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Sample records for valued reproductive activity

  1. Parasite dispersal risk tolerance is mediated by its reproductive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Maxcy P; Delaplane, Keith S

    2017-10-01

    Parasite dispersal theory draws heavily upon epidemiological SIR models in which host status (susceptible (S), infected (I), or recovered (R)) is used to study parasite dispersal evolution. In contrast to these extrinsically host-centric drivers, in this study we focus on an intrinsic driver, the parasite's reproductive value (predicted future offspring) as a regulator of the extent to which the individual will engage in risky dispersal behaviour. As a model system we use the honeybee Apis mellifera and its ectoparasite, the mite Varroa destructor . Mite reproduction happens exclusively inside cells of bee brood, and newly emerged fecund mites may parasitize either a homocolonial brood cell (low risk dispersal) or emigrate to a new bee colony via phoretic attachment to mature forager bees (high risk dispersal). In an empirical bioassay, prepartum mites (high reproductive value) and postpartum mites (low reproductive value) were offered a choice of newly emerged homocolonial worker bees (low risk), homocolonial pollen forager bees (high risk), or heterocolonial pollen foragers (high risk). A preference for newly emerged bees was earlier and more strongly sustained among prepartum mites. This suggests comparatively greater dispersal risk tolerance among postpartum mites with lower reproductive value. A dangerous bid for dispersal may be adaptive if the individual has already successfully reproduced and the rewards for successful dispersal are sufficiently large.

  2. Age-specific growth, reproductive values, and intrinsic r

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The age-specific growth function of an observed population and the reproductive value function based on the population's current vital rates determine the intrinsic rate of growth implied by those vital rates through the simple relationship given in equation (1. That equation establishes the analytical significance of age-specific growth, and leads to relationships that quantify a population's approach to stability and that specify the extraordinarily close connection between reproductive values and population momentum.

  3. Physical activity and its effects on reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Leanne M

    2006-05-01

    The reproductive system is tightly coupled with energy balance, and thereby changes in the status of energy balance through changes in physical activity can impact on the reproductive system. In light of the new physical activity for health recommendations, it is therefore important to understand the inherent effects, both positive and negative, of physical activity on the reproductive system. At both extremes of the energy spectrum, disorders of chronic energy excess and energy deficiency are characterized by a wide range of reproductive disorders, including menstrual irregularity, anovulation, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and infertility in women, and erectile dysfunction and altered spermatogenesis in men. Although laboratory research indicates that individuals may be able to prevent or reverse reproductive disruptions, either by increasing energy expenditure in cases of energy excess or by dietary reform in cases of energy deficits, there is an acute need for applied research to confirm this idea and to identify mechanisms by which the availability of energy per se regulates reproductive function in humans.

  4. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  5. Value activity monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alencar Silva, P.

    2013-01-01

    Current value modeling ontologies are grounded on the economic premise that profit sharing is a critical condition to be assessed during the configuration of a value constellation. Such a condition ought to be reinforced through a monitoring mechanism design, since a value model expresses only

  6. Facial, Olfactory, and Vocal Cues to Female Reproductive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Röder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial, olfactory, and vocal cues may advertise women's fertility. However, most of the evidence for this proposal has come from studies of changes in young adult women's attractiveness over the menstrual cycle. By contrast with this emphasis on changes in attractiveness over the menstrual cycle, possible changes in women's attractiveness over their lifespan have received little attention. The present study investigated men's ratings of young girls' (11–15 years old, adult women's (19–30 years old and circum-menopausal women's (50–65 years old facial, body odor, and vocal attractiveness and femininity. Faces and voices, but not body odors, of young girls and adult women were perceived to be significantly more attractive and feminine than those of circum-menopausal women. These data suggest that facial and vocal cues may be cues to women's reproductive value, but that body odor cues do not necessarily advertise this information.

  7. Immotile Active Matter: Activity from Death and Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalziqi, Arben; Yanni, David; Thomas, Jacob; Ng, Siu Lung; Vivek, Skanda; Hammer, Brian K.; Yunker, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Unlike equilibrium atomic solids, biofilms—soft solids composed of bacterial cells—do not experience significant thermal fluctuations at the constituent level. However, living cells stochastically reproduce and die, provoking a mechanical response. We investigate the mechanical consequences of cellular death and reproduction by measuring surface-height fluctuations of biofilms containing two mutually antagonistic strains of Vibrio cholerae that kill one another on contact via the type VI secretion system. While studies of active matter typically focus on activity via constituent mobility, here, activity is mediated by reproduction and death events in otherwise immobilized cells. Biofilm surface topography is measured in the nearly homeostatic limit via white light interferometry. Although biofilms are far from equilibrium systems, measured surface-height fluctuation spectra resemble the spectra of thermal permeable membranes but with an activity-mediated effective temperature, as predicted by Risler, Peilloux, and Prost [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 258104 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.258104]. By comparing the activity of killer strains of V. cholerae with that of genetically modified strains that cannot kill each other and validating with individual-based simulations, we demonstrate that extracted effective temperatures increase with the amount of death and reproduction and that death and reproduction can fluidize biofilms. Together, these observations demonstrate the unique physical consequences of activity mediated by death and reproduction events.

  8. The forms and fitness cost of senescence : Age-specific recapture, survival, reproduction, and reproductive value in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, Sandra; Choquet, Remi; Sheldon, Ben C.; Verhulst, Simon

    Longitudinal studies of senescence accumulate rapidly from natural populations. However, it is largely unknown whether different fitness components senesce in parallel, how reproductive and survival senescence contribute to declines in reproductive value, and how large the fitness cost of senescence

  9. Active inference and epistemic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl; Rigoli, Francesco; Ognibene, Dimitri; Mathys, Christoph; Fitzgerald, Thomas; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We offer a formal treatment of choice behavior based on the premise that agents minimize the expected free energy of future outcomes. Crucially, the negative free energy or quality of a policy can be decomposed into extrinsic and epistemic (or intrinsic) value. Minimizing expected free energy is therefore equivalent to maximizing extrinsic value or expected utility (defined in terms of prior preferences or goals), while maximizing information gain or intrinsic value (or reducing uncertainty about the causes of valuable outcomes). The resulting scheme resolves the exploration-exploitation dilemma: Epistemic value is maximized until there is no further information gain, after which exploitation is assured through maximization of extrinsic value. This is formally consistent with the Infomax principle, generalizing formulations of active vision based upon salience (Bayesian surprise) and optimal decisions based on expected utility and risk-sensitive (Kullback-Leibler) control. Furthermore, as with previous active inference formulations of discrete (Markovian) problems, ad hoc softmax parameters become the expected (Bayes-optimal) precision of beliefs about, or confidence in, policies. This article focuses on the basic theory, illustrating the ideas with simulations. A key aspect of these simulations is the similarity between precision updates and dopaminergic discharges observed in conditioning paradigms.

  10. Solar activity affects avian timing of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Sanz, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Avian timing of reproduction is strongly affected by ambient temperature. Here we show that there is an additional effect of sunspots on laying date, from five long-term population studies of great and blue tits (Parus major and Cyanistes caeruleus), demonstrating for the first time that solar

  11. Milk protein concentration, estimated breeding value for fertility, and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John M; Auldist, Martin J; Douglas, Meaghan L; Macmillan, Keith L

    2017-07-01

    Milk protein concentration in dairy cows has been positively associated with a range of measures of reproductive performance, and genetic factors affecting both milk protein concentration and reproductive performance may contribute to the observed phenotypic associations. It was of interest to assess whether these beneficial phenotypic associations are accounted for or interact with the effects of estimated breeding values for fertility. The effects of a multitrait estimated breeding value for fertility [the Australian breeding value for daughter fertility (ABV fertility)] on reproductive performance were also of interest. Interactions of milk protein concentration and ABV fertility with the interval from calving date to the start of the herd's seasonally concentrated breeding period were also assessed. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted using data collected from 74 Australian seasonally and split calving dairy herds. Associations between milk protein concentration, ABV fertility, and reproductive performance in Holstein cows were assessed using random effects logistic regression. Between 52,438 and 61,939 lactations were used for analyses of 4 reproductive performance measures. Milk protein concentration was strongly and positively associated with reproductive performance in dairy cows, and this effect was not accounted for by the effects of ABV fertility. Increases in ABV fertility had important additional beneficial effects on the probability of pregnancy by wk 6 and 21 of the herd's breeding period. For cows calved before the start of the breeding period, the effects of increases in both milk protein concentration and ABV fertility were beneficial regardless of their interval from calving to the start of the breeding period. These findings demonstrate the potential for increasing reproductive performance through identifying the causes of the association between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance and then devising management

  12. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.

  13. Adult lifetime reproductive value in fish depends on size and fecundity type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoukali, Stavroula; Olsson, Karin H.; Visser, André W.

    2016-01-01

    In a stable population, the adult lifetime reproductive value must be balanced against early life survival. Although delaying maturity may increase fecundity, it also reduces survival. Larger size at maturity therefore not only allows for higher fecundity, but requires it. Using simple arguments......, the expected proportionality falls off if mortality increases to include fishing. Furthermore, we find that the fecundity type (determinate or indeterminate) affects the predicted adult reproductive value, which is significantly (10-fold) higher for an indeterminate spawner than for a determinate spawner...

  14. Reproduction of cultural values: a cross-cultural examination of stories people create and transmit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Toshie; Yussen, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Narratives are one of the oldest and universal forms of communication in human societies. In the present research, the authors hypothesized that narratives play an important role in the reproduction of cultural values. To test this idea, Study 1 examined the contents of stories created by American and Japanese participants for their reflection of individualistic and collectivistic values, and Study 2 examined whether information consistent with cultural values would be more likely to be retained and passed onto others. The studies found that American participants created stories that reflected individualistic values and retained more individualistic information than collectivistic information when they transmitted a story to others. In contrast, Japanese participants created stories that reflected collectivistic values and retained more collectivistic information than individualistic information when they transmitted a story to others. These findings support the idea that narrative communication is an important part of cultural reproduction mechanism.

  15. Determining and Accounting of Fair Value in Agricultural Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet GÖKGÖZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological assets and agricultural products bring about the subject of agricultural production. Having biological transformation of biological assets and agricultural products via the cases such as growth, reproduction, deterioration, decay; makes the valuation of agricultural activities important. The Fair Value Approach is adopted in TAS 41, the Agricultural Activities Standard regulating agricultural activities, about the valuation of biological assets and agricultural products. In the study; determining process of biological assets and agricultural products’ fair value adopted by TAS 41 is explained. Afterwards; recording of increase and decrease, occured due to the valuation by the framework of TAS 41, through the accounts offered to the Uniform Chart of Accounts.

  16. Activity budgets on social and reproductive behaviour of olive baboons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the activity budgets on social interactions and reproductive behaviour of olive baboon (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti ... Results of polyspecific association shows that the baboons spent 14.29% of the time in association with red flanked duikers, 14.29% with black-and-white ...

  17. The value of eutherian-marsupial comparisons for understanding the function of glucocorticoids in female mammal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanson, Kerry V; Parrott, Marissa L

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Chronic stress is known to inhibit female reproductive function. Consequently, it is often assumed that glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations should be negatively correlated with reproductive success because of the role they play in stress physiology. In contrast, a growing body of evidence indicates that GCs play an active role in promoting reproductive function. It is precisely because GCs are so integral to the entire process that disruptions to adrenal activity have negative consequences for reproduction. The goal of this paper is to draw attention to the increasing evidence showing that increases in adrenal activity are important for healthy female reproduction. Furthermore, we outline several hypotheses about the functional role(s) that GCs may play in mediating reproduction and argue that comparative studies between eutherian and marsupial mammals, which exhibit some pronounced differences in reproductive physiology, may be particularly useful for testing different hypotheses about the functional role of GCs in reproduction. Much of our current thinking about GCs and reproduction comes from research involving stress-induced levels of GCs and has led to broad assumptions about the effects of GCs on reproduction. Unfortunately, this has left a gaping hole in our knowledge about basal GC levels and how they may influence reproductive function, thereby preventing a broader understanding of adrenal physiology and obscuring potential solutions for reproductive dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fitness prospects: effects of age, sex and recruitment age on reproductive value in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Rebke, Maren; Becker, Peter H; Bouwhuis, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive value is an integrated measure of survival and reproduction fundamental to understanding life-history evolution and population dynamics, but little is known about intraspecific variation in reproductive value and factors explaining such variation, if any. By applying generalized additive mixed models to longitudinal individual-based data of the common tern Sterna hirundo, we estimated age-specific annual survival probability, breeding probability and reproductive performance, based on which we calculated age-specific reproductive values. We investigated effects of sex and recruitment age (RA) on each trait. We found age effects on all traits, with survival and breeding probability declining with age, while reproductive performance first improved with age before levelling off. We only found a very small, marginally significant, sex effect on survival probability, but evidence for decreasing age-specific breeding probability and reproductive performance with RA. As a result, males had slightly lower age-specific reproductive values than females, while birds of both sexes that recruited at the earliest ages of 2 and 3 years (i.e. 54% of the tern population) had somewhat higher fitness prospects than birds recruiting at later ages. While the RA effects on breeding probability and reproductive performance were statistically significant, these effects were not large enough to translate to significant effects on reproductive value. Age-specific reproductive values provided evidence for senescence, which came with fitness costs in a range of 17-21% for the sex-RA groups. Our study suggests that intraspecific variation in reproductive value may exist, but that, in the common tern, the differences are small. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  19. Reproductive value, sensitivity, and nonlinearity: Population-management heuristics derived from classical demography

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten R.; Teismann H.; Vogels A.

    2013-01-01

    In classical demographic theory, reproductive value and stable age distribution are proportional to the sensitivities of the asymptotic population size to changes in mortality and maternity, respectively. In this note we point out that analogous relationships hold if the maternity function is allowed to depend on the population density. The relevant formulae can essentially be obtained by replacing the growth rate ("Lotka'sr") with zero. These facts may be used to derive heuristics for popula...

  20. Moonlighting? - Consequences of lunar cues on anuran reproductive activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Victoria A.; Höbel, Gerlinde

    2018-02-01

    While the influence of environmental variables, particularly temperature and rainfall, on the breeding behavior of amphibians is widely recognized, relatively few studies have addressed how the moon affects amphibian behavior. Yet, the lunar cycle provides several rhythmic temporal cues that animals could use to time important group events such as spawning, and the substantial changes in light levels associated with the different moon phases may also affect the behavior of nocturnal frogs. Using seven years of field observation data, we tested for lunar effects on the reproductive activity of male and female Eastern Gray Treefrogs (Hyla versicolor). We found that chorusing and breeding activity was statistically more likely to occur around the first quarter of the moon and during intermediately bright nights, but that reproductive activity also occurred during various other times during the lunar cycle. We discuss these findings in relation to the two main hypotheses of lunar effects on animals: predator avoidance and temporal synchronization of breeding.

  1. Dioxin exposure and porcine reproductive hormonal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoraszczuk Ewa L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD during both the follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle, the direct effect of TCDD was investigated in vitro using a system of primary monolayer cell culture. Granulosa and theca cells were collected from the preovulatory follicles and cultured as a co-culture, thus resembling follicles in vivo. Luteal cells were isolated from the corpora lutea collected during the midluteal phase. In both cases cells were isolated from the ovaries of animals exhibiting natural estrus cycle. Results of these experiments suggest that TCDD decreases estradiol secretion by follicular cells and progesterone secretion by luteal cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was also shown that TCDD disrupts steroidogenesis through its influence on the activity of enzymes involved in the steroid biosynthesis cascade. In luteal cells, its action is mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR and is probably independent of estrogen receptor (ER stimulation. Endocrine disruptors that interfere with estradiol production in the follicles can act as ovulatory disruptors, and while interfering with progesterone production by luteal cells they can act as abortifacients.

  2. Reproductive value, sensitivity, and nonlinearity: population-management heuristics derived from classical demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Richard; Teismann, Holger; Vogels, Angela

    2013-05-01

    In classical demographic theory, reproductive value and stable age distribution are proportional to the sensitivities of the asymptotic population size to changes in mortality and maternity, respectively. In this note we point out that analogous relationships hold if the maternity function is allowed to depend on the population density. The relevant formulae can essentially be obtained by replacing the growth rate ("Lotka's r") with zero. These facts may be used to derive heuristics for population management (pest control). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of puerperal gonadoreline application on reproductive parameter values in cows

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    Šabanović Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of investigations conducted in order to investigate the influence of gonadoreline application 14-16, 17-20 and 21-25 days postpartum on reproductive parameters values in cows. A total of 241 cows was included in the study. Out of this number, 126 cows were treated with gonadoreline while 115 animals were placebo treated and served as controls. The estimation of progesterone concentration was conducted on 43 animals selected randomly from the first two groups of treated cows. Analyses of the results in cows that gave normal birth, revealed that mean anoestrus period, open day's period and intervals between calving were significantly lower in the gonadoreline treated groups. Reproductive parameter values in cows with different progesterone concentrations did not differ significantly. The period from gonadoreline application until conception, was shorter by 30, 30 and 14 days, respectively, compared to the controls. The total conception rate from the first three artificial inseminations was 88. 8% in gonadoreline treated groups and 83.47 % in the control groups.

  4. [Activities and responsibilities of workers in embryologic and andrologic laboratories in assisted reproduction centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záková, J; Trávník, P; Malenovská, A; Hűttelová, R

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the current status and rules for the laboratory staff activities and their competences in the centers of assisted reproduction. The rules were processed by the members of the Association of Reproductive Embryology (ARE) committee under the current legislation. Committee members of the Czech Sterility and Assisted Reproduction Society and Czech Gynecology and Obstetric Society approved these rules as obligatory for assisted reproduction centres in Czech Republic.

  5. Applicable value of real time interventional ultrasound guidance in family planning reproduction operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guoping; Zou Dongfang; Sun Jian; Dong Weihua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical value of real time interventional ultrasound guidance in family planning reproduction operation. Methods: Under the guidance of ultrasound monitoring, 522 cases with high risk and difficult uterine operation were undertaken in our department. Results: The abdominal endoscopic contraceptive uterine operation under real time ultrasound monitoring was carried out for 522 cases in 4 years, with successful rates for high risk pregnancy as 287/289 cases, high risk troublesome withdrawal of contraceptive ring as 129/130 cases and puzzling uterine operation as 103/103 cases. The total successful rate reached 99.42%, without uterine rupture and other complications. Conclusion: The former complex, blind and difficult uterine operations turn to be simple, safe and reliable under the guidance of real time ultrasound. (authors)

  6. Antiperoxidative Activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum Leaf Extract in Reproductive Organs of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seun Funmilola Akomolafe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg. Hutch. & Dalz is one of the many medicinal plants used in folklore as male fertility enhancers. This research was aimed at evaluating the anti-peroxidative activity of the leaves of this plant by determining their capacity to reduce malondialdehyde (MDA level in reproductive organs and accessory glands of rats. Adult male rats were administered orally with the aqueous leaf extract from T. conophorum at 50, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 21 consecutive days while clomiphene citrate (1.04 mg/kg body weight, a fertility drug was used as standard. The results of the study indicated that there was increase in relative organ weight, body weight, mean total food and water consumed by the treated groups. Testicular MDA level was highly significantly different from that of the control (p<0.0001 although a tentatively decreased MDA level was observed. However, MDA levels in the reproductive accessory glands, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland were insignificantly (p<0.05 lower than those of controls. The highest percentage decrease of MDA level (66.35, 42.68, 62.50 and 63.36% was observed at the highest concentration of the extract (1000 mg/kg in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland respectively. These values were two-fold greater than the values obtained for the standard drug. Interestingly, the treatment of rats with the extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and the levels of GSH, vitamin C and total protein. Collectively, the results suggest that the extract from T. conophorum leaves had greater capacity to reduce lipid peroxidation in reproductive organs and accessory glands and thus, this plant may be useful in the treatment/management of reproductive cellular damage involving reactive oxygen species.

  7. The special programme of research in human reproduction: forty years of activities to achieve reproductive health for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Harris Requejo, Jennifer; Schafer, Alessandra; Say, Lale; Merialdi, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction (HRP), co-sponsored by the UNDP, UNFPA, WHO, and the World Bank, is celebrating 40 years of activities with an expansion of its mandate and new co-sponsors. When it began, in 1972, the main focus was on evaluating the acceptability, effectiveness, and safety of existing fertility-regulating methods, as well as developing new, improved modalities for family planning. In 1994, HRP not only made major contributions to the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD); it also broadened its scope of work to include other aspects of health dealing with sexuality and reproduction, adding a specific perspective on gender issues and human rights. In 2002, HRP's mandate was once again broadened to include sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS and in 2003 it was further expanded to research activities on preventing violence against women and its many dire health consequences. Today, the work of the Programme includes research on: the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, women, and men; maternal and perinatal health; reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS); family planning; infertility; unsafe abortion; sexual health; screening for cancer of the cervix in developing countries, and gender and reproductive rights. Additional activities by the Programme have included: fostering international cooperation in the field of human reproduction; the elaboration of WHO's first Global Reproductive Health Strategy; work leading to the inclusion of ICPD's goal 'reproductive health for all by 2015' into the Millennium Development Goal framework; the promotion of critical interagency statements on the public health, legal, and human rights implications of female genital mutilation and gender-biased sex selection. Finally, HRP has been involved in the creation of guidelines and tools, such as the 'Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use

  8. Dual photon absorptiometry measurement of the lumbar bone mineral content. Methodology - Reproductibility - Normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braillon, P.; Duboeuf, F.; Delmas, P.D.; Meunier, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made with a DPA apparatus (Novo Lab 22a) on different phantoms and on volunteers in an attempt to evaluate the system precision. The reproductibility was found in the range of 0.98 to 4.10 % in the case of in vitro measurements, depending on the geometry of the phantoms used, and in the range of 1.6 to 2.94 % for volunteers after repositioning. Secondly, the BMD in the lumbar spine of normal women and normal men was estimated. In control females, the BMD is well fitted to the age by a cubic regression. The maximum value of the BMD is found in this case at the age of 31.5 and the maximum rate of bone loss takes place at 57. Total bone loss between 31.5 and the elderly is about 32 %. In control males, results are more scattered and are represented by a simple linear regression. The average mineral loss between 30 and 80 years is 11.5 % in this area of measurement [fr

  9. Prioritizing fishery management for loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) conservation in the northern Adriatic Sea from reproductive value analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Bojan; Heppell, Selina S.

    2013-01-01

    Fisheries bycatch often affects particular size classes of turtles. Because of the late age at maturity, the reproductive value (RV) of small juvenile, large juvenile and adult loggerheads vary by orders of magnitude. RV provides a relative measure of value for individuals, thereby allowing us to estimate the effects of different stressors based on the number of animals killed. Using RV as a comparative index, we assessed the relative impact of trawl and gillnet fi sheries operating in the no...

  10. BUGIS–MAKASSAR SEAMANSHIP AND REPRODUCTION OF MARITIME CULTURAL VALUES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munsi Lampe

    2012-09-01

    based on historical annotation of Bugis-Makassar seamenship and field work data from Bira (Bugis region and Paotere (Makassar region conducted in six months (from April to September 2010. Keywords: Bugis-Makassar seamen, seamenship experience, maritime culture reproduction.

  11. Current brood size and residual reproductive value predict brood desertion in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R. J. S.; Cotter, S. C.; Kilner, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Life-history theory suggests that offspring desertion can be an adaptive reproductive strategy, in which parents forgo the costly care of an unprofitable current brood to save resources for future reproduction. In the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, parents commonly abandon their offspring to the care of others, resulting in female-only care, male-only care, brood parasitism, and the care of offspring sired by satellite males. Furthermore, when there is biparental care, males routin...

  12. Toxicity reference values for methylmercury effects on avian reproduction: Critical review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Brown, Lauren E; Henning, Miranda H; Bock, Michael J; Magar, Victor S

    2017-02-01

    Effects of mercury (Hg) on birds have been studied extensively and with increasing frequency in recent years. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of methylmercury (MeHg) effects on bird reproduction, evaluating laboratory and field studies in which observed effects could be attributed primarily to Hg. The review focuses on exposures via diet and maternal transfer in which observed effects (or lack thereof) were reported relative to Hg concentrations in diet, eggs, or adult blood. Applicable data were identified for 23 species. From this data set, the authors identified ranges of toxicity reference values suitable for risk-assessment applications. Typical ranges of Hg effect thresholds are approximately 0.2 mg/kg to >1.4 mg/kg in diet, 0.05 mg/kg/d to 0.5 mg/kg/d on a dose basis, 0.6 mg/kg to 2.7 mg/kg in eggs, and 2.1 mg/kg to >6.7 mg/kg in parental blood (all concentrations on a wet wt basis). For Hg in avian blood, the review represents the first broad compilation of relevant toxicity data. For dietary exposures, the current data support TRVs that are greater than older, commonly used TRVs. The older diet-based TRVs incorporate conservative assumptions and uncertainty factors that are no longer justified, although they generally were appropriate when originally derived, because of past data limitations. The egg-based TRVs identified from the review are more similar to other previously derived TRVs but have been updated to incorporate new information from recent studies. While important research needs remain, a key recommendation is that species not yet tested for MeHg toxicity should be evaluated using toxicity data from tested species with similar body weights. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:294-319. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. QSAR Models for Reproductive Toxicity and Endocrine Disruption Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Vračko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive toxicity is an important regulatory endpoint, which is required in registration procedures of chemicals used for different purposes (for example pesticides. The in vivo tests are expensive, time consuming and require large numbers of animals, which must be sacrificed. Therefore an effort is ongoing to develop alternative In vitro and in silico methods to evaluate reproductive toxicity. In this review we describe some modeling approaches. In the first example we describe the CAESAR model for prediction of reproductive toxicity; the second example shows a classification model for endocrine disruption potential based on counter propagation artificial neural networks; the third example shows a modeling of relative binding affinity to rat estrogen receptor, and the fourth one shows a receptor dependent modeling experiment.

  14. Does calcium constrain reproductive activity in insectivorous bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insects are a poor source of dietary calcium and since they are seasonally abundant, it has been suggested that calcium availability may play a significant role in controlling the timing of reproduction in insectivorous bats. To assess the possible role of dietary calcium, we have measured bone calcium concentrations in ...

  15. Nest crypsis, reproductive value of a clutch and escape decisions in incubating female mallards Anas platyrhynchos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albrecht, Tomáš; Klvaňa, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 8 (2004), s. 603-613 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093403; GA AV ČR IAB6130001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : ducks * behavior * reproduction Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2004

  16. Seasonal changes in reproductive activity, sperm variables and sperm freezability in Blanca Andaluza bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Gallego-Calvo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of endangered breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat, has increased and some steps should be therefore taken to ensure it. The study was designed to determine the seasonal reproductive pattern of Blanca Andaluza bucks, and whether this affects the quality of their semen and its freezability over the year. Seven bucks were used and their body weight, testicular weight, plasma testosterone concentration and fresh sperm quality determined every week. The collected sperm was cryopreserved and stored; it was then thawed and the same sperm quality variables measured every fortnight. High plasma testosterone concentrations were recorded during the summer and autumn, and low concentrations were recorded during winter and spring (p<0.001. No differences were seen between seasons in terms of the percentage of bucks ejaculating, the percentage of active bucks, or ejaculate volume. However, the sperm concentration, the total number of sperm per ejaculate, and the values for most fresh sperm variables were lower during the winter period (at least p<0.05. After freezing-thawing, the quality of winter-collected sperm was better, in some respects, than that of summer-collected sperm (at least p<0.05. These results reveal that Blanca Andaluza bucks show seasonal reproductive activity in terms of their plasma testosterone concentration, but no clear change in their sexual behaviour between seasons was observed. The values of fresh sperm variables also vary over the year, reaching their lowest during winter. However, after freezing-thawing, winter-collected sperm is of overall better quality than sperm collected during the summer.

  17. Seasonal changes in reproductive activity, sperm variables and sperm freezability in Blanca Andaluza bucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego-Calvo, L.; Gatica, M.C.; Santiago-Moreno, J.; Guzmán, J.L.; Zarazaga, L.

    2015-07-01

    Interest in the preservation of endangered breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat, has increased and some steps should be therefore taken to ensure it. The study was designed to determine the seasonal reproductive pattern of Blanca Andaluza bucks, and whether this affects the quality of their semen and its freezability over the year. Seven bucks were used and their body weight, testicular weight, plasma testosterone concentration and fresh sperm quality determined every week. The collected sperm was cryopreserved and stored; it was then thawed and the same sperm quality variables measured every fortnight. High plasma testosterone concentrations were recorded during the summer and autumn, and low concentrations were recorded during winter and spring (p<0.001). No differences were seen between seasons in terms of the percentage of bucks ejaculating, the percentage of active bucks, or ejaculate volume. However, the sperm concentration, the total number of sperm per ejaculate, and the values for most fresh sperm variables were lower during the winter period (at least p<0.05). After freezing-thawing, the quality of winter-collected sperm was better, in some respects, than that of summer-collected sperm (at least p<0.05). These results reveal that Blanca Andaluza bucks show seasonal reproductive activity in terms of their plasma testosterone concentration, but no clear change in their sexual behaviour between seasons was observed. The values of fresh sperm variables also vary over the year, reaching their lowest during winter. However, after freezing-thawing, winter-collected sperm is of overall better quality than sperm collected during the summer. (Author)

  18. Active Learning Using Arbitrary Binary Valued Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    active learning in the sense that the learner has complete choice in the information received. Specifically, we allow the learner to ask arbitrary yes...no questions. We consider both active learning under a fixed distribution and distribution-free active learning . In the case of active learning , the...a concept class is actively learnable iff it is finite, so that active learning is in fact less powerful than the usual passive learning model. We

  19. Reproductive effects from oestrogen activity in polluted water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumpter, J.P. [Brunel Univ., Uxbridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology and Biochemistry

    1998-12-31

    A new area of ecotoxicology, now usually called endocrine disruption, has arisen in the last few years. However, despite the present topicality of this issue, some of the best documented examples of endocrine disruption were reported a decade or more ago (see, for example, Fry, 1995). The issue is concerned with the effects of chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones on the physiology of exposed wildlife and humans. As many of these xenohormones minic steroid hormones, especially oestrogens and androgens, most of the reported effects have involved effects on the reproductive system of exposed organisms. Many of these reported effects on wildlife have concerned aquatic, rather than terrestrial, organisms (even the well-documented effects on birds are primarily concerned with water birds, which feed predominantly on fish); the reproductive abnormalities seen in alligators living in some lakes in Florida and the oestrogenic effects on fish reported in British rivers (this example is discussed in detail below) provide good examples of the type of effects observed in aquatic organisms. This predominance of effects on aquatic organisms could reflect an unconscious bias of the interests of research scientists (are there more wildlife biologists interested in aquatic, rather than terrestrial, animals?), but is perhaps more likely a consequence of the fact that the aquatic environmemnt is the ultimate `sink` for the international or unintentional disposal of much waste. (orig.)

  20. Prevalence of factors related to active reproductive health behavior: a cross-sectional study Indonesian adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantut Susanto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Complex and diverse factors are related to reproductive health (RH behavior among adolescents according to the social and cultural context of each countries. This study examined the prevalence of active RH and factors related to active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the World Health Organization Illustrative Questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance to the Indonesian context. The data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics, as well as logistic regression analyses. RESULTS The prevalence of active RH behavior were more higher in boys (56.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.6% to 62.6% than in girls (43.7%; 95% CI, 37.6% to 49.8%. Negative attitudes towards RH were a factor related to active RH behavior in both boys and girls. Smoking and kind relationship envisioned before marriage (pacaran [courtship] and nikah siri [non-registered marriage] were factors related to active RH behavior in boys; whereas the absence of access to information on substance abuse was an additional factor in girls. Moreover, an interaction was found between access to information on development and smoking (boys and attitudes on RH (girls as independent variables associated with active RH behavior. CONCLUSIONS Sex education for adolescents in Indonesia, particularly in the context of a health promotion program, should be developed based on prevalent social, cultural, and religious values to prevent active RH behavior. Such programs should focus on the kind of relationship envisioned before marriage and smoking for boys and access to information on subtance abuse for girls.

  1. Roles of RFRP-3 in the daily and seasonal regulation of reproductive activity in female Syrian hamsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Jo B.; Ancel, Caroline; Mikkelsen, Jens D.

    2017-01-01

    In females, reproductive activity relies on proper integration of daily and environmental changes as well as cyclic sex-steroid feedback. This study sought to investigate the role of the hypothalamic Arg-Phe amide-related peptide (RFRP)-3 in the daily and seasonal control of reproductive activity...... alongside kisspeptin neurons, are essential for proper synchronization of reproductive activity with the time of the day, the stage of the estrous cycle, and the seasonal changes in photoperiod....

  2. The New Digital Media Value Network: Proposing an Interactive Model of Digital Media Value Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Chan-Olmsted

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study models the dynamic nature of today’s media markets using the framework of value-adding activities in the provision and consumption of media products. The proposed user-centric approach introduces the notion that the actions of external users, social media, and interfaces affect the internal value activities of media firms via a feedback loop, and therefore should themselves be considered value activities. The model also suggests a more comprehensive list of indicators for value assessment.

  3. Activity Based Costing in Value Stream Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abuthakeer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to integrate Value Stream Map (VSM with the cost aspects. A value stream map provides a blueprint for implementing lean manufacturing concepts by illustrating information and materials flow in a value stream. The objective of the present work is to integrate the various cost aspects. The idea is to introduce a cost line, which enhances the clarity in decision making. The redesigned map proves to be effective in highlighting the improvement areas, in terms of quantitative data. TAKT time calculation is carried out to set the pace of production. Target cost is set as a bench mark for product cost. The results of the study indicates that implementing VSM led to reduction in the following areas: processing lead time by 34%, processing cycle time was reduced by 35%, Inventory level by 66% and product cost from Rs 137 to Rs 125. It was found that adopting VSM in a small scale industry can make significant improvements.

  4. Impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surekha, T; Himabindu, Y; Sriharibabu, M; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for overweight and obesity in the society. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the reproductive age group women not only affects maternal health but also the health of the off spring. Infertility is a common problem in India affecting 13-19 million people at any given time. Even though it is not life threatening, infertility causes intense mental agony and trauma that can only be best described by infertile couples themselves. Infertility is more common in overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Decreasing ovarian reserve is an important factor for infertility in women. This study examined the impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women. The observations made in this study reveal that physical activity improves ovarian reserve markers in all reproductive age women but this improvement is more distinct and statistically significant in overweight and obese women compared to normal weight women.

  5. A greater decline in female facial attractiveness during middle age reflects women’s loss of reproductive value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario eMaestripieri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Facial attractiveness represents an important component of an individual’s overall attractiveness as a potential mating partner. Perceptions of facial attractiveness are expected to vary with age-related changes in health, reproductive value, and power. In this study, we investigated perceptions of facial attractiveness, power, and personality in two groups of women of pre- and post-menopausal ages (35-50 years and 51-65 years, respectively and two corresponding groups of men. We tested three hypotheses: 1 that perceived facial attractiveness would be lower for older than for younger men and women; 2 that the age-related reduction in facial attractiveness would be greater for women than for men; and 3 that for men, there would be a larger increase in perceived power at older ages. Eighty facial stimuli were rated by 60 (30 male, 30 female middle-aged women and men using online surveys. Our three main hypotheses were supported by the data. Consistent with sex differences in mating strategies, the greater age-related decline in female facial attractiveness was driven by male respondents, while the greater age-related increase in male perceived power was driven by female respondents. In addition, we found evidence that some personality ratings were correlated with perceived attractiveness and power ratings. The results of this study are consistent with evolutionary theory and with previous research showing that faces can provide important information about characteristics that men and women value in a potential mating partner such as their health, reproductive value, and power or possession of resources.

  6. Age-specific reference values for serum FSH and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Plebani, Maddalena; Milani, Silvano; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale; La Marca, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    High serum day 3 FSH levels are associated with poor ovarian reserve and reduced fertility, but the interpretation of FSH values according to age is still not univocal. The purpose of this study was to determine age-dependent reference values in women with regular menstrual cycles and FSH as a guide for specialists. The study was performed at the Department of Mother-Infant of a University-based tertiary care centre. One-hundred ninety-two healthy normal menstruating women were recruited for the study. All patients attended the department on menstrual cycle day 3 for a blood sample for FSH and estradiol determination. A linear relationship between FSH or estradiol serum levels and age was observed. The FSH level increased by 0.11 IU for every year of age (1 IU for every 9 years of age). The values of FSH and estradiol corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th centiles for any specific age have been calculated. Serum FSH levels need to be interpreted according to age-dependent reference values. Serum FSH levels on 95th centile for any age may represent a warning sign for reduced ovarian reserve.

  7. Bone densitometry in normal women of reproductive age: Correlation with reference values and anthropometric variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.; Palma, T.; Ladron de Guevara, D.

    2002-01-01

    Bone mass density measurements using X rays is considered to be the non-invasive reference method to measure bone mineral density. Even though the technology has reached a high level of development, precision and reproducibility must be optimised to assure that the observed variations are due solely to the variations in bone mineral content, and not to other associated variables, either technical or biological. The main factors affecting bone density measurements are those that depend on the technique used and those which depend on characteristics of the individuals. The variability associated with the technique can be minimised by an adequate standardisation and quality control. Among those characteristics of the individuals, which have been mentioned as a source of variability, the most important are related to the anthropomorphic characteristics such as size and depth of osseous structures, and thickness and characteristics of soft tissues. These factors may be especially important because the interpretation of bone mass density measurements depends on values obtained for reference normal populations, which are incorporated into the bone mass densitometers as reference value databases. Usually the anthropomorphic characteristics of this reference population are unknown and can be different from those of the local population, independently of genetic or ethnic factors. This situation leads to error both in the definition of basic concepts such as osteopenia and osteoporosis, and in the interpretation of individual results for population studies. The purpose of this study is to correlate bone density measurements of normal Chilean women with reference value databases and with parameters, which depend on body size

  8. Reference values in ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation throughout the reproductive period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Milani, Silvano; Plebani, Maddalena; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The age-related decline in ovarian response to gonadotropins has been well known since the beginning of ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles and has been considered secondary to the age-related decline in ovarian reserve. The objective of this study was to establish reference values and to construct nomograms of ovarian response for any specific age to gonadotropins in IVF/ICSI cycles. We analyzed our database containing information on IVF cycles. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 703 patients were selected. Among inclusion criteria, there were regular menstrual cycle, treatment with a long GnRH agonist protocol and starting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) dose of at least 200 IU per day. To estimate the reference values of ovarian response, the CG-LMS method was used. A linear decline in the parameters of ovarian response with age was observed: the median number of oocytes decreases approximately by one every three years, and the median number of follicles >16 mm by one every eight years. The number of oocytes and growing follicles corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 95th centiles has been calculated. This study confirmed the well known negative relationship between ovarian response to FSH and female ageing and permitted the construction of nomograms of ovarian response.

  9. Inhibin activity in male rat reproductive organs during treatment with dihydrotestosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkova, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the inhibin level in the male reproductive system is studied. Hormones were determined in the peripheral blood of the donor rats by radioimmunoassay. Inhibin activity in the male rats is shown. DHT caused a very small increase in inhibin activity in the testis. Further study of relations between androgens and inhibin at peripheral and central levels will facilitate fertility control

  10. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (physical activity measures as dependent variables and cumulative reproductive history index, menopausal symptoms, and pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the variation of MVPA10 and 7.5% of the variation of light physical activity. The

  11. Foraging Activity in Plebeia remota, a Stingless Bees Species, Is Influenced by the Reproductive State of a Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Nunes-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonies of the Brazilian stingless bee Plebeia remota show a reproductive diapause in autumn and winter. Therefore, they present two distinct reproductive states, during which colony needs are putatively different. Consequently, foraging should be adapted to the different needs. We recorded the foraging activity of two colonies for 30 days in both phases. Indeed, it presented different patterns during the two phases. In the reproductive diapause, the resource predominantly collected by the foragers was nectar. The majority of the bees were nectar foragers, and the peak of collecting activity occurred around noon. Instead, in the reproductive phase, the predominantly collected resource was pollen, and the peak of activity occurred around 10:00 am. Although the majority of the foragers were not specialized in this phase, there were a larger number of pollen foragers compared to the phase of reproductive diapause. The temperature and relative humidity also influenced the foraging activity.

  12. The effect of reproductive performance on the dairy cattle herd value assessed by integrating a daily dynamic programming model with a daily Markov chain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, A S; Cabrera, V E

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reproductive performance on dairy cattle herd value. Herd value was defined as the herd's average retention payoff (RPO). Individual cow RPO is the expected profit from keeping the cow compared with immediate replacement. First, a daily dynamic programming model was developed to calculate the RPO of all cow states in a herd. Second, a daily Markov chain model was applied to estimate the herd demographics. Finally, the herd value was calculated by aggregating the RPO of all cows in the herd. Cow states were described by 5 milk yield classes (76, 88, 100, 112, and 124% with respect to the average), 9 lactations, 750 d in milk, and 282 d in pregnancy. Five different reproductive programs were studied (RP1 to RP5). Reproductive program 1 used 100% timed artificial insemination (TAI; 42% conception rate for first TAI and 30% for second and later services) and the other programs combined TAI with estrus detection. The proportion of cows receiving artificial insemination after estrus detection ranged from 30 to 80%, and conception rate ranged from 25 to 35%. These 5 reproductive programs were categorized according to their 21-d pregnancy rate (21-d PR), which is an indication of the rate that eligible cows become pregnant every 21 d. The 21-d PR was 17% for RP1, 14% for RP2, 16% for RP3, 18% for RP4, and 20% for RP5. Results showed a positive relationship between 21-d PR and herd value. The most extreme herd value difference between 2 reproductive programs was $77/cow per yr for average milk yield (RP5 - RP2), $13/cow per yr for lowest milk yield (RP5 - RP1), and $160/cow per yr for highest milk yield (RP5 - RP2). Reproductive programs were ranked based on their calculated herd value. With the exception of the best reproductive program (RP5), all other programs showed some level of ranking change according to milk yield. The most dramatic ranking change was observed in RP1, which moved from being the worst ranked

  13. Notes on the Diet of Reproductively Active Male Rafinesque's Big Eared Bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Menzel, J.M.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diet examination through the use of fecal samples, of five reproductively active male Rafinesque's big-eared bats from the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina during August and September 1999. Diets of these individuals in upland pine stands were similar to diets of Rafinesque's big-eared bats in bottomland and upland hardwood habitats. Although fecal samples had three insect orders, the diet consisted primarily of lepidopterans.

  14. Notes on the Diet of Reproductively Active Male Rafinesque's Big Eared Bats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Menzel, J.M.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diet examination through the use of fecal samples, of five reproductively active male Rafinesque's big-eared bats from the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina during August and September 1999. Diets of these individuals in upland pine stands were similar to diets of Rafinesque's big-eared bats in bottomland and upland hardwood habitats. Although fecal samples had three insect orders, the diet consisted primarily of lepidopterans

  15. Genetic parameter estimates among scale activity score and farrowing disposition with reproductive traits in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J F; Rempel, L A; Rohrer, G A; Brown-Brandl, T M

    2011-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine if certain behavior traits were genetically correlated with reproduction. If 1 or both of the behavior traits were found to be correlated, a secondary objective was to determine if the behavior traits could be useful in selecting for more productive females. A scale activity score taken at 5 mo of age and a farrowing disposition score taken at farrowing were selected as the behavioral traits. Scale activity score ranged from 1 to 5 and farrowing disposition ranged from 1 to 3. Reproductive traits included age at puberty, number born alive, number born dead, litter birth weight, average piglet birth weight, number weaned, litter weaning weight, average weaning weight, wean-to-estrus interval, ovulation rate including gilts, and postweaning ovulation rate. Genetic correlations between scale activity score and reproduction ranged from -0.79 to 0.61. Three of the correlations, number born alive (P < 0.01), average piglet birth weight (P < 0.001), and wean-to-estrus interval (P = 0.014), were statistically significant but included both favorable and antagonistic correlations. In contrast, all but 1 of the farrowing disposition correlations was favorable and ranged from -0.66 to 0.67. Although only the correlation with litter birth weight was significant (P = 0.018), the consistent favorable direction of all farrowing disposition correlations, except average weaning weight, shows a potential for inclusion of farrowing disposition into a selection program.

  16. Integrative rodent models for assessing male reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine active substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Auger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional in vivo approaches to assessing male reproductive structures and functions in rodents in cases of endocrine active substance (EAS exposure from the postulate that they may provide data that can be extrapolated to humans. Then, we briefly present some integrated approaches in rodents we have recently developed at the organism level. We particularly focus on the possible effects and modes of action (MOA of these substances at low doses and in mixtures, real-life conditions and at the organ level, deciphering the precise effects and MOA on the fetal testis. It can be considered that the in vivo experimental EAS exposure of rodents remains the first choice for studies and is a necessary tool (together with the epidemiological approach for understanding the reproductive effects and MOA of EASs, provided the pitfalls and limitations of the rodent models are known and considered. We also provide some evidence that classical rodent models may be refined for studying the multiple consequences of EAS exposure, not only on the reproductive axis but also on various hormonally regulated organs and tissues, among which several are implicated in the complex process of mammalian reproduction. Such models constitute an interesting way of approaching human exposure conditions. Finally, we show that organotypic culture models are powerful complementary tools, especially when focusing on the MOA. All these approaches have contributed in a combinatorial manner to a better understanding of the impact of EAS exposure on human reproduction.

  17. Beneficial Effects of Ants and Spiders on the Reproductive Value of Eriotheca gracilipes (Malvaceae) in a Tropical Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Vanessa; Pires, Tayna Lopes; Torezan-Silingardi, Helena Maura; Del-Claro, Kleber

    2015-01-01

    Predators affect plant fitness when they forage on them and reduce the action of herbivores. Our study evaluates the complementary effects of spiders and ants that visit the extrafloral nectaries of Eriotheca gracilipes (Malvaceae) on the production of fruits and viable seeds of these savanna trees. Four experimental groups were established: control group - with free access of spiders and ants; exclusion group - spiders and ants excluded; ant group - absence of spiders; and spider group - absence of ants. The presence of ants reduced the spider richness; however, the presence of spiders did not affect the ant richness. A significantly higher number of fruits per buds were found in the presence of spiders alone or spiders and ants together (control group) compared with the absence of both predators (exclusion group). The number of seeds per fruits and seed viability were higher in the control group. This is the first study showing that spiders and ants may exert a positive and complementary effect on the reproductive value of an extrafloral nectaried plant. Mostly the impact of ants and/or spiders on herbivores is considered, whereas our study reinforces the importance of evaluating the effect of multiple predators simultaneously, exploring how the interactions among predators with distinct skills may affect the herbivores and the plants on which they forage.

  18. The effect of subclinical ketosis on activity at estrus and reproductive performance in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Andrew J; Oikonomou, Georgios; Smith, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Our aims were to investigate the influence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) on physical activity at estrus using a neck accelerometer device and on future reproductive performance. Two hundred three Holstein-Friesian cows were studied on 3dairy farms in Northwest England between September 2013 and March 2014. Seventeen percent (35 of 203) of the enrolled cows were affected with SCK between 7 and 21d in milk, defined as a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.2 to 2.9mmol/L. Time to event analyses and multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the effect of SCK on reproductive performance and activity at estrus. The SCK cows exhibited a lower peak activity (measured as the number of standard deviations above mean activity) and shorter duration in activity clusters associated with first estrus and first insemination postpartum, compared with non-SCK cows. Peak activity and cluster duration associated with the insemination that led to a pregnancy were not different between SCK and non-SCK cows. Calving to first estrus, calving to first insemination, and calving to pregnancy intervals were prolonged in SCK cows. First insemination was 4.3 times (95% confidence interval=1.6 to 15.0) less likely to be successful in SCK cows compared with non-SCK cows. Adjusted mean number of inseminations per pregnancy was 2.8 for SCK cows and 2.0 for non-SCK cows. The current study confirms the long-lasting effects of SCK on reproductive efficiency. Furthermore, it is indicated that physical activity around estrus is reduced by SCK in early lactation, but this negative effect appears to diminish as cows progress through lactation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring value creation from corporate-foresight activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at value creation from corporate futures research. Through a literature review, potential value creation is identified. This serves as guidance for an empirical investigation in which value creation is observed and linked to methods and practices. Using data from 20 case studies......, three examples of value creation are discussed in detail. In addition, cross-case analysis allowed me to identify four success criteria for corporate foresight activities: (1) foresighters committed to creating value, (2) participation of internal stakeholders, (3) analysis that follows a systemic logic...

  20. [Density, size structure and reproductive activity of the pink conch Eustrombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae) in Banco Chinchorro, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala, Yuself R; Navarrete, Alberto de Jesús; Ocaña, Frank A; Rivera, José Oliva

    2013-12-01

    The pink conch Eustrombus gigas is an important fisheries resource. At the regional level in the Caribbean, over-exploitation and habitat destruction have caused a decrease in the abundance of this resource. In order to provide necessary information for the species management in Mexico, this work aimed to analyze the total density, adult density, size structure and reproductive behavior of pink conch population at Banco Chinchorro during 2009-2010. Data from three seasons were obtained (rainy, dry and cold fronts periods) in three areas: Norte (North), Centro (Center) and Sur (South). The organisms were separated into two groups: (a) the criteria based upon legal harvest in Mexico: legal size conchs (siphonal length > 200 mm) and illegal size conchs (siphonal length sexual maturity using the 15 mm lip thickness standard: lip or = 15 mm as adult conch. Copulation, spawning, egg masses and aggregations were evaluated as reproductive evidences. The highest total density was observed during the dry season with 384ind./ha, and the lowest during the rainy season with 127ind./ha. The highest density was reported at Sur (385ind./ha) and the lowest at Norte (198ind./ ha). The highest adult density was observed during the rainy season (8.33ind./ha), and the lowest occurred in the dry season (6.1 ind./ha). Adult density values were 5.55, 7.05 and 8.33ind./ha for Centro, Sur and Norte areas, respectively. Adult densities were lower than the threshold needed for reproduction, and 42% of the population may be vulnerable to fishing, as they had the minimum size for catch (Lsi 200 mm). Furthermore, only 2.2% of the population reached a Gl > 15 mm as sexual maturity indicator. During the study period, only six evidences of reproductive activity were observed. The smaller densities reported at Banco Chinchorro may cause reproduction events to be almost absent which in turn is sufficient evidence to show that the Allee Effect is acting on the queen conch population and there is an

  1. [Value of anti-Müllerian hormone in predicting pregnant outcomes of polycystic ovary syndrome patients undergone assisted reproductive technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Tan, J Q; Mai, Z Y; Yang, D Z

    2018-01-25

    Objective: Explore the value of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in predicting pregnant outcomes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients undergone assisted reproductive technology. Methods: The study totally recruited 1 697 patients who underwent the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle in Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital from the January 2014 to December 2015. The patients were divided into two groups based on the age<35 ( n= 758) and ≥35 years old ( n= 939) , compare the basic data and pregnant outcomes of controlled ovarian hyerstimulation. Spearman correlation method was conducted to analyze the relations between AMH and clinical outcomes. The logistic regression method and partial correlation analysis were used to judge the main factors which determine pregnancy outcomes by controlled the confounding factors. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to evaluate the predictive sensitivity and specificity of AMH. Results: In the group of PCOS patient younger than 35 years, AMH were correlated with the number of antral follicles ( r= 0.388) and retrieved oocytes ( r= 0.235) . When the effect of total dosage and starting dosage of gonadotropin were controlled, AMH was still significantly associated with the number of retrieved oocytes ( P< 0.05) . AMH had no predictive value for the clinical pregnancy of PCOS patient younger than 35 years (area under ROC curve=0.481, P= 0.768) . In the group of PCOS patient≥35 years old, AMH were correlated with the number of antral follicles ( r= 0.450) , retrieved oocytes ( r= 0.399) , available embryo ( r= 0.336) and high quality embryo ( r= 0.235) . When the effect of total dosage and starting dosage of gonadotropin were controlled, the correlations were still significant between those indexes (all P< 0.05) . AMH had no predictive value for the clinical pregnancy of PCOS patient ≥35 years old (area under ROC curve=0.535, P= 0.560) . However, the clinical

  2. Reproductive activity of the frog Dendrobates auratus Girard in captivity breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Křížová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of the reproduction activities of Dendrobates auratus Girard, 1855 is part of a broader ana­ly­sis of the problems encountered when keeping frogs from the family Dendrobatidae in captivity. The aim is to achieve an optimization of measures for successful breeding of these amphibians, for both the amateur hobbyist and conservationist alike. Due to the wide area they have colonized, many colour variations exist; the reproduction parameters of six differently coloured examples of the species were tracked. The collection of data happened in standardized conditions over two consecutive years (2007, 2008 and was aimed at measuring five indicators concerning reproduction, understanding of egg-laying dynamics during a year, measuring the risk of stock loss during different stages of development and determining if any differences existed between the different colour variations in these parameters. A noticable alternating cycle of rest and reproduction activities has been observed between equinoxes. In the harvest there were usually 5–10 eggs with an average incubation period of 10 days (8–18 at a temperature of 22 °C. The total duration of development was on average 74 days (64–103. The number of eggs in a harvest and the duration of incubation were statistically dif­fe­rent with the blue form between different observed periods. Total mortality rate during ontogenesis reached 10–53%, the highest losses were in the period when the tadpole left its egg and began developing its hind legs, 5–60%. The optimisation of breeding conditions has been reccommended. Secondary be­ne­fits of this study research was the collection of new knowledge about ethology of this species in captivity.

  3. Effects of Pharmaceuticals Used for Breast Cancer Treatment on Reproduction and Aromatase Activity in a Marine Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether four pharmaceuticals used in breast cancer treatment have an impact on reproduction or aromatase activity. Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors, while anastrozole, let...

  4. Understanding the value added to clinical care by educational activities. Value of Education Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrinc, G S; Headrick, L A; Boex, J R

    1999-10-01

    In an era of competition in health care delivery, those who pay for care are interested in supporting primarily those activities that add value to the clinical enterprise. The authors report on their 1998 project to develop a conceptual model for assessing the value added to clinical care by educational activities. Through interviews, nine key stakeholders in patient care identified five ways in which education might add value to clinical care: education can foster higher-quality care, improve work satisfaction of clinicians, have trainees provide direct clinical services, improve recruitment and retention of clinicians, and contribute to the future of health care. With this as a base, an expert panel of 13 clinical educators and investigators defined six perspectives from which the value of education in clinical care might be studied: the perspectives of health-care-oriented organizations, clinician-teachers, patients, education organizations, learners, and the community. The panel adapted an existing model to create the "Education Compass" to portray education's effects on clinical care, and developed a new set of definitions and research questions for each of the four major aspects of the model (clinical, functional, satisfaction, and cost). Working groups next drafted proposals to address empirically those questions, which were critiqued at a national conference on the topic of education's value in clinical care. The next step is to use the methods developed in this project to empirically assess the value added by educational activities to clinical care.

  5. Biological activities and nutritional value of Tapinanthus bangwensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions exhibited significant cytotoxic effects towards HeLa cells with IC50 values of 24.25 and 24.43 μg/ml respectively. In the DPPH assay, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest activity while the butanol fraction showed the highest activity in the metal chelating and the lipid ...

  6. Assisted reproductive techniques for cattle breeding in developing countries: a critical appraisal of their value and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2012-01-01

    Commercialization of animal biotechnologies, including those related to reproduction [also known as assisted reproductive techniques (ARTS)], is an increasing reality in developing countries, following the enormous flow of information around us and the increasing global commercial interests in areas where cattle production has its major assets. The present review discusses the achievements of various biotechnological tools for reproduction in cattle including semen handling for artificial insemination (AI), superovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro handling of oocytes and production of embryos, reproductive cloning and emerging technologies (sex selection, gene targeting and nuclear transfer for livestock transgenesis, genomics for marker-assisted selection, etc.). The application of these technologies for cattle breeding is critically discussed in relation to their impact in the improvement of the efficiency of dairy and beef production in developed and - particularly - in developing countries, which ultimately rule the possibilities of a competitive and sound production of food for human consumption. Despite the remarkable progress made and the punctual importance of some of the above-mentioned technologies, AI remains the most important assisted reproductive technology (ART) in developing countries. Any attempt to gain widespread of any other ART under the predominant economical conditions in developing countries ought to match the simplicity and the success of AI as a breeding tool. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Cumulus cell mitochondrial activity in relation to body mass index in women undergoing assisted reproductive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria K. Gorshinova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most studies have considered the negative influence of obesity on fertility in both genders. In the present study, we assessed mitochondrial activity expressed as the mitochondrial potential index (MPI in cumulus cells from obese women and women with a normal body mass index (BMI during assisted reproductive therapy. The results revealed a significant reduction of MPI with increased body mass. The lower MPI levels in cumulus cells from obese women may reflect mitochondrial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress, which can affect the cumulus-oocyte complex and have an impact on oocyte development.

  8. Corticosterone suppresses immune activity in territorial Galápagos marine iguanas during reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Silke; Martin, Lynn B; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Vitousek, Maren N; Rödl, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Individuals that display elaborate sexually selected characters often show reduced immune function. According to the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis, testosterone (T) is responsible for this result as it drives the development and maintenance of sexual characters and causes immunosuppression. But glucocorticoids also have strong influences on immune function and may also be elevated in reproductively active males. Here, we compared immune activity using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test in three discrete groups of male marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus): territorials, satellites, and bachelors. Males of these three reproductive phenotypes had indistinguishable T concentrations during the height of the breeding season, but their corticosterone (cort) concentrations, body condition and hematocrit were significantly different. Territorial males, the animals with the most elaborate sexual ornaments and behaviors, had lower immune responses and body condition but higher cort concentrations and hematocrit than satellites or bachelors. To test directly cort's immunosuppressive role, we elevated cort by either restraining animals or additionally injecting cort and compared their PHA swelling response with the response of free-roaming animals. Such experimental elevation of cort significantly decreased immune activity in both restrained and cort-injected animals. Our data show that cort can induce immunosuppression, but they do not support the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in its narrow sense because T concentrations were not related to immunosuppression.

  9. Infection increases the value of nuptial gifts, and hence male reproductive success, in the Hymenolepis diminuta-Tenebrio molitor association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Hilary; Ardin, Richard

    2003-01-01

    During copulation, male insects pass accessory gland components to the female with the spermatophore. These gifts can affect female reproductive behaviour, ovulation and oviposition. Here, we show that female mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor, mated with males infected with metacestodes of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, produced significantly more offspring than those mated with uninfected males. There is a significant positive relationship between parasite intensity in the male and reproductive output in the female. Infection results in a significant increase in bean-shaped accessory gland (BAG) size. We suggest that infected males pass superior nuptial gifts to females and discuss the confounding effects of infection in male and female beetles upon overall fitness costs of infection for the host and the likelihood that the parasite is manipulating host investment in reproduction. PMID:14667373

  10. Personal values and political activism: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Michele; Schwartz, Shalom H; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Schoen, Harald; Cieciuch, Jan; Silvester, Jo; Bain, Paul; Bianchi, Gabriel; Kirmanoglu, Hasan; Baslevent, Cem; Mamali, Catalin; Manzi, Jorge; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Posnova, Tetyana; Torres, Claudio; Verkasalo, Markku; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Vondráková, Eva; Welzel, Christian; Alessandri, Guido

    2015-02-01

    Using data from 28 countries in four continents, the present research addresses the question of how basic values may account for political activism. Study 1 (N = 35,116) analyses data from representative samples in 20 countries that responded to the 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21) in the European Social Survey. Study 2 (N = 7,773) analyses data from adult samples in six of the same countries (Finland, Germany, Greece, Israel, Poland, and United Kingdom) and eight other countries (Australia, Brazil, Chile, Italy, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine, and United States) that completed the full 40-item PVQ. Across both studies, political activism relates positively to self-transcendence and openness to change values, especially to universalism and autonomy of thought, a subtype of self-direction. Political activism relates negatively to conservation values, especially to conformity and personal security. National differences in the strength of the associations between individual values and political activism are linked to level of democratization. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Categorizing Pedagogical Patterns by Teaching Activities and Pedagogical Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is a proposal for a universal pedagogical pattern categorization based on teaching values and activities. This categorization would be more sustainable than the arbitrary categorization implied by pedagogical pattern language themes. Pedagogical patterns from two...... central patterns languages are analyzed and categorized, and the result is a catalogue theoretically founded and practical in its application. The teaching values are derived from learning theories, implying the theoretical foundation of the catalogue. In order to increase the usability of the value...

  12. Reproductive activities of Heliotropium indicum isolate against Helopeltis theivora and toxicity evaluation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolui, A K; Debnath, Manabendra; De, B; Kumar, Atul

    2012-05-01

    A new compound E was isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Heliotropium indicum by chromatographic fractionation. In the present study, the effect of the compound E on reproduction of Helopeltis theivora has been evaluated. The acute toxicity study (LD50) and sub-acute toxicity studies (haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters) in albino Swiss mice were carried out to evaluate the safety aspect of the compound E. The compound showed significant inhibitory effect on the reproductive life of H. theivora. The oviposition period, fecundity and hatching percentage of H. theivora were found to be 15.67 days, 39.33 and 28.00% respectively after treatment with 2% compound E, whereas the control value were found to be 20.33 days, 77.67 and 77.33% respectively. The LD50 of the compound was found to be 780 mg kg(-1) in Swiss albino female mice. The compound did not show any toxicity in mice at sub-lethal dose treatment (78 mg kg(-1) b. wt., once daily) for 21 days as evident from different haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters in compound E treated group when compared with control.

  13. The Globalization of Value chain activities, Knowledge dynamics, and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Eunkyung

    Firms are increasingly relocating diverse activities in the value chain abroad to reap the locational advantage available in other countries. One of the issues raised in this context is that, as global operations can function as channels for knowledge flows, the involved firms and locations may...... of the involved regions and countries. The purpose of this thesis is to study these issues with a broad research question, “What implications does the globalization of value chain activities have on innovation in firms and locations?” Four articles and a case study included in the thesis present empirical results...... gain or lose knowledge associated with the activities that are being globalized. Since knowledge is a critical input for innovation, this has some implications for the capability of firms to create new products and services. At the macro level, it may have an influence on the competitiveness...

  14. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the vegetative and reproductive organs of Robinia pseudoacacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinas Ioana C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts obtain from leaves, seeds and sheaths of R. pseudoacacia. Total phenolic content (TPC, Folin-Ciocalteu method, antioxidant activity (TEAC assay and antimicrobial activity (agar disk diffusion method and broth dilution method of vegetative and reproductive organs of R. pseudoacacia were done. The highest content of polyphenols (expressed as gallic acid equivalents, GAE obtained for R. pseudoacacia leaves extract (266.7 μg GAE mL-1 extract followed by seeds extract (232.2 μg GAE mL-1 extract. The HPLC analysis showed presence of catechin (0.925 μg mL-1, rutin (0.831 μg mL-1, resveratrol (0.664 μg mL-1 and quercetin (0.456 μg mL-1 in leaves and catechin (0.127 μg mL-1, epicatechin (0.239 μg mL-1 and rutin (0.231 μg mL-1 in seeds extract. The results showed that the studied extracts exhibited a selective antimicrobial effect directed against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonie and Escherichia coli bacterial strains. The combination leaves extract / antibiotic had the highest synergistic effect when compared to seeds and sheaths extracts. The same extract with penicillin, kanamycin and rifampin had highest synergetic effect against methicillin resistant S. aureus strain (MRSA, a strain which it has gained a great interest of microbiologists within past decades. The chemical characterization of ethanol extracts from the vegetative and reproductive organs of Robinia pseudoacacia, synergistic effects of certain antibiotics and acacia extracts, potential to increase antimicrobial activity of some commercial antibiotics against MRSA were done for the first time.

  15. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  16. Applicability of fecal estrogenic metabolites estimation for assessment of reproductive activities in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, S.Y.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out at the sheep experimental farm belonging to Animal Nutrition Unit, Department of Applied Radiobiology, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. Inshas, Sharkia Governorate.Hormonal radioimmunological assay of serum estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ), estrone sulphate (E 1 S) and estrone sulphate (E 1 S) in fecal samples was performed in the laboratories of the Endocrinology Research Unit, Applied Radiobiology Department, Applied Radioisotope Division, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority.It was aimed to point out the ovarian estrogens (E 1 , E 2 ) and estrogen metabolite (E 1 S) in both serum and fecal samples, as indicator for reproductive activity in hybrid ewes (Ossimi x Rahmani x Barki, with equal genetic proportion), during estrus cycle, pregnancy and post-partum periods. A total number of 62 ewes were randomly selected according to reproductive farm records and subjected to the study. Estradiol-17β, Estrone and Estrone sulfate were estimated in blood serum. Estrogen sulfate was estimated in fecal samples, estimations were carried out in the various stages of estrus cycle, pregnancy (every 10 days up to the time of parturition) and Postpartum (every 10 days up to 60 days).Fecal samples were collected 24 hours after blood collection to reflect the level of serum estrogenic hormones levels in blood circulation.

  17. The magnesium reference value in whole blood using nuclear activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to establish an indicative interval for reference value for Mg in whole blood, using the Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis Technique. The necessity of this measurement is related to the fact that the conventional clinical analysis for Mg quantification is performed using plasma, so there is no reference values established for Mg in whole blood for Brazilian population. Ours results provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients and permit to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations. (author)

  18. Reproductive gonadal steroidogenic activity in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) assessed by fecal steroid analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santymire, Rachel M; Brown, Janine L; Stewart, Rosemary A; Santymire, Robb C; Wildt, David E; Howard, JoGayle

    2011-10-01

    Non-invasive fecal steroid analyses were used to characterize gonadal activity in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus). Estrogen, progestagen and androgen metabolites were quantified in fecal samples collected for 12 months from four males and 10 females housed at seven North American zoological institutions. Male reproductive hormone concentrations did not vary (P>0.05) among season, and estrogen cycles were observed year-round in females and averaged (±SEM) 19.9±1.0 days. Mean peak estrogen concentration during estrus (460.0±72.6ng/g feces) was five-fold higher than baseline (87.3±14.0ng/g feces). Five of seven females (71.4%) housed alone or with another female demonstrated spontaneous luteal activity (apparent ovulation without copulation), with mean progestagen concentration (20.3±4.7μg/g feces), increasing nearly five-fold above baseline (4.1±0.8μg/g feces). The non-pregnant luteal phase averaged 32.9±2.5 days (n=13). One female delivered kittens 70 days after natural mating with fecal progestagen concentrations averaging 51.2±5.2μg/g feces. Two additional females were administered exogenous gonadotropins (150IU eCG; 100IU hCG), which caused hyper-elevated concentrations of fecal estrogen and progestagen (plus ovulation). Results indicate that: (1) male and female fishing cats managed in North American zoos are reproductively active year round; (2) 71.4% of females experienced spontaneous ovulation; and (3) females are responsive to exogenous gonadotropins for ovulation induction, but a regimen that produces a normative ovarian steroidogenic response needs to be identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Calibration of redox potential in sperm wash media and evaluation of oxidation-reduction potential values in various assisted reproductive technology culture media using MiOXSYS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panner Selvam, M K; Henkel, R; Sharma, R; Agarwal, A

    2018-03-01

    Oxidation-reduction potential describes the balance between the oxidants and antioxidants in fluids including semen. Various artificial culture media are used in andrology and IVF laboratories for sperm preparation and to support the development of fertilized oocytes under in vitro conditions. The composition and conditions of these media are vital for optimal functioning of the gametes. Currently, there are no data on the status of redox potential of sperm processing and assisted reproduction media. The purpose of this study was to compare the oxidation-reduction potential values of the different media and to calibrate the oxidation-reduction potential values of the sperm wash medium using oxidative stress inducer cumene hydroperoxide and antioxidant ascorbic acid. Redox potential was measured in 10 different media ranging from sperm wash media, freezing media and assisted reproductive technology one-step medium to sequential media. Oxidation-reduction potential values of the sequential culture medium and one-step culture medium were lower and significantly different (p value to identify the physiological range of oxidation-reduction potential that does not have any adverse effect on normal physiological sperm function. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  20. Adverse Effects of Common Sports and Recreational Activities on Male Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panara, Kush; Masterson, John M; Savio, Luis F; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2018-05-03

    Male factor infertility plays a significant role in infertility. Many factors have been associated with male infertility; however, the link between many sports and recreational factors and male reproduction remains poorly characterized. To evaluate the current literature regarding the impact of many common sports and recreational factors on male reproduction. A comprehensive PubMed and Embase search for relevant articles published between 1970 and 2017 was performed by combining the following search terms: male, sports (including individual sports), traumatic brain injury, sauna, hot tub, fertility, erectile dysfunction, varicocele, environment, cell phone, and laptop computer. Hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction can be associated with sports with high rates of head injuries, such as American football. Although early reports linked other sports, such as bicycling, to erectile dysfunction, subsequent studies isolated these associations to sports cycling rather than recreational cycling. Certain sports (football, basketball, handball, and volleyball) were linked to increasing prevalence and severity of varicocele, offering a potential link to male infertility. In addition, recreational activities such as sauna, hot tubs, Jacuzzis, heated car seats, and laptop use were associated with high testicular temperature, which can impair spermatogenesis. Radio frequency electromagnetic waves from cell phones and laptops have also been shown to have deleterious effects on sperm viability and motility. Many common sports and daily activities represent potential sources of male infertility. Clinicians should be aware of these associations in explaining idiopathic infertility in males. Male infertility is an often overlooked component of a couple's inability to conceive. We outline many common and often overlooked sports and recreational exposures that have been associated with male infertility. Copyright © 2018 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  1. A 170kDa multi-domain cystatin of Fasciola gigantica is active in the male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geadkaew, Amornrat; Kosa, Nanthawat; Siricoon, Sinee; Grams, Suksiri Vichasri; Grams, Rudi

    2014-09-01

    Cystatins are functional as intra- and extracellular inhibitors of cysteine proteases and are expressed as single or multi-domain proteins. We have previously described two single domain type 1 cystatins in the trematode Fasciola gigantica that are released into the parasite's intestinal tract and exhibit inhibitory activity against endogenous and host cathepsin L and B proteases. In contrast, the here presented 170kDa multi-domain cystatin (FgMDC) comprises signal peptide and 12 tandem repeated cystatin-like domains with similarity to type 2 single domain cystatins. The domains show high sequence divergence with identity values often 120kDa molecular mass in immunoblots of parasite crude extracts and ES product with different banding patterns for each antiserum demonstrating complex processing of the proprotein. The four domains with the highest conserved QVVAG motifs were expressed in Escherichia coli and the refolded recombinant proteins blocked cysteine protease activity in the parasite's ES product. Strikingly, immunohistochemical analysis using seven domain-specific antisera localized FgMDC in testis lobes and sperm. It is speculated that the processed cystatin-like domains have function analogous to the mammalian group of male reproductive tissue-specific type 2 cystatins and are functional in spermiogenesis and fertilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectivity of advanced wastewater treatment: reduction of in vitro endocrine activity and mutagenicity but not of in vivo reproductive toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebner, Sabrina; Ostermann, Sina; Straskraba, Susanne; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg; Wagner, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have a limited capacity to eliminate micropollutants. One option to improve this is tertiary treatment. Accordingly, the WWTP Eriskirch at the German river Schussen has been upgraded with different combinations of ozonation, sand, and granulated activated carbon filtration. In this study, the removal of endocrine and genotoxic effects in vitro and reproductive toxicity in vivo was assessed in a 2-year long-term monitoring. All experiments were performed with aqueous and solid-phase extracted water samples. Untreated wastewater affected several endocrine endpoints in reporter gene assays. The conventional treatment removed the estrogenic and androgenic activity by 77 and 95 %, respectively. Nevertheless, high anti-estrogenic activities and reproductive toxicity persisted. All advanced treatment technologies further reduced the estrogenic activities by additional 69-86 % compared to conventional treatment, resulting in a complete removal of up to 97 %. In the Ames assay, we detected an ozone-induced mutagenicity, which was removed by subsequent filtration. This demonstrates that a post treatment to ozonation is needed to minimize toxic oxidative transformation products. In the reproduction test with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a decreased number of embryos was observed for all wastewater samples. This indicates that reproductive toxicants were eliminated by neither the conventional nor the advanced treatment. Furthermore, aqueous samples showed higher anti-estrogenic and reproductive toxicity than extracted samples, indicating that the causative compounds are not extractable or were lost during extraction. This underlines the importance of the adequate handling of wastewater samples. Taken together, this study demonstrates that combinations of multiple advanced technologies reduce endocrine effects in vitro. However, they did not remove in vitro anti-estrogenicity and in vivo reproductive toxicity. This

  3. The value of reproductive tract scoring as a predictor of fertility and production outcomes in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, D E; Thompson, P N; Irons, P C

    2009-06-01

    In this study, 272 beef heifers were studied from just before their first breeding season (October 15, 2003), through their second breeding season, and until just after they had weaned their first calves in March, 2005. This study was performed concurrently with another study testing the economic effects of an estrous synchronization protocol using PG. Reproductive tract scoring (RTS) by rectal palpation was performed on the group of heifers 1 d before the onset of their first breeding season. The effect of RTS on several fertility and production outcomes was tested, and the association of RTS with the outcomes was compared with that of other input variables such as BW, age, BCS, and Kleiber ratio using multiple or univariable linear, logistic, or Cox regression. Area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to compare the ability of different input variables to predict pregnancy outcome. After adjustment for BW and age, RTS was positively associated with pregnancy rate to the 50-d AI season (P Reproductive tract scoring was a better predictor of fertility than was Kleiber ratio and similar in its prediction of calf weaning weight. It was concluded from this study that RTS is a predictor of heifer fertility, compares well with other traits used as a predictor of production outcomes, and is likely to be a good predictor of lifetime production of the cow.

  4. Conflicting Cultural Values, Gender Role Attitudes, and Acculturation: Exploring the Context of Reproductive and Mental Health of Asian-Indian Immigrant Women in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Semran K; Roberts, Lisa R; Montgomery, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    Asian-Indians, one of the fastest growing US immigrant groups, experience depression and anxiety, particularly among women. In this mixed-methods study, quantitative (n = 217) and qualitative (n = 36) data explored egalitarian vs. traditional views regarding women's roles and rights. Bicultural integration, family planning decision-making ability, and anxiety were associated with more egalitarian views, while Punjabi language preference, depression, and more births were associated with traditional views. Health care professionals serving this population need to be aware of the potential cultural values conflicts and gender role expectations that influence decisions around reproductive health and mental health care for Asian-Indian immigrant women.

  5. Oocyte formation by mitotically active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Yvonne A R; Woods, Dori C; Takai, Yasushi; Ishihara, Osamu; Seki, Hiroyuki; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2012-02-26

    Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically active cells that have a gene expression profile that is consistent with primitive germ cells. Once established in vitro, these cells can be expanded for months and can spontaneously generate 35- to 50-μm oocytes, as determined by morphology, gene expression and haploid (1n) status. Injection of the human germline cells, engineered to stably express GFP, into human ovarian cortical biopsies leads to formation of follicles containing GFP-positive oocytes 1-2 weeks after xenotransplantation into immunodeficient female mice. Thus, ovaries of reproductive-age women, similar to adult mice, possess rare mitotically active germ cells that can be propagated in vitro as well as generate oocytes in vitro and in vivo.

  6. An epigenetic signal encoded protection mechanism is activated by graphene oxide to inhibit its induced reproductive toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunli; Wu, Qiuli; Wang, Dayong

    2016-02-01

    Although many studies have suggested the adverse effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), the self-protection mechanisms for organisms against ENMs toxicity are still largely unclear. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as an in vivo assay system, our results suggest the toxicity of graphene oxide in reducing reproductive capacity by inducing damage on gonad development. The observed reproductive toxicity of GO on gonad development was due to the combinational effect of germline apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and DNA damage activation might act as an inducer for this combinational effect. For the underlying molecular mechanism of reproductive toxicity of GO, we raised a signaling cascade of HUS-1/CLK-2-CEP-1-EGL-1-CED-4-CED-3 to explain the roles of core apoptosis signaling pathway and DNA damage checkpoints. Moreover, we identified a miRNA regulation mechanism activated by GO to suppress its induced reproductive toxicity. A mir-360 regulation mechanism was activated by GO to suppress its induced DNA damage-apoptosis signaling cascade through affecting component of CEP-1. Our identified epigenetic signal encoded protection mechanism activated by GO suggests a novel self-protection mechanism for organisms against the ENMs toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mobile technology and the value chain: Participants, activities and value creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coursaris, C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology has evolved significantly and it is increasingly being used by businesses and consumers alike. Technologies such as those supporting electronic business (e-Business and mobile business (m-Business are being used across organizations extensively in an attempt to improve operations and subsequently translate in either financial gains or strategic advantages. Opportunities for realizing either of the two types of benefits can be identified through an examination of a business’ value chain. This conceptual study begins by proposing a business-centric interaction model that helps explain the interactions among all participants involved in an organization’s possible activities. The paper then explores the potential fit of wireless and mobile technologies across a company’s value chain through the citation of potential mobile and wireless business applications currently available. Finally, a discussion on the expected benefits and relevant concerns of mobile technology, as well as considerations for future research are provided.

  8. Designing messages with high sensation value: when activation meets reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Based on two theoretical models--activation model of information exposure and psychological reactance theory--this study examined the individual and combined effects of message sensation value (MSV) and controlling language on young adults' information processing. Two experimental studies on anti-drunken driving and anti-smoking public service announcements were conducted that were conceptual replications of one another. The measures included perceived threat to freedom, sensation seeking, perceived ad effectiveness and state reactance (anger). Across the two studies, MSV was found to advance the perceived ad effectiveness, and controlling language contributed to anger. A consistent interaction was revealed, such that participants responded positively to the high sensation value messages when presented with low controlling language. The effect of high sensation value anti-smoking ads to advance persuasiveness particularly under the condition of low controlling language was more influential to low sensation seekers. This study suggests that increasing MSV coupled with high controlling language can backfire, especially when targeting young adults. The implications for persuasion in general are considered, as well as the specific findings for drunken driving and smoking.

  9. Diagnostic value of creatine kinase activity in canine cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Alexandra

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether creatine kinase (CK) activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has diagnostic value for various groups of neurological conditions or for different anatomical areas of the nervous system (NS). The age, breed, results of CSF analysis, and diagnosis of 578 canine patients presenting with various neurological conditions between January 2009 and February 2015 were retrospectively collected. The cases were divided according to anatomical areas of the nervous system, i.e., brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system, and into groups according to the nature of the condition diagnosed: vascular, immune/inflammatory/infectious, traumatic, toxic, anomalous, metabolic, idiopathic, neoplastic, and degenerative. Statistical analysis showed that CSF-CK alone cannot be used as a diagnostic tool and that total proteins in the CSF and red blood cells (RBCs) do not have a significant relationship with the CSF-CK activity. CSF-CK did not have a diagnostic value for different disease groups or anatomical areas of the nervous system.

  10. Oocyte formation by mitotically-active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive age women

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Yvonne A. R.; Woods, Dori C.; Takai, Yasushi; Ishihara, Osamu; Seki, Hiroyuki; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a FACS-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically-active cells that exhibit a gene expression profile consistent with primitive germ cells. Once established in vitro, these cells can be expanded for months and spontaneously generate 35–50 µm oocytes, as determined by morphology, gene expression and attainment of haploid (1n) status. Injection of the human germline cells, engineered to stably express GFP, into human ovarian cortical biopsies leads to formation of follicles containing GFP-positive oocytes 1–2 weeks after xenotransplantation into immunodeficient female mice. Thus, ovaries of reproductive-age women, like adult mice, possess rare mitotically-active germ cells that can be propagated in vitro as well as generate oocytes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22366948

  11. Chemical constituents from Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao with inhibitory activity against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yao; Wang, Yue-Hu; Tan, Ying; Yang, Jun; Liu, Hong-Xin; Gu, Wei; Long, Chun-Lin, E-mail: long@mail.kib.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Bi, Jun-Long; Yin, Ge-Fen, E-mail: yingefen383@sohu.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University (China)

    2012-10-15

    Two new quinonoids chiritalone A and B, and a new neolignan 7'E-4,9-dihydroxy- 3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8,4'-oxyneolign-7'-en-9'-al, along with known (-)-8-hydroxy-{alpha}-dunnione, digiferruginol, 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and hederagenin, were isolated from the stems of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analysis from NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and MS (mass spectrometry) data, and the absolute configuration of chiritalone A was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using the Flack parameter. The inhibitory activity of compounds against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was measured by the cytopathic effect (CPE) method. Digiferruginol and hederagenin showed weak effect on PRRSV with an IC{sub 50} value of 80.5 {+-} 16.9 {mu}mol L{sup -1} (SI = 19.9) and 43.2 {+-} 7.4 {mu}mol L{sup -1} (SI = 13.1), respectively. (author)

  12. Chemical constituents from Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao with inhibitory activity against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yao; Wang, Yue-Hu; Tan, Ying; Yang, Jun; Liu, Hong-Xin; Gu, Wei; Long, Chun-Lin; Bi, Jun-Long; Yin, Ge-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Two new quinonoids chiritalone A and B, and a new neolignan 7'E-4,9-dihydroxy- 3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8,4'-oxyneolign-7'-en-9'-al, along with known (-)-8-hydroxy-α-dunnione, digiferruginol, 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and hederagenin, were isolated from the stems of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analysis from NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and MS (mass spectrometry) data, and the absolute configuration of chiritalone A was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using the Flack parameter. The inhibitory activity of compounds against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was measured by the cytopathic effect (CPE) method. Digiferruginol and hederagenin showed weak effect on PRRSV with an IC 50 value of 80.5 ± 16.9 μmol L -1 (SI = 19.9) and 43.2 ± 7.4 μmol L -1 (SI = 13.1), respectively. (author)

  13. Oocyte activation and phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ): diagnostic and therapeutic implications for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Walaa M; Kashir, Junaid; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin

    2012-07-09

    Infertility affects one in seven couples globally and has recently been classified as a disease by the World Health Organisation (WHO). While in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) offers effective treatment for many infertile couples, cases exhibiting severe male infertility (19-57%) often remain difficult, if not impossible to treat. In such cases, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), a technique in which a single sperm is microinjected into the oocyte, is implemented. However, 1-5% of ICSI cycles still fail to fertilise, affecting over 1000 couples per year in the UK alone. Pregnancy and delivery rates for IVF and ICSI rarely exceed 30% and 23% respectively. It is therefore imperative that Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) protocols are constantly modified by associated research programmes, in order to provide patients with the best chances of conception. Prior to fertilisation, mature oocytes are arrested in the metaphase stage of the second meiotic division (MII), which must be alleviated to allow the cell cycle, and subsequent embryogenesis, to proceed. Alleviation occurs through a series of concurrent events, collectively termed 'oocyte activation'. In mammals, oocytes are activated by a series of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) oscillations following gamete fusion. Recent evidence implicates a sperm-specific phospholipase C, PLCzeta (PLCζ), introduced into the oocyte following membrane fusion as the factor responsible. This review summarises our current understanding of oocyte activation failure in human males, and describes recent advances in our knowledge linking certain cases of male infertility with defects in PLCζ expression and activity. Systematic literature searches were performed using PubMed and the ISI-Web of Knowledge. Databases compiled by the United Nations and World Health Organisation databases (UNWHO), and the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA) were also scrutinised. It is clear that PLCζ plays a fundamental role in the

  14. ESSENCE AND VALUE OF FINANCIAL RESULTS OF COMMERCIAL BANK ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnarova Anna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Financial results of the banking institution activity are one of the most important indicators of its functioning. They characterize the stability and reliability of a commercial bank, which is necessary to create reserve funds, to encourage staff and offer guidance to develop and improve operations on the market, reduce costs and improve the quality of services provided. Purpose. The purpose of the study is to determine the composition and significance of financial results for the functioning of the banking institution in the existing competitive environment. Results. The article considers the concept of financial results of a commercial bank as an important element of its activity for achieving competitive advantages in the banking services market. The composition and structure of financial results, factors of possible impact on them are determined. The source of the mapping and recording of the results of the activity is indicated. Attention is paid to the significance of profit as a positive financial result of a commercial bank activity and the priority directions of its distribution are formed. The importance of the relative indicator of the effective activity of a commercial bank as one of the elements of the formation of financial results is substantiated. Conclusions. Thus, in today’s market conditions, one can talk about the expediency of determining the composition of financial results and their significance to ensure the main directions of the functioning of a commercial bank. First of all, in order to increase the level of profitability it is necessary to carry out a comprehensive analysis of income and expenditure, to identify the factors of influence on them, to increase the reserves of activity. Receiving a positive or negative value of financial performance depends primarily on the effectiveness of the interaction of each component of the organization of a modern commercial bank. The ability to correctly identify

  15. Oocyte activation and phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ: diagnostic and therapeutic implications for assisted reproductive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Walaa M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infertility affects one in seven couples globally and has recently been classified as a disease by the World Health Organisation (WHO. While in-vitro fertilisation (IVF offers effective treatment for many infertile couples, cases exhibiting severe male infertility (19–57% often remain difficult, if not impossible to treat. In such cases, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, a technique in which a single sperm is microinjected into the oocyte, is implemented. However, 1–5% of ICSI cycles still fail to fertilise, affecting over 1000 couples per year in the UK alone. Pregnancy and delivery rates for IVF and ICSI rarely exceed 30% and 23% respectively. It is therefore imperative that Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART protocols are constantly modified by associated research programmes, in order to provide patients with the best chances of conception. Prior to fertilisation, mature oocytes are arrested in the metaphase stage of the second meiotic division (MII, which must be alleviated to allow the cell cycle, and subsequent embryogenesis, to proceed. Alleviation occurs through a series of concurrent events, collectively termed ‘oocyte activation’. In mammals, oocytes are activated by a series of intracellular calcium (Ca2+ oscillations following gamete fusion. Recent evidence implicates a sperm-specific phospholipase C, PLCzeta (PLCζ, introduced into the oocyte following membrane fusion as the factor responsible. This review summarises our current understanding of oocyte activation failure in human males, and describes recent advances in our knowledge linking certain cases of male infertility with defects in PLCζ expression and activity. Systematic literature searches were performed using PubMed and the ISI-Web of Knowledge. Databases compiled by the United Nations and World Health Organisation databases (UNWHO, and the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA were also scrutinised. It is clear that PLCζ plays a

  16. Determination of zinc concentration in female reproductive system by instrumental neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando Ramos de

    2009-01-01

    Non-surgical female sterilization through the transcervical insertion of quinacrine pellets was considered a definitive, low-cost, safe and effective contraceptive method. The zinc, present in both uterus and Fallopian tubes, inhibit the quinacrine efficiency. The addition of copper increases the efficacy of quinacrine, reducing the risk of pregnancy due to the failure to obstruct the Fallopian tubes. The copper neutralized the deleterious effect of the zinc and so the treatment efficacy is increased. In order to obtain a mapping to study the zinc content in the female reproductive system, samples of both uterus and Fallopian tubes were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation. The results show that, on average, the obtained zinc concentrations in tubes (89 μg-g -1 ) is lower than in the uterus (118 μg-g -1 ), confirming results obtained by other authors. These results will support a research project about non-surgical female sterilization of the 'Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais' (Medical School of Federal University of Minas Gerais). The used methodology and obtained results are here reported. (author)

  17. Determination of zinc concentration in female reproductive system by instrumental neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando Ramos de, E-mail: framosc@oi.com.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ginecologia e Obstetricia; Ferreira, Claudia R.C.; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: claudia@medicina.ufmg.b, E-mail: ranf@cdtn.b, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Non-surgical female sterilization through the transcervical insertion of quinacrine pellets was considered a definitive, low-cost, safe and effective contraceptive method. The zinc, present in both uterus and Fallopian tubes, inhibit the quinacrine efficiency. The addition of copper increases the efficacy of quinacrine, reducing the risk of pregnancy due to the failure to obstruct the Fallopian tubes. The copper neutralized the deleterious effect of the zinc and so the treatment efficacy is increased. In order to obtain a mapping to study the zinc content in the female reproductive system, samples of both uterus and Fallopian tubes were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation. The results show that, on average, the obtained zinc concentrations in tubes (89 mug-g{sup -1}) is lower than in the uterus (118 mug-g{sup -1}), confirming results obtained by other authors. These results will support a research project about non-surgical female sterilization of the 'Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais' (Medical School of Federal University of Minas Gerais). The used methodology and obtained results are here reported. (author)

  18. Regulation of Schistosoma mansoni development and reproduction by the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luiza Freire de; Mourão, Marina de Moraes; Geraldo, Juliana Assis; Coelho, Fernanda Sales; Silva, Larissa Lopes; Neves, Renata Heisler; Volpini, Angela; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Araujo, Neusa; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Caffrey, Conor R; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2014-06-01

    Protein kinases are proven targets for drug development with an increasing number of eukaryotic Protein Kinase (ePK) inhibitors now approved as drugs. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members connect cell-surface receptors to regulatory targets within cells and influence a number of tissue-specific biological activities such as cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. However, the contributions of members of the MAPK pathway to schistosome development and survival are unclear. We employed RNA interference (RNAi) to elucidate the functional roles of five S. mansoni genes (SmCaMK2, SmJNK, SmERK1, SmERK2 and SmRas) involved in MAPK signaling pathway. Mice were injected with post-infective larvae (schistosomula) subsequent to RNAi and the development of adult worms observed. The data demonstrate that SmJNK participates in parasite maturation and survival of the parasites, whereas SmERK are involved in egg production as infected mice had significantly lower egg burdens with female worms presenting underdeveloped ovaries. Furthermore, it was shown that the c-fos transcription factor was overexpressed in parasites submitted to RNAi of SmERK1, SmJNK and SmCaMK2 indicating its putative involvement in gene regulation in this parasite's MAPK signaling cascade. We conclude that MAPKs proteins play important roles in the parasite in vivo survival, being essential for normal development and successful survival and reproduction of the schistosome parasite. Moreover SmERK and SmJNK are potential targets for drug development.

  19. Effects of pinealectomy on the neuroendocrine reproductive system and locomotor activity in male European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Mairi; Paullada-Salmerón, José A; López-Olmeda, José Fernando; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2017-05-01

    The seasonally changing photoperiod controls the timing of reproduction in most fish species, however, the transduction of this photoperiodic information to the reproductive axis is still unclear. This study explored the potential role of two candidate neuropeptide systems, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (Gnih) and kisspeptin, as mediators between the pineal organ (a principle transducer of photoperiodic information) and reproductive axis in male European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Two seven-day experiments of pinealectomy (Px) were performed, in March (end of reproductive season) and August (resting season). Effects of Px and season on the brain expression of gnih (sbgnih) and its receptor (sbgnihr), kisspeptins (kiss1, kiss2) and their receptors (kissr2, kissr3) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh1, gnrh2, gnrh3) and the main brain receptor (gnrhr-II-2b) genes, plasma melatonin levels and locomotor activity rhythms were examined. Results showed that Px reduced night-time plasma melatonin levels. Gene expression analyses demonstrated a sensitivity of the Gnih system to Px in March, with a reduction in sbgnih in the mid-hindbrain, a region with bilateral connections to the pineal organ. In August, kiss2 levels increased in Px animals but not in controls. Significant differences in expression were observed for diencephalic sbgnih, sbgnihr, kissr3 and tegmental gnrh2 between seasons. Recordings of locomotor activity following surgery revealed a change from light-synchronised to free-running rhythmic behavior. Altogether, the Gnih and Kiss2 sensitivity to Px and seasonal differences observed for Gnih and its receptor, Gnrh2, and the receptor for Kiss2 (Kissr3), suggested they could be mediators involved in the relay between environment and seasonal reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Consequences of lower food intake on the digestive enzymes activities, the energy reserves and the reproductive outcome in Gammarus fossarum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Charron

    Full Text Available Digestive enzyme activity is often used as a sensitive response to environmental pollution. However, only little is known about the negative effects of stress on digestive capacities and their consequences on energy reserves and reproduction, although these parameters are important for the maintenance of populations. To highlight if changes in biochemical responses (digestive enzymes and reserves led to impairments at an individual level (fertility, Gammarus fossarum were submitted to a lower food intake throughout a complete female reproductive cycle (i.e. from ovogenesis to offspring production. For both males and females, amylase activity was inhibited by the diet stress, whereas trypsin activity was not influenced. These results underline similar sensitivity of males and females concerning their digestive capacity. Energy reserves decreased with food starvation in females, and remained stable in males. The number of embryos per female decreased with food starvation. Lower digestive activity in males and females therefore appears as an early response. These results underline the ecological relevance of digestive markers, as they make it possible to anticipate upcoming consequences on reproduction in females, a key biological variable for population dynamics.

  1. Nutritional Value And Yield of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa Fusca Linn) Hay and Its Effect on Reproductive Performance of Awassi Ewes Using Progesterone Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M R..; Zarkawi, M.; Khalifa, K.

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional value of Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca Linn) hay (whole plant), a salt-tolerant plant, was estimated by determinning its composition (ash, crude protein CP, crude fibre CF, ether extract EE, neutral-detergent fiber NDF, acid-detergent fiber ADF, acid-detergent lignin ADL); and the in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy of lactation (NEL) and gross energy (GE). Moreover, dry matter, energy and protein yields per hectar were also estimated. The effects of feeding Kallar grass hay to pregnant Awassi ewes on reproductive performance, serum progesterone changes using radioimmunoassay, and on birth and weaning weights of lambs born were also determined. Experimental ewes received daily 300 g of Kallar grass hay in addition to lentil straw and concentrates to cover their nutritional requirements. The results indicated that the nutritive components of Kallar grass were (g kg -1 dry matter): ash 96, CP 93, CF 290, EE 21, NDF 755, ADF 416 and ADL 94. IVOMD was 49.3%, and energy values (MJ kg -1 dry matter) were: GE 26.88, ME 6.41 and NEL 3.02. Dry matter and crude protein yields of Kallar grass hay were 7875 and 732 kg ha -1 , respectively, and the energy produced (MJ ha -1 ) was: GE 211680, ME 50479 and NEL 23783. Kallar grass had no effects on the reproductive performance of pregnant Awassi ewes duration, of pregnancy (150.1 ± 2.2 days), progesterone patterns, birth (4.7±1.0 kg) or on weaning weights (22.7 ± ≤ 5.5 kg) of lambs.

  2. The effect of active immunization against vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and inhibin on reproductive performance of aging White Leghorn roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital-Cohen, N; Heiblum, R; Argov, N; Rosenstrauch, A; Chaiseha, Y; Mobarkey, N; Rozenboim, I

    2012-01-01

    Decreasing fertility in aging domestic roosters is a well-known phenomenon. Aging is manifested by a decrease in plasma testosterone level, testis function, and spermatogenesis, resulting in a low level of fertility. The roles of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and testicular inhibin in this aging process are not clear. The effects of active immunization against VIP, inhibin, or the combination of both hormones on the reproduction of aging White Leghorn (WL) roosters were assayed. In experiment 1a, 60 White Leghorn roosters (67 wk of age) were divided into 4 groups (n = 15/group). The first group was actively immunized against VIP, the second against inhibin, the third against VIP and inhibin, and the fourth served as a control. Active immunization against VIP decreased semen quality parameters, plasma steroid levels, and gene expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), LH receptor, VIP, and prolactin (Prl). Immunization against inhibin increased some of the semen quality parameters and FSH mRNA gene expression but decreased inhibin gene expression. In experiment 1b, at 94 wk of age, we took the actively immunized against VIP group and the control group and divided them into 2 subgroups (n = 7 or 8): the first group was injected with 1 mg of ovine Prl (oPrl) daily for 7 d, and the second group served as a control. Administration of oPrl to previously VIP-immunized birds significantly elevated semen quality parameters. We suggest that VIP, Prl, and inhibin have an important effect on the reproductive axis in aging roosters. Active immunization against VIP-depressed reproductive activity and Prl administration restored their reproduction, indicating that both VIP and Prl are essential for reproduction in aging roosters. Immunization against inhibin improved FSH mRNA gene expression, suggesting a negative role of inhibin on FSH secretion in aging roosters. Not all semen quality parameters

  3. Measuring the value of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography activity: an opportunity to stratify endoscopists on the basis of their value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Vikrant; Moran, Carthage; Maheshwari, Pardeep; Cheriyan, Danny; O'Toole, Aoibhlinn; Murray, Frank; Patchett, Stephen E; Harewood, Gavin C

    2018-07-01

    As finite healthcare resources come under pressure, the value of physician activity is assuming increasing importance. The value in healthcare can be defined as patient health outcomes achieved per monetary unit spent. Even though some attempts have been made to quantify the value of clinician activity, there is little in the medical literature describing the importance of endoscopists' activity. This study aimed to characterize the value of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) performance of five gastroenterologists. We carried out a retrospective-prospective cohort study using the databases of patients undergoing ERCP between September 2014 and March 2017. We collected data from 1070 patients who underwent ERCP comparing value among the ERCPists at index ERCP. Procedure value was calculated using the formula Q/(T/C), where Q is the quality of procedure, T is the duration of procedure and C is the adjusted for complexity level. Quality and complexity were derived on a 1-4 Likert scale on the basis of American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy criteria; time was recorded (in min) from intubation to extubation. Endoscopist time calculated from procedure time was considered a surrogate marker of cost as individual components of procedure cost were not itemized. In total, 590 procedures were analysed: 465 retrospectively over 24 months and 125 prospectively over 6 months. There was a 32% variation in the value of endoscopist activity in a more substantial retrospective cohort, with an even more considerable 73% variation in a smaller prospective arm. In an analysis of greater than 1000 ERCPs by a small cohort of experienced ERCPists, there was a wide variation in the value of endoscopist activity. Although the precision of estimating procedural costs needs further refinement, these findings show the ability to stratify ERCPists on the basis of the value their activity. As healthcare costs are scrutinized more closely, such value measurements are

  4. Value orientation towards physical education and physical activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the value orientation towards physical education among secondary school students in Hong Kong. After surveying 2748 students it was found that male students had stronger value orientation towards physical education than female students. It was also found that as the students ...

  5. Mathematical Modeling Activities as a Useful Tool for Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk, Bekir Kursat

    2012-01-01

    Values education is crucial since it is one of the factors to reach success in education in broader sense and in mathematics education in particular sense. It is also important for educating next generations of societies. However, previous research showed that expected importance for values education was not given in Mathematics courses. In a few…

  6. Toxicity of compounds with endocrine activity in the OECD 421 reproductive toxicity screening test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma AH; Verhoef A; Elvers LH; Wester PW; LEO; LPI

    1998-01-01

    The issue of endocrine disruption has, in view of human risk assessment, raised the question on whether more sensitive test methods are needed to detect the reproductive toxic properties of xenobiotic compounds with endocrine properties. We studied six known and alleged endocrine disruptors in an

  7. Diet quality impact on growth, reproduction, and digestive activity in .i.Brachionus calyciflorus./i

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štrojsová, Martina; Nedoma, Jiří; Seďa, Jaromír; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 10 (2008), s. 1123-1131 ISSN 0142-7873 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600170602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Brachionus * phosphorus limitation * growth * reproduction * phosphatase Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.707, year: 2008

  8. Comparative analysis of signature genes in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these cell...

  9. Changing reproductive effort within a semelparous reproductive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P William; Simons, Andrew M

    2014-08-01

    • Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between current and future reproduction for iteroparous organisms-as individuals age, the expected value of future reproduction declines, and thus reproductive effort is expected to be higher in later clutches than in earlier. In contrast, models explaining the evolution of semelparity treat semelparous reproduction as instantaneous, with no scope for intraindividual variation. However, semelparous reproduction is also extended, but over shorter time scales; whether there are similar age- or stage-specific changes in reproductive effort within a semelparous episode is unclear. In this study, we assessed whether semelparous individuals increase reproductive effort as residual reproductive value declines by comparing the reproductive phenotype of flowers at five different floral positions along a main inflorescence.• Using the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata, we conducted a longitudinal study of 409 individuals including both laboratory and field populations over three seasons. We recorded six reproductive traits-including the length of three phenological intervals as well as fruit size, seed size, and seed number-for all plants across floral positions produced throughout the reproductive episode.• We found that while the rate of flower initiation did not change, flowers at distal (late) floral positions developed more quickly and contained larger seed than flowers at basal (early) floral positions did.• Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that, like iteroparous organisms, L. inflata increases reproductive effort in response to low residual reproductive value. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  10. Declining densities and reproductive activities of the queen conch Strombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae in Banco Chinchorro, Eastern Caribbean, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto De Jesús Navarrete

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Queen conch is a gastropod inhabiting the Caribbean Sea, it represents the second largest fishery after the spiny lobster, but it has been extensively captured in the area. In order to know its population status in Chinchorro Bank, we determined conch density changes and its effects on reproductive activities, between July and November 2009. For this, data on conch density, morphology and reproductive activities were obtained from 15 sites within three fishing zones, and compared with previously collected data (1990, 1992, 1994, and 1997. Data showed that adult density decreased with time, from 10 700ind./ha in 1990, to 198ind./h in 2009. Neither egg masses nor spawns were found and mating was only observed once in July 2009. In July, adult (lip>4mm density in the Southern zone was 23ind./ha whereas in the Northern zone and Central zone densities were 15 and 9ind./ha respectively. In November, density was somewhat higher: Southern zone 96ind./ha; Central zone 39ind./ha and Northern zone had 38ind./ha. In July, mean shell length was 170.80±46.28mm, with a higher median abundance at 180-189mm. In November, higher frequency was 187.63±45.14mm, maximum at 210-219mm interval. For the last 10 years period, mean adult conch densities have diminished in each zone, which might be the main cause of decreased reproductive activities of the conch at Banco Chinchorro. It is therefore an immediate need to analyse the management plan for this species in this Reserve and perhaps to promote a re-population of queen conch and culture activities. Rev. Biol. Trop. 61 (4: 1671-1679. Epub 2013 December 01.

  11. Serial transrectal ultrasonography for monitoring the reproductive activity of the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus ussuricus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H G; Jeong, D H; Yang, J J; Lee, B K; Kong, J K; Lee, J W; Kim, I H

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the structural changes in the reproductive tract of Asiatic black bears using serial transrectal ultrasonography. In addition, the ultrasonographic observations were compared with the results of vaginal cytology and hormonal analyses. The collection of blood for hormonal analysis, vaginal cytology and transrectal ultrasonography was performed in two bears (Bears 1 and 2) from June 2011 to August 2013 without mating and in a third bear (Bear 3) from April to December 2012, allowing natural mating. Serial ultrasonographic observations showed cyclic changes in ovarian structures (e.g. emergence of small follicles, growth and ovulation of dominant follicles and corpus luteum (CL) formation) during the reproductive cycles of the three bears. The diameter of the uterine horns remained similar throughout the reproductive cycle in Bears 1 and 2, and it remained similar from April until October, but an enlargement containing foetuses was observed in Bear 3 in December. The ultrasonographic observations were consistent with the data obtained through vaginal cytology and progesterone analysis during the reproductive cycle. An average of 4.0 (±0.4) dominant follicles was observed during the oestrous stage (May-August), during which the superficial cells accounted for >90% of the total vaginal cells. In addition, the detection of an average of 2.6 (±0.2) CL was associated with increased plasma progesterone concentrations (3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml) between June and December (near hibernation). In conclusion, serial transrectal ultrasonography demonstrated yearly oestrous (ovulation) cycles via follicular dynamics and CL formation on ovaries, accordingly with vaginal cytology and hormonal level in the Asiatic black bear. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Dose-dependent effects of Asparagus adscendens root (AARR) extract on the anabolic, reproductive, and sexual behavioral activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansode, Falgun Wanganuji; Arya, Kamal Ram; Singh, Rama Kant; Narender, T

    2015-02-01

    Asparagus adscendens Roxb (Liliaceae) has a promising role in modulation of various disorders such as leucorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, diabetes, senile pruritus, asthma, fatigue antifilarial, antifungal, spermatorrhea, and sexual debility/seminal weakness. To investigate dose-dependent effects of Asparagus adscendens root (AARR) extract on anabolic, reproductive, and sexual behavioral activities with a view to emphasize the pharmacological basis. Rats were divided into five groups: Group I (control), Groups II-IV (AARR treated, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight, respectively, orally for 30 d) and Group V (standard control treated with sildenafil citrate, 5 mg/kg body weight). On day 31, copulatory and potency tests were carried out and an autopsy was done to study the reproductive function, namely, organ weights, spermatogenesis, daily sperm production rate (DSP), and epididymal sperm counts (ESC). AARR extract (200 and 300 mg/kg doses) caused a significant increase in body (p < 0.02 and p < 0.001) and testes (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, control versus treated) weights. Reproductive activity showed significant a increase in testicular tubular diameter (p < 0.005-0.001), the number of round/elongated spermatids (p < 0.02-0.001), DSP, and ESC (p < 0.05-0.001). The sexual behavioral parameters including mounting/intromission frequency (13.0 ± 0.32/11.8 ± 0.37 and 18.2 ± 2.12/14.8 ± 1.15 versus 11.2 ± 0.66/8.2 ± 1.16), ejaculation latency (187.4 ± 1.91 and 191.4 ± 1.72 versus 180.0 ± 3.47), and penile erections (13.5 ± 0.3 and 14.5 ± 0.5 versus 8.5 ± 0.2) showed a significant increase at 200 and 300 mg/kg doses (ED50 300 mg/kg), but less than a standard control. In contrast, 100 mg/kg dose caused an increase (p < 0.005) in mounting latency only. These results indicate increased anabolic, reproductive, and sexual activities by AARR treatment. Thus, the data provide

  13. Melanin-concentrating hormone directly inhibits GnRH neurons and blocks kisspeptin activation, linking energy balance to reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Dumalska, Iryna; Morozova, Elena; van den Pol, Anthony; Alreja, Meenakshi

    2009-10-06

    A link between energy balance and reproduction is critical for the survival of all species. Energy-consuming reproductive processes need to be aborted in the face of a negative energy balance, yet knowledge of the pathways mediating this link remains limited. Fasting and food restriction that inhibit fertility also upregulate the hypothalamic melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system that promotes feeding and decreases energy expenditure; MCH knockout mice are lean and have a higher metabolism but remain fertile. MCH also modulates sleep, drug abuse behavior, and mood, and MCH receptor antagonists are currently being developed as antiobesity and antidepressant drugs. Despite the clinical implications of MCH, the direct postsynaptic effects of MCH have never been reported in CNS neurons. Using patch-clamp recordings in brain slices from multiple lines of transgenic GFP mice, we demonstrate a strong inhibitory effect of MCH on an exclusive population of septal vGluT2-GnRH neurons that is activated by the puberty-triggering and preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge-mediating peptide, kisspeptin. MCH has no effect on kisspeptin-insensitive GnRH, vGluT2, cholinergic, or GABAergic neurons located within the same nucleus. The inhibitory effects of MCH are reproducible and nondesensitizing and are mediated via a direct postsynaptic Ba(2+)-sensitive K(+) channel mechanism involving the MCHR1 receptor. MCH immunoreactive fibers are in close proximity to vGluT2-GFP and GnRH-GFP neurons. Importantly, MCH blocks the excitatory effect of kisspeptin on vGluT2-GnRH neurons. Considering the role of MCH in regulating energy balance and of GnRH and kisspeptin in triggering puberty and maintaining fertility, MCH may provide a critical link between energy balance and reproduction directly at the level of the kisspeptin-activated vGluT2-GnRH neuron.

  14. Active Inference, Epistemic Value, and Vicarious Trial and Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Cartoni, Emilio; Rigoli, Francesco; io-Lopez, Léo; Friston, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Balancing habitual and deliberate forms of choice entails a comparison of their respective merits--the former being faster but inflexible, and the latter slower but more versatile. Here, we show that arbitration between these two forms of control can be derived from first principles within an Active Inference scheme. We illustrate our arguments…

  15. Longitudinal fecal hormone analysis for monitoring reproductive activity in the female polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, M A; MacKinnon, K M; Roth, T L

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to identify suitable enzyme immunoassays to monitor gonadal and placental function in the female polar bear. Immunoreactive progesterone, progesterone metabolite (PdG), estrogen, and androgen metabolite (T) concentrations were measured in fecal samples collected over 24 mo from captive female bears (N = 20). Whereas fecal extracts produced displacement curves parallel to the standard curve for each respective steroid, T and PdG more accurately reflected reproductive events. Concentrations of fecal T increased (P bears excreted higher PdG concentrations (P bears also had a PdG rise in the Fall, suggesting they experienced either pregnancy loss or a pseudopregnancy. Differentiating pregnant and pseudopregnant states was not achieved using fecal PdG alone, but when combined with fecal T, comprehensive diagnoses could be made. Nonparturient bears demonstrated elevated (P bears did not. In summary, noninvasive hormone monitoring techniques were established for the female polar bear. Although this study was directed at facilitating management and breeding efforts of captive polar bears, the methods could be applied to studies of reproductive function in wild populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A modified earned value management using activity based costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Aminian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Earned Value Management (EVM has been a well-known methodology used since the 1960s when the US department of defense proposed a standard method to measure project perfor-mance. This system relies on a set of often straightforward metrics to measure and evaluate the general health of a project. These metrics serve as early warning signals to timely detect project problems, or to exploit project opportunities. A key aspect of EVM is to estimate the completion cost of a project by considering both cost and schedule performance indices. However, good performance of cost and schedule performance indices does not necessarily guarantee cost effec-tiveness of the project regardless of the overhead costs. The reason is because, in most project-based organizations, overhead costs constitute a significant proportion of the total costs. Howev-er, EVM indices are usually calculated in the absence of the so-called overhead costs. This paper, first, seeks to remedy this problem by proposing a practical procedure of allocating overhead costs in project-based organizations. Then the traditional EVM indices are revised by consider-ing the allocated overhead costs. Finally, a case study demonstrates the applicability of the pro-posed method for a real-life project.

  17. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors as Mediators of Phthalate-Induced Effects in the Male and Female Reproductive Tract: Epidemiological and Experimental Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Latini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that male as well as female reproductive function has been declining in human and wildlife populations over the last 40 years. Several factors such as lifestyle or environmental xenobiotics other than genetic factors may play a role in determining adverse effects on reproductive health. Among the environmental xenobiotics phthalates, a family of man-made pollutants are suspected to interfere with the function of the endocrine system and therefore to be endocrine disruptors. The definition of endocrine disruption is today extended to broader endocrine regulations, and includes activation of metabolic sensors, such as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. Toxicological studies have shown that phthalates can activate a subset of PPARs. Here, we analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence linking phthalate exposure to both PPAR activation and adverse effects on male and female reproductive health.

  18. Effect of tocopherol treatment on deterioration of edible oil quality (acid value, carbonyl value, free fatty acid and radical activity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yuko; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2014-01-01

    In this study, waste edible oil was prepared by both heat and aeration treatment, and the increasing inhibitive effect of tocopherol treatment on the acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) of the oil was investigated. The AV and CV of waste edible oil treated with tocopherol were 0.1-1.0% lower than those of the nontreated oil, indicating that tocopherol exerted a radical-scavenging activity. The concentration of tocopherol decreased with time, while that of the remaining 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals increased. These results suggest that the addition of tocopherol proved to be useful for preventing the deterioration of waste edible oil.

  19. Effect of restricted suckling upon post-partum reproductive activity in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Barbella, S.F.; Martinez Guillen, N.D.; Combellas, J.B. de; Rondon Morales, Z.

    1990-01-01

    The post-partum reproductive performance of adult West African ewes of proven fertility was studied to assess the beneficial effect of both 14 and 18 h restricted nursing or early weaning (35 days post-lambing) on the resumption of ovarian function and conception rate at first oestrus. Although the interval from lambing to first oestrus and/or conception in the 14 h nursing (55.13±11.03 days), 18 h nursing (65.00±15.65 days) and control (59.00±13.48 days) groups did not differ, the percentage of ewes that showed oestrus (90, 60 and 50% respectively) favoured the treatment with the shortest nursing time. When lambs were weaned early, the interval from lambing to oestrus (61.40±16.50 days) did not differ significantly from that for the 14 h nursing ewes (70.10±19.37 days) but tended to be lower than for the controls (94.25±62.38 days). Since differences in response were assumed to be dependent on body condition of the individual ewes at the time of lambing, and body weight changes of the dams after lambing were correlated with progesterone hormone, plasma proteins, glucose and free fatty acids, it was assumed that the beneficial effects of the treatments on the reproductive parameters were due to the partition of nutrients towards restoration of body reserves and subsequently to the secretion of progesterone. (author). 27 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Cervicovaginal cytokines, sialidase activity and bacterial load in reproductive-aged women with intermediate vaginal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Greatti, Mariana Morena de Vieira; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães; Ferreira, Carolina Sanitá Tafner; Marconi, Camila

    2016-11-01

    Studies have shown that not only bacterial vaginosis, but also intermediate vaginal flora has deleterious effects for women's reproductive health. However, literature still lacks information about microbiological and immunological aspects of intermediate flora. To characterize intermediate flora regarding levels of Interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-10, sialidase; loads of Gardnerella vaginalis, total bacteria and to verify whether it is closer related to normal flora or bacterial vaginosis. This cross-sectional study enrolled 526 non-pregnant reproductive-aged women distributed in 3 groups according to pattern of vaginal flora using Nugent's system in normal, intermediate and bacterial vaginosis. Cervicovaginal levels of cytokines, sialidases, loads of G. vaginalis and total bacteria were assessed by ELISA, conversion of MUAN and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. A principal component analysis(PCA) using all measured parameters was performed to compare the three different types of flora. Results showed that intermediate flora is associated with increased cervicovaginal IL-1beta in relation to normal flora(Pbacterial vaginosis, intermediate flora has higher IL-8 and IL-10 levels(Pbacterial vaginosis(Pbacterial differed among all groups(Pbacterial vaginosis. PCA showed that normal and intermediate flora were closely scattered, while bacterial vaginosis were grouped separately. Although intermediate flora shows some differences in cytokines, sialidases and bacterial loads in relation to normal flora and bacterial vaginosis, when taken together, general microbiological and immunological pattern pattern of intermediate flora resembles the normal flora. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Uncovering activity cliff generators using distribution of SALI values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Medina-Franco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Los acantilados de actividad se definen como compuestos con alta similitud estructural, pero también con altadiferencia en potencia. Estos compuestos tienen un impacto significativo en la optimización de líderes en químicamedicinal y en aplicaciones computacionales, como el desarrollo de modelos predictivos y en la selección demoléculas de referencia en búsquedas basadas en similitud molecular. Por lo tanto, es de gran relevancia laidentificación de compuestos altamente asociados con los acantilados como por ejemplo los “generadores deacantilados de actividad”. En este trabajo se reportan la identificación de acantilados de actividad y las relacionesestructura-actividad de un grupo de 289 compuestos obtenidos por síntesis química que han sido evaluados a travésde una proteína quinasa reguladora de receptores acoplados a proteínas-G. Para considerar la información demúltiples representaciones estructurales, se empleó el promedio del índice SALI (Structure-Activity Landscape Indexy se discuten también fragmentos estructurales responsables de la actividad biológica.

  2. Study of activity based costing implementation for palm oil production using value-added and non-value-added activity consideration in PT XYZ palm oil mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, M. T.; Wahyuni, D.; Sinaga, T. S.; Silaban, A.

    2018-02-01

    Cost allocation at manufacturing industry particularly in Palm Oil Mill still widely practiced based on estimation. It leads to cost distortion. Besides, processing time determined by company is not in accordance with actual processing time in work station. Hence, the purpose of this study is to eliminates non-value-added activities therefore processing time could be shortened and production cost could be reduced. Activity Based Costing Method is used in this research to calculate production cost with Value Added and Non-Value-Added Activities consideration. The result of this study is processing time decreasing for 35.75% at Weighting Bridge Station, 29.77% at Sorting Station, 5.05% at Loading Ramp Station, and 0.79% at Sterilizer Station. Cost of Manufactured for Crude Palm Oil are IDR 5.236,81/kg calculated by Traditional Method, IDR 4.583,37/kg calculated by Activity Based Costing Method before implementation of Activity Improvement and IDR 4.581,71/kg after implementation of Activity Improvement Meanwhile Cost of Manufactured for Palm Kernel are IDR 2.159,50/kg calculated by Traditional Method, IDR 4.584,63/kg calculated by Activity Based Costing Method before implementation of Activity Improvement and IDR 4.582,97/kg after implementation of Activity Improvement.

  3. Relationship of sexual hormone variation with productive and reproductive activities in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, M.H.G.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental work and hormonal radioimmunoassays in the present study were carried out at the rabbit experimental house and laboratories of endocrinology research unit, belonging to radiobiology department, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority, Inchas, Sharkia governerate. A total number of 60 female rabbits were used along the period from 1988 to 1990, of this number 15 dose were selected for a preliminary study and the rest (45 dose) were assigned to a composite detailed experiment. The preliminary experiment was performed during winter season (1988) to answer a question : whether mating estradiol (Ez) blood levels correlates with litter size; and to study the relation between mating circulating steroid levels and pregnancy estradiol (Ez) and progesterone (P4). The detailed experiment was performed during summer 1989 (8 treatments with 3 replicates/cell) and winter 1990 (7 treatments with 3 replicates/cell). It was aimed to investigate the pituitary gonadal axis as affected by season to elucidate possible endocrinological origin for the reproductive halt in rabbits during summer

  4. Abortion as empowerment: reproductive rights activism in a legally restricted context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds-Pérez, Julia

    2017-11-08

    This paper analyzes the strategies used by activist health professionals in Argentina who justify providing abortion despite legal restrictions on the procedure. These "insider activists" make a case for abortion rights by linking pregnancy termination to a woman's ability to exert agency at a key point in her reproductive life, and argue that refusing women access to the procedure constitutes a grievous health risk. This argument frames pregnancy termination as an issue of empowerment and also as a medical necessity. This article is based on ethnographic research conducted in Argentina in 2013 and 2015, which includes in-depth interviews with abortion activists and health professionals and ethnographic observation at activist events and in clinics. During the period of my field research, the medical staff in one clinic shifted from abortion counseling, based on a harm reduction model, to legal pregnancy termination, a new mode of abortion provision where they directly provided abortions based on the legal health exception. These insider activists formalized the latter approach by creating a diagnostic instrument that frames women's "bio-psycho-social" reasons for wishing to terminate a pregnancy as medically justified. The clinical practice analyzed in this article raises important questions about the potential for health professionals to take on an activist role by making safe abortion accessible, even in a context where the procedure is highly restricted.

  5. Influence of short term exposure of TBT on the male reproductive activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Prasanna, Vimalanathan Arun; Pandiyarajan, Jayaraj; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of tributyltin (TBT) on the histopathological and hormonal changes during spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was documented. Three experimental concentrations such as 10, 100 and 1,000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 45 days. After TBT exposure, the reproductive activities like sperm count and sperm length were decreased when compared with control. Further, abnormal structure of the seminiferous tubule, decrease in spermatozoa concentration, diminution of the seminiferous tubule membrane and the abundance of spermatocytes in the testis were noticed in treated prawns. Interestingly, radioimmunoassay clearly revealed the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT has considerably reduced the level of testosterone and caused the impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii.

  6. Effects of three pesticides on superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase activities and reproduction of Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yuzhi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Applying pesticides to crops is one of the causes of water pollution by surface runoff, and chlorpyrifos, trifluralin and chlorothalonil are used respectively as insecticide, herbicide and fungicide for crop plants widely. To explore effects of three pesticides on aquatic organisms, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione S-transferase (GST activities were determined after 24 h and 48 h exposure of D. magna with ages of 6–24 h to several low concentrations of chlorpyrifos (0.36, 0.72, 1.43, 2.86, 5.72 μg∙L−1, trifluralin (0.17, 0.33, 0.66, 1.33, 2.65 mg∙L−1 and chlorothalonil (0.09, 0.18, 0.36, 0.72, 1.43 mg∙L−1 respectively. Main reproductive parameters including first pregnancy time, first brood time, the number of first brood and total fecundity after 21 d exposures at the same concentrations of pesticides as described above were also measured. The results showed that the activities of GST increased in lower concentrations and decreased in higher concentrations after 24 h exposure to three pesticides, respectively. The activities of SOD showed the same changes after 48 h exposure. With the time prolonged, the activities of GST decreased while the activities of SOD increased. After 21 d exposure, the first pregnancy time and first brood time were delayed, while the number of the first brood and total fecundity per female decreased with increasing concentrations. These results corroborated that GST activity was more sensitive to those pesticides than SOD activity, and there was a significant relationship between total fecundity and pesticides-dose(r>0.94, n=6, GST activity after 48 h exposure and total fecundity after 21 d exposure (r>0.92, n=6.

  7. Contributions of available substrates and activities of trophic microbial community to methanogenesis in vegetative and reproductive rice rhizospheric soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawanakul, Sansanee; Chaiprasert, Pawinee; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Tanticharoen, Morakot

    2009-01-01

    Potential of methane production and trophic microbial activities at rhizospheric soil during rice cv. Supanbunri 1 cultivation were determined by laboratory anaerobic diluents vials. The methane production was higher from rhizospheric than non-rhizospheric soil, with the noticeable peaks during reproductive phase (RP) than vegetative phase (VP). Glucose, ethanol and acetate were the dominant available substrates found in rhizospheric soil during methane production at both phases. The predominance activities of trophic microbial consortium in methanogenesis, namely fermentative bacteria (FB), acetogenic bacteria (AGB), acetate utilizing bacteria (AB) and acetoclastic methanogens (AM) were also determined. At RP, these microbial groups were enhanced in the higher of methane production than VP. This correlates with our finding that methane production was greater at the rhizospheric soil with the noticeable peaks during RP (1,150 +/- 60 nmol g dw(-1) d(-1)) compared with VP (510 +/- 30 nmol g dw(-1) d(-1)). The high number of AM showed the abundant (1.1x10(4) cell g dw(-1)) with its high activity at RP, compared to the less activity with AM number at VP (9.8x10(2) cell g dw(-1)). Levels of AM are low in the total microbial population, being less than 1% of AB. These evidences revealed that the microbial consortium of these two phases were different.

  8. Non-Relative Value Unit-Generating Activities Represent One-Fifth of Academic Neuroradiologist Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermark, M; Zeineh, M; Zaharchuk, G; Srivastava, A; Fischbein, N

    2016-07-01

    A neuroradiologist's activity includes many tasks beyond interpreting relative value unit-generating imaging studies. Our aim was to test a simple method to record and quantify the non-relative value unit-generating clinical activity represented by consults and clinical conferences, including tumor boards. Four full-time neuroradiologists, working an average of 50% clinical and 50% academic activity, systematically recorded all the non-relative value unit-generating consults and conferences in which they were involved during 3 months by using a simple, Web-based, computer-based application accessible from smartphones, tablets, or computers. The number and type of imaging studies they interpreted during the same period and the associated relative value units were extracted from our billing system. During 3 months, the 4 neuroradiologists working an average of 50% clinical activity interpreted 4241 relative value unit-generating imaging studies, representing 8152 work relative value units. During the same period, they recorded 792 non-relative value unit-generating study reviews as part of consults and conferences (not including reading room consults), representing 19% of the interpreted relative value unit-generating imaging studies. We propose a simple Web-based smartphone app to record and quantify non-relative value unit-generating activities including consults, clinical conferences, and tumor boards. The quantification of non-relative value unit-generating activities is paramount in this time of a paradigm shift from volume to value. It also represents an important tool for determining staffing levels, which cannot be performed on the basis of relative value unit only, considering the importance of time spent by radiologists on non-relative value unit-generating activities. It may also influence payment models from medical centers to radiology departments or practices. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  9. Wave field synthesis, adaptive wave field synthesis and ambisonics using decentralized transformed control: Potential applications to sound field reproduction and active noise control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert; Berry, Alain; Woszczyk, Wieslaw

    2005-09-01

    Sound field reproduction finds applications in listening to prerecorded music or in synthesizing virtual acoustics. The objective is to recreate a sound field in a listening environment. Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a known open-loop technology which assumes that the reproduction environment is anechoic. Classical WFS, therefore, does not perform well in a real reproduction space such as room. Previous work has suggested that it is physically possible to reproduce a progressive wave field in-room situation using active control approaches. In this paper, a formulation of adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS) introduces practical possibilities for an adaptive sound field reproduction combining WFS and active control (with WFS departure penalization) with a limited number of error sensors. AWFS includes WFS and closed-loop ``Ambisonics'' as limiting cases. This leads to the modification of the multichannel filtered-reference least-mean-square (FXLMS) and the filtered-error LMS (FELMS) adaptive algorithms for AWFS. Decentralization of AWFS for sound field reproduction is introduced on the basis of sources' and sensors' radiation modes. Such decoupling may lead to decentralized control of source strength distributions and may reduce computational burden of the FXLMS and the FELMS algorithms used for AWFS. [Work funded by NSERC, NATEQ, Université de Sherbrooke and VRQ.] Ultrasound/Bioresponse to

  10. Detection of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus in Semen, Urethra, and Male Reproductive Organs during Efficient Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusali, G.; Dereuddre-Bosquet, N.; Le Tortorec, A.; Moreau, M.; Satie, A.-P.; Mahé, D.; Roumaud, P.; Bourry, O.; Sylla, N.; Bernard-Stoecklin, S.; Pruvost, A.; Le Grand, R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A number of men receiving prolonged suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) still shed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in semen. To investigate whether this seminal shedding may be due to poor drug penetration and/or viral production by long-lived cells within male genital tissues, we analyzed semen and reproductive tissues from macaques chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus mac251 (SIVmac251) who were treated for 4 months with HAART, which was intensified over the last 7 weeks with an integrase inhibitor. We showed that a subset of treated animals continued shedding SIV in semen despite efficient HAART. This shedding was not associated with low antiretroviral drug concentrations in semen or in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate. HAART had no significant impact on SIV RNA in the urethra, whereas it drastically reduced SIV RNA levels in the prostate and vas deferens and to a lesser extent in the epididymis and seminal vesicle. The only detectable SIV RNA-positive cells within the male genital tract after HAART were urethral macrophages. SIV DNA levels in genital tissues were not decreased by HAART, suggesting the presence throughout the male genital tract of nonproductively infected cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that 4 months of HAART induced variable and limited control of viral infection in the male reproductive organs, particularly in the urethra, and suggest that infected long-lived cells in the male genital tract may be involved in persistent seminal shedding during HAART. These results pave the way for further investigations of male genital organ infection in long-term-treated infected individuals. IMPORTANCE A substantial subset of men receiving prolonged HAART suppressing viral loads in the blood still harbor HIV in semen, and cases of sexual transmission have been reported. To understand the origin of this persistence, we analyzed the semen and male reproductive tissues from SIV

  11. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  12. Application of historical Y-12 default radiological activity values to legacy waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, G.

    2009-01-01

    In June of 2003, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC tasked Pacific Western Technologies (PWT) to perform a comprehensive audit of the Facility Acceptance Testing/ Container Analysis Tool (FAT-CAT), which is currently administered, by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC... During this audit, a finding was issued on the subject of assigning historic Y-12 default radiological activity values to radiological containers, having no radiological data. Analysis of default radiological values versus known real radiological values showed the default values to be conservative as a place-holder for containers with no known radiological values. (authors)

  13. Integrating Values in the Care Giving Activity from the Professional Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Delgado-Antolín

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nurses trained more and more on scientific evidence, often focus their actions based fundamentally on scientific fact, leaving aside other important knowledge that intervene in the care giving relation: communication, personal relationships, respect in the relationship, and knowing all the values implied in said relationship. It is about these values and on their importance within care upon which the author reflects in this article, until concluding on how we can integrate values to the care giving activity.

  14. Integrating values in the care giving activity from the professional point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Antolín, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Nurses trained more and more on scientific evidence, often focus their actions based fundamentally on scientific fact, leaving aside other important knowledge that intervene in the care giving relation: communication, personal relationships, respect in the relationship, and knowing all the values implied in said relationship. It is about these values and on their importance within care upon which the author reflects in this article, until concluding on how we can integrate values to the care giving activity.

  15. Personal Values and Mission Statement: A Reflective Activity to Aid Moral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird-Magee, Tyler; Gayle, Barbra Mae; Preiss, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Personal values guide ethical decision-making behaviors. Business professors have traditionally addressed undergraduate ethics-based learning through a learn ethics approach using case studies, simulations, presentations, and other activities. Few offer a live ethics orientation requiring completion of a personal values self-assessment and…

  16. Adolescents' Sociopolitical Values in the Context of Organized Activity Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhoff, Benjamin; Ferris, Kaitlyn A.; Metzger, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Sociopolitical values are hypothesized to form during adolescence, but the developmental and contextual origins of these values have been largely unexplored. A sample of 846 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 15.96, SD = 1.22, range = 13-20 years) reported on their organized activity involvement (volunteering, sports, church, community clubs,…

  17. Implementation and Evaluation of a Values Clarification Activity for a Large Undergraduate Human Sexuality Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Alyssa M.

    2016-01-01

    Values clarification is an important tool that helps individuals to clarify their beliefs about sexuality-related issues. This lesson plan provides instructions for a 1-hour values clarification activity for a large undergraduate human sexuality course that serves as an introduction to course content and tone, stimulates students' initial thinking…

  18. Adolescent Expectancy-Value Motivation, Achievement in Physical Education, and Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day…

  19. Ninth Graders' Energy Balance Knowledge and Physical Activity Behavior: An Expectancy-Value Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy beliefs and task values are two essential motivators in physical education. This study was designed to identify the relation between the expectancy-value constructs (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995) and high school students' physical activity behavior as associated with their energy balance knowledge. High school students (N = 195) in two…

  20. Detection of phospholipase activity of Candida albicans and non albicans isolated from women of reproductive age with vulvovaginal candidiasis in rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Fule

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is most common accounting for 17 to 39% of symptomatic women. Both Candida albicans and non albicans Candida species are involved in VVC. Amongst various virulence factors proposed for Candida, extracellular phospholipases is one of the virulence factor implicated in its pathogenicity. With this background the present study was carried out to find the prevalence of different Candida species and to detect phospholipase producing strains isolated from symptomatic women with VVC. Materials and Methods: At least two vaginal swabs from 156 women of reproductive age with abnormal vaginal discharge were collected. Direct microscopy and Gram′s stained smear examined for presence of budding yeast and pseudo mycelia followed by isolation and identification of Candida species. Extracellular phospholipase activity was studied by inoculating all isolates on Sabouraud′s dextrose egg yolk agar (SDA medium. Results: Of the 156 women with curdy white discharge alone or in combination with other signs, 59 (37.82% women showed laboratory evidence of VVC. A total of 31 (52.54% women had curdy white discharge followed by 12 (20.33% with other signs and symptoms. C. albicans (62.59% and non albicans Candida (37.28% in a ratio of 1.68:1 were isolated. Of the 37 strains of C. albians 30 (81.08% showed the enzyme activity. Seventeen (56.66% strains showed higher Pz value of < 0.70 (++++. Conclusion: Although there may be typical clinical presentation of Candidiasis. all the patients did not show laboratory evidence of infection. Pregnancy was found to be major risk factor for development of VVC. C. albicans was prevalent species but non albicans species were also frequently isolated. Extracellular phospholipase activity was seen in C. albicans and not in non albicans Candida isolates.

  1. Perceptions Towards Non-Value-Adding Activities During The Construction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Haryati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-value-adding activities are pure waste during the construction process. However, most of the construction practitioner does not realise that most of the activities performed during the construction process add no value to their project. A total of 375 numbers of questionnaires distributed to the Developer, Jabatan Kerja Raya, Consultants and Contractors. The study found that awareness by construction participants in Malaysia to take actions against non-value-adding activities during the construction process is relatively low. Through analysed by using the Pareto Chart, it has been found that defects and waiting time are two categories of non-value-adding activities that need to be prioritised by the industry. It is also found that non-value-adding activities most frequently occurred during structural and architectural work. This paper also reviewed on the causes of non-value-adding activities and discussed its effect towards time, cost, quality and productivity of the construction project. This paper is also important to give clearness and broader understandings on this form of waste other than material waste.

  2. Importance and nutritional value of large ciliates for the reproduction of Acartia clausi during the post spring-bloom period in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Peters, J.

    2008-01-01

    enriched with large prey (> 20 mu m). The mineral (C, N) and lipid contents of the food suspensions were determined for size-fractionated samples to characterize the nutritional composition of prey. Large oligotrich ciliates and Strobiliidae dominated the seston biomass. Ciliates, particularly......Shipboard experiments were performed to examine the qualitative importance of large marine microzooplankton for the reproduction of Acartia clausi in the North Sea. Feeding and egg production were compared in 2 treatments in which females were fed natural seston or natural seston selectively...

  3. Evaluation of a two-generation reproduction toxicity study adding endpoints to detect endocrine disrupting activity using vinclozolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Ikuo; Saitoh, Tetsuji; Ashina, Michiko; Wako, Yumi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Toyota, Naoto; Ishizuka, Yoshihito; Namiki, Masato; Hoshino, Nobuhito; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2005-12-01

    A two-generation reproduction toxicity study in rats adding extra endpoints to detect endocrine disrupting activity was conducted using vinclozolin by dietary administration at 0, 40, 200, and 1000 ppm, for investigation of its utility. The extra endpoints included anogenital distance (AGD), nipple development, sexual maturation (vaginal opening and preputial separation), estrous cycle, spermatogenesis, sex organ weights, and blood hormone concentrations (thyroid and sex hormones). Hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activities were also measured. The results revealed changes due to vinclozolin in the AGD, nipple development, sexual maturation, sex organ weights, and blood sex hormone concentrations in males of both parental animals and offspring, even at the lowest dose of 40 ppm, confirmed by results for the classical endpoints of histopathological examination at 200 ppm and mating at 1000 ppm. The effects on parental males included increased pituitary and testis weights, and decreased epididymis weights at 1000 ppm in both generations, and decreased prostate and epididymis weights at 200 and 1000 ppm and seminal vesicle weights at 1000 ppm in F1 males. Histopathological examination revealed hypertrophy of the basophilic cells in the pituitary at these two doses, and diffuse hyperplasia of the testicular interstitial cells and atrophy of the seminal vesicle mucosa at 1000 ppm in F0 and F1 males. In addition, F1 males demonstrated decrease in prostate fluid at 200 and 1000 ppm. Blood hormone analysis revealed increases in LH, FSH, testosterone, and DHT in F0 and F1 males at 1000 ppm. General toxicological effects included suppressed body weight gain in F0 and F1 females and in F1 males, and reduced food consumption in F0 and F1 females at 1000 ppm. Histopathological examination revealed centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy in males at 200 and 1000 ppm and in females at 1000 ppm, increased lipid droplets in the adrenal zona fasciculata and zona glomerulosa in

  4. Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation across Physical Education Classes: The Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gråstén, Arto; Watt, Anthony; Hagger, Martin; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the link between students' expectancy beliefs, subjective task values, out-of-school activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation across secondary school physical education (PE) classes. The sample comprised 96 students (58 girls, 38 boys; Mage = 15.03, SD = 0.94) from…

  5. Vegetative and reproductive plasticity of broccoli at three levels of incident photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francescangeli, N.; Martí, H.R.; Sangiacomo, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of shading on the growth, development, dry matter partitioning, and plant architecture of broccoli, ‘Legacy’ hybrid plants were grown in pots in a greenhouse under black shading meshes to generate different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The average incident PAR was 23 mol PPF m –2 d –1 under control conditions, 15.2 under a 35% mesh, and 6.7 under a 70% mesh. The air temperature was within the range 15-22°C. As shading increased so did the duration of the growth cycle and the leaf area (LA). Shading did not affect the number of leaves, although the upper ones were more erect. The stem length and the accumulated intercepted PAR (IPAR) were negatively related. Inflorescence diameter and commercial fresh weight decreased only with the 70% mesh. Shading did not affect stem dry weight (DW) but altered dry matter allocation in the root and spear. The DW of the leaves maintained an average 45.7% of the total DW despite the greater LA developed under shade. The net assimilation rate diminished with the reduction of IPAR, and the LA increased; the plant relative growth rate was therefore practically constant. With increased shading, the leaves and the stem became the dominant photosynthate sinks. The commercial fresh weight achieved with 15.2 mol photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) m –2 d –1 was equivalent to that obtained with 23 mol PPF m –2 d –1 , but the cycle was extended for 4.5 days. With 6.7 mol PPF m –2 d –1 , yield diminished because of the lower DW produced in a cycle extended by 15 days, and because more dry matter was allocated to the stem than to the spear. Based on these results, broccoli could be considered a shade-tolerant plant. (author) [es

  6. Reproduction and Fixed Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the 'sixties, the reproduction model was often the subject of analysis and discussion in economic literat­ ure. Discussion was by criticism of the neo-classical concept of capital as well as by a renewed interest in the labour theory of value. Criticism of the use of a homogeneous concept of

  7. Background activity values from the nuclear power plants at the spanish coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesinos, M.

    1979-01-01

    The radiological data obtained from gross alpha and beta measurements are exposed. Also the activity of differents long lived radionuclides from a significant number of the Cantabric coast sea biota samples is given, where the Lemoniz nuclear power plant is located, as well as those from the Mediterranean coast, where the Vandellos nuclear power plant is sitting. The activity transfer through the different steps of the food-chain in each biota sample, as well as the activity values for sediments and water are presented. Eventually, a comparatif study of the background activity values between the two coasts mentioned above, is made. Also a comparison between the preoperational and operational values for the operating Vandellos nuclear power plant is described. (author)

  8. The Effects of Chronic Lifelong Activation of the AHR Pathway by Industrial Chemical Pollutants on Female Human Reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Cavallini

    Full Text Available Environmental chemicals, such as heavy metals, affect female reproductive function. A biological sensor of the signals of many toxic chemical compounds seems to be the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR. Previous studies demonstrated the environmental of heavy metals in Taranto city (Italy, an area that has been influenced by anthropogenic factors such as industrial activities and waste treatments since 1986. However, the impact of these elements on female fertility in this geographic area has never been analyzed. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the AHR pathway, sex steroid receptor pattern and apoptotic process in granulosa cells (GCs retrieved from 30 women, born and living in Taranto, and 30 women who are living in non-contaminated areas (control group, who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF protocol. In follicular fluids (FFs of both groups the toxic and essential heavy metals, such as chromiun (Cr, Manganese (Mn, iron (Fe, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb, were also analyzed. Higher levels of Cr, Fe, Zn and Pb were found in the FFs of the women from Taranto as compared to the control group, as were the levels of AHR and AHR-dependent cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1; while CYP19A1 expression was decreased. The anti-apoptotic process found in the GCs of women fromTaranto was associated with the highest levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, a novel progesterone receptor, the expression of which is subjected to AHR activated by its highest affinity ligands (e.g., dioxins or indirectly by other environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals. In conclusion, decreased production of estradiol and decreased number of retrieved mature oocytes found in women from Taranto could be due to chronic exposure to heavy metals, in particular to Cr and Pb.

  9. Fine Slicing of the Value Chain and Offshoring of Essential Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linares-Navarro, Esmeralda; Pedersen, Torben; Pla-Barber, José

    2014-01-01

    The offshoring of more advanced activities is increasing and a debate about the limits of offshoring has emerged. Companies are fine-slicing their value chains, and moving beyond the offshoring of peripheral and non-core activities to the offshoring of advanced and essential activities that are c......The offshoring of more advanced activities is increasing and a debate about the limits of offshoring has emerged. Companies are fine-slicing their value chains, and moving beyond the offshoring of peripheral and non-core activities to the offshoring of advanced and essential activities...... that companies are redefining their core activities and in this process, some essential activities previously viewed as core activities are being detached from the core, and they become more offshorable. The study uses a sample of 565 offshoring operations conducted by 263 multinational companies from 15...... European countries. A logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the activities offshored (non-core versus essential activities) and the offshoring mode implemented (captive offshoring versus offshore outsourcing). We find that essential activities are typically offshored using...

  10. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  11. Napping Characteristics and Restricted Participation in Valued Activities Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Jocelynn T; Ramsey, Christine M; Tzuang, Marian; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Parisi, Jeanine M; Spira, Adam P

    2018-03-02

    Napping is associated with both positive and negative health outcomes among older adults. However, the association between particular napping characteristics (eg, frequency, duration, and whether naps were intentional) and daytime function is unclear. Participants were 2,739 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years from the nationally representative National Health and Aging Trends Study. Participants reported napping frequency, duration, and whether naps were intentional versus unintentional. Restricted participation in valued activities was measured by self-report. After adjusting for potential confounders and nighttime sleep duration, those who took intentional and unintentional naps had a greater odds of any valued activity restriction (ie, ≥1 valued activity restriction), compared to those who rarely/never napped (unintentional odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01, 1.79, intentional OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.09, 2.04). There was no difference between unintentional napping and intentional napping with respect to any valued activity restriction after adjustment for demographics. Compared to participants napping "some days," those napping most days/every day had a greater odds of any valued activity restriction (OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.30, 2.16). Moreover, each 30-minute increase in average nap duration was associated with a 25% greater odds of any valued activity restriction (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.10, 1.43). Older adults who took more frequent or longer naps were more likely to report activity restrictions, as were those who took intentional or unintentional naps. Additional longitudinal studies with objective measures of sleep are needed to further our understanding of associations between napping characteristics and daytime dysfunction. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. THE MEANINGFUL ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION ASSESSMENT: A MEASURE OF ENGAGEMENT IN PERSONALLY VALUED ACTIVITIES*

    Science.gov (United States)

    EAKMAN, AARON M.; CARLSON, MIKE E.; CLARK, FLORENCE A.

    2011-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Purpose in Life Test, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and the Rand SF-36v2 Health Survey subscales. Zero-order correlations consistently demonstrated meaningful relationships between the MAPA and scales of psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life. Results from multiple regression analyses further substantiated these findings, as greater meaningful activity participation was associated with better psychological well-being and health-related quality of life. The MAPA appears to be a reliable and valid measure of meaningful activity, incorporating both subjective and objective indicators of activity engagement. PMID:20649161

  13. Is active management of mandatory pension funds in Croatia creating value for second pillar fund members?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar-Pierre Matek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses Croatian mandatory pension funds’ investment returns during the 2005-2014 period using performance attribution methodology. Results from active investment management are compared to a long-term policy return. Such analysis is essential to shed light on the contribution of active portfolio management in the second pillar pension scheme. Evidence suggests that in the period analysed portfolio managers have added value through active management decisions. In addition, we determined the sources of portfolio return by breaking down active return into policy, tactical asset allocation and security selection effect.

  14. Progeny reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on clarification of importance of different harmful factors of radiation and chemical nature on the function of progeny reproduction, growth and development are presented. Intake of radionuclides to organism, of white mices and rats in concentrations corresponding to 10 6 PCsub(s) ( 90 Sr, 210 Po, 210 Pb and other) is shown to result in 100% sterility of females, 10 5 -10 4 PCsub(s) concentrations cause damaging effect of different degrees of expression at later stages of effect. Smaller contents of radionuclides (10 3 -10 2 PCsub(s)) did not result in noticeable changes in reproductivity of animals. Similar regularities were observed under effect of different concentrations of chemical agent. Some peculiarities of animal physiology should be taken into account to obtain data of estimation of damaging effect of harmful factors on reproduction function

  15. Fellowship training and board certification in reproductive endocrinology and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Joseph C; Segars, James H; Cedars, Marcelle; Schlaff, William D

    2015-07-01

    Reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) is one of the original officially recognized subspecialties in obstetrics and gynecology and among the earlier subspecialties in medicine. Recognized by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology in 1972, fellowship programs are now 3 years in length following an obstetrics and gynecology residency. Originally focused on endocrine problems related to reproductive function, the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have recently become the larger part of training during REI fellowships. It is likely that the subspecialty of REI strengthens the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology and enhances the educational experience of residents in the field. The value of training and certification in REI is most evident in the remarkable and consistent improvement in the success of ART procedures, particularly in vitro fertilization. The requirement for documented research activity during REI fellowships is likely to stimulate a more rapid adoption (translation) of newer research findings into clinical care after training. Although mandatory reporting of outcomes has been proposed as a reason for this improvement the rapid translation of reproductive research into clinical practice is likely to be a major cause. Looking forward, REI training should emphasize and strengthen education and research into the endocrine, environmental, and genetic aspects of female and male reproduction to improve the reproductive health and fertility of all women. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Promoting Physical Activity in Hong Kong Chinese Young People: Factors Influencing Their Subjective Task Values and Expectancy Beliefs in Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    According to Eccles et al.'s (1983) Expectancy Value Model, the two major constructs that influence young people's activity choice are subjective task value and expectancy beliefs (Eccles et al., 1983). Eccles et al. (1983) conceptually distinguished four dimensions of subjective task value: attainment value, intrinsic value, utility value and…

  17. The pineal gland, but not melatonin, is associated with the termination of seasonal testicular activity in an annual reproductive cycle in roseringed parakeet Psittacula krameri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anamika; Kumar Maitra, Saumen

    2006-01-01

    The role of the pineal gland and its hormone melatonin in the regulation of annual testicular events was investigated for the first time in a psittacine bird, the roseringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Accordingly, the testicular responsiveness of the birds was evaluated following surgical pinealectomy with or without the exogenous administration of melatonin and the experimental manipulations of the endogenous levels of melatonin through exposing the birds to continuous illumination. An identical schedule was followed during the four reproductive phases, each characterizing a distinct testicular status in the annual cycle, namely, the phases of gametogenic quiescence (preparatory phase), seasonal recovery of gametogenesis (progressive phase), seasonal initiation of sperm formation (pre-breeding phase), and peak gametogenic activity (breeding phase). In each reproductive phase, the birds were subjected to various experimental conditions, and the effects were studied comparing the testicular conditions in the respective control birds. The study included germ cell profiles of the seminiferous tubules, the activities of steroidogenic enzymes 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD), and Delta(5)3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Delta(5)3beta- HSD) in the testis, and the serum levels of testosterone and melatonin. An analysis of the data reveals that the pineal gland and its hormone melatonin may play an inhibitory role in the development of the testis until the attainment of the seasonal peak in the annual reproductive cycle. However, in all probability, the termination of the seasonal activity of the testis or the initiation of testicular regression in the annual reproductive cycle appears to be the function of the pineal gland, but not of melatonin.

  18. Transmitting Sport Values: The Importance of Parental Involvement in Children’s Sport Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Danioni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of positive values between parents and children is generally considered to be the hallmark of successful socialization. As this issue has been widely discussed but surprisingly little researched - especially with reference to core sport values - in this study we aimed to: 1 analyze adolescent athletes’ acceptance of the sport values their parents want to transmit to them (i.e., parental socialization values and 2 examine the relationship between parental involvement in children’s sportive activity and adolescents’ acceptance of their parents’ socialization values. One hundred and seventy-two Italian adolescents (48.3% male, 51.7% female who regularly practice team sports were asked to fill out a questionnaire which included the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire – 2 and the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire. The dyadic correlations revealed that young athletes are in general willing to accept their parents’ socialization values in regards to sport. Moreover, from the relative weight analysis (a relatively new data analysis strategy, it emerged that parental involvement characterized by praise and understanding is the most important predictor of adolescents’ willingness to accept their parents’ sport values. Implications of these results and further expansion of the study are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of the activity of synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Value of power Doppler ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joong Mo; Lim, Hyo Keun; Kim, Seung Hoon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Koh, Eun Mi; Kim, Jin Seok; Cha, Hoon Suk

    2001-01-01

    To correlate the grades on power Doppler ultrasonography with clinical disease activity indices and acute phase reactant values for assessing the activity of synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Twenty patients with rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed on the basis of American College of power Doppler ultrasonography. Two experienced radiologists evaluated, in consensus, the power Doppler signals as follows: grade I=no flow or minimal flow, grade 2=mild flow, grade 3=moderate flow and grade 4= marked flow. The clinical disease activity indices consisted of the counts of tender joints and swollen joints, patient's assessment of pain, patient's global assessment of disease activity, physician's globe assessment of disease activity and patient's assessment of physical function. Acute-phase reactants included CRP and ESR. The grades on power Doppler ultrasonography were correlated with clinical disease activity indices as well as acute-phases reactant values by a use of Spearman rank correlation coefficient. The grades on power Doppler ultrasonography showed a statistically significant correlation with tender joint count (rs=.835; p<.05), swollen joint count (rs=.833; p<.05), physician's global assessment of disease activity (rs=.857; p<.05), CRP (rs=.838; P<.05) and ESR (rs=.838; p<.05). The power Doppler ultrasonography is an useful diagnostic modality for assessing the activity of synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  20. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  1. The value of outdoor adventure activities as part of the enviro course ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of outdoor adventure activities as part of the enviro course at Golden Gate Highlands National Park. Garth Johnson. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a ...

  2. How Do People With COPD Value Different Activities? An Adapted Meta-Ethnography of Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmeyer, Antje; Greenfield, Sheila M; Greenfield, Charlotte; Jolly, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a long-term condition where activities of daily living (ADLs) may be very restricted; people with COPD need to prioritize what is important to them. We conducted a meta-ethnography to understand which ADLs are valued and why, systematically searching for articles including experiences of ADLs and organizing themes from the articles into five linked concepts: (a) caring for the body, (b) caring for the personal environment, (c) moving between spaces, (d) interacting with others, and (e) selfhood across time. In addition, we identified three key aspects of personal integrity: effectiveness, connectedness, and control. We found that ADLs were valued if they increased integrity; however, this process was also informed by gendered roles and social values. People whose sense of control depended on effectiveness often found accepting help very difficult to bear; therefore, redefining control as situational and relational may help enjoyment of activities that are possible. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Male Reproductive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, B. A.

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of the human body with emphasis on the life process of reproduction. It is a learning activity included in high school biology or health education classes. The behavioral objectives are listed and the equipment and materials needed to help the student gain these objectives are also included in the…

  4. MDA and GSH-Px activity in transition dairy cows under seasonal variations and their relationship with reproductive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colakoglu Hatice Esra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and malondialdehyde (MDA levels under seasonal variations in dairy cows during transition period, and to assess the relationship between chosen reproductive parameters, GSH-Px, and MDA.

  5. Chance, choice, and the future of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W B

    1983-11-01

    The evolution of reproduction has been characterized by the development of complex biological and behavioral mechanisms that serve to regulate chance events. Human reproduction has been characterized by the increasing importance of individual choice. Some contemporary manifestations of this broad trend are the high incidence of contraceptive and "proceptive" behavior among couples in Western, industrialized nations. The former behavior willingly attempts to prevent conception while the latter actively attempts to induce conception (such as concentrating intercourse around the time of ovulation). Both patterns of behavior indicate that a choice is being made. A 3-year study of 1000 women revealed proceptive behavior as the most important factor predicting occurance of conception among married couples in the United States. The general strategeis people follow while making childbearing decisions: termination, sequencing, and pre-planning form a continuum following the historical trend toward greater reproductive control. In the terminating strategy, a couple makes no decision about child bearing until the number of children they have become enough or too much. In the sequencing strategy, decisions to have children are made 1 child at a time until a satisfactory limit is reached. In the pre-planning strategy, a plan is worked out ahead of time and is subsequently carried out. As new reproductive technology is introduced and as progressive change is made in society's reproductive related values and beliefs, choice will continue to dominate chance as the highly likely trend for the future of reproduction. Surrogate maternity is just 1 example of this trend. However, these new options, which culminate in the theory and practice of "progensis," (still in its infancy), as well as offering a rich opportunity, can also incur psychological burdens on a couple. Thus, as with any kind of freedom, these developments will require care, caution and responsibility.

  6. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study.

  7. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  8. Heavy metal exposure, reproductive activity, and demographic patterns in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) inhabiting a contaminated floodplain wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levengood, Jeffrey M.; Heske, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of selected metals and selenium (Se) in the tissues of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) collected at a constructed wetland originally created as a retention basin for sediments dredged from Lake DePue, Illinois. These sediments were contaminated with high concentrations of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and other elements as a result of nearby smelting operations. White-footed mice inhabiting the former retention basin experienced greater exposure to Cd, Pb, and Se than those from nearby reference sites. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in livers of mice from the contaminated wetland and adjacent floodplain reference site were greater than in mice from the more-distant reference sites. Judging by concentrations in their kidneys, white-footed mice inhabiting the floodplain adjacent to the contaminated wetland had greater exposure to Cd than those from the two more-distant reference sites. Concentrations of Hg in tissues of mice did not vary appreciably among sites. Concentrations of Cd and Se in the tissues of some white-footed mice from the contaminated wetland exceeded critical concentrations observed in experimental studies of laboratory mice and rats; with few exceptions tissue Pb concentrations were below published effects levels. However, we did not detect changes in abundance, demographics, or reproductive activity that might suggest population-level effects of contaminant exposure. Mean weight of embryos expressed as a function of crown-rump length did not differ among locations sampled, and no gross lesions indicative of exposure to heavy metals were observed. Kidney and liver weight, corrected for body weight, were nominally, though not significantly, lowest in both male and female mice from areas of increased Cd and Pb exposure. Metals dredged from Lake DePue were still bioavailable 25 years after deposition. However, small mammal populations are resilient to environmental stressors and we did not detect differences in

  9. Reproductive Rights or Reproductive Justice? Lessons from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn

    2015-06-11

    Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights. Copyright 2015 Morgan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  10. Sexual behaviour, contraceptive practice and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The gaps in reproductive health knowledge, negative attitudes, high prevalence of risky sexual activity and poor reproductive health care seeking behaviour call for mounting of educational intervention programmes and development of youth-friendly reproductive health services on campus. KEY WORDS: ...

  11. OCCUPATIONAL DOSE DURING ADULT INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY: FIRST VALUES WITH PERSONAL ACTIVE DOSIMETERS IN CHILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Carlos; Morales, Claudio; Gutiérrez, Diego; Oliveira, Marcus; Manterola, Carlos

    2018-05-11

    The objective of this article is to present initial occupational dose values using digital active personal dosimeters for medical staff during adult interventional cardiology procedures in a public hospital in Chile. Personal dose equivalent Hp(10) over the lead apron of physician, nurse and radiographer were measured during 59 procedures. Mean values of occupational dose Hp(10) per procedure were 47.6, 6.2 and 4.3 μSv for physician, nurse and radiographer, respectively. If no protective tools are used, physician dose can exceed the new eye lens dose limit.

  12. Re-Distribution of Value Chain Activities Following Acquisition in the Brewery Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Hobdari, Bersant

    . Over time, some subsidiaries gained new value chain mandates or they substantially increased their scale in terms of production capacities or the markets in which they operated. From the practical point of view, this implies managers of the acquiring firm must pay close attention to the form and extent......In this paper, we investigate post-acquisition integration of acquired firms and subsequent developments in new subsidiary strategic responsibilities in value-chain activities. Using comparative case study methodology, we illustrate the forms, degrees and evolution of strategic responsibilities...

  13. Evaluation of glucose metabolism and reproductive hormones in polycystic ovary syndrome on the basis of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma2 Pro12Ala genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, E C; Aktas, A; Ertunc, D; Erdal, E M; Dilek, S

    2005-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism has been suggested as a protective factor for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this study, we aimed to investigate metabolic features and reproductive hormones in women with PCOS and compare these features with control women on the basis of Pro12Ala genotype. This study involved 60 randomly selected women with PCOS and 60 controls. Main outcome measures were anthropometric measures, variables of glucose metabolism and reproductive hormones. All the patients were genotyped for Pro12Ala variant of PPAR-gamma2 gene. Patients with Pro12Ala polymorphism were more obese in both groups. Furthermore, they had lower fasting insulin levels, were less insulin-resistant and were less glucose-intolerant as demonstrated by 2 h glucose concentrations. However, there was no difference in reproductive hormone levels on the basis of Pro12Ala genotype. Both control women and women with PCOS had significant differences in glucose metabolism on the basis of PPAR-gamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism. Pro12Ala variant may break the process that leads to PCOS in susceptible women, instead of being a direct causal relationship between Pro12Ala polymorphism and PCOS.

  14. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv Bente

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been...

  15. Activating analytic thinking enhances the value given to individualizing moral foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Onurcan; Saribay, S Adil

    2017-08-01

    Two central debates within Moral Foundations Theory concern (1) which moral foundations are core and (2) how conflict between ideological camps stemming from valuing different moral foundations can be resolved. Previous studies have attempted to answer the first question by imposing cognitive load on participants to direct them toward intuitive and automatic thought. However, this method has limitations and has produced mixed findings. In the present research, in two experiments, instead of directing participants toward intuitive thought, we tested the effects of activating high-effort, analytic thought on participants' moral foundations. In both experiments, analytic thought activation caused participants to value individualizing foundations greater than the control condition. This effect was not qualified by participants' political orientation. No effect was observed on binding foundations. The results are consistent with the idea that upholding individualizing foundations requires mental effort and may provide the basis for reconciliation between different ideological camps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding Activation Patterns in Shared Circuits: Toward a Value Driven Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Aziz-Zadeh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade many studies indicate that we utilize our own motor system to understand the actions of other people. This mirror neuron system (MNS has been proposed to be involved in social cognition and motor learning. However, conflicting findings regarding the underlying mechanisms that drive these shared circuits make it difficult to decipher a common model of their function. Here we propose adapting a “value-driven” model to explain discrepancies in the human mirror system literature and to incorporate this model with existing models. We will use this model to explain discrepant activation patterns in multiple shared circuits in the human data, such that a unified model may explain reported activation patterns from previous studies as a function of value.

  17. Using time-driven activity-based costing to identify value improvement opportunities in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert S; Witkowski, Mary; Abbott, Megan; Guzman, Alexis Barboza; Higgins, Laurence D; Meara, John G; Padden, Erin; Shah, Apurva S; Waters, Peter; Weidemeier, Marco; Wertheimer, Sam; Feeley, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    As healthcare providers cope with pricing pressures and increased accountability for performance, they should be rededicating themselves to improving the value they deliver to their patients: better outcomes and lower costs. Time-driven activity-based costing offers the potential for clinicians to redesign their care processes toward that end. This costing approach, however, is new to healthcare and has not yet been systematically implemented and evaluated. This article describes early time-driven activity-based costing work at several leading healthcare organizations in the United States and Europe. It identifies the opportunities they found to improve value for patients and demonstrates how this costing method can serve as the foundation for new bundled payment reimbursement approaches.

  18. Evaluation of nutritional value and antioxidant activity of tomato peel extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Elbadrawy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the nutritional composition and the antioxidant activity of some tomato peel extracts. Preliminary chemical composition, minerals content, amino acids, fatty acids and phenolic compounds of the peels were determined. The extracts which had been obtained by using different solvents; petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were assayed for their antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by the determination of peroxide, malondialdehyde (MDA, P-anisidine and total carbonyl values during four weeks storage of cottonseed oil at 60 °C. Also, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH radical scavenging was carried out. The results revealed that most of the extracts showed significant increases in DPPH scavenging activity as compared to butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT, an artificial antioxidant. On the other hand, significant decreases in peroxide, P-anisidine, malondialdehyde and carbonyl values were observed in the oil samples treated with the extracts in comparing with the untreated sample (control. Due to tomato peel content of many nutrients and its antioxidant activities, tomato peel or its extracts can be used as a food supplement.

  19. Differential courtship activity and alterations of reproductive success of competing gupply males as an indicator for low concentrations of aquatic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J.H.; Peters, K.

    1988-09-01

    Differential courtship activity of guppy males competing for the same females was used as a bioindicator for low concentrations of water-borne pollutants in a previous study. Patterns of male sexual activity were chosen because they determine reproductive success. The mean difference between courtship activities of two male competitors determines the relative fitness of the male in question. Accordingly, the decrease in mean differential courtship after exposure to aquatic contaminants was predicted to cause a corresponding change in the relative reproductive success. The present study completed the previous one by repeating the experiment with a 10% addition of wastewater drawn from the last clearing basin of a Munich purification plant this time using virgin (non-inseminated) females which were receptive to male courtship. The females subsequently were allowed to produce as many offspring as possible. The number of young guppies sired by individual male competitors could easily be traced by the use of sex-linked phenotypic color patterns as markers. The purpose of these two studies was to show that the quantification of sexual activities of male guppies is useful for monitoring environmental alterations which affect fitness characters.

  20. Towards developing understanding of the drivers, constraints from the consumption values underpinning participation in physical activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, PJ; Williams-Burnett, N; Skinner, H

    2012-01-01

    Overall participation rates in physical activity across the UK have remained relatively static since the mid 1980s, with attendant causes for concern about the inequality of participation rates amongst various target groups that may be worthy of specific investigation. Behaviour change models from the fields of leisure studies, consumer behaviour and social psychology offer conceptualisation of a notion of exchange underpinning the expectancy-value process, noting that, in order to facilitate...

  1. Value Informed Conception, Design, Implementation and Operation of Education and Teaching Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber; Nielsen, Linda

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper we take basis in the basic postulate that the objective of education and teaching is value creation. With this setout we take up two implications, namely: i) decision analysis is the logical choice of management framework for conceiving, designing, implementing and operating ...... (CDIO) education and teaching activities and ii) a thorough, transparent and continuously informed discourse is necessary among all stakeholders to education on what this “value” actually is....

  2. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.

  3. Male reproductive health and yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility.

  4. Homocysteine threshold value based on cystathionine beta synthase and paraoxonase 1 activities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelet, J; Aït-Yahya-Graison, E; Matulewicz, E; Noll, C; Badel-Chagnon, A; Camproux, A-C; Demuth, K; Paul, J-L; Delabar, J M; Janel, N

    2007-12-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia is a metabolic disorder associated with the development of premature atherosclerosis. Among the determinants which predispose to premature thromboembolic and atherothrombotic events, serum activity of paraoxonase 1, mainly synthesized in the liver, has been shown to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease and to be negatively correlated with serum homocysteine levels in human. Even though treatments of hyperhomocysteinaemic patients ongoing cardiovascular complications are commonly used, it still remains unclear above which homocysteine level a preventive therapy should be started. In order to establish a threshold of plasma homocysteine concentration we have analyzed the hepatic cystathionine beta synthase and paraoxonase 1 activities in a moderate to intermediate murine model of hyperhomocysteinaemia. Using wild type and heterozygous cystathionine beta synthase deficient mice fed a methionine enriched diet or a control diet, we first studied the link between cystathionine beta synthase and paraoxonase 1 activities and plasma homocysteine concentration. Among the animals used in this study, we observed a negative correlation between plasma homocysteine level and cystathionine beta synthase activity (rho=-0.52, P=0.0008) or paraoxonase 1 activity (rho=-0.49, P=0.002). Starting from these results, a homocysteine cut-off value of 15 microm has been found for both cystathionine beta synthase (P=0.0003) and paraoxonase 1 (P=0.0007) activities. Our results suggest that both cystathionine beta synthase and paraoxonase 1 activities are significantly decreased in mice with a plasma homocysteine value greater than 15 microm. In an attempt to set up preventive treatment for cardiovascular disease our results indicate that treatments should be started from 15 microm of plasma homocysteine.

  5. Using Expectancy Value Theory as a Framework to Reduce Student Resistance to Active Learning: A Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katelyn M; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E

    2017-01-01

    There has been a national movement to transition college science courses from passive lectures to active learning environments. Active learning has been shown to be a more effective way for students to learn, yet there is concern that some students are resistant to active learning approaches. Although there is much discussion about student resistance to active learning, few studies have explored this topic. Furthermore, a limited number of studies have applied theoretical frameworks to student engagement in active learning. We propose using a theoretical lens of expectancy value theory to understand student resistance to active learning. In this study, we examined student perceptions of active learning after participating in 40 hours of active learning. We used the principal components of expectancy value theory to probe student experience in active learning: student perceived self-efficacy in active learning, value of active learning, and potential cost of participating in active learning. We found that students showed positive changes in the components of expectancy value theory and reported high levels of engagement in active learning, which provide proof of concept that expectancy value theory can be used to boost student perceptions of active learning and their engagement in active learning classrooms. From these findings, we have built a theoretical framework of expectancy value theory applied to active learning.

  6. Consideration of statistical uncertainties for the determination of representative values of the specific activity of wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, R.

    2008-01-01

    The German Radiation Protection Commission has recommended 'Principles and Methods for the Consideration of Statistical Uncertainties for the Determination of Representative Values of the Specific Activity of NORM wastes' concerning the proof of compliance with supervision limits or dose standards according to paragraph 97 and paragraph 98 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, respectively. The recommendation comprises a method ensuring the representativeness of estimates for the specific activity of NORM wastes, which also assures the required evidence for conformity with respect to supervision limits or dose standards, respectively. On the basis of a sampling survey, confidence limits for expectation values of specific activities are determined, which will be used to show that the supervision limit or the dose standard is met or exceeded with certainty, or that the performed sampling is not sufficient for the intended assessment. The sampling effort depends on the type and the width of the distribution of specific activities and is determined by the position of the confidence interval with respect to the supervision limit or of the resulting doses with respect to the dose standard. The statistical uncertainties that are described by confidence limits may be reduced by an optimised extension of the sample number, as far as necessary. (orig.)

  7. Reducing stigma in reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2014-04-01

    Stigmatization marks individuals for disgrace, shame, and even disgust-spoiling or tarnishing their social identities. It can be imposed accidentally by thoughtlessness or insensitivity; incidentally to another purpose; or deliberately to deter or punish conduct considered harmful to actors themselves, others, society, or moral values. Stigma has permeated attitudes toward recipients of sexual and reproductive health services, and at times to service providers. Resort to contraceptive products, to voluntary sterilization and abortion, and now to medically assisted reproductive care to overcome infertility has attracted stigma. Unmarried motherhood has a long history of shame, projected onto the "illegitimate" (bastard) child. The stigma of contracting sexually transmitted infections has been reinvigorated with HIV infection. Gynecologists and their professional associations, ethically committed to uphold human dignity and equality, especially for vulnerable women for whom they care, should be active to guard against, counteract, and relieve stigmatization of their patients and of related service providers. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  9. Increasing value in plagiocephaly care: a time-driven activity-based costing pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverso, Gino; Lappi, Michael D; Flath-Sporn, Susan J; Heald, Ronald; Kim, David C; Meara, John G

    2015-06-01

    Process management within a health care setting is poorly understood and often leads to an incomplete understanding of the true costs of patient care. Using time-driven activity-based costing methods, we evaluated the high-volume, low-complexity diagnosis of plagiocephaly to increase value within our clinic. A total of 59 plagiocephaly patients were evaluated in phase 1 (n = 31) and phase 2 (n = 28) of this study. During phase 1, a process map was created, encompassing each of the 5 clinicians and administrative personnel delivering 23 unique activities. After analysis of the phase 1 process maps, average times as well as costs of these activities were evaluated for potential modifications in workflow. These modifications were implemented in phase 2 to determine overall impact on visit-time and costs of care. Improvements in patient education, workflow coordination, and examination room allocation were implemented during phase 2, resulting in a reduced patient visit-time of 13:25 (19.9% improvement) and an increased cost of $8.22 per patient (7.7% increase) due to changes in physician process times. However, this increased cost was directly offset by the availability of 2 additional appointments per day, potentially generating $7904 of additional annual revenue. Quantifying the impact of a 19.9% reduction in patient visit-time at an increased cost of 7.7% resulted in an increased value ratio of 1.113. This pilot study effectively demonstrates the novel use of time-driven activity-based costing in combination with the value equation as a metric for continuous process improvement programs within the health care setting.

  10. Combining site occupancy, breeding population sizes and reproductive success to calculate time-averaged reproductive output of different habitat types: an application to Tricolored Blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Holyoak

    Full Text Available In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent

  11. Drosophila sperm swim backwards in the female reproductive tract and are activated via TRPP2 ion channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Köttgen

    Full Text Available Sperm have but one purpose, to fertilize an egg. In various species including Drosophila melanogaster female sperm storage is a necessary step in the reproductive process. Amo is a homolog of the human transient receptor potential channel TRPP2 (also known as PKD2, which is mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. In flies Amo is required for sperm storage. Drosophila males with Amo mutations produce motile sperm that are transferred to the uterus but they do not reach the female storage organs. Therefore Amo appears to be a mediator of directed sperm motility in the female reproductive tract but the underlying mechanism is unknown.Amo exhibits a unique expression pattern during spermatogenesis. In spermatocytes, Amo is restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER whereas in mature sperm, Amo clusters at the distal tip of the sperm tail. Here we show that flagellar localization of Amo is required for sperm storage. This raised the question of how Amo at the rear end of sperm regulates forward movement into the storage organs. In order to address this question, we used in vivo imaging of dual labelled sperm to demonstrate that Drosophila sperm navigate backwards in the female reproductive tract. In addition, we show that sperm exhibit hyperactivation upon transfer to the uterus. Amo mutant sperm remain capable of reverse motility but fail to display hyperactivation and directed movement, suggesting that these functions are required for sperm storage in flies.Amo is part of a signalling complex at the leading edge of the sperm tail that modulates flagellar beating and that guides a backwards path into the storage organs. Our data support an evolutionarily conserved role for TRPP2 channels in cilia.

  12. Curcumin and Quercetin Ameliorated Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin-Induced Reproductive System Impairment in Male Wistar Rats by Upregulating The Activity of Pituitary-Gonadal Hormones and Steroidogenic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Dietary antioxidants protect tissues and organs against insecticides/xenobiotic-induced damage. In the present study, we evaluated the results of exposure to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin (Cyp and deltamethrin (Del and possible protective effects of curcumin and quercetin on reproductive system in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods In this controlled experimental study, 42 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 animals. Group A served as control, group B was exposed to Cyp (2 mg/kg.bw, group C was exposed to Del (2 mg/kg.bw, group D was exposed to Cyp+Del (2 mg/kg.bw each, group E was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg.bw, group F was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw and group G was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin+curcumin for 45 days. Results Exposure to Cyp and Del caused decreases in reproductive organs weight, sperm count, sperm motility, level of sex hormones viz. testosterone (T, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, steroidogenic enzymes viz. 3β-hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD and 17β-HSD, non-enzymatic antioxi- dant glutathione (GSH and enzymatic antioxidants viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and glutathione reductase (GR activity and increases in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO. The exposure also adversely affected the histo-achitecture of testes. Single and combined treatment with curcumin and quercetin significantly ameliorated Cyp and Del-induced damage in reproductive system. Conclusion Curcumin and quercetin protected against Cyp and Del-induced reproductive system toxicity and oxidative damage in rats. The increases in activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD with concomitant increases in testosterone were mainly responsible for ameliorating effects of curcumin and quercetin. Curcumin showed slightly

  13. Efficiency and cutoff values of the Voice Activity and Participation Profile for nonteachers and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Fabiana; Moreti, Felipe; Vargas, Aline Cristina Tafarelo; Behlau, Mara

    2015-01-01

    To identify the efficiency characteristics and cutoff values of the dimensions of the Voice Activity and Participation Profile (VAPP) protocol, which discriminates the dysphonic and vocally healthy individuals; to verify if the cutoff values remain the same for a sample of teachers. Efficiency characteristics and cutoff values of VAPP data from 171 subjects were analyzed by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve: 90 teachers (60 dysphonic and 30 vocally healthy individuals, with a similar mean age, p=0.418) and 81 nonteachers (48 dysphonic and 33 vocally healthy individuals, with a similar mean age, p=0.934). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) and the cutoff values of the total score of VAPP for discriminating the individuals with and without dysphonia are different for the nonteachers and teachers. The nonteachers presented AUC=0.986 (pteachers presented AUC=0.872 (pteachers, being higher for the teachers but with greater sensitivity and specificity for the nonteachers, and can be used to screen large populations with the risk of voice disorders.

  14. Development of ostrich thrombocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in culture and the control of Toxoplasma gondii reproduction after macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Farlen J B; Damasceno-Sá, João Cláudio; DaMatta, Renato A

    2016-01-01

    Raising ostriches became an important economic activity after their products became commodities. The health of farm animals is of paramount importance, so assessing basic immunological responses is necessary to better understand health problems. We developed a method to obtain ostrich thrombocytes and macrophages. The thrombocytes died by apoptosis after 48 h in culture, and the macrophages expanded in size and increased the number of acidic compartments. Macrophages were activated by chicken interferon-γ, producing high levels of nitric oxide. Toxoplasma gondii was able to infect these macrophages, and activation controlled parasitic reproduction. T. gondii, however, persisted in these cells, and infection reduced the production of nitric oxide. These results are important for the future assessment of the basic cellular and immunobiology of ostriches and demonstrate T. gondii suppression of nitric oxide production. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Painting Reproductions on Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Iranowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Paintings in museums might occasionally be replaced by a photoprint mimicking the original. This article is an investigation of what constitutes a good reproduction of an artwork (oil painting that is meant to be displayed. The article discusses what the usefulness of reproductions depends on, applying the Valuation Studies approach, which means the primary concern is with the practice of valuing itself. In other words, the study focuses on how museum experts evaluate reproduc-tions of oil paintings. The article analyses three cases of displaying digitally prin-ted copies of Edvard Munch's oil paintings between 2013 and 2015 in the Munch Museum and in the National Gallery in Oslo. The study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with the experts, working at and for the museums, that were involved in producing and exhibiting of the photoprints: curators, con-servators, museum educators, and external manufacturers. The interviews were grouped into five clusters, which I have chosen to call registers of valuing following Frank Heuts and Annemarie Mol (2013. The described valuation practices have to do with delivering experiences to the public, obtaining mimetic resemblance, solving ethical aspects, exhibitions' budget, and last but not least, with the time perspective.

  16. Inverse gradients in leaf wax δD and δ13C values along grass blades of Miscanthus sinensis: implications for leaf wax reproduction and plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Huang, Yongsong

    2013-06-01

    Compound specific hydrogen and carbon isotopic ratios of higher plant leaf waxes have been extensively used in paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. However, studies so far have focused on the comparison of leaf wax isotopic differences in bulk leaf samples between different plant species. We sampled three different varieties of tall grasses (Miscanthus sinensis) in six segments from base to tip and determined hydrogen and carbon isotopic ratios of leaf waxes, as well as hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of leaf water samples. We found an increasing, base-to-tip hydrogen isotopic gradient along the grass blades that can probably be attributed to active leaf wax regeneration over the growth season. Carbon isotopic ratios, on the other hand, show opposite trends to hydrogen isotopic ratios along the grass blades, which may reflect different photosynthetic efficiencies at different blade locales.

  17. The effect of motivational interviewing-based intervention using self-determination theory on promotion of physical activity among women in reproductive age: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy; Tonekaboni, Nooshin Rouhani; Farmanbar, Rabiollah; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Kamalikhah, Tahereh

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) prevents chronic diseases. Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a useful framework to understand the nature of motivational interviewing (MI). Objective This study aimed to determine the effect of MI-based intervention using SDT on the promotion of PA among women in reproductive age. Methods Seventy women in reproductive age were selected by clustering sampling method for this randomized controlled trial. The questionnaire included the variables of physical fitness test, SDT, and global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ). The validity of the questionnaires was approved using content validity ratio (CVR) and index (CVI). The reliability and internal consistency of the questionnaires and measures was approved using test-retest method and Cronbach’s alpha test, respectively. The intervention group (n=35) received four MI sessions through theory and one standard education session about PA. The control group (n=35) received a standard education session about PA. Results Four months after the intervention, an increase in the mean scores of total PA (pamotivation (p<0.01, ES= −0.56) over time, compared to the control group. Conclusion MI-based intervention using SDT was effective on the promotion of PA. Trial registration The Trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: IRCT2015101924592N1. PMID:28713522

  18. Evaluation of activity-based costing versus resource-based relative value costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Mark F; Smith, Tommy H

    2004-01-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and relative value units costing (RVU) are two approaches that a practice manager can use to determine the cost of physician services. Each costing approach has features that provide distinction as well as differentiation in the cost estimates that are estimated. This paper will provide cost estimates under each approach along with cost estimates under a hybrid approach that merges features from each costing approach known as the ABC-RVU costing technique. A comparison of the results will be provided.

  19. Mercury Inhibits Soil Enzyme Activity in a Lower Concentration than the Guideline Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Three soil types - neutral, alkaline and acidic were experimentally contaminated with nine different concentrations of inorganic mercury (0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/kg) to derive effective concentrations of mercury that exert toxicity on soil quality. Bioavailability of mercury in terms of water solubility was lower in acidic soil with higher organic carbon. Dehydrogenase enzyme activity and nitrification rate were chosen as indicators to assess soil quality. Inorganic mercury significantly inhibited (p mercury contents (EC10) were found to be less than the available safe limits for inorganic mercury which demonstrated inadequacy of existing guideline values.

  20. Diagnostic value of pleural fluid adenosine deaminase activity in tuberculosis pleurisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas ali Niazi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of tuberculosis pleurisies is difficult because of its nonspecific clinical presentation and insufficient traditional diagnostic methods. We investigated the use of adenosine deaminase (ADA activity in tuberculosis pleurisies. Methods: A number of 85 patients were analyzed with exudative pleural effusions. Using the ROC curve, we determined the optimal cutoff for TB pleurisy. Results: A number of 58 exudative samples were nontuberculous (non-TB and 27 were tuberculosis (TB. There was statistically significant difference (p<0.0001 between the means of pleural fluid ADA levels among the TB and non-TB populations. The prevalence of TB pleurisy in the studied population was 31%. Using the cutoff point equal to 35 for diagnosing TB effusions the sensitivity and specificity 70.3% and 91.3%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV was 79.1% and the negative predictive value (NPV was 86.8%. A pleural fluid ADA value <19 IU/L suggests that a tuberculosis effusion is highly unlikely. Conclusion: Pleural fluid total ADA assay is a sensitive and specific test suitable for rapid diagnosis of TB pleurisy.

  1. The Functional Movement Screen and Injury Risk: Association and Predictive Value in Active Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Timothy T; Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; North, William J; Jones, Bruce H

    2016-02-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a series of 7 tests used to assess the injury risk in active populations. To determine the association of the FMS with the injury risk, assess predictive values, and identify optimal cut points using 3 injury types. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Physically active male soldiers aged 18 to 57 years (N = 2476) completed the FMS. Demographic and fitness data were collected by survey. Medical record data for overuse injuries, traumatic injuries, and any injury 6 months after the FMS assessment were obtained. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated along with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) to determine the area under the curve (AUC) and identify optimal cut points for the risk assessment. Risks, risk ratios (RRs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% CIs were calculated to assess injury risks. Soldiers who scored ≤14 were at a greater risk for injuries compared with those who scored >14 using the composite score for overuse injuries (RR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.63-2.09), traumatic injuries (RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03-1.54), and any injury (RR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.45-1.77). When controlling for other known injury risk factors, multivariate logistic regression analysis identified poor FMS performance (OR [score ≤14/19-21], 2.00; 95% CI, 1.42-2.81) as an independent risk factor for injuries. A cut point of ≤14 registered low measures of predictive value for all 3 injury types (sensitivity, 28%-37%; PPV, 19%-52%; AUC, 54%-61%). Shifting the injury risk cut point of ≤14 to the optimal cut points indicated by the ROC did not appreciably improve sensitivity or the PPV. Although poor FMS performance was associated with a higher risk of injuries, it displayed low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC. On the basis of these findings, the use of the FMS to screen for the injury risk is not recommended in this population because of the low predictive value and misclassification of the

  2. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low

  3. Time-driven activity-based costing: A dynamic value assessment model in pediatric appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yangyang R; Abbas, Paulette I; Smith, Carolyn M; Carberry, Kathleen E; Ren, Hui; Patel, Binita; Nuchtern, Jed G; Lopez, Monica E

    2017-06-01

    Healthcare reform policies are emphasizing value-based healthcare delivery. We hypothesize that time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) can be used to appraise healthcare interventions in pediatric appendicitis. Triage-based standing delegation orders, surgical advanced practice providers, and a same-day discharge protocol were implemented to target deficiencies identified in our initial TDABC model. Post-intervention process maps for a hospital episode were created using electronic time stamp data for simple appendicitis cases during February to March 2016. Total personnel and consumable costs were determined using TDABC methodology. The post-intervention TDABC model featured 6 phases of care, 33 processes, and 19 personnel types. Our interventions reduced duration and costs in the emergency department (-41min, -$23) and pre-operative floor (-57min, -$18). While post-anesthesia care unit duration and costs increased (+224min, +$41), the same-day discharge protocol eliminated post-operative floor costs (-$306). Our model incorporating all three interventions reduced total direct costs by 11% ($2753.39 to $2447.68) and duration of hospitalization by 51% (1984min to 966min). Time-driven activity-based costing can dynamically model changes in our healthcare delivery as a result of process improvement interventions. It is an effective tool to continuously assess the impact of these interventions on the value of appendicitis care. II, Type of study: Economic Analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  5. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  6. What environmental factors influence resumption of valued activities post stroke: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative findings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, S.; Hees, S. van; Zajec, J.; Sande, R. van der; Nijhuis-van der Sanden M.W.G.; Steultjens, E.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Identify the environmental factors that influence stroke-survivors’ reengagement in personally valued activities and determine what specific environmental factors are related to specific valued activity types. Data sources: PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched until June 2016 using

  7. Integrating an automated activity monitor into an artificial insemination program and the associated risk factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Tracy A; Madureira, Augusto M L; Silper, Bruna F; Fernandes, A C C; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2 reproductive programs for the management of first postpartum artificial insemination (AI) based on activity monitors and timed AI, as well as to determine the effect of health-related factors on detection and expression of estrus. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 918) from 2 commercial farms were enrolled. Estrous cycles of all cows were presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF 2α administered 2 wk apart. Treatments were (1) first insemination performed by timed AI (TAI) and (2) first insemination based upon the detection of estrus by activity monitors (ACT; Heatime, SCR Engineering, Netanya, Israel) after the presynchronization, whereas cows not inseminated by the detection of estrus were enrolled in the Ovsynch protocol. Body condition score (BCS; scale 1 to 5), hock score (scale: 1 to 4), gait score (scale: 1 to 4), and corpus luteum presence detected by ovarian ultrasonography were recorded twice during the presynchronization. On the ACT treatment, 50.5% of cows were inseminated based on detected estrus, whereas 83.2% of the cows on the TAI treatment were inseminated appropriately after the timed AI protocol. Pregnancy per AI did not differ by treatment (30.8 vs. 33.5% for ACT and TAI, respectively). Success of pregnancy was affected by parity, cyclicity, BCS, milk production, and a tendency for leg health. In addition, treatment × cyclicity and treatment × parity interactions were found to affect pregnancy success, where anovulatory cows and older cows had compromised pregnancy outcomes on the ACT treatment but not on the TAI treatment. Factors affecting pregnancy outcomes varied among farms. Hazard of pregnancy by 300 DIM was affected by farm, parity, BCS, a treatment × cyclicity interaction, and a tendency for an interaction between leg health and farm. Detection of estrus was affected by farm, parity, cyclicity, and leg health, but not BCS or milk production. Expression of estrus was compromised in anovular and older

  8. Effects of Trifolium alexandrinum phytoestrogens on oestrous behaviour, ovarian activity and reproductive performance of ewes during the non-breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, N M; El-Azrak, K M; Nour El-Din, A N M; Sallam, S M; Taha, T A; Salem, M H

    2018-03-08

    Phytoestrogens are classified as naturally occurring endocrine disrupting chemicals that may affect reproductive performance of farm animals. To investigate the effects of Berseem clover phytoestrogens on reproductive performance of seasonal anoestrus ewes, twenty four late pregnant Rahmani ewes were fed either Berseem clover or maize silage (n = 12/treatment). Treatment started 2 months prepartum and continued until oestrous induction (week 8 postpartum), using the CIDR-eCG based protocol, and early pregnancy. Throughout the 2-8 weeks postpartum, oestrous rate and ovarian activity were not affected by treatment. After oestrous induction, ewes in both groups expressed comparable oestrous rates; however feeding Berseem clover extended (P ewes fed maize silage than for those fed Berseem clover. Fecundity and litter size tended to be greater (about 35%; P = 0.132 and 0.085, respectively) in the maize silage fed ewes. In conclusion, feeding Berseem clover throughout seasonal anoestrus disrupted aspects of behavioural oestrus and there was less luteal P 4 synthesis and fecundity of ewes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children's physical activity level: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; Scholten, Anne-Marie; de Vries, Sanne I

    2014-05-03

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in terms of physical activity, cognitive and social outcomes. In addition, we aimed to identify which playground characteristics are the strongest correlates of beneficial effects and for which subgroups of children effects are most distinct. In total, 13 experimental and 17 observational studies have been summarized of which 10 (77%) and 16 (94%) demonstrated moderate to high methodological quality, respectively. Nearly all experimental studies (n = 11) evaluated intervention effects on time spent in different levels of physical activity during recess. Research on the effects of (pre)school playgrounds on cognitive and social outcomes is scarce (n = 2). The experimental studies generated moderate evidence for an effect of the provision of play equipment, inconclusive evidence for an effect of the use of playground markings, allocating play space and for multi-component interventions, and no evidence for an effect of decreasing playground density, the promotion of physical activity by staff and increasing recess duration on children's health. In line with this, observational studies showed positive associations between play equipment and children's physical activity level. In contrast to experimental studies, significant associations were also found between children's physical activity and a decreased playground density and increased recess duration. To confirm the findings of this review, researchers are advised to conduct more experimental studies with a randomized controlled design and to incorporate the assessment of implementation strategies and process evaluations to reveal which intervention strategies and playground characteristics are most effective.

  10. Exercise and reproductive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E C; Brzyski, R G

    1999-01-01

    To provide an overview of our current understanding of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and an approach to its evaluation and management. A MEDLINE search was performed to review all articles with title words related to menstrual dysfunction, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, exercise, and athletic activities from 1966 to 1998. The pathophysiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and management of exercise-associated reproductive dysfunction were compiled. Exercise-induced menstrual irregularity appears to be multifactorial in origin and remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The underlying mechanisms are mainly speculative. Clinical manifestations range from luteal phase deficiency to anovulation, amenorrhea, and even delayed menarche. Evaluation should include a thorough history and a complete physical plus pelvic examination. Most cases are reversible with dietary and exercise modifications. Hormonal replacement in cases of a prolonged hypoestrogenic state with evidence of increased bone loss is recommended, although the long-term consequences of prolonged hormonal deficiency are ill-defined.

  11. Adaptive singular value cancelation of ventricular activity in single-lead atrial fibrillation electrocardiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, Raúl; Rieta, José Joaquín

    2008-01-01

    The proper analysis and characterization of atrial fibrillation (AF) from surface electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings requires to cancel out the ventricular activity (VA), which is composed of the QRS complex and the T wave. Historically, for single-lead ECGs, the averaged beat subtraction (ABS) has been the most widely used technique. However, this method is very sensitive to QRST wave variations and, moreover, high-quality cancelation templates may be difficult to obtain when only short length and single-lead recordings are available. In order to overcome these limitations, a new QRST cancelation method based on adaptive singular value cancelation (ASVC) applied to each single beat is proposed. In addition, an exhaustive study about the optimal set of complexes for better cancelation of every beat is also presented for the first time. The whole study has been carried out with both simulated and real AF signals. For simulated AF, the cancelation performance was evaluated making use of a cross-correlation index and the normalized mean square error (nmse) between the estimated and the original atrial activity (AA). For real AF signals, two additional new parameters were proposed. First, the ventricular residue (VR) index estimated the presence of ventricular activity in the extracted AA. Second, the similarity (S) evaluated how the algorithm preserved the AA segments out of the QRST interval. Results indicated that for simulated AF signals, mean correlation, nmse, VR and S values were 0.945 ± 0.024, 0.332 ± 0.073, 1.552 ± 0.386 and 0.986 ± 0.012, respectively, for the ASVC method and 0.866 ± 0.042, 0.424 ± 0.120, 2.161 ± 0.564 and 0.922 ± 0.051 for ABS. In the case of real signals, the mean VR and S values were 1.725 ± 0.826 and 0.983 ± 0.038, respectively, for ASVC and 3.159 ± 1.097 and 0.951 ± 0.049 for ABS. Thus, ASVC provides a more accurate beat-to-beat ventricular QRST representation than traditional techniques. As a consequence, VA cancelation

  12. Relationship between touch sensation of the affected hand and performance of valued activities in individuals with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Valerie A; Fisher, Thomas; Schmid, Arlene A; Crabtree, Jeffrey; Page, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between touch sensation of the affected hand and performance and satisfaction with performance of valued activities in individuals with chronic stroke. Using a cross-sectional study design, this study correlated factors related to hand sensation and activity performance in individuals with chronic stroke. The Touch Test Evaluators and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were used. Correlations were used to determine the relationships between touch sensation of the affected hand and individuals' performance and satisfaction with performance of valued activities. There was a good to excellent relationship between sensation and performance and satisfaction with performance of valued activities for individuals with intact touch sensation of the affected hand who scored higher on the COPM. There was little to no relationship between touch sensation of the affected hand and performance of valued activities for individuals with impaired sensation. This is the first study to relate touch sensation of the affected hand and performance and satisfaction with performance of valued activities in individuals with stroke. The findings suggest that rehabilitation therapists need to continue to address sensory function in evaluation and intervention as it relates to performance in valued activities. This study serves as a foundation for future research in sensation and performance of valued activities in individuals with chronic stroke.

  13. Population dynamics of Salpa thompsoni near the Antarctic Peninsula: Growth rates and interannual variations in reproductive activity (1993-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, V. J.; Santora, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    The salp Salpa thompsoni has exhibited increased abundance in high latitude portions of the Southern Ocean in recent decades and is now frequently the numerically dominant zooplankton taxon in the Antarctic Peninsula region. The abundance increase of this species in high latitude waters is believed related to ocean warming. Due to its continuous filter feeding and production of dense rapidly sinking fecal pellets S. thompsoni is considered to be an important link in the export of particulate carbon from the surface waters. Hence basic information on the life history of this component of the Antarctic marine ecosystem is essential for assessing its impact given continued climate warming. Here we cover various aspects of the life history of S. thompsoni collected in the north Antarctic Peninsula during annual austral summer surveys of the US Antarctic Marine Living Resources (AMLR) Program between 1993 and 2009. We focus on seasonal and interannual variations in the size composition and abundance of the aggregate (sexual) and solitary (asexual) stages. This information is valuable for refining components of Southern Ocean food web models that explicitly deal with size-structured and life history information on zooplankton. Intraseasonal changes in length-frequency distribution of both stages are used to estimate their growth rates. These average 0.40 mm day-1 for aggregates and 0.23 mm day-1 for solitaries; together these represent ∼7 week and ∼7.5 month generation times, respectively, and a 9 month life cycle (i.e., onset of aggregate production year 1 to aggregate production year 2). Based on the maximum lengths typically found during January-March, the life spans of the aggregate and solitary stages can reach at least ∼5 and ∼15 months, respectively. Length-frequency distributions each year reflect interannual differences in timing of the initiation and peak reproductive output. Interannual differences in the abundance of total salps and proportions of the

  14. Nuclear constants for activation analysis of some nuclides and comparison with experimentally measured values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacimovic, R.; Trkov, A.; Smodis, B.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis requires a knowledge of the values for the Westcott g factors, the resonance integral I 0 and 2200 ms -1 cross section σ 0 for the (n, γ) reaction, Q 0 defined as the ratio I 0 /σ 0 and the effective resonance energy E-bar r . The required constants can be calculated from the JEF 2.2 evaluated nuclear data files. A sensitivity study was carried out to investigate the influence of the spectral parameter α on E-bar r . The sensitivity of I 0 to temperature due to Doppler broadening was also investigated. The results obtained were compared to those reported in the literature. Further, the calculated parameters were then applied to the analysis of a number of standard samples. (author)

  15. Value-Added Products Derived from Waste Activated Sludge: A Biorefinery Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Substantial research has been carried out on sustainable waste activated sludge (WAS management in the last decade. In addition to the traditional approach to reduce its production volume, considering WAS as a feedstock to produce bio-products such as amino acids, proteins, short chain fatty acids, enzymes, bio-pesticides, bio-plastics, bio-flocculants and bio-surfactants represents a key component in the transformation of wastewater treatment plants into biorefineries. The quality of these bio-products is a key factor with respect to the feasibility of non-conventional WAS-based production processes. This review provides a critical assessment of the production process routes of a wide range of value-added products from WAS, their current limitations, and recommendations for future research to help promote more sustainable management of this under-utilised and ever-growing waste stream.

  16. [The relevance of ADC value, T₁intensive rate and the clinical activities in ankylosing spondylitis sacroiliitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinghua; Han, Xinai; Hu, Shaoyong; Shi, Xingliang; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Erwei; Li, Shaolin

    2014-09-23

    To evaluate the value of judging for the activity in AS by diffusion-weighted sequences (DWI) and enhance sequences MRI(DCE-MRI), to explore the correlation of Apparent diffusion coefficient(ADC) values, intensive rate and the clinical activity index in sacroiliitis (SIJ) of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). 56 patients prospectively choiced and diagnosed were divided into two groupsas, active group (n = 32) and chronic group (n = 24) by rheumatologist according to BASDAI and laboratory parameters. Twenty healthy adults were as control group. The values of ADC and intensive rate of all sacroiliac joints (SIJs) were measured on MRI. BASDAI score were got by Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index. ESR, CPR and were got by laboratory. Statisticaly to analysis whether the parameters were significantly different amang AS active, chronic, and the control group. To assess the correlation of the values of ADC, intensive rate and BASDAI score, ESR, CPR and in SIJ. the values of ADC and intensive rate were significantly different among AS active, chronic and the control group. There were the significant correlation between the values of ADC, intensive rate and BASDAI score. Diffusion-weighted sequences and Contrast-enhanced sequences is superior to other methods in judging the activity in AS.combined with clinical activity index, the accuracy can significantly be improved to explore whether the activities of AS are.

  17. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-04-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of 'self' and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the 'positivity' or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Robust fixed-time synchronization for uncertain complex-valued neural networks with discontinuous activation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoshuai; Cao, Jinde; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Alsaadi, Fuad E; Hayat, Tasawar

    2017-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the fixed-time synchronization for a class of complex-valued neural networks in the presence of discontinuous activation functions and parameter uncertainties. Fixed-time synchronization not only claims that the considered master-slave system realizes synchronization within a finite time segment, but also requires a uniform upper bound for such time intervals for all initial synchronization errors. To accomplish the target of fixed-time synchronization, a novel feedback control procedure is designed for the slave neural networks. By means of the Filippov discontinuity theories and Lyapunov stability theories, some sufficient conditions are established for the selection of control parameters to guarantee synchronization within a fixed time, while an upper bound of the settling time is acquired as well, which allows to be modulated to predefined values independently on initial conditions. Additionally, criteria of modified controller for assurance of fixed-time anti-synchronization are also derived for the same system. An example is included to illustrate the proposed methodologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Asynchronous Recurrent Network of Cellular Automaton-Based Neurons and Its Reproduction of Spiking Neural Network Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Takashi; Torikai, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Modeling and implementation approaches for the reproduction of input-output relationships in biological nervous tissues contribute to the development of engineering and clinical applications. However, because of high nonlinearity, the traditional modeling and implementation approaches encounter difficulties in terms of generalization ability (i.e., performance when reproducing an unknown data set) and computational resources (i.e., computation time and circuit elements). To overcome these difficulties, asynchronous cellular automaton-based neuron (ACAN) models, which are described as special kinds of cellular automata that can be implemented as small asynchronous sequential logic circuits have been proposed. This paper presents a novel type of such ACAN and a theoretical analysis of its excitability. This paper also presents a novel network of such neurons, which can mimic input-output relationships of biological and nonlinear ordinary differential equation model neural networks. Numerical analyses confirm that the presented network has a higher generalization ability than other major modeling and implementation approaches. In addition, Field-Programmable Gate Array-implementations confirm that the presented network requires lower computational resources.

  20. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Andreia; Fortalezas, Sofia; Pimpão, Rui; Figueira, Inês; Maroco, João; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Miguel, Célia; Santos, Cláudia N.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits. PMID:26784465

  1. Relationship Between Logistics Service's Perceived Value and Outsourcing of Logistics Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klavdij Logožar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing has become increasingly popular in recentyears, and is often quoted as a means of coping with rapidchanges in technology and in the business environment. Thescope of third -party logistics may range from a relatively limitedcombination of activities (e. g. transportation and warehousingto a comprehensive set of logistics services. The authorsfirst define the reasons for outsourcing with the emphasis onbusiness logistics. They particularly point out the motivationsfor logistics outsourcing, the possibilities of logistics outsourcing,and they present the process of outsourcing partner selectionas well. Finally, they analyze the specific issues of logisticsservice's perceived value in outsourcing logistics activities onthe basis of the survey carried out in Slovenian companies. Thepurpose of the survey was to measure the customers' perceptionof different characteristics of logistics provider which can be decisivewhen manufacturing firms are trying to make a decisionwhether to outsource and which logistics provider to select. Thepaper creates a framework for the selection of the importantand perceived characteristics of logistics provider relevant tocustomer in the process of the logistics supplier selection.

  2. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Andreia; Fortalezas, Sofia; Pimpão, Rui; Figueira, Inês; Maroco, João; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Miguel, Célia; Santos, Cláudia N

    2013-10-28

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum's potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits.

  3. Production of bioelectricity, bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bioinspired nanomaterials by electrochemically active biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-11-01

    Microorganisms naturally form biofilms on solid surfaces for their mutual benefits including protection from environmental stresses caused by contaminants, nutritional depletion or imbalances. The biofilms are normally dangerous to human health due to their inherited robustness. On the other hand, a recent study suggested that electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) generated by electrically active microorganisms have properties that can be used to catalyze or control the electrochemical reactions in a range of fields, such as bioenergy production, bioremediation, chemical/biological synthesis, bio-corrosion mitigation and biosensor development. EABs have attracted considerable attraction in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, where they act as living bioanode or biocathode catalysts. Recently, it was reported that EABs can be used to synthesize metal nanoparticles and metal nanocomposites. The EAB-mediated synthesis of metal and metal-semiconductor nanocomposites is expected to provide a new avenue for the greener synthesis of nanomaterials with high efficiency and speed than other synthetic methods. This review covers the general introduction of EABs, as well as the applications of EABs in BESs, and the production of bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bio-inspired nanomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits.

  5. Chemosystematic Value of the Essential Oil Composition of Thuja species Cultivated in Poland—Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Spyropoulos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the correlation between chemotaxonomy and chemical analysis studies, the chemical composition of the essential oils of four varieties of Thuja species cultivated in Poland − T. occidentalis ‘globosa’, T. occidentalis ‘aurea’, T. plicata and T. plicata ‘gracialis’ − were investigated by GC and GC-MS. Thirty-one compounds were identified from T. occidentalis ‘globosa’, representing 96.92% of the total oil; twenty-seven from T. occidentalis ‘aurea’ (94.34%; thirty-one from T. plicata (94.75%; and thirty compounds from T. plicata ‘gracialis’ (96.36%. The main constituents in all samples were the monoterpene ketones α- and β-thujone, fenchone and sabinene, as well as the diterpenes beyerene and rimuene.The chemosystematic value of the total ketone content of all samples (which varied from 54.30–69.18% has been discussed and investigated. The constituents, beyerene and the mixture of α- and β-thujone, were isolated from the oils and tested against six Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and three pathogenic fungi. The oils of the two T. plicata species exhibited significant antimicrobial activity, while the mixture of α- and β-thujone showed very strong activity as well.

  6. Categories of Profit and Effectiveness of Business Activity in the System of Market Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Musa ogly Ismailov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the approaches to the interpretation of economic categories “profit” and “effectiveness of business activity”, studies the essence and manifestations of these concepts in business that allows us to consider their place in the system of market valuables. Due to the necessity of a broader view of the success of the business, the author discussed the basic provisions of methodological individualism in the categories of economic theory of property rights. Disclosing them the author focuses on the characteristics which show the formation of operating results in achieving its ultimate goal. Details reveal a mixed situation in respect of the appointment of the rate of profit in modern conditions, the potential motives and incentives of human activity. A list of targeted economic outcomes correlates with the solved economic issues. For example, when you build and study the business model in the form of chains of forming and maintaining value the most appropriate terms that define the goal of firms are profitability, balance and optimality. In this article, the following results are obtained: 1 terminological analysis of targeted economic results, which are put in touch in an appropriate relationship to solve economic problem; 2 conclusion on the profit’s universality and absoluteness loss in direct characterization of business activity effectiveness.

  7. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  8. Suppression of LH during ovarian stimulation: analysing threshold values and effects on ovarian response and the outcome of assisted reproduction in down-regulated women stimulated with recombinant FSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasch, J; Vidal, E; Peñarrubia, J; Casamitjana, R; Carmona, F; Creus, M; Fábregues, F; Vanrell, J A

    2001-08-01

    It has been recently suggested that gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist down-regulation in some normogonadotrophic women may result in profound suppression of LH concentrations, impairing adequate oestradiol synthesis and IVF and pregnancy outcome. The aims of this study, where receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used, were: (i) to assess the usefulness of serum LH measurement on stimulation day 7 (S7) as a predictor of ovarian response, IVF outcome, implantation, and the outcome of pregnancy in patients treated with recombinant FSH under pituitary suppression; and (ii) to define the best threshold value, if any, to discriminate between women with 'low' or 'normal' LH concentrations. A total of 144 infertile women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment were included. Seventy-two consecutive patients having a positive pregnancy test (including 58 ongoing pregnancies and 14 early pregnancy losses) were initially selected. As a control non-pregnant group, the next non-conception IVF/ICSI cycle after each conceptual cycle in our assisted reproduction programme was used. The median and range of LH values in non-conception cycles, conception cycles, ongoing pregnancies, and early pregnancy losses, clearly overlapped. ROC analysis showed that serum LH concentration on S7 was unable to discriminate between conception and non-conception cycles (AUC(ROC) = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.61) or ongoing pregnancy versus early pregnancy loss groups (AUC(ROC) = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.70). To assess further the potential impact of suppressed concentrations of circulating LH during ovarian stimulation on the outcome of IVF/ICSI treatment, the three threshold values of mid-follicular serum LH proposed in the literature (women with 'low' or 'normal' LH were applied to our study population. No significant differences were found with respect to ovarian response, IVF/ICSI outcome, implantation, and the outcome of pregnancy between 'low' and

  9. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  10. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  11. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernandez-de-las-Penas, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern....... The current study investigated whether the overall spontaneous FM pain pattern can be reproduced by local and referred pain from active MTPs located in different muscles....

  13. Evaluation of Yield and Drought Using Active and Passive Spectral Sensing Systems at the Reproductive Stage in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Elisabeth; Schmidhalter, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Active and passive sensors are available for ground-based, high-throughput phenotyping in the field. However, these sensor systems have seldom been compared with respect to their determination of plant water status and water use efficiency related parameters under drought conditions. In this study, five passive and active reflectance sensors, including a hyperspectral passive sensor, an active flash sensor (AFS), the Crop Circle, and the GreenSeeker, were evaluated to assess drought-related d...

  14. [Correlation and conversion of plasma cholinesterase activity values using three techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2007-07-01

    To determine mathematical correlations of three quantitative techniques to measure plasma cholinesterase, using reference values already established for two populations in the department of Antioquia, Colombia. In this descriptive, cross-sectional, prospective study, two independent, representative samples of working adults (18 to 65 years old) were examined. In both samples the adults worked for businesses associated with Colombia's Social Security system. Adults in the two samples had not been exposed to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. The samples were from two neighboring regions of the department of Antioquia: one sample (415 adults) was from the Aburrá Valley, and the other (412 adults) was from Oriente Antioqueño (Eastern Antioquia). Plasma cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) was measured using three quantitative methods: Michel, EQM, and Monotest. Linear regression equations were developed to correlate results of these three techniques. Six simple linear regression equations were defined to show the relationship of three measurement techniques for plasma cholinesterase. There was a moderate correlation of the three techniques (r = 0.686 to 0.771), but it increased (r = 0.744 to 0.811) when 12 (1.5%) outliers were eliminated. Associations among the three techniques were highly significant (P EQM (U/mL) = 0.40773 + 1.8757 (Michel [delta pH/h]); Michel (delta pH/h) = 0.25799 + 0.33871 (EQM [U/mL]); Monotest (U/L) = 462.0 + 4 565.0 (Michel [delta pH/h]); Michel (delta pH/h) = 0.42956 + 0.00012125 (Monotest [U/L]); EQM (U/mL) = 0.75333 + 0.00031056 (Monotest [U/L]); and Monotest (U/L) = 262.0 + 2 118.0 (EQM [U/mL]). The proposed mathematical models allow conversion of cholinesterase activity values using the Michel, EQM, and Monotest techniques. These models can be of assistance in Colombia and other countries where a variety of measurement techniques are used, and where it becomes difficult to compare the results of different studies. Having mathematical models

  15. Impact of Health-Promoting Educational Intervention on Lifestyle (Nutrition Behaviors, Physical Activity and Mental Health) Related to Vaginal Health Among Reproductive-Aged Women With Vaginitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsapure, Roxana; Rahimiforushani, Abbas; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Sadeghi, Roya; Garmarudi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Vaginitis is one of the most common diseases in reproductive-aged women (15 - 49 years of age). Side effects of vaginitis can affect other aspects of health, which could be prevented by promoting a healthy lifestyle related to vaginal health. Objectives This study aimed at determining the impact of health-promoting educational intervention on lifestyle (nutrition behaviors, physical activities, and mental health) related to vaginal health among reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Methods The data set was collected as part of an experimental study conducted on 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Participants were selected through a stratified two-stage clustered sampling and simple randomization from 10 attending health centers affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in five regions (North, South, East, West, and Center) of Kermanshah (a city in western Iran) in 2015. Two clinics in each region were selected; patients from the first center were chosen as the intervention group and patients from the second center made up the control group. To collect data, a questionnaire including socio-demographic and lifestyle questions was used. The questionnaire was designed and validated via the psychometric process. Educational intervention was performed over twenty sessions of 25 to 35 minutes. The intervention group was followed up with face-to-face education, a pamphlet, phone contact, and by social media. The control group continued the routine treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were collected from both groups before the intervention and six months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS-20 package, using the independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-square test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test. The confidence interval was 95% and P health in the intervention group (28.48 ± 0.38) and control group (23.65 ± 1.23) was significant (P 0.05). The independent t-test did not show significant

  16. Impact of Health-Promoting Educational Intervention on Lifestyle (Nutrition Behaviors, Physical Activity and Mental Health) Related to Vaginal Health Among Reproductive-Aged Women With Vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsapure, Roxana; Rahimiforushani, Abbas; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Sadeghi, Roya; Garmarudi, Gholamreza

    2016-10-01

    Vaginitis is one of the most common diseases in reproductive-aged women (15 - 49 years of age). Side effects of vaginitis can affect other aspects of health, which could be prevented by promoting a healthy lifestyle related to vaginal health. This study aimed at determining the impact of health-promoting educational intervention on lifestyle (nutrition behaviors, physical activities, and mental health) related to vaginal health among reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. The data set was collected as part of an experimental study conducted on 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Participants were selected through a stratified two-stage clustered sampling and simple randomization from 10 attending health centers affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in five regions (North, South, East, West, and Center) of Kermanshah (a city in western Iran) in 2015. Two clinics in each region were selected; patients from the first center were chosen as the intervention group and patients from the second center made up the control group. To collect data, a questionnaire including socio-demographic and lifestyle questions was used. The questionnaire was designed and validated via the psychometric process. Educational intervention was performed over twenty sessions of 25 to 35 minutes. The intervention group was followed up with face-to-face education, a pamphlet, phone contact, and by social media. The control group continued the routine treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were collected from both groups before the intervention and six months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS-20 package, using the independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-square test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test. The confidence interval was 95% and P lifestyle related to vaginal health in the intervention group (28.48 ± 0.38) and control group (23.65 ± 1.23) was significant (P lifestyle in the intervention group (P lifestyle scores

  17. REPRODUCTIVE SEASONALITY OF SHEEP IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Arroyo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss and analyze the available information concerning the seasonal breeding behavior of sheep in Mexico, this review was conducted. We analyzed the neuroendocrine basis that modulate the annual reproductive cycle in sheep and then discussed the degree of reproductive seasonality in Creole sheep wool, breeds originating in high latitudes and hair sheep, mainly in Pelibuey ewes. The Creole sheep wool show continuous annual reproductive activity and short seasonal anestrous. The females of northern origin, express seasonal reproductive activity, similar to that observed in individuals geographically located at latitudes above 35º. Pelibuey sheep show variable annual reproductive behavior with reduced anestrus or lack thereof.  It is suggested that the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal anestrus in ewes, are active in the sheep of northern origin that live in Mexico, in a manner contrary is not activated in Creole and hair sheep.

  18. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern. The cu...

  19. Isometric Shoulder Strength Reference Values for Physically Active Collegiate Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Richard B.; Duffey, Michele L.; Cameron, Kenneth L.; Gerber, J. Parry; Owens, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is common clinical practice to assess muscle strength during examination of patients following shoulder injury or surgery. Strength comparisons are often made between the patient’s injured and uninjured shoulders, with the uninjured side used as a reference without regard to upper extremity dominance. Despite the importance of strength measurements, little is known about expected normal baselines of the uninjured shoulder. The purpose of this study was to report normative values for isometric shoulder strength for physically active college-age men and women without history of shoulder injury. Methods: University students—546 males (18.8 ± 1.0 years, 75.3 ± 12.2 kg) and 73 females (18.7 ± 0.9 years, 62.6 ± 7.0 kg)—underwent thorough shoulder evaluations by an orthopaedic surgeon and completed bilateral isometric strength measurements with a handheld dynamometer. Variables measured included internal rotation, external rotation, abduction, supine internal rotation and external rotation at 45°, and lower trapezius in prone flexion. Results: Significant differences were found between the dominant and nondominant shoulder for internal rotation, internal rotation at 45°, abduction, and prone flexion in males and in internal rotation at 45° and prone flexion for females (P ≤ 0.01). PMID:24381696

  20. Theory-driven intervention for changing personality: expectancy value theory, behavioral activation, and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, Jessica F; Roberts, Brent W; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C W

    2014-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-up approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that, over time, become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this article proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of expectancy value theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance-dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Reproductive desires and intentions of HIV‑positive women of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the medical management of human ... Key words: HIV‑positive women of reproductive age; Jos; reproductive ... life style, and many are considering the possibility.

  2. Towards the promotion of reproductive health of the young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Biljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature sexual activity of the young, before reaching physical and psycho-social maturity, brings along the risk of jeopardizing their reproductive health, mostly because it can lead to sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy, which is mostly unwanted in adolescence. The starting assumption of the promotion of reproductive health of the young is understanding and acceptance of their sexuality and relevant needs in social environment in which they live. Primarily in the family, the media, healthcare institutions and school. During the period of childhood and youth, school possesses the unique possibility to enable a large number of young people to acquire knowledge and skills related to sexuality and reproductive health and shape their values, attitudes and beliefs. The complexity of the process of making the decision about becoming sexually active, as well as the space for action towards its postponement to older age, are also indicated by the results of the research conducted in Belgrade, on the sample of one hundred and eleven female adolescents aged fourteen to twenty, who became sexually active at the age sixteen and earlier. These are primarily those results which refer to the meaning of love and sex in their value system, motives, feelings and attitudes related to becoming sexually active.

  3. Economic consequences of reproductive performance in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The net economic value of reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle was estimated using a stochastic dynamic simulation model. The objective was to compare the economic consequences of reproductive performance scenarios (“average” and “poor”) of a cow having a good reproductive performance and to

  4. THE ADVERTISING-VALUE-EQUIVALENT (AVE METHOD IN QUANTIFYING ECONOMIC VALUES OF PUBLIC RELATIONS ACTIVITIES: EXPERIENCE OF A PUBLIC-LISTED COMPANY IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Abu Hassan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Why should public relations (PR not be evaluated for its economic value? Despite the point of its social or intangible values, the argument goes on and on in most management meetings where PR practitioners always face the challenges of justifying their worth – often in monetary terms. In an open dialogue with Grunig during his visit to Malaysia in 2004, this renowned PR guru also expressed the difficulty of quantifying the actual PR worth. It is best to qualify PR values by assessing its priceless relationships with the company’s stakeholders. However, in our routine business life, especially at the middle management level, the above question seems unavoidable. In enhancing excellence for PR and communication management, Ehling (1992 placed the logic underlying the economic values of PR on the relationship between benefits and costs associated with the implementation of a PR programme. The above question and problem serve as the main objective of this article. In exploring the solutions for the quantification of PR values in Malaysia, economic education is taken as a remedy for the absence of knowledge and skills in making intelligent decisions in the marketplace (Baskin et al., 1997; Lattimor et al., 2004. In this research context, the researchers (a combination of a practitioner and an academician respectively confined the scope to the experience of a selected public-listed company for its PR campaign implemented in 2004. Quantification was attempted by evaluating the assessment in print media exposures. All earned media coverage for that particular PR campaign was measured for the media type, space, position, and the corresponding advertising rate. Monetary value was assigned to every single piece of PR news in the way disbursements are made to paid media for advertising activities. The explication of this advertising-value-equivalent (AVE method in quantifying economic values for PR news with regard to the selected campaign was made

  5. The reinforcing value and liking of resistance training and aerobic exercise as predictors of adult's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Kyle D; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N

    2017-10-01

    Reinforcing value (motivating value) is a stronger predictor than hedonic value (liking) for engaging in drug use, gambling, and eating. The associations of reinforcing value and liking with physical activity of adults have not yet been studied and may depend on the modes of exercise (e.g., aerobic/cardiovascular exercise, resistance training) under consideration. The purpose of this study was to test associations of the reinforcing value and liking of aerobic exercise training (AT) and resistance exercise training (RT) modes of exercise with usual participation in aerobic and resistance exercise in adults. Men (n=38) and women (n=50) were measured for their liking and relative reinforcing value (RRV) of AT and RT, for their usual vigorous physical activity (VPA) participation, and for usual resistance exercise behavior (Yale physical activity questionnaire). The RRV of AT (RRVAT) and liking of AT were correlated, (r=0.22, pvalue for, but not the liking of, a mode of exercise predicted how much an individual engaged in that mode of exercise. RRVAT (p˂0.01) was positively associated with usual VPA. RRVRT (p˂0.01) was positively associated with RT behavior. The hedonic value of AT and of RT were not associated (p>0.30) with VPA or RT behavior. Reinforcing value of a mode of exercise is a stronger predictor than the liking of that mode of exercise for usual amount of participation in the exercise. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Prefrontal and striatal activity related to values of objects and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoun eKim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The value of an object acquired by a particular action often determines the motivation to produce that action. Previous studies found neural signals related to the values of different objects or goods in the orbitofrontal cortex, while the values of outcomes expected from different actions are broadly represented in multiple brain areas implicated in movement planning. However, how the brain combines the values associated with various objects and the information about their locations is not known. In this study, we tested whether the neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and striatum in rhesus monkeys might contribute to translating the value signals between multiple frames of reference. Monkeys were trained to perform an oculomotor intertemporal choice in which the color of a saccade target and the number of its surrounding dots signaled the magnitude of reward and its delay, respectively. In both DLPFC and striatum, temporally discounted values associated with specific target colors and locations were encoded by partially overlapping populations of neurons. In the DLPFC, the information about reward delays and temporally discounted values of rewards available from specific target locations emerged earlier than the corresponding signals for target colors. Similar results were reproduced by a simple network model built to compute temporally discounted values of rewards in different locations. Therefore, DLPFC might play an important role in estimating the values of different actions by combining the previously learned values of objects and their present locations.

  7. The Elderly Perceived Meanings and Values of Virtual Reality Leisure Activities: A Means-End Chain Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Shih Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study uses means-end chain (MEC techniques to examine the awareness, decision-making procedure, and personal values of the elderly with regard to virtual reality leisure activities. The results of the study show that elderly respondents value virtual reality leisure activities that are fun, safe, and easy. In terms of outcome benefits, elderly respondents value feeling physically and mentally healthy, firsthand experience, and satisfied curiosity. In value terms, elderly respondents hope that their chosen virtual reality leisure activities improve not only their relationships with others, but also their enjoyment, quality of life, and sense of belonging. The results show that, while consumers with different awarenesses of virtual reality leisure activities have different decision-making processes, they share creating “good memories” as the terminal value with the most significant effect. This presents a potential opportunity to promote virtual reality leisure activities. Relevant bodies or enterprises can seek to create good memories in consumers by developing activities that are safe and fun, promote good health, and provide good service, thereby attracting the interest of elderly consumers.

  8. The Elderly Perceived Meanings and Values of Virtual Reality Leisure Activities: A Means-End Chain Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Shih; Jeng, Mei-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    This study uses means-end chain (MEC) techniques to examine the awareness, decision-making procedure, and personal values of the elderly with regard to virtual reality leisure activities. The results of the study show that elderly respondents value virtual reality leisure activities that are fun, safe, and easy. In terms of outcome benefits, elderly respondents value feeling physically and mentally healthy, firsthand experience, and satisfied curiosity. In value terms, elderly respondents hope that their chosen virtual reality leisure activities improve not only their relationships with others, but also their enjoyment, quality of life, and sense of belonging. The results show that, while consumers with different awarenesses of virtual reality leisure activities have different decision-making processes, they share creating “good memories” as the terminal value with the most significant effect. This presents a potential opportunity to promote virtual reality leisure activities. Relevant bodies or enterprises can seek to create good memories in consumers by developing activities that are safe and fun, promote good health, and provide good service, thereby attracting the interest of elderly consumers. PMID:29614012

  9. The Elderly Perceived Meanings and Values of Virtual Reality Leisure Activities: A Means-End Chain Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Shih; Jeng, Mei-Yuan; Yeh, Tsu-Ming

    2018-04-03

    This study uses means-end chain (MEC) techniques to examine the awareness, decision-making procedure, and personal values of the elderly with regard to virtual reality leisure activities. The results of the study show that elderly respondents value virtual reality leisure activities that are fun, safe, and easy. In terms of outcome benefits, elderly respondents value feeling physically and mentally healthy, firsthand experience, and satisfied curiosity. In value terms, elderly respondents hope that their chosen virtual reality leisure activities improve not only their relationships with others, but also their enjoyment, quality of life, and sense of belonging. The results show that, while consumers with different awarenesses of virtual reality leisure activities have different decision-making processes, they share creating "good memories" as the terminal value with the most significant effect. This presents a potential opportunity to promote virtual reality leisure activities. Relevant bodies or enterprises can seek to create good memories in consumers by developing activities that are safe and fun, promote good health, and provide good service, thereby attracting the interest of elderly consumers.

  10. Minimization of the blank values in the neutron activation analysis of biological samples considering the whole procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, F.; Bereznai, T.; Trebert Haeberlin, S.

    1987-01-01

    During the determination of trace element contents of animal tissue by neutron activation analysis in the course of structure-activity relationship studies on platinum containing cancer drugs and wound healing the authors tried to minimize the blank values that are caused by different sources of contamination during surgery, sampling and the activation analysis procedure. The following topics were investigated: abrasions from scalpels made of stainless steel, titanium or quartz, the type of surgery, the surface contaminations of the quartz ampoules, etc. The measures to be taken to reduce tha blank values are described. (author) 19 refs.; 4 tables

  11. Heparin for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad A; Sur, Shyamaly; Raine-Fenning, Nick; Jayaprakasan, Kannamannadiar; Thornton, Jim G; Quenby, Siobhan

    2013-08-17

    Heparin as an adjunct in assisted reproduction (peri-implantation heparin) is given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer during assisted reproduction. Heparin has been advocated to improve embryo implantation and clinical outcomes.  It has been proposed that heparin enhances the intra-uterine environment by improving decidualisation with an associated activation of growth factors and a cytokine expression profile in the endometrium that is favourable to pregnancy. To investigate whether the administration of heparin around the time of implantation (peri-implantation heparin) improves clinical outcomes in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. A comprehensive and exhaustive search strategy was developed in consultation with the Trials Search Co-ordinator of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG). The strategy was used in an attempt to identify all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status (published, unpublished, in press, and in progress). Relevant trials were identified from both electronic databases and other resources (last search 6 May 2013). All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included where peri-implantation heparin was given during assisted reproduction. Peri-implantation low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) during IVF/ICSI was given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer in the included studies. Live birth rate was the primary outcome. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials and extracted relevant data. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using GRADE methods. Three RCTs (involving 386 women) were included in the review.Peri-implantation LMWH administration during assisted reproduction was associated with a significant improvement in live birth rate compared with placebo or no LMWH (odds ratio (OR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 2.90, three studies, 386 women, I(2) = 51%, very low quality evidence with high

  12. Sexual and Reproductive Health Knowledge, Behaviour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    reproductive health knowledge, sexual activities and sexuality education needs. ... Sexuality education should be provided for in-school adolescents through .... Both parents live together .... share their reproductive health ... Religious leader ..... Health of Young People: A Challenge and a. Promise. 1993. 3. World health ...

  13. Reproduction, women, and the workplace: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, J E

    1986-01-01

    Legal conflict has marked the effort to protect workers against reproductive injury, and legal activity in the management of occupational risks reflects a much broader range of important social issues, such as sexual discrimination in the workplace. This article describes the evolving law related to reproductive hazards that concern men, women and children.

  14. Exposure to advertisement calls of reproductive competitors activates vocal-acoustic and catecholaminergic neurons in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christopher L; Timothy, Miky; Kim, D Spencer; Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Mohr, Robert A; Sisneros, Joseph A; Forlano, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    While the neural circuitry and physiology of the auditory system is well studied among vertebrates, far less is known about how the auditory system interacts with other neural substrates to mediate behavioral responses to social acoustic signals. One species that has been the subject of intensive neuroethological investigation with regard to the production and perception of social acoustic signals is the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, in part because acoustic communication is essential to their reproductive behavior. Nesting male midshipman vocally court females by producing a long duration advertisement call. Females localize males by their advertisement call, spawn and deposit all their eggs in their mate's nest. As multiple courting males establish nests in close proximity to one another, the perception of another male's call may modulate individual calling behavior in competition for females. We tested the hypothesis that nesting males exposed to advertisement calls of other males would show elevated neural activity in auditory and vocal-acoustic brain centers as well as differential activation of catecholaminergic neurons compared to males exposed only to ambient noise. Experimental brains were then double labeled by immunofluorescence (-ir) for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), an enzyme necessary for catecholamine synthesis, and cFos, an immediate-early gene product used as a marker for neural activation. Males exposed to other advertisement calls showed a significantly greater percentage of TH-ir cells colocalized with cFos-ir in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus and the dopaminergic periventricular posterior tuberculum, as well as increased numbers of cFos-ir neurons in several levels of the auditory and vocal-acoustic pathway. Increased activation of catecholaminergic neurons may serve to coordinate appropriate behavioral responses to male competitors. Additionally, these results implicate a role for specific catecholaminergic neuronal groups in

  15. Active Teaching Methods: Personal Experience of Integrating Spiritual and Moral Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Tengku Sarina Aini Tengku; Yusoff, Yusmini Md

    2014-01-01

    Islamic education has always recognized spiritual and moral values as significant elements in developing a "balanced" human being. One way of demonstrating spiritual and moral concepts is through effective teaching methods that integrate and forefront these values. This article offers an investigation of how the authors' teaching…

  16. Recognition of Values-Based Constructs in a Summer Physical Activity Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Doris L.; Newton, Maria; Kim, Mi-Sook

    2003-01-01

    Examined the extent to which participants in a summer sports camp embraced values-based constructs, noting the relationship between perceptions of values-based constructs and affect and attitude. Data on ethnically diverse 10-13-year-olds indicated that care for others/goal setting, self-responsibility, and self-control/respect positively related…

  17. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  18. Children's Concepts of Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James E.; Kendall, Diane G.

    1971-01-01

    Results of this study provide little support for either Freudian or Piagetian theorizing about what the young child thinks of reproduction. Implications for sex education and reproduction information are presented. (Author/CJ)

  19. Squalus cubensis Reproduction Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...

  20. Resource allocation to reproduction in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  1. Bovine reproduction in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Lopez, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this document it has met relating data to the reproduction of bovine and their handling for the man that it can serve as norms to judge reproductive efficiency but always view in the aspect of the nutritious, climatic circumstances and of handling under which met. Under the previous description one can say that the fertility is the resultant of the interaction among the inheritance, the means and the handling, they vary in particular for each region and property. The fertility can be good, regulate or bad in the measure in that the factors that intervene. The environmental effect on the reproductive processes of the cow represents 80 percent of the variation factors and they include climate, effect of the light, effect of the temperature, effect of the nutritious contribution, effect of psychological factors: the loss of the tendency to the seasonal reproduction is in fact an answer from the animals to its association with the man. The influence of the environment and the feeding of the animals are more intense in the females than in the males, being evidenced that the reproduction control is under the influence hormonal joint with the nutrition. An appropriate nutrition is prerequisite for the beginning of the sexual maturation with an appropriate weight and corporal condition. It is also described the effect and the relationship of the energy contribution about the fertility, the restart of the ovarian activity, its cause of the continuation of the interval childbirth-conception, silent ovulation, organic ancestry and interval among childbirths

  2. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  3. Making access to TV contingent on physical activity: effects on liking and relative reinforcing value of TV and physical activity in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effects of making access to television (TV) viewing contingent on physical activity on the liking and reinforcing value of TV and attitudes towards physical activity in overweight and obese children. Secondary data analysis from a randomized controlled trial designed to increase physical activity and reduce TV viewing in 30, 8-12 years old overweight or obese children by making access to TV contingent on physical activity (intervention) or free access to TV (control). Liking of TV and physical activity was measured by a 100 point visual analog scale, while the relative reinforcing value of TV in relation to physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire based on behavioural choice paradigm that provided children an opportunity to work (button presses) to gain access to TV or physical activity according to a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Enjoyment, Adequacy, Predilection and Motivation for physical activity was assessed by self-report questionnaire. Making access to TV contingent on physical activity showed a trend that approached statistical significance towards increased enjoyment of physical activity and did not adversely affect change in the liking or the relative reinforcing value of TV viewing. Making access to TV contingent on physical activity had no adverse effects on the liking or reinforcing value of TV and even showed a suggestive effect of increased enjoyment of physical activity. Thus, given this intervention markedly increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing in overweight and obese children, long-term evaluations of this interventions to assess sustainability of these behavioral changes and associated health benefits are warranted.

  4. Regulation of reproduction by the circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Xiang; Chen, Si-Yu; Liu, Chang

    2016-12-25

    Mammals synchronize their circadian activity primarily to the cycles of light and darkness in the environment. Circadian rhythm is controlled by the central clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the peripheral clocks in various tissues. More importantly, the central clock can integrate photic/nonphotic signals to generate rhythmic outputs, and then drive the slave oscillators in peripheral tissues through neuroendocrine and behavioral signals. Human reproductive activities, as some other physiological functions, are controlled by the biological clocks. Accumulating lines of epidemiological and genetic evidence indicate that disruption of circadian clock can be directly involved in multiple pathological processes, including infertility. In this review, we mainly discuss the presence of a circadian clock in reproductive tissues and its roles in follicles development, ovulation, spermatogenesis, fertilization and embryo implantation, etc. As the increased shift work and assisted reproductive technologies possibly disrupt circadian rhythmicity to impact reproduction, the importance of circadian rhythms should be highlighted in the regulation of reproductive process.

  5. Minimization of the blank values in the neutron activation analysis of biological samples considering the whole procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, F.; Bereznai, T.; Haeberlin, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    In our determination of trace element contents of animal tissue by neutron activation analysis in the course of structure-activity relationship studies on platinum containing cancer drugs and wound healing we have tried to minimize the blank values that are caused by different sources of contamination during surgery, sampling and the activation analysis procedure. The following topics have been investigated: the abrasions from scalpels made of stainless steel, titanium or quartz; the type of surgery; the homogenisation of the samples before irradiation by use of a ball milll; the surface contaminations of the quartz ampoules that pass into the digestion solution of the irradiated samples. The appropriate measures taken in order to reduce the blank values are described. The results of analyses performed under these conditions indicate the effectiveness of the given measures, especially shown by the low values obtained for the chromium contents of the analysed muscle samples. (author)

  6. Detection of active intraabdominal hemorrhage after blunt trauma: value of delayed CT scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivit, C.J. [Department of Radiology, Rainbow Babies and Children' s Hospital of the University Hospitals of Cleveland and Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Active hemorrhage is a rare finding at CT following blunt abdominal trauma. The time interval between IV contrast administration and scanning the abdomen may impact on the ability to visualize active hemorrhage at CT. We report a case of active hemorrhage associated with splenic injury that was identified only at delayed CT scanning. (orig.)

  7. Detection of active intraabdominal hemorrhage after blunt trauma: value of delayed CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivit, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Active hemorrhage is a rare finding at CT following blunt abdominal trauma. The time interval between IV contrast administration and scanning the abdomen may impact on the ability to visualize active hemorrhage at CT. We report a case of active hemorrhage associated with splenic injury that was identified only at delayed CT scanning. (orig.)

  8. Results of correlation of values of individual behaviour of rats with liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K; Kunz, K

    1976-01-01

    A significant negative correlation was found between the individual animal's horizontal activity in an open field and liver tryptophan pyrrolase (LTP) activity. On the other hand, the duration of immobility in an open field correlated postively and significantly with liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity.

  9. Multistability of delayed complex-valued recurrent neural networks with discontinuous real-imaginary-type activation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yu-Jiao; Hu Hai-Gen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the multistability issue is discussed for delayed complex-valued recurrent neural networks with discontinuous real-imaginary-type activation functions. Based on a fixed theorem and stability definition, sufficient criteria are established for the existence and stability of multiple equilibria of complex-valued recurrent neural networks. The number of stable equilibria is larger than that of real-valued recurrent neural networks, which can be used to achieve high-capacity associative memories. One numerical example is provided to show the effectiveness and superiority of the presented results. (paper)

  10. Advertisement call of Scinax littoralis and S. angrensis (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae, with notes on the reproductive activity of S. littoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel V. Garey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Scinax littoralis and S. angrensis are poorly known Atlantic forest endemic species from the Scinax catharinae group, which is known from southern and southeastern Brazil. Herein, we describe the advertisement calls of these two species and compare them to other species within the S. catharinae group. Additionally, we provide information on breeding sites, and calling activity in S. littoralis. Advertisement calls of S. angrensis and S. littoralis are composed of multi-pulsed notes with multiple frequency bands and frequency modulation. Scinax littoralis has a higher minimum and maximum frequency, and lower dominant frequency than S. angrensis, while Scinax littoralis has a longer call. Scinax littoralis appears to be a habitat generalist, occurring from secondary to mature forests, and breeding both in temporary and in permanent ponds. Male S. littoralis were usually observed calling perched on shrub stems, and displayed satellite behavior when the male density was high.

  11. Business success in Serbian hotels viewed through influence of business activities which contribute to the creation of value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjanović Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of business activities and defining future business plans are based on an analysis of appropriate business performance - financial and non-financial. Value of business performance reflects success of the company. The way of organizing business activities of the company, cooperation among employees, level of capacity utilization, innovation affect on the business performance. This paper analyzes the business activities which contribute to the creation of value (human resource management, marketing activities aimed at the efficient utilization of hotel capacities and activities of innovation and business performance - financial (return on assets, return on equity, employee productivity and non-financial (quality of hotel service, motivation of employees. The main objective of the research is to examine the interrelationship between business activities that contribute to creating value and business performance of the hotel. Results of the regression analyzes leads to the conclusion that the analyzed business activities affect on employee productivity and affect on non-financial performance - the quality of hotel services and motivation of employees.

  12. Gender and social reproduction: historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, B; Brenner, J

    1989-01-01

    It is argued that gender relations and social reproduction were both shaped by macrohistorical processes and shaped the processes. Social reproduction is defined within feminist theory as more than production in the Marxist sense. Societal reproduction is a combination of the organization of production, the organization of social reproduction, the perpetuation of gender, and the continuation of class relations. Social reproduction includes the care and socialization of children and care of the elderly or infirm. Social reproduction includes the organization of sexuality, biological reproduction, and how food, clothing, and shelter are made available. Most social reproduction occurs within the family unit. It is pointed out that variations in the distribution of the work of social reproduction are affected by the family, market, community, and state. The ways in which women construct their own worlds of activity is a central concern. The feminist concept of social reproduction differs from modernization theory, which is concerned with the institutional location of the tasks of social reproduction and the structural effects on the family and gender relations. This literature review focuses only on the history of family strategies and separate gender-related activities. The authors describe the changes in family organization that define men as income producers and women as caretakers, who base child rearing on love and feminine virtue rather than patriarchal authority and religious doctrine. The discussion focuses on the differences in marital relationships, motherhood, and sexuality between upper and middle class and working class women in the 19th century. Among working class women, a good wife was an efficient manager, a skilled domestic worker, and an income earner. The turn of the century was a period of social change marked by smaller average family size, the decline of household production, the rise in real wages, and increased consumption. It is argued that

  13. Energy: reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Penagos, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    The ovulatory activity in the livestock depends on the readiness of nutritious energy with relationship to its use for the nursing. During the early nursing the cup of increment in the production of milk exceeds to the consumption of food, the difference in the energy consumption of the diet with relationship to the energy used for production is a negative energy balance. During the first weeks of nursing this reaches their maximum and it diminishes slowly with the increment in the consumption of dry matter. This first metabolic sign is in an increment in the pulses of hormone luteinizant that acts as and stimulate for the ovary and that with a great readiness of insulin, it takes to the ovarian follicles to respond to the stimulus. The sub-alimentation seems to affect the hypothalamic function and ovarian. The return to the positive energy balance in cows highly producers can be accelerated by the consumption of protected fat. The functions of the lipids are to provide energy for normal maintenance and production, to serve as source of essential fatty acids and eat payee of liposoluble vitamins. The importance of the addition of vegetable fat is that this is not degraded in the rumen but rather it is digested in its entirety in abomasa and absorbed in intestine. The addition of a source of Ca to diets with fats promotes the formation of insoluble soaps achieving that the fat doesn't inhibit the fiber fermentation; the chloride of Ca to be of high solubility in water it is completely ionized in rumen and it is more efficient in the formation of insoluble soaps of Ca. The addition of fat in the diet bears increase in the production of N microbial, inhibition of methane formation, increase and change in population of bacteria and mushrooms. The efficiency of the fat is superior when sources of fatty acids of long chain are used, the employment of these, in its protected form, in a diet, stimulates the number of follicles and it increases its size. The linolic acid is

  14. Rethinking physical activity communication: using focus groups to understand women's goals, values, and beliefs to improve public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, Michelle; Taber, Jennifer M; Patrick, Heather; Thai, Chan L; Oh, April

    2017-05-18

    Communication about physical activity (PA) frames PA and influences what it means to people, including the role it plays in their lives. To the extent that PA messages can be designed to reflect outcomes that are relevant to what people most value experiencing and achieving in their daily lives, the more compelling and effective they will be. Aligned with self-determination theory, this study investigated proximal goals and values that are salient in everyday life and how they could be leveraged through new messaging to better support PA participation among women. The present study was designed to examine the nature of women's daily goals and priorities and investigate women's PA beliefs, feelings, and experiences, in order to identify how PA may compete with or facilitate women's daily goals and priorities. Preliminary recommendations are proposed for designing new PA messages that align PA with women's daily goals and desired experiences to better motivate participation. Eight focus groups were conducted with White, Black, and Hispanic/Latina women aged 22-49, stratified by amount of self-reported PA (29 low active participants, 11 high active participants). Respondents discussed their goals, values, and daily priorities along with beliefs, feelings about and experiences being physically active. Data were collected, coded, and analyzed using a thematic analysis strategy to identify emergent themes. Many of the goals and values that both low and high active participants discussed as desiring and valuing map on to key principles of self-determination theory. However, the discussions among low active participants suggested that their beliefs, feelings, experiences, and definitions of PA were in conflict with their proximal goals, values, and priorities, also undermining their psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Findings from this study can be used to inform and evaluate new physical activity communication strategies that leverage more

  15. Isoflavonoid-based bone-sparing treatments exert a low activity on reproductive organs and on hepatic metabolism of estradiol in ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phrakonkham, Pascal; Chevalier, Joelle; Desmetz, Catherine; Pinnert, Marie-France; Berges, Raymond; Jover, Emmanuel; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Coxam, Veronique; Artur, Yves; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal

    2007-01-01

    The use of soy isoflavones is a potential alternative to hormone replacement therapy in post-menopausal bone-loss prevention. Nevertheless, phytoestrogens can target other organs and may disrupt cell proliferation, or could modify endogenous steroid hormone metabolism. These mechanisms could be linked to an increased risk of developing cancer. We therefore studied the possible side effects of such treatments in an experimental model of menopause. Forty adult female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and fed with a genistein-, daidzein- or equol-supplemented diet at bone-sparing levels (10 mg/kg BW/day) for 3 months. The estrogenic effects were assessed by histological and molecular analyses on reproductive organs. The impact on the oxidative metabolism of estradiol and on associated cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities was evaluated in liver microsomes. The relative wet weights of both the uterus and the vagina were increased in the equol group, but no significant changes in proliferating cell nuclear antigen or hormone receptor mRNA expression were noticed. In contrast, genistein and daidzein did not induce uterotrophy but caused an overexpression of estrogen receptor α mRNA which could correspond to a long-lasting effect of physiological concentrations of estrogens. The hepatic metabolism of estradiol was influenced by daidzein which increased the synthesis of putative mutagenic derivatives. At the same time, genistein favored estrogen 2-hydroxylation, and equol decreased 4-hydroxyestrogen production. Surprisingly, no significant alteration in hepatic CYP activities was detected. Taken together, these results demonstrate that isoflavonoid-based bone-sparing treatments are able to cause side effects on other estrogen-sensitive target organs when given in the long-term

  16. Effect of Water Activity on the Free Fatty Acid Value of Crude Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of water activity, aw on the storage quality of palm oil was examined. Equal proportions of palm oil were put in three different water activity media for a period of 21 days at room temperature. A fourth sample representing the control was placed by the window in the laboratory. Aliquots were withdrawn at an ...

  17. A New Generation of Leaders for Eastern Europe: Values and Attitudes for Active Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    Higher education has a crucial role in developing active citizenship within students. Even though active citizenship skills and competencies have been identified as essential life skills for Europe there is very little progress to date in establishing measures or indicators as to how this might be accomplished. This study provides the first data…

  18. Disease activity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis -value of high resolution CT-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Seong; Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan; Suh, Jin Suk

    1991-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has characteristic clinical and pathologic features. In patients with uniform intra-alveolar cellularity, the process is often referred to as desquamative interstitial pneumonia. When alveolar septal fibrosis predominate, the process is known as usual interstitial pneumonia. Recently most investigators believe that desquamative interstitial pneumonia is the early stage and usual interstitial pneumonia is the late stage of the same disease process. The lone-term survival and the best response to treatment with corticosteroids is found in patients with marked disease activity and little fibrosis. Since disease activity is reflected by interstitial and intraalveolar cellularity, activity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis might result in opacification of air spaces on CT scans. There was no significant difference in estimating the visual HRCT scores of active area between two observers (p>0.05). Activity score of HRCT scan correlated significantly with improvement of DLCO/VA after corticosteroids treatment

  19. Disease activity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis -value of high resolution CT-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Seong; Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan; Suh, Jin Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-01-15

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has characteristic clinical and pathologic features. In patients with uniform intra-alveolar cellularity, the process is often referred to as desquamative interstitial pneumonia. When alveolar septal fibrosis predominate, the process is known as usual interstitial pneumonia. Recently most investigators believe that desquamative interstitial pneumonia is the early stage and usual interstitial pneumonia is the late stage of the same disease process. The lone-term survival and the best response to treatment with corticosteroids is found in patients with marked disease activity and little fibrosis. Since disease activity is reflected by interstitial and intraalveolar cellularity, activity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis might result in opacification of air spaces on CT scans. There was no significant difference in estimating the visual HRCT scores of active area between two observers (p>0.05). Activity score of HRCT scan correlated significantly with improvement of DLCO/VA after corticosteroids treatment.

  20. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  1. INNOVATIVE SYSTEM OF FIXED CAPITAL REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Merzlikina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the basic problems of fixed capital reproduction. There are considered a significant depreciation of fixed assets of Russian enterprises. There are presented arguments in favor of urgency of the problem of reproduction of fixed assets of the Russian Federation. The paper presents theoretical evidence base basic types of fixed capital reproduction. There are identified all possible sources of simple and expanded reproduction of capital. There are considered the role of value and feasibility of depreciation in the formation of Reserve reproduction. Suggested the formation of accounting and analytical management provision fixed capital, as well as an innovative system of fixed capital reproduction, which implies the creation of depreciation , capital, revaluation, liquidation reserves. The algorithm of business valuation based on an innovative system of capital reproduction. The algorithm and the possibility of formation of reserves are considered on a concrete example of one of the industrial enterprises of the city Volgograd. On the basis of the algorithm presented calculations of business valuation of the enterprise. Calculations have shown an increase in value of the business condition of the formation of special reserves, which underlines the necessary and urgency of their formation in accounting policy and economy organizations and enterprises of Russia as a whole.

  2. High value co-products from wine byproducts (II): polyphenols and antioxidant activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Femenia, A.; Gonzalez-Centeno, M. R.; Garau, M. C.; Sastre-Serrano, G.; Rosello, C.

    2009-07-01

    The by-products of the grape/wine industry have recently attracted considerable interest as important sources of high-value antioxidants. these can be extracted from stems, such as resveratrol,and from grape pomace which contains polyphenols, procyanidin and antrocyanins. (Author)

  3. Active Remembrance: The Value and Importance of Making Remembrance Relevant and Personal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Concerned that her students' understanding of and engagement with remembrance were superficial, and faced with the requirement to teach SMSC and British values, Claire McKay sought ways to make them meaningful and contextualised. In this article she explores how she and her colleagues have endeavoured to do this, through a battlefields tour, and a…

  4. Pedo-geological activities with exploration of lignite deposits and their value for soil reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuensche, M.; Richter, H.; Oehme, W.D.

    1983-10-01

    A description is presented of geological conditions facilitating soil reclamation and of the overburden removal technologies to be applied. Pedo-geological pre-exploitation studies are indispensable for soil reclamation and their methods and results are described with a final reference to the value of land reclamation for national economy.

  5. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children's physical activity level: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, K.; Scholten, A.M.; Vries, S.I. de

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in

  6. How do value co-creation activities relate to the perception of firms' innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2011-01-01

    of web search tools and online data on firms’ websites. Two of the key research findings include: i) the identification of three emerging value co-creation components including mutual learning mechanisms, customer relationships enabled through partnerships and cooperation, and resources and processes...

  7. Valuing the Unmarketable: An Ecological Approach to the Externalities Estimate in Fishing Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Franzoi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In a rapidly changing world, sustainability, if it can be said to exist at all, is concept that has attained mythic status, often pursued and rarely reached. In order to improve our capability to cope with environmental problems, adopting an Ecosystem Approach has been suggested. One of the major challenges in the implementation of this new paradigm relates to control of externalities. The recognition and quantification of externalities is often cast as valuing the unmarketable, and there are several approaches that have been proposed. Here, we analyze the opportunity to “feed” the economic valuation with ecological concepts. From an ecological perspective, the energy required to sustain a biomass unit at a given trophic level (TL is the same, whatever the species. We build on this central tenet of ecology to assess the value of a TL unit for each trophic position using fish market data. The results obtained were then used to assign a value to each species living in a given habitat, together with consideration of their ecological role within the community. Estimates of both natural capital and functional value were applied to assess the ecological impacts of mechanical clam harvesting versus the multi-species artisanal fishery in the Venice lagoon. Results are discussed in relation to possible contribution to the implementation of a different management strategy.

  8. Dioxin exposure and porcine reproductive hormonal activity Exposição à dioxina e atividade hormonal reprodutiva porcina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa L. Gregoraszczuk

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD during both the follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle, the direct effect of TCDD was investigated in vitro using a system of primary monolayer cell culture. Granulosa and theca cells were collected from the preovulatory follicles and cultured as a co-culture, thus resembling follicles in vivo. Luteal cells were isolated from the corpora lutea collected during the midluteal phase. In both cases cells were isolated from the ovaries of animals exhibiting natural estrus cycle. Results of these experiments suggest that TCDD decreases estradiol secretion by follicular cells and progesterone secretion by luteal cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was also shown that TCDD disrupts steroidogenesis through its influence on the activity of enzymes involved in the steroid biosynthesis cascade. In luteal cells, its action is mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR and is probably independent of estrogen receptor (ER stimulation. Endocrine disruptors that interfere with estradiol production in the follicles can act as ovulatory disruptors, and while interfering with progesterone production by luteal cells they can act as abortifacients.Para caracterizar a ação da 2,3,7,8-tetraclorodibenzo-p-dioxina (TCDD durante as fases folicular e lútea do ciclo ovariano, o efeito direto da TCDD foi investigado in vitro, utilizando um sistema de cultura celular primária de camada única. Células da granulosa e teca foram coletadas a partir de folículos pré-ovulatórios e cultivadas de forma combinada, simulando folículos in vivo. As células lúteas foram isoladas do corpo lúteo durante a fase lútea média. Em ambos casos as células foram isoladas dos ovários de animais que exibiam um ciclo natural do estro. Os resultados sugerem que a TCDD diminui, de maneira dose-dependente, a secreção de estradiol pelas células foliculares e de progesterona pelas células l

  9. Antithrombin activity, platelet count, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value determined immediately before vaginal delivery among healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Mamoru; Yamada, Takashi; Yamada, Takahiro; Koyama, Takahiro; Akaishi, Rina; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Takeda, Masamitsu; Nishida, Ryutaro; Araki, Naoto; Minakami, Hisanori

    2012-08-01

    To determine the normal reference values for antithrombin (AT) activity, platelet count (Plt), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), and hematocrit value (Ht) immediately before vaginal delivery among healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancies and to determine association of these blood parameters with fetal growth. A complete blood count was performed and the AT activity was examined in 300 consecutive women admitted to hospital at > or = gestational week 36 for labor pains and/or the rupture of fetal membranes. All the women were normotensive and had singleton pregnancies, and none of the women had proteinuria, a weekly weight gain > or = 0.5 kg, or other specific complications upon admission. All the women attempted a vaginal delivery. The medians (5th-95th percentile) were 90% (71-110%) for AT activity, 234x10(9)/L (150-337x10(9)/L) for Plt, 11.0 g/dL (9.5-12.8 g/dL) for Hb, and 34.0% (30.4-38.6%) for Ht. Women with an Hb value of > or = the median (11.0 g/dL) gave birth to significantly smaller infants than their counterparts. A considerable number of healthy women exhibit a reduced AT activity and/or platelet count immediately before delivery. Hemoconcentration evidenced by a raised Hb value adversely effects on infant growth. Our data may be helpful when considering the normal ranges of these blood parameters for healthy parturient women.

  10. THE PROBLEMS OF USING EXEMPTION ACTIVITY VALUES FOR REGULATING THE MANAGEMENT OF SEALED RADIONUCLIDE SOURCES OF GAMMA-RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Barkovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the procedure for exemption of the sealed and unsealed radionuclide sources of gamma radiation from regulatory control. The contradictory nature of the existing set of exemption criteria has been noted, leading, in some cases, to paradoxical situations. It is shown that the exempt activity values determined in NRB-99/2009 and in the international basic safety standards of the IAEA are significantly overestimated (in comparison with the activity values of a point source creating the ambient dose equivalent rate of 1 μSv / h at a distance of 0.1 m for a number of the most widely used gamma-emitting radionuclides, including 22Na, 54Mn, 75Se, 152Eu and 154Eu. It is proposed to revise the current values of exempt activity, bringing them in line with the dose rate criterion for the exempt of sealed radionuclide sources of gamma radiation, and to present them with one significant digit. The corrected values of exempt activity for  seven selected radionuclides are proposed for further use in the process of revision of the national radiation safety standards.

  11. Who I Am: The Meaning of Early Adolescents' Most Valued Activities and Relationships, and Implications for Self-Concept Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Guerin, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Self-concept research in early adolescence typically measures young people's self-perceptions of competence in specific, adult-defined domains. However, studies have rarely explored young people's own views of valued self-concept factors and their meanings. For two major self domains, the active and the social self, this mixed-methods study…

  12. A Comparison of Theoretical and Experimental Values of the Activation Doppler Effect in Some Fast Reactor Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeggblom, H.; Tiren, L.I.

    1968-08-01

    Results of activation Doppler measurements on the U 238 (n,γ) and U 235 (n, fission) reactions in the FR0 and MSCA fast critical assemblies have been compared with theoretical values. The study covers neutron spectra with median fission energies from 50 to 240 keV. The calculated Doppler effect in U 238 in the FR0 cores is 20 - 35 % lower than the measured values. The sensitivity of the theoretical result with regard to changes in cross sections and neutron spectrum has been studied. The theoretical value for U 235 (FR0 core 5) is 4 times higher than the measured one. The report includes a brief description of the DORIX-2 method of calculating effective resonance cross sections appropriate to activation Doppler measurements. References to the cross section data used for the comparisons are also given

  13. A Comparison of Theoretical and Experimental Values of the Activation Doppler Effect in Some Fast Reactor Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeggblom, H; Tiren, L I

    1968-08-15

    Results of activation Doppler measurements on the U{sup 238} (n,{gamma}) and U{sup 235} (n, fission) reactions in the FR0 and MSCA fast critical assemblies have been compared with theoretical values. The study covers neutron spectra with median fission energies from 50 to 240 keV. The calculated Doppler effect in U{sup 238} in the FR0 cores is 20 - 35 % lower than the measured values. The sensitivity of the theoretical result with regard to changes in cross sections and neutron spectrum has been studied. The theoretical value for U{sup 235} (FR0 core 5) is 4 times higher than the measured one. The report includes a brief description of the DORIX-2 method of calculating effective resonance cross sections appropriate to activation Doppler measurements. References to the cross section data used for the comparisons are also given.

  14. The Minister Council decree about intervention level values for particular types of intervention activity and about criteria of recall this activity of 27 April 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.

    2004-01-01

    The decree refers to intervention level values for particular types of intervention activity, such as evacuation, order to leave in closed rooms, application of preparations containing stabile iodine, prohibition or limiting to consume contaminated food or water, temporary or permanent displacement. The intervention level values refer to contamination level values refer to contamination with strontium 90, iodine 131, plutonium 239, americium 241, cesium 134 and cesium 137 of drinking water, milk and food for men and domestic animals. The decree replaces the decrees of 6 August 2002 (Dz. U. no 145, item 1218, 2002 and no 151, item 1463, 2003)

  15. Cost-Effectiveness and Value of Information Analysis of Brief Interventions to Promote Physical Activity in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gc, Vijay Singh; Suhrcke, Marc; Hardeman, Wendy; Sutton, Stephen; Wilson, Edward C F

    2018-01-01

    Brief interventions (BIs) delivered in primary care have shown potential to increase physical activity levels and may be cost-effective, at least in the short-term, when compared with usual care. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence on their longer term costs and health benefits. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of BIs to promote physical activity in primary care and to guide future research priorities using value of information analysis. A decision model was used to compare the cost-effectiveness of three classes of BIs that have been used, or could be used, to promote physical activity in primary care: 1) pedometer interventions, 2) advice/counseling on physical activity, and (3) action planning interventions. Published risk equations and data from the available literature or routine data sources were used to inform model parameters. Uncertainty was investigated with probabilistic sensitivity analysis, and value of information analysis was conducted to estimate the value of undertaking further research. In the base-case, pedometer interventions yielded the highest expected net benefit at a willingness to pay of £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. There was, however, a great deal of decision uncertainty: the expected value of perfect information surrounding the decision problem for the National Health Service Health Check population was estimated at £1.85 billion. Our analysis suggests that the use of pedometer BIs is the most cost-effective strategy to promote physical activity in primary care, and that there is potential value in further research into the cost-effectiveness of brief (i.e., <30 minutes) and very brief (i.e., <5 minutes) pedometer interventions in this setting. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The correlation between biological activity and diffusion-weighted MR imaging and ADC value in cases with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokmen, Bedriye Koyuncu; Sokmen, Dogukan; Ucar, Nese; Ozkurt, Huseyin; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip

    2017-12-31

    Firstly, we aimed to investigate the correlation among dynamic contrasted magnetic resonance (MR) images, diffusion-weighted MR images, and apparent diffusion coefficent (ADC) values in patients with prostate cancer. Secondly, we aimed to investigate the roles of these variables on clinical risk classification and the biological behavior of the prostate cancer. A total of sixty with prostatic adenocarcinoma patients diagnosed between January 2011 and May 2013 were retrospectively included in the study. Risk classification of patients were evaluated as low-risk (Group 1) (n = 20) (Stage T1c-T2a, PSA T3a, PSA > 20 ng/ml, Gleason Score > 7). Diffusion-weighted MR images, dynamic contrasted MR images, and ADC values of the prostates were correlated. ADC values of the cases in Group 3 were lower than those of the other groups (p values of the areas without malignancy did not differ significantly between groups (p > 0.05). Biological activity of the tumor tissue was determined by GS, while a negative correlation was observed between GSs and ADC values of the patients, (p values were obtained. These measured values can play a role in the noninvasive determination of the cellularity of the tumoral mass.

  17. A review of health, planning, insurance and property value issues related to active solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, R.; Spencer, L.; Digby, G.; Battye, L.

    1996-01-01

    The research reported here considers the potential health risks, local authority planning implications, insurance and property value aspects of solar water heating systems. The United Kingdom market for this technology is also discussed. Methodologies employed, including literature reviews, telephone and postal survey and re-analysis of a 1995 survey, are explained. No major problems are identified in any of the target areas although recommendations for water temperature management and coordinated local authority policies on renewable energy are given. (UK)

  18. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of

  19. [Reference values for erythrocyte cholinesterase activity in the working population of Antioquia, Colombia, according to the Michel and EQM techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2003-11-01

    To establish reference values for erythrocyte cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) activity for the active working population of two regions of the department of Antioquia, Colombia, that are located at different altitudes above sea level. We took representative samples from populations of active working persons 18 to 59 years old from two regions in the department of Antioquia: (1) the Aburrá Valley (1 540 m above sea level) and (2) the near east of the department (2 150 m above sea level). We excluded workers who were using cholinesterase-inhibiting substances in their work or at home, those who had a disease that altered their cholinesterase levels, and those who said they were not in good health. We measured the erythrocyte cholinesterase activity using two methods: (1) the Michel method and (2) the EQM method (EQM Research, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America). We carried out the measurements with 827 people, 415 from the Aburrá Valley and 412 from the near east region. We compared proportions using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. We utilized the Student's t test for independent samples to compare two averages. To simultaneously compare three or more averages, analysis of variance was used, followed by the Newman-Keuls multiple-range test. When the variables were not normally distributed or when the variances were not homogeneous, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric analysis of variance was used to compare the medians. Three computer software programs were used in the statistical analysis: SPSS 9.0, SGPlus 7.1, and Epi Info 6.04. In all the statistical tests the level of significance was set at P EQM method was 35.21 U/g hemoglobin (95% CI: 34.82 to 35.60). With the Michel method: (1) the enzymatic activity differed significantly between the two regions, according to the Newman-Keuls test; (2) within each region, the enzymatic activity was significantly higher among males than among females, according to the Newman-Keuls test; and (3) in none of the

  20. An Analysis of Piecewise-Linear and Convex Value Functions for Active Perception POMDPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satsangi, Y.; Whiteson, S.; Spaan, M.T.J.

    2015-01-01

    In active perception tasks, an agent aims to select actions that reduce its uncertainty about a hidden state. While partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) are a natural model for such problems, reward functions that directly penalize uncertainty in the agent's belief can remove the

  1. Are societies with a high value on the Active Ageing Index more age-integrated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); M. Fleischmann (Maria)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCombining round four data from the European Social Survey (ESS) with indicators of Active Ageing, Dykstra and Fleischmann examine conditions conducive to age integration. It uses both a behavioural and an attitudinal measure of age integration: the prevalence of cross-age friendships

  2. Are societies with a high value on the Active Ageing Index more age-integrated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); M. Fleischmann (Maria)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCombining round four data from the European Social Survey (ESS) with indicators of Active Ageing, we examine conditions conducive to age integration. We use both a behavioural and an attitudinal measure of age integration: the prevalence of cross-age friendships and low levels of ageism.

  3. The Value of Picture-Book Reading-Based Collaborative Output Activities for Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chia-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three instructional modes: picture-book reading-only (PRO), picture-book reading plus vocabulary instruction (PRVI), and picture-book reading plus reading-based collaborative output activity (PRCOA) on young adult EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' vocabulary acquisition and retention. Eighty…

  4. Behavioral and physiological flexibility are used by birds to manage energy and support investment in the early stages of reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François VÉzina, Katrina G. SALVANTE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in phenotypic flexibility has increased dramatically over the last decade, but flexibility during reproduction has received relatively little attention from avian scientists, despite its possible impact on fitness. Because most avian species maintain atrophied reproductive organs when not active, reproduction in birds requires major tissue remodeling in preparation for breeding. Females undergo rapid (days recrudescence and regression of their reproductive organs at each breeding attempt, while males grow their organs ahead of time at a much slower rate (weeks and may maintain them at maximal size throughout the breeding season. Reproduction is associated with significant metabolic costs. Egg production leads to a 22–27% increase in resting metabolic rate (RMR over non-reproductive values. This is partly due to the activity of the oviduct, an organ that may allow females to adjust reproductive investment by modulating egg size and quality. In males, gonadal recrudescence may lead to a 30% increase in RMR, but the data are inconsistent and general conclusions regarding energetic costs of reproduction in males will require more research. Recent studies on captive female zebra finches describe the impacts of these costs on daily energy budgets and highlight the strategies used by birds to maintain their investment in reproduction when energy is limited. Whenever possible, birds use behavioral flexibility as a first means of saving energy. Decreasing locomotor activity saves energy during challenges such as egg production or exposure to cold temperatures and is an efficient way to buffer variation in individual daily energy budgets. However, when behavioral flexibility is not possible, birds must rely on flexibility at the physiological level to meet energy demands. In zebra finches breeding in the cold, this results in a reduced pace of laying, likely due to down-regulation of both reproductive and non-reproductive function, allowing

  5. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    OpenAIRE

    Shine, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoreg...

  6. Value addition activities and challenges of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa farmers in Enegu state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Iwuchukwu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the value addition practices and challenges of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa farmers in Enugu State of Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was adopted in selecting a total of seventy-two (72 respondents used for the study. Results revealed that all (100% of the respondents processed African yam bean through sun drying, husking/hulling and preservation/storage while about 88.9% of the respondents processed the crop through frying/baking while 87.5% and 70.8% of the respondents indicated they were involved in winnowing and grinding. Lack of basic physical infrastructure (M=2.39, lack/poor technology on processing, preservation etc (2.35, difficulty in accessing loan (M=2.28 and lack of technology/innovation on production of the crop (M=2.28 were among the constraining factors to value addition in African yam bean. It is recommended that policy makers should work towards providing the necessary technology and basic infrastructure to farmers in order to increase their productivity, income and commercialization of this underutilized but important crop. Research efforts are also required to improve its agronomic characteristics and promote its cultivation.

  7. The correlation between biological activity and diffusion-weighted MR imaging and ADC value in cases with prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedriye Koyuncu Sokmen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Firstly, we aimed to investigate the correlation among dynamic contrasted magnetic resonance (MR images, diffusion-weighted MR images, and apparent diffusion coefficent (ADC values in patients with prostate cancer. Secondly, we aimed to investigate the roles of these variables on clinical risk classification and the biological behavior of the prostate cancer. Methods: A total of sixty with prostatic adenocarcinoma patients diagnosed between January 2011 and May 2013 were retrospectively included in the study. Risk classification of patients were evaluated as low-risk (Group 1 (n = 20 (Stage T1c-T2a, PSA T3a, PSA > 20 ng/ml, Gleason Score > 7. Diffusion-weighted MR images, dynamic contrasted MR images, and ADC values of the prostates were correlated. Results: ADC values of the cases in Group 3 were lower than those of the other groups (p 0.05. Biological activity of the tumor tissue was determined by GS, while a negative correlation was observed between GSs and ADC values of the patients, (p < 0.001. Conclusion: In tumors with higher Gleason scores, lower ADC values were obtained. These measured values can play a role in the noninvasive determination of the cellularity of the tumoral mass.

  8. Effects of testosterone and its metabolites on aromatase-immunoreactive cells in the quail brain: relationship with the activation of male reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, J; Foidart, A; Absil, P; Harada, N

    1996-01-01

    The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone (T) into 17 beta-estradiol and plays a pivotal role in the control of reproduction. In particular, the aromatase activity (AA) located in the preoptic area (POA) of male Japanese quail is a limiting step in the activation by T of copulatory behavior. Aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) cells of the POA are specifically localized within the cytoarchitectonic boundaries of the medial preoptic nucleus(POM), a sexually dimorphic and steroid-sensitive structure that is a necessary and sufficient site of steroid action in the activation of behavior. Stereotaxic implantation of aromatase inhibitors in but not around the POM strongly decreases the behavioral effects of a systemic treatment with T of castrated males. AA is decreased by castration and increased by aromatizable androgens and by estrogens. These changes have been independently documented at three levels of analysis: the enzymatic activity measured by radioenzymatic assays in vitro, the enzyme concentration evaluated semi-quantitatively by immunocytochemistry and the concentration of its messenger RNA quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These studies demonstrate that T acting mostly through its estrogenic metabolites regulates brain aromatase by acting essentially at the transcriptional level. Estrogens produced by central aromatization of T therefore have two independent roles: they activate male copulatory behavior and they regulate the synthesis of aromatase. Double label immunocytochemical studies demonstrate that estrogen receptors(ER) are found in all brain areas containing ARO-ir cells but the extent to which these markers are colocalized varies from one brain region to the other. More than 70% of ARO-ir cells contain detectable ER in the tuberal hypothalamus but less than 20% of the cells display this colocalization in the POA. This absence of ER in ARO-ir cells is also observed in the POA of the rat brain. This suggests that

  9. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  10. Value Added Tax Impacton Economic Activity: Importance, Implication and Assessment –The Romanian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MUREȘAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of VAT upon the economic activity in Romania. By developing a new mathematical model we offer several dy-namic and effcient possibilities for observing the modifcations caused by the temporary reduc-tion of taxes upon the personal incomes which suggest that the resulting additional incomes are often saved and less consumed. Analyzing several temporary reductions in incomes, the model describes also a scheme regarding the developments of economic growth. Based on this scheme, are revealed the different arrangements in which a present economic activity infuences a future one. According to the proposed model, it is highlighted that the national income increases as a response to the aggregated demand.

  11. Prosobranch snails as test organisms for the assessment of endocrine active chemicals--an overview and a guideline proposal for a reproduction test with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duft, Martina; Schmitt, Claudia; Bachmann, Jean; Brandelik, Cornelius; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2007-02-01

    Recently, prosobranch snails have been recommended as promising candidates for test organisms for the assessment of endocrine active chemicals. Three prosobranch snail species, the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, the freshwater ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis, and the marine netted whelk Nassarius reticulatus are portrayed and their respective biotests are presented together with results of laboratory experiments and biological effect monitoring surveys in the field. All characterized species are highly sensitive toward xeno-androgens [triphenyltin (TPT), tributyltin (TBT), methyltestosterone (MT) and fenarimol (FEN)], and xeno-estrogens [bisphenol A (BPA), octylphenol (OP), ethinylestradiol], and show effects at environmentally relevant, rather low concentrations in laboratory experiments. For exposure to the xeno-androgen TPT, EC(10) values range between 15.9 and 29.0 ng as Sn/L (sediment 0.03 mug as Sn/kg), for TBT, EC(10) values are found between 3.42 and 37.8 ng as Sn/L (sediment 2.98 microg as Sn/kg) and effect concentrations for FEN are calculated as 18.6 ng/L (EC(10)) and 0.19 microg/kg (EC(50) sediment; EC(10) not calculable). Exposure to xeno-estrogens yielded EC(10 )values of 13.9 ng/L (0.19 microg/kg) for BPA, a NOEC of <1 microg/L (EC(10) of 0.004 microg/kg) for OP and a NOEC of 1 ng/l (EC(10) sediment of 2.2 microg/kg) for ethinylestradiol. Responses to androgens comprised the development of imposex and the reduction of fertility or embryo production, effects of estrogens included the stimulation of egg production and embryo production, and the increased weight of glands. Also, biological effect monitoring studies with P. antipodarum and N. reticulatus in several rivers or estuarine areas revealed the capacity of the biotests to detect an androgenic or estrogenic potential of sediment samples. A comparison of the three test species with regard to sensitivity and practical aspects in routine application favors the freshwater mudsnail P

  12. Comparison of the Nutritive Value, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Sonchus asper and Sonchus oleraceus

    OpenAIRE

    Florence O. Jimoh; Adeolu A. Adedapo; Anthony J. Afolayan

    2011-01-01

    Many local vegetable materials are under-exploited because of inadequate scientific knowledge of their nutritional potentials. For this reason, the nutritional, phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the acetone, methanol and water extracts of the leaves of Sonchus asper and Sonchus oleraceus were investigated. The proximate analysis showed that the plants contained appreciable percentage of moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohy...

  13. The value of psychosocial group activity in nursing education: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Jung

    2018-05-01

    Nursing faculty often struggle to find effective teaching strategies for nursing students that integrate group work into nursing students' learning activities. This study was conducted to evaluate students' experiences in a psychiatric and mental health nursing course using psychosocial group activities to develop therapeutic communication and interpersonal relationship skills, as well as to introduce psychosocial nursing interventions. A qualitative research design was used. The study explored nursing students' experiences of the course in accordance with the inductive, interpretative, and constructive approaches via focus group interviews. Participants were 17 undergraduate nursing students who registered for a psychiatric and mental health nursing course. The collected data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in 28 codes, 14 interpretive codes, 4 themes (developing interpersonal relationships, learning problem-solving skills, practicing cooperation and altruism, and getting insight and healing), and a core theme (interdependent growth in self-confidence). The psychosocial group activity provided constructive opportunities for the students to work independently and interdependently as healthcare team members through reflective learning experiences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictive value of European Scleroderma Group Activity Index in an early scleroderma cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevskaya, Tatiana; Baron, Murray; Pope, Janet E

    2017-07-01

    To estimate the effect of disease activity, as measured by the European Scleroderma Research Group Activity Index (EScSG-AI), on the risk of subsequent organ damage in a large systemic sclerosis (SSc) cohort. Of 421 SSc patients from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group database with disease duration of ⩽ 3 years, 197 who had no evidence of end-stage organ damage initially and available 3 year follow-up were included. Disease activity was assessed by the EScSG-AI with two variability measures: the adjusted mean EScSG-AI (the area under the curve of the EScSG-AI over the observation period) and persistently active disease/flare. Outcomes were based on the Medsger severity scale and included accrual of a new severity score (Δ ⩾ 1) overall and within organ systems or reaching a significant level of deterioration in health status. After adjustment for covariates, the adjusted mean EScSG-AI was the most consistent predictor of risk across the study outcomes over 3 years in dcSSc: disease progression defined as Δ ⩾ 1 in any major internal organ, significant decline in forced vital capacity and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, severity of visceral disease and HAQ Disability Index worsening. In multivariate analysis, progression of lung disease was predicted solely by adjusted mean EScSG-AI, while the severity of lung disease was predicted the adjusted mean EScSG-AI, older age, modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) and initial severity. The EScSG-AI was associated with patient- and physician-assessed measures of health status and overpowered the mRSS in predicting disease outcomes. Disease activity burden quantified with the adjusted mean EScSG-AI predicted the risk of deterioration in health status and severe organ involvement in dcSSc. The EScSG-AI is more responsive when done repeatedly and averaged. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  15. Value of Web-based learning activities for nursing students who speak English as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jane; Salamonson, Yenna; Du, Hui Yun; Andrew, Sharon; Frost, Steven A; Dunncliff, Kirstin; Davidson, Patricia M

    2011-07-01

    There is an increasing need to address the educational needs of students with English as a second language. The authors assessed the value of a Web-based activity to meet the needs of students with English as a second language in a bioscience subject. Using telephone contact, we interviewed 21 Chinese students, 24 non-Chinese students with English as a second language, and 7 native English-speaking students to identify the perception of the value of the intervention. Four themes emerged from the qualitative data: (1) Language is a barrier to achievement and affects self-confidence; (2) Enhancement intervention promoted autonomous learning; (3) Focusing on the spoken word increases interaction capacity and self-confidence; (4) Assessment and examination drive receptivity and sense of importance. Targeted strategies to promote language acculturation and acquisition are valued by students. Linking language acquisition skills to assessment tasks is likely to leverage improvements in competence. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...

  17. Comparison of the Nutritive Value, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Sonchus asper and Sonchus oleraceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence O. Jimoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many local vegetable materials are under-exploited because of inadequate scientific knowledge of their nutritional potentials. For this reason, the nutritional, phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the acetone, methanol and water extracts of the leaves of Sonchus asper and Sonchus oleraceus were investigated. The proximate analysis showed that the plants contained appreciable percentage of moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohydrate. The plants are also rich in minerals, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, total phenols and low levels of saponins, phytate and alkaloids. The extracts of the 2 plants also showed strong antioxidant antibacterial properties.

  18. Reference values comparisons between DMD and C57B whole blood mice using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele Bugno; Suzuki, Miriam F.; Sant'Anna, Oswaldo A.; Carvalho, Maria Denise F.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In health area animal models are used to perform clinical investigations, for example, to test new medicines for medical diagnostic and treatment investigations before to be applied in human being. Currently, the conventional bio chemistries analyses are performed using serum, but when small size animal model is involved the biological material can be scarce restricting its collection. In the last years the NAA has been successfully applied at LEER at IPEN for investigation of several elements in blood of small sized animals, resulting in an efficiency procedure for clinical practice. The advantage in using whole blood is relate to the fact that this nuclear procedure needs small quantity of biological material (10 to 100 ?L of whole blood ) when compared with the conventional analyses (0.5 to 1.0 ml of serum). But, to use whole blood to perform these biochemistry investigations it is essential to establish the reference value in blood for the species or animal models. In this study we intend to evaluate a normal range of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na concentrations in whole blood using NAA in samples of DMDmdx and C57B/6J mice model used for muscular dystrophy investigations. Thirty whole blood samples were analyzed in the IEA R1- nuclear reactor at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). These data contribute for applications in veterinary medicine related to biochemistry analyses using whole blood. (author)

  19. Longterm Performance Trends Analysis and ManagingExpectation for Active Value1 (Case Study: PT Indocement Tunggal Prakarsa, Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdana Wahyu Santosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research used financial ratio and managing expectations for active value about performance of PT IndocementTunggal Prakarsa, Tbk (INTP as one of largest cement company with a strong brand image at Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX. Unlike traditional corporate-performance metric, this study use growth value of matrix. INTP is well placed to meet Indonesia’s growing per capita of cement consumption. The financial data sources for this research are the audited annual reports of INTP2002-2008. The analysis focused on compounds annual growth rate (CAGR,  profitability, total assets turnover, cost of capital, market value added & market risk and market perception map. This research also used growth value matrix to analysis the market perception of INTP in 2008 that combined current performance with future growth opportunity. The result of market perception mapping for 2008-2009 shows that INTP was just on market average of current performance index but the future growth opportunity was above the market average level. The conclusion explains that INTP has very good long-term fundamental performance’s trend and the company is indicated has strong capabilityto be excellent value manager in the future.

  20. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  1. Reproductive effects on skeletal health in Shuar women of Amazonian Ecuador: a life history perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madimenos, Felicia C; Snodgrass, J Josh; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon, Tara J; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological research suggest that bone mineral density (BMD) in women is shaped by various reproductive factors such as parity and lactation patterns. However, the extent of these effects on BMD remains unclear because of contradictory findings and a focus on industrialized populations. Because fertility patterns in these groups are vastly different than those of women from non-Western, subsistence populations, our current understanding of the reproductive effects on skeletal health is incomplete. Using a life history perspective, this study examines the relationship between reproductive factors and bone density among women from the Indigenous Shuar population, an Amazonian Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist group. This preliminary, cross-sectional study included 130 premenopausal and postmenopausal women (14-86 years old) from the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador. Anthropometrics were recorded, as was estimated BMD using a calcaneal ultrasonometer. A reproductive history questionnaire was administered that included questions regarding menarche, parity, lactation patterns, and menopause. Among postmenopausal women, early menarche and greater stature were significantly associated with higher bone density values. Among premenopausal women, few significant relationships between bone values and reproductive variables were documented; effects of lactation appeared to be transient and restored following weaning. Although preliminary and not based on longitudinal data, these findings suggest that the effects of reproduction are transient as the system of calcium homeostasis in premenopausal women efficiently restores the bone loss that results from metabolically active reproductive states. Further, this research suggests that the timing of early life history events may canalize bone density phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. What environmental factors influence resumption of valued activities post stroke: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellema, Sandra; van Hees, Suzanne; Zajec, Jana; van der Sande, Rob; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria Wg; Steultjens, Esther Mj

    2017-07-01

    Identify the environmental factors that influence stroke-survivors' reengagement in personally valued activities and determine what specific environmental factors are related to specific valued activity types. PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched until June 2016 using multiple search-terms for stroke, activities, disability, and home and community environments. An integrated mixed-method systematic review of qualitative, quantitative and mixed-design studies was conducted. Two researchers independently identified relevant studies, assessed their methodological quality and extracted relevant findings. To validly compare and combine the various findings, all findings were classified and grouped by environmental category and level of evidence. The search yielded 4024 records; 69 studies were included. Most findings came from low-evidence-level studies such as single qualitative studies. All findings were consistent in that the following factors facilitated reengagement post-stroke: personal adapted equipment; accessible environments; transport; services; education and information. Barriers were: others' negative attitudes and behaviour; long distances and inconvenient environmental conditions (such as bad weather). Each type of valued activity, such as mobility or work, had its own pattern of environmental influences, social support was a facilitator to all types of activities. Although in many qualitative studies others' attitudes, behaviour and stroke-related knowledge were seen as important for reengagement, these factors were hardly studied quantitatively. A diversity of environmental factors was related to stroke-survivors' reengagement. Most findings came from low-evidence-level studies so that evidence on causal relationships was scarce. In future, more higher-level-evidence studies, for example on the attitudes of significant others, should be conducted.

  3. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  4. A novel quantitative approach to women's reproductive strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritha H Milne

    Full Text Available The patterned way in which individuals allocate finite resources to various components of reproduction (e.g. mating effort, reproductive timing and parental investment is described as a reproductive strategy. As energy is limited, trade-offs between and within aspects of reproductive strategies are expected. The first aim of this study was to derive aspects of reproductive strategies using complete reproductive histories from 718 parous Western Australian women. Factor analysis using a subset of these participants resulted in six factors that represented 'short-term mating strategy', 'early onset of sexual activity', 'reproductive output', 'timing of childbearing', 'breastfeeding', and 'child spacing'. This factor structure was internally validated by replication using a second independent subset of the data. The second aim of this study examined trade-offs between aspects of reproductive strategies derived from aim one. Factor scores calculated for each woman were incorporated in generalised linear models and interaction terms were employed to examine the effect of mating behaviour on the relationships between reproductive timing, parental investment and overall reproductive success. Early sexual activity correlates with early reproductive onset for women displaying more long-term mating strategies. Women with more short-term mating strategies exhibit a trade-off between child quantity and child quality not observed in women with a long-term mating strategy. However, women with a short-term mating strategy who delay reproductive timing exhibit levels of parental investment (measured as breastfeeding duration per child similar to that of women with long-term mating strategies. Reproductive delay has fitness costs (fewer births for women displaying more short-term mating strategies. We provide empirical evidence that reproductive histories of contemporary women reflect aspects of reproductive strategies, and associations between these strategic

  5. Time Spent by Breast Imaging Radiologists to Perform Value-Added Activities at an Academic Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mesa, Fernando; Klevos, Geetika; Arheart, Kristopher; Banks, James; Yepes, Monica; Net, Jose

    2017-04-01

    Health care reform in the United States has generated a paradigm shift in the practice of radiology aimed at increasing the degree of patient-centered care. We conducted a study to quantify the amount of time breast imaging radiologists spend on value-added activities at an academic comprehensive cancer center located in Miami, Florida, and accredited by the American College of Radiology as a Breast Imaging Center of Excellence. A prospective, observational study was conducted during a period of 20 consecutive workdays. Three participating breast imaging radiologists maintained a real-time log of each activity performed. A generalized linear model was used to perform a 1-way analysis of variance. An alpha level of .05 was used to determine statistical significance. The average daily time dedicated to these activities was 92.1 minutes (range, 56.4-132.2). The amount of time significantly differed among breast imaging radiologists and correlated with their assigned daily role (P value-added activities to help improve patients' experience across the continuity of their care. We propose that similar studies be conducted at other institutions to better assess the magnitude of this finding across different breast imaging care settings.

  6. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial soy sauce by odour activity value and omission test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunzi; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Cai, Yu; Cui, Chun; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-01-15

    Twenty-seven commercial soy sauces produced through three different fermentation processes (high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce, HLFSS; low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce, LSFSS; Koikuchi soy sauce, KSS) were examined to identify the aroma compounds and the effect of fermentation process on the flavour of the soy sauce was investigated. Results showed that 129 volatiles were identified, of which 41 aroma-active components were quantified. The types of odorants occurring in the three soy sauce groups were similar, although their intensities significantly differed. Many esters and phenols were found at relatively high intensities in KSS, whereas some volatile acids only occurred in LSFSS. Furthermore, 23 aroma compounds had average OAVs>1, among which 3-methylbutanal, ethyl acetate, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal exhibited the highest average OAVs (>100). In addition, omission tests verified the important contribution of the products resulting from amino acid catabolism to the characteristic aroma of soy sauce. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. 'Maximising shareholder value': a detailed insight into the corporate political activity of the Australian food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary

    2017-04-01

    To gain deeper insight into the corporate political activity (CPA) of the Australian food industry from a public health perspective. Fifteen interviews with a purposive sample of current and former policy makers, public health advocates and academics who have closely interacted with food industry representatives or observed food industry behaviours. All participants reported having directly experienced the CPA of the food industry during their careers, with the 'information and messaging' and 'constituency building' strategies most prominent. Participants expressed concern that food industry CPA strategies resulted in weakened policy responses to addressing diet-related disease. This study provides direct evidence of food industry practices that have the potential to shape public health-related policies and programs in Australia in ways that favour business interests at the expense of population health. Implications for public health: This evidence can inform policy makers and public health advocates and be used to adopt measures to ensure that public interests are put at the forefront as part of the policy development and implementation process. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Restraint status improves the predictive value of motor vehicle crash criteria for pediatric trauma team activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Andrew P; Dassinger, Melvin S; Recicar, John F; Smith, Samuel D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna R; Nick, Todd G; Maxson, Robert T

    2012-12-01

    Most trauma centers incorporate mechanistic criteria (MC) into their algorithm for trauma team activation (TTA). We hypothesized that characteristics of the crash are less reliable than restraint status in predicting significant injury and the need for TTA. We identified 271 patients (age, <15 y) admitted with a diagnosis of motor vehicle crash. Mechanistic criteria and restraint status of each patient were recorded. Both MC and MC plus restraint status were evaluated as separate measures for appropriately predicting TTA based on treatment outcomes and injury scores. Improper restraint alone predicted a need for TTA with an odds ratios of 2.69 (P = .002). MC plus improper restraint predicted the need for TTA with an odds ratio of 2.52 (P = .002). In contrast, the odds ratio when using MC alone was 1.65 (P = .16). When the 5 MC were evaluated individually as predictive of TTA, ejection, death of occupant, and intrusion more than 18 inches were statistically significant. Improper restraint is an independent predictor of necessitating TTA in this single-institution study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E Paul

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated-measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (N = 79) 18-26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On 2 subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (ps > .05). Physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms, β = -5.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-6.93, -3.52] (p physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted increased positive affect, β = 3.08, 95% CI [1.87, 4.28] (p physical activity produced effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Cut-off values for classifying active children and adolescents using the Physical Activity Questionnaire: PAQ-C and PAQ-A

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez-Porres, Javier; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Sardinha, Luis B.; López-Fernández, Iván; Carnero, Elvis A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Physical Activity Questionnaire for children and adolescents (PAQ-C & PAQ-A) has been widely used in research and field settings. However, there is a lack of information about its final score meaning. Objective: To determine PAQ-C and PAQ-A score cut-off values using physical activity (PA) thresholds objectively measured as reference criteria. Methods: 146 children (n = 83 boys, n = 63 girls) and 234 adolescents (n = 115 boys, n = 119 girls) participated in this study. Accel...

  11. The Future of human reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overall, Christine

    1989-01-01

    ... Contradictions III SOCIAL POLICY QUESTIONS Pregnancy as Justification for Loss of Juridical Autonomy Sanda Rodgers 174 Prenatal Diagnosis: Reproductive Choice? Reproductive Control? Abby Lippman ...

  12. The future of human reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overall, Christine

    1989-01-01

    ... Contradictions III SOCIAL POLICY QUESTIONS Pregnancy as Justification for Loss of Juridical Autonomy Sanda Rodgers 174 Prenatal Diagnosis: Reproductive Choice? Reproductive Control? Abby Lippman ...

  13. Measuring the value of process improvement initiatives in a preoperative assessment center using time-driven activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Katy E; Albright, Heidi W; Frenzel, John C; Incalcaterra, James R; Rubio, Augustin C; Jones, Jessica F; Feeley, Thomas W

    2013-12-01

    The value and impact of process improvement initiatives are difficult to quantify. We describe the use of time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) in a clinical setting to quantify the value of process improvements in terms of cost, time and personnel resources. Difficulty in identifying and measuring the cost savings of process improvement initiatives in a Preoperative Assessment Center (PAC). Use TDABC to measure the value of process improvement initiatives that reduce the costs of performing a preoperative assessment while maintaining the quality of the assessment. Apply the principles of TDABC in a PAC to measure the value, from baseline, of two phases of performance improvement initiatives and determine the impact of each implementation in terms of cost, time and efficiency. Through two rounds of performance improvements, we quantified an overall reduction in time spent by patient and personnel of 33% that resulted in a 46% reduction in the costs of providing care in the center. The performance improvements resulted in a 17% decrease in the total number of full time equivalents (FTE's) needed to staff the center and a 19% increase in the numbers of patients assessed in the center. Quality of care, as assessed by the rate of cancellations on the day of surgery, was not adversely impacted by the process improvements. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Cost management in the internal value chain of integrated application of activity-based costing, Kaizen concept and target costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić-Tomić Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is an effort to view the possibilities of integrated use of target costing, activity based costing and Kaizen concept in the internal value chain as the central link of the entire chain. The idea is to stimulate the company management to think about the costs, position they take in the structure of price cost and their influence on forming the sales price since it is very important to produce right product for the consumer, of desired quality and functionality but along with as low production costs as possible. It is therefore needed to construct the right design of a product and provide its production at the shortest possible time along with as low costs as possible which will impact the efficiency of the entire value chain.

  15. Assessment of odor activity value coefficient and odor contribution based on binary interaction effects in waste disposal plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuandong; Liu, Jiemin; Yan, Luchun; Chen, Haiying; Shao, Huiqi; Meng, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Odor activity value (OAV) has been widely used for the assessment of odor pollution from various sources. However, little attention has been paid to the extreme OAV variation and potential inaccuracies of odor contribution assessment caused by odor interaction effects. The objective of this study is to assess the odor interaction effect for precise assessment of odor contribution. In this paper, samples were collected from a food waste disposal plant, and analyzed by instrumental and olfactory method to conclude odorants' occurrence and OAV. Then odor activity value coefficient (γ) was first proposed to evaluate the type and the level of binary interaction effects based on determination of OAV variation. By multiplying OAV and γ, odor activity factor (OAF) was used to reflect the real OAV. Correlation between the sum of OAF and odor concentration reached 80.0 ± 5.7%, which was 10 times higher than the sum of OAV used before. Results showed that hydrogen sulfide contributed most (annual average 66.4 ± 15.8%) to odor pollution in the waste disposal plant. However, as odor intensity of samples in summer rising, odor contribution of trimethylamine increased to 48.3 ± 3.7% by the strong synergistic interaction effect, while odor contribution of phenol decreased to 0.1 ± 0.02% for the increasing antagonistic interaction effect.

  16. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard

    2003-05-22

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies.

  17. North-south asymmetry of solar activity as a superposition of two realizations - the sign and absolute value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalyan, O. G.; Obridko, V. N.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Since the occurrence of north-south asymmetry (NSA) of alternating sign may be determined by different mechanisms, the frequency and amplitude characteristics of this phenomenon should be considered separately. Aims: We propose a new approach to the description of the NSA of solar activity. Methods: The asymmetry defined as A = (N-S)/(N + S) (where N and S are, respectively, the indices of activity of the northern and southern hemispheres) is treated as a superposition of two functions: the sign of asymmetry (signature) and its absolute value (modulus). This approach is applied to the analysis of the NSA of sunspot group areas for the period 1874-2013. Results: We show that the sign of asymmetry provides information on the behavior of the asymmetry. In particular, it displays quasi-periodic variation with a period of 12 yr and quasi-biennial oscillations as the asymmetry itself. The statistics of the so-called monochrome intervals (long periods of positive or negative asymmetry) are considered and it is shown that the distribution of these intervals is described by the random distribution law. This means that the dynamo mechanisms governing the cyclic variation of solar activity must involve random processes. At the same time, the asymmetry modulus has completely different statistical properties and is probably associated with processes that determine the amplitude of the cycle. One can reliably isolate an 11-yr cycle in the behavior of the asymmetry absolute value shifted by half a period with respect to the Wolf numbers. It is shown that the asymmetry modulus has a significant prognostic value: the higher the maximum of the asymmetry modulus, the lower the following Wolf number maximum. Conclusions: A fundamental nature of this concept of NSA is discussed in the context of the general methodology of cognizing the world. It is supposed that the proposed description of the NSA will help clarify the nature of this phenomenon.

  18. The major differences in chemical composition and antibacterial activity of two closely related Leonotis species (Lamiaceae may have taxonomic value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Eloff

    2010-01-01

    crude extract of L. microphylla was 58, 33, 113 and 15 µg/ml against the four pathogens respectively. The MIC of the L. dysophylla extracts were 110, 95, 113 and 63 µg/ml respectively. If the total activity was calculated by dividing the quantity in mg extracted from one gram of each species with the MIC, the following values were obtained against the respective bacteria using the L. microphylla extract: 700, 1400, 381 and 2100 ml/g. The values for the L. dysophylla extract were 381, 420, 420 and 700 ml/g. This means that if one gram of dried leaves of L. microphylla were extracted with acetone it could be diluted to 2100 ml and it would still kill E. faecalis. These results not only prove the possible use of chemical and biological activity as taxonomic markers, but also the potential value of L. microphylla acetone extracts in treating infections with P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis. The activity of the crude extract against P. aeruginosa was as good as or better than the activity of ampicillin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethroptin or sulfi soxazole. The activity against E. faecalis was as good as or better than ampicillin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin or sulfi soxazole. If the acetone leaf extract of L. microphylla is stable and not toxic there is a good possibility of developing a commercially useful antibacterial product from it. The results indicate the taxonomic value of chemical parameters and biological activity and support the view that the two taxa should be considered as different species.

  19. A Novel Quantitative Approach to Women’s Reproductive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Fritha H.; Judge, Debra S.

    2012-01-01

    The patterned way in which individuals allocate finite resources to various components of reproduction (e.g. mating effort, reproductive timing and parental investment) is described as a reproductive strategy. As energy is limited, trade-offs between and within aspects of reproductive strategies are expected. The first aim of this study was to derive aspects of reproductive strategies using complete reproductive histories from 718 parous Western Australian women. Factor analysis using a subset of these participants resulted in six factors that represented ‘short-term mating strategy’, ‘early onset of sexual activity’, ‘reproductive output’, ‘timing of childbearing’, ‘breastfeeding’, and ‘child spacing’. This factor structure was internally validated by replication using a second independent subset of the data. The second aim of this study examined trade-offs between aspects of reproductive strategies derived from aim one. Factor scores calculated for each woman were incorporated in generalised linear models and interaction terms were employed to examine the effect of mating behaviour on the relationships between reproductive timing, parental investment and overall reproductive success. Early sexual activity correlates with early reproductive onset for women displaying more long-term mating strategies. Women with more short-term mating strategies exhibit a trade-off between child quantity and child quality not observed in women with a long-term mating strategy. However, women with a short-term mating strategy who delay reproductive timing exhibit levels of parental investment (measured as breastfeeding duration per child) similar to that of women with long-term mating strategies. Reproductive delay has fitness costs (fewer births) for women displaying more short-term mating strategies. We provide empirical evidence that reproductive histories of contemporary women reflect aspects of reproductive strategies, and associations between these

  20. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades select......, discussing how selective reproduction engages with issues of long-standing theoretical concern in anthropology, such as politics, kinship, gender, religion, globalization, and inequality....... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...

  1. [Assisted reproductive technologies and ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaisch-Allart, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Since the first birth after in vitro fertilization more than 5 million of IVF babies are born in the world. Assisted reproductive technologies captivate the public, they allow maternity without ovary (oocyte donation), without uterus (surrogate mother), paternity without spermatozoids (sperm donation), parentality without limits of age, parentality after death and homoparentality. These technologies arise a lot of ethics questions, the problem is that the answers are not the same all-round the world, laws are based on morals, beliefs, faiths, and convictions. Theses variations arise themselves questions on the value of these non-universal answers.

  2. Cross border reproductive care in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Pennings, G; Ferraretti, A P

    2010-01-01

    The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients.......The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients....

  3. Gene pathways that delay Caenorhabditis elegans reproductive senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng C Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive senescence is a hallmark of aging. The molecular mechanisms regulating reproductive senescence and its association with the aging of somatic cells remain poorly understood. From a full genome RNA interference (RNAi screen, we identified 32 Caenorhabditis elegans gene inactivations that delay reproductive senescence and extend reproductive lifespan. We found that many of these gene inactivations interact with insulin/IGF-1 and/or TGF-β endocrine signaling pathways to regulate reproductive senescence, except nhx-2 and sgk-1 that modulate sodium reabsorption. Of these 32 gene inactivations, we also found that 19 increase reproductive lifespan through their effects on oocyte activities, 8 of them coordinate oocyte and sperm functions to extend reproductive lifespan, and 5 of them can induce sperm humoral response to promote reproductive longevity. Furthermore, we examined the effects of these reproductive aging regulators on somatic aging. We found that 5 of these gene inactivations prolong organismal lifespan, and 20 of them increase healthy life expectancy of an organism without altering total life span. These studies provide a systemic view on the genetic regulation of reproductive senescence and its intersection with organism longevity. The majority of these newly identified genes are conserved, and may provide new insights into age-associated reproductive senescence during human aging.

  4. Psychological predictors of reproductive attitudes among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkov V.M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal was to determine psychological predictors of reproductive attitudes among medical students. Material and Methods. The survey of 84 students (of the 3rd and the 5th year of medical faculty of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky was carried out using a combination of methods (questionnaire, testing aimed to achieve the research goal. Results. Features of reproductive attitudes and reproductive intentions of students, as well as psychological characteristics of youth, such as personal maturity, belief in people and value orientations were studied. Psy- chological predictors of reproductive attitudes among medical students were determined. Conclusion. It was revealed that reproductive attitudes among students of the 5th year were higher than those of the 3rd year. There were gender differences in psychological predictors of reproductive attitudes among students. It was experimentally established that existence of faith in people, high level of personal maturity, high importance of personal values, altruistic values and values of acceptance of others had a positive impact on reproductive attitudes among young people. Based on the results of the study, recommendations were developed with the aim to improve reproductive attitudes and psychological readiness for parenting of medical students.

  5. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  6. Environment, epigenetics and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K

    2017-07-01

    A conference summary of the third biannual Kenya Africa Conference "Environment, Epigenetics and Reproduction" is provided. A partial special Environmental Epigenetics issue containing a number of papers in Volume 3, Issue 3 and 4 are discussed.

  7. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... With a special focus on placental toxicity, this book is the only available reference to connect the three key risk stages, and is the only resource to include reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish, and wildlife.

  8. Reproductive data for groundfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ROCKFISH database houses data from rockfish species collected by the SWFSC FED along the California coast as part of a reproductive study originating in the...

  9. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the surrogate and to the male partner. Surrogacy can be used when the female of the ... party reproduction (sperm, egg, and embryo donation and surrogacy): A guide for patients . Retrieved May 31, 2016, ...

  10. Reproductive Liberty and Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Carol A. Kates

    2004-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence pointing to a looming Malthusian catastrophe, governmental measures to reduce population have been opposed both by religious conservatives and by many liberals, especially liberal feminists. Liberal critics have claimed that 'utilitarian' population policies violate a 'fundamental right of reproductive liberty'. This essay argues that reproductive liberty should not be considered a fundamental human right, or certainly not an indefeasible right. It should, instead...

  11. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  12. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  13. Opportunities for Promoting Physical Activity in Rural Communities by Understanding the Interests and Values of Community Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Physical activity (PA has well-established health benefits, but most Americans do not meet national guidelines. In southeastern Missouri, trails have been developed to increase rates of PA. Although this has had success, broad-scale interventions will be needed to improve rates further. In this study, we surveyed residents of southeastern Missouri to identify ways to improve rates of PA. Methods. We conducted a telephone survey in 2015 of adults (n=524 from eight rural Missouri towns that had walking trails, regarding their activities and interests. Findings. Forty percent of respondents reported both walking and meeting PA recommendations, 29% reported walking but not meeting PA recommendations, and the remainder did not walk or did not answer. Respondents who used the trails were significantly more likely to meet PA recommendations (odds ratio = 2.7; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 4.5. Certain values and interests that may encourage PA or draw people to trails were common. Conclusions. The group that walked but did not meet PA recommendations would be the ideal group to target for intervention, which could focus on their reported values and interests (e.g., personal relationships, being outdoors. Use of walking trails was associated with meeting PA recommendations.

  14. Opportunities for Promoting Physical Activity in Rural Communities by Understanding the Interests and Values of Community Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas; Eyler, Amy A; Tabak, Rachel G; Valko, Cheryl; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) has well-established health benefits, but most Americans do not meet national guidelines. In southeastern Missouri, trails have been developed to increase rates of PA. Although this has had success, broad-scale interventions will be needed to improve rates further. In this study, we surveyed residents of southeastern Missouri to identify ways to improve rates of PA. We conducted a telephone survey in 2015 of adults ( n = 524) from eight rural Missouri towns that had walking trails, regarding their activities and interests. Forty percent of respondents reported both walking and meeting PA recommendations, 29% reported walking but not meeting PA recommendations, and the remainder did not walk or did not answer. Respondents who used the trails were significantly more likely to meet PA recommendations (odds ratio = 2.7; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 4.5). Certain values and interests that may encourage PA or draw people to trails were common. The group that walked but did not meet PA recommendations would be the ideal group to target for intervention, which could focus on their reported values and interests (e.g., personal relationships, being outdoors). Use of walking trails was associated with meeting PA recommendations.

  15. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Vijayan Kumara; Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective: This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women’s reproductive health in develo...

  16. Slow recovery of tropical old-field rainforest regrowth and the value and limitations of active restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoo, Luke P; Freebody, Kylie; Kanowski, John; Catterall, Carla P

    2016-02-01

    There is current debate about the potential for secondary regrowth to rescue tropical forests from an otherwise inevitable cascade of biodiversity loss due to land clearing and scant evidence to test how well active restoration may accelerate recovery. We used site chronosequences to compare developmental trajectories of vegetation between self-organized (i.e., spontaneous) forest regrowth and biodiversity plantings (established for ecological restoration, with many locally native tree species at high density) in the Australian wet tropics uplands. Across 28 regrowth sites aged 1-59 years, some structural attributes reached reference rainforest levels within 40 years, whereas wood volume and most tested components of native plant species richness (classified by species' origins, family, and ecological functions) reached less than 50% of reference rainforest values. Development of native tree and shrub richness was particularly slow among species that were wind dispersed or animal dispersed with large (>10 mm) seeds. Many species with animal-dispersed seeds were from near-basal evolutionary lineages that contribute to recognized World Heritage values of the study region. Faster recovery was recorded in 25 biodiversity plantings of 1-25 years in which wood volume developed more rapidly; native woody plant species richness reached values similar to reference rainforest and was better represented across all dispersal modes; and species from near-basal plant families were better (although incompletely) represented. Plantings and regrowth showed slow recovery in species richness of vines and epiphytes and in overall resemblance to forest in species composition. Our results can inform decision making about when and where to invest in active restoration and provide strong evidence that protecting old-growth forest is crucially important for sustaining tropical biodiversity. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Reproductive dynamics of Pacific sanddab, Citharichthys sordidus, off the central coast of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Lyndsey S.; Payne, Amber M.; Field, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Female Pacific sanddab were collected from the Monterey Bay, California to describe their reproductive strategy and annual reproductive cycle, as well as to estimate length at maturity, fecundity, spawning fraction (SF), and spawning interval (SI). Captive females were held to examine degradation of spawning markers and confirmed the biological spawning capabilities of the species. The reproductive season extended from May through January, as determined through macroscopic and histological examination of ovaries. Oocyte development was asynchronous, and an indeterminate fecundity pattern was displayed. Absolute and relative batch fecundity values were variable (means = 6663 eggs and 54 eggs g- 1 somatic weight, respectively) and significantly related to maternal length. During the period of highest reproductive activity, SF ranged from 0.42 to 0.98, suggesting some females were spawning on a daily basis. Monthly SF and SI were related to length, with smaller females having a truncated season and lower SF compared to larger females. Lengths at 50% (119 mm) and 95% (149 mm) maturity showed a downward shift relative to the 1940s, though the magnitude and cause of this shift remain unknown. This study highlights the importance of considering demographic shifts and size-related dynamics when modeling a stock's reproductive potential.

  18. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J.; Larsen, John Christian; Christiansen, Pia

    1996-01-01

    environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal...

  19. Cultural and Ethical Challenges of Assisted Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the cultural and ethical issues arising from the use of Assisted Reproductive Health Technologies. ... Legitimacy of children born through ART, religious obligation, patriarchy, polygamy and value of children are cultural issues surrounding ARTs while decision making about it, discrimination against ...

  20. Social context and reproductive potential affect worker reproductive decisions in a eusocial insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yagound

    Full Text Available Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps, the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be investigated and taken into account to understand the regulation of reproduction in insect societies. However, we know virtually nothing about the proximate mechanisms at the basis of worker reproductive decisions. Here, we test the hypothesis that the capacity of workers to reproduce in foreign colonies lies in their ability to react differently according to the colonial context and whether this reaction is influenced by a particular internal state. Using the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we show that workers exhibit an extremely high reproductive plasticity which is conditioned by the social context they experience. Fertile workers reintroduced into their mother colony reverted to sterility, as expected. On the contrary, a high level of ovary activity persisted in fertile workers introduced into a foreign nest, and this despite more frequent direct contacts with the queen and the brood than control workers. Foreign workers' reproductive decisions were not affected by the resident queen, their level of fertility being similar whether or not the queen was removed from the host colony. Workers' physiological state at the time of introduction is also of crucial importance, since infertile workers failed to develop a reproductive phenotype in a foreign nest. Therefore, both internal and environmental factors appear to condition individual reproductive strategies in this species, suggesting that more complex decision-making mechanisms are involved in the regulation

  1. The value of Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy in active disease and remission phase of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghari, M.; Fallahi, B.; Eftekhari, M.; Irvani, M.; Izadyar, S.; Esmaili, J.; Beiki, D.; Fard, A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: 99m Tc methoxy isobutyl isonitrile ( 99m Tc -MIBI)has been proposed as a tumor seeking agent in malignant disease. The goal of this study is to evaluate the frequency distribution of the different patterns, intensity and extension of abnormal uptake identified in MIBI scan in relation with various clinical status of the patients diagnosed as a multiple myeloma. Methods: forty-three patients entered the study, including six patients with no prior treatment , 22 patients who received autologous bone morrow graft, and 15 patients with history of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Plasma protein electrophoresis for monoclonal antibody, bone morrow biopsy and urine analysis for Bence-Jones protein has been carried out and standard criteria were used for diagnosis of active disease and remission phase for each patients. The extension of each lesion(E-score) on scintigraphy were categorized into E 0 -E 3 by three nuclear physicians who were blinded to the patient's clinical condition. I-score was also obtained with comparing the intensity of the lesions with intensity of myocardial uptake and classified as I 0 -I 3 . Results: the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 99m Tc -MIBI scan for determining active lesions and released cases were 69%, 100%, 100% and 60%, respectively. Nineteen patients were initially thought to be in remission phase, but scintigraphy was abnormal in 5 cases who were diagnosed as active myeloma later in the course of the study. There was a significant correlation between clinical status and pattern, intensity and extension of the abnormal uptake of 99m Tc -MIBI. Also a significant correlation between intensity and extension of the abnormal tracer uptake with serum monoclonal component and urine Bence-Jones protein was noted, however no correlation between blood hemo globulin and degree of extension in scintigraphy was seen. Conclusion: Our study suggests the pattern, extension and intensity of

  2. Social Reproduction in the Live Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Thorburn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the most recent wave of struggles a changed logic of activism is evident (Dyer-Witheford, 2015. Research on this wave has often emphasised the interactions of the digital (through online forms of activism, communication, and coordination with the embodied (in assemblies, spatial occupations, and face-to-face encounters (Gerbaudo, 2012. Although gender has been considered in regard to these struggles (Herrera, 2014 feminist concerns over social reproduction – concerns which have also been central to the contemporary epoch of struggle (Brown, et al, 2013 – have been largely neglected.   Social reproduction refers to the capacities of populations to reproduce themselves and through this to reproduce the material basis of the economy (Bezanson and Luxton, 2006; Federici, 2012. It is a site wherein human beings and capital compete for the reproduction of living bodies, and contemporary social movements have become ground zero for such socially reproductive contestations (Thorburn, 2015. Within contemporary movements, struggles over social reproduction are increasingly channelled through digital networks as well as embodied practices. This digital-embodied convergence opens up strengths and weaknesses in the contemporary epoch of social/political contestation.   In this paper I seek to explicate how alternative feminist modes of social reproduction emerge through digital networks in contemporary social movements and compare this digital social reproduction to more embodied forms also witnessed. Using a case study of Concordia University Television’s live streaming of Quebec’s 2012 student strike, as well as the live streaming initiatives in the anti-police brutality protests in Ferguson and Baltimore 2015, this paper will suggest future horizons of digital and embodied activism around social reproduction focused on media forms within social movements. Based on ethnographic research, including participant observation and interviews, I

  3. Social influences and reproductive health of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Biljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive health represents a state of complete physical, mental and social prosperity, and not just the absence of illness or weakness, and it refers to reproductive processes, functions and systems. Adolescents, young people from the age of ten to nineteen, are yet to achieve their reproductive function, thus their reproductive health and behavior are very significant both from the individual and social standpoint. Risky behavior, which represents the main cause of diseases that young people contract most often, in the field of sexuality often lead to unplanned pregnancies and abortions, as well as diseases from sexually transmitted infections. The extensiveness can be decreased by prevention. Reproductive health promotion, as well as general health promotion, understands a social surrounding that supports healthy behavior styles. Above all, the family, schoolmates, health and school systems, mass media, without neglecting the importance of economic, social and political security in society, political and legal solutions, as well as activities of nongovernmental, religious and other organizations. Their impact, in complex interaction, directly and indirectly influence youth behavior and determine the decisions they make regarding reproductive health.

  4. Economic value analysis of the return from the Korean astronaut program and the science culture diffusion activity in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Soyeon; Jang, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Hyo Suk; Yu, Jong-Phil; Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Joohee; Hur, Hee-Young

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we analyze the economic effects from the Korean Astronaut Program (KAP) and the subsequent Science Culture Diffusion Activity (SCDA). Korea has had a huge practical effect on the development of science and technology and has increased international awareness of Korea by producing Korea's first astronaut. There has also been a large, ripple effect on space related industries. In addition, the KAP has exercised a far-reaching influence on Korean society and culture by boosting all science and engineering and inspiring national pride. After the KAP, astronauts' outreach activities, such as lectures for the general public; interviews on television, newspapers and magazines; participating in children's science camps; and distributing publications and DVDs about astronaut program for general public, were instituted for diffusing science culture. Thus, positive effects such as the promotion of Korea's level of technology, student interest in science and engineering fields, and the expansion of the industrial base were reinforced after the KAP. This study is aimed at evaluating the economic significance and the value of return through analyzing the effects of the KAP and the subsequent Science Culture Diffusion Activity.

  5. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  6. Reproductive activity and biochemical composition of the pullet carpet shell Venerupis senegalensis (Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca: Bivalvia from Ria de Aveiro (northwestern coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Joaquim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study characterizes the reproductive cycle of Venerupis senegalensis (=V. pullastra from Ria de Aveiro (Portugal as well as its nutrient storage and exploitation strategy. The reproductive cycle followed a seasonal cycle that correlated negatively with sea surface temperature, and comprised a ripe stage in winter followed by a spawning period that began in late winter and ended in the early summer. This extended spawning may be an advantageous strategy for the species because it ensures a continuous supply of settlers. Gametogenesis began in late summer/early autumn and intensified with the decrease in temperature during autumn. The condition index increased even during the spawning period, which indicates that there is rapid recovery and that reserves are accumulated during late summer and used later in the gametogenic process. Proteins did not contribute significantly to gametogenesis and the glycogen pattern is typical of conservative species, since gametogenesis depends largely on the amount of glycogen stored. The lipid storage and utilization cycle showed that gametogenesis took place in autumn/winter and that energy reserves were accumulated in summer.

  7. Reduced-order model based active disturbance rejection control of hydraulic servo system with singular value perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengwen; Quan, Long; Zhang, Shijie; Meng, Hongjun; Lan, Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Hydraulic servomechanism is the typical mechanical/hydraulic double-dynamics coupling system with the high stiffness control and mismatched uncertainties input problems, which hinder direct applications of many advanced control approaches in the hydraulic servo fields. In this paper, by introducing the singular value perturbation theory, the original double-dynamics coupling model of the hydraulic servomechanism was reduced to a integral chain system. So that, the popular ADRC (active disturbance rejection control) technology could be directly applied to the reduced system. In addition, the high stiffness control and mismatched uncertainties input problems are avoided. The validity of the simplified model is analyzed and proven theoretically. The standard linear ADRC algorithm is then developed based on the obtained reduced-order model. Extensive comparative co-simulations and experiments are carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of reference values of elements in whole blood of the wistar rats using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2011-01-01

    Some investigations, especially biochemistry analysis, can be performed using whole blood if the normality limits are established. The present study deals with the determination of reference values for elements of clinical interest, in whole blood of Wistar rats using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Usually these small-sized animals are used as guinea-pig on experiments that involves testing new medicines and medical diagnostic studies. In this investigation, the reference values for blood were determined for: Br (0.0011 - 0.0095 gL -1 ), Ca (0.0 - 0.66 gL -1 ), Cl (2.35 - 4.91 gL -1 ), K (1.00 - 3.12 gL -1 ), Mg (0.044 - 0.108 gL -1 ), Na (1.13 - 3.09 gL -1 ) and S (0.53 - 1.81 gL -1 ). These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time by selecting species that fits to the experimental model as a clinical reference as well as performing biochemical analyses in whole blood using small quantities (few μL) compared to the conventional analyses performed in serum (few mL). (author)

  9. Determination of reference values of elements in whole blood of the wistar rats using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: laura@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Some investigations, especially biochemistry analysis, can be performed using whole blood if the normality limits are established. The present study deals with the determination of reference values for elements of clinical interest, in whole blood of Wistar rats using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Usually these small-sized animals are used as guinea-pig on experiments that involves testing new medicines and medical diagnostic studies. In this investigation, the reference values for blood were determined for: Br (0.0011 - 0.0095 gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.0 - 0.66 gL{sup -1}), Cl (2.35 - 4.91 gL{sup -1}), K (1.00 - 3.12 gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.044 - 0.108 gL{sup -1}), Na (1.13 - 3.09 gL{sup -1}) and S (0.53 - 1.81 gL{sup -1}). These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time by selecting species that fits to the experimental model as a clinical reference as well as performing biochemical analyses in whole blood using small quantities (few {mu}L) compared to the conventional analyses performed in serum (few mL). (author)

  10. Altruism and Reproductive Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey J. Fitzgerald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined how different types of reproductive limitations — functional (schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia, physical (malnutrition, and sexual (bisexuality and homosexuality — influenced altruistic intentions toward hypothetical target individuals of differing degrees of relatedness (r = 0, .25, and .50. Participants were 312 undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on altruism toward hypothetical friends, half-siblings, and siblings with these different types of reproductive limitations. Genetic relatedness and reproductive limitations did not influence altruistic decision-making when the cost of altruism was low but did as the cost of altruism increased, with participants being more likely to help a sibling over a half-sibling and a half-sibling over a friend. Participants also indicated they were more likely to help a healthy (control person over people with a reproductive limitation. Of the three types of reproductive limitations, functional limitations had the strongest effect on altruistic decision-making, indicating that people were less likely to help those who exhibit abnormal social behavior.

  11. Franchising reproductive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-12-01

    Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context.

  12. Franchising Reproductive Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-01-01

    Objectives Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Methods Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Results Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Conclusions Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context. PMID:15544644

  13. Circadian rhythms and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Michael J; Kennaway, David J

    2006-09-01

    There is a growing recognition that the circadian timing system, in particular recently discovered clock genes, plays a major role in a wide range of physiological systems. Microarray studies, for example, have shown that the expression of hundreds of genes changes many fold in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, liver heart and kidney. In this review, we discuss the role of circadian rhythmicity in the control of reproductive function in animals and humans. Circadian rhythms and clock genes appear to be involved in optimal reproductive performance, but there are sufficient redundancies in their function that many of the knockout mice produced do not show overt reproductive failure. Furthermore, important strain differences have emerged from the studies especially between the various Clock (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycle Kaput) mutant strains. Nevertheless, there is emerging evidence that the primary clock genes, Clock and Bmal1 (Brain and Muscle ARNT-like protein 1, also known as Mop3), strongly influence reproductive competency. The extent to which the circadian timing system affects human reproductive performance is not known, in part, because many of the appropriate studies have not been done. With the role of Clock and Bmal1 in fertility becoming clearer, it may be time to pursue the effect of polymorphisms in these genes in relation to the various types of infertility in humans.

  14. Reproductive ecology of lampreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    Lampreys typically spawn in riffle habitats during the spring. Spawning activity and diel (i.e., during daylight and at night) behavioral patterns are initiated when spring water temperatures increase to levels that coincide with optimal embryologic development. Nests are constructed in gravel substrate using the oral disc to move stones and the tail to fan sediment out of the nest. Spawning habitat used by individual species is generally a function of adult size, where small-bodied species construct nests in shallower water with slower flow and smaller gravel than large-bodied species. The mating system of lampreys is primarily polygynandrous (i.e., where multiple males mate with multiple females). Lamprey species with adult total length less than 30 cm generally spawn communally, where a nest may contain 20 or more individuals of both sexes. Lamprey species with adult sizes greater than 35 cm generally spawn in groups of two to four. Operational sex ratios of lampreys are highly variable across species, populations, and time, but are generally male biased. The act of spawning typically starts with the male attaching with his oral disc to the back of the female’s head; the male and female then entwine and simultaneously release gametes. However, alternative mating behaviors (e.g., release of gametes without paired courtship and sneaker males) have been observed. Future research should determine how multiple modalities of communication among lampreys (including mating pheromones) are integrated to inform species recognition and mate choice. Such research could inform both sea lamprey control strategies and provide insight into possible evolution of reproductive isolation mechanisms between paired lamprey species in sympatry.

  15. Maternal and genetic influences on production and reproduction traits in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der H.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The profitability of pig production may be expressed as a function of reproductivity and productivity. The optimal selection pressure on reproductivity relative to productivity depends on the response to selection and the economic value of the response. Reproductive performance is primarily a

  16. Evaluation of volatiles from two subtropical strawberry cultivars using GC-olfactometry, GC-MS odor activity values, and sensory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavor profiles of two Florida strawberry cultivars were determined using GC-olfactometry,GC-MS, odor activity values (OAVs) and sensory analysis. Thirty-six aroma active compounds were detected using GC-O. Thirty-four were identified. The major odor-active compounds in decreasing intensity were: me...

  17. Human reproductive cloning and reasons for deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, D A

    2008-08-01

    Human reproductive cloning provides the possibility of genetically related children for persons for whom present technologies are ineffective. I argue that the desire for genetically related children is not, by itself, a sufficient reason to engage in human reproductive cloning. I show this by arguing that the value underlying the desire for genetically related children implies a tension between the parent and the future child. This tension stems from an instance of a deprivation and violates a general principle of reasons for deprivation. Alternative considerations, such as a right to procreative autonomy, do not appear helpful in making the case for human reproductive cloning merely on the basis of the desire for genetically related children.

  18. Reproductive prognosis in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt Hansen, Maj V; Dalsgaard, Torur; Hartwell, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproductive long-term prognosis of women with and without endometriosis, to explore changes over time, and to quantify the contribution of artificial reproductive techniques. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark 1977-2009. SAMPLE: Data retrieved from four national...... registries. Among 15-49-year-old women during the period 1977-82, 24 667 were diagnosed with endometriosis and 98 668 (1:4) women without endometriosis were age-matched. METHODS: To assess long-term reproductive prognosis, all pregnancy outcomes were identified among the women with and without endometriosis...... until the end of 2009. To explore changes over time, the endometriosis cohorts were followed for 15 years from the years 1980, 1986, 1992 and 1998, with the corresponding control cohorts. All pregnancy outcomes were categorized into naturally or artificially conceived pregnancies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES...

  19. Incorporating reproductive management of beef heifers into a veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poock, Scott E; Payne, Craig A

    2013-11-01

    Veterinarians play an important role in reproductive management of dairy herds across the United States; however, in many cases, their involvement in reproductive management of beef herds has been limited. The reasons for this vary; however, there are ways for veterinarians to become more actively involved in reproductive management of US beef herds. Veterinarians can have an impact on producers' profits by implementing their skills and knowledge to beef heifer development programs. This article provides an overview of the services veterinarians can provide to beef cattle producers that pertain to reproductive management of replacement beef heifers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Reproductive Technology and Surrogacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ásgeirsson, Hrafn; Nordal, Salvör

    2015-01-01

    During the past few years, reproductive technology and surrogacy have emerged in a number of European countries as issues of debate. There has been a steady increase in the use of reproductive technology in the Nordic countries, as well as an increase in the use of cross-border medical treatment in order to achieve pregnancy. At the same time, a number of ethical issues have been raised concerning the rights of the participants, including the children. In the fall of 2013, the Nordic Committe...

  1. Functional Amyloids in Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewetson, Aveline; Do, Hoa Quynh; Myers, Caitlyn; Muthusubramanian, Archana; Sutton, Roger Bryan; Wylie, Benjamin J; Cornwall, Gail A

    2017-06-29

    Amyloids are traditionally considered pathological protein aggregates that play causative roles in neurodegenerative disease, diabetes and prionopathies. However, increasing evidence indicates that in many biological systems nonpathological amyloids are formed for functional purposes. In this review, we will specifically describe amyloids that carry out biological roles in sexual reproduction including the processes of gametogenesis, germline specification, sperm maturation and fertilization. Several of these functional amyloids are evolutionarily conserved across several taxa, including human, emphasizing the critical role amyloids perform in reproduction. Evidence will also be presented suggesting that, if altered, some functional amyloids may become pathological.

  2. Reproductive And Sexual Health - The Unfinished Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Srivastava

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The international community for the first time during the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 defined the Reproductive Health, not in a demographic context, but as a right and matter of choice for even individual. In the years that followed other International Conferences on women issues reinforced this consensus. The human right relevant of Reproductive Health includes : The right to life and health, The freedom to marry and determine the number, timing and spacing of children, The right to access the information, The right to discrimination and equality for men and women, The right to liberty and security of the person, including freedom from sexual violence and coercion, The right to privacy, The women all over the world have the same reproductive health needs, however, the factors like migration and urbanization that influence the involuntary movement of populations within the national frontiers render them more vulnerable, including to reproductive health problems. This increases their needs for preventive and curative care, including sendees related to safe motherhood, family planning, prevention and treatment of complicated abortions. HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STls. The consequences of sexual violence, traditional values, extended families, new friends and unfamiliar ways of life, inadequate reproductive health sendees etc are unusual impediments for availing the sendees.

  3. Reproductive biology of the Del Norte salamander (Plethodon elongatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara A. Wheeler; Hartwell H. Welsh Jr.; Lisa M. Ollivier

    2013-01-01

    We examined seasonal reproductive patterns of the Del Norte Salamander, Plethodon elongatus, in mixed conifer and hardwood forests of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. Seasonal size differences in reproductive structures suggested that maximum spermatogenic activity occurred during the late summer, with spermatozoa transfer to the...

  4. Controlled reproduction of penaeid shrimp: a contribution to its improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaro Montoya, J.

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation deals with controlled reproduction of penaeid shrimp. New knowledge about natural reproductive activity of Penaeus occidentalis in Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, is presented. Since in vitro fertilization of open thelycum shrimp proved unsuccessful, a hypothesis is given to

  5. Expression and functional implications of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in canine reproductive tissues during normal pregnancy and parturition and at antiprogestin induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Mariusz Pawel; Meyer, Andrea; Hoffmann, Bernd; Aslan, Selim; Boos, Alois

    2011-03-15

    PPARγ is a nuclear hormone receptor of the PPAR family of transcription factors closely related to the steroid hormone receptors serving multiple roles in regulating reproductive function. Endogenous factors from the arachidonic acid metabolites group serve as ligands for PPARs. PPARγ modifies the steroidogenic capacity of reproductive tissues and has been defined as a key mediator of biological actions of progesterone receptor in granulosa cells; it modulates biochemical and morphological placental trophoblast differentiation during implantation and placentation. However, no such information is available for the dog. Hence, the expression and possible functions of PPARγ were assessed in corpora lutea (CL) and utero/placental (Ut/Pl) compartment collected from bitches (n = 3 to 5) on days 8 to 12 (pre-implantation), 18 to 25 (post-implantation), 35 to 40 (mid-gestation) of pregnancy and at prepartal luteolysis. Additionally, 10 mid-pregnant bitches were treated with the antiprogestin Aglepristone [10mg/Kg bw (2x/24h)]; ovariohysterectomy was 24h and 72 h after the 2nd treatment. Of the two PPARγ isoforms, PPARγ1 was the only isoform clearly detectable in all canine CL and utero/placental samples. The luteal PPARγ was upregulated throughout pregnancy, a prepartal downregulation was observed. Placental expression of PPARγ was elevated after implantation and at mid-gestation, followed by a prepartal downregulation. All changes were more pronounced at the protein-level suggesting that the PPARγ expression may be regulated at the post-transcriptional level. Within the CL PPARγ was localized to the luteal cells. Placental expression was targeted solely to the fetal trophoblast cells; a regulatory role of PPARγ in canine placental development possibly through influencing the invasion of fetal trophoblast cells is suggested. Treatment with Aglepristone led to downregulation of PPARγ in either compartment, implying the functional interrelationship with

  6. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  7. A STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FOAM-WASHING AGENT SPECIMENS AT ACIDIC pH VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strilets O. P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is well-known that any parapharmaceutical substance, in particular, foam-washing agents comprising water in combination with detergents, extracts, water-soluble vitamins, viscosity regulators, pH, etc., is the ideal environment for microbial growth. Therefore, it is indispensable to use preservatives to protect any foam-washing agent from possible contamination by microorganisms. Their main advantages are: presence of a single antimicrobial and antifungal effect, expanded range of effects, decrease in the risk of resistance of microorganisms and decrease in the toxicity and concentration of the preserving mixture. In this regard, the shelf life of parapharmaceutical substances is not provided through the use of large quantities of preservatives, but thanks to their rational combination. Materials and Methods. For this study, we have made a number of samples of foam washing bases with a number of preservatives, which are often used in developing foam-washing agents with acidic pH value, namely: sample number 1 – foam washing base + sodium benzoate; sample number 2 – foam washing base + «Euxyl K300» (phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, bulylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, isobutylaraben; sample number 3 – foam washing base + «Germaben II» (polypropylene glycol, diazolium dinomovine, methylparaben, propylparaben; sample number 4 – foam washing base + «Nipaquard CMB» (benzyl alcohol, triethylene glycol, chloromethylisothiazoline, methylisothiazoline. The concentration of preservative in each sample was 0.1% (average concentration that is recommended for developing foam-washing agents. The antimicrobial activity of prototype gels was studied in vitro by diffusion in agar (“wells” method. The antimicrobial activity was measured immediately after sample preparation. All the studies were performed in aseptic conditions using a laminar box (biological safety cabinet AS2-4E1 "Esco" Indonesia. Results. According to the

  8. Role of leptin in female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Sánchez-Jiménez, Flora; Maymó, Julieta; Dueñas, José L; Varone, Cecilia; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive function is dependent on energy resources. The role of weight, body composition, fat distribution and the effect of diet have been largely investigated in experimental female animals as well as in women. Any alteration in diet and/or weight may induce abnormalities in timing of sexual maturation and fertility. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in the fine coordination of energy balance and reproduction are largely unknown. The brain and hypothalamic structures receive endocrine and/or metabolic signals providing information on the nutritional status and the degree of fat stores. Adipose tissue acts both as a store of energy and as an active endocrine organ, secreting a large number of biologically important molecules termed adipokines. Adipokines have been shown to be involved in regulation of the reproductive functions. The first adipokine described was leptin. Extensive research over the last 10 years has shown that leptin is not only an adipose tissue-derived messenger of the amount of energy stores to the brain, but also a crucial hormone/cytokine for a number of diverse physiological processes, such as inflammation, angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, immune function, and most importantly, reproduction. Leptin plays an integral role in the normal physiology of the reproductive system with complex interactions at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. In addition, leptin is also produced by placenta, where it plays an important autocrine function. Observational studies have demonstrated that states of leptin excess, deficiency, or resistance can be associated with abnormal reproductive function. This review focuses on the leptin action in female reproduction.

  9. Reproductive cycles of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, G W

    2011-04-01

    The cervids are a complex assemblage of taxa showing extreme diversity in morphology, physiology, ecology and geographical distribution. Reproductive strategies adopted by various species are also diverse, and include a range from highly seasonal to completely aseasonal birth patterns. The recent growth in knowledge on cervid reproduction is strongly biased towards the larger-bodied, gregarious mixed grazer-browser species that have adapted well to human management and commercialisation. These species tend to represent 'K-selected' climax species characterised by very productive annual breeding success, singleton births and long breeding life (10+ years). Conversely, we know relatively little about the reproductive patterns of the 'r-selected' smaller-bodied, solitary (and often highly territorial), forest-dwelling browser species, often characterised by great fecundity (twinning) and shorter breeding life (<10 years). This group includes many of the endangered cervid taxa. This review extends earlier reviews to include more recent work on cervid reproductive cycles, particularly in relation to environmental factors influencing gestation length. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  11. Melatonin and female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Perceptually optimal color reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Ridder, de H.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    What requirements do people place on optimal color reproduction of real-life scenes? We suggest that when people look at images containing familiar categories of objects, two primary factors shape their subjective impression of how optimal colors are reproduced: perceived naturalness and perceived

  13. African Journal of Reproductive Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Reproductive Health (AJRH) is published by the Women's Health and ... review articles, short reports and commentaries on reproductive health in Africa. ... Social norms and adolescents' sexual health: an introduction for ...

  14. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  15. Reproduction numbers of infectious disease models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline van den Driessche

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This primer article focuses on the basic reproduction number, ℛ0, for infectious diseases, and other reproduction numbers related to ℛ0 that are useful in guiding control strategies. Beginning with a simple population model, the concept is developed for a threshold value of ℛ0 determining whether or not the disease dies out. The next generation matrix method of calculating ℛ0 in a compartmental model is described and illustrated. To address control strategies, type and target reproduction numbers are defined, as well as sensitivity and elasticity indices. These theoretical ideas are then applied to models that are formulated for West Nile virus in birds (a vector-borne disease, cholera in humans (a disease with two transmission pathways, anthrax in animals (a disease that can be spread by dead carcasses and spores, and Zika in humans (spread by mosquitoes and sexual contacts. Some parameter values from literature data are used to illustrate the results. Finally, references for other ways to calculate ℛ0 are given. These are useful for more complicated models that, for example, take account of variations in environmental fluctuation or stochasticity. Keywords: Basic reproduction number, Disease control, West Nile virus, Cholera, Anthrax, Zika virus

  16. The role of nitric oxide in reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCann S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays a crucial role in reproduction at every level in the organism. In the brain, it activates the release of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH. The axons of the LHRH neurons project to the mating centers in the brain stem and by afferent pathways evoke the lordosis reflex in female rats. In males, there is activation of NOergic terminals that release NO in the corpora cavernosa penis to induce erection by generation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP. NO also activates the release of LHRH which reaches the pituitary and activates the release of gonadotropins by activating neural NO synthase (nNOS in the pituitary gland. In the gonad, NO plays an important role in inducing ovulation and in causing luteolysis, whereas in the reproductive tract, it relaxes uterine muscle via cGMP and constricts it via prostaglandins (PG.

  17. Reproduction elevates the corticosterone stress response in common fruit bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Stefan M; Smith, Carolynn L; Denzel, Andrea J; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2006-04-01

    Changes in reproductive state or the environment may affect the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-andrenal (HPA) axis. However, little is known about the dynamics of the resulting corticosteroid stress response, in particular in tropical mammals. In this study, we address the modulation of corticosterone release in response to different reproductive conditions and seasonality in 326 free-living common fruit-eating bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) on Barro Colorado Island in Panama during dry and wet seasons. We present strong evidence that stress sensitivity is primarily modulated by reproductive condition. In reproductively active females, corticosterone increases were more rapid and reached higher levels, but also decreased significantly faster than in inactive females. The corticosterone response was weaker in reproducing males than in females and delayed compared to non-reproductive males. Testes volume in reproductively active males was negatively correlated with corticosterone concentrations. Our findings suggest differentiated dynamics in the corticosterone stress response between sexes, potentially reflecting conflicting ecological demands. In females, a strong acute corticosterone response may represent high stress- and risk-sensitivity that facilitates escape and thus helps to protect reproduction. In males, suppression during reproductive activity could reflect lowered stress sensitivity to avoid chronically elevated corticosterone levels in times of frequent aggressive and therefore costly inter-male encounters.

  18. Physical activity interventions in Latin America: what value might be added by including conference abstracts in a literature review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehner, Christine; Soares, Jesus; Parra, Diana C; Ribeiro, Isabela C; Pratt, Michael; Bracco, Mario; Hallal, Pedro C; Brownson, Ross C

    2010-07-01

    This review assessed whether conference abstracts yield useful information on the types and effectiveness of community-based physical activity (PA) interventions in Latin America, beyond that from interventions included in a recent systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. Abstracts from 9 conferences were searched for community-based interventions to promote PA in Latin America and summarized. Three reviewers classified and screened abstracts. Evaluated interventions that were not included in the previous review were assessed. Search of abstracts from 31 proceedings of 9 conferences identified 87 abstracts of studies on community-based interventions focused on increasing PA. Only 31 abstracts reported on studies with a control group and an outcome related to PA. Ten of these abstracts represented interventions that had not been included in the previous review of peer-reviewed literature, but the abstracts were insufficient in number or detail to make a practice recommendation for any single intervention. This review highlighted the challenges and low added value of including conference abstracts in a systematic review of community PA interventions in Latin America. Stronger evaluation design and execution and more published reports of evaluated interventions are needed to build an evidence base supporting interventions to increase PA in Latin America.

  19. Determination of Volatiles by Odor Activity Value and Phenolics of cv. Ayvalik Early-Harvest Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Guclu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were identified in the olive oil. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil sample. Of these, six volatile components presented odor activity values (OAVs greater than one, with (Z-3-hexenal (green, hexanal (green-sweet and nonanal (fatty-pungent being those with the highest OAVs in olive oil. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector and ion spray mass spectrometry. The major phenolic compounds were found as 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, 3,4-DHPEA-EA and p-HPEA-EDA.

  20. Determination of Volatiles by Odor Activity Value and Phenolics of cv. Ayvalik Early-Harvest Olive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Gamze; Sevindik, Onur; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik) were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were identified in the olive oil. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil sample. Of these, six volatile components presented odor activity values (OAVs) greater than one, with (Z)-3-hexenal (green), hexanal (green-sweet) and nonanal (fatty-pungent) being those with the highest OAVs in olive oil. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector and ion spray mass spectrometry. The major phenolic compounds were found as 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, 3,4-DHPEA-EA and p-HPEA-EDA. PMID:28231141

  1. Modeling the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cuevas, Marina; Fernández, Pablo S; George, Susan; Pin, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    The dynamic model for the growth of a bacterial population described by Baranyi and Roberts (J. Baranyi and T. A. Roberts, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23:277-294, 1994) was applied to model the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity (a(w)) values. To model the duration of the lag phase, the dependence of the parameter h(0), which quantifies the amount of work done during the lag period, on the previous and current environmental conditions was determined experimentally. This parameter depended not only on the magnitude of the change between the previous and current environmental conditions but also on the current growth conditions. In an exponentially growing population, any change in the environment requiring a certain amount of work to adapt to the new conditions initiated a lag period that lasted until that work was finished. Observations for several scenarios in which exponential growth was halted by a sudden change in the temperature and/or a(w) were in good agreement with predictions. When a population already in a lag period was subjected to environmental fluctuations, the system was reset with a new lag phase. The work to be done during the new lag phase was estimated to be the workload due to the environmental change plus the unfinished workload from the uncompleted previous lag phase.

  2. Serum bilirubin value predicts hospital admission in carbon monoxide-poisoned patients. Active player or simple bystander?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cervellin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although carbon monoxide poisoning is a major medical emergency, the armamentarium of recognized prognostic biomarkers displays unsatisfactory diagnostic performance for predicting cumulative endpoints. METHODS: We performed a retrospective and observational study to identify all patients admitted for carbon monoxide poisoning during a 2-year period. Complete demographical and clinical information, along with the laboratory data regarding arterial carboxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin, blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, was retrieved. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 38 poisoned patients (23 females and 15 males; mean age 39±21 years. Compared with discharged subjects, hospitalized patients displayed significantly higher values for blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, whereas arterial carboxyhemoglobin and hemoglobin did not differ. In a univariate analysis, hospitalization was significantly associated with blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, but not with age, sex, hemoglobin or carboxyhemoglobin. The diagnostic performance obtained after combining the blood lactate and total serum bilirubin results (area under the curve, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81-0.99; p<0.001 was better than that obtained for either parameter alone. CONCLUSION: Although it remains unclear whether total serum bilirubin acts as an active player or a bystander, we conclude that the systematic assessment of bilirubin may, alongside lactate levels, provide useful information for clinical decision making regarding carbon monoxide poisoning.

  3. Defining the value of magnetic resonance imaging in prostate brachytherapy using time-driven activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Nikhil G; Orio, Peter F; Potters, Louis

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulation and planning for prostate brachytherapy (PBT) may deliver potential clinical benefits but at an unknown cost to the provider and healthcare system. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) is an innovative bottom-up costing tool in healthcare that can be used to measure the actual consumption of resources required over the full cycle of care. TDABC analysis was conducted to compare patient-level costs for an MRI-based versus traditional PBT workflow. TDABC cost was only 1% higher for the MRI-based workflow, and utilization of MRI allowed for cost shifting from other imaging modalities, such as CT and ultrasound, to MRI during the PBT process. Future initiatives will be required to follow the costs of care over longer periods of time to determine if improvements in outcomes and toxicities with an MRI-based approach lead to lower resource utilization and spending over the long-term. Understanding provider costs will become important as healthcare reform transitions to value-based purchasing and other alternative payment models. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  5. Robotics in reproductive surgery: strengths and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, M; Flyckt, R L; Falcone, T

    2011-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgical techniques are becoming increasingly common in gynecologic surgery. However, traditional laparoscopy can be challenging. A robotic surgical system gives several advantages over traditional laparoscopy and has been incorporated into reproductive gynecological surgeries. The objective of this article is to review recent publications on robotically-assisted laparoscopy for reproductive surgery. Recent clinical research supports robotic surgery as resulting in less post-operative pain, shorter hospital stays, faster return to normal activities, and decreased blood loss. Reproductive outcomes appear similar to alternative approaches. Drawbacks of robotic surgery include longer operating room times, the need for specialized training, and increased cost. Larger prospective studies comparing robotic approaches with laparoscopy and conventional open surgery have been initiated and information regarding long-term outcomes after robotic surgery will be important in determining the ultimate utility of these procedures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of the aroma impact of major odor-active thiols in pan-roasted white sesame seeds by calculation of odor activity values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hitoshi; Fujita, Akira; Steinhaus, Martin; Takahisa, Eisuke; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Schieberle, Peter

    2011-09-28

    Eleven odor-active thiols, namely, 2-methyl-1-propene-1-thiol, (Z)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (Z)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 3-mercapto-2-pentanone, 2-mercapto-3-pentanone, 4-mercapto-3-hexanone, 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, and 2-methyl-3-thiophenethiol, recently identified in an extract prepared from white sesame seeds, were quantitated in sesame using stable isotope dilution analyses. For that purpose, the following deuterium-labeled compounds were synthesized and used as internal standards in the quantitation assays: [2H6]-2-methyl-1-propene-1-thiol, [2H3]-(E)- and [2H3]-(Z)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, [2H3]-2-methyl-3-furanthiol, [2H2]-3-mercapto-2-pentanone, [2H3]-4-mercapto-3-hexanone, [2H6]-3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, and [2H3]-2-methyl-3-thiophenethiol. On the basis of the results obtained, odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratio of the concentration and odor threshold of the individual compounds in cooking oil. According to their high OAVs, particularly the 3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiols (OAV: 2400) and the 2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiols (OAV: 960) were identified as the most odor-active compounds in pan-roasted white sesame seeds. These compounds were therefore suggested to be mainly responsible for the characteristic but rather unstable sulfury aroma of freshly pan-roasted white sesame seeds.

  7. The no-go zone: a qualitative study of access to sexual and reproductive health services for sexual and gender minority adolescents in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alex; Spencer, Sarah; Meer, Talia; Daskilewicz, Kristen

    2018-01-25

    Adolescents have significant sexual and reproductive health needs. However, complex legal frameworks, and social attitudes about adolescent sexuality, including the values of healthcare providers, govern adolescent access to sexual and reproductive health services. These laws and social attitudes are often antipathetic to sexual and gender minorities. Existing literature assumes that adolescents identify as heterosexual, and exclusively engage in (heteronormative) sexual activity with partners of the opposite sex/gender, so little is known about if and how the needs of sexual and gender minority adolescents are met. In this article, we have analysed data from fifty in-depth qualitative interviews with representatives of organisations working with adolescents, sexual and gender minorities, and/or sexual and reproductive health and rights in Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Sexual and gender minority adolescents in these countries experience double-marginalisation in pursuit of sexual and reproductive health services: as adolescents, they experience barriers to accessing LGBT organisations, who fear being painted as "homosexuality recruiters," whilst they are simultaneously excluded from heteronormative adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. Such barriers to services are equally attributable to the real and perceived criminalisation of consensual sexual behaviours between partners of the same sex/gender, regardless of their age. The combination of laws which criminalise consensual same sex/gender activity and the social stigma towards sexual and gender minorities work to negate legal sexual and reproductive health services that may be provided. This is further compounded by age-related stigma regarding sexual activity amongst adolescents, effectively leaving sexual and gender minority adolescents without access to necessary information about their sexuality and sexual and reproductive health, and sexual and reproductive health services.

  8. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What......As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency...... and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...

  9. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan K. Pillai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between.This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development.Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health.The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.

  10. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vijayan K; Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development. Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health. The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.

  11. "I Like Playing on My Trampoline; It Makes Me Feel Alive." Valuing Physical Activity: Perceptions and Meanings for Children and Implications for Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everley, Suzanne; Macfadyen, Tony

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated perceptions that children aged 6-10 years (n = 83) have of what it means to be physically active. Ideographic research was conducted utilising drawings and interviews to understand values that are placed on participating in physical activity (PA). The article questions the idea that whilst it may be commonly accepted by…

  12. Gene therapy and reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribley, John M; Rehman, Khurram S; Niu, Hairong; Christman, Gregory M

    2002-04-01

    To review the literature on the principles of gene therapy and its potential application in reproductive medicine. Literature review. Gene therapy involves transfer of genetic material to target cells using a delivery system, or vector. Attention has primarily focused on viral vectors. Significant problems remain to be overcome including low efficacy of gene transfer, the transient expression of some vectors, safety issues with modified adenoviruses and retroviruses, and ethical concerns. If these issues can be resolved, gene therapy will be applicable to an increasing spectrum of single and multiple gene disorders, as the Human Genome Project data are analyzed, and the genetic component of human disease becomes better understood. Gynecologic gene therapy has advanced to human clinical trials for ovarian carcinoma, and shows potential for the treatment of uterine leiomyomata. Obstetric applications of gene therapy, including fetal gene therapy, remain more distant goals. Concerns about the safety of human gene therapy research are being actively addressed, and remarkable progress in improving DNA transfer has been made. The first treatment success for a genetic disease (severe combined immunodeficiency disease) has been achieved, and ongoing research efforts will eventually yield clinical applications in many spheres of reproductive medicine.

  13. Male Snakes Allocate Time and Energy according to Individual Energetic Status: Body Condition, Steroid Hormones, and Reproductive Behavior in Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms will hedge current reproductive investment against potential costs in terms of survivorship and future fecundity. However, little is known regarding the endocrine mechanisms underlying bet-hedging strategies in free-ranging male vertebrates. We examined the relationships among individual energetic status, steroid hormones, mate search, and reproductive behavior in free-ranging male timber rattlesnakes. Snakes were monitored over four active seasons in order to test two hypotheses: (1) males adjust the amount of time and energy allocated toward reproduction according to the level of individual energy stores, and (2) observed condition-dependent reproductive allocation is associated with circulating concentrations of steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) thought to regulate reproductive behaviors in vertebrates. A positive relationship between body condition and testosterone was observed in both the field and the laboratory. Male mate search effort was positively correlated with both body condition and testosterone. Body condition and testosterone concentrations were negatively related to time allocated toward foraging during the breeding season. A strong effect of year was observed in the analysis of testosterone and search effort, suggesting that multiple environmental factors impact hormone production and reproductive investment. Corticosterone was not related to any measured variable. Therefore, our results did not indicate a clear role of corticosterone in mediating observed relationships between energetic status and behavior. Observed relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that males allocate time and energy toward reproduction according to individual energetic status and that testosterone plays a role in mediating the trade-off between current reproductive investment and residual reproductive value.

  14. How endangered is sexual reproduction of high-mountain plants by summer frosts? Frost resistance, frequency of frost events and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinig, Ursula; Hacker, Jürgen; Neuner, Gilbert; Wagner, Johanna

    2013-03-01

    In temperate-zone mountains, summer frosts usually occur during unpredictable cold spells with snow-falls. Earlier studies have shown that vegetative aboveground organs of most high-mountain plants tolerate extracellular ice in the active state. However, little is known about the impact of frost on reproductive development and reproductive success. In common plant species from the European Alps (Cerastium uniflorum, Loiseleuria procumbens, Ranunculus glacialis, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Saxifraga bryoides, S. moschata, S. caesia), differing in growth form, altitudinal distribution and phenology, frost resistance of reproductive and vegetative shoots was assessed in different reproductive stages. Intact plants were exposed to simulated night frosts between -2 and -14 °C in temperature-controlled freezers. Nucleation temperatures, freezing damage and subsequent reproductive success (fruit and seed set, seed germination) were determined. During all reproductive stages, reproductive shoots were significantly less frost resistant than vegetative shoots (mean difference for LT50 -4.2 ± 2.7 K). In most species, reproductive shoots were ice tolerant before bolting and during fruiting (mean LT50 -7 and -5.7 °C), but were ice sensitive during bolting and anthesis (mean LT50 around -4 °C). Only R. glacialis remained ice tolerant during all reproductive stages. Frost injury in reproductive shoots usually led to full fruit loss. Reproductive success of frost-treated but undamaged shoots did not differ significantly from control values. Assessing the frost damage risk on the basis of summer frost frequency and frost resistance shows that, in the alpine zone, low-statured species are rarely endangered as long as they are protected by snow. The situation is different in the subnival and nival zone, where frost-sensitive reproductive shoots may become frost damaged even when covered by snow. Unprotected individuals are at high risk of suffering from frost damage, particularly

  15. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  16. Effect of reproductive disorders on productivity and reproductive efficiency of dromedary she-camels in relation to cytokine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Malky, O M; Mostafa, T H; Abd El-Salaam, A M; Ayyat, M S

    2018-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of reproductive disorders on reproductive efficiency and milk production in relation with pro-inflammatory cytokines in dromedary she-camels. Total of 20 late pregnant Maghrabi she-camels, aging 6-9 years, weighing 420-550 kg, and between the second and third parities were divided into two groups. Animals in the first group (n = 12) showed normal reproductive status (G 1 ) at parturition, while those in the second one (n = 8) were suffered from reproductive disorders after parturition (G 2 ). Results showed that during pre-partum, red blood cells (RBCs) count decreased (P ≤ 0.05), while white blood cells (WBCs), packed cell volume (PCV) value, and neutrophils percentage increased (P ≤ 0.05) in G 2 than in G 1 . Percentages of monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils as well as hemoglobin concentration did not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.05) in G1 and G2. During postpartum period, the same results were noticed in addition to increase (P ≤ 0.05) in eosinophil and decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in basophils percentages. During prepartum period, concentration of total proteins, albumin (AL) and IGF-1decreased (P ≤ 0.05), cholesterol concentration, and activity of AST and ALT were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in G 2 than in G 1 . Globulin (GL), AL: GL ratio, glucose, urea-N, creatinine, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ significantly in G 1 and G 2 . During postpartum period, the same results were noticed with decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in GL and glucose concentrations in G 2 as compared to G 1 . Concentration of all pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ, was higher (P ≤ 0.05) in G 2 than in G 1 at different peri-parturient times. Milk yield, days in milk, protein and lactose percentages, and IgG concentration were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in G 1 than in G 2 . Fat, total solids, solid non-fat, and ash percentages did not show any significant differences

  17. [Reproduction and psyche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Anke

    2007-01-01

    Mental health and mental disorders can have a close connection to reproduction, especially for women but also for men. The most frequent disorders or problems are described, i.e., mental problems during pregnancy and after delivery, during the menstrual cycle and around menopause. Possible consequences of miscarriage, stillbirth and induced abortion are presented as well as the special problem of a wish for a child in mentally ill women and their treatment during pregnancy.

  18. ASSOCIATION OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL-GENETIC MARKERS WITH THE REPRODUCTION PARAMETERS OF THE BOTOSANI KARAKUL EWES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH. HRINCĂ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes some associative aspects of various biochemical-genetic markers with the reproduction activity in ewes of the Botosani Karakul breed. The two most important reproduction parameters (fecundity and prolificacy were analyzed according to the genotypes or phenotypes of polymorph systems (haemoglobin, transferrin, albumin and blood potassium of females. The relationship between reproduction data and genetic markers in ewes was quantified both for each genotype (phenotype and for each mating couple type made up depending on the genotype (phenotype of the couple partners (homozygous x homozygous, homozygous x heterozygous or heterozygous x heterozygous. All these associative aspects and their results are discussed for each polymorph genetic system. The ewes which are heterozygous at different genetic marker loci are more fertile and more prolific than the ewes which are homozygous at the levels of these loci. The highest conception and lambing rates resulted from the mating couples in which both partners were heterozygous and the least lambs were obtained from the mating couples in which both partners were homozygous; the fertility and prolificacy had intermediate values in heterogeneous mating couples (heterozygotes x homozygotes but they were nearer to the case in which both mating couple partners were heterozygous. The sheep breeding field can benefit by the contribution of biochemical-genetic markers to optimize the selection criteria with a view to increasing the reproduction capacity of this species.

  19. Folate and human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Tsunenobu; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2006-05-01

    The influence of folate nutritional status on various pregnancy outcomes has long been recognized. Studies conducted in the 1950s and 1960s led to the recognition of prenatal folic acid supplementation as a means to prevent pregnancy-induced megaloblastic anemia. In the 1990s, the utility of periconceptional folic acid supplementation and folic acid food fortification emerged when they were proven to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. These distinctively different uses of folic acid may well be ranked among the most significant public health measures for the prevention of pregnancy-related disorders. Folate is now viewed not only as a nutrient needed to prevent megaloblastic anemia in pregnancy but also as a vitamin essential for reproductive health. This review focuses on the relation between various outcomes of human reproduction (ie, pregnancy, lactation, and male reproduction) and folate nutrition and metabolism, homocysteine metabolism, and polymorphisms of genes that encode folate-related enzymes or proteins, and we identify issues for future research.

  20. African Journal of Reproductive Health - Vol 16, No 2 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial - Promoting Youth Sexual and Reproductive Health in Africa: The Need ... Online Sexual Activities and Sexual Risk-taking among Adolescents and Young ... Opportunities and Limitations for Using New Media and Mobile Phones to ...

  1. Empowerment of Adolescent Girls for Sexual and Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Keywords: Adolescent girls, empowerment, self-care, sexual and reproductive health, Iran. Résumé ... activities, providing opportunities for skill ... promote the self-efficacy, self-esteem, and ..... adolescent communication, and parental control.

  2. Prognostic and predictive value of intact and cleaved forms of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in metastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almasi, Charlotte E; Brasso, Klaus; Iversen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of different forms of the urokinase receptor, uPAR, in serum from prostate cancer (PC) patients.......The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of different forms of the urokinase receptor, uPAR, in serum from prostate cancer (PC) patients....

  3. A review of reproductive toxicity of microcystins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang, E-mail: chan91@yeah.net [Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jun, E-mail: chenjun@ihb.ac.cn [Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Xuezhen, E-mail: xuezhen@mail.hzau.edu.cn [College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovation Center of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xie, Ping, E-mail: xieping@ihb.ac.cn [Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Reproductive toxicity of MCs on mammals, fishes, amphibians, and birds is reviewed. • PP1/2A inhibition and oxidative stress are important toxic mechanisms of MCs. • Reproductive toxicity of MCs may be closely related to endocrine-disrupting effects. • The trans-generational toxicity of microcystins is a matter of concern. • Data concerning female reproductive and sex-specific effects of MCs are lacking. - Abstract: Animal studies provide strong evidence of positive associations between microcystins (MCs) exposure and reproductive toxicity, representing a threat to human reproductive health and the biodiversity of wild life. This paper reviews current knowledge of the reproductive toxicity of MCs, with regard to mammals, fishes, amphibians, and birds, mostly in males. Toxicity of MCs is primarily governed by the inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A) and disturbance of cellular phosphorylation balance. MCs exposure is related to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, leading to cytoskeleton disruption, mitochondria dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and DNA damage. MCs induce cell apoptosis mediated by the mitochondrial and ROS and ER pathways. Through PP1/2A inhibition and oxidative stress, MCs lead to differential expression/activity of transcriptional factors and proteins involved in the pathways of cellular differentiation, proliferation, and tumor promotion. MC-induced DNA damage is also involved in carcinogenicity. Apart from a direct effect on testes and ovaries, MCs indirectly affect sex hormones by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis and liver. Parental exposure to MCs may result in hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity of offspring. We also summarize the current research gaps which should be addressed by further studies.

  4. A review of reproductive toxicity of microcystins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Xuezhen; Xie, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reproductive toxicity of MCs on mammals, fishes, amphibians, and birds is reviewed. • PP1/2A inhibition and oxidative stress are important toxic mechanisms of MCs. • Reproductive toxicity of MCs may be closely related to endocrine-disrupting effects. • The trans-generational toxicity of microcystins is a matter of concern. • Data concerning female reproductive and sex-specific effects of MCs are lacking. - Abstract: Animal studies provide strong evidence of positive associations between microcystins (MCs) exposure and reproductive toxicity, representing a threat to human reproductive health and the biodiversity of wild life. This paper reviews current knowledge of the reproductive toxicity of MCs, with regard to mammals, fishes, amphibians, and birds, mostly in males. Toxicity of MCs is primarily governed by the inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A) and disturbance of cellular phosphorylation balance. MCs exposure is related to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, leading to cytoskeleton disruption, mitochondria dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and DNA damage. MCs induce cell apoptosis mediated by the mitochondrial and ROS and ER pathways. Through PP1/2A inhibition and oxidative stress, MCs lead to differential expression/activity of transcriptional factors and proteins involved in the pathways of cellular differentiation, proliferation, and tumor promotion. MC-induced DNA damage is also involved in carcinogenicity. Apart from a direct effect on testes and ovaries, MCs indirectly affect sex hormones by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis and liver. Parental exposure to MCs may result in hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity of offspring. We also summarize the current research gaps which should be addressed by further studies.

  5. Induction of Gonadotropins for Reproductive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Much of the recent research on gonadotropin – related control processes of reproduction and reproductive maturation has concentrated on the neuronal and molecular biology of gonadotropin release. The reproductive development of healthy mammals requires appropriate fetal develompment and migration of the neural network controlling and including the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH – producing neurons that are needed to regulate GnRH and luteinizing hormone (LH release. GnRH is also necessary for the development of the gonadotropin – producing pituitary gland. The fetal gonads respon to GnRH – induced LH production by producing the gonadal steroids required for further reproductive differentiation. Pubertal maturation is characterised by increases in LH levels, representing the corresponding pulsatile release of GnRH. This GnRH pulse generator appears to be an intrinsic property of the arcuate nucleus at the medial basal hypothalamus. The generator activity can be mediated by the neurotransmitter aspartate which activates neurons of the hypothalamus, inducing acuate releases of GnRH and hence initiates puberty. A major factor in human reproductive maturation is the decrease in the age of puberty, caused by improvement of nutritional conditions due to the socio – economic development. This implies that the pubertal activation of GnRH secretion depends on metabolic conditions. Of the substances that mediate the metabolic condition to the neuronal network regulating GnRH secretion, the role of the neuropeptide Y (NPY appears instrumental : for healthy mammals less food means more NPY, and accumulated NPY makes food to become sex. NPY does this by regulating the appropriate hypothalamic functions including the neuroendocrine control of gonadotropin release.

  6. Advanced reproductive age and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kimberly; Case, Allison

    2011-11-01

    To improve awareness of the natural age-related decline in female and male fertility with respect to natural fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and provide recommendations for their management, and to review investigations in the assessment of ovarian aging. This guideline reviews options for the assessment of ovarian reserve and fertility treatments using ART with women of advanced reproductive age presenting with infertility. The outcomes measured are the predictive value of ovarian reserve testing and pregnancy rates with natural and assisted fertility. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in June 2010, using appropriate key words (ovarian aging, ovarian reserve, advanced maternal age, advanced paternal age, ART). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated into the guideline to December 2010. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table). Primary and specialist health care providers and women will be better informed about ovarian aging and the age-related decline in natural fertility and about options for assisted reproductive technology. 1. Women in their 20s and 30s should be counselled about the age-related risk of infertility when other reproductive health issues, such as sexual health or contraception, are addressed as part of their primary well-woman care. Reproductive-age women should be aware that natural fertility and assisted reproductive technology success (except with egg donation) is significantly lower for women in their late 30s and 40s. (II-2A) 2. Because of the decline in fertility and the

  7. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA Signaling in Human and Ruminant Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Wocławek-Potocka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA through activating its G protein-coupled receptors (LPAR 1–6 exerts diverse cellular effects that in turn influence several physiological processes including reproductive function of the female. Studies in various species of animals and also in humans have identified important roles for the receptor-mediated LPA signaling in multiple aspects of human and animal reproductive tract function. These aspects range from ovarian and uterine function, estrous cycle regulation, early embryo development, embryo implantation, decidualization to pregnancy maintenance and parturition. LPA signaling can also have pathological consequences, influencing aspects of endometriosis and reproductive tissue associated tumors. The review describes recent progress in LPA signaling research relevant to human and ruminant reproduction, pointing at the cow as a relevant model to study LPA influence on the human reproductive performance.

  8. Fetal programming of sexual development and reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Elena; Guzmán, Carolina; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Nathanielsz, Peter W

    2014-01-25

    The recent growth of interest in developmental programming of physiological systems has generally focused on the cardiovascular system (especially hypertension) and predisposition to metabolic dysfunction (mainly obesity and diabetes). However, it is now clear that the full range of altered offspring phenotypes includes impaired reproductive function. In rats, sheep and nonhuman primates, reproductive capacity is altered by challenges experienced during critical periods of development. This review will examine available experimental evidence across commonly studied experimental species for developmental programming of female and male reproductive function throughout an individual's life-course. It is necessary to consider events that occur during fetal development, early neonatal life and prior to and during puberty, during active reproductive life and aging as reproductive performance declines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The prognostic value of oncogenic antigen 519 (OA-519) expression and proliferative activity detected by antibody MIB-1 in node-negative breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, V; Ladekarl, M; Holm-Nielsen, P

    1995-01-01

    The prognostic value of oncogenic antigen 519 (OA-519) expression and tumour proliferative activity was evaluated in a retrospective series of 118 patients with low-risk breast cancer. Low risk was defined as negative axillary nodes, tumour diameter histological evidence...... analysis, both the MIB-1 index and OA-519 expression were of independent prognostic value (2p breast cancer who might benefit from adjuvant therapy....

  10. Using Expectancy Value Theory as a Framework to Reduce Student Resistance to Active Learning: A Proof of Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Katelyn M.; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E.

    2017-01-01

    There has been a national movement to transition college science courses from passive lectures to active learning environments. Active learning has been shown to be a more effective way for students to learn, yet there is concern that some students are resistant to active learning approaches. Although there is much discussion about student resistance to active learning, few studies have explored this topic. Furthermore, a limited number of studies have applied theoretical frameworks to studen...

  11. The reproductive performance of female goats treated with melatonin is not improved after introduction to bucks displaying springtime sexual activity if these does are experiencing decreasing body weight/condition score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarazaga, L A; Gatica, M C; Gallego-Calvo, L; Guzmán, J L

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine whether treatment with melatonin modifies the reproductive response of female goats experiencing increasing or decreasing body weight (BW)/body condition score (BCS) when introduced to bucks displaying springtime sexual activity. During natural anoestrus, 53 does were isolated from bucks for a period of 42days and distributed into two groups: 1) low BW/low BCS animals (N=24) (LLg group), which were fed 1.9 times their maintenance requirements so they would experience increasing BW and BCS; and 2) high BW/high BCS animals (N=29) (HHl group), which were fed 0.4 times their maintenance requirements so they would experience decreasing BW and BCS. Half of each group was treated, or not, with melatonin (LLg+Mel N=12, HHl+Mel N=15, LLg-Mel N=12 and HHl-Mel N=14). On 6th May they were introduced to six males, showing natural sexual activity, fitted with marking harnesses (thus permitting the detection of oestrous activity). The ovulation rate was assessed by transrectal ultrasonography and confirmed via the plasma progesterone concentration (measured twice per week in blood samples). Plasma glucose, IGF-1 and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were also determined, along with the conception rate, fertility, prolificacy and productivity of the does. LH concentrations and LH pulsatility were also recorded in the hours around introduction to the males. 'Oestrous plus ovulation' was observed only in does treated with melatonin. A higher conception rate and greater fertility and productivity were observed among the LLg+Mel does. These females showed higher glucose and IGF-1 concentrations after the introduction of the males. LH concentrations increased after male introduction independent of all other conditions. In conclusion, the present results show that treatment with melatonin does not enhance reproductive performance in does experiencing decreasing BW/BCS, but can improve it when does are experiencing increasing BW

  12. Reproductive strategies in males of the world's southernmost lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Jimena B; Medina, Marlin; Kubisch, Erika L; Scolaro, José A; Ibargüengoytía, Nora R

    2017-03-01

    Reproductive and life history patterns in reptiles are tightly related to the environmental conditions, so male reproductive cycles have been historically characterized as continuous, for tropical lizards, or seasonal, for temperate lizards. However, males of Liolaemus and Phymaturus lizards (Liolaemidae), from cold temperate climates of high altitudes or latitudes in Argentina and Chile, have developed a variety of reproductive cycles to coordinate with the short female reproductive season and to deal with the low frequency of reproductive females in the population. Using gonadal histology and morphological analysis, we describe the male reproductive biology, fat storage and sexual dimorphism of the viviparous lizards Liolaemus sarmientoi and Liolaemus magellanicus that inhabit an austral grass steppe at 51°S, in the southern limit of the American continent. Males of L. sarmientoi and L. magellanicus are reproductively available during the entire activity season of approximately 5 months. In addition, males of both species exhibit greater body sizes than females in morphological variables relevant in sexual selection. Meanwhile, females of both species exhibit larger inter-limb length than conspecific males, which suggests fecundity selection to increase space for a larger litter size. The continuous sperm production throughout the activity season allows these liolaemids to mate at any time when females ovulate, representing a selective advantage to deal with the short activity season and the adversities of the cold environment they inhabit. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. The ethics of assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzinikolaou, Nikolaos

    2010-05-01

    Issues concerning the beginning of life and medical intervention in the onset of human existence are very delicate in their nature; they involve multi-dimensional knowledge, they are difficult to comprehend and sensitive to handle. When pure scientific elements are combined with profound emotions, when the genius of technological discoveries touches upon human dignity and sanctity, when passion for the technological achievement intervenes in basic human rights, then the sense of inadequacy and ignorance becomes intense and critical. Silence seems more sought-after than words, and willingness to learn more prudent than the desire to speak. Fear of the inconceivable consequences and even more so the inability to assess them, experiments with the unknown, the likelihood that basic historical, ethical and social values may change forever, but mainly the replacement of God in His wondrous work of creation--the onset of human life--places the ethics of reproductive technologies on the frontline of contemporary bioethics. This opinion paper does not deal with dangers, insults, fears, threats, "speed limits" or ethical controversies, but rather with the very mystery of life. Although there are no generally accepted replies to the various questions being posed, some thoughts and reservations, which can shed some light upon complicated dilemmas are presented. Firstly, the content of reproductive technologies, the problem of infertility today, the methods of fertility treatment, and of prenatal and pre-implantation testing are described, and then the social impact of IVF, complicated cases, deontological dilemmas and some ethical concerns are discussed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sport Activity for Health!! The Effects of Karate Participants' Involvement, Perceived Value, and Leisure Benefits on Recommendation Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying-Chih; Yeh, Tsu-Ming; Pai, Fan-Yun; Huang, Tai-Peng

    2018-05-10

    This study intends to discuss the effects of participants’ involvement, perceived value, and leisure benefits on recommendation intention in the sport of karate. The questionnaires were collected online by karate clubs on Facebook and included 369 valid participants. The research findings show that karate participants from different places of residence do not display significant differences in involvement, perceived value, leisure benefits, and recommendation intention. Furthermore, “attraction” in the involvement category reveals the highest mean, “paid spirit and energy being worthy” in perceived value appears as the highest mean, and “physiological benefits” in leisure benefits shows the highest mean. The Pearson correlation analysis result presents significant strong positive correlations between involvement, perceived value, leisure benefits, and recommendation intention. Finally, multiple regression analysis reveals that leisure benefits, except “physiological benefits”, show notably positive effects on recommendation intention. According to the research results, suggestions are proposed for the reference of karate teaching business managers, participants, and future research.

  15. Atividade reprodutiva de peixes (Teleostei e o defeso da pesca de arrasto no litoral norte de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproductive activity of fish (Teleostei and closed season to shrimp trawling off ther northern coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda M. de Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Desembarques de arrasto visando à pesca do camarão sete-barbas, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri, foram acompanhados de 2005 a 2007 no município de São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina. Setenta e seis espécies de teleósteos foram registradas como captura incidental e seus indivíduos foram avaliados quanto ao estádio de maturação e Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva. Constatou-se que indivíduos de metade das espécies são capturados com gônadas maduras, em estações que variaram conforme a espécie. Em Isopisthus parvipinnis a atividade enquadrou-se na categoria "muito intensa" na primavera de 2005 e no verão de 2007; em Menticirrhus americanus, Stellifer sp., Pomadasys corvinaeformis, Stellifer brasiliensis, Syacium papillosum, Larimus breviceps, Diapterus rhombeus, Symphurus tessellatus, Chirocentrodon bleekerianus, Pellona harroweri, Anchoa tricolor e Selene setapinnis apenas em uma estação, dependendo da espécie. O verão de 2007, seguido da primavera de 2005, foram as estações em que o arrasto incidiu sobre maior número de espécies em atividade reprodutiva "intensa" ou "muito intensa". No verão de 2007 o arrasto camaroeiro incidiu sobre um conjunto de espécies em atividade reprodutiva maior que na mesma estação em 2006. Atribui-se esse fato à proibição legal do arrasto de camarão no trimestre de outubro-dezembro de 2006, favorecendo a atividade reprodutiva das espécies na estação subseqüente. Recomenda-se que a gestão da pesca camaroeira na região mantenha o defeso de arrasto na primavera, assim beneficiando não apenas as espécies de peixes que desovam nesta estação, mas também aquelas que se preparam para a desova no verão.Shrimp trawling was monitored in southern Brazil in order to study the reproductive status of teleosts occurring as by-catch. From 2005 to 2007 seventy-six fish species were found in this kind of fisheries. Gonad stages were evaluated and the Reproductive Activity Index was calculated. Mature

  16. Sport Activity for Health!! The Effects of Karate Participants’ Involvement, Perceived Value, and Leisure Benefits on Recommendation Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-Chih Chang; Tsu-Ming Yeh; Fan-Yun Pai; Tai-Peng Huang

    2018-01-01

    This study intends to discuss the effects of participants’ involvement, perceived value, and leisure benefits on recommendation intention in the sport of karate. The questionnaires were collected online by karate clubs on Facebook and included 369 valid participants. The research findings show that karate participants from different places of residence do not display significant differences in involvement, perceived value, leisure benefits, and recommendation intention. Furthermore, &ld...

  17. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, S.L.; Pearsons, T.N. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Knudsen, C.M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA)

    2006-05-01

    Reproductive success in wild- and first generation hatchery-origin spring Chinook males was examined by allowing the fish to compete for spawning opportunities in two sections of an observation stream. Behavioral observations were used to characterize the frequency of aggression and courting activities. Microsatellite DNA from each male and fry collected from the observation stream were used in pedigree analyses to estimate reproductive success. The coefficient of variation in male reproductive success equaled 116 and 86% in the two populations. No differences were detected in reproductive success due to hatchery or wild origin. Nor were any behavioral differences found between hatchery and wild males. Although statistical power was low due to intrinsic variation a great deal of overlap existed in the reproductive success values of hatchery and wild males. Significant disparities existed among the males on their ability to produce offspring. Males achieving high reproductive success mated with numerous females, were socially dominant, aggressive, and tended to stay in localized areas, courting and spawning with females that were adjacent to one another.

  18. Notch signalling mediates reproductive constraint in the adult worker honeybee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Hyink, Otto; Dearden, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark of eusociality is the reproductive division of labour, in which one female caste reproduces, while reproduction is constrained in the subordinate caste. In adult worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) reproductive constraint is conditional: in the absence of the queen and brood, adult worker honeybees activate their ovaries and lay haploid male eggs. Here, we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of Notch signalling can overcome the repressive effect of queen pheromone and promote ovary activity in adult worker honeybees. We show that Notch signalling acts on the earliest stages of oogenesis and that the removal of the queen corresponds with a loss of Notch protein in the germarium. We conclude that the ancient and pleiotropic Notch signalling pathway has been co-opted into constraining reproduction in worker honeybees and we provide the first molecular mechanism directly linking ovary activity in adult worker bees with the presence of the queen. PMID:27485026

  19. Updates in Reproduction Coming from the Endocannabinoid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B.

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an evolutionarily conserved master system deeply involved in the central and local control of reproductive functions in both sexes. The tone of these lipid mediators—deeply modulated by the activity of biosynthetic and hydrolyzing machineries—regulates reproductive functions from gonadotropin discharge and steroid biosynthesis to the formation of high quality gametes and successful pregnancy. This review provides an overview on ECS and reproduction and focuses on the insights in the regulation of endocannabinoid production by steroids, in the regulation of male reproductive activity, and in placentation and parturition. Taken all together, evidences emerge that the activity of the ECS is crucial for procreation and may represent a target for the therapeutic exploitation of infertility. PMID:24550985

  20. Updates in Reproduction Coming from the Endocannabinoid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Meccariello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system (ECS is an evolutionarily conserved master system deeply involved in the central and local control of reproductive functions in both sexes. The tone of these lipid mediators—deeply modulated by the activity of biosynthetic and hydrolyzing machineries—regulates reproductive functions from gonadotropin discharge and steroid biosynthesis to the formation of high quality gametes and successful pregnancy. This review provides an overview on ECS and reproduction and focuses on the insights in the regulation of endocannabinoid production by steroids, in the regulation of male reproductive activity, and in placentation and parturition. Taken all together, evidences emerge that the activity of the ECS is crucial for procreation and may represent a target for the therapeutic exploitation of infertility.

  1. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  2. Reproductive Medicine in Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knotek, Zdenek; Cermakova, Eva; Oliveri, Matteo

    2017-05-01

    Common reproductive problems in captive male lizards are hemipenile plugs in hemipenial sac, unilateral prolapse of hemipenis, or bilateral prolapse of hemipene. Although the orchiectomy is performed as a treatment for testicular disease, the effectiveness in reducing aggressive behavior is unclear. Female captive lizards suffer from cloacal prolapse, preovulatory follicular stasis, or dystocia. The veterinarian must differentiate between the disorders because the treatment differs. Mating, physical, or visual contact with the male stimulates ovulation and prevents preovulatory follicular stasis. Surgical intervention is usually required for dystocia. This article discusses selected procedures and use of ultrasonography and diagnostic endoscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Occupational reproductive health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, K; Kerr, M J

    1993-01-01

    The potentially harmful effects on women of certain workplace exposures are widely appreciated, and steps to control these have included legislative efforts such as right-to-know laws of well as corporate policies mandating selective restriction of fertile women, which are illegal under federal civil rights laws. This chapter reviews the various occupational health risks reproductive women face in the workplace but also considers the effects of other genetic, medical, social, infectious, and environmental factors which may be of even greater concern than most occupational factors.

  4. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Bharti; Baruah, Manash P.; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. W...

  5. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the reproduct...... suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology may be of clinical importance....

  6. Reproduction in the endangered African wild dog: basic physiology, reproductive suppression and possible benefits of artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berghe, F; Paris, D B B P; Van Soom, A; Rijsselaere, T; Van der Weyde, L; Bertschinger, H J; Paris, M C J

    2012-07-01

    The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is an endangered exotic canid with less than 5500 animals remaining in the wild. Despite numerous strategies to conserve this species, numbers of free-living animals are in decline. It is a highly social species with a complex pack structure: separate male and female dominant hierarchies with, typically, participation of subdominant adults in the rearing of the dominant breeding pairs' pups. Basic reproductive knowledge is largely missing in this species, with only limited information available on the profile of reproductive hormones, based on non-invasive endocrine monitoring. The dominant or alpha male and female are reproductively active and the subdominants are generally reproductively suppressed. However, the occasional production of litters by subdominant females and evidence of multiple paternity within litters suggests that fertility of subordinates is not completely inhibited. In this respect, there are still considerable gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms governing reproduction and reproductive suppression in African wild dogs, particularly the influence of dominance and pack structure on both male and female fertility. Given concerns over the long-term survival of this species, further research in this area is essential to provide valuable information for their captive breeding and conservation. Reproductive information can also be applied to the development of Assisted Reproductive Techniques for this species; the utility of which in African wild dog conservation is also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Seasonal variation in male alternative reproductive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, M J; Amundsen, T; Utne-Palm, A C; Mobley, K B

    2016-12-01

    Genetic parentage analyses reveal considerable diversity in alternative reproductive behaviours (e.g. sneaking) in many taxa. However, little is known about whether these behaviours vary seasonally and between populations. Here, we investigate seasonal variation in male reproductive behaviours in a population of two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens) in Norway. Male two-spotted gobies guard nests, attract females and care for fertilized eggs. We collected clutches and nest-guarding males early and late in the breeding season in artificial nests and used microsatellite markers to reconstruct parentage from a subset of offspring from each nest. We hypothesized that mating, reproductive success and sneaking should be more prevalent early in the breeding season when competition for mates among males is predicted to be higher. However, parentage analyses revealed similar values of mating, reproductive success and high frequencies of successful sneaking early (30% of nests) and late (27% of nests) in the season. We also found that multiple females with eggs in the same nest were fertilized by one or more sneaker males, indicating that some males in this population engage in a satellite strategy. We contrast our results to previous work that demonstrates low levels of cuckoldry in a population in Sweden. Our results demonstrate marked stability in both the genetic mating system and male alternative reproductive tactics over the breeding season. However, sneaking rates may vary geographically within a species, likely due to local selection influencing ecological factors encountered at different locations. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Characterization of seasonal reproductive and stress steroid hormones in wild Radiated Tortoises, Astrochelys radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currylow, Andrea F T; Rafeliarisoa, Tsilavo H; Louis, Edward E; Stanford, Craig B; Randrianjafizanaka, Soary T; Chinn, Sarah M; Crocker, Daniel E

    2017-11-01

    The critically endangered Radiated Tortoise (Astrochelys radiata) is endemic to the southern coastlines of Madagascar. Once common, wild populations of this tortoise have undergone dramatic declines in recent years. Although there have been studies documenting reproductive activities, reproductive physiological parameters are unknown yet may be crucial in the recovery of the species. Over four research seasons in remote field locations native to A. radiata, we surveyed for, radio-tracked, and sampled wild, free ranging tortoises. We sampled and measured stress and reproductive parameters (corticosterone [CORT], testosterone [T], estradiol-17β [E2], and progesterone [P]) in 311 plasma samples from 203 wild A. radiata, capturing their active period. Generally, hormone concentrations were associated with body condition, temperature, and humidity. There was wide variation in CORT that varied monthly and by group. Juvenile tortoises maintained more than twice the mean basal CORT concentrations than either adult sex, with the most dramatic distinctions in the middle of the wet season. For adult sex hormones, the last months of the dry season and into the wet season when ground humidities are low and just begin to rise prior to temperature declines, male T concentrations gradually increased to a peak before returning to near undetectable values into the dry season. We had limited data for T concentrations in females, but found average T concentrations were much lower than in males and positively correlated with larger female home range sizes. For female hormone cycles, E2 also peaked in the early 1/3 of the wet season along with male T, and was followed by an uptick in P which correlates to the putative ovulatory cycle. Females tracked over four years showed variation in patterns of P, indicating that number and frequency of clutches vary. Our results suggest that 1) there is high species plasticity in response to stress; 2) A. radiata reproductive cycling is somewhat

  9. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  10. Factors determining the reproductive potential of Pelibuey sheep: Effects of season and parturition on reproductive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Reyna, A.; Ortega Rivas, E.; Murphy, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Pelibuey sheep in Mexico are known for their hardiness and reproductive capacity: as a result they represent a reliable source of animal protein especially at the village level. Although their reproductive parameters have been studied, little endocrinological information is available. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the annual reproductive cycle in the Pelibuey ram and ewe, and to study methods of shortening the interval from parturition to first oestrus in lactating post-partum ewes. Under conditions of nutrition and management prevailing in this study, season affected levels of testosterone and LH in the male and LH in the female. Season also influenced oestrous activity, the proportion of ewes ovulating per month and the mean ovulation rate per month. The results indicated that the majority of Pelibuey ewes cycle throughout the year but exhibit reduced gonadal activity during late winter. Pelibuey rams appear to have longer periods of reduced activity (during late autumn and winter), although testosterone levels suggest that rams return to their full reproductive activity earlier (late winter) than ewes. (author). 30 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Oblongifolin M, an active compound isolated from a Chinese medical herb Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibits enterovirus 71 reproduction through downregulation of ERp57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengjie; Dong, Qi; Wang, Hua; He, Yaqing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping; He, Jason; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Jian-dong; Xu, Hongxi; He, Ming-Liang

    2016-02-23

    There is no effective drug to treat EV71 infection yet. Traditional Chinese herbs are great resources for novel antiviral compounds. Here we showed that Oblongifolin M (OM), an active compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibited EV71 infection in a dose dependent manner. To identify its potential effectors in the host cells, we successfully identified 18 proteins from 52 differentially expressed spots by comparative proteomics studies. Further studies showed that knockdown of ERp57 inhibited viral replication through downregulating viral IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activities, whereas ectopic expression of ERp57 increased IRES activity and partly rescued the inhibitory effects of OM on viral replication. We demonstrated that OM is an effective antiviral agent; and that ERp57 is one of its cellular effectors against EV71 infection.

  12. Avian reproductive anatomy, physiology and endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Christal G; Orosz, Susan E

    2002-09-01

    Although many environmental cues influence reproductive activity, the seasonal breeder responds most strongly to long day length. THE MALE BIRD: Testicular interstitial cells secrete testosterone, which influences reproductive behavior such as territorial aggression and song. Other changes observed in seasonal breeders include testicular hypertrophy and enlargement of the ductus deferens and seminal glomus. THE FEMALE BIRD: Early changes associated with rising estrogen levels in the hen include osteomyelosclerosis and hypercalcemia. Ovulation is then induced by LH, which is followed by eggshell calcification, which is under the control of progesterone. Sources of calcium for shell production include intestinal absorption from the diet, renal control of calcium levels, and mobilization of bone calcium stores. During oviposition, PGF2 alpha and vasotocin stimulate powerful uterine contractions [32] in the presence of calcium. Incubation is associated with falling LH levels and rising prolactin levels. If the hen actually enters reproductive quiescence at this time, then molt will follow. Molt is associated with the total regression of the reproductive tract.

  13. Systems Toxicology of Male Reproductive Development ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male reproductive developmental defects. The present study established the links between environmental chemicals, molecular targets, and adverse outcomes using U.S. EPA animal study (ToxRefDB) and high-throughput screening (ToxCast) databases. This systems-based approach revealed a phenotypic hierarchy across 63 chemicals and a pleiotropic in vitro bioactivity profile. Although estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities have been extensively studied in male reproductive developmental toxicity, the present study showed these receptor targets to be only a subset of the potential landscape of molecular targets. A variety of chemical (e.g. phthalates, conazoles, carbamates, and phenol compounds) and bioactivity (e.g. nuclear receptors, vascular remodeling proteins, and cytochrome-P450 reductases) clusters further suggested multiple pathways leading to the adverse outcomes. This points to the need for multi-scale systems models to predict whether the occurrence of one adverse outcome may predict the risk of another. Imbalances in androgen and estrogen signaling have been a general focus in male reproductive toxicology research. While a number of recent studies have demonstrated that both hormonal

  14. Internet Search Engines: Copyright's "Fair Use" in Reproduction and Public Display Rights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeweler, Robin

    2007-01-01

    Terms that describe Internet functionality pose interpretative challenges for the courts as they determine how these activities relate to a copyright holder's traditional right to control reproduction...

  15. Transgenderism and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TʼSjoen, Guy; Van Caenegem, Eva; Wierckx, Katrien

    2013-12-01

    The development of new reproductive medicine techniques creates opportunities for preserving fertility in transgender persons. Before, losing fertility was accepted as the price to pay for transitioning. The desire for children is present in many trans persons, as in the general population. Ethical concerns are sometimes raised against the preservation of fertility; however, the only unique aspect of this group is the gender transition of one of the parents. All other elements such as same sex parenthood, use of donor gametes, social stigma, etc., can be found in other groups of parents. Not all reproductive options for all trans persons are equal because not only the gametes are of importance, but also the sex of the (future) partner. In trans women, the best option to preserve gametes is cryopreservation of sperm by preference initiated before starting hormonal therapy. In trans men, donor sperm is most often used, but in theory, there are three options available to preserve fertility: oocyte banking, embryo banking and banking of ovarian tissue. Fertility is possible for both trans men and women, but it requires timely cryopreservation of gametes or stopping cross-sex hormones and possible fertility treatments which are costly and may be unpleasant. Centers should elucidate their policy and inform trans persons on the possibilities and limitations.

  16. Epigenetics of reproductive infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Laxmidhar; Parbin, Sabnam; Pradhan, Nibedita; Kausar, Chahat; Patra, Samir K

    2017-06-01

    Infertility is a complex pathophysiological condition. It may caused by specific or multiple physical and physiological factors, including abnormalities in homeostasis, hormonal imbalances and genetic alterations. In recent times various studies implicated that, aberrant epigenetic mechanisms are associated with reproductive infertility. There might be transgenerational effects associated with epigenetic modifications of gametes and studies suggest the importance of alterations in epigenetic modification at early and late stages of gametogenesis. To determine the causes of infertility it is necessary to understand the altered epigenetic modifications of associated gene and mechanisms involved therein. This review is devoted to elucidate the recent mechanistic advances in regulation of genes by epigenetic modification and emphasizes their possible role related to reproductive infertility. It includes environmental, nutritional, hormonal and physiological factors and influence of internal structural architecture of chromatin nucleosomes affecting DNA and histone modifications in both male and female gametes, early embryogenesis and offspring. Finally, we would like to emphasize that research on human infertility by gene knock out of epigenetic modifiers genes must be relied upon animal models.

  17. Water activities in Laxemar-Simpevarp. Organic field inventory, nature values classification and description of production land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per

    2010-10-01

    This report describes nature values, agricultural areas and forestry areas in Laxemar, for which there could be negative consequences due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel in the rock. In 2009, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) chose Forsmark as site for the repository. This report hence concerns the non-chosen Laxemar site. The report describes results from map studies and comprehensive field investigations, in terms of geographical delineations, descriptions of characteristics and classifications of nature values for groundwater dependent of -favoured nature objects. The nature objects are located in an investigation area, which according to numerical flow modelling could be affected by groundwater-table drawdown due to groundwater diversion. The investigation area contains a number of valuable nature habitats, but no protected areas in the form of nature reserves or Natura 2000 areas. In the investigation area 67 nature objects have been identified, geographically delineated and classified according to their nature values. Of these nature objects, 32 consist of forest objects (including moist forests), 26 consist of wetland objects, and nine consist of surface waters (streams, lakes and ponds). The nature-value classifications of objects are primarily based on habitat rareness and worth of protection on a national scale, and their importance as habitats for rare and threatened species. None of the identified nature objects is judged to be of national value (class 1). 15 nature objects (forest objects) are judged to be of regional value (class 2), 18 objects of municipal value (class 3) and 34 objects are judged to be of local value (class 4). Most of the nature objects contain nature values that are associated to factors other than the level of the groundwater table, primarily previous land uses in the form of grazing and hay cutting. There are also values associated to valuable

  18. Formative Value of an Active Learning Strategy: Technology Based Think-Pair-Share in an EFL Writing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Cavide; Düzenli, Halil

    2017-01-01

    Think-Pair-Share (TPS) activities in classrooms provide an opportunity for students to revise, practice and reproduce previously learned knowledge. Teachers also benefit from this active learning strategy by exploiting new learning materials, saving time by minimizing presentations and using it as a formative assessment tool. This article explores…

  19. New reproductive genetics: political issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanft, R S

    1993-09-01

    For the last 12 years, the reproductive policies of the executive branch of US government have been dominated by the anti-abortion, right-to-life position. Since coming to office, the Clinton administration has lifted the gag rule on abortion advice, removed the barrier to fetal tissue research, encouraged application for premarket approval of RU-486, and approved the female condom. The new administration's future policy and action taken on abortion, new drugs (e.g., RU-486), fetal tissue research, and payments for prenatal diagnosis, prenatal therapy, and abortion are outlined. President Clinton clearly has enunciated a pro-choice stance on abortion, and rescinded current regulations restricting abortion. The gag rule was lifted on January 22, 1993. The French manufacturer of RU-486 has not applied to the Food and Drug Administration for premarket approval out of concern for the reaction of both the federal executive and a potential boycott of other products by right-to-life, anti-abortion groups. New factors may encourage the manufacturer to apply for approval. The US Public Health Service can be expected to expand information and prevention activities to slow the spread of AIDS and to increase efforts for family planning to reduce teenage pregnancy. Fetal tissue research has contributed to such breakthroughs as prenatal diagnosis, in vitro surgery, and transplantation. The ban on the research was lifted early in the new administration. Aside from the issue of financial coverage under insurance plans to pay for prenatal diagnosis, prenatal therapy, and abortion, prenatal therapy raises a potential new conflict between the mother and her fetus. It raises issues related to equality for the disabled, particularly after life outside the womb is possible. In 2 years there could be a reversal of power in the Congress, again raising the specter of efforts to restrict developments in the field of reproductive biology.

  20. PHEROMONAL MODULATION OF REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN MAMMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Keller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Social olfactory signals, often known as pheromones, are powerful regulators of reproductive function. These chemosignals can be detected by two olfactory systems, namely the main or the accessory olfactory systems. While initially anatomically segregated, both systems converge functionally as they can detect and process overlapping sets of chemosignals. This convergence also takes place at the level of their central projections in the hypothalamus. It is probably at this level that future investigations will be needed. Indeed, if the physiology of both olfactory system and reproductive function are now quite well characterized, the interrelation between both systems is unclear. Among the many cell populations that can serve as targets or relays for the pheromonal information in the hypothalamus are GnRH cells or the recently discovered Kispeptin population which have been showed to be activated after pheromonal activation. However, many works will be needed before having a definitive picture.

  1. Reproductive science as an essential component of conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, William V; Brown, Janine L; Comizzoli, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we argue that reproductive science in its broadest sense has never been more important in terms of its value to conservation biology, which itself is a synthetic and multidisciplinary topic. Over recent years the place of reproductive science in wildlife conservation has developed massively across a wide and integrated range of cutting edge topics. We now have unprecedented insight into the way that environmental change affects basic reproductive functions such as ovulation, sperm production, pregnancy and embryo development through previously unsuspected influences such as epigenetic modulation of the genome. Environmental change in its broadest sense alters the quality of foodstuffs that all animals need for reproductive success, changes the synchrony between breeding seasons and reproductive events, perturbs gonadal and embryo development through the presence of pollutants in the environment and drives species to adapt their behaviour and phenotype. In this book we explore many aspects of reproductive science and present wide ranging and up to date accounts of the scientific and technological advances that are currently enabling reproductive science to support conservation biology.

  2. The Effect and Value of a WebQuest Activity on Weather in a 5th Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    WebQuests are increasing in popularity across the country, yet it remains unclear whether WebQuests confer a significant benefit in student content learning. In addition, the perceptions of teachers regarding the classroom value and efficacy of WebQuests in teaching higher level thinking skills are still unclear. The goals of the study were (a) to…

  3. Intergenerational Exchange of Knowledge, Skills, Values and Practices between Self-Organized Active Citizens in Maribor, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krašovec, Sabina Jelenc; Gregorcic, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Our paper deals with intergenerational informal learning developed by participatory democracy process in the Self-organized District Communities (SDC) in Maribor, the second largest city in Slovenia. It is based on the assumption that SDC assemblies, being safe and trustworthy, are very powerful spaces for behavioural and values exchange between…

  4. Employees as Active Consumers of HRM: Linking Employees’ HRM Competences with Their Perceptions of HRM Service Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Lepak, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the importance for companies of having high-quality employment relationships with employees, previous studies have sought to explain the variability in employees’ perceptions of HRM service value. However, most of these studies view employees as inactive in employment relationships and,

  5. Cost-effective psychotherapy for personality disorders in The Netherlands: the value of further research and active implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeteman, D.I.; Busschbach, J.J.V.; Verheul, R.; Hoomans, T.; Kim, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective In a budget-constrained health care system, decisions regarding resource allocation towards research and implementation are critical and can be informed by cost-effectiveness analysis. The objective of this study was to assess the societal value of conducting further research to inform

  6. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children’s physical activity level : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. (Sanne) de Vries; Karen Broekhuizen; Anne-Marie Scholten

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children’s health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children’s health in

  7. Sport Activity for Health!! The Effects of Karate Participants’ Involvement, Perceived Value, and Leisure Benefits on Recommendation Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying-Chih; Pai, Fan-Yun; Huang, Tai-Peng

    2018-01-01

    This study intends to discuss the effects of participants’ involvement, perceived value, and leisure benefits on recommendation intention in the sport of karate. The questionnaires were collected online by karate clubs on Facebook and included 369 valid participants. The research findings show that karate participants from different places of residence do not display significant differences in involvement, perceived value, leisure benefits, and recommendation intention. Furthermore, “attraction” in the involvement category reveals the highest mean, “paid spirit and energy being worthy” in perceived value appears as the highest mean, and “physiological benefits” in leisure benefits shows the highest mean. The Pearson correlation analysis result presents significant strong positive correlations between involvement, perceived value, leisure benefits, and recommendation intention. Finally, multiple regression analysis reveals that leisure benefits, except “physiological benefits”, show notably positive effects on recommendation intention. According to the research results, suggestions are proposed for the reference of karate teaching business managers, participants, and future research. PMID:29748459

  8. Charting the Eccles' Expectancy-Value Model from Mothers' Beliefs in Childhood to Youths' Activities in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    The Eccles' expectancy-value model posits that a cascade of mechanisms explain associations between parents' beliefs and youths' achievement-related behaviors. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors; in turn, parents' behaviors predict youths' motivational beliefs, and youths' motivational beliefs predict their behaviors. This…

  9. Influence of climate variability on anchovy reproductive timing off northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Reyes, Javier E.; Canales, T. Mariella; Rojas, Pablo M.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between environmental variables and the Gonadosomatic Monthly Mean (GMM) index of anchovy (Engraulis ringens) to understand how the environment affects the dynamics of anchovy reproductive timing. The data examined corresponds to biological information collected from samples of the landings off northern Chile (18°21‧S, 24°00‧S) during the period 1990-2010. We used the Humboldt Current Index (HCI) and the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI), which combine several physical-oceanographic factors in the Tropical and South Pacific regions. Using the GMM index, we studied the dynamics of anchovy reproductive timing at different intervals of length, specifically females with a length between 11.5 and 14 cm (medium class) and longer than 14 cm (large class). Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Mobile Average (SARIMA) was used to predict missing observations. The trends of the environment and reproductive indexes were explored via the Breaks For Additive Season and Trend (BFAST) statistical technique and the relationship between these indexes via cross-correlation functions (CCF) analysis. Our results showed that the habitat of anchovy switched from cool to warm condition, which also influenced gonad development. This was revealed by two and three significant changes (breaks) in the trend of the HCI and MEI indexes, and two significant breaks in the GMM of each time series of anchovy females (medium and large). Negative cross-correlation between the MEI index and GMM of medium and large class females was found, indicating that as the environment gets warmer (positive value of MEI) a decrease in the reproductive activity of anchovy can be expected. Correlation between the MEI index and larger females was stronger than with medium females. Additionally, our results indicate that the GMM index of anchovy for both length classes reaches two maximums per year; the first from August to September and the second from December to January. The

  10. "Do I Have a Choice?" The Influences of Family Values and Investments on Chinese Migrant Young People's Lifestyles and Physical Activity Participation in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bonnie; Macdonald, Doune; Hay, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines Chinese migrant young people's lifestyles and physical activity experiences in relation to the values and cultural investments of their families in Australia. The data in this paper were taken from a larger-scale study underpinned by a critical and interpretive ethnographic method conducted in two school sites. The young…

  11. Correction: Towards the rationalization of catalytic activity values by means of local hyper-softness on the catalytic site: a criticism about the use of net electric charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Araya, Jorge Ignacio; Grand, André; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2016-01-28

    Correction for 'Towards the rationalization of catalytic activity values by means of local hyper-softness on the catalytic site: a criticism about the use of net electric charges' by Jorge Ignacio Martínez-Araya et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5cp03822g.

  12. Prognostic value of plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in Danish patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (REOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begum, Farah Diba; Høgdall, Estrid V S; Riisbo, Rikke

    2006-01-01

    The level of the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is elevated in tumour tissue from several types of cancer. This is the first study aiming to predict the prognosis for survival by the use of a pre-chemotherapeutic plasma suPAR value in 71 patients with recurrent epithelial...

  13. The value of biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJR. Alho

    Full Text Available In addition to its intrinsic value (nature working as it is; species are the product of a long history of continuing evolution by means of ecological processes, and so they have the right to continued existence, biodiversity also plays a fundamental role as ecosystem services in the maintenance of natural ecological processes. The economic or utilitarian values of biodiversity rely upon the dependence of man on biodiversity; products that nature can provide: wood, food, fibers to make paper, resins, chemical organic products, genes as well as knowledge for biotechnology, including medicine and cosmetic sub-products. It also encompasses ecosystem services, such as climate regulation, reproductive and feeding habitats for commercial fish, some organisms that can create soil fertility through complex cycles and interactions, such as earthworms, termites and bacteria, in addition to fungi responsible for cycling nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur and making them available to plant absorption. These services are the benefits that people indirectly receive from natural ecosystem functions (air quality maintenance, regional climate, water quality, nutrient cycling, reproductive habitats of commercial fish, etc. with their related economic values.

  14. The pedagogical value of Disassemble/Analyze/Assemble (DAA) activities: Assessing the potential for motivation and transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Odesma Onika

    Undergraduate engineering institutions are currently seeking to improve recruiting practices and to retain engineering majors particularly by addressing what many studies document as a major challenge of poor instruction. There is an undisputed need for instructional practices that motivate students in addition to facilitating the transfer of learning beyond the classroom. Reverse engineering and product dissection, more broadly termed Disassemble/Analyze/Assemble (DAA) activities, have shown potential to address these concerns, based on the reviews of students and professors alike. DAA activities involve the systematic deconstruction of an artifact, the subsequent analysis and possible reconstruction of its components for the purpose of understanding the embodied fundamental concepts, design principles and developmental processes. These activities have been part of regular industry practice for some time; however, the systematic analysis of their benefits for learning and instruction is a relatively recent phenomenon. A number of studies have provided highly descriptive accounts of curricula and possible outcomes of DAA activities; but, relatively few have compared participants doing DAA activities to a control group doing more traditional activities. In this respect, two quasi-experiments were conducted as part of a first-year engineering laboratory, and it was hypothesized that students who engaged in the DAA activity would be more motivated and would demonstrate higher frequencies of transfer than the control. A DAA activity that required students to disassemble a single-use camera and analyze its components to discover how it works was compared to a step-by-step laboratory activity in the first experiment and a lecture method of instruction in the second experiment. In both experiments, over forty percent of the students that engaged in the DAA activity demonstrated the ability to transfer the knowledge gained about the functions of the camera's components and

  15. Values, body weight, and well being: the influence of the protestant ethic and consumerism on physical activity, eating, and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Heede, Fred; Pelican, Suzanne; Holmes, Betty; Moore, Sylvia A; Buchanan, David

    This article explores how people's values shape their experiences and emotions with respect to physical activity, eating, and body image. It describes the results of a grounded theory analysis of individual and focus group interviews conducted as part of a community-based health improvement project, Wellness IN the Rockies (WIN the Rockies). The analysis links core theoretical constructs, including habitus, sedimentation, and natural attitude, to larger socio-cultural and historical trends embodied in the Protestant ethic and the rise of consumerism, illuminating how these values shape people's everyday understanding of their experiences. Key analytic frameworks focus on the socialization processes involved in inculcating values, identity formation, and moralization as they relate to health attitudes and behaviors. Major implications of the results are discussed, especially the need to enhance self-understanding about social values in health education.

  16. Molecular reproductive characteristics of the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougée, Luc R A; Richmond, Robert H; Collier, Abby C

    2015-11-01

    Coral reefs are an indispensible worldwide resource, accounting for billions of dollars in cultural, economic, and ecological services. An understanding of coral reproduction is essential to determining the effects of environmental stressors on coral reef ecosystems and their persistence into the future. Here, we describe the presence of and changes in steroidal hormones along with associated steroidogenic and steroid removal enzymes during the reproductive cycle of the brooding, pan-Pacific, hermaphroditic coral, Pocillopora damicornis. Detectable levels of 17β-estradiol, estrone, progesterone and testosterone were consistently detected over two consecutive lunar reproductive cycles in coral tissue. Intra-colony variation in steroid hormone levels ranged between 1.5- and 2.2-fold and were not statistically different. Activities of the steroidogenic enzymes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 17 dehydrogenase were detectable and did not fluctuate over the reproductive cycle. Aromatase-like activity was detected during the lunar reproductive cycle with no significant fluctuations. Activities of regeneration enzymes did not fluctuate over the lunar cycle; however, activity of the clearance enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferases increased significantly (ANOVA, post hoc prole in coral reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. EARLY USAGE OF SHEEP AND GOAT YOUTH FOR THE REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ANA PIVODA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Female lambs and kids at the age of 9-10 months were used for early reproduction and it was noticed that the medium values of the weight of the lambs calved by female sheep and the kids calved by female kids are close to the medium values of the weight of the lambs and kids calved by adult sheep and goats. The main index of reproduction accomplished by the youth female situated at he level of the values characteristic to the sheep and goats breeds or populations belonging to Carpatina breed, registering lower values. By the early usage of sheep and goats male youth the following were noticed: Palas Merino male lambs, capable for reproduction 80%; the male lambs from Palas prolific population, capable for reproduction 88,8; out of the he-goats lots of Carpatina breed, at the age of 7-10 months, 83.33% the males manifested a normal sexual behaviour; the males which did not have sexual reflexes at the age of 7-10 months and at the age of 19-22 months they were not capable for reproduction, and the ones that had the seminal material of low quality continued to be so.

  18. Value added cleaning and disinfection of the root canal: laser-activated irrigation and laser-induced photoporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, Roeland J. G.; Meire, Maarten A.

    2016-03-01

    Among present-day marketed systems ultrasonic activation appears to be the best way to activate and potentiate endodontic irrigants. An alternative for ultrasonic activation of irrigants is laser activated irrigation (LAI) or photoninitiated acoustic streaming. Based on present-day research it appears that LAI (especially with Erbium lasers) can be more efficient for debris removal out of root canals and interaction with the endodontic biofilms thanks to the induction of specific cavitation phenomena and acoustic streaming. Other wavelengths are now explored to be used for LAI. Another way to interact with biofilms is to rely on laser-induced photoporation in combination with gold nanoparticles ( AuNPs). The latter is an alternative physical method for delivering macromolecules in cells. Nanosized membrane pores can be created upon pulsed laser illumination. Depending on the laser energy, pores are created through either direct heating of the AuNPs or by vapour nanobubbles that can emerge around the AuNPs.

  19. Effect of pH value and delayed-action time on catalytic activity of tartrate niobium(5) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, I.I.; Chernysheva, L.M.; Bobkova, M.V.; Solomonov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Results of thermokinetic study of catalytic activity of niobium (5) tartrate solutions in the oxidation of ascorbic acid with hydrogen peroxide are presented. Addition of tartrate-ions to a concentration of 1x10 -2 M and higher in niobium (5) diluted solution enhances the catalytic activity of Nb(5). Alkaline tartrate solutions of niobium (5) may be used as standard solutions in determination of niobium microquantities by kinetic method

  20. The value of power Doppler ultrasound in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in clinical remission: Reclassifying disease activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Facundo; Ruta, Santiago; Rosa, Javier; Marín, Josefina; García-Mónaco, Ricardo; Soriano, Enrique R

    2017-03-18

    The aim of the present study was to describe the ultrasound (US) findings in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical remission, and to evaluate the ability of power Doppler (PD) US to reclassify disease activity in these patients. We included consecutive patients with RA according to 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism criteria, who were in clinical remission by the Disease Activity Score (DAS28<2.6). Twenty joints of both hands were assessed by US. PD signal was evaluated on a semi-quantitative scale from 0 to 3. Three different US-modified DAS28 (US-DAS28) were constructed, replacing the clinical swollen joint count by the PD US joint count using PD score ≥1, ≥2 or ≥3, respectively. Eighty-six patients were included. Twenty-three (26.7%) patients had at least one joint with abnormal US-positive PD signal. Thirteen percent of patients were reclassified to low disease activity by applying the US-DAS28 when joints were considered active with a PD signal ≥1; 12%, when a PD signal ≥2 was considered, and 2% of the patients were reclassified when a PD score of 3 was considered. No patients were reclassified to a level of moderate or high activity applying US-DAS28. Although around a quarter of patients with RA in clinical remission showed PD US features indicating residual activity, only a small percentage were reclassified to a state of low activity and none to a level of moderate or high activity, applying the proposed US-DAS28. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  1. [Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the level of hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet count as an activity index in ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Rodríguez, J Jesús; Santiago-Luna, Ernesto; Velázquez-Ramírez, Gabriela Abigail; López-Ramírez, María Karina Lizbeth; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; González-Ojeda, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease characterized by relapsing and remitting non-infectious inflammation of the colorectal mucosa. Its heterogeneity makes assessment of the disease's activity a prerequisite for a rational choice of therapy. We aimed to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets to develop a simplified activity index of UC. Sixty patients with UC were included and submitted to measurements of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets, as well as sigmoidoscopy and biopsy. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values were correlated with the reported degree of activity in the biopsy. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine differences between groups, and Pearson and Spearman rank tests were used to correlate each parameter with the degree of activity. A p value hemoglobin level was 51% and 100% for hematocrit, respectively, 51% and 100% for hematocrit, and 84% and 100% for platelet counts. Spearman's correlation for hemoglobin was r = -0.866 (p hematocrit r = -0.864 (p Hemoglobin and hematocrit are useful to catalog the degree of activity of UC when it is severe. Platelet count may be a marker of severity at any time, due to its high sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic test.

  2. Water activities in Forsmark. Ecological field inventory and classification of biodiversity values and description of forest production land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per

    2010-12-01

    In 2009, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) chose Forsmark in the Municipality of Oesthammar as site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes nature values and forestry areas in Forsmark, and provides part of the background material for description of consequences due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of the repository. The report describes results of map studies and comprehensive field investigations, in terms of geographical delineations, descriptions of characteristics and classifications of nature values for groundwater dependent or groundwater favoured nature objects in Forsmark. The nature objects are located in an investigation area, which contains the area that according to numerical flow modelling could be affected by groundwater-table drawdown due to groundwater diversion

  3. Reproductive activity and performance of ½ Nellore and heifers fed with supplementation with organic chromium Atividade reprodutiva e desempenho produtivo de novilhas nelore taurino submetidas a suplementação com cromo orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilmaro Rodrigo Pereira Rosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental evaluated the start of reproductive activity, body weight gain and carcass finishing of two genetic groups of heifers submitted to mineral supplementation with organic chromium. 90 heifers with 12 months of age were divided into four groups: 30 Nellore with chromium, 30 Nellore without chromium, 15 ½ Taurine with chromium, 15 ½ Taurine without chromium. For 12 months the animals were weighed every 28 days and ultrasound exams performed with 15 months of age for reproductive evaluation and 18 months for carcass evaluation. There was interaction between genetic groups and organic chromium supplementation for body weight at slaughter and body weight gain. The ½ Taurine heifers supplemented with chromium showed greater body weight at slaughter (330.1kg and body weight gain (0,563kg/day than Nellore heifers with chromium (304.8kg; 0,414kg/day, Nellore without chromium (304.7kg; 0,401kg/day and ½ Taurine without chromium (298.6kg; 0,408kg/day. However there was no effect of interaction between genetic groups and chromium organic supplementation, of genetic groups and of chromium organic supplementation on carcass characteristic. The use of organic chromium supplementation showed improvements on body growth and on the start of reproductive activity in heifers, without changing the finishing carcass characteristic.O presente experimento avaliou o início da atividade reprodutiva, ganho de peso corporal e acabamento de carcaça de dois grupos genéticos de novilhas submetidas à suplementação mineral com cromo orgânico em pastejo sob lotação intermitente. Noventa novilhas (60 Nelore e 30 ½ taurino de 12 meses de idade foram separadas em quatro grupos: Trinta fêmeas Nelore com cromo, 30 fêmeas Nelore sem cromo, 15 fêmeas ½ sangue taurino com cromo e 15 fêmeas ½ sangue taurino sem cromo. Durante 12 meses os animais foram pesados a cada 28 dias e os exames ultrassonográficos realizados aos 15 meses de idade para avalia

  4. Independent prognostic value of angiogenesis and the level of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S.; Overgaard, Jens; Rose, C.

    2003-01-01

    in breast cancer, we have evaluated the prognostic value of those factors in a total of 228 patients with primary, unilateral, invasive breast cancer, evaluated at a median follow-up time of 12 years. Microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34 and quantitated by the Chalkley...... counting technique. The levels of PAI-1 and its target proteinase uPA in tumour extracts were analysed by ELISA. The Chalkley count was not correlated with the levels of uPA or PAI-1. High values of uPA, PAI-1, and Chalkley count were all significantly correlated with a shorter recurrence-free survival.......6 (1.01–2.69) and 1.4 (1.02–1.81), respectively. For overall survival, the Chalkley count, but not PAI-1, was of significant independent prognostic value. The risk of death was 1.7 (1.30–2.15) for Chalkley counts in the upper tertile compared to the lower one. We conclude that the PAI-1 level...

  5. The Reproductive Biology of Shirbot (Barbus grypus Heckel, 1843 in the Maroon River, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Shirbot (Barbus grypus is one of the species in south and southwest of Iran which is greatly favorable to residents of the region. Unfavorable ecological conditions in habitat of this species and overfishing have led to the reduction of the population of shirbot. Therefore, to restore the natural stock of this species, identifying its reproductive cycle associated with its habitat is of a great importance. In this study, the reproductive status of shirbot in the Maroon River in Khuzestan Province was studied in six sampling steps during four seasons. Also, morphological indicators, sex ratio, age of fish, gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices, histological changes in the testis and ovary of the fish were studied. The ratio of male fish to female was 2.35 to 1. The maximum value of gonadosomatic index (GSI is among the specimens aged 3 to 5 years and in March and April. An increase of hepatosomatic index (HIS during March may indicate the increased activity of liver during vitellogenesis and vitellogenin synthesis which is well verified by histological results of ovarian tissue. Based on our findings we recommend that the maximum reproductive activity of shirbot in the Maroon River starts around the end of March and continues to middle of July.

  6. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affecting the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  7. Veterinary management of snake reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Scott J

    2002-09-01

    The reptile veterinarian should approach the breeder with a comprehensive plan involving a review of proper husbandry, nutrition, record keeping, and a thorough prebreeding evaluation of the snakes. In addition, an evaluation of the reproductive strategy, assistance with confirming and monitoring gestation, and a review of potential reproductive complications will help to prepare the snake owner for a successful breeding season.

  8. A scientific curiosity: viviparous reproduction in an activated sludge rotifer; Una curiosidad para la ciencia: reproduccion vivipara en un rotifero del fango activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zornoza, A.; Rodriguez, E.; Isac, L.; Fernandez, N.; Salas, M. D.

    2004-07-01

    This article offers reader the opportunity to witness a marvel of nature: the birth of a new being. It, in addition, it is borne in mind that we are talking about an organisms measuring less than 500?m and with a life span of just a few days, this is, to say the least, an unforgettable experience. We are in the presence of the miracle of life the microscopic level. This communication provides the chance to find out more about the physiology of this type of animal- the whet- el animalcule which is part of the micro fauna of activated sludge. (Author) 13 refs.

  9. Effects of melatonin and prolactin in reproduction: review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Tenorio, Fernanda das Chagas Angelo Mendes; Simões, Manuel de Jesus; Teixeira, Valéria Wanderley; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Summary The pineal gland is responsible for producing a hormone called melatonin (MEL), and is accepted as the gland that regulates reproduction in mammals. Prolactin (PRL) also exhibits reproductive activity in animals in response to photoperiod. It is known that the concentrations of PRL are high in the summer and reduced during winter, the opposite of what is seen with melatonin in these seasons. In placental mammals, both prolactin and melatonin affect implantation, which is considered a ...

  10. Micro-educational reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm; Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the persistence of educational inequality in advanced industrialized societies with expanding and differentiated education systems. Using Denmark as a case, we investigate changes in immobility patterns for cohorts born 1960–1981 and develop a new micro-educational classificat...... forms of reproduction. In addition, the micro-educational approach far better explains the immobility of sons than it explains that of daughters, revealing important gender differences in the immobility patterns for sons and daughters......., in particular for sons. We also find great variation in immobility for specific micro-educations within the university level. Studies of educational immobility would therefore benefit from paying attention to micro-educational classifications, because they capture patterns of multidimensional, disaggregated...

  11. Reproduction or opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard; Karen, David; Nielsen, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    introduced and, as of 2015, SportsClasses were available for talented athletes in Grades 7-9 in designated public schools. The SportsClasses attempt to balance collaboration between two different organizations: Danish public schools and sports clubs. The sports clubs’ main purpose is to develop talented...... youth who can compete nationally and internationally, while the purpose of the Danish schools is to educate all students and enable their versatile – i.e. athletic AND academic - development. To evaluate this program, in 2013, the largest survey of SportsClass students was undertaken (N=1206...... what key experiences and relationships lead students to abandon or sustain their interest in careers related to sports and how this differs for boys and girls. By applying Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and types of capital, we conclude that there are elements of both reproduction...

  12. Prognostic Value of Cortically Induced Motor Evoked Activity by TMS in Chronic Stroke: Caveats from a Revealing Single Clinical Case

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Amengual, Julià L

    2012-06-08

    AbstractBackgroundWe report the case of a chronic stroke patient (62 months after injury) showing total absence of motor activity evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of spared regions of the left motor cortex, but near-to-complete recovery of motor abilities in the affected hand.Case presentationMultimodal investigations included detailed TMS based motor mapping, motor evoked potentials (MEP), and Cortical Silent period (CSP) as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of motor activity, MRI based lesion analysis and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Tractography of corticospinal tract (CST). Anatomical analysis revealed a left hemisphere subinsular lesion interrupting the descending left CST at the level of the internal capsule. The absence of MEPs after intense TMS pulses to the ipsilesional M1, and the reversible suppression of ongoing electromyographic (EMG) activity (indexed by CSP) demonstrate a weak modulation of subcortical systems by the ipsilesional left frontal cortex, but an inability to induce efficient descending volleys from those cortical locations to right hand and forearm muscles. Functional MRI recordings under grasping and finger tapping patterns involving the affected hand showed slight signs of subcortical recruitment, as compared to the unaffected hand and hemisphere, as well as the expected cortical activations.ConclusionsThe potential sources of motor voluntary activity for the affected hand in absence of MEPs are discussed. We conclude that multimodal analysis may contribute to a more accurate prognosis of stroke patients.

  13. Prognostic value of cortically induced motor evoked activity by TMS in chronic stroke: Caveats from a revealing single clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amengual Julià L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the case of a chronic stroke patient (62 months after injury showing total absence of motor activity evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS of spared regions of the left motor cortex, but near-to-complete recovery of motor abilities in the affected hand. Case presentation Multimodal investigations included detailed TMS based motor mapping, motor evoked potentials (MEP, and Cortical Silent period (CSP as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of motor activity, MRI based lesion analysis and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI Tractography of corticospinal tract (CST. Anatomical analysis revealed a left hemisphere subinsular lesion interrupting the descending left CST at the level of the internal capsule. The absence of MEPs after intense TMS pulses to the ipsilesional M1, and the reversible suppression of ongoing electromyographic (EMG activity (indexed by CSP demonstrate a weak modulation of subcortical systems by the ipsilesional left frontal cortex, but an inability to induce efficient descending volleys from those cortical locations to right hand and forearm muscles. Functional MRI recordings under grasping and finger tapping patterns involving the affected hand showed slight signs of subcortical recruitment, as compared to the unaffected hand and hemisphere, as well as the expected cortical activations. Conclusions The potential sources of motor voluntary activity for the affected hand in absence of MEPs are discussed. We conclude that multimodal analysis may contribute to a more accurate prognosis of stroke patients.

  14. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  15. [Prognostic value of chosen parameters of mechanical and bioelectrical uterine activity in prediction of threatening preterm labour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietek, Jerzy; Sikora, Jerzy; Horoba, Krzysztof; Matonia, Adam; Jezewski, Janusz; Magnucki, Jacek; Kobielska, Lucyna

    2009-03-01

    To record and analyse bioelectrical activity of the uterine muscle in the course of physiological pregnancy, labour and threatening premature labour; to define which parameters from the analysis of both electrohysterogram and mechanical activity signal allow us to predict threatening premature labour. Material comprised 62 pregnant women: Group I--27 patients in their first physiological pregnancy, Group II--21 patients in their first pregnancy with symptoms of threatening premature labour, and Group III--14 patients in the first labour period. The on-line analysis of the mechanical (TOCO) and electrical (EHG) contraction activity relied on determination of quantitative parameters of detected uterine contractions. The obtained statistical results demonstrated a possibility to differentiate between Group I and II through the amplitude and contraction area for EHG signal, and only the contraction amplitude for TOCO signal. Additionally, significant differentiating parameters for electrohysterogram are: contraction power and its median frequency. Analyzing Group I and III, significant differences were noted for contraction amplitude and area obtained both from EHG and TOCO signals. Similarly, the contraction power (from EHG) enables us to assign the contractions either to records from Group I or to labour type. There was no significant difference noted between Group II and III. Identification of pregnant women at risk of premature labour should lead to their inclusion in rigorous perinatal surveillance. This requires novel, more sensitive methods that are able to detect early symptoms of the uterine contraction activity increase. Electrohysterography provides complete information on principles of bioelectrical uterine activity. Quantitative parameters of EHG analysis enable the detection of records (contractions) with the symptoms of premature uterine contraction activity.

  16. Prognostic Value of Metabolic Activity Measured by 18F-FDG PET/CT in Patients with Advanced Endometrial Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Choi, Jiyoun; Jeong, Yong Hyu; Jo, Kwan Hyeong; Lee, Jaehoon; Cho, Arthur; Yun, Mijin; Lee, Jong Doo; Kim, Young Tae; Kang, Won Jun

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the potential prognostic value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with stage IIIC/IV endometrial cancer. Patients with stage IIIC/IV endometrial cancer who had undergone FDG PET/CT workup for staging were enrolled. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) measured from regions of interest (ROIs) of the primary tumor (SUVt) and lymph nodes (SUVn) were correlated with overall survival (OS). The SUVn was defined as the highest SUV max of the metastatic lymph nodes. Survival probability was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 42 patients with a median age of 55.5 years (range 32-76 years) were included. Twenty-nine percent (n =12) of patients were premenopausal and 71 % (n =30) were postmenopausal. The average SUVt was 12.9 (range 1.8-36.5), and the average SUVn was 7.3 (range 2.0-22.5). Median follow-up time was 25.9 months (range 1.84 months). Using a SUVt of 9.5 as a cutoff value, two groups with different rates were determined (P=0.026). In addition, patients with a low SUVn had significantly better OS than those with a high SUVn (P=0.003). Patients in the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO) stage IV group with SUVt≥9.5 or SUVn≥7.3 showed a significantly longer OS than the other groups. FDG uptake of primary endometrial cancer and lymph nodes might be a prognostic factor in advanced endometrial cancer. More aggressive therapy could be considered in patients with stage IV endometrial cancer and high SUVt and/or high SUVn

  17. Stress and its influence on reproduction in pigs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej Andrzej

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The manifestations of stress, defined as a biological response to an event that the individual perceives as a threat to its homeostasis, are commonly linked to enhanced activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the activation of the sympathetic adreno-medullary (SA system. Activation of the HPA system results in the secretion of peptides from the hypothalamus, principally corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH, which stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and beta-endorphin. ACTH induces the secretion of corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex, which can be seen in pigs exposed to acute physical and/or psychological stressors. The present paper is a review of studies on the influence of stressors on reproduction in pigs. The effects of stress on reproduction depend on the critical timing of stress, the genetic predisposition to stress, and the type of stress. The effect of stress on reproduction is also influenced by the duration of the responses induced by various stressors. Prolonged or chronic stress usually results in inhibition of reproduction, while the effects of transient or acute stress in certain cases is stimulatory (e.g. anoestrus, but in most cases is of impairment for reproduction. Most sensitive of the reproductive process are ovulation, expression of sexual behaviour and implantation of the embryo, since they are directly controlled by the neuroendocrine system.

  18. Positive solutions of a three-point boundary-value problem for differential equations with damping and actively bounded delayed forcing term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L. Karakostas

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We provide sufficient conditions for the existence of positive solutions of a three-point boundary value problem concerning a second order delay differential equation with damping and forcing term whose the delayed part is an actively bounded function, a meaning introduced in [19]. By writing the damping term as a difference of two factors one can extract more information on the solutions. (For instance, in an application, given in the last section, we can give the exact value of the norm of the solution.

  19. "Siempre me critican": barriers to reproductive health in Ocotal, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luffy, Samantha M; Evans, Dabney P; Rochat, Roger W

    2015-05-01

    To identify perceived barriers to accessing reproductive health care according to the women of Ocotal, Nicaragua; describe their understanding of their reproductive rights; and document their opinions about Nicaragua's total ban on abortion. From May to June 2014, three focus group discussions were held in Spanish with 17 women from two different neighborhoods (barrios) in the city of Ocotal, Nicaragua. A semi-structured discussion guide with open-ended questions was employed to elucidate local perspectives regarding the focus group discussions themes. Serious obstacles including 1) violence against women, 2) machismo, 3) criticism from others, and 4) lack of communication and education limit women's ability to make their own reproductive health decisions. Women had a pervasive lack of knowledge about reproductive rights and the international human rights documents that define them. In addition, due to religious and cultural ideologies, most women supported the country's total ban on abortion in most circumstances, with the possible exception of rape. Both men and women in Ocotal should be encouraged to participate in community-level programs designed to reduce the impact of the following obstacles to receiving reproductive health care: 1) violence against women and machismo; 2) insufficient, non-standardized sexual education and information about reproductive rights; and 3) poor communication within families and the community at large. Any future public health campaigns to address women's reproductive health needs in Ocotal should implement these types of programs, at the neighborhood level, to reduce stigma surrounding sexual health and activity.

  20. The Impact of Militarism, Patriarchy, and Culture on Israeli Women's Reproductive Health and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Leeat; Nakash, Ora

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we situate and frame Israeli women's reproductive health within the social, historical, political, cultural, and geographical context of Israeli women's lives. We used a theoretical review in this paper. Militarism, patriarchy, and cultural values heavily shape and influence Jewish and Arab women's access to and experience of reproductive health when it comes to the imperative to have children, pregnancy, birth, access to contraception and abortion, and other reproductive healthcare services. We discuss five main factors pertaining to Israeli women's reproductive health including (1) fertility and emphasis on reproduction; (2) infertility; (3) pregnancy, birth, and miscarriage; (4) reproductive rights including contraception and abortion; and (5) maternity leave and accessible childcare. Israel is a pro-natalist country, in which both Jewish and Arab women share many of the consequences of the social imperative to have children. Though Arab women, as part of their double minority status, are exposed to more mental health risks pre- and postpartum, the personal and public reproductive health decisions and reproductive healthcare services are largely shaped by similar social forces. These include the patriarchal and religious culture that dictates a value system that highly cherishes motherhood, and within the military political context of the on-going Israeli-Palestinian conflict and past social and political traumas. We address four major gaps that need to be addressed in order to improve Israeli women's reproductive health and well-being that include the neoliberal gap, the information gap, the reproductive health services gap, and the leadership and policy gap.