using fluorogenic substrates.

  14. Development of an accurate pH measurement methodology for the pore fluids of low pH cementitious materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, M. C.; Garcia Calvo, J. L. [The Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Walker, C. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    2012-08-15

    The main objective of this project has been the development of an agreed set of protocols for the pH measurement of the pore fluid of a low pH cementitious material. Three protocols have been developed (Chapter 2), a reference method, based on pore fluid expression (PFE), and two routine methods with and without filtering, based on Ex Situ Leaching (ESL) procedures. Templates have been designed on which to record details of the pH measurement for the reference (PFE) method (Appendix C) and the routine (ESL) methods without and with filtering (Appendix D). Preliminary protocols were based on a broad review of the literature (Appendix A) and refined through a series of test experiments of the more critical parameters (Appendix B). After definition of the preliminary protocols, two phases of interlaboratory tests were performed. The first phase (Chapter 3) used the same low pH cement paste and enabled the nine participating laboratories to use, become familiar with and to identify any problems/uncertainties in the preliminary protocols. The reported pH values were subjected to a statistical analysis of the (within laboratory) repeatability and (between-laboratory) reproducibility and so provided a reliability test of the preliminary protocols. The second phase (Chapter 4) of interlaboratory tests used four different candidate low pH cementitious materials in the same nine laboratories, which allowed testing, validation and comparison of the reported pH values, which were obtained using the final protocols for the reference (PFE) and routine (ESL) methods by statistical analysis. The proposed final protocols (Chapter 2) have resulted in the reported pH values having low deviation and high reproducibility and repeatability. This will allow confidence in the pH value when selecting a candidate low pH cementitious material to be used in the engineered component of a high-level nuclear waste repository.

  15. Development of an accurate pH measurement methodology for the pore fluids of low pH cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M. C.; Garcia Calvo, J. L.; Walker, C.

    2012-08-01

    The main objective of this project has been the development of an agreed set of protocols for the pH measurement of the pore fluid of a low pH cementitious material. Three protocols have been developed (Chapter 2), a reference method, based on pore fluid expression (PFE), and two routine methods with and without filtering, based on Ex Situ Leaching (ESL) procedures. Templates have been designed on which to record details of the pH measurement for the reference (PFE) method (Appendix C) and the routine (ESL) methods without and with filtering (Appendix D). Preliminary protocols were based on a broad review of the literature (Appendix A) and refined through a series of test experiments of the more critical parameters (Appendix B). After definition of the preliminary protocols, two phases of interlaboratory tests were performed. The first phase (Chapter 3) used the same low pH cement paste and enabled the nine participating laboratories to use, become familiar with and to identify any problems/uncertainties in the preliminary protocols. The reported pH values were subjected to a statistical analysis of the (within laboratory) repeatability and (between-laboratory) reproducibility and so provided a reliability test of the preliminary protocols. The second phase (Chapter 4) of interlaboratory tests used four different candidate low pH cementitious materials in the same nine laboratories, which allowed testing, validation and comparison of the reported pH values, which were obtained using the final protocols for the reference (PFE) and routine (ESL) methods by statistical analysis. The proposed final protocols (Chapter 2) have resulted in the reported pH values having low deviation and high reproducibility and repeatability. This will allow confidence in the pH value when selecting a candidate low pH cementitious material to be used in the engineered component of a high-level nuclear waste repository

  16. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What......As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency...... and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...

  17. To which extent social withdrawal at the age of 1 year is associated with IQ at 5-6 years old? Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Doukhan, Sarah; Forhan, Anne; Heude, Barbara; Peyre, Hugo

    2017-11-01

    The present study aims to determine to which extent social withdrawal at 1 year is associated with the child's IQ at the end of the preschool period. Children (N = 1045) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed for social withdrawal behaviours at 1 year by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB) scale. Midwives also examined infants' language and motor development at 1 year. At the age 5-6 years, IQ scores were based on the WPPSI-III. Linear regression models were used to determine the association between IQ and ADBB, adjusted for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and for language and motor skills scores at 1 year. After adjusting for environmental factors, children with social withdrawal at 1 years (ADBB ≥5; N = 195) had significantly lower IQ scores at 5-6 years (-2.81 IQ points; p value 0.007) compared to children without social withdrawal (ADBB social withdrawal and IQ at 5-6 years was found. Being socially withdrawn at 1 year is associated with lower IQ scores at 5-6 years. The potential influence of these developmental aspects on each other (withdrawal behaviour and language/motor skills) may occur early in development. Our results improve our understanding of the outcomes of early social withdrawal behaviour and call for early detection of delay in acquisition of language/motor skills among socially withdrawn young children.

  18. PH- Mapping Of Prepubertal Skin Of Indian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A B

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available PH- mapping of skin was made by measuring the skin surface pH in 61 normal Indian subjects (35M, 26F in the prepubertal age group at 21 different sites from scalp to sole at an ambient temperature 25-32C and a relative humidity 60-65%. The pH values at axilla, umbilicus, palm, fingerfolds, foot, sole, and cheek were found to be consistently higher than those at scalp, forehead, retroauricular folds, antecubital and popliteal fossae, anterior arm, anterior the mean pH of male skin appeared to be lower than that of female. The highest pH recorded was in axilla (5.98 for male, 6.00 for female, irrespective of sex. The lowest value however was in anterior neck (4.59 for male and in antecubital fossa (4.83 for female. While the origin of the skin pH is yet to be definitely known, it was observed that a high density of both sweat gland and bacteria flora leads to a high pH, and high concentration of sebaceous gland and of bacterial flora to a lower pH.

  19. Synthesis and reactions of 4-(p-methoxybenzyl-6-[5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl]-pyridazin-3(2H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAGWA M.S. EL-DIN HARB

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The condensation of 4-(p-methoxybenzyl-6-[5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl]-pyridazin-3(2H-one (3, prepared by the reaction of 6-[5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl]-4,5-dihydropyridazin-3(2H-one (1 and anisaldehyde, with dimethyl sulphate, formaldehyde and acrylonitrile, and also the formation of the Mannich base, proceeded smoothly at the 2-position to give compounds 4,5,6,7, respectively. 4-p-Methoxybenzyl-3-chloro-6-[5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl]-pyridazine (9 was prepared in law yield by the action of phosphorus oxychloride on 3. The reaction of 9 with benzylamine, aniline and piperidine gave 10a,b,c, respectively. 4-p-Methoxybenzyl-6-[5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-napthyl]pyridazine-3(2H-thione (12 was prepared either by the action of thiourea on 9, or by the reaction of 3 with phosphorus pentasulphide. The reaction of these thiones with acrylonitrile, morpholine and piperidine to give 13 and 14 a,b, respectively, were also investigated.

  20. Proton magnetic resonance studies of 5,6-saturated thymidine derivatives produced by ionizing radiation. Conformational analysis of 6-hydroxylated diastereoisomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadet, J; Ducolomb, R [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38 (France). Lab. de Radiobiologie; Hruska, F E [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1979-06-20

    The conformational properties of ten 6-hydroxylated dihydrothymidine derivatives including the various diastereoisomers of 5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymidine, 6-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymidine and 5-bromo-6-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymidine have been studied by 250 MHz proton magnetic resonance in aqueous solutions. A close correlation has been established between the carbon-6 configuration and the osidic conformation. The increase in the amplitude of the puckering within the furanose ring compared to that of thymidine or 2'-deoxyuridine is more pronounced for the levortatory (6S) nucleosides than for the dextrorotatory (6R) diastereoisomers. The importance of the 2'endo conformer population decreases in the following order: (-)> (+)>thymidine. The absence of destabilizing effects on the g/sup +/ rotameric population about the C(4')-C(5') bond denotes the lack of any interaction between exocyclic hydroxymethyl group and the 6-hydroxyl function or the 2-keto group. The 5,6-saturated nucleosides adopt a preferential anti conformation. The comparison has been extended to syn nucleosides which show opposite trends in the sugar conformation and g/sup +/ distribution.

  1. Expression of EGFR and HPV-associated p16 in head and neck cancer: correlation and influence on prognosis after radiotherapy in 1088 patients from the randomised DAHANCA 5, 6 & 7 trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Tramm, Trine

    2009-01-01

    Head and Neck Cancer group (DAHANCA) conducted the nationwide DAHANCA 5, 6& 7 randomised trials, focusing on overcoming the disadvantages of tumour cell hypoxia and accelerated tumour cell proliferation in relation to RT. In the present study 1088 pre-treatment tumour tissues from patients...... tumours had lower expression of EGFR than p16neg tumours. p16 status was found to have major prognostic impact on outcome after RT whereas EGFR-expression had no prognostic implication on its own and did not contribute to a refinement of the prognostic value of p16 status.Presented on behalf of the Danish...

  2. A polycarboxylic/amino functionalized hyaluronic acid derivative for the production of pH sensible hydrogels in the prevention of bacterial adhesion on biomedical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Bavuso Volpe, Antonella; Cusimano, Maria Grazia; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Giammona, Gaetano; Schillaci, Domenico

    2015-01-15

    A graft copolymer derivative of hyaluronic acid bearing pendant amino and short polymethacrylate portions (HA-EDA-BMP-MANa) has been employed for the production of a pH sensible vancomycin releasing hydrogel and studied in vitro to test its potential anti adhesive property against Staphylococcus aureus colonization. The copolymer obtained through atom transfer radical polymerization bears chargeable (carboxyl and amino groups) portions and it could be formulated as a hydrogel at a concentration of 10%w/v. The HA-EDA-BMP-MANa hydrogels, produced at three different pH values (5, 6 and 7, respectively), were formulated with or without the addition of vancomycin (2%w/v). The vancomycin release profiles were detected and related to the starting hydrogel pH values, demonstrating that the systems were able to sustain the release of drug for more than 48 h. S. aureus adhesion tests were performed on glass culture plates and hydroxyapatite doped titanium surfaces, comparing the performances of HA-EDA-BMP-MANa hydrogel formulations (obtained with and without vancomycin) with similar formulations obtained using unmodified hyaluronic acid. The non fouling property of a selected HA-EDA-BMP-MANa hydrogel (without vancomycin) was also assayed with a BSA adsorption test. We found that the HA-EDA-BMP-MANa hydrogel even without vancomycin prevented bacterial adhesion on investigated surfaces. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Effects of niacin supplementation and dietary concentrate proportion on body temperature, ruminal pH and milk performance of primiparous dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohölter, Malte; Meyer, Ulrich; Rauls, Caroline; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of niacin and dietary concentrate proportion on body temperature, ruminal pH and milk production of dairy cows. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 20 primiparous Holstein cows (179 ± 12 days in milk) were assigned to four dietary treatments aimed to receive either 0 or 24 g niacin and 30% (low) or 60% (high) concentrate with the rest being a partial mixed ration (PMR) composed of 60% corn and 40% grass silage (on dry matter basis). Ambient temperature and relative humidity were determined and combined by the calculation of temperature humidity index. Respiration rates, rectal, skin and subcutaneous temperatures were measured. Milk production and composition were determined. Ruminal pH and temperature were recorded at a frequency of 5 min using wireless devices for continuous intra-ruminal measurement (boluses). pH values were corrected for pH sensor drift. The climatic conditions varied considerably but temporarily indicated mild heat stress. Niacin did not affect skin, rectal and subcutaneous temperatures but tended to increase respiration rates. High concentrate reduced skin temperatures at rump, thigh and neck by 0.1-0.3°C. Due to the technical disturbances, not all bolus data could be subjected to statistical evaluation. However, both niacin and high concentrate influenced mean ruminal pH. High concentrate increased the time spent with a pH below 5.6 and ruminal temperatures (0.2-0.3°C). Niacin and high concentrate enhanced milk, protein and lactose yield but reduced milk fat and protein content. Milk fat yield was slightly reduced by high concentrate but increased due to niacin supplementation. In conclusion, niacin did not affect body temperature but stimulated milk performance. High concentrate partially influenced body temperatures and had beneficial effects on milk production.

  4. Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Van Rhoon, G C; Christ, A; Kuster, N

    2010-01-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR wb ) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR 10g ). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SAR wb ) and 58% (SAR 10g ) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SAR wb is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR 10g values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning.

  5. Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Van Rhoon, G C [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Section Hyperthermia, PO box 5201, NL-3008 AE, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Christ, A; Kuster, N, E-mail: j.bakker@erasmusmc.n [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS) (Switzerland)

    2010-06-07

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR{sub wb}) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR{sub 10g}). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SAR{sub wb}) and 58% (SAR{sub 10g}) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SAR{sub wb} is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR{sub 10g} values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning.

  6. The SMC-5/6 Complex and the HIM-6 (BLM Helicase Synergistically Promote Meiotic Recombination Intermediate Processing and Chromosome Maturation during Caenorhabditis elegans Meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is essential for the repair of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs to generate crossovers (COs during meiosis. The efficient processing of meiotic recombination intermediates not only needs various resolvases but also requires proper meiotic chromosome structure. The Smc5/6 complex belongs to the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC family and is closely related to cohesin and condensin. Although the Smc5/6 complex has been implicated in the processing of recombination intermediates during meiosis, it is not known how Smc5/6 controls meiotic DSB repair. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans we show that the SMC-5/6 complex acts synergistically with HIM-6, an ortholog of the human Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM during meiotic recombination. The concerted action of the SMC-5/6 complex and HIM-6 is important for processing recombination intermediates, CO regulation and bivalent maturation. Careful examination of meiotic chromosomal morphology reveals an accumulation of inter-chromosomal bridges in smc-5; him-6 double mutants, leading to compromised chromosome segregation during meiotic cell divisions. Interestingly, we found that the lethality of smc-5; him-6 can be rescued by loss of the conserved BRCA1 ortholog BRC-1. Furthermore, the combined deletion of smc-5 and him-6 leads to an irregular distribution of condensin and to chromosome decondensation defects reminiscent of condensin depletion. Lethality conferred by condensin depletion can also be rescued by BRC-1 depletion. Our results suggest that SMC-5/6 and HIM-6 can synergistically regulate recombination intermediate metabolism and suppress ectopic recombination by controlling chromosome architecture during meiosis.

  7. Haemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteases and human ADAMs cleave LRP5/6, which disrupts cell-cell adhesions in vitro and induces haemorrhage in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Tadahiko; Sakon, Taketo; Nakazawa, Shiori; Nishioka, Asuka; Watanabe, Kohei; Matsumoto, Kaori; Akasaka, Mari; Shioi, Narumi; Sawada, Hitoshi; Araki, Satohiko

    2017-06-01

    Snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) are members of the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family of proteins, as they possess similar domains. SVMPs are known to elicit snake venom-induced haemorrhage; however, the target proteins and cleavage sites are not known. In this work, we identified a target protein of vascular apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (VAP1), an SVMP, relevant to its ability to induce haemorrhage. VAP1 disrupted cell-cell adhesions by relocating VE-cadherin and γ-catenin from the cell-cell junction to the cytosol, without inducing proteolysis of VE-cadherin. The Wnt receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (LRP5/6) are known to promote catenin relocation, and are rendered constitutively active in Wnt signalling by truncation. Thus, we examined whether VAP1 cleaves LRP5/6 to induce catenin relocation. Indeed, we found that VAP1 cleaved the extracellular region of LRP6 and LRP5. This cleavage removes four inhibitory β-propeller structures, resulting in activation of LRP5/6. Recombinant human ADAM8 and ADAM12 also cleaved LRP6 at the same site. An antibody against a peptide including the LRP6-cleavage site inhibited VAP1-induced VE-cadherin relocation and disruption of cell-cell adhesions in cultured cells, and blocked haemorrhage in mice in vivo. Intriguingly, animals resistant to the effects of haemorrhagic snake venom express variants of LRP5/6 that lack the VAP1-cleavage site, or low-density lipoprotein receptor domain class A domains involved in formation of the constitutively active form. The results validate LRP5/6 as physiological targets of ADAMs. Furthermore, they indicate that SVMP-induced cleavage of LRP5/6 causes disruption of cell-cell adhesion and haemorrhage, potentially opening new avenues for the treatment of snake bites. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. The SMC-5/6 Complex and the HIM-6 (BLM) Helicase Synergistically Promote Meiotic Recombination Intermediate Processing and Chromosome Maturation during Caenorhabditis elegans Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye; Sonneville, Remi; Agostinho, Ana; Meier, Bettina; Wang, Bin; Blow, J Julian; Gartner, Anton

    2016-03-01

    Meiotic recombination is essential for the repair of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) to generate crossovers (COs) during meiosis. The efficient processing of meiotic recombination intermediates not only needs various resolvases but also requires proper meiotic chromosome structure. The Smc5/6 complex belongs to the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) family and is closely related to cohesin and condensin. Although the Smc5/6 complex has been implicated in the processing of recombination intermediates during meiosis, it is not known how Smc5/6 controls meiotic DSB repair. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans we show that the SMC-5/6 complex acts synergistically with HIM-6, an ortholog of the human Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) during meiotic recombination. The concerted action of the SMC-5/6 complex and HIM-6 is important for processing recombination intermediates, CO regulation and bivalent maturation. Careful examination of meiotic chromosomal morphology reveals an accumulation of inter-chromosomal bridges in smc-5; him-6 double mutants, leading to compromised chromosome segregation during meiotic cell divisions. Interestingly, we found that the lethality of smc-5; him-6 can be rescued by loss of the conserved BRCA1 ortholog BRC-1. Furthermore, the combined deletion of smc-5 and him-6 leads to an irregular distribution of condensin and to chromosome decondensation defects reminiscent of condensin depletion. Lethality conferred by condensin depletion can also be rescued by BRC-1 depletion. Our results suggest that SMC-5/6 and HIM-6 can synergistically regulate recombination intermediate metabolism and suppress ectopic recombination by controlling chromosome architecture during meiosis.

  9. Release of copper from sintered tungsten-bronze shot under different pH conditions and its potential toxicity to aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; Santore, Robert C.; McGill, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Sintered tungsten-bronze is a new substitute for lead shot, and is about to be deposited in and around the wetlands of North America. This material contains copper in the alloyed form of bronze. This in vitro study was performed according to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria to determine the dissolution rate of copper from the shot, and to assess the toxic risk that it may present to aquatic organisms. The dissolution of copper from tungsten-bronze shot, pure copper shot, and glass beads was measured in a buffered, moderately hard, synthetic water of pH 5.5, 6.6, and 7.8 over a 28-day period. The dissolution of copper from both the control copper shot and the tungsten-bronze shot was affected significantly by the pH of the water and the duration of dissolution (all p values < 0.000). The rate of copper release from tungsten bronze shot was 30 to 50 times lower than that from the copper shot, depending on pH (p < 0.0000). The observed expected environmental concentration of copper released from tungsten-bronze shot after 28 days was 0.02 μg/L at pH 7.8, and 0.4 μg/L at pH 5.6, using a loading and exposure scenario specific in a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service protocol. Ratio Quotient values derived from the highest EEC observed in this study (0.4 μg/L), and the copper toxic effect levels for all aquatic species listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ambient water quality criteria database, were all far less than the 0.1 criterion value. Given the conditions stipulated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, heavy loading from discharged tungsten-bronze shot would not pose a toxic risk to potable water, or to soil. Consequently, it would appear that no toxic risks to aquatic organisms will attend the use of tungsten-bronze shot of the approved composition. Given the likelihood that sintered tungsten-bronze of the same formula will be used for fishing weights, bullets, and wheel balance weights, it is

  10. Pengaruh Metode Bercerita Menggunakan Big Book terhadap Kemampuan Menyimak Anak Usia 5-6 Tahun di Paud Natezra Kid's Pasir Putih Kecamatan Siak Hulu

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Remila Nurhaida; Utamai, Tri; Sari, Enda Puspita

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study are as follows: 1) To determine the listening skills of children aged 5-6 years in early childhood Natezra Kid's Pasir Putih Subdistrict Siak Hulu before the application of the method to tell by using a big book. 2) To determine the listening skills of children aged 5-6 years in early childhood Natezra Kid's Pasir Putih Subdistrict Siak Hulu after application of the method to tell by using a big book. 3) To determine the effect of the application of methods to tell b...

  11. 2′-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine—a less toxic alternative of 2′-deoxy-5-azacytidine: A comparative study of hypomethylating potential

    OpenAIRE

    Matoušová, Marika; Votruba, Ivan; Otmar, Miroslav; Tloušťová, Eva; Günterová, Jana; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Restoration of transcriptionally silenced genes by means of methyltransferases inhibitors plays a crucial role in the current therapy of myelodysplastic syndromes and certain types of leukemias. A comparative study of hypomethylating activities of a series of 5-azacytidine nucleosides: 5-azacytidine (AC), 2′-deoxy-5-azacytidine (DAC) and its α-anomer (α-DAC), 5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine (DHAC), 2′-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine (DHDAC, KP-1212) and its α-anomer (α-DHDAC), and of a 2-pyrimidone...

  12. Pengaruh Bermain Pohon Hitung terhadap Kemampuan Konsep Bilangan pada Anak Usia 5-6 Tahun di Kelompok Bermain Sabrina Kid's 2 Kecamatan Senapelan Kota Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    ', Delima; Jas, Jaspar; Chairilsyah, Daviq

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the effect of tree games count towards the introduction of the concept of number of children aged 5-6 years in preschool Sabrina Kid's.2 Senapelan District Pekanbaru .. The population in this study were children aged 5-6 years which consists of class A amounted to 15 people and consists of 7 men and 8 women, the sampling technique used is saturated samples. Data analysis techniques used in this research is the analysis of the t-test, to see the effect of tree...

  13. 4-Methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol as a urinary biomarker for monitoring of metofluthrin, a fluorine-containing pyrethroid, in exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    A fluorine-containing pyrethroid metofluthrin is widely used recently in mosquito repellents. The urinary excretion kinetics of its metabolites was evaluated in rats to establish an optimal biomarker for monitoring metofluthrin exposure of the general population. After metofluthrin had been administered intraperitoneally to rats, the urinary excretion kinetics of the major metofluthrin metabolites was evaluated by moment analysis. The urinary excretion amounts of 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol were estimated to be proportional to the absorption amounts over a wide exposure range. Urinary 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol was considered to be an optimal biomarker for metofluthrin exposure.

  14. Urine pH test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine test Male urinary tract References Bose A, Monk RD, Bushinsky DA. Kidney stones. In: Melmed S, Polonsky ... and its influence on urine pH. J Am Diet Assoc . 1995;95(7):791-797. PMID: 7797810 ...

  15. Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situations Find a Doctor PH Care Centers PHA Classroom PHA Registry Insurance Guide Specialty Pharmacy Other Resources ... no published data in the medical literature regarding routine exercise in patients with PAH. However, there are ...

  16. PhEDEx Data Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Wildish, Tony; Huang, Chih-Hao

    2010-01-01

    The PhEDEx Data Service provides access to information from the central PhEDEx database, as well as certificate-authenticated managerial operations such as requesting the transfer or deletion of data. The Data Service is integrated with the 'SiteDB' service for fine-grained access control, providing a safe and secure environment for operations. A plug-in architecture allows server-side modules to be developed rapidly and easily by anyone familiar with the schema, and can automatically return the data in a variety of formats for use by different client technologies. Using HTTP access via the Data Service instead of direct database connections makes it possible to build monitoring web-pages with complex drill-down operations, suitable for debugging or presentation from many aspects. This will form the basis of the new PhEDEx website in the near future, as well as providing access to PhEDEx information and certificate-authenticated services for other CMS dataflow and workflow management tools such as CRAB, WMCore, DBS and the dashboard. A PhEDEx command-line client tool provides one-stop access to all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service interactively, for use in simple scripts that do not access the service directly. The client tool provides certificate-authenticated access to managerial functions, so all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service are available to it. The tool can be expanded by plug-ins which can combine or extend the client-side manipulation of data from the Data Service, providing a powerful environment for manipulating data within PhEDEx.

  17. Programmable pH buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  18. Effects of 42 deg. C hyperthermia on intracellular pH in ovarian carcinoma cells during acute or chronic exposure to low extracellular pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, Miriam L.; Bobyock, Suzanne B.; Leeper, Dennis B.; Owen, Charles S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether intracellular pH (pH i ) is affected during hyperthermia in substrate-attached cells and whether acute extracellular acidification potentiates the cytotoxicity of hyperthermia via an effect on pH i . Methods and Materials: The pH i was determined in cells attached to extracellular matrix proteins loaded with the fluorescent indicator dye BCECF at 37 deg. C and during 42 deg. C hyperthermia at an extracellular pH (pH e ) of 6.7 or 7.3 in cells. Effects on pH i during hyperthermia are compared to effects on clonogenic survival after hyperthermia at pH e 7.3 and 6.7 of cells grown at pH e 7.3, or of cells grown and monitored at pH e 6.7. Results: The results show that pH i values are affected by substrate attachments. Cells attached to extracellular matrix proteins had better signal stability, low dye leakage and evidence of homeostatic regulation of pH i during heating. The net decrease in pH i in cells grown and assayed at pH e = 7.3 during 42 deg. C hyperthermia was 0.28 units and the decrease in low pH adapted cells heated at pH e = 6.7 was 0.14 units. Acute acidification from pH e = 7.3 to pH e = 6.7 at 37 deg. C caused an initial reduction of 0.5-0.8 unit in pH i , but a partial recovery followed during the next 60-90 min. Concurrent 42 deg. C hyperthermia caused the same initial reduction in pH i in acutely acidified cells, but inhibited the partial recovery that occurred during the next 60-90 min at 37 deg. C. After 4 h at 37 deg. C, the net change in pH i in acutely acidified cells was 0.30 pH unit, but at 42 deg. C is 0.63 pH units. The net change in pH i correlated inversely with clonogenic survival. Conclusions: Hyperthermia causes a pH i reduction in cells which was smaller in magnitude by 50% in low pH adapted cells. Hyperthermia inhibited the partial recovery from acute acidification that was observed at 37 deg. C in substrate attached cells, in parallel with a lower subsequent clonogenic survival

  19. Structural studies on Mannich bases of 2-Hydroxy-3,4,5,6-tetrachlorobenzene. An UV, IR, NMR and DFT study. A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Mannich bases of 2-Hydroxy-3,4,5,6-tetrachlorobenzene are chosen as an exemplary case for tautomeric Mannich bases. Molecular structures are calculated. OH stretching frequencies are rationalized based on DFT calculations. Intrinsic deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts in the M-form a...

  20. EXPOSURE OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO CHLORPYRIFOS AND ITS DEGRADATION PRODUCT 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN THEIR EVERYDAY ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) study, we investigated the exposures of preschool children to chlorpyrifos and its degradation product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in their everyday environment...

  1. Examination of the Relationship between Technology Use of 5-6 Year-Old Children and Their Social Skills and Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Güngör, Hande; Körükçü, Özlem; Erten Sarkaya, Hatice

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to determine the predictive effect of technology use durations of 5-6 year-old children on their social skill levels and social status. In this study, children's technology usage is restricted to the use of television, portable computers, tablets and smartphones. The sample group of the study consisted of 162…

  2. The Effect Inclusive Education Practice during Preschool Has on the Peer Relations and Social Skills of 5-6-Year Olds with Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogelman, Hulya Gulay; Secer, Zarife

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to set forth the effect preschool inclusive education practices have on the peer relations of 5-6 year olds with typical development. The study comprised of two sample groups. The children in both groups were attendees of kindergartens at primary schools governed by the Ministry of National Education located in the…

  3. Factors Associated with Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time of 5-6-Year-Old Children in the STEPS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarma, Tanja; Tammelin, Tuija; Kulmala, Janne; Koski, Pasi; Hurme, Saija; Lagström, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Background: The factors associated with preschool-aged children's physical activity (PA) remains unclear. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how different factors were associated with preschool-aged children's objectively measured PA and sedentary time. Methods: The study population was 5-6-year-old children (n = 140) and their…

  4. Reciprocal Changes of Renal Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase-α and -β Associated With Renal Progression in a Neonatal 5/6 Nephrectomized Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2011-04-01

    Conclusion: The neonatal kidney is very susceptible to 5/6 NX-induced injury, and, as in adults, reciprocal changes in the nNOSα and nNOSβ in renal cortex occur during progression of chronic kidney disease and may contribute to the injury.

  5. Improved primer sequences for the mitochondrial ND1, ND3/4 and ND5/6 segments in salmonid fishes : application to RFLP analysis of Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    1998-01-01

    New specific primers for the mtDNA segments ND1, ND3/4 and ND5/6 designed from the rainbow trout sequence, improved PCR amplification for salmonid fishes. RFLP analysis revealed restriction site variation for all three segments in Atlantic salmon. Eleven haplotypes were detected in a screening...

  6. Addition of ETA receptor blockade increases renoprotection provided by renin-angiotensin system blockade in 5/6 nephrectomized Ren-2 transgenic rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čertíková; Chábová, V.; Vernerová, Z.; Kujal, P.; Husková, Z.; Škaroupková, P.; Tesař, V.; Kramer, H. J.; Kompanowska; Jezierska, E.; Walkowska, A.; Sadowski, J.; Červenka, L.; Vaněčková, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 2 (2014), s. 297-305 ISSN 0024-3205 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : renal failure * 5/6 nephrectomy * renin-angiotensin * endothelin * survival Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.702, year: 2014

  7. Manuscript 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    family of U(n)-invariant extremal Kähler metrics in symplectic action-angle coor- dinates. Tφnnesen-Friedman [4, 5, 6] used the hamiltonian construction to get new extremal metrics on some P1 -bundles over products of Kähler-Einstein manifolds of negative scalar curvature and other important results. For more references ...

  8. Intracellular pH homeostasis in Leishmania donovani amastigotes and promastigotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, T.A.; Baatz, J.E.; Kreishman, G.P.; Mukkada, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Intracellular pH and pH gradients of Leishmania donovani amastigotes and promastigotes were determined over a broad range of extracellular pH values. Intracellular pH was determined by 31 P NMR and by equilibrium distribution studies with 5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione or methylamine. Promastigotes maintain intracellular pH values close to neutral between extracellular pH values of 5.0 and 7.4. Amastigote intracellular pH is maintained close to neutral at external pH values as low as 4.0. Both life stages maintain a positive pH gradient to an extracellular pH of 7.4, which is important for active transport of substrates. Treatment with ionophores, such as nigericin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and the ATPase inhibitor dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, reduced pH gradients in both stages. Maintenance of intracellular pH in the physiologic range is especially relevant for the survival of the amastigote in its acidic in vivo environment

  9. pH within pores in plant fiber cell walls assessed by Fluorescence Ratio Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidayat, Budi Juliman; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2013-01-01

    The pH within cell wall pores of filter paper fibers and hemp fibers was assessed by Fluorescence Ratio Imaging (FRIM). It was found that the Donnan effect affected the pH measured within the fibers. When the conductivity of the added liquid was low (0. 7 mS), pH values were lower within the cell...

  10. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor PKI-166 governs cardiovascular protection without beneficial effects on the kidney in hypertensive 5/6 nephrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Nadir; Mulder, Gemma M; Vavrinec, Peter; Landheer, Sjoerd W; Duman-Dalkilic, Basak; Gurdal, Hakan; Goris, Maaike; Duin, Marry; van Dokkum, Richard P E; Buikema, Hendrik; van Goor, Harry; Henning, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    Transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling by G protein-coupled receptors has been implicated in several cardiovascular (CV) conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and cardiac and vascular hypertrophy. However, the therapeutic potential of EGFR inhibition in these conditions is currently unknown. The main objective of the present study was to investigate cardiac, vascular, and renal effects of EGFR inhibition by 4-[4-[[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]amino]-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-6-yl]phenol (PKI-166) in the hypertensive chronic kidney disease model. Rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx) and were treated with PKI-166, lisinopril or vehicle from week 6 after disease induction until week 12. Sham animals received either PKI-166 or vehicle. Treatment with PKI-166 did not affect the development of the characteristic renal features in 5/6Nx, including proteinuria, diminished creatinine clearance, and increased glomerulosclerosis, whereas these were attenuated by lisinopril. Despite absence of effects on progressive renal damage, PKI-166 attenuated the progression of hypertension and maintained cardiac function (left ventricle end-diastolic pressure) to a similar extent as lisinopril. Also, PKI-166 attenuated the increase in phosphorylated EGFR in the heart as induced by 5/6Nx. Moreover, PKI-166 and lisinopril restored the impaired contraction of isolated thoracic aortic rings to phenylephrine and angiotensin II and impaired myogenic constriction of small mesenteric arteries in 5/6Nx rats. Blockade of the EGFR displays a CV benefit independent of limiting the progression of renal injury. Our findings extend the evidence on EGFR signaling as a target in CV disorders.

  11. Renal structure and function evaluation of rats from dams that received increased sodium intake during pregnancy and lactation submitted or not to 5/6 nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Evelyn Cristina Santana; Balbi, Ana Paula Coelho; Francescato, Heloísa Della Coletta; Alves da Silva, Cleonice Giovanini; Costa, Roberto Silva; Coimbra, Terezila M

    2008-01-01

    Adult rats submitted to perinatal salt overload presented renin-angiotensin system (RAS) functional disturbances. The RAS contributes to the renal development and renal damage in a 5/6 nephrectomy model. The aim of the present study was to analyze the renal structure and function of offspring from dams that received a high-salt intake during pregnancy and lactation. We also evaluated the influence of the prenatal high-salt intake on the evolution of 5/6 nephrectomy in adult rats. A total of 111 sixty-day-old rat pups from dams that received saline or water during pregnancy and lactation were submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy (nephrectomized) or to a sham operation (sham). The animals were killed 120 days after surgery, and the kidneys were removed for immunohistochemical and histological analysis. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), albuminuria, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were evaluated. Increased SBP, albuminuria, and decreased GFR were observed in the rats from dams submitted to high-sodium intake before surgery. However, there was no difference in these parameters between the groups after the 5/6 nephrectomy. The scores for tubulointerstitial lesions and glomerulosclerosis were higher in the rats from the sham saline group compared to the same age control rats, but there was no difference in the histological findings between the groups of nephrectomized rats. In conclusion, our data showed that the high-salt intake during pregnancy and lactation in rats leads to structural changes in the kidney of adult offspring. However, the progression of the renal lesions after 5/6 nephrectomy was similar in both groups.

  12. Effect of pH on sludge composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1984-01-01

    The effect of pH on composting of irradiated sewage sludge was discussed. Inorganic materials, such as activated alumina, Kanuma-soil, and Akadama-soil, were used as bulking agents. Na 2 CO 3 was used as a pH adjuster. The fermentations were done isothermally at the optimum temperature, 50 0 C. The rate of CO 2 evolution increased initially with time, and then, decreased. The peak value of CO 2 evolution and the time to attain the peak varied by the addition of Na 2 CO 3 . When Kanuma-soil was used as the bulking agent, for example, the peak value became larger as the amount of Na 2 CO 3 was increased to 1.0 % and became smaller over this value. From pH measurements, it was found that the optimum pH for fermentation was ranged from 6 to 8 when activated alumina was used. When other bulking agents were used, the maximum value of CO 2 evolution rate was obtained at pH 7 to 8.5. The peak value and the peak time also varied by the addition of NH 3 in the aeration gas. (author)

  13. Comparison of pH Data Measured with a pH Sensor Array Using Different Data Fusion Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Hung Liao; Jung-Chuan Chou

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces different data fusion methods which are used for an electrochemical measurement using a sensor array. In this study, we used ruthenium dioxide sensing membrane pH electrodes to form a sensor array. The sensor array was used for detecting the pH values of grape wine, generic cola drink and bottled base water. The measured pH data were used for data fusion methods to increase the reliability of the measured results, and we also compared the fusion results with other differ...

  14. Comparison of pH Data Measured with a pH Sensor Array Using Different Data Fusion Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Liao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces different data fusion methods which are used for an electrochemical measurement using a sensor array. In this study, we used ruthenium dioxide sensing membrane pH electrodes to form a sensor array. The sensor array was used for detecting the pH values of grape wine, generic cola drink and bottled base water. The measured pH data were used for data fusion methods to increase the reliability of the measured results, and we also compared the fusion results with other different data fusion methods.

  15. Acid skim milk gels: The gelation process as affected by preheated pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakemond, C.M.M.; Vliet, van T.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of preheating milk (10 min 80 [degree sign]C) at pH values from 6.20 to 6.90 on formation of acid skim milk gels was studied by dynamic oscillation measurements. Up to pH 6.65 a higher pH of heating (pHheating) resulted in a higher G'. Since below pH 4.9 the development of

  16. EDFOR version 5.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callot, O.

    1994-02-01

    The document describes EDFOR, a full screen text editor running on VMS systems. The document is intended to be easy to read for new users. It also contains all the information needed by an advanced user to take full advantage of the power of EDFOR, and to customize it. The first two chapters of the document are intended for a new or occasional user of EDFOR. They should help to use the basic features. More advanced users can benefit from the third chapter. Installation, modifications and tailoring to the user needs are described in the last chapter. (K.A.)

  17. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Maria Andaló TENUTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively. Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  18. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  19. Diurnal variation of intraoral pH and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Eun; Lyons, Karl M; Kieser, Jules A; Waddell, Neil J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure continuously the intraoral pH and temperature of healthy individuals to investigate their diurnal variations. Seventeen participants (mean age, 31±9 years) wore a custom-made intraoral appliance fitted with a pH probe and thermocouple for two sets of 24 h, while carrying out normal daily activities including sleep. The continuous changes in intraoral pH and temperature were captured using a sensor placed on the palatal aspect of the upper central incisors. The collected data were categorised into different status (awake and sleep) and periods (morning, afternoon, evening and night). Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted. The intraoral pH change was found to show a distinctive daily rhythm, showing a 12-h interval between maximum (7.73) and minimum (6.6) pH values. The maximum and minimum values were found to repeat after 24 h. The mean pH over 48 h (two sets of 24 h) was found to be 7.27 (±0.74). There was significant difference found in pH when subjects were awake and asleep and different periods during the day ( P pH. There was a significant difference found in temperature depending on the time of the day, except between morning and afternoon ( P =0.78). Our results showed that there is a distinctive daily, circadian-like pattern in intraoral pH variation over a 24-h period, which has been considered as one of the risk factors in sleep-related dental diseases.

  20. The pH dependent Raman spectroscopic study of caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Gu, Huaimin; Zhong, Liang; Hu, Yongjun; Liu, Fang

    2011-02-01

    First of all the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and normal Raman spectra of caffeine aqueous solution were obtained at different pH values. In order to obtain the detailed vibrational assignments of the Raman spectroscopy, the geometry of caffeine molecule was optimized by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. By comparing the SERS of caffeine with its normal spectra at different pH values; it is concluded that pH value can dramatically affect the SERS of caffeine, but barely affect the normal Raman spectrum of caffeine aqueous solution. It can essentially affect the reorientation of caffeine molecule to the Ag colloid surface, but cannot impact the vibration of functional groups and chemical bonds in caffeine molecule.

  1. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao A Venket

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03 with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body.

  2. Data on soil PH of Barddhaman district, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanta Bid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available PH (Puissance de Hydrogen is an essential ingredient of soil that effects on fertility and productivity of dirt. Barddhaman district is a part of Lower Gangetic Plain fully covered by alluvial soil and popularly known as ‘rice bowl of West Bengal’ owing to its lofty production. This data article provides a block level data on soil PH that is essential for further investigation of the relationship among soil ph, plant growth, plant health and productivity. This data is valuable in the field of soil geography and soil science. Soil PH data is more relevant in the ground of plant biology, agricultural geography and agricultural science. It helps to explain the acidic and alkaline nature of alluvial soil. The data consist of 195 samples (n=195 taken from the entire district. Samples have been collected from March, 2014 to March, 2015 and experimented in the laboratory. Theoretically PH value is limited within 0–14. Experiment result exemplifies the highest value 8.5 found in Khandaghosh block whereas lowest value is 4.5 and the samples which result in lowest value are gathered from 4 different blocks like Manteswar, Burdwan - II, Barabani and Salanpur.

  3. The evaluation of temperature and pH influences on equilibrium swelling of poly(n-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Aleksandar S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are synthesized by the method of radical polymerization of monomers: N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM and acrylic acid (AA. Characterization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide- co-acrylic acid hydrogels, p(NIPAM/AA, has been performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and by determination of the swelling behaviour in aqueous solutions at different temperatures (25, 31 and 37°C and pH values (2.2, 4.5, 6 and 6.8. After lyophilisation in the solution at pH 6 and temperature of 25°C, p(NIPAM/AA hydrogels have rapidly reached equilibrium degree of swelling, αe, in comparison to non-lyophilized samples. The mechanism of solvent transport within matrix in lyophilized samples corresponds to less Fickian diffusion, whereas Super case II diffusion is characteristic for non-lyophilized samples. p(NIPAM/AA hydrogel with 1.5 mol% of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM at the temperature of 25°C and pH 6.8, has reached the highest swelling equilibrium degree, αe = 259.8. The results of swelling studies have shown that p(NIPAM/AA hydrogels can be classified as superabsorbent polymers (SAPs. For the evaluation of pH and temperature influences on synthesized hydrogels swelling, a full three-level experimental design has been used. Two-factor interaction model (2FI is the most optimal model of a full three-level experimental design for representing the swelling equilibrium degree of p(NIPAM/AA hydrogels as a function of investigated parameters, i.e., temperature and pH. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-34012

  4. 5,6-Dihydro-5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine potentiates the anti-HIV-1 activity of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Rawson, Jonathan M.; Heineman, Richard H.; Beach, Lauren B.; Martin, Jessica L.; Schnettler, Erica K.; Dapp, Michael J.; Patterson, Steven E.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    The nucleoside analog 5,6-dihydro-5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (KP-1212) has been investigated as a first-in-class lethal mutagen of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Since a prodrug monotherapy did not reduce viral loads in Phase II clinical trials, we tested if ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors (RNRIs) combined with KP-1212 would improve antiviral activity. KP-1212 potentiated the activity of gemcitabine and resveratrol and simultaneously increased the viral mutant frequency. G-to-C ...

  5. Tautomerism provides a molecular explanation for the mutagenic properties of the anti-HIV nucleoside 5-aza-5,6-dihydro-2′-deoxycytidine

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Deyu; Fedeles, Bogdan I.; Singh, Vipender; Peng, Chunte Sam; Silvestre, Katherine J.; Simi, Allison K.; Simpson, Jeffrey H.; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Essigmann, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike conventional antiviral therapy, lethal mutagenesis is a therapeutic strategy that exploits the high mutation rates of certain viruses. It works by intentionally increasing the viral mutation rate, causing excessive error accumulation and viral population collapse. The mutagenic nucleoside analog 5-aza-5,6-dihydro-2′-deoxycytidine (KP1212) is specifically designed to use lethal mutagenesis against HIV. The mechanism of KP1212 mutagenesis was proposed to involve tautomerism—the repositio...

  6. Designing Non-Cognitive Construct Measures That Improve Mathematics Achievement in Grade 5-6 Learners. A User-Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Madhabi; Lin, Meiko

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to design and iteratively improve the quality of survey-based measures of three non-cognitive constructs for Grade 5-6 students, keeping in mind information needs of users in education reform contexts. The constructs are: Mathematics-related Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept, and Anxiety (M-SE, M-SC, and M-ANX).…

  7. 2'-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine-a less toxic alternative of 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine. A comparative study of hypomethylating potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušová, Marika; Votruba, Ivan; Otmar, Miroslav; Tloušťová, Eva; Günterová, Jana; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2011), s. 769-776 ISSN 1559-2294 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : epigenetic therapy * nucleoside analogs * DNA methylation * 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine * 2'-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.318, year: 2011

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate kinase from Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baños-Sanz, Jose Ignacio; Villate, Maider; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Brearley, Charles Alistair; González, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate kinase from A. thaliana has been expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to 2.3 Å resolution. Two heavy-atom crystal derivatives are under study. Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate kinase (IP 5 2-K) is an enzyme involved in inositol metabolism that synthesizes IP 6 (inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate) from inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (IP 5 ) and ATP. IP 6 is the major phosphorus reserve in plants, while in mammals it is involved in multiple cellular events such as DNA editing and chromatin remodelling. In addition, IP 6 is the precursor of other highly phosphorylated inositols which also play highly relevant roles. IP 5 2-K is the only enzyme that phosphorylates the 2-OH axial position of the inositide and understanding its molecular mechanism of substrate specificity is of great interest in cell biology. IP 5 2-K from Arabidopsis thaliana has been expressed in Escherichia coli as two different fusion proteins and purified. Both protein preparations yielded crystals of different quality, always in the presence of IP 6 . The best crystals obtained for X-ray crystallographic analysis belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 58.124, b = 113.591, c = 142.478 Å. Several diffraction data sets were collected for the native enzyme and two heavy-atom derivatives using a synchrotron source

  9. Structural studies on Mannich bases of 2-Hydroxy-3,4,5,6-tetrachlorobenzene. An UV, IR, NMR and DFT study. A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Mannich bases of 2-Hydroxy-3,4,5,6-tetrachlorobenzene are chosen as an exemplary case for tautomeric Mannich bases. Molecular structures are calculated. OH stretching frequencies are rationalized based on DFT calculations. Intrinsic deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts in the M-form a......-form are estimated based on OH bond lengths. The observed deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts are demonstrated to be largely of equilibrium type except at ambient temperatures....

  10. Optimization of catalyst-solvent system for preparation of alpha-5,6-dihydro-5-aza-2'-deoxy-[6-3H]-cytidine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elbert, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2011), s. 285-285 ISSN 0362-4803. [Workshop of the International Isotope Society - Central European Division. The Synthesis and Applications of Isotopes and Isotopically Labelled Compounds /17./. 23.09.2010-24.09.2010, Bad Soden] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : tritium * labelled compounds * alfa-5,6-dihydro-5-aza-2'-deoxy-cytidine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  11. Paulette Gray, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette S. Gray, Ph.D. is the Director for the Division of Extramural Activities (DEA). As the director of the division, she is responsible for the overall scientific, fiscal, and administrative management of the division, including broad strategic planning, development, implementation, and evaluation.

  12. pH in Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Biekman, E.S.A.

    2001-01-01

    Based on fundamental chemical relations, well-established in chemical engineering and chemical technology over almost a century, the effects of pH in food and agricultural products will be deduced for different situations and processes. Based on simple equilibria and dissociation of water, salts,

  13. Neuronal pH regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorstrup, S; Jensen, K E; Thomsen, C

    1989-01-01

    The intracellular pH in the brain was studied in six healthy volunteers before and immediately after the administration of 2 g of acetazolamide. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy by a 1.5 tesla whole-body scanner was used. The chemical shift between the inorganic phosphate...

  14. Mesd Is a Universal Inhibitor of Wnt Co-receptor LRP5/6 and Blocks Wnt/β-catenin Signaling in Cancer Cells†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenyan; Liu, Chia-Chen; Thottassery, Jaideep V.; Bu, Guojun; Li, Yonghe

    2010-01-01

    Mesd is a specialized chaperone for the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 (LRP5) and LRP6. In our previous studies, we found that Mesd binds to mature LRP6 on the cell surface and blocks the binding of Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1(Dkk1) to LRP6. Herein, we demonstrated that Mesd also binds to LRP5 with a high affinity, and is a universal inhibitor of LRP5/6 ligands. Mesd not only blocks Wnt antagonists Dkk1 and Sclerostin binding to LRP5/6, but also inhibits Wnt3A and Rspondin1-induced Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LRP5/6 expressing cells. We also found that Mesd, Dkk1 and Sclerostin compete with one another for binding to LRP5 and LRP6 at the cell surface. More importantly, we demonstrated that Mesd is able to suppress LRP6 phosphorylation and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in prostate cancer PC-3 cells, and inhibits PC-3 cell proliferation. Our results indicate that recombinant Mesd protein is a useful tool for studying Wnt/β-catenin signaling on the cell surface, and has a potential therapeutic role in Wnt-dependent cancers. PMID:20446724

  15. 2´-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine - a less toxic alternative of 2´-deoxy-5-azacytidine: a comparative study of hypomethylating potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušová, Marika; Votruba, Ivan; Otmar, Miroslav; Tloušťová, Eva; Günterová, Jana; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena

    2011-06-01

    Restoration of transcriptionally silenced genes by means of methyltransferases inhibitors plays a crucial role in the current therapy of myelodysplastic syndromes and certain types of leukemias. A comparative study of hypomethylating activities of a series of 5-azacytidine nucleosides: 5-azacytidine (AC), 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine (DAC) and its α-anomer (α-DAC), 5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine (DHAC), 2'-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine (DHDAC, KP-1212) and its α-anomer (α-DHDAC), and of a 2-pyrimidone ribonucleoside (zebularine) was conducted. Methylation-specific PCR was employed to detect the efficiency of individual agents on cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B and thrombospondin-1 hypermethylated gene loci. Overall changes in DNA methylation level were quantified by direct estimation of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine-5'-monophosphate by HPLC using digested genomic DNA. Flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle progression and apoptotic markers was used to determine cytotoxicity of the compounds. mRNA expression was measured using qRT-PCR. 2'-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine was found to be less cytotoxic and more stable than 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine at the doses that induce comparable DNA hypomethylation and gene reactivation. This makes it a valuable tool for epigenetic research and worth further investigations to elucidate its possible therapeutic potential.

  16. 2′-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine—a less toxic alternative of 2′-deoxy-5-azacytidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušová, Marika; Votruba, Ivan; Otmar, Miroslav; Tloušťová, Eva; Günterová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Restoration of transcriptionally silenced genes by means of methyltransferases inhibitors plays a crucial role in the current therapy of myelodysplastic syndromes and certain types of leukemias. A comparative study of hypomethylating activities of a series of 5-azacytidine nucleosides: 5-azacytidine (AC), 2′-deoxy-5-azacytidine (DAC) and its α-anomer (α-DAC), 5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine (DHAC), 2′-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine (DHDAC, KP-1212) and its α-anomer (α-DHDAC), and of a 2-pyrimidone ribonucleoside (zebularine) was conducted. Methylation-specific PCR was employed to detect the efficiency of individual agents on cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B and thrombospondin-1 hypermethylated gene loci. Overall changes in DNA methylation level were quantified by direct estimation of 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine-5′-monophosphate by HPLC using digested genomic DNA. Flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle progression and apoptotic markers was used to determine cytotoxicity of the compounds. mRNA expression was measured using qRT-PCR. 2′-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine was found to be less cytotoxic and more stable than 2′-deoxy-5-azacytidine at the doses that induce comparable DNA hypomethylation and gene reactivation. This makes it a valuable tool for epigenetic research and worth further investigations to elucidate its possible therapeutic potential. PMID:21566456

  17. Icariin protects rats against 5/6 nephrectomy-induced chronic kidney failure by increasing the number of renal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongdi; He, Liqun; Huang, Di; Lei, Shi; Gao, Jiandong

    2015-10-21

    Chronic kidney disease poses a serious health problem worldwide with increasing prevalence and lack of effective treatment. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of icariin in alleviating chronic renal failure induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in rats. The chronic renal failure model was established by a two-phased 5/6 nephrectomy procedure. The model rats were given daily doses of water or icariin for 8 weeks. The kidney morphology was checked by HE staining. The levels of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid were measured by colometric methods. The expression of specified genes was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining. The number of renal stem/progenitor cells was analyzed by CD133 and CD24 immunohistochemical staining. Icariin protected against CDK-caused damages to kidney histology and improved renal function, significantly reduced levels of BUN, creatinine, and uric acid. Icariin inhibited the expression level of TGF-β1 whereas upregulated HGF, BMP-7, WT-1, and Pax2 expression. Moreover, ccariin significantly increased the expression of CD24, CD133, Osr1, and Nanog in remnant kidney and the numbers of CD133(+)/CD24(+) renal stem/progenitor cells. These data demonstrated that icariin effectively alleviated 5/6 nephrectomy induced chronic renal failure through increasing renal stem/progenitor cells.

  18. SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL AND THEORETICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF 5,6-DICHLORO/DIMETHYL-2-(2´,3´/2´,4´/2´,5´/3´,4´/3´,5´-DIMETHOXYPHENYL-1H-BENZIMIDAZOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Gürbüz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available 5,6-Dichloro/dimethyl-2-(2´,3´/2´,4´/2´,5´/3´,4´/3´,5´-dimethoxyphenyl-1H-benzimidazoles were synthesized and characterized by using analytical data, FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR, ESI-MS and fl uorescence spectroscopy. The optimized molecular geometry, zero point energy, dipole moment, ESE, band gap and charge distributions were calculated by Gaussian 09 using Density Functional Theory (DFT, RB3LYP with 6-31++G(d,p basis set. According to the calculations, the molecules have structures with various torsion angles between the benzimidazole and benzene rings from 9.7º to 47.8º. The calculated energy values with ZPE correction and DFT show that the methyl derivatives are more stable than the chloro forms. 3´,4´-Dimethoxy derivatives have higher decomposition points in comparison with the other compounds in series. The chlorine atoms of 5,6-dichloro-2- (2´,3´/2´,4´/2´,5´/3´,4´/3´,5´-dimethoxyphenyl-1H-benzimidazoles are positively charged whereas the C5 and C6 carbon atoms are negatively charged due to the attached chlorine atoms, in virtue of the electron withdrawing characteristic of the imidazole part of the benzimidazole ring. Also, some calculated prominent bond lengths and bond angles were discussed.

  19. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  20. Variation in pH Optima of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities in Tropical Rain Forest Soils ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Benjamin L.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular enzymes synthesized by soil microbes play a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in the environment. The pH optima of eight hydrolytic enzymes involved in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, were assessed in a series of tropical forest soils of contrasting pH values from the Republic of Panama. Assays were conducted using 4-methylumbelliferone-linked fluorogenic substrates in modified universal buffer. Optimum pH values differed markedly am...

  1. Zinc(II PVC-based membrane sensor based on 5,6-benzo-4,7,13,16,21,24- hexaoxa-1,10-diazabicyclo[8,8,8]hexacos-5-ene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Hassan Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The 5,6-benzo-4,7,13,16,21,24-hexaoxa-1,10-diazabicyclo[8,8,8]hexacos-5-ene (BHDE was used as an excellent ionophore in construction of a Zn(II PVC-based membrane sensor. The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of 30% poly(vinyl chloride, 64.5% nitrobenzen (NB, 2.5% BHDE and 3% sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB. This sensor shows very good selectivity and sensitivity towards zinc ion over a wide variety of cations, including alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The sensor revealed a great enhancement in selectivity coefficients for zinc ions, in comparison to the previously reported zinc sensors. The proposed sensor exhibits a Nernstian behavior (with slope of 29.1 ? 0.4 mV per decade over a wide concentration range (1.0 10-6-1.0 10-1 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 6.3 x10-7 mol L-1 (41.2 ng mL-1. It shows relatively fast response time, in the whole concentration range (< 10s, and can be used for at least 10 weeks in a pH range of 2.8-7.3. The proposed sensor was successfully used in direct determination of zinc ions in wastewater of industrial zinc electroplating companies, and also as an indicator electrode in titration with EDTA.

  2. Sensitive determination of pipecolic acid in serum by high-performance liquid chromatography using 4-(5,6-dimethoxy-2-phthalimidinyl)-2-methoxyphenylsulfonyl chloride as a fluorescent labelling reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hirofumi; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Fukunaga, Keiko; Nishio, Hiroaki; Tsuruta, Yasuto

    2004-01-01

    A simple and highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the determination of pipecolic acid (PA) in serum was developed. Pipecolic acid and nipecotic acid (internal standard (IS)) were derivatised with 4-(5,6-dimethoxy-2-phthalimidinyl)-2-methoxyphenylsulfonyl chloride (DMS-Cl) to produce fluorescent sulfonamides. The labelling reaction was carried out at 70 degree sign C for 15 min at pH 9.0. The fluorescent derivatives were separated on a reversed-phase column (45 degree sign C) with a stepwise elution using methanol/acetonitrile/10 mmol l -1 acetic acid (42:5:53) and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and detected at excitation and emission wavelengths of 316 and 403 nm, respectively. The labelling yield was 100.8%. The detection limit of pipecolic acid was 4 fmol at signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The within-day and day-to-day relative standard deviations were 3.3-8.1 and 1.4-6.4%, respectively. The concentration of pipecolic acid in normal human serum was 1.09±0.37 μmol l -1

  3. Development of a fluorescence endoscopic system for pH mapping of gastric tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Philippe; Mordon, Serge; Buys, Bruno; Dhelin, Guy; Lesage, Jean C.; Chopin, Claude

    2003-10-01

    Measurement of gastro intestinal intramucosal pH (pHim) has been recognized as an important factor in the detection of hypoxia induced dysfonctions. However, current pH measurements techniques are limited in terms of time and spatial resolutions. A major advance in accurate pH measurement was the development of the ratiometric fluorescent indicator dye, 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). BCECF which pKa is in the physiological pH range is suitable for pH tissue measurements in vivo. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an endoscopic imaging system for real time pH measurements in the stomach in order to provide to ICU a new tool for gastro intestinal intramucosal pH (pHim) measurements. This fluorescence imaging technique should allow the temporal exploration of sequential events, particularly in ICU where the pHim provides a predictive information of the patient' status. The experimental evaluations of this new and innovative endoscopic fluorescence system confirms the accuracy of pH measurement using BCECF.

  4. Parathyroid hormone depresses cytosolic pH and DNA synthesis in osteoblast-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, I.R.; Civitelli, R.; Avioli, L.V.; Hruska, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    It has recently become apparent that a number of hormones and growth factors modulate cytosolic pH (pH i ) and there is some evidence that this in turn may influence cell growth. The authors have examined the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on both these parameters in an osteoblast-like cell line, UMR 106. Preliminary studies, using the pH-sensitive fluorescent probe 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5,(6)-carboxyfluorescein indicated that these cells regulate pH i by means of an amiloride-inhibitable Na + -H + exchanger. Rat PTH-(1-34) (rPTH) caused a progressive dose-related decrease in pH i with a half-maximal effect at 10 -11 M. The diacylglycerol analogue, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, increased both pH i and [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation, and amiloride reduced both indexes. However, rPTH remained a potent inhibitor of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation in the presence of amiloride, even though it did not affect pH i in these circumstances. It is concluded that PTH decreases pH i and growth in UMR 106 cells but that these changes can be dissociated. Depression of pH i may have other important effects on bone metabolism, such as reducing cell-cell communication, and may be associated with alkalinization of the bone fluid compartment

  5. Axial offset anomalies and local pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarin, F.; Montes, M.; Izquierdo, J.; Garcia-Sanchez, J.

    2001-01-01

    Small radial and axial offset anomalies (AOA) in some Spanish PWR-type NPP's, in addition to the knowledge of the existence of similar anomalies in U.S. PWR's, led us in 1993 to study this problem. Important parameters were correlated for a database of plant operating data consisting of six cycles of five different PWR plants (all of them of the Westinghouse 3-loop, 12 ft., 17 x 17 fuel design). One of these cycles (the oldest one) followed the standard constant pH 308 = 7.0, and the remaining ones followed a modified elevated pH control strategy (the pH at EOC is typically 7.4). Only for the oldest cycle that used the standard pH control was the in-core and ex-core axial offset values found to be in good agreement with the predictions, and an anomalous soluble boron curve behavior not observed. (author)

  6. The pH dependent toxicity and bioaccumulation of chloroquine tested on S. viminalis (basket willow)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendal, Cecilie; Trapp, Stefan; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    (hydroxymethyl) – aminomethane (pH 8 and 9). Concentrations were determined with spectrophotometer. Toxicity was derived from calculations of normalized transpiration over time, and RCF (root concentration factor) values were calculated. Increasing BCF values were found for increasing pH levels, and the toxicity...

  7. Consideration of factors affecting strip effluent pH and sodium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  8. Industrial PhD report: Sustainable Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2011-01-01

    Erhvervs PhD rapport udarbejdet i tilknytning til Erhvervs PhD kurset der er obligatorisk for Erhvervs PhD studerende. Rapporten omhandler relationer melllem den akademiske verden og industrien i sammenhæng med PhD projektet, betragtet og analyseret gennem teori om bæredygtig innovation....

  9. pH tolerance in freshwater bacterioplankton: trait variation of the community as measured by leucine incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bååth, Erland; Kritzberg, Emma

    2015-11-01

    pH is an important factor determining bacterial community composition in soil and water. We have directly determined the community tolerance (trait variation) to pH in communities from 22 lakes and streams ranging in pH from 4 to 9 using a growth-based method not relying on distinguishing between individual populations. The pH in the water samples was altered to up to 16 pH values, covering in situ pH ± 2.5 U, and the tolerance was assessed by measuring bacterial growth (Leu incorporation) instantaneously after pH adjustment. The resulting unimodal response curves, reflecting community tolerance to pH, were well modeled with a double logistic equation (mean R(2) = 0.97). The optimal pH for growth (pHopt) among the bacterial communities was closely correlated with in situ pH, with a slope (0.89 ± 0.099) close to unity. The pH interval, in which growth was ≥90% of that at pHopt, was 1.1 to 3 pH units wide (mean 2.0 pH units). Tolerance response curves of communities originating from circum-neutral pH were symmetrical, whereas in high-pH (8.9) and especially in low-pH (pH waters, decreasing pH was more detrimental for bacterial growth than increasing pH, with a tendency for the opposite for high-pH waters. A pH tolerance index, using the ratio of growth at only two pH values (pH 4 and 8), was closely related to pHopt (R(2) = 0.83), allowing for easy determination of pH tolerance during rapid changes in pH. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. The Investigation of pH Variation of Water in Spray Tank on Glyphosate and Nicosulfuron Performance on Barnyardgrass and Velvetleaf Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hajmohammadnia Ghalibaf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many factors affect the absorption, transport and performance of herbicides, include; physical factors (such as the orientation, shape, size, cuticle thickness, and its amount downy of the plant leaves, physiological factors (such as the growth stage and its succulence, environmental factors (like rainfall after spraying, relative humidity, wind, and temperature, as well as water quality in spray tank (32. The quality of natural water resources is very important, because the water passes through soil and rocks and dissolve natural salts and transfer them to groundwater reserves (12. pH is a chemical scale for measuring the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+ in the water (21. When pH of solution is less than herbicides pKa (ionic dissociation constant, increasing pH can increase the solubility of herbicides, especially when the absorption limitation of herbicide is because of its solubility (14. To investigate the effect of water pH in herbicide spray tank, testing the effectiveness of weed control is appropriate method. The different species of weeds may have different amounts of ions in the tissue that showed different responses to herbicide solution (14. Accordingly, these basic experiment conducted to study the pH variation of water in spray tank on glyphosate (Roundup® and nicosulfuron (Cruse® performance on barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv.] and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medicus. control in the greenhouse condition. Materials and Methods: Two separate experiments were performed as factorial arrangement of treatments 2×7 based on completely randomized design with six replications at Research Greenhouse of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2010. Factors included were: pH at 7 levels (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 obtained by using buffer prepared solutions (+3 control pots for each pH level, and two weeds (barnyardgrass and velvetleaf. Glyphosate and nicosulfuron herbicides were applied post emergent

  11. Effect of pH to adsorption behavior of Pu on bentonite in aqueous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoqiang; Tuo Xianguo; Li Pingchuan; Leng Yangchun; Su Jilong; Yueping

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pH to the adsorption behavior of Pu in GMZ-bentonite, Lingshou Ca-bentonite, Na-bentonite and bleaching earth were tested by static adsorption experiments in aqueous environment. The results show that the adsorption equilibrium time of Pu is four days in GMZ-bentonite and 5-6 days in bleaching earth, Ca-bentonite and Na-bentonite. In aqueous environment, the adsorption capacity of bentonite to Pu increases with pH in water phase, and it is weak in acidic aqueous environment and strong in alkaline aqueous environment extremely. (authors)

  12. Label-Free Carbon-Dots-Based Ratiometric Fluorescence pH Nanoprobes for Intracellular pH Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Jingfang; He, Dinggeng; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Xu, Fengzhou; Liu, Jinquan; Tang, Jinlu; Yang, Xue; Huang, Jin

    2016-08-02

    Measuring pH in living cells is of great importance for better understanding cellular functions as well as providing pivotal assistance for early diagnosis of diseases. In this work, we report the first use of a novel kind of label-free carbon dots for intracellular ratiometric fluorescence pH sensing. By simple one-pot hydrothermal treatment of citric acid and basic fuchsin, the carbon dots showing dual emission bands at 475 and 545 nm under single-wavelength excitation were synthesized. It is demonstrated that the fluorescence intensities of the as-synthesized carbon dots at the two emissions are pH-sensitive simultaneously. The intensity ratio (I475 nm/I545 nm) is linear against pH values from 5.2 to 8.8 in buffer solution, affording the capability as ratiometric probes for intracellular pH sensing. It also displays that the carbon dots show excellent reversibility and photostability in pH measurements. With this nanoprobe, quantitative fluorescence imaging using the ratio of two emissions (I475 nm/I545 nm) for the detection of intracellular pH were successfully applied in HeLa cells. In contrast to most of the reported nanomaterials-based ratiometric pH sensors which rely on the attachment of additional dyes, these carbon-dots-based ratiometric probes are low in toxicity, easy to synthesize, and free from labels.

  13. Iridium Oxide pH Sensor Based on Stainless Steel Wire for pH Mapping on Metal Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, S.; Ismail, M. C.; Kakooei, S.; Beheshti, M.; Zabihiazadboni, M.; Zavareh, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    A simple technique to fabricate the iridium oxide pH sensor is useful in several applications such as medical, food processing and engineering material where it is able to detect the changes of pH. Generally, the fabrication technique can be classified into three types: electro-deposition iridium oxide film (EIrOF), activated iridium oxide film (AIROF) and sputtering iridium oxide film (SIROF). This study focuses on fabricating electrode, calibration and test. Electro-deposition iridium oxide film is a simple and effective method of fabricating this kind of sensor via cyclic voltammetry process. The iridium oxide thick film was successfully electrodeposited on the surface of stainless steel wire with 500 cycles of sweep potential. A further analysis under FESEM shows detailed image of iridium oxide film which has cauliflower-liked microstructure. EDX analysis shows the highest element present are iridium and oxygen which concluded that the process is successful. The iridium oxide based pH sensor has shown a good performance in comparison to conventional glass pH sensor when it is being calibrated in buffer solutions with 2, 4, 7 and 9 pH values. The iridium oxide pH sensor is specifically designed to measure the pH on the surface of metal plate.

  14. Excess glycogen does not resolve high ultimate pH of oxidative muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Eric M; Matarneh, Sulaiman K; Oliver, Emily M; Apaoblaza, Ariel; Scheffler, Tracy L; Shi, Hao; Gerrard, David E

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscle glycogen content can impact the extent of postmortem pH decline. Compared to glycolytic muscles, oxidative muscles contain lower glycogen levels antemortem which may contribute to the higher ultimate pH. In an effort to explore further the participation of glycogen in postmortem metabolism, we postulated that increasing the availability of glycogen would drive additional pH decline in oxidative muscles to equivalent pH values similar to the ultimate pH of glycolytic muscles. Glycolysis and pH declines were compared in porcine longissimus lumborum (glycolytic) and masseter (oxidative) muscles using an in vitro system in the presence of excess glycogen. The ultimate pH of the system containing longissimus lumborum reached a value similar to that observed in intact muscle. The pH decline of the system containing masseter samples stopped prematurely resulting in a higher ultimate pH which was similar to that of intact masseter muscle. To investigate further, we titrated powdered longissimus lumborum and masseter samples in the reaction buffer. As the percentage of glycolytic sample increased, the ultimate pH decreased. These data show that oxidative muscle produces meat with a high ultimate pH regardless of glycogen content and suggest that inherent muscle factors associated with glycolytic muscle control the extent of pH decline in pig muscles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pb and Cd binding to natural freshwater biofilms developed at different pH: the important role of culture pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiuyi; Dong, Deming; Ding, Xiaoou; Yang, Fan; Jiang, Xu; Guo, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    The effects of solution pH on adsorption of trace metals to different types of natural aquatic solid materials have been studied extensively, but few studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of pH at which the solid materials were formed on the adsorption. The purpose of present study is to examine this effect of culture pH on metal adsorption to natural freshwater biofilms. The adsorption of Pb and Cd to biofilms which were developed at different culture pH values (ranging from 6.5 to 9.0) was measured at the same adsorption pH value (6.5). The culture pH had considerable effects on both composition and metal adsorption ability of the biofilms. Higher culture pH usually promoted the accumulation of organic material and Fe oxides in the biofilms. The culture pH also affected the quantity and species of algae in the biofilms. The adsorption of Pb and Cd to the biofilms generally increased with the increase of culture pH. This increase was minor at lower pH range and significant at higher pH range and was more remarkable for Cd adsorption than for Pb adsorption. The notable contribution of organic material to the adsorption at higher culture pH values was also observed. The profound impacts of culture pH on adsorption behavior of biofilms mainly resulted from the variation of total contents of the biofilm components and were also affected by the alteration of composition and properties of the components.

  16. Study of the effect of PH, surface finish and thermal treatment on the corrosion of AlFeNi aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabhan, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is a research reactor under construction at the CEA Cadarache research center, France. It is scheduled to start operating by 2020. The fuel elements of this reactor core consist of eight concentric rows of cylindrical plates, each row being composed of three thin aluminum coated plates. Cooling water circulates between these plates through very thin gaps smaller than 2 mm. The aluminum alloy used to coat the fuel plates is an alloy called AlFeNi, which contains 1% wt. Fe, 1% wt. Ni and 1% wt. Mg. In the reactor environment, this alloy may undergo corrosion. The oxide layer formed on the AlFeNi alloy is composed of two different types of oxides: an inner oxide layer formed by a diffusion mechanism and an outer oxide layer formed by re-precipitation. As a consequence, formation of an oxide scale on the aluminum coating could reduce the gap between the cladding plates, thus allowing less water to circulate. This could in turn lead to local heating of the fuel cladding. In addition, the metal consumption and the softening of the metal at high temperatures can lead to a decrease of the mechanical strength of the cladding. In order to qualify the fuel elements of the JHR, several specimens of AlFeNi, representative of the future cladding, were corroded at 250 .deg. C for different durations (9 to 34 days) in distilled water of different pH: 4.9; 5.2 and 5.6. These pH values have been chosen to simulate the ones currently predicted for the JHR. The effect of surface finish (polished and not polished) and thermal treatment (annealed and not annealed) on the oxide growth rate was also investigated. For long tests over 30 days, the pH 5,6 appears to be more favorable than the pH 5,2 and 4,9 to limit the oxide thickness, but this pH effect is reduced on unpolished samples. In one hand, the effect of surface finish on the corrosion behavior as measured by optical microscopy appears to be strong. On the other hand, the effect of thermal

  17. Study of the effect of PH, surface finish and thermal treatment on the corrosion of AlFeNi aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabhan, Diana [Comissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is a research reactor under construction at the CEA Cadarache research center, France. It is scheduled to start operating by 2020. The fuel elements of this reactor core consist of eight concentric rows of cylindrical plates, each row being composed of three thin aluminum coated plates. Cooling water circulates between these plates through very thin gaps smaller than 2 mm. The aluminum alloy used to coat the fuel plates is an alloy called AlFeNi, which contains 1% wt. Fe, 1% wt. Ni and 1% wt. Mg. In the reactor environment, this alloy may undergo corrosion. The oxide layer formed on the AlFeNi alloy is composed of two different types of oxides: an inner oxide layer formed by a diffusion mechanism and an outer oxide layer formed by re-precipitation. As a consequence, formation of an oxide scale on the aluminum coating could reduce the gap between the cladding plates, thus allowing less water to circulate. This could in turn lead to local heating of the fuel cladding. In addition, the metal consumption and the softening of the metal at high temperatures can lead to a decrease of the mechanical strength of the cladding. In order to qualify the fuel elements of the JHR, several specimens of AlFeNi, representative of the future cladding, were corroded at 250 .deg. C for different durations (9 to 34 days) in distilled water of different pH: 4.9; 5.2 and 5.6. These pH values have been chosen to simulate the ones currently predicted for the JHR. The effect of surface finish (polished and not polished) and thermal treatment (annealed and not annealed) on the oxide growth rate was also investigated. For long tests over 30 days, the pH 5,6 appears to be more favorable than the pH 5,2 and 4,9 to limit the oxide thickness, but this pH effect is reduced on unpolished samples. In one hand, the effect of surface finish on the corrosion behavior as measured by optical microscopy appears to be strong. On the other hand, the effect of thermal

  18. Critical assessment of the pH of children's soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Rafaela Mendes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the pH value of children's antibacterial soaps and syndets used in children's baths and verify whether there is information regarding pH on the product label. Methods: Quantitative, cross-sectional, analytical observational study that included ninety soap samples, both in bar and liquid presentations, as follows: 67 children's soap (group 1, 17 antibacterial soaps (group 2, and 6 syndets (group 3. Each sample had its pH measured after 1% dilution. In addition to descriptive statistics, the Pearson-Yates chi-squared test and Student's t-tests were applied, considering the minimal significance level of 5%. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, Fisher's exact test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used for inferential statistics. Results: The pH levels varied considerably between liquid and bar presentations, with lower levels (4.4-7.9 found for the liquids (p < 0.05. Syndets showed pH levels close to the ideal (slightly acid and the antibacterial soaps showed the highest pH levels (up to 11.34 (p < 0.05. Only two of the soaps included in the study had information about their pH levels on the product packaging. Conclusions: Knowledge of the pH of children's soap by doctors and users is important, considering the great pH variability found in this study. Moreover, liquid soaps, and especially syndets, are the most recommended for the sensitive skin of neonates and infants, in order to guarantee skin barrier efficacy.

  19. Critical assessment of the pH of children's soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Bruna Rafaela; Shimabukuro, Danielle Midori; Uber, Marjorie; Abagge, Kerstin Taniguchi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the pH value of children's antibacterial soaps and syndets used in children's baths and verify whether there is information regarding pH on the product label. Quantitative, cross-sectional, analytical observational study that included ninety soap samples, both in bar and liquid presentations, as follows: 67 children's soap (group 1), 17 antibacterial soaps (group 2), and 6 syndets (group 3). Each sample had its pH measured after 1% dilution. In addition to descriptive statistics, the Pearson-Yates chi-squared test and Student's t-tests were applied, considering the minimal significance level of 5%. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, Fisher's exact test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used for inferential statistics. The pH levels varied considerably between liquid and bar presentations, with lower levels (4.4-7.9) found for the liquids (p<0.05). Syndets showed pH levels close to the ideal (slightly acid) and the antibacterial soaps showed the highest pH levels (up to 11.34) (p<0.05). Only two of the soaps included in the study had information about their pH levels on the product packaging. Knowledge of the pH of children's soap by doctors and users is important, considering the great pH variability found in this study. Moreover, liquid soaps, and especially syndets, are the most recommended for the sensitive skin of neonates and infants, in order to guarantee skin barrier efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. (4bS,8aS-1-Isopropyl-4b,8,8-trimethyl-4b,5,6,7,8,8a,9,10-octahydrophenanthren-2-yl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radouane Oubabi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The hemisynthesis of the title compound, C22H32O2, was carried out through direct acetylation reaction of the naturally occurring diterpene totarol [systematic name: (4bS,8aS-4b,8,8-trimethyl-1-propan-2-yl-5,6,7,8a,9,10-hexahydrophenanthren-2-ol]. The molecule is built up from three fused six membered rings, one saturated and two unsaturated. The central unsaturated ring has a half-chair conformation, whereas the other unsaturated ring displays a chair conformation. The absolute configuration is deduced from the chemical pathway. The value of the Hooft parameter [−0.10 (6] allowed this absolute configuration to be confirmed.

  1. Effect of pH on structure, function, and stability of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Danish; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Bisetty, Krishna; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase VA (CAVA) catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide to produce proton and bicarbonate which is primarily expressed in the mitochondrial matrix of liver, and involved in numerous physiological processes including lipogenesis, insulin secretion from pancreatic cells, ureagenesis, gluconeogenesis, and neuronal transmission. To understand the effect of pH on the structure, function, and stability of CAVA, we employed spectroscopic techniques such as circular dichroism, fluorescence, and absorbance measurements in wide range of pH (from pH 2.0 to pH 11.5). CAVA showed an aggregation at acidic pH range from pH 2.0 to pH 5.0. However, it remains stable and maintains its secondary structure in the pH range, pH 7.0-pH 11.5. Furthermore, this enzyme has an appreciable activity at more than pH 7.0 (7.0 < pH ≤ 11.5) with maximum activity at pH 9.0. The maximal values of k cat and k cat /K m at pH 9.0 are 3.7 × 10 6  s -1 and 5.5 × 10 7  M -1  s -1 , respectively. However, this enzyme loses its activity in the acidic pH range. We further performed 20-ns molecular dynamics simulation of CAVA to see the dynamics at different pH values. An excellent agreement was observed between in silico and in vitro studies. This study provides an insight into the activity of CAVA in the pH range of subcellular environment.

  2. Dopamine D(3) receptor antagonists. 1. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 5,6-dimethoxy-N-alkyl- and N-alkylaryl-substituted 2-aminoindans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haadsma-Svensson, S R; Cleek, K A; Dinh, D M; Duncan, J N; Haber, C L; Huff, R M; Lajiness, M E; Nichols, N F; Smith, M W; Svensson, K A; Zaya, M J; Carlsson, A; Lin, C H

    2001-12-20

    5,6-Dimethoxy-2-(N-dipropyl)-aminoindan (3, PNU-99194A) was found to be a selective dopamine D(3) receptor antagonist with potential antipsychotic properties in animal models. To investigate the effects of nitrogen substitution on structure-activity relationships, a series of 5,6-dimethoxy-N-alkyl- and N-alkylaryl-substituted 2-aminoindans were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for binding affinity and metabolic stability. The results indicate that substitution at the amine nitrogen of the 2-aminoindans is fairly limited to the di-N-propyl group in order to achieve selective D(3) antagonists. Thus, combinations of various alkyl groups were generally inactive at the D(3) receptor. Although substitution with an N-alkylaryl or N-alkylheteroaryl group yields compounds with potent D(3) binding affinity, the D(2) affinity is also enhanced, resulting in a less than 4-fold preference for the D(3) receptor site, and no improvements in metabolic stability were noted. A large-scale synthesis of the D(3) antagonist 3 has been developed that has proven to be reproducible with few purification steps. The improvements include the use of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde as a low-cost starting material to provide the desired 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone 5c in good overall yield (65%) and the formation of a soluble silyl oxime 17 that was reduced efficiently with BH(3).Me(2)S. The resulting amino alcohol was alkylated and then deoxygenated using a Lewis acid and Et(3)SiH to give the desired product 3 in good overall yield of ( approximately 65%) from the indanone 5c.

  3. IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P. fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics

  4. IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-10-15

    The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P. fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics.

  5. Effect of cordycepin(3'-deoxyadenosine) on excision repair of 5,6-dihydroxy-dihydrothymine-type products from the DNA of Micrococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, M.S.; Tundo, V.J.; Locher, S.E.; Hariharan, P.V.

    1983-01-01

    Cordycepin(3'-deoxyadenosine), a nucleoside analog, has been shown to enhance radiation-induced cell killing. In an effort to elucidate the possible mechanism for enhancement of cell killing, the effect of cordycepin on the excision repair of radiation-induced 5,6-dihydroxy-dihydrothymine-type (t') products from the DNA of wild type Micrococcus radiodurans was investigated. The capacity of M. radiodurans to excise nondimeric (t') products from its DNA was significantly impaired after cordycepin treatment. The results suggest that the increased radiation sensitivity of cordycepin-treated cells could be due to alterations in cellular processes that repair DNA damage

  6. Measurements of T20 in backward elastic d p scattering at deuteron momenta 3.5 - 6 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhgirej, L.S.; Borzunov, Yu.T.; Chernykh, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    We present results of measurements of the tensor analyzing power T 20 in d p backward elastic scattering at initial deuterons momenta 3.5-6.0 GeV/c, which corresponds to the range of internal momentum of the deuteron constituents k = 0.5 - 0.8 GeV/c. New structure was observed at k = 0.65 GeV/c. Difference between behavior of T 20 for d p backward elastic scattering and for breakup reaction, which have a smooth behavior of T 20 at high k, is discussed. 12 refs.; 3 figs. (author)

  7. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Key Largo, Florida, to the Florida/Georgia border, September 5-6, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2015-09-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts baseline and storm response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On September 5-6, 2014, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Key Largo, Florida, to the Florida/Georgia border (Figure 1), aboard a Cessna 182 at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore (Figure 2). This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes since the last survey, flown October 1998, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.

  8. Crystal structure of 2-amino-4-(4-chlorophenyl-1-(4-methylphenyl-5-oxo-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinoline-3-carbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaaban K. Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C23H20ClN3O, each of the cyclohexene and 1,4-dihydropyridine rings of the 1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinoline ring system adopts a twisted-boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 11.52 (7°. In the crystal, molecules are linked through a pair of amino–nitrile N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. These assemble into a three-dimensional network via C—H...O and C—H...π interactions.

  9. Stability of the resistance to the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-Dimethoxy-1-indanone, a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Eliana Florencia; Campos, Rodolfo Hector; Cavallaro, Lucía Vicenta

    2017-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype Pestivirus. BVDV infection is distributed worldwide and causes serious problems for the livestock industry. The thiosemicarbazone of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC) is a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (NNI) of BVDV. All TSC-resistant BVDV variants (BVDV-TSCr T1–5) present an N264D mutation in the NS5B gene (RdRp) whereas the variant BVDV-TSCr T1 also presents an NS5B A392E mutation. In the present study, we carried out twenty passages of...

  10. Fabrication of the tetrathiafulvalene–2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane charge transfer complex with high crystallinity by eutectic melting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jueun; Kang, Youngjong; Lee, Jaejong

    2018-06-01

    We show that high crystallinity and charge transporting gain can be obtained in a noble donor–acceptor system (CT complex) composed of organic complex: tetrathiafulvalene–2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF–F4TCNQ). The complex is small-gap organic metallic or semiconductor (less than 1 eV), and we predict having a high conductivity. We perform an approach to fabricate organic CT complex with high crystallinity by eutectic melting method. Our process is simple and shows crystal growth with improved crystallinity when combined with soft-lithography.

  11. Studies toward the synthesis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts: a straightforward synthesis of functionalized dihydroisoquinoline-5(6H)-one core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Elizandra C.S.; Coelho, Fernando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: coelho@iqm.unicamp.br

    2007-07-01

    We disclose herein our results concerning a study aiming at the synthesis of the highly substituted carbon skeleton of alkaloids isolated from plants of the Amaryllidaceae family. The total synthesis of the functionalized dihydroisoquinoline-5(6H)-one core, which is the bottom part of the structure of alkaloids isolated from this botanic family, is described, using Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts as substrate. This compound should be a useful and valuable intermediate for the total synthesis of alkaloids isolated from Amaryllidaceae. (author)

  12. Etude par spectrometrie infrarouge et Raman de la triméthyl-4,5,6 pyrimidone-2 et de son chlorhydrate. Complexation par les halogenures de potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautié, Alain; Picquenard, Eric; Ratovelomanana, Nicole

    The i.r. Raman spectra of crystalline 4,5,6-trimethyl 2-pyrimidone and seven deuterated derivatives have been investigated between 4000 and 180 cm -1. Aqueous and CHCl 3 solutions were also examined. An assignment for intramolecular fundamentals is given, as well as a distinction between the most characteristic of each methyl group. The methylation and protonation effects are discussed. Furthermore, a 1/1 adduct of this pyrimidone and potassium halides is observed and characterized; it contains a strong NH…X - hydrogen bond.

  13. Studies toward the synthesis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts: a straightforward synthesis of functionalized dihydroisoquinoline-5(6H)-one core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Elizandra C.S.; Coelho, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    We disclose herein our results concerning a study aiming at the synthesis of the highly substituted carbon skeleton of alkaloids isolated from plants of the Amaryllidaceae family. The total synthesis of the functionalized dihydroisoquinoline-5(6H)-one core, which is the bottom part of the structure of alkaloids isolated from this botanic family, is described, using Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts as substrate. This compound should be a useful and valuable intermediate for the total synthesis of alkaloids isolated from Amaryllidaceae. (author)

  14. 7-{[2-(4-Hydroxyphenylmethylidene]amino}-1,3-thiazol-4-yl-2-(methoxyiminoacetyl]amino}-3-{[(2-methyl-5,6-dioxo-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1,2,4-triazin-3-ylsulfanyl]methyl}-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Fareed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel 7-{[2-(4-hydroxyphenylmethylidene]amino}-1,3-thiazol-4-yl-2-(methoxyiminoacetyl]amino}-3-{[(2-methyl-5,6-dioxo-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1,2,4-triazin-3-ylsulfanyl]methyl}-8-oxo-5-thia-1azabicyclo [4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid was prepared by condensation of ceftriaxone disodium (1 with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2 in ethanol under reflux conditions for 3–4 h. The structure of synthesized compound was elucidated using LCMS, 1H-NMR, and CHN techniques.

  15. Qualitative methods in PhD theses from general practice in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Hamberg, Katarina; Reventlow, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    . Qualitative studies are often included in Ph.D. theses from general practice in Scandinavia. Still, the Ph.D. programs across nations and institutions offer only limited training in qualitative methods. In this opinion article, we draw upon our observations and experiences, unpacking and reflecting upon...... values and challenges at stake when qualitative studies are included in Ph.D. theses. Hypotheses to explain these observations are presented, followed by suggestions for standards of evaluation and improvement of Ph.D. programs. The authors conclude that multimethod Ph.D. theses should be encouraged...

  16. In situ measurements reveal extremely low pH in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Knud Erik; Loibide, Amaia Irixar; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2017-01-01

    We measured pH in situ in the top organic soil horizons in heathland and pine forest and found values between 2.6 and 3.2. This was 0.5e0.8 units lower than concurrent laboratory pH measurements of the same soil, which raises questions about the interpretation of pH measurements. We propose that ...... that the higher pH recorded by standard laboratory methods may be due to buffering ions from soil biota released from drying, grinding and rewetting of soil samples, whereas the in situ pH reflects the correct level of acidification....

  17. Alkaline pH sensor molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichiro N

    2015-11-01

    Animals can survive only within a narrow pH range. This requires continual monitoring of environmental and body-fluid pH. Although a variety of acidic pH sensor molecules have been reported, alkaline pH sensor function is not well understood. This Review describes neuronal alkaline pH sensors, grouped according to whether they monitor extracellular or intracellular alkaline pH. Extracellular sensors include the receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, the insulin receptor-related receptor, ligand-gated Cl- channels, connexin hemichannels, two-pore-domain K+ channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Intracellular sensors include TRP channels and gap junction channels. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying alkaline pH sensing is crucial for understanding how animals respond to environmental alkaline pH and how body-fluid pH is maintained within a narrow range. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Values Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    that individualistic employees in individualistic organizations and collectivistic employees in collectivistic organizations show greater job...with Parsons’ causal assumption, in the nineties values were recognized on top of the cultural control –values control norms which in turn control...determines intention which may end in behavior. 7 Defining Human Values Cross- cultural theories on values emerged in the 80s developed by three main

  19. Low pH Cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, David; Benbow, Steven

    2007-05-01

    The development of low-pH cements for use in geological repositories for radioactive waste stems from concerns over the potential for deleterious effects upon the host rock and other EBS materials (notably bentonite) under the hyperalkaline conditions (pH > 12) of cement pore fluids. Low pH cement (also known as low heat cement) was developed by the cement industry for use where large masses of cement (e.g. dams) could cause problems regarding heat generated during curing. In low pH cements, the amount of cement is reduced by substitution of materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and/or non-pozzolanic silica flour. SKB and Posiva have ruled out the use of blast furnace slag and fly-ash and are focusing on silica fume as a blending agent. Currently, no preferred composition has been identified by these agencies. SKB and Posiva have defined a pH limit ≤ 11 for cement grout leachates. To attain this pH, blending agents must comprise at least 50 wt % of dry materials. Because low pH cement has little, or no free portlandite, the cement consists predominantly of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel with a Ca/Si ratio ≤ 0.8. Although there are potential implications for the performance of the spent fuel and cladding due to the presence of hyperalkaline fluids from cement, the principal focus for safety assessment lies with the behaviour of bentonite. There are a number of potential constraints on the interaction of hyperalkaline cement pore fluids with bentonite, including mass balance, thermodynamic issues, mass transport, and kinetics, but none of these is likely to be limiting if conventional OPC cements are employed in repository construction. Nevertheless: Low-pH cements may supply approximately 50 % less hydroxyl ions than conventional OPC for a given volume of cement, but mass balance constraints are complicated by the uncertainty concerning the type of secondary minerals produced during cement-bentonite interaction. The change of aqueous

  20. Low pH Cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David; Benbow, Steven [Quintessa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The development of low-pH cements for use in geological repositories for radioactive waste stems from concerns over the potential for deleterious effects upon the host rock and other EBS materials (notably bentonite) under the hyperalkaline conditions (pH > 12) of cement pore fluids. Low pH cement (also known as low heat cement) was developed by the cement industry for use where large masses of cement (e.g. dams) could cause problems regarding heat generated during curing. In low pH cements, the amount of cement is reduced by substitution of materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and/or non-pozzolanic silica flour. SKB and Posiva have ruled out the use of blast furnace slag and fly-ash and are focusing on silica fume as a blending agent. Currently, no preferred composition has been identified by these agencies. SKB and Posiva have defined a pH limit {<=} 11 for cement grout leachates. To attain this pH, blending agents must comprise at least 50 wt % of dry materials. Because low pH cement has little, or no free portlandite, the cement consists predominantly of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel with a Ca/Si ratio {<=} 0.8. Although there are potential implications for the performance of the spent fuel and cladding due to the presence of hyperalkaline fluids from cement, the principal focus for safety assessment lies with the behaviour of bentonite. There are a number of potential constraints on the interaction of hyperalkaline cement pore fluids with bentonite, including mass balance, thermodynamic issues, mass transport, and kinetics, but none of these is likely to be limiting if conventional OPC cements are employed in repository construction. Nevertheless: Low-pH cements may supply approximately 50 % less hydroxyl ions than conventional OPC for a given volume of cement, but mass balance constraints are complicated by the uncertainty concerning the type of secondary minerals produced during cement-bentonite interaction. The change of aqueous

  1. Method for ph-controlled fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of biomass processing and bioenergy production and facilitates efficient biomass processing and an increased production of renewable energy from processing and anaerobic fermentation of a wide variety of organic materials. In order to control the pH value...

  2. Maternal weight prior and during pregnancy and offspring's BMI and adiposity at 5-6 years in the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacota, M; Forhan, A; Saldanha-Gomes, C; Charles, M A; Heude, B

    2017-08-01

    Beyond pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal weight change before and during pregnancy may also affect offspring adiposity. To investigate the relationship between maternal weight history before and during pregnancy with children's adiposity at 5-6 years. In 1069 mother-child dyads from the EDEN Cohort, we examined by linear regression the associations of children's BMI, fat mass and abdominal adiposity at 5-6 years with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, pre-pregnancy average yearly weight change from age 20 and gestational weight gain. The shapes of relationships were investigated using splines and polynomial functions were tested. Children's BMI and adiposity parameters were positively associated with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, but these relationships were mainly seen in thin mothers, with no substantial variation for maternal BMI ranging from 22 to 35 kg/m 2 . Gestational weight gain was positively associated with children's BMI Z-score, but again more so in thin mothers. We found no association with pre-pregnancy weight change. Before the adiposity rebound, maternal pre-pregnancy thinness explains most of the relationship with children's BMI. The relationship may emerge at older ages in children of overweight and obese mothers, and this latency may be an obstacle to early prevention. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Theoretical investigation of inclusion complex formation of Gold (III – Dimethyldithiocarbamate anticancer agents with cucurbit[n = 5,6]urils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabiollah Mahdavifar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gold (III-N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate [DMDT(AuX2] complexes have recently gained increasing attention as potential anticancer agents because of their strong tumor cell growth–inhibitory effects, generally achieved by exploiting non-cisplatin-like mechanisms of action. The goal of our research work is to encapsulate the gold(III dimethyldithiocarbamate complexes as anticancer with cucurbit[n]urils (CB[n = 5, 6] by accurate calculations, to predict the inclusion complex formation of gold(III species with cucurbiturils (CB[n = 5, 6]. The calculations were carried out just for the 1:1 stoichiometric complexes. Upon encapsulation, binding energy, thermodynamic parameters, structural parameters and electronic structures of complexes are investigated. The results of the thermodynamic calculations and the binding energy show that the inclusion process is exothermic and the CB[6]/[DMDT(AuBr2] complex is more stable than other complexes. The final geometry of CB[n]/drugs indicates that the drugs were expelled from the cavity of CB[n]. NBO calculations reveal that the hydrogen bonding between CB[n] and drugs and electrostatic interactions are the major factors contributing to the overall stabilities of the complexes.

  4. Thermodynamics of complexation of lanthanides with 2,6-bis(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl) pyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawat, N.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Tomar, B.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Ghosh, S.K.; Gadly, T. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Bioorganic Div.

    2011-07-01

    Solvent extraction studies on separation of trivalent actinides from lanthanides using 2,6-bis(5,6-dialkyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl) pyridines have shown promising results with respect to separation factor and efficiency in acidic medium. In order to understand their complexation behavior, the stability constant (log {beta}) of trivalent lanthanides (La, Nd, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Lu) with 2,6-bis(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine (ethyl-BTP) have been determined in methanol medium (ionic strength 0.01 M) using spectrophotometric titrations. The stoichiometry of the complexes is found to vary with the ionic size of lanthanide ion. The variation in log {beta} across the lanthanide series is attributed to variation in solvation characteristics of the metal ion. Comparison of log {beta} for Ln(III)-ethyl-BTP complexes with other alkyl derivatives showed increase in the stability with increasing length of the alkyl group due to hydrophobic interaction. In the case of Eu(III), the speciation was also corroborated by time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The thermodynamic parameters ({delta} G, {delta} H, {delta} S) for complexation of Eu(III) with ethyl-BTP, were determined by microcalorimetry, which revealed strong metal ion-ligand interaction with the reactions driven mainly by enthalpy. (orig.)

  5. Complexing Agents and pH Influence on Chemical Durability of Type I Molded Glass Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biavati, Alberto; Poncini, Michele; Ferrarini, Arianna; Favaro, Nicola; Scarpa, Martina; Vallotto, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Among the factors that affect the glass surface chemical durability, pH and complexing agents present in aqueous solution have the main role. Glass surface attack can be also related to the delamination issue causing glass particles' appearance in the pharmaceutical preparation. A few methods to check for glass containers delamination propensity and some control guidelines have been proposed. The present study emphasizes the possible synergy between a few complexing agents with pH on borosilicate glass chemical durability.Hydrolytic attack was performed in small-volume 23 mL type I glass containers autoclaved according to the European Pharmacopoeia or United States Pharmacopeia for 1 h at 121 °C, in order to enhance the chemical attack due to time, temperature, and the unfavorable surface/volume ratio. Solutions of 0.048 M or 0.024 M (M/L) of the acids citric, glutaric, acetic, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), together with sodium phosphate with water for comparison, were used for the trials. The pH was adjusted ±0.05 units at fixed values 5.5, 6.6, 7, 7.4, 8, and 9 by LiOH diluted solution.Because silicon is the main glass network former, silicon release into the attack solutions was chosen as the main index of the glass surface attack and analysed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry. The work was completed by the analysis of the silicon release in the worst attack conditions of molded glass, soda lime type II glass, and tubing borosilicate glass vials to compare different glass compositions and forming technologies. Surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy was finally performed to check for the surface status after the worst chemical attack condition by citric acid. LAY ABSTRACT: Glass, like every packaging material, can have some usage limits, mainly in basic pH solutions. The issue of glass surface degradation particles that appear in vials (delamination) has forced a number of drug product recalls in recent years

  6. pH tolerance of Daphnia pulex (leydig, emend. , richard)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P; Ozburn, G W

    1969-01-01

    The survival time and reproduction of female Daphnia pulex in solutions varying in pH have been observed. Dilute sodium hydroxide or sulfuric acid solutions were added to four different diluent waters: distilled water, aerated tap water, aerated and filtered tap water from an aquarium containing Dace minnows, and Mcintyre River water. D. Pulex (initially up to 72 hours old) survived for the duration of the experiment (32 hours) in river water within a pH range of 6.1 to 10.3; in aquarium water within a pH range of 4.3 to 10.4; only at pH 6.4 and pH 7.6 in distilled water; and in none of the solutions using aerated tap water. The dissolved oxygen content was measured at the beginning and end of every experiment and was found never to fall below 6.2 p.p.M. Those individuals which survived were cultured in the laboratory and parthenogenesis was observed at pH values between 7.0 and 8.7.

  7. Umbilical Cord Blood pH in Intrapartum Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Fouzia; Khan, Ayesha; Ali, Tahmina; Rabia, Syeda

    2015-09-01

    To determine the association of cord arterial blood pH with neonatal outcome in cases of intrapartum fetal hypoxia. Descriptive analytical study. Gynaecology Unit-II, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from September 2011 to November 2012. All singleton cephalic fetuses at term gestation were included in the study. Those with any anomaly, malpresentation, medical disorders, maternal age 7.25, neonatal outcome measures (healthy, NICU admission or neonatal death), color of liquor and mode of delivery recorded on predesigned proforma. Statistical analysis performed by SPSS 16 by using independent-t test or chi-square test and ANOVA test as needed. A total of 204 newborns were evaluated. The mean pH level was found to be significantly different (p=0.007) in two groups. The pH value 7.25 had significant association (p 7.25. Majority (63.6%) cases needed caesarean section as compared to 31.4% controls. There is a significant association of cord arterial blood pH at birth with neonatal outcome at pH 7.25; but below the level of pH 7.25 it is still inconclusive.

  8. Thermodynamic properties of pressurized PH3 superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, S.; Rao, G. Venugopal

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the superconducting thermodynamic functions determined for pressurized phosphorus trihydride (PH3). In particular, free energy difference ΔF, thermodynamic critical field Hc, specific heat etc. have been calculated using analytical expressions. The calculations were performed in the frame work of the strong-coupling formalism. The obtained dimensionless parameters: RΔ ≡ 2Δ(0)/kBTc, RC ≡ ΔC(Tc)/CN(Tc) and RH≡TcCN(Tc)/Hc2(0) are 4.05, 1.96 and 0.156 respectively, which significantly differ from the values arising from the BCS theory of superconductivity. The thermodynamic properties strongly depend on the depairing electron correlations and retardation effects.

  9. Temperature and pH sensors based on graphenic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, P; Calisi, N; Melai, B; Cortigiani, B; Mannini, M; Caneschi, A; Lorenzetti, G; Paoletti, C; Lomonaco, T; Paolicchi, A; Scataglini, I; Dini, V; Romanelli, M; Fuoco, R; Di Francesco, F

    2017-05-15

    Point-of-care applications and patients' real-time monitoring outside a clinical setting would require disposable and durable sensors to provide better therapies and quality of life for patients. This paper describes the fabrication and performances of a temperature and a pH sensor on a biocompatible and wearable board for healthcare applications. The temperature sensor was based on a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) layer that changed its electrical resistivity with the temperature. When tested in a human serum sample between 25 and 43°C, the sensor had a sensitivity of 110±10Ω/°C and an error of 0.4±0.1°C compared with the reference value set in a thermostatic bath. The pH sensor, based on a graphene oxide (GO) sensitive layer, had a sensitivity of 40±4mV/pH in the pH range between 4 and 10. Five sensor prototypes were tested in a human serum sample over one week and the maximum deviation of the average response from reference values obtained by a glass electrode was 0.2pH units. For biological applications, the temperature and pH sensors were successfully tested for in vitro cytotoxicity with human fibroblast cells (MRC-5) over 24h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Graphene Channel Liquid Container Field Effect Transistor as ph Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Shi, J.; Pang, J.; Liu, W.; Wang, X.; Liu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene channel liquid container field effect transistor ph sensor with interdigital micro trench for liquid ion testing is presented. Growth morphology and ph sensing property of continuous few-layer graphene (FLG) and quasi-continuous monolayer graphene (MG) channels are compared. The experiment results show that the source-to-drain current of the graphene channel FET has a significant and fast response after adsorption of the measured molecule and ion at the room temperature; at the same time, the FLG response time is less than 4 s. The resolution of MG (0.01) on ph value is one order of magnitude higher than that of FLG (0.1). The reason is that with fewer defects, the MG is more likely to adsorb measured molecule and ion, and the molecules and ions can make the transport property change. The output sensitivities of MG are from 34.5% to 57.4% when the ph value is between 7 and 8, while sensitivity of FLG is 4.75% when the Ph=6. The sensor fabrication combines traditional silicon technique and flexible electronic technology and provides an easy way to develop graphene-based electrolyte gas sensor or even biological sensors.

  11. Traceability of pH to the Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Camões

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Free acidity of aqueous solutions was initially defined in 1909 by Søren Peter Lauritz Sørensen as pH = −lgcH+ (c/mol·dm−3 or m/mol·kg−1 of the free hydrogen ions in solution, H+ soon (1910 was changed to pH = paH+ = −lgaH+, integrating the new concepts of activity, ai and activity coefficient γi, for the ionic species i under concern, H+ in this case; it is ai = −lg(miγi. Since individual ions do not exist alone in solution, primary pH values cannot be assigned solely by experimental measurements, requiring extra thermodynamic model assumptions for the activity coefficient, γH+, which has put pH in a unique situation of not being fully traceable to the International System of Units (SI. Also the concept of activity is often not felt to be as perceptible as that of concentration which may present difficulties, namely with the interpretation of data. pH measurements on unknown samples rely on calibration of the measuring setup with adequate reference pH buffers. In this work, the assignment of pH values to buffers closely matching the samples, e.g., seawater, is revisited. An approach is presented to assess the quantity pmH+ = −lgmH+ profiting from the fact that, contrary to single ion activity coefficients, mean activity coefficients,   can be assessed based on experimentally assessed quantities alone, γExp ±, thus ensuring traceability to the mole, the SI base unit for amount of substance. Compatibility between γExp ± and mean activity coefficient calculated by means of Pitzer model equations, γPtz ±, validates the model for its intended use.

  12. Graphite Screen-Printed Electrodes Applied for the Accurate and Reagentless Sensing of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Flávia E; Smith, Jamie P; Kwamou, Sophie I; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Iniesta, Jesus; Smith, Graham C; Bonacin, Juliano A; Banks, Craig E

    2015-12-01

    A reagentless pH sensor based upon disposable and economical graphite screen-printed electrodes (GSPEs) is demonstrated for the first time. The voltammetric pH sensor utilizes GSPEs which are chemically pretreated to form surface immobilized oxygenated species that, when their redox behavior is monitored, give a Nernstian response over a large pH range (1-13). An excellent experimental correlation is observed between the voltammetric potential and pH over the entire pH range of 1-13 providing a simple approach with which to monitor solution pH. Such a linear response over this dynamic pH range is not usually expected but rather deviation from linearity is encountered at alkaline pH values; absence of this has previously been attributed to a change in the pKa value of surface immobilized groups from that of solution phase species. This non-deviation, which is observed here in the case of our facile produced reagentless pH sensor and also reported in the literature for pH sensitive compounds immobilized upon carbon electrodes/surfaces, where a linear response is observed over the entire pH range, is explained alternatively for the first time. The performance of the GSPE pH sensor is also directly compared with a glass pH probe and applied to the measurement of pH in "real" unbuffered samples where an excellent correlation between the two protocols is observed validating the proposed GSPE pH sensor.

  13. [The effects of electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency and low intensity on the growth rate of bacteria Escherichia coli and the role of medium pH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadevosian, A; Kalantarian, V; Trchunian, A

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that coherent electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of extremely high frequency (45-53 GHz) or millimeter waves (wavelength 5.6-6.7 mm) of low intensity (flux capacity 0.06 mW/cm2) of Escherichia coli K12, grown under anaerobic conditions during the fermentation of sugar (glucose) for 30 min or 1 h, caused a decrease in their growth rate, the maximum inhibitory effect being achieved at a frequency of 51.8 or 53 GHz. This effect depended on medium pH when the maximal action was determined at pH 7.5. In addition, separate 30-min of 1-h irradiation (frequency 51.8 or 53 GHz) of doubly distilled water or some inorganic ions contained in Tris-phosphate buffer where the cells were transferred induced oppositely directed changes in further growth of these bacteria under anaerobic conditions; irradiation of water caused a decrease in the growth rate of bacteria. A significant change in pH of water (0.5-1.5 unit) was induced by a 30-irradiation at a frequency of 49, 50.3, 51.8, or 53 GHz, when the initial pH value was 6.0 or 8.0, but not 7.5. These results indicate the changes in the properties of water and its role in the effects of EMI of extremely high frequency. The marked effect of EMI on bacteria disappeared upon repeated irradiation for 1 h at a frequency of 51.8 or 53 GHz with an interval of 2 hours. This result indicates some compensatory mechanisms in bacteria.

  14. Acceptance Test Data for the AGR-5/6/7 Irradiation Test Fuel Composite Defective IPyC Fraction and Pyrocarbon Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmreich, Grant W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skitt, Darren J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dyer, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schumacher, Austin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Coated particle composite J52R-16-98005 was produced by Babcock and Wilcox Technologies (BWXT) as fuel for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program’s AGR-5/6/7 irradiation test in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This composite was comprised of four coated particle fuel batches J52O-16-93165B (26%), 93168B (26%), 93169B (24%), and 93170B (24%), chosen based on the Quality Control (QC) data acquired for each individual candidate AGR-5/6/7 batch. Each batch was coated in a 150-mm-diameter production-scale fluidized-bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace. Tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coatings were deposited on 425-μm-nominal-diameter spherical kernels from BWXT Lot J52R-16-69317 containing a mixture of 15.5%-enriched uranium carbide and uranium oxide (UCO). The TRISO coatings consisted of four consecutive CVD layers: a ~50% dense carbon buffer layer with 100-μm-nominal thickness, a dense inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layer with 40-μm-nominal thickness, a silicon carbide (SiC) layer with 35-μm-nominal thickness, and a dense outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer with 40-μm-nominal thickness. The TRISO-coated particle batches were sieved to upgrade the particles by removing over-sized and under-sized material, and the upgraded batches were designated by appending the letter A to the end of the batch number (e.g., 93165A). Secondary upgrading by sieving was performed on the A-designated batches to remove particles with missing or very-thin buffer layers that were identified during previous analysis of the individual batches for defective IPyC, as reported in the acceptance test data report for the AGR-5/6/7 production batches [Hunn et al. 2017]. The additionally-upgraded batches were designated by appending the letter B to the end of the batch number (e.g., 93165B).

  15. A randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of providing free fluoride toothpaste from the age of 12 months on reducing caries in 5-6 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G M; Worthington, H V; Ellwood, R P; Bentley, E M; Blinkhorn, A S; Taylor, G O; Davies, R M

    2002-09-01

    To assess the impact of regularly supplying free fluoride toothpaste regularly to children, initially aged 12 months, and living in deprived areas of the north west of England on the level of caries in the deciduous dentition at 5-6 years of age. A further aim was to compare the effectiveness of a programme using a toothpaste containing 440 ppmF (Colgate 0-6 Gel) with one containing 1,450 ppmF (Colgate Great Regular Flavour) in reducing caries. Randomised controlled parallel group clinical trial. Clinical data were collected from test and control groups when the children were 5-6 years old. A programme of posting toothpaste with dental health messages to the homes of children initially aged 12 months. Clinical examinations took place in primary schools. 7,422 children born in 3-month birth cohorts living in high caries areas in nine health districts in north west England. Within each district children were randomly assigned to test or control groups. Toothpaste, containing either 440 ppmF or 1450 ppmF, and dental health literature posted at three monthly intervals to children in test groups until they were aged 5-6 years. The dmft index, missing teeth and the prevalence of caries experience. An analysis of 3,731 children who were examined and remained in the programme showed the mean dmft to be 2.15 for the group who had received 1,450 ppmF toothpaste and 2.49 for the 440 ppmF group. The mean dmft for the control group was 2.57. This 16% reduction between the 1,450 ppmF and control group was statistically significant (Pcontrol was not significant. Further analyses to estimate the population effect of the programme also confirmed this relationship. This study demonstrates that a programme distributing free toothpaste containing 1,450 ppmF provides a significant clinical benefit for high caries risk children living in deprived, non-fluoridated districts.

  16. Fetal scalp pH testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  17. Acid loading test (pH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  18. Default values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    In making calculations for the purposes of radiation protection, numerical values for parameters used in the calculations are selected. In some cases, data directly applicable to the set of conditions for which the calculations are to be made are unavailable. Therefore, the selection of the values for these parameters may be based on more general data available from the literature or other sources. These values may be referred to as 'default values', that is, values used in default of those based on directly applicable data. The following policy will be applied by Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) staff in reviewing the radiation protection aspects of submissions associated with licensing, in participating with other organizations in the development of codes and standards, and in any other work which relies to some extent on using default values

  19. The physiology of the Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) at pH 8.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Gonzalez, R J; Ferreira, Márcio Soares; Braz-Mota, Susana; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2018-05-01

    The Tambaqui is a model neotropical teleost which is of great economic and cultural importance in artisanal fisheries and commercial aquaculture. It thrives in ion-poor, often acidic Amazonian waters and exhibits excellent regulation of physiology down to water pH 4.0. Curiously, however, it is reported to perform poorly in aquaculture at pH 8.0, an only slightly alkaline pH which would be benign for most freshwater fish. In initial experiments with Tambaqui of intermediate size (30-50 g), we found that ammonia excretion rate was unchanged at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7, but elevated after 20-24 h at pH 8, exactly opposite the pattern seen in most teleosts. Subsequent experiments with large Tambaqui (150-300 g) demonstrated that only ammonia, and not urea excretion was increased at pH 8.0, and that the elevation was proportional to a general increase in MO 2 . There was an accompanying elevation in net acidic equivalent excretion and/or basic equivalent uptake which occurred mainly at the gills. Net Na + balance was little affected while Cl - balance became negative, implicating a disturbance of Cl - versus base exchange rather than Na + versus acid exchange. Arterial blood pH increased by 0.2 units at pH 8.0, reflecting combined metabolic and respiratory alkaloses. Most parameters recovered to control levels by 18-24 h after return to pH 6.0. With respect to large Tambaqui, we conclude that a physiology adapted to acidic pH performs inappropriately at moderately alkaline pH. In small Tambaqui (4-15 g), the responses were very different, with an initial inhibition of ammonia excretion rate at pH 8.0 followed by a subsequent restoration of control levels. Elevated ammonia excretion rate occurred only after return to pH 6.0. Furthermore, MO 2 , plasma cortisol, and branchial vH + ATPase activities all declined during pH 8.0 exposure in small Tambaqui, in contrast to the responses in larger fish. Overall, small Tambaqui appear to cope better at pH 8.0, a difference that

  20. Metal/Metal Oxide Differential Electrode pH Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Buehler, Martin; Keymeulen, Didier

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state electrochemical sensors for measuring the degrees of acidity or alkalinity (in terms of pH values) of liquid solutions are being developed. These sensors are intended to supplant older electrochemical pH sensors that include glass electrode structures and reference solutions. The older sensors are fragile and subject to drift. The present developmental solid-state sensors are more rugged and are expected to be usable in harsh environments. The present sensors are based on a differential-electrode measurement principle. Each sensor includes two electrodes, made of different materials, in equilibrium with the solution of interest.