WorldWideScience

Sample records for valuable contextual information

  1. Contextual Bandits for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.; Whiteson, S.; de Rijke, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give an overview of and outlook on research at the intersection of information retrieval (IR) and contextual bandit problems. A critical problem in information retrieval is online learning to rank, where a search engine strives to improve the quality of the ranked result lists it

  2. Recommendation with Contextual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) systems have tremendously broaden users' access to information. However, users need to select their needs from trillions of information indexed daily. Due to the "semantic gap" between queries and indexed terms in IR system, whether users can satisfy their needs depends on whether they use the correct terms as…

  3. Intact memory for implicit contextual information in Korsakoff's amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudman, Erik; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Wester, Arie J.; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Postma, Albert

    Implicit contextual learning is the ability to acquire contextual information from our surroundings without conscious awareness. Such contextual information facilitates the localization of objects in space. In a typical implicit contextual learning paradigm, subjects need to find a target among a

  4. Intact memory for implicit contextual information in Korsakoff's amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudman, E.; Stigchel, S. van der; Wester, A.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Postma, A.

    2011-01-01

    Implicit contextual learning is the ability to acquire contextual information from our surroundings without conscious awareness. Such contextual information facilitates the localization of objects in space. In a typical implicit contextual learning paradigm, subjects need to find a target among a

  5. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  6. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-07-14

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  7. Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a prototype application that utilizes the embedded sensors in advanced mobile phones to infer meaningful contextual information, with the potential to support the users in managing their personal information. Contextual information such as time, location, movement...... in personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups...

  8. Metagenomes provide valuable comparative information on soil microeukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste; Stenbæk, Jonas; Santos, Susana

    2016-01-01

    has been identified. Our analyses suggest that publicly available metagenome data can provide valuable information on soil microeukaryotes for comparative purposes when handled appropriately, complementing the current view provided by ribosomal amplicon sequencing methods......., providing microbiologists with substantial amounts of accessible information. We took advantage of public metagenomes in order to investigate microeukaryote communities in a well characterized grassland soil. The data gathered allowed the evaluation of several factors impacting the community structure......, including the DNA extraction method, the database choice and also the annotation procedure. While most studies on soil microeukaryotes are based on sequencing of PCR-amplified taxonomic markers (18S rRNA genes, ITS regions), this work represents, to our knowledge, the first report based solely...

  9. Experimental Detection of Information Deficit in a Photonic Contextuality Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiang; Kurzyński, Paweł; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Wang, Kunkun; Bian, Zhihao; Zhang, Yongsheng; Xue, Peng

    2017-12-01

    Contextuality is an essential characteristic of quantum theory, and supplies the power for many quantum information processes. Previous tests of contextuality focus mainly on the probability distribution of measurement results. However, a test of contextuality can be formulated in terms of entropic inequalities whose violations imply information deficit in the studied system. This information deficit has not been observed on a single local system. Here we report the first experimental detection of information deficit in an entropic test of quantum contextuality based on photonic setup. The corresponding inequality is violated with more than 13 standard deviations.

  10. Personal health records: retrieving contextual information with Google Custom Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Mahmud; Seldon, H Lee; Sayeed, Shohel

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous personal health records, which can accompany a person everywhere, are a necessary requirement for ubiquitous healthcare. Contextual information related to health events is important for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and for the maintenance of good health, yet it is seldom recorded in a health record. We describe a dual cellphone-and-Web-based personal health record system which can include 'external' contextual information. Much contextual information is available on the Internet and we can use ontologies to help identify relevant sites and information. But a search engine is required to retrieve information from the Web and developing a customized search engine is beyond our scope, so we can use Google Custom Search API Web service to get contextual data. In this paper we describe a framework which combines a health-and-environment 'knowledge base' or ontology with the Google Custom Search API to retrieve relevant contextual information related to entries in a ubiquitous personal health record.

  11. A taxonomy for contextual information in electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Charlene R; Staggers, Nancy; Doing-Harris, Kristina; Dunlea, Robert; McCormick, Teresa; Barrus, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    Contextual information is functional, social and financial information about patients and is central to many health-care decisions, including end-of-life care, living arrangements, and the aggressiveness of treatment. It is the language of patients when talking about their health and frequently the focus of nursing interventions. In this study, we report the results of a qualitative analysis of interviews of 17 clinicians focusing on their use of contextual information during the process of care, decision-making and documentation. We identified seven characteristics of contextual information relevant to its use in a clinical setting. Implications for Natural Language Processing and Ontology construction are discussed.

  12. Predicting Contextual Informativeness for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelner, Adam; Soterwood, Jeanine; Nessaiver, Shalev; Adlof, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is essential to educational progress. High quality vocabulary instruction requires supportive contextual examples to teach word meaning and proper usage. Identifying such contexts by hand for a large number of words can be difficult. In this work, we take a statistical learning approach to engineer a system that predicts…

  13. Ground subsidence information as a valuable layer in GIS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdzek, Radosław; Malik, Hubert; Leśniak, Andrzej

    2018-04-01

    Among the technologies used to improve functioning of local governments the geographic information systems (GIS) are widely used. GIS tools allow to simultaneously integrate spatial data resources, analyse them, process and use them to make strategic decisions. Nowadays GIS analysis is widely used in spatial planning or environmental protection. In these applications a number of spatial information are utilized, but rarely it is an information about environmental hazards. This paper includes information about ground subsidence that occurred in USCB mining area into GIS analysis. Monitoring of this phenomenon can be carried out using the radar differential interferometry (DInSAR) method.

  14. Ground subsidence information as a valuable layer in GIS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdzek Radosław

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the technologies used to improve functioning of local governments the geographic information systems (GIS are widely used. GIS tools allow to simultaneously integrate spatial data resources, analyse them, process and use them to make strategic decisions. Nowadays GIS analysis is widely used in spatial planning or environmental protection. In these applications a number of spatial information are utilized, but rarely it is an information about environmental hazards. This paper includes information about ground subsidence that occurred in USCB mining area into GIS analysis. Monitoring of this phenomenon can be carried out using the radar differential interferometry (DInSAR method.

  15. Task-relevant information is prioritized in spatiotemporal contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yoko; Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Hirokazu; Saiki, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Implicit learning of visual contexts facilitates search performance-a phenomenon known as contextual cueing; however, little is known about contextual cueing under situations in which multidimensional regularities exist simultaneously. In everyday vision, different information, such as object identity and location, appears simultaneously and interacts with each other. We tested the hypothesis that, in contextual cueing, when multiple regularities are present, the regularities that are most relevant to our behavioral goals would be prioritized. Previous studies of contextual cueing have commonly used the visual search paradigm. However, this paradigm is not suitable for directing participants' attention to a particular regularity. Therefore, we developed a new paradigm, the "spatiotemporal contextual cueing paradigm," and manipulated task-relevant and task-irrelevant regularities. In four experiments, we demonstrated that task-relevant regularities were more responsible for search facilitation than task-irrelevant regularities. This finding suggests our visual behavior is focused on regularities that are relevant to our current goal.

  16. Contextualization of topics: browsing through the universe of bibliographic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Rob; Wang, Shenghui; Scharnhorst, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes how semantic indexing can help to generate a contextual overview of topics and visually compare clusters of articles. The method was originally developed for an innovative information exploration tool, called Ariadne, which operates on bibliographic databases with tens of

  17. A Memory-based Robot Architecture based on Contextual Information

    OpenAIRE

    Pratama, Ferdian; Mastrogiovanni, Fulvio; Chong, Nak Young

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a preliminary conceptual design for a robot long-term memory architecture based on the notion of context. Contextual information is used to organize the data flow between Working Memory (including Perceptual Memory) and Long-Term Memory components. We discuss the major influence of the notion of context within Episodic Memory on Semantic and Procedural Memory, respectively. We address how the occurrence of specific object-related events in time impacts on the semanti...

  18. Mining Contextual Information for Ephemeral Digital Video Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Chirag

    2009-01-01

    For centuries the archival community has understood and practiced the art of adding contextual information while preserving an artifact. The question now is how these practices can be transferred to the digital domain. With the growing expansion of production and consumption of digital objects (documents, audio, video, etc.) it has become essential to identify and study issues related to their representation. A cura­tor in the digital realm may be said to have the same responsibilities as on...

  19. MULTI-DIMENSIONAL PATTERN DISCOVERY OF TRAJECTORIES USING CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharif

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Movement of point objects are highly sensitive to the underlying situations and conditions during the movement, which are known as contexts. Analyzing movement patterns, while accounting the contextual information, helps to better understand how point objects behave in various contexts and how contexts affect their trajectories. One potential solution for discovering moving objects patterns is analyzing the similarities of their trajectories. This article, therefore, contextualizes the similarity measure of trajectories by not only their spatial footprints but also a notion of internal and external contexts. The dynamic time warping (DTW method is employed to assess the multi-dimensional similarities of trajectories. Then, the results of similarity searches are utilized in discovering the relative movement patterns of the moving point objects. Several experiments are conducted on real datasets that were obtained from commercial airplanes and the weather information during the flights. The results yielded the robustness of DTW method in quantifying the commonalities of trajectories and discovering movement patterns with 80 % accuracy. Moreover, the results revealed the importance of exploiting contextual information because it can enhance and restrict movements.

  20. Multi-Dimensional Pattern Discovery of Trajectories Using Contextual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Alesheikh, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Movement of point objects are highly sensitive to the underlying situations and conditions during the movement, which are known as contexts. Analyzing movement patterns, while accounting the contextual information, helps to better understand how point objects behave in various contexts and how contexts affect their trajectories. One potential solution for discovering moving objects patterns is analyzing the similarities of their trajectories. This article, therefore, contextualizes the similarity measure of trajectories by not only their spatial footprints but also a notion of internal and external contexts. The dynamic time warping (DTW) method is employed to assess the multi-dimensional similarities of trajectories. Then, the results of similarity searches are utilized in discovering the relative movement patterns of the moving point objects. Several experiments are conducted on real datasets that were obtained from commercial airplanes and the weather information during the flights. The results yielded the robustness of DTW method in quantifying the commonalities of trajectories and discovering movement patterns with 80 % accuracy. Moreover, the results revealed the importance of exploiting contextual information because it can enhance and restrict movements.

  1. Influence of affective meaning on memory for contextual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Van der Linden, Martial

    2004-06-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors investigated the influence of the affective meaning of words on memory for 2 kinds of contextual features that differ in the amount of effortful processes they require to be encoded in memory (i.e., color and spatial location). The main results showed that memory for color, in which words were typed, was better for emotional than for neutral words, but only when color information was learned incidentally. In contrast, spatial location of the words was better remembered for emotional than for neutral words whatever the encoding conditions (intentional vs. incidental). It is suggested that the influence of affective meaning on context memory may involve an automatic attraction of attention to contextual features associated with emotional words. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  2. Contextualizing Cave Maps as Geospatial Information: Case Study of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, H.

    2017-12-01

    Caves are the result of solution processes. Because they are happened from geochemical and tectonic activity, they can be considered as geosphere phenomena. As one of the geosphere phenomena, especially at karst landform, caves have spatial dimensions and aspects. Cave’s utilizations and developments are increasing in many sectors such as hydrology, earth science, and tourism industry. However, spatial aspects of caves are poorly concerned dues to the lack of recognition toward cave maps. Many stakeholders have not known significances and importance of cave maps in determining development of a cave. Less information can be considered as the cause. Therefore, it is strongly necessary to put cave maps into the right context in order to make stakeholders realize the significance of it. Also, cave maps will be officially regarded as tools related to policy, development, and conservation act of caves hence they will have regulation in the usages and applications. This paper aims to make the contextualization of cave maps toward legal act. The act which is used is Act Number 4 Year 2011 About Geospatial Information. The contextualization is done by scrutinizing every articles and clauses related to cave maps and seek the contextual elements from both of them. The results are that cave maps can be regarded as geospatial information and classified as thematic geospatial information. The usages of them can be regulated through the Act Number 4 Year 2011. The regulations comprised by data acquisition, database, authorities, surveyor, and the obligation of providing cave maps in planning cave’s development and the environment surrounding.

  3. Using Psychodynamic Interaction as a Valuable Source of Information in Social Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This article will address the issue of using understandings of psychodynamic interrelations as a means to grasp how social and cultural dynamics are processed individually and collectively in narratives. I apply the two theoretically distinct concepts of inter- and intrasubjectivity to gain insight...... are valuable sources of information in understanding the process of becoming a social educator....

  4. Contextualizing Informal Labeling Effect on Adolescent Recidivism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan

    2017-08-01

    Symbolic interactionism argues that the effect of informal labeling by general others, such as family and friends, on behavior depends on the social context under which labeling takes place. Despite abundant research on informal labeling, little effort has been made to contextualize its impact on adolescent reoffending. Also, compared with other theories, only a few studies have been conducted among youths in Asian population. Using three consecutive waves of self-reported survey data from a nationally representative sample of 2,406 Korean adolescents, this study examined an interactional model for the informal labeling effect. Findings suggest that informal labeling, as well as school commitment and delinquent peer association, has an independent effect on delinquency. Also supported is the symbolic interactionist hypothesis that adolescents with greater involvement in delinquent subcultures were less susceptible to informal labeling. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  5. Spatial factors as contextual qualifiers of information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Savolainen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper investigates the ways in which spatial factors have been approached in information seeking studies. The main attention was focused on studies discussing information seeking on the level of source selection and use. Method. Conceptual analysis of about 100 articles and books thematizing spatial issues of information seeking. Due to research economy, the main attention was paid to studies on everyday life information seeking. Results. Three major viewpoints were identified with regard to the degree of objectivity of spatial factors. The objectifying approach conceives of spatial factors as external and entity-like qualifiers that primarly constrain information seeking. The realistic-pragmatic approach emphasizes the ways in which the availabilty of information sources in different places such as daily work environments orient information seeking. The perspectivist approach focuses on how people subjectively assess the significance of various sources by means of spatial constructs such as information horizons. Conclusion. Spatial factors are centrally important contextual qualifiers of information seeking. There is a need to further explore the potential of the above viewpoints by relating the spatial and temporal factors of information seeking.

  6. Mining Contextual Information for Ephemeral Digital Video Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Shah

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 For centuries the archival community has understood and practiced the art of adding contextual information while preserving an artifact. The question now is how these practices can be transferred to the digital domain. With the growing expansion of production and consumption of digital objects (documents, audio, video, etc. it has become essential to identify and study issues related to their representation. A cura­tor in the digital realm may be said to have the same responsibilities as one in a traditional archival domain. However, with the mass production and spread of digital objects, it may be difficult to do all the work manually. In the present article this problem is considered in the area of digital video preservation. We show how this problem can be formulated and propose a framework for capturing contextual infor­mation for ephemeral digital video preservation. This proposal is realized in a system called ContextMiner, which allows us to cater to a digital curator's needs with its four components: digital video curation, collection visualization, browsing interfaces, and video harvesting and monitoring. While the issues and systems described here are geared toward digital videos, they can easily be applied to other kinds of digital objects.

  7. INFORMATION – A VALUABLE ELEMENT IN THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF THE MARKET ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion SARBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available News. The globalization process has been accelerated by the explosion of information technologies entering into the work of social, production and education enterprises. Thus, in terms of systemic approach, the company is not a production of goods or services tailored to market requirements, but is equally an information unit producing knowledge. Purpose. The fundamental feature of these processes is applied once that the primary element of information processing is generated always in the information system, the information processed and interpreted in its final form as a resource of the management system. Methods. The article exposed the theoretical and methodological organization of information system of market relations and the role of information as a valuable element of business processes. Results. In the modern knowledge-based economy, increasing information needs at all levels of economic units that generate the emergence of new information products, enhancement of the productive resource and service information and transporting it by modern computerized channels.Information as a productive resource and service as the raw material for creating an active instrument of scientific management and virtual education in Moldova.

  8. What Clinical Information Is Valuable to Doctors Using Mobile Electronic Medical Records and When?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junetae; Lee, Yura; Lim, Sanghee; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Byungtae; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2017-10-18

    There has been a lack of understanding on what types of specific clinical information are most valuable for doctors to access through mobile-based electronic medical records (m-EMRs) and when they access such information. Furthermore, it has not been clearly discussed why the value of such information is high. The goal of this study was to investigate the types of clinical information that are most valuable to doctors to access through an m-EMR and when such information is accessed. Since 2010, an m-EMR has been used in a tertiary hospital in Seoul, South Korea. The usage logs of the m-EMR by doctors were gathered from March to December 2015. Descriptive analyses were conducted to explore the overall usage patterns of the m-EMR. To assess the value of the clinical information provided, the usage patterns of both the m-EMR and a hospital information system (HIS) were compared on an hourly basis. The peak usage times of the m-EMR were defined as continuous intervals having normalized usage values that are greater than 0.5. The usage logs were processed as an indicator representing specific clinical information using factor analysis. Random intercept logistic regression was used to explore the type of clinical information that is frequently accessed during the peak usage times. A total of 524,929 usage logs from 653 doctors (229 professors, 161 fellows, and 263 residents; mean age: 37.55 years; males: 415 [63.6%]) were analyzed. The highest average number of m-EMR usage logs (897) was by medical residents, whereas the lowest (292) was by surgical residents. The usage amount for three menus, namely inpatient list (47,096), lab results (38,508), and investigation list (25,336), accounted for 60.1% of the peak time usage. The HIS was used most frequently during regular hours (9:00 AM to 5:00 PM). The peak usage time of the m-EMR was early in the morning (6:00 AM to 10:00 AM), and the use of the m-EMR from early evening (5:00 PM) to midnight was higher than during regular

  9. The Evolution of Contextual Information Processing in Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phivos Mylonas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available After many decades of flourishing computer science it is now rather evident that in a world dominated by different kinds of digital information, both applications and people are forced to seek new, innovative structures and forms of data management and organization. Following this blunt observation, researchers in informatics have strived over the recent years to tackle the non-unique and rather evolving notion of context, which aids significantly the data disambiguation process. Motivated by this environment, this work attempts to summarize and organize in a researcher-friendly tabular manner important or pioneer related research works deriving from diverse computational intelligence domains: Initially, we discuss the influence of context with respect to traditional low-level multimedia content analysis and search, and retrieval tasks and then we advance to the fields of overall computational context-awareness and the so-called human-generated contextual elements. In an effort to provide meaningful information to fellow researchers, this brief survey focuses on the impact of context in modern and popular computing undertakings of our era. More specifically, we focus to the presentation of a short review of visual context modeling methods, followed by the depiction of context-awareness in modern computing. Works dealing with the interpretation of context by human-generated interactions are also discussed herein, as the particular domain gains an ever-increasing proportion of related research nowadays. We then conclude the paper by providing a short discussion on (i the motivation behind the included context type categorization into three main pillars; (ii the findings and conclusions of the survey for each context category; and (iii a couple of brief advices derived from the survey for both interested developers and fellow researchers.

  10. Using Psychodynamic Interaction as a Valuable Source of Information in Social Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Schmidt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article will address the issue of using understandings of psychodynamic interrelations as a means to grasp how social and cultural dynamics are processed individually and collectively in narratives. I apply the two theoretically distinct concepts of inter- and intrasubjectivity to gain insight into how social and cultural dynamics are processed as subjective experiences and reflected in the interrelational space created in narrative interviews with trainee social educators. By using a combination of interactionist theory and psychosocial theory in the analysis of an interview with a student of social education, I demonstrate how the often conflicting demands and expectations are being played out in the interrelational tension between the researcher (myself and the interviewee or narrator. In a confrontation with “inner” expectations and concerns regarding a future profession and one’s ability to cope, and the “outer” socially and culturally embedded discourses as they are played out in the objectives of self-development and education, the narrative about a forthcoming internship is filled with tension and contradiction. In this article I will demonstrate how such tensions and contradictions are valuable sources of information in understanding the process of becoming a social educator.

  11. Line lessons: Enbridge's Northern Line provides valuable information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2000-02-01

    Experiences gained from the 14-year old Norman Wells crude oil pipeline in the Northwest Territories may provide operators with valuable insights in natural gas pipeline developments in northern Canada. The Norman Wells line is the first and only long-distance pipeline in North America buried in permafrost and has proven to be a veritable laboratory on pipeline behaviour in extremely cold climates which also happen to be discontinuous at the same time. The line was built by Enbridge with a 'limit state' design, i e. it was built to move within the permafrost within certain limits, the amount of movement depending upon the area in which the line was built. This technology, which is still cutting edge, allows the pipeline to react to the freeze-thaw cycle without being affected by the heaving and resettling. The knowledge gained from the Norman Wells Line has come in very useful in the more recent AltaGas Services project transporting natural gas from a nearby well into the the town of Inuvik. Enbridge also contributed to the development of various pipeline inspection tools such as the 'Geopig' which travels within the pipeline and can pinpoint the location of problems practically within a matter of inches, and the 'Rolligon' an amphibious vehicle with five-foot diameter rubber tires that displaces only two pounds per square inch, leaving barely a track as it travels along the right-of-way during times other than winter.

  12. Western scrub-jays allocate longer observation time to more valuable information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Arii; Grodzinski, Uri; Clayton, Nicola S

    2014-07-01

    When humans mentally reconstruct past events and imagine future scenarios, their subjective experience of mentally time travelling is accompanied by the awareness of doing so. Despite recent popularity of studying episodic memory in animals, such phenomenological consciousness has been extremely difficult to demonstrate without agreed behavioural markers of consciousness in non-linguistic subjects. We presented western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) with a task requiring them to allocate observing time between two peepholes to see food being hidden in either of two compartments, one where observing the hiding location was necessary to later relocate the food, and another where food could easily be found without watching. Jays first separately experienced these consequences of possessing information in each compartment and subsequently, once given a choice, made more looks and spent more time looking into the compartment where information was necessary than into the compartment where it was unnecessary. Thus, the jays can collect information to solve a future problem. Moreover, they can differentiate sources of information according to their potential value and modify behaviour to efficiently collect important, usable information. This is the first evidence of metacognition in a species that passes the behavioural criteria for both retrospective and prospective mental time travel.

  13. Composite Indexes Economic and Social Performance: Do they Provide Valuable Information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasierowski Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the information content of the selected composite indexes, namely the Global Competitiveness Report Index, the Human Development Index, the Knowledge Economy Index, the Innovation Union Scoreboard, and the like. These indexes are examined from the viewpoint of country rankings. It is argued that these indexes provide highly similar information, which brings to question the usefulness of such a variety of approaches. This paper also explores the drawbacks of composite indexes, and questions whether these indexes can adequately serve as policy-setting mechanisms.

  14. e-Health and new moms: Contextual factors associated with sources of health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lorraine O; Mackert, Michael S; Ahn, Jisoo; Vaughan, Misha W; Sterling, Bobbie S; Guy, Sarah; Hendrickson, Sherry

    2017-11-01

    Guided by the Uses and Gratifications approach, to examine mothers' use and preference of e-Health media, and associated contextual factors. Cross-sectional survey of 165 mothers (White, African-American, and Hispanic) from a stratified random sample. Use of online media about mother-baby care; favorite websites about motherhood and best-liked features of Web sites; channel preferences (Web site, postal mail, text) for receiving three types of health information; and contextual factors, e.g., education. Media use ranged from 96% for health information searches about babies to 46% for YouTube viewing about mother-baby topics. Contextual factors, such as education, were associated with media use. Babycenter was the most frequently reported favorite Web site and rich, relevant information was the best-liked feature. Across three health topics (weight, stress/depression, parenting) mothers preferred receiving information by Web site, followed by postal mail and least by text messaging (χ 2 statistics, p < .001). Stress and race/ethnicity were among factors associated with preferences. Mothers widely used e-Health related media, but use was associated with contextual factors. In public health efforts to reach new mothers, partnering with mother-favored Web sites, focusing on audience-relevant media, and adopting attributes of successful sites are recommended strategies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Domestic Dogs Use Contextual Information and Tone of Voice when following a Human Pointing Gesture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheider, Linda; Grassmann, Susanne; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Domestic dogs are skillful at using the human pointing gesture. In this study we investigated whether dogs take contextual information into account when following pointing gestures, specifically, whether they follow human pointing gestures more readily in the context in which food has been found

  16. IMPROVEMENT IN HANDWRITTEN NUMERAL STRING RECOGNITION BY SLANT NORMALIZATION AND CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Britto jr., A. de S.; Sabourin, R.; Lethelier, E.; Bortolozzi, F.; Suen, C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    This work describes a way of enhancing handwritten numeral string recognition by considering slant normalization and contextual information to train an implicit segmentation­based system. A word slant normalization method is modified in order to improve the results for handwritten numeral strings.

  17. Small stones sets Web site apart. Froedtert Hospital updates provide valuable healthcare information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Froedtert & Medical College, an academic medical center, has adopted a proactive approach to providing consumers with reliable sources of information. The Milwaukee institution has redesigned its Web site, which first opened in 1995. The new version has simplified the navigation process and added new content. Small Stones, a health resource center, also a brick-and-mortar shop, went online Feb. 1. Online bill paying was launched in May. Pharmacy refill functions are expected to be online this summer.

  18. Predicting Genes Involved in Human Cancer Using Network Contextual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmani Hossein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI networks have been widely used for the task of predicting proteins involved in cancer. Previous research has shown that functional information about the protein for which a prediction is made, proximity to specific other proteins in the PPI network, as well as local network structure are informative features in this respect. In this work, we introduce two new types of input features, reflecting additional information: (1 Functional Context: the functions of proteins interacting with the target protein (rather than the protein itself; and (2 Structural Context: the relative position of the target protein with respect to specific other proteins selected according to a novel ANOVA (analysis of variance based measure. We also introduce a selection strategy to pinpoint the most informative features. Results show that the proposed feature types and feature selection strategy yield informative features. A standard machine learning method (Naive Bayes that uses the features proposed here outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods by more than 5% with respect to F-measure. In addition, manual inspection confirms the biological relevance of the top-ranked features.

  19. Valuable Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    , as well as design, production and use, we might need to rethink the role of ethnography within user centred design and business development. Here the challenge is less about ”getting closer” to user needs and real-life contexts, through familiarization, mediation, and facilitation, and more about creating...... a critical theoretically informed distance from which to perceive and reflect upon complex interconnections between people, technology, business and design, as well as our roles as researchers and designers within these....

  20. Selecting for memory? The influence of selective attention on the mnemonic binding of contextual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncapher, Melina R; Rugg, Michael D

    2009-06-24

    Not all of what is experienced is remembered later. Behavioral evidence suggests that the manner in which an event is processed influences which aspects of the event will later be remembered. The present experiment investigated the neural correlates of "selective encoding," or the mechanisms that support the encoding of some elements of an event in preference to others. Event-related MRI data were acquired while volunteers selectively attended to one of two different contextual features of study items (color or location). A surprise memory test for the items and both contextual features was subsequently administered to determine the influence of selective attention on the neural correlates of contextual encoding. Activity in several cortical regions indexed later memory success selectively for color or location information, and this encoding-related activity was enhanced by selective attention to the relevant feature. Critically, a region in the hippocampus responded selectively to attended source information (whether color or location), demonstrating encoding-related activity for attended but not for nonattended source features. Together, the findings suggest that selective attention modulates the magnitude of activity in cortical regions engaged by different aspects of an event, and hippocampal encoding mechanisms seem to be sensitive to this modulation. Thus, the information that is encoded into a memory representation is biased by selective attention, and this bias is mediated by cortical-hippocampal interactions.

  1. The Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP): Optimizing Health Information Technology to Improve Mental Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Ludwig, Kristy; Zachry, Mark; Bruns, Eric J; Unützer, Jürgen; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Health information technologies have become a central fixture in the mental healthcare landscape, but few frameworks exist to guide their adaptation to novel settings. This paper introduces the contextualized technology adaptation process (CTAP) and presents data collected during Phase 1 of its application to measurement feedback system development in school mental health. The CTAP is built on models of human-centered design and implementation science and incorporates repeated mixed methods assessments to guide the design of technologies to ensure high compatibility with a destination setting. CTAP phases include: (1) Contextual evaluation, (2) Evaluation of the unadapted technology, (3) Trialing and evaluation of the adapted technology, (4) Refinement and larger-scale implementation, and (5) Sustainment through ongoing evaluation and system revision. Qualitative findings from school-based practitioner focus groups are presented, which provided information for CTAP Phase 1, contextual evaluation, surrounding education sector clinicians' workflows, types of technologies currently available, and influences on technology use. Discussion focuses on how findings will inform subsequent CTAP phases, as well as their implications for future technology adaptation across content domains and service sectors.

  2. The Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP): Optimizing Health Information Technology to Improve Mental Health Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Ludwig, Kristy; Zachry, Mark; Bruns, Eric J.; Unützer, Jürgen; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Health information technologies have become a central fixture in the mental healthcare landscape, but few frameworks exist to guide their adaptation to novel settings. This paper introduces the Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP) and presents data collected during Phase 1 of its application to measurement feedback system development in school mental health. The CTAP is built on models of human-centered design and implementation science and incorporates repeated mixed methods assessments to guide the design of technologies to ensure high compatibility with a destination setting. CTAP phases include: (1) Contextual evaluation, (2) Evaluation of the unadapted technology, (3) Trialing and evaluation of the adapted technology, (4) Refinement and larger-scale implementation, and (5) Sustainment through ongoing evaluation and system revision. Qualitative findings from school-based practitioner focus groups are presented, which provided information for CTAP Phase 1, contextual evaluation, surrounding education sector clinicians’ workflows, types of technologies currently available, and influences on technology use. Discussion focuses on how findings will inform subsequent CTAP phases, as well as their implications for future technology adaptation across content domains and service sectors. PMID:25677251

  3. Selecting for memory? The influence of selective attention on the mnemonic binding of contextual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncapher, Melina R.; Rugg, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Not all of what is experienced is remembered later. Behavioral evidence suggests that the manner in which an event is processed influences which aspects of the event will later be remembered. The present experiment investigated the neural correlates of ‘selective encoding’, or the mechanisms that support the encoding of some elements of an event in preference to others. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired while volunteers selectively attended to one of two different contextual features of study items (color or location). A surprise memory test for the items and both contextual features was subsequently administered to determine the influence of selective attention on the neural correlates of contextual encoding. Activity in several cortical regions indexed later memory success selectively for color or location information, and this encoding-related activity was enhanced by selective attention to the relevant feature. Critically, a region in the hippocampus responded selectively to attended source information (whether color or location), demonstrating encoding-related activity for attended but not for nonattended source features. Together, the findings suggest that selective attention modulates the magnitude of activity in cortical regions engaged by different aspects of an event, and hippocampal encoding mechanisms seem to be sensitive to this modulation. Thus, the information that is encoded into a memory representation is biased by selective attention, and this bias is mediated by cortico-hippocampal interactions. PMID:19553466

  4. Valuable Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    and blurred boundaries between physical, digital and hybrid contexts, as well as design, production and use, we might need to rethink the role of ethnography within design and business development. Perhaps the aim is less about ”getting closer” to user needs and real-life contexts, through familiarization......, mediation, advocacy and facilitation, as in conventional approaches to ethnography in user centred design, and more about creating a critical theoretically informed distance from which to perceive and reflect upon complex interconnections between people, technology, business and design, as well as our roles...

  5. Domestic dogs use contextual information and tone of voice when following a human pointing gesture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Scheider

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are skillful at using the human pointing gesture. In this study we investigated whether dogs take contextual information into account when following pointing gestures, specifically, whether they follow human pointing gestures more readily in the context in which food has been found previously. Also varied was the human's tone of voice as either imperative or informative. Dogs were more sustained in their searching behavior in the 'context' condition as opposed to the 'no context' condition, suggesting that they do not simply follow a pointing gesture blindly but use previously acquired contextual information to inform their interpretation of that pointing gesture. Dogs also showed more sustained searching behavior when there was pointing than when there was not, suggesting that they expect to find a referent when they see a human point. Finally, dogs searched more in high-pitched informative trials as opposed to the low-pitched imperative trials, whereas in the latter dogs seemed more inclined to respond by sitting. These findings suggest that a dog's response to a pointing gesture is flexible and depends on the context as well as the human's tone of voice.

  6. Semantic Web and Contextual Information: Semantic Network Analysis of Online Journalistic Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yon Soo

    This study examines why contextual information is important to actualize the idea of semantic web, based on a case study of a socio-political issue in South Korea. For this study, semantic network analyses were conducted regarding English-language based 62 blog posts and 101 news stories on the web. The results indicated the differences of the meaning structures between blog posts and professional journalism as well as between conservative journalism and progressive journalism. From the results, this study ascertains empirical validity of current concerns about the practical application of the new web technology, and discusses how the semantic web should be developed.

  7. The Interaction of Contextual and Syntactic Information in the Processing of Turkish Anaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gračanin-Yuksek, Martina; Lago, Sol; Şafak, Duygu Fatma; Demir, Orhan; Kırkıcı, Bilal

    2017-12-01

    In contrast with languages where anaphors can be classified into pronouns and reflexives, Turkish has a tripartite system that consists of the anaphors o, kendi, and kendisi. The syntactic literature on these anaphors has proposed that whereas o behaves like a pronoun and kendi behaves like a reflexive, kendisi has a more flexible behavior and it can function as both a pronoun and a reflexive. Using acceptability judgments and a self-paced reading task, we examined how Turkish anaphors are processed in isolated sentences and within larger discourse contexts. We manipulated contextual information by creating passages where the context favored a local, long-distance or extra-sentential referent prior to the appearance of the anaphor. We measured the effect of the context on participants' reading times and their end-of-trial coreference assignments. Our results suggest that contextual information affects the interpretive possibilities associated with an anaphor, but that the influence of context depends on the degree to which the anaphor is syntactically constrained.

  8. A Novel Contextual Information Recommendation Model and Its Application in e-Commerce Customer Satisfaction Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feipeng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current supply chain environment, distributed cognition theory tells us that various types of context information in which a recommendation is provided are important for e-commerce customer satisfaction management. However, traditional recommendation model does not consider the distributed and differentiated impact of different contexts on user needs, and it also lacks adaptive capacity of contextual recommendation service. Thus, a contextual information recommendation model based on distributed cognition theory is proposed. Firstly, the model analyzes the differential impact of various sensitive contexts and specific examples on user interest and designs a user interest extraction algorithm based on distributed cognition theory. Then, the sensitive contexts extracted from user are introduced into the process of collaborative filtering recommendation. The model calculates similarity among user interests. Finally, a novel collaborative filtering algorithm integrating with context and user similarity is designed. The experimental results in e-commerce and benchmark dataset show that this model has a good ability to extract user interest and has higher recommendation accuracy compared with other methods.

  9. Anxiety, anticipation and contextual information: A test of attentional control theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Adam J; Jackson, Robin C; Bishop, Daniel T; Williams, A Mark

    2016-09-01

    We tested the assumptions of Attentional Control Theory (ACT) by examining the impact of anxiety on anticipation using a dynamic, time-constrained task. Moreover, we examined the involvement of high- and low-level cognitive processes in anticipation and how their importance may interact with anxiety. Skilled and less-skilled tennis players anticipated the shots of opponents under low- and high-anxiety conditions. Participants viewed three types of video stimuli, each depicting different levels of contextual information. Performance effectiveness (response accuracy) and processing efficiency (response accuracy divided by corresponding mental effort) were measured. Skilled players recorded higher levels of response accuracy and processing efficiency compared to less-skilled counterparts. Processing efficiency significantly decreased under high- compared to low-anxiety conditions. No difference in response accuracy was observed. When reviewing directional errors, anxiety was most detrimental to performance in the condition conveying only contextual information, suggesting that anxiety may have a greater impact on high-level (top-down) cognitive processes, potentially due to a shift in attentional control. Our findings provide partial support for ACT; anxiety elicited greater decrements in processing efficiency than performance effectiveness, possibly due to predominance of the stimulus-driven attentional system.

  10. An analysis of contextual information relevant to medical care unexpectedly volunteered to researchers by asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Heather L; Priolo, Chantel; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Geer, Sabrina; Adam, Bariituu; Apter, Andrea J

    2012-09-01

    To describe and categorize contextual information relevant to patients' medical care unexpectedly volunteered to research personnel as part of a patient advocate (PA) intervention to facilitate access health care, communication with medical personnel, and self-management of a chronic disease such as asthma. We adapted a patient navigator intervention, to overcome barriers to access and communication for adults with moderate or severe asthma. Informed by focus groups of patients and providers, our PAs facilitated preparation for a visit with an asthma provider, attended the visit, confirmed understanding, and assisted with post-visit activities. During meetings with researchers, either for PA activities or for data collection, participants frequently volunteered personal and medical information relevant for achieving successful self-management that was not routinely shared with medical personnel. For this project, researchers journaled information not captured by the structured questionnaires and protocol. Using a qualitative analysis, we describe (1) researchers' journals of these unique communications; (2) their relevance for accomplishing self-management; (3) PAs' formal activities including teach-back, advocacy, and facilitating appointment making; and (4) observations of patients' interactions with the clinical practices. In 83 journals, patients' social support (83%), health (68%), and deportment (69%) were described. PA assistance with navigating the medical system (59%), teach-back (46%), and observed interactions with patient and medical staff (76%) were also journaled. Implicit were ways patients and practices could overcome barriers to access and communication. These journals describe the importance of seeking contextual and medically relevant information from all patients and, especially, those with significant morbidities, prompting patients for barriers to access to health care, and confirming understanding of medical information.

  11. Disturbed Processing of Contextual Information in HCN3 Channel Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Marc S.; Fenske, Stefanie; Hammelmann, Verena; Becirovic, Elvir; Schöttle, Verena; Delorme, James E.; Schöll-Weidinger, Martha; Mader, Robert; Deussing, Jan; Wolfer, David P.; Seeliger, Mathias W.; Albrecht, Urs; Wotjak, Carsten T.; Biel, Martin; Michalakis, Stylianos; Wahl-Schott, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCNs) in the nervous system are implicated in a variety of neuronal functions including learning and memory, regulation of vigilance states and pain. Dysfunctions or genetic loss of these channels have been shown to cause human diseases such as epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. The physiological functions of HCN1 and HCN2 channels in the nervous system have been analyzed using genetic knockout mouse models. By contrast, there are no such genetic studies for HCN3 channels so far. Here, we use a HCN3-deficient (HCN3−/−) mouse line, which has been previously generated in our group to examine the expression and function of this channel in the CNS. Specifically, we investigate the role of HCN3 channels for the regulation of circadian rhythm and for the determination of behavior. Contrary to previous suggestions we find that HCN3−/− mice show normal visual, photic, and non-photic circadian function. In addition, HCN3−/− mice are impaired in processing contextual information, which is characterized by attenuated long-term extinction of contextual fear and increased fear to a neutral context upon repeated exposure. PMID:29375299

  12. Disturbed Processing of Contextual Information in HCN3 Channel Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc S. Stieglitz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCNs in the nervous system are implicated in a variety of neuronal functions including learning and memory, regulation of vigilance states and pain. Dysfunctions or genetic loss of these channels have been shown to cause human diseases such as epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. The physiological functions of HCN1 and HCN2 channels in the nervous system have been analyzed using genetic knockout mouse models. By contrast, there are no such genetic studies for HCN3 channels so far. Here, we use a HCN3-deficient (HCN3−/− mouse line, which has been previously generated in our group to examine the expression and function of this channel in the CNS. Specifically, we investigate the role of HCN3 channels for the regulation of circadian rhythm and for the determination of behavior. Contrary to previous suggestions we find that HCN3−/− mice show normal visual, photic, and non-photic circadian function. In addition, HCN3−/− mice are impaired in processing contextual information, which is characterized by attenuated long-term extinction of contextual fear and increased fear to a neutral context upon repeated exposure.

  13. EnvMine: A text-mining system for the automatic extraction of contextual information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Lorenzo Victor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For ecological studies, it is crucial to count on adequate descriptions of the environments and samples being studied. Such a description must be done in terms of their physicochemical characteristics, allowing a direct comparison between different environments that would be difficult to do otherwise. Also the characterization must include the precise geographical location, to make possible the study of geographical distributions and biogeographical patterns. Currently, there is no schema for annotating these environmental features, and these data have to be extracted from textual sources (published articles. So far, this had to be performed by manual inspection of the corresponding documents. To facilitate this task, we have developed EnvMine, a set of text-mining tools devoted to retrieve contextual information (physicochemical variables and geographical locations from textual sources of any kind. Results EnvMine is capable of retrieving the physicochemical variables cited in the text, by means of the accurate identification of their associated units of measurement. In this task, the system achieves a recall (percentage of items retrieved of 92% with less than 1% error. Also a Bayesian classifier was tested for distinguishing parts of the text describing environmental characteristics from others dealing with, for instance, experimental settings. Regarding the identification of geographical locations, the system takes advantage of existing databases such as GeoNames to achieve 86% recall with 92% precision. The identification of a location includes also the determination of its exact coordinates (latitude and longitude, thus allowing the calculation of distance between the individual locations. Conclusion EnvMine is a very efficient method for extracting contextual information from different text sources, like published articles or web pages. This tool can help in determining the precise location and physicochemical

  14. Using geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels for classification of detailed urban land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.-S.; Qiu, X.; Usery, E.L.; Wang, L.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed urban land use data are important to government officials, researchers, and businesspeople for a variety of purposes. This article presents an approach to classifying detailed urban land use based on geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels. An area of 6 by 14 km in Austin, Texas, with land parcel boundaries delineated by the Travis Central Appraisal District of Travis County, Texas, is tested for the approach. We derive fifty parcel attributes from relevant geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing data and use them to discriminate among nine urban land uses: single family, multifamily, commercial, office, industrial, civic, open space, transportation, and undeveloped. Half of the 33,025 parcels in the study area are used as training data for land use classification and the other half are used as testing data for accuracy assessment. The best result with a decision tree classification algorithm has an overall accuracy of 96 percent and a kappa coefficient of 0.78, and two naive, baseline models based on the majority rule and the spatial autocorrelation rule have overall accuracy of 89 percent and 79 percent, respectively. The algorithm is relatively good at classifying single-family, multifamily, commercial, open space, and undeveloped land uses and relatively poor at classifying office, industrial, civic, and transportation land uses. The most important attributes for land use classification are the geometrical attributes, particularly those related to building areas. Next are the contextual attributes, particularly those relevant to the spatial relationship between buildings, then the textural attributes, particularly the semivariance texture statistic from 0.61-m resolution images.

  15. The use of traits and contextual information in free personality descriptions across ethnocultural groups in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valchev, Velichko H; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Nel, J Alewyn; Rothmann, Sebastiaan; Meiring, Deon

    2013-06-01

    The present study investigates the differences between 3 ethnocultural groups in South Africa in the use of traits and contextual information for personality descriptions and the interaction of these differences with social distance from the target person and with personality domains. Semistructured interviews asking for self- and other-descriptions were conducted with 1,027 Blacks, 84 Coloureds and Indians, and 105 Whites, representing the country's 11 official languages. In Part 1 we found similarities in the total set of categories used most often for personality description across the 3 groups-traits, behaviors, preferences, and perceptions (over 86%), which were context-free (over 66%)-as well as substantial differences between the groups in the relative use of these categories. In Part 2 we found that distance from the target person plays a role in cross-cultural differences in trait use and contextualization. In Part 3 we found significant interactions of culture with the use of traits and contextual information across agency-communion and 9 indigenous South African personality clusters similar to the Big Five. The responses of Blacks confirmed expectations for collectivistic groups (fewer traits and more contextualization) and of Whites for individualistic groups (more traits and less contextualization), and Coloureds and Indians had an intermediate pattern. The results are discussed in the framework of the trait and cultural psychology perspectives on personality. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Some aspects of the use of contextual information in production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Has, Michael; Luidl, Christian; Schaeffner, Jochen; Klotzbuecher, Ute

    1998-09-01

    The production process in graphic arts can be divided in several work- or dataflows, which fundamentally differ. One deals with the creation and modification of content, i.e. photographing a scene, modifying text, retouch of pictur data, etc. The other attempts to generate, organize, and manage contextual information which can e.g. be of design, technical (screening, color definition), administrative (customer, invoice info) or product specific information (desired paperstock, finishing) character. In the paper under view those workflows are closer examined. It is shown that the creation of genres (generic product prototypes like books, flyers, etc.) may in certain cases be used to simplify both workflows. It may also be used to generate information required for both content creation (like layout) and technical purposes. The approach presented discusses a method to create a publication dependent on the information which genre is to be addressed. The concept is based on the reuse of intermediate products or of output data. For the implementation of the concept we introduce the fundamental workflows involved and an architecture containing some of the important elements required. In a final part a first overview of the implementation of the concept is given. It turns out that the job ticket, the design of the page elements and the layout are the crucial factors in a genre based production.

  17. Information Needs in a Community of Reading Specialists: What Information Needs Say about Contextual Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normore, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The perceived information needs of teachers who specialize in reading instruction for at-risk first graders were studied and related to frameworks for the role of social context in information needs, seeking and use. The frameworks considered were: disciplinarity, role theory in work settings, small worlds and information grounds and…

  18. The use of traits and contextual information in free personality descriptions of ethno-cultural groups in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valchev, V.H.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Nel, J.A.; Rothmann, S.R.; Meiring, D.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the differences between 3 ethnocultural groups in South Africa in the use of traits and contextual information for personality descriptions and the interaction of these differences with social distance from the target person and with personality domains. Semistructured

  19. Contextual factors influencing strategic information systems planning in a network: Evaluation of two inter-municipality projects in Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Broek, T.; Spil, T.; Kestilä, T.; Ehrenhard, M.; Salmela, H.

    2008-01-01

    Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) is mostly studied within organizations. Recently, preliminary attempts are made to study SISP on network level. As network studies up to now focus on the planning process and its outcome, we choose to study contextual factors that give input to the

  20. Uncertain Reasoning for Detection of Selling Stolen Goods in Online Auctions Using Contextual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Beranek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design of a decision support system for detection of fraudulent behavior of selling stolen goods in online auctions. In this system, each seller is associated with a type of certification, namely “proper seller,” “suspect seller,” and “selling stolen goods.” The certification level is determined on the basis of a seller’s behaviors and especially on the basis of contextual information whose origin is outside online auctions portals. In this paper, we focus on representing knowledge about sellers in online auctions, the influence of additional information available from other Internet source, and reasoning on bidders’ trustworthiness under uncertainties using Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. To demonstrate the practicability of our approach, we performed a case study using real auction data from Czech auction portal Aukro. The analysis results show that our approach can be used to detect selling stolen goods. By applying Dempster-Shafer theory to combine multiple sources of evidence for the detection of this fraudulent behavior, the proposed approach can reduce the number of false positive results in comparison to approaches using a single source of evidence.

  1. Effects of Contextual Factors on Information Seeking Behavior on the Web by Postgraduate Students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the influence of contextual factors on information seeking behavior. This survey investigates search tactics used and users’ perceptions of the search results on the Web by postgraduate students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This study was conducted through a mixed method. Thirty postgraduate students voluntarily participated. The study was carried out in the first semester of the academic year 2012-2013. The data was gathered using two questionnaires and log files recorded with Camtasia Studio software. The findings indicated more than half of the participants (53.3 percent used Google, short queries were more used than long queries, advanced search options were used rarely (23 percent, and the participants view few search result pages. According to the results, the contextual factors significantly influenced the search time, search tactics (including querying and navigating and users’ perceptions of the search results (including ease of use, usefulness, satisfaction and relevance judgment. Navigating tactic was primarily used by the participants. Among different aspects of users’ perceptions of the search results, ease of use and relevance judgments were significantly different based on the contextual factors, whereas scanning, extracting, and confidence were less affected by the contextual factors. The findings suggest practical implications for information retrieval systems designers that can design of systems with better user interface in order to meet the needs of users with different knowledge and skills, in this way it leads in promotion of search process and improvement of search results quality.

  2. Effects of bilateral eye movements on the retrieval of item, associative, and contextual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Relph, Sarah; Dagnall, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that investigate the effects of saccadic bilateral eye movements on the retrieval of item, associative, and contextual information. Experiment 1 compared the effects of bilateral versus vertical versus no eye movements on tests of item recognition, followed by remember-know responses and associative recognition. Supporting previous research, bilateral eye movements enhanced item recognition by increasing the hit rate and decreasing the false alarm rate. Analysis of remember-know responses indicated that eye movement effects were accompanied by increases in remember responses. The test of associative recognition found that bilateral eye movements increased correct responses to intact pairs and decreased false alarms to rearranged pairs. Experiment 2 assessed the effects of eye movements on the recall of intrinsic (color) and extrinsic (spatial location) context. Bilateral eye movements increased correct recall for both types of context. The results are discussed within the framework of dual-process models of memory and the possible neural underpinnings of these effects are considered.

  3. Long-term knowledge acquisition using contextual information in a memory-inspired robot architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Ferdian; Mastrogiovanni, Fulvio; Lee, Soon Geul; Chong, Nak Young

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel cognitive framework allowing a robot to form memories of relevant traits of its perceptions and to recall them when necessary. The framework is based on two main principles: on the one hand, we propose an architecture inspired by current knowledge in human memory organisation; on the other hand, we integrate such an architecture with the notion of context, which is used to modulate the knowledge acquisition process when consolidating memories and forming new ones, as well as with the notion of familiarity, which is employed to retrieve proper memories given relevant cues. Although much research has been carried out, which exploits Machine Learning approaches to provide robots with internal models of their environment (including objects and occurring events therein), we argue that such approaches may not be the right direction to follow if a long-term, continuous knowledge acquisition is to be achieved. As a case study scenario, we focus on both robot-environment and human-robot interaction processes. In case of robot-environment interaction, a robot performs pick and place movements using the objects in the workspace, at the same time observing their displacement on a table in front of it, and progressively forms memories defined as relevant cues (e.g. colour, shape or relative position) in a context-aware fashion. As far as human-robot interaction is concerned, the robot can recall specific snapshots representing past events using both sensory information and contextual cues upon request by humans.

  4. Contextual information management: An example of independent-checking in the review of laboratory-based bloodstain pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Nikola K P; Taylor, Michael C

    2018-05-01

    This article describes a New Zealand forensic agency's contextual information management protocol for bloodstain pattern evidence examined in the laboratory. In an effort to create a protocol that would have minimal impact on current work-flow, while still effectively removing task-irrelevant contextual information, the protocol was designed following an in-depth consultation with management and forensic staff. The resulting design was for a protocol of independent-checking (i.e. blind peer-review) where the checker's interpretation of the evidence is conducted in the absence of case information and the original examiner's notes or interpretation(s). At the conclusion of a ten-case trial period, there was widespread agreement that the protocol had minimal impact on the number of people required, the cost, or the time to complete an item examination. The agency is now looking to adopt the protocol into standard operating procedures and in some cases the protocol has been extended to cover other laboratory-based examinations (e.g. fabric damage, shoeprint examination, and physical fits). The protocol developed during this trial provides a useful example for agencies seeking to adopt contextual information management into their workflow. Copyright © 2018 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A qualitative evaluation of the crucial attributes of contextual information necessary in EHR design to support patient-centered medical home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Charlene R; Staggers, Nancy; Gibson, Bryan; Doing-Harris, Kristina; Barrus, Robyn; Dunlea, Robert

    2015-04-16

    Effective implementation of a Primary Care Medical Home model of care (PCMH) requires integration of patients' contextual information (physical, mental, social and financial status) into an easily retrievable information source for the healthcare team and clinical decision-making. This project explored clinicians' perceptions about important attributes of contextual information for clinical decision-making, how contextual information is expressed in CPRS clinical documentation as well as how clinicians in a highly computerized environment manage information flow related to these areas. A qualitative design using Cognitive Task Analyses and a modified Critical Incident Technique were used. The study was conducted in a large VA with a fully implemented EHR located in the western United States. Seventeen providers working in a PCMH model of care in Primary Care, Home Based Care and Geriatrics reported on a recent difficult transition requiring contextual information for decision-making. The transcribed interviews were qualitatively analyzed for thematic development related to contextual information using an iterative process and multiple reviewers with ATLAS@ti software. Six overarching themes emerged as attributes of contextual information: Informativeness, goal language, temporality, source attribution, retrieval effort, and information quality. These results indicate that specific attributes are needed to in order for contextual information to fully support clinical decision-making in a Medical Home care delivery environment. Improved EHR designs are needed for ease of contextual information access, displaying linkages across time and settings, and explicit linkages to both clinician and patient goals. Implications relevant to providers' information needs, team functioning and EHR design are discussed.

  6. NEW APPROACHES IN DECEPTION DETECTION II. ACTIVE INTERVIEWING STRATEGIES AND CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Masip

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analytical evidence shows that behavioural indicators of deception are scant, poorly diagnostic and inconsistent. This has yielded a shift in deception detection research. Rather than passively scrutinising the communication sender to find tell-tale behavioural indicators of deception, the deception judge needs to (a adopt an active role by using interviewing techniques specifically designed to detect deception, or (b focus on contextual (rather than behavioural deception cues. In the previous paper (Masip & Herrero, 2015a, we reviewed the antecedents of this change in focus, as well as the theoretical grounding of the new approaches. Here we describe specific interviewing strategies for detecting deception, as well as the (still scant research on contextual deception indicia. In doing this, we hope to offer the reader a detailed perspective on the recent developments in this specific area of psychology and law.

  7. Three looks at users: a comparison of methods for studying digital library use. User studies, Digital libraries, Digital music libraries, Music, Information use, Information science, Contextual inquiry, Contextual design, User research, Questionnaires, Log file analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Notess

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Compares three user research methods of studying real-world digital library usage within the context of the Variations and Variations2 digital music libraries at Indiana University. After a brief description of both digital libraries, each method is described and illustrated with findings from the studies. User satisfaction questionnaires were used in two studies, one of Variations (n=30 and the other of Variations2 (n=12. Second, session activity log files were examined for 175 Variations2 sessions using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The third method, contextual inquiry, is illustrated with results from field observations of four voice students' information usage patterns. The three methods are compared in terms of expertise required; time required to set up, conduct, and analyse resulting data; and the benefits derived. Further benefits are achieved with a mixed-methods approach, combining the strengths of the methods to answer questions lingering as a result of other methods.

  8. Challenging and valuable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hal, J.D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Challenging and valuable Inaugural speech given on May 7th 2008 at the occasion of the acceptance of the position of Professor Sustainable Housing Transformation at the faculty of Architeeture of the Delft University of Technology by Prof. J.D.M. van Hal MSc PhD.

  9. Implementing context information management in forensic casework: Minimizing contextual bias in firearms examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattijssen, E.J.A.T.; Kerkhoff, W.; Berger, C.E.H.; Dror, I.E.; Stoel, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    Managing context information in forensic casework aims to minimize task-irrelevant information while maximizing the task-relevant information that reaches the examiner. A design and implementation of context information management (CIM) is described for forensic firearms examination. Guided by a

  10. Effects of Contextual Information on Seeing Pareidolic Religious Inscriptions on an Artifact: Implications for the Shroud of Turin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Mercedes; Jordan, Timothy R

    2015-12-01

    Several reports suggest that images of the Shroud of Turin contain faint religious inscriptions that support the view that the Shroud has special religious significance. Against this background, we investigated effects of contextual information on detecting religious inscriptions using an image of plain modern linen with no religious provenance and containing no writing. The image was viewed in three contexts: In the Neutral Context, participants were told that the image was of a simple piece of linen; in the Religious Context, participants were told that the image was of an important religious artifact; and in the Religious Context + Options condition, participants were also given plausible word options. Very few words were detected in the Neutral Context, significantly more in the Religious Context, and most in the Religious Context+Options condition. Some implications of these findings for reports of inscriptions in the context-laden conditions surrounding the Shroud of Turin are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  12. Using a 'value-added' approach for contextual design of geographic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate how a 'value-added' approach can be used for user-centred design of geographic information. An information science perspective was used, with value being the difference in outcomes arising from alternative information sets. Sixteen drivers navigated a complex, unfamiliar urban route, using visual and verbal instructions representing the distance-to-turn and junction layout information presented by typical satellite navigation systems. Data measuring driving errors, navigation errors and driver confidence were collected throughout the trial. The results show how driver performance varied considerably according to the geographic context at specific locations, and that there are specific opportunities to add value with enhanced geographical information. The conclusions are that a value-added approach facilitates a more explicit focus on 'desired' (and feasible) levels of end user performance with different information sets, and is a potentially effective approach to user-centred design of geographic information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. A contextual image segmentation system using a priori information for automatic data classification in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkirane, A.; Auger, G.; Chbihi, A.; Bloyet, D.; Plagnol, E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an original approach to solve an automatic data classification problem by means of image processing techniques. The classification is achieved using image segmentation techniques for extracting the meaningful classes. Two types of information are merged for this purpose: the information contained in experimental images and a priori information derived from underlying physics (and adapted to image segmentation problem). This data fusion is widely used at different stages of the segmentation process. This approach yields interesting results in terms of segmentation performances, even in very noisy cases. Satisfactory classification results are obtained in cases where more ''classical'' automatic data classification methods fail. (authors). 25 refs., 14 figs., 1 append

  14. A contextual image segmentation system using a priori information for automatic data classification in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkirane, A; Auger, G; Chbihi, A [Grand Accelerateur National d` Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Bloyet, D [Caen Univ., 14 (France); Plagnol, E [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an original approach to solve an automatic data classification problem by means of image processing techniques. The classification is achieved using image segmentation techniques for extracting the meaningful classes. Two types of information are merged for this purpose: the information contained in experimental images and a priori information derived from underlying physics (and adapted to image segmentation problem). This data fusion is widely used at different stages of the segmentation process. This approach yields interesting results in terms of segmentation performances, even in very noisy cases. Satisfactory classification results are obtained in cases where more ``classical`` automatic data classification methods fail. (authors). 25 refs., 14 figs., 1 append.

  15. Risk and Ambiguity in Information Seeking: Eye Gaze Patterns Reveal Contextual Behavior in Dealing with Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Peter; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Darányi, Sándor; Gedeon, Tom; Lim, Ik Soo

    2016-01-01

    Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology with how humans search for information. The theory suggests that, following an information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoff between exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs. exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that this tradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its two aspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to the perceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and can be reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent. Ambiguity, on the other hand, is the opportunity cost of having higher quality patches elsewhere in the search space. The aforementioned tradeoff depends on many attributes, including traits of the user: at the two extreme ends of the spectrum, analytic and wholistic searchers employ entirely different strategies. The former type focuses on exploitation first, interspersed with bouts of exploration, whereas the latter type prefers to explore the search space first and consume later. Our findings from an eye-tracking study of experts' interactions with novel search interfaces in the biomedical domain suggest that user traits of cognitive styles and perceived search task difficulty are significantly correlated with eye gaze and search behavior. We also demonstrate that perceived risk shifts the balance between exploration and exploitation in either type of users, tilting it against vs. in favor of ambiguity minimization. Since the pattern of behavior in information foraging is quintessentially sequential, risk and ambiguity minimization cannot happen simultaneously, leading to a fundamental limit on how good such a tradeoff can be. This in turn connects information seeking with the emergent field of quantum decision theory.

  16. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  17. A Proposal for IoT Dynamic Routes Selection Based on Contextual Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Harilton da Silva; Filho, Raimir Holanda; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Rabelo, Ricardo de A L; Sousa, Natanael de C; Filho, José C C L S; Sobral, José V V

    2018-01-26

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is based on interconnection of intelligent and addressable devices, allowing their autonomy and proactive behavior with Internet connectivity. Data dissemination in IoT usually depends on the application and requires context-aware routing protocols that must include auto-configuration features (which adapt the behavior of the network at runtime, based on context information). This paper proposes an approach for IoT route selection using fuzzy logic in order to attain the requirements of specific applications. In this case, fuzzy logic is used to translate in math terms the imprecise information expressed by a set of linguistic rules. For this purpose, four Objective Functions (OFs) are proposed for the Routing Protocol for Low Power and Loss Networks (RPL); such OFs are dynamically selected based on context information. The aforementioned OFs are generated from the fusion of the following metrics: Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Number of Hops (NH) and Energy Consumed (EC). The experiments performed through simulation, associated with the statistical data analysis, conclude that this proposal provides high reliability by successfully delivering nearly 100% of data packets, low delay for data delivery and increase in QoS. In addition, an 30% improvement is attained in the network life time when using one of proposed objective function, keeping the devices alive for longer duration.

  18. Fusion Energy: Contextual Analysis of the Information Panels Developed by the Scientific Community versus Citizen Discourse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri Anglada, S.; Cornejo Alvarez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The report presents an exploratory study on the impact of scientific dissemination, particularly a comparative analysis of two discourses on fusion energy as an alternative energy future. The report introduces a comparative analysis of the institutional discourse, as portrayed by the scientific jargon used in a European travelling exhibition on nuclear fusion Fusion Expo, and the social discourse, as illustrated by a citizen deliberation on this very same exhibition. Through textual analysis, the scientific discourse as deployed in the informative panels at the Fusion Expo is compared with the citizen discourse as developed in the discussions within the citizen groups. The ConText software was applied for such analysis. The purpose is to analyze how visitors assimilate, capture and understand highly technical information. Results suggest that, in despite of convergence points, the two discourses present certain differences, showing diverse levels of communication. The scientific discourse shows a great profusion of formalisms and technicalities of scientific jargon. The citizen discourse shows abundance of words associated with daily life and the more practical aspects (economy, efficiency), concerning institutional and evaluative references. In sum, the study shows that although there are a few common communicative spaces, there are still very few turning points. These data indicate that although exhibitions can be a good tool to disseminate advances in fusion energy in informal learning contexts, public feedback is a powerful tool for improving the quality of social dialogue. (Author)

  19. A Proposal for IoT Dynamic Routes Selection Based on Contextual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harilton da Silva Araújo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is based on interconnection of intelligent and addressable devices, allowing their autonomy and proactive behavior with Internet connectivity. Data dissemination in IoT usually depends on the application and requires context-aware routing protocols that must include auto-configuration features (which adapt the behavior of the network at runtime, based on context information. This paper proposes an approach for IoT route selection using fuzzy logic in order to attain the requirements of specific applications. In this case, fuzzy logic is used to translate in math terms the imprecise information expressed by a set of linguistic rules. For this purpose, four Objective Functions (OFs are proposed for the Routing Protocol for Low Power and Loss Networks (RPL; such OFs are dynamically selected based on context information. The aforementioned OFs are generated from the fusion of the following metrics: Expected Transmission Count (ETX, Number of Hops (NH and Energy Consumed (EC. The experiments performed through simulation, associated with the statistical data analysis, conclude that this proposal provides high reliability by successfully delivering nearly 100% of data packets, low delay for data delivery and increase in QoS. In addition, an 30% improvement is attained in the network life time when using one of proposed objective function, keeping the devices alive for longer duration.

  20. “Self-Employed” in Caregivinghood: The Contribution of Swedish Informal Caregivers’ Environmental and Contextual Resistance Resources and Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Eriksson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Informal caregivers provide the majority of care for older adults residing in their own homes. Caregivinghood, a new evidence-based concept, describes a time of life when relatives provide care at home. These caregivers need knowledge regarding resources to help them resolve the challenges they encounter. The theoretical framework underpinning this study is Antonovsky’s salutogenic theory of health. This study had two aims: (1 to examine the salutogenic core concepts Generalized and Specific Resistance Resources and Deficits (GRRs/SRRs and GRDs/SRDs described by Swedish informal caregivers as originating from the environmental and contextual domain of caregivinghood and (2 to discuss how this new knowledge might contribute to the development of health promotion initiatives. This qualitative and theory driven study used inductive and deductive data analysis. Data were gathered through salutogenically guided face-to-face interviews of 32 Swedish informal caregivers. In addition, the study relied on the salutogenic core concepts Specific and Generalized Resistance Resources and Deficits originating from their environment and context. Being in empowering surroundings reflects the presence of usable SRRs/GRRs, whereas Struggling in impeding surroundings reflects the presence of SRDs/GRDs. The results indicate that health-enhancing support has to be individualized (SRRs/SRDs and generalized (GRRs/GRDs. This study’s salutogenic approach and the methodology enhance the understanding of the mechanisms behind the development of Sense of Coherence. The results contribute both empirically and theoretically to strengthen health promotion research and practice when developing activities and support for caregivers in stressful situations, such as informal caregiving.

  1. Tools of Contextualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Hansen, Frank Allan

    2005-01-01

    Project based education is growing in importance in elementary schools though it is still quite poorly technologically supported, particularly with respect to actively taking advantage of contextual information. Based on an empirical study of teaching and in particular project based education...... in Danish elementary schools, we present the HyConExplorer, a geospatial hypermedia system supporting project based education and learning outside of the classroom through contextualization of information. More specifically, the HyCon-Explorer provides means for: browsing with your feet, annotating...

  2. On Contextuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

    This exploration of what feminism has to contribute to pragmatism, and vice versa, considers the idea of contextuality through an examination of the role of current pragmatists, such as Cornel West and Richard Rorty, and current feminists, including Charlene Haddock Siegfried, Maxine Greene, and Seyla Benhabib. To set the stage historically for…

  3. Contextual Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2009-01-01

    This project deals with the notion of ghost anthropologically and artistic. The contextual autism of ghosting reveals itself as a sensation of in-betweeness in art as well as in everyday life. The ghost is not easily defined; as Jacques Derrida states in Spectres of Marx (1993/1994) about...

  4. De/Contextualizing Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Mariategui, Jose-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive diffusion of digital media has introduced profound changes to social practices, challenging established notions of embeddedness and context. Based on our case study on the BBC's Digital Media Initiative, we further explore these changes in the domain of video craft editing for telev...

  5. Is Textbook Outcome a valuable composite measure for short-term outcomes of gastrointestinal treatments in the Netherlands using hospital information system data? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salet, Nèwel; Bremmer, Rolf H; Verhagen, Marc A M T; Ekkelenkamp, Vivian E; Hansen, Bettina E; de Jonge, Pieter J F; de Man, Rob A

    2018-03-01

    To develop a feasible model for monitoring short-term outcome of clinical care trajectories for hospitals in the Netherlands using data obtained from hospital information systems for identifying hospital variation. Retrospective analysis of collected data from hospital information systems combined with clinical indicator definitions to define and compare short-term outcomes for three gastrointestinal pathways using the concept of Textbook Outcome. 62 Dutch hospitals. 45 848 unique gastrointestinal patients discharged in 2015. A broad range of clinical outcomes including length of stay, reintervention, readmission and doctor-patient counselling. Patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for gallstone disease (n=4369), colonoscopy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; n=19 330) and colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening (n=22 149) were submitted to five suitable clinical indicators per treatment. The percentage of all patients who met all five criteria was 54%±9% (SD) for ERCP treatment. For IBD this was 47%±7% of the patients, and for colon cancer screening this number was 85%±14%. This study shows that reusing data obtained from hospital information systems combined with clinical indicator definitions can be used to express short-term outcomes using the concept of Textbook Outcome without any excess registration. This information can provide meaningful insight into the clinical care trajectory on the level of individual patient care. Furthermore, this concept can be applied to many clinical trajectories within gastroenterology and beyond for monitoring and improving the clinical pathway and outcome for patients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Contextual Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When the knowledge gained over centuries has to be presented to students through a 12-15 year study, it has to be abridged and organized elaborately. This process of encapsulating all knowledge into an educational course often results in fragmentation of knowledge and a mental divorce from life. Life knowledge that is reduced to objective principles may be intelligible to the intellect, but is incomprehensible to the imagination, creativity and emotional intelligence, all of which are important to the full development of personality. A study of Economics without the human and social dimensions, industrialization detached from ecology, or science devoid of moral accountability results in problems. Education of each part must be in the context of the whole. Knowing the whole context helps one get the right perspective to address the issue effectively. In the education of the future, the gap between abstract concept and social relevance must be bridged. The following article explores the need for contextual education and the ways in which it can be implemented.

  7. Processing and Integration of Contextual Information in Monkey Ventrolateral Prefrontal Neurons during Selection and Execution of Goal-Directed Manipulative Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Stefania; Giorgetti, Valentina; Bonini, Luca; Fogassi, Leonardo

    2015-08-26

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is deemed to underlie the complexity, flexibility, and goal-directedness of primates' behavior. Most neurophysiological studies performed so far investigated PFC functions with arm-reaching or oculomotor tasks, thus leaving unclear whether, and to which extent, PFC neurons also play a role in goal-directed manipulative actions, such as those commonly used by primates during most of their daily activities. Here we trained two macaques to perform or withhold grasp-to-eat and grasp-to-place actions, depending on the combination of two subsequently presented cues: an auditory go/no-go cue (high/low tone) and a visually presented target (food/object). By varying the order of presentation of the two cues, we could segment and independently evaluate the processing and integration of contextual information allowing the monkey to make a decision on whether or not to act, and what action to perform. We recorded 403 task-related neurons from the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC): unimodal sensory-driven (37%), motor-related (21%), unimodal sensory-and-motor (23%), and multisensory (19%) neurons. Target and go/no-go selectivity characterized most of the recorded neurons, particularly those endowed with motor-related discharge. Interestingly, multisensory neurons appeared to encode a behavioral decision independently from the sensory modality of the stimulus allowing the monkey to make it: some of them reflected the decision to act or refraining from acting (56%), whereas others (44%) encoded the decision to perform (or withhold) a specific action (e.g., grasp-to-eat). Our findings indicate that VLPFC neurons play a role in the processing of contextual information underlying motor decision during goal-directed manipulative actions. We demonstrated that macaque ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) neurons show remarkable selectivity for different aspects of the contextual information allowing the monkey to select and execute goal

  8. Contextual Fraction as a Measure of Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramsky, Samson; Barbosa, Rui Soares; Mansfield, Shane

    2017-08-01

    We consider the contextual fraction as a quantitative measure of contextuality of empirical models, i.e., tables of probabilities of measurement outcomes in an experimental scenario. It provides a general way to compare the degree of contextuality across measurement scenarios; it bears a precise relationship to violations of Bell inequalities; its value, and a witnessing inequality, can be computed using linear programing; it is monotonic with respect to the "free" operations of a resource theory for contextuality; and it measures quantifiable advantages in informatic tasks, such as games and a form of measurement-based quantum computing.

  9. Recovering valuable shale oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engler, C

    1922-09-26

    A process is described for the recovery of valuable shale oils or tars, characterized in that the oil shale is heated to about 300/sup 0/C or a temperature not exceeding this essentially and then is treated with a solvent with utilization of this heat.

  10. Segmentation and Classification of Bone Marrow Cells Images Using Contextual Information for Medical Diagnosis of Acute Leukemias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Reta

    Full Text Available Morphological identification of acute leukemia is a powerful tool used by hematologists to determine the family of such a disease. In some cases, experienced physicians are even able to determine the leukemia subtype of the sample. However, the identification process may have error rates up to 40% (when classifying acute leukemia subtypes depending on the physician's experience and the sample quality. This problem raises the need to create automatic tools that provide hematologists with a second opinion during the classification process. Our research presents a contextual analysis methodology for the detection of acute leukemia subtypes from bone marrow cells images. We propose a cells separation algorithm to break up overlapped regions. In this phase, we achieved an average accuracy of 95% in the evaluation of the segmentation process. In a second phase, we extract descriptive features to the nucleus and cytoplasm obtained in the segmentation phase in order to classify leukemia families and subtypes. We finally created a decision algorithm that provides an automatic diagnosis for a patient. In our experiments, we achieved an overall accuracy of 92% in the supervised classification of acute leukemia families, 84% for the lymphoblastic subtypes, and 92% for the myeloblastic subtypes. Finally, we achieved accuracies of 95% in the diagnosis of leukemia families and 90% in the diagnosis of leukemia subtypes.

  11. Contextual inquiry for medical device design

    CERN Document Server

    Privitera, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Contextual Inquiry for Medical Device Design helps users understand the everyday use of medical devices and the way their usage supports the development of better products and increased market acceptance. The text explains the concept of contextual inquiry using real-life examples to illustrate its application. Case studies provide a frame of reference on how contextual inquiry is successfully used during product design, ultimately producing safer, improved medical devices. Presents the ways contextual inquiry can be used to inform the evaluation and business case of technologyHelps users

  12. An ecologically based model of alcohol-consumption decision making: evidence for the discriminative and predictive role of contextual reward and punishment information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogg, Tim; Finn, Peter R

    2009-05-01

    Using insights from Ecological Systems Theory and Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, the current study assessed the utility of a series of hypothetical role-based alcohol-consumption scenarios that varied in their presentation of rewarding and punishing information. The scenarios, along with measures of impulsive sensation seeking and a self-report of weekly alcohol consumption, were administered to a sample of alcohol-dependent and non-alcohol-dependent college-age individuals (N = 170). The results showed scenario attendance decisions were largely unaffected by alcohol-dependence status and variations in contextual reward and punishment information. In contrast to the attendance findings, the results for the alcohol-consumption decisions showed alcohol-dependent individuals reported a greater frequency of deciding to drink, as well as indicating greater alcohol consumption in the contexts of complementary rewarding or nonpunishing information. Regression results provided evidence for the criterion-related validity of scenario outcomes in an account of diagnostic alcohol problems. The results are discussed in terms of the conceptual and predictive gains associated with an assessment approach to alcohol-consumption decision making that combines situational information organized and balanced through the frameworks of Ecological Systems Theory and Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory.

  13. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  14. Energy threat to valuable land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caufield, C.

    1982-01-01

    Having considered the varying estimates of future UK energy requirements which have been made, the impact on the environment arising from the use of valuable sites for energy production is examined. It is shown that energy installations of all kinds clash with areas of natural beauty or ecological importance. As an example, a recent investigation of potential sites for nuclear power stations found that most of them were on or next to sites of special scientific interest, and other areas officially designated to be regarded as special or to be protected in some way. (U.K.)

  15. Empathy and contextual social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, Margherita; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-03-01

    Empathy is a highly flexible and adaptive process that allows for the interplay of prosocial behavior in many different social contexts. Empathy appears to be a very situated cognitive process, embedded with specific contextual cues that trigger different automatic and controlled responses. In this review, we summarize relevant evidence regarding social context modulation of empathy for pain. Several contextual factors, such as stimulus reality and personal experience, affectively link with other factors, emotional cues, threat information, group membership, and attitudes toward others to influence the affective, sensorimotor, and cognitive processing of empathy. Thus, we propose that the frontoinsular-temporal network, the so-called social context network model (SCNM), is recruited during the contextual processing of empathy. This network would (1) update the contextual cues and use them to construct fast predictions (frontal regions), (2) coordinate the internal (body) and external milieus (insula), and (3) consolidate the context-target associative learning of empathic processes (temporal sites). Furthermore, we propose these context-dependent effects of empathy in the framework of the frontoinsular-temporal network and examine the behavioral and neural evidence of three neuropsychiatric conditions (Asperger syndrome, schizophrenia, and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia), which simultaneously present with empathy and contextual integration impairments. We suggest potential advantages of a situated approach to empathy in the assessment of these neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as their relationship with the SCNM.

  16. A 3-D Contextual Classifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we will consider an extension of the Bayesian 2-D contextual class ification routine developed by Owen, Hjort \\$\\backslash\\$& Mohn to 3 spatial dimensions. It is evident that compared to classical pixelwise classification further information can be obtained by tak ing into account...

  17. Ecological Modelling of Individual and Contextual Influences: A Person-in-Environment Framework for Hypothetico-Deductive Information Behaviour Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Sei-Ching Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper discusses the person-in-environment framework, which proposes the inclusion of environmental factors, alongside personal factors, as the explanatory factors of individual-level information behaviour and outcome. Method: The paper first introduces the principles and schematic formulas of the person-in-environment framework.…

  18. Building Automation and the Contextualization of Information Technology: The Journey of a Midwestern Community College in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandgenett, Neal; Perry, Pam; Pensabene, Thomas; Wegner, Karen; Nirenberg, Robert; Pilcher, Phil; Otterpohl, Candi

    2018-01-01

    The buildings in which people work, live, and spend their leisure time are increasingly embedded with sophisticated information technology (IT). This article describes the approach of Metropolitan Community College (MCC) in Omaha, Nebraska of the United States to provide an occupational context to some of their IT coursework by organizing IT…

  19. News Coverage and Access to Contextual Policy Information in the Case of Recreational Water Rights in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Deserai Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Local news media help shape the agendas from which new policies emerge. Furthermore, local media help determine public understanding of complex issues. Media should inform citizens and policymakers on important policy issues. This study uses a content analysis of 11 newspapers to understand the manner in which reporters covered a specific…

  20. MVT a most valuable theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Smorynski, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This book is about the rise and supposed fall of the mean value theorem. It discusses the evolution of the theorem and the concepts behind it, how the theorem relates to other fundamental results in calculus, and modern re-evaluations of its role in the standard calculus course. The mean value theorem is one of the central results of calculus. It was called “the fundamental theorem of the differential calculus” because of its power to provide simple and rigorous proofs of basic results encountered in a first-year course in calculus. In mathematical terms, the book is a thorough treatment of this theorem and some related results in the field; in historical terms, it is not a history of calculus or mathematics, but a case study in both. MVT: A Most Valuable Theorem is aimed at those who teach calculus, especially those setting out to do so for the first time. It is also accessible to anyone who has finished the first semester of the standard course in the subject and will be of interest to undergraduate mat...

  1. Study on Uncertainty and Contextual Modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2007), s. 12-15 ISSN 1998-0140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Knowledge * contextual modelling * temporal modelling * uncertainty * knowledge management Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  2. Improving urban land use and land cover classification from high-spatial-resolution hyperspectral imagery using contextual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, He; Ma, Ben; Du, Qian; Yang, Chenghai

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we propose approaches to improve the pixel-based support vector machine (SVM) classification for urban land use and land cover (LULC) mapping from airborne hyperspectral imagery with high spatial resolution. Class spatial neighborhood relationship is used to correct the misclassified class pairs, such as roof and trail, road and roof. These classes may be difficult to be separated because they may have similar spectral signatures and their spatial features are not distinct enough to help their discrimination. In addition, misclassification incurred from within-class trivial spectral variation can be corrected by using pixel connectivity information in a local window so that spectrally homogeneous regions can be well preserved. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approaches in classification accuracy improvement. The overall performance is competitive to the object-based SVM classification.

  3. Object based implicit contextual learning: a study of eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Marieke; Sampaio, Joana; Pina, Ana; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2011-02-01

    Implicit contextual cueing refers to a top-down mechanism in which visual search is facilitated by learned contextual features. In the current study we aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying implicit contextual learning using object information as a contextual cue. Therefore, we measured eye movements during an object-based contextual cueing task. We demonstrated that visual search is facilitated by repeated object information and that this reduction in response times is associated with shorter fixation durations. This indicates that by memorizing associations between objects in our environment we can recognize objects faster, thereby facilitating visual search.

  4. Physicians' Perceptions on the usefulness of contextual information for prioritizing and presenting alerts in computerized physician order entry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Martin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One possible approach towards avoiding alert overload and alert fatigue in Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE systems is to tailor their drug safety alerts to the context of the clinical situation. Our objective was to identify the perceptions of physicians on the usefulness of clinical context information for prioritizing and presenting drug safety alerts. Methods We performed a questionnaire survey, inquiring CPOE-using physicians from four hospitals in four European countries to estimate the usefulness of 20 possible context factors. Results The 223 participants identified the ‘severity of the effect’ and the ‘clinical status of the patient’ as the most useful context factors. Further important factors are the ‘complexity of the case’ and the ‘risk factors of the patient’. Conclusions Our findings confirm the results of a prior, comparable survey inquiring CPOE researchers. Further research should focus on implementing these context factors in CPOE systems and on subsequently evaluating their impact.

  5. Multiculturalism and contextualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Many political theorists of multiculturalism (e.g. Joseph Carens, Bhikhu Parekh, James Tully) describe their theories as “contextualist.” But it is unclear what “contextualism” means and what difference it makes for political theory. I use a specific prominent example of a multiculturalist...... discussion, namely Tariq Modood’s argument about “moderate secularism,” as a test case and distinguish between different senses of contextualism. I discuss whether the claim that political theory is contextual in each sense is novel and interesting, and whether contextualism is a distinct feature...... of political theory of multiculturalism. I argue that the forms of contextualism which concern the scope and methodology of political theory are sensible, but not novel or distinctive of multiculturalism. I then discuss the more controversial forms of contextualism, which I call political and theoretical...

  6. There is no one-size-fits-all product for InSAR; on the inclusion of contextual information for geodetically-proof InSAR data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, R. F.

    2017-12-01

    In traditional geodesy, one is interested in determining the coordinates, or the change in coordinates, of predefined benchmarks. These benchmarks are clearly identifiable and are especially established to be representative of the signal of interest. This holds, e.g., for leveling benchmarks, for triangulation/trilateration benchmarks, and for GNSS benchmarks. The desired coordinates are not identical to the basic measurements, and need to be estimated using robust estimation procedures, where the stochastic nature of the measurements is taken into account. For InSAR, however, the `benchmarks' are not predefined. In fact, usually we do not know where an effective benchmark is located, even though we can determine its dynamic behavior pretty well. This poses several significant problems. First, we cannot describe the quality of the measurements, unless we already know the dynamic behavior of the benchmark. Second, if we don't know the quality of the measurements, we cannot compute the quality of the estimated parameters. Third, rather harsh assumptions need to be made to produce a result. These (usually implicit) assumptions differ between processing operators and the used software, and are severely affected by the amount of available data. Fourth, the `relative' nature of the final estimates is usually not explicitly stated, which is particularly problematic for non-expert users. Finally, whereas conventional geodesy applies rigorous testing to check for measurement or model errors, this is hardly ever done in InSAR-geodesy. These problems make it rather impossible to provide a precise, reliable, repeatable, and `universal' InSAR product or service. Here we evaluate the requirements and challenges to move towards InSAR as a geodetically-proof product. In particular this involves the explicit inclusion of contextual information, as well as InSAR procedures, standards and a technical protocol, supported by the International Association of Geodesy and the

  7. Contextual Cueing Effect in Spatial Layout Defined by Binocular Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guang; Zhuang, Qian; Ma, Jie; Tu, Shen; Liu, Qiang; Sun, Hong-jin

    2017-01-01

    Repeated visual context induces higher search efficiency, revealing a contextual cueing effect, which depends on the association between the target and its visual context. In this study, participants performed a visual search task where search items were presented with depth information defined by binocular disparity. When the 3-dimensional (3D) configurations were repeated over blocks, the contextual cueing effect was obtained (Experiment 1). When depth information was in chaos over repeated configurations, visual search was not facilitated and the contextual cueing effect largely crippled (Experiment 2). However, when we made the search items within a tiny random displacement in the 2-dimentional (2D) plane but maintained the depth information constant, the contextual cueing was preserved (Experiment 3). We concluded that the contextual cueing effect was robust in the context provided by 3D space with stereoscopic information, and more importantly, the visual system prioritized stereoscopic information in learning of spatial information when depth information was available. PMID:28912739

  8. Decision Tree-Based Contextual Location Prediction from Mobile Device Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyuan Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Contextual location prediction is an important topic in the field of personalized location recommendation in LBS (location-based services. With the advancement of mobile positioning techniques and various sensors embedded in smartphones, it is convenient to obtain massive human mobile trajectories and to derive a large amount of valuable information from geospatial big data. Extracting and recognizing personally interesting places and predicting next semantic location become a research hot spot in LBS. In this paper, we proposed an approach to predict next personally semantic place with historical visiting patterns derived from mobile device logs. To address the problems of location imprecision and lack of semantic information, a modified trip-identify method is employed to extract key visit points from GPS trajectories to a more accurate extent while semantic information are added through stay point detection and semantic places recognition. At last, a decision tree model is adopted to explore the spatial, temporal, and sequential features in contextual location prediction. To validate the effectiveness of our approach, experiments were conducted based on a trajectory collection in Guangzhou downtown area. The results verified the feasibility of our approach on contextual location prediction from continuous mobile devices logs.

  9. Memory cost of quantum contextuality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinmann, Matthias; Gühne, Otfried; Portillo, José R; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Cabello, Adán

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of quantum effects requires certain classical resources, and quantifying them is an important step to characterize the difference between quantum and classical physics. For a simulation of the phenomenon of state-independent quantum contextuality, we show that the minimum amount of memory used by the simulation is the critical resource. We derive optimal simulation strategies for important cases and prove that reproducing the results of sequential measurements on a two-qubit system requires more memory than the information-carrying capacity of the system. (paper)

  10. Brogaard's Moral Contextualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Lars Grassme

    2008-01-01

    Brogaard's non-indexical version of moral contextualism has two related problems. It is unable to account for the function of truth-governed assertoric moral discourse, since it leaves two (semantically clearheaded) disputants without any incentive to resolve seemingly contradictory moral claims....... The moral contextualist could explain why people do feel such an incentive by ascribing false beliefs about the semantic workings of their own language. But, secondly, this leaves Brogaard's moral contextualism looking weaker than a Mackie-style invariantist error theory about morals. The latter is equally...

  11. Semantic Document Image Classification Based on Valuable Text Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Pourghassem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge extraction from detected document image is a complex problem in the field of information technology. This problem becomes more intricate when we know, a negligible percentage of the detected document images are valuable. In this paper, a segmentation-based classification algorithm is used to analysis the document image. In this algorithm, using a two-stage segmentation approach, regions of the image are detected, and then classified to document and non-document (pure region regions in the hierarchical classification. In this paper, a novel valuable definition is proposed to classify document image in to valuable or invaluable categories. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on a database consisting of the document and non-document image that provide from Internet. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in the semantic document image classification. The proposed algorithm provides accuracy rate of 98.8% for valuable and invaluable document image classification problem.

  12. Fusion Energy: Contextual Analysis of the Information Panels Developed by the Scientific Community versus Citizen Discourse; Fusion Nuclear: Analisis Contextual de Paneles Informativos Elaborados por la Comunidad Cientifica versus Discurso Ciudadano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri Anglada, S.; Cornejo Alvarez, J. M.

    2014-02-01

    The report presents an exploratory study on the impact of scientific dissemination, particularly a comparative analysis of two discourses on fusion energy as an alternative energy future. The report introduces a comparative analysis of the institutional discourse, as portrayed by the scientific jargon used in a European travelling exhibition on nuclear fusion Fusion Expo, and the social discourse, as illustrated by a citizen deliberation on this very same exhibition. Through textual analysis, the scientific discourse as deployed in the informative panels at the Fusion Expo is compared with the citizen discourse as developed in the discussions within the citizen groups. The ConText software was applied for such analysis. The purpose is to analyze how visitors assimilate, capture and understand highly technical information. Results suggest that, in despite of convergence points, the two discourses present certain differences, showing diverse levels of communication. The scientific discourse shows a great profusion of formalisms and technicalities of scientific jargon. The citizen discourse shows abundance of words associated with daily life and the more practical aspects (economy, efficiency), concerning institutional and evaluative references. In sum, the study shows that although there are a few common communicative spaces, there are still very few turning points. These data indicate that although exhibitions can be a good tool to disseminate advances in fusion energy in informal learning contexts, public feedback is a powerful tool for improving the quality of social dialogue. (Author)

  13. The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Implicit Contextual Learning: A Study of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Marieke; Almeida, Ines; Andre, Rui; Januario, Cristina; Goncalves, Antonio Freire; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Implicit contextual learning refers to the ability to memorize contextual information from our environment. This contextual information can then be used to guide our attention to a specific location. Although the medial temporal lobe is important for this type of learning, the basal ganglia might also be involved considering its role in many…

  14. Structuring mobile and contextual learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Specht, M. (2011). Structuring mobile and contextual learning. In Proceedings of the 10th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (pp. 188-195). October, 18-21, 2011, Beijing, China.

  15. Contextual Variability in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Polyn, Sean M.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    According to contextual-variability theory, experiences encoded at different times tend to be associated with different contextual states. The gradual evolution of context implies that spaced items will be associated with more distinct contextual states, and thus have more unique retrieval cues, than items presented in proximity. Ross and Landauer…

  16. Contextuality under weak assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Andrew W; Rudolph, Terry; Wallman, Joel J; Pashayan, Hakop; Bartlett, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    The presence of contextuality in quantum theory was first highlighted by Bell, Kochen and Specker, who discovered that for quantum systems of three or more dimensions, measurements could not be viewed as deterministically revealing pre-existing properties of the system. More precisely, no model can assign deterministic outcomes to the projectors of a quantum measurement in a way that depends only on the projector and not the context (the full set of projectors) in which it appeared, despite the fact that the Born rule probabilities associated with projectors are independent of the context. A more general, operational definition of contextuality introduced by Spekkens, which we will term ‘probabilistic contextuality’, drops the assumption of determinism and allows for operations other than measurements to be considered contextual. Even two-dimensional quantum mechanics can be shown to be contextual under this generalised notion. Probabilistic noncontextuality represents the postulate that elements of an operational theory that cannot be distinguished from each other based on the statistics of arbitrarily many repeated experiments (they give rise to the same operational probabilities) are ontologically identical. In this paper, we introduce a framework that enables us to distinguish between different noncontextuality assumptions in terms of the relationships between the ontological representations of objects in the theory given a certain relation between their operational representations. This framework can be used to motivate and define a ‘possibilistic’ analogue, encapsulating the idea that elements of an operational theory that cannot be unambiguously distinguished operationally can also not be unambiguously distinguished ontologically. We then prove that possibilistic noncontextuality is equivalent to an alternative notion of noncontextuality proposed by Hardy. Finally, we demonstrate that these weaker noncontextuality assumptions are sufficient to prove

  17. Contextualism in Normative Political Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Contextualism denotes a set of ideas about the importance of attention to context. The topic of the article is contextualism in normative political theory/philosophy, in relation to the part of political theory concerned with systematic political argument for normative claims—evaluative claims...... that can be invoked to contextualize a specific object of political discussion such as a law, an institution, or the like. Contextualism denotes any view that political theory should take context into account, but there are many different views about what this means. Contextualism can be characterized...... by way of different contrasts, which imply that the resulting conceptions of contextualism are views about different things, such as justification, the nature of political theory, or methodology. Here the focus is on characterizations of contextualism in terms of methodology and justification...

  18. Contextualizing symbol, symbolizing context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudy, Septiani Yugni; Suryadi, Didi; Mulyana, Endang

    2017-08-01

    When students learn algebra for the first time, inevitably they are experiencing transition from arithmetic to algebraic thinking. Once students could apprehend this essential mathematical knowledge, they are cultivating their ability in solving daily life problems by applying algebra. However, as we dig into this transitional stage, we identified possible students' learning obstacles to be dealt with seriously in order to forestall subsequent hindrance in studying more advance algebra. We come to realize this recurring problem as we undertook the processes of re-personalization and re-contextualization in which we scrutinize the very basic questions: 1) what is variable, linear equation with one variable and their relationship with the arithmetic-algebraic thinking? 2) Why student should learn such concepts? 3) How to teach those concepts to students? By positioning ourselves as a seventh grade student, we address the possibility of children to think arithmetically when confronted with the problems of linear equation with one variable. To help them thinking algebraically, Bruner's modes of representation developed contextually from concrete to abstract were delivered to enhance their interpretation toward the idea of variables. Hence, from the outset we designed the context for student to think symbolically initiated by exploring various symbols that could be contextualized in order to bridge student traversing the arithmetic-algebraic fruitfully.

  19. Contextual control over expression of fear is affected by cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Anna Van Ast

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the core of anxiety disorders is the inability to use contextual information to modulate behavioral responses to potentially threatening events. Models of the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders incorporate stress and concomitant stress hormones as important vulnerability factors, while others emphasize sex as an important factor. However, translational basic research has not yet investigated the effects of stress hormones and sex on the ability to use contextual information to modulate responses to threat. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was threefold: first, we aimed at developing an experimental paradigm specifically capable of capturing contextual modulation of the expression of fear. Second, we tested whether cortisol would alter the contextualization of fear expression. Third, we aimed at assessing whether alterations in contextualization due to cortisol were different for men and women. Healthy participants (n = 42 received placebo or hydrocortisone (20 mg prior to undergoing a newly developed differential contextual fear conditioning paradigm. The results indicated that people rapidly acquire differential contextual modulation of the expression of fear, as measured by fear potentiated startle and skin conductance responses. In addition, cortisol impaired the contextualization of fear expression leading to increased fear generalization on fear potentiated startle data in women. The opposite pattern was found in men. Finally, as assessed by skin conductance responses, cortisol impaired differential conditioning in men. The results are in line with models suggesting heightened vulnerability in women for developing anxiety disorders after stressful events.

  20. The Coming Challenge: Are Community Colleges Ready for the New Wave of Contextual Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Dan; Souders, John C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Defines contextual learning, or presenting new information to students in familiar contexts. Argues that community colleges must be ready for an anticipated increase in contextual learners due to its use in tech prep programs. Describes elements of contextual learning, its application in the classroom, and ways that colleges can prepare for…

  1. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational...... for people with aquired brain injuries will be presented and comparatively discussed in a traditional versus an integrational perspective. Preliminary results and considerations on ”methods” and ”participation” from this study will be presented along with an overview of the project's empirical data....

  2. Dissociation - a preliminary contextual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Krüger

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM system has certain limitations when applied to two South African examples of dissociation, because it is descriptive (non-explanatory and focuses on intrapsychic (non-communal processes. Even the existing Western explanatory models of dissociation fail to accommodate fully the communal aspects of dissociation in our South African context. Objectives and methods. The aim was to explore an expanded perspective on dissociation that does not limit it to an intrapsychic phenomenon, but that accounts for the interrelatedness of individuals within their social context. Auto-ethnography was used. In this article a collective, socially orientated, contextual hermeneutic was applied to two local examples of dissociation. Three existing Western models were expanded along multicontextual, collective lines, for them to be more useful in the pluralistic South African context. Results. This preliminary contextual model of dissociation includes a person’s interpersonal, socio-cultural, and spiritual contexts, in addition to the intrapsychic context. Dissociation is considered to be a normal information-processing tool that maintains balanced, coherent selves-in-society, i.e. individuals connected to each other. In the South African context dissociation appears mostly as a normal phenomenon and seldom as a sign of mental illness. Dissociation is pivotal for the normal construction of individual and communal identities in the face of conflicting sets of information from various contexts. Dissociation may help individuals or communities to survive in a world of conflicting messages, where conflict is often interpersonal/cultural/societal in nature, rather than primarily intrapsychic. Conclusions. This model should be developed and evaluated further. Such evaluation would require suitable new local terminology.

  3. Switchgrass a valuable biomass crop for energy

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The demand of renewable energies is growing steadily both from policy and from industry which seeks environmentally friendly feed stocks. The recent policies enacted by the EU, USA and other industrialized countries foresee an increased interest in the cultivation of energy crops; there is clear evidence that switchgrass is one of the most promising biomass crop for energy production and bio-based economy and compounds. Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy provides a comprehensive guide to  switchgrass in terms of agricultural practices, potential use and markets, and environmental and social benefits. Considering this potential energy source from its biology, breed and crop physiology to its growth and management to the economical, social and environmental impacts, Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy brings together chapters from a range of experts in the field, including a foreword from Kenneth P. Vogel, to collect and present the environmental benefits and characteristics of this a ...

  4. Vulnerability of particularly valuable areas. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report is part of the scientific basis for the management plan for the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report focuses on the vulnerability of particularly valuable areas to petroleum activities, maritime transport, fisheries, land-based and coastal activities and long-range transboundary pollution. A working group with representatives from many different government agencies, headed by the Institute of Marine Research and the Directorate for Nature Management, has been responsible for drawing up the present report on behalf of the Expert Group for the North Sea and Skagerrak. The present report considers the 12 areas that were identified as particularly valuable during an earlier stage of the management plan process on the environment, natural resources and pollution. There are nine areas along the coast and three open sea areas in the North Sea that were identified according to the same predefined criteria as used for the management plans for the Barents Sea: Lofoten area and the Norwegian Sea. The most important criteria for particularly valuable areas are importance for biological production and importance for biodiversity.(Author)

  5. Vulnerability of particularly valuable areas. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report is part of the scientific basis for the management plan for the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report focuses on the vulnerability of particularly valuable areas to petroleum activities, maritime transport, fisheries, land-based and coastal activities and long-range transboundary pollution. A working group with representatives from many different government agencies, headed by the Institute of Marine Research and the Directorate for Nature Management, has been responsible for drawing up the present report on behalf of the Expert Group for the North Sea and Skagerrak. The present report considers the 12 areas that were identified as particularly valuable during an earlier stage of the management plan process on the environment, natural resources and pollution. There are nine areas along the coast and three open sea areas in the North Sea that were identified according to the same predefined criteria as used for the management plans for the Barents Sea: Lofoten area and the Norwegian Sea. The most important criteria for particularly valuable areas are importance for biological production and importance for biodiversity.(Author)

  6. Action Centered Contextual Bandits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenewald, Kristjan; Tewari, Ambuj; Klasnja, Predrag; Murphy, Susan

    2017-12-01

    Contextual bandits have become popular as they offer a middle ground between very simple approaches based on multi-armed bandits and very complex approaches using the full power of reinforcement learning. They have demonstrated success in web applications and have a rich body of associated theoretical guarantees. Linear models are well understood theoretically and preferred by practitioners because they are not only easily interpretable but also simple to implement and debug. Furthermore, if the linear model is true, we get very strong performance guarantees. Unfortunately, in emerging applications in mobile health, the time-invariant linear model assumption is untenable. We provide an extension of the linear model for contextual bandits that has two parts: baseline reward and treatment effect. We allow the former to be complex but keep the latter simple. We argue that this model is plausible for mobile health applications. At the same time, it leads to algorithms with strong performance guarantees as in the linear model setting, while still allowing for complex nonlinear baseline modeling. Our theory is supported by experiments on data gathered in a recently concluded mobile health study.

  7. Memory and metamemory performance in Alzheimer's disease and healthy elderly: the Contextual Memory Test (CMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, N; Josman, N

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the ability of the Contextual Memory Test (CMT) to differentiate between elderly people suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) in comparison to healthy elderly people. Specifically, the objectives were to compare for differences between and within the groups on components of memory, including immediate and delayed recall as well as recognition. In addition, parameters of metamemory skills, such as general awareness, self-prediction of memory capacity, self-estimation, strategy use and use of contextual information, as well as the correlation between self-awareness and actual performance in both groups, were investigated. The sample consisted of 60 elderly participants, including 30 people diagnosed with AD who were assigned to the research group and 30 people matched for age, gender and educational level who were assigned to the control group. The results provide support for the hypothesis positing differences in memory performance between healthy elderly participants and those suffering from AD, particularly in immediate and delayed recall as well as in recognition. Moreover, findings indicate an improvement in memory performance under the cued condition (contextual), whereas improvement in the AD group proved to be significant only for immediate recall. The findings point to a distinct overestimation of memory ability predicted by both the AD and control groups. Following the memory task, however, the participants accurately estimated the number of items they remembered. In addition, significant correlations between the use of contextual and association strategies and the number of items remembered by both groups were obtained, in immediate as well as in delayed recall. Therefore, these findings support the CMT as a valuable memory and metamemory assessment tool for use with the AD population.

  8. Using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT) in Cytoscape to Identify Contextually Relevant Network Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Lynn, David J

    2017-09-13

    Highly connected nodes in biological networks are called network hubs. Hubs are topologically important to the structure of the network and have been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), an application within Cytoscape 3, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene or protein expression data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes than expected by chance. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Contextual control over task-set retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Matthew J C; Logan, Gordon D

    2010-11-01

    Contextual cues signaling task likelihood or the likelihood of task repetition are known to modulate the size of switch costs. We follow up on the finding by Leboe, Wong, Crump, and Stobbe (2008) that location cues predictive of the proportion of switch or repeat trials modulate switch costs. Their design employed one cue per task, whereas our experiment employed two cues per task, which allowed separate assessment of modulations to the cue-repetition benefit, a measure of lower level cue-encoding processes, and to the task-alternation cost, a measure of higher level processes representing task-set information. We demonstrate that location information predictive of switch proportion modulates performance at the level of task-set representations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that contextual control occurs even when subjects are unaware of the associations between context and switch likelihood. We discuss the notion that contextual information provides rapid, unconscious control over the extent to which prior task-set representations are retrieved in the service of guiding online performance.

  10. Global Repetition Influences Contextual Cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xuelian; Zinchenko, Artyom; Jia, Lina; Li, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Our visual system has a striking ability to improve visual search based on the learning of repeated ambient regularities, an effect named contextual cueing. Whereas most of the previous studies investigated contextual cueing effect with the same number of repeated and non-repeated search displays per block, the current study focused on whether a global repetition frequency formed by different presentation ratios between the repeated and non-repeated configurations influence contextual cueing effect. Specifically, the number of repeated and non-repeated displays presented in each block was manipulated: 12:12, 20:4, 4:20, and 4:4 in Experiments 1–4, respectively. The results revealed a significant contextual cueing effect when the global repetition frequency is high (≥1:1 ratio) in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, given that processing of repeated displays was expedited relative to non-repeated displays. Nevertheless, the contextual cueing effect reduced to a non-significant level when the repetition frequency reduced to 4:20 in Experiment 3. These results suggested that the presentation frequency of repeated relative to the non-repeated displays could influence the strength of contextual cueing. In other words, global repetition statistics could be a crucial factor to mediate contextual cueing effect. PMID:29636716

  11. Contextual sensitivity in scientific reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bavel, Jay J; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Brady, William J; Reinero, Diego A

    2016-06-07

    In recent years, scientists have paid increasing attention to reproducibility. For example, the Reproducibility Project, a large-scale replication attempt of 100 studies published in top psychology journals found that only 39% could be unambiguously reproduced. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the lack of reproducibility in psychology and other fields stems from various methodological factors, including low statistical power, researcher's degrees of freedom, and an emphasis on publishing surprising positive results. However, there is a contentious debate about the extent to which failures to reproduce certain results might also reflect contextual differences (often termed "hidden moderators") between the original research and the replication attempt. Although psychologists have found extensive evidence that contextual factors alter behavior, some have argued that context is unlikely to influence the results of direct replications precisely because these studies use the same methods as those used in the original research. To help resolve this debate, we recoded the 100 original studies from the Reproducibility Project on the extent to which the research topic of each study was contextually sensitive. Results suggested that the contextual sensitivity of the research topic was associated with replication success, even after statistically adjusting for several methodological characteristics (e.g., statistical power, effect size). The association between contextual sensitivity and replication success did not differ across psychological subdisciplines. These results suggest that researchers, replicators, and consumers should be mindful of contextual factors that might influence a psychological process. We offer several guidelines for dealing with contextual sensitivity in reproducibility.

  12. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT): A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Goenawan, Ivan H; Wiencko, Heather L; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Bryan, Kenneth; Lynn, David J

    2016-01-01

    Highly connected nodes (hubs) in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed) than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest. CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store ( http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat).

  13. Recovery and utilization of valuable metals from spent nuclear fuel. 3: Mutual separation of valuable metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirishima, K.; Shibayama, H.; Nakahira, H.; Shimauchi, H.; Myochin, M.; Wada, Y.; Kawase, K.; Kishimoto, Y.

    1993-01-01

    In the project ''Recovery and Utilization of Valuable Metals from Spent Fuel,'' mutual separation process of valuable metals recovered from spent fuel has been studied by using the simulated solution contained Pb, Ru, Rh, Pd and Mo. Pd was separated successfully by DHS (di-hexyl sulfide) solvent extraction method, while Pb was recovered selectively from the raffinate by neutralization precipitation of other elements. On the other hand, Rh was roughly separated by washing the precipitate with alkaline solution, so that Rh was refined by chelate resin CS-346. Outline of the mutual separation process flow sheet has been established of the combination of these techniques. The experimental results and the process flow sheet of mutual separation of valuable metals are presented in this paper

  14. Dense Iterative Contextual Pixel Classification using Kriging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Loog, Marco; Brandt, Sami

    2009-01-01

    have been proposed to this end, e.g., iterative contextual pixel classification, iterated conditional modes, and other approaches related to Markov random fields. A problem of these methods, however, is their computational complexity, especially when dealing with high-resolution images in which......In medical applications, segmentation has become an ever more important task. One of the competitive schemes to perform such segmentation is by means of pixel classification. Simple pixel-based classification schemes can be improved by incorporating contextual label information. Various methods...... relatively long range interactions may play a role. We propose a new method based on Kriging that makes it possible to include such long range interactions, while keeping the computations manageable when dealing with large medical images....

  15. Generation and memory for contextual detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W

    2004-07-01

    Generation enhances item memory but may not enhance other aspects of memory. In 12 experiments, the author investigated the effect of generation on context memory, motivated in part by the hypothesis that generation produces a trade-off in encoding item and contextual information. Participants generated some study words (e.g., hot-c__) and read others (e.g., hot-cold). Generation consistently enhanced item memory but did not enhance context memory. More specifically, generation disrupted context memory for the color of the target word but did not affect context memory for location, background color, and cue-word color. The specificity of the negative generation effect in context memory argues against a general item-context trade-off. A processing account of generation meets greater success. In addition, the results provide no evidence that generation enhances recollection of contextual details. Copyright 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  17. [Psychopathology and film: a valuable interaction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duppen, Z; Summa, M; Fuchs, T

    2015-01-01

    Film or film fragments are often used in psychopathology education. However, so far there have been very few articles that have discussed the benefits and limitations of using films to explain or illustrate psychopathology. Although numerous films involves psychopathology in varying degrees, it is not clear how we can use films for psychopathology education. To examine the advantages, limitations and possible methods of using film as a means of increasing our knowledge and understanding of psychiatric illnesses. We discuss five examples that illustrate the interaction of film and psychopathology. On the one hand we explain how the psychopathological concepts are used in each film and on the other hand we explain which aspects of each film are valuable aids for teaching psychopathology. The use of film makes it possible to introduce the following topics in psychopathological teaching programme: holistic psychiatric reasoning, phenomenology and the subjective experience, the recognition of psychopathological prototypes and the importance of context. There is undoubtedly an analogy between the method we have chosen for teaching psychopathology with the help of films and the holistic approach of the psychiatrist and his or her team. We believe psychopathology education can benefit from films and we would recommend our colleagues to use it in this way.

  18. PICKLED PUMPKIN IS VALUABLE FOOD PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Sannikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main directions of the food industry development is the production of functional food products. Changes in the human’s diet structure cause that none of population group does receive necessary amount of vitamins, macro and microelements in healthy routine diet. To solve this problem, food stuffs enhanced by different ingredients enable to improve the biological and food value. The pumpkin is a valuable source of such important substances as carotene and pectin. Addition of garlic and hot pepper ingredients to process of pumpkin pickling enables to enrich the products with carbohydrates, proteins, microelements, which have low or no content in the pumpkin fruit. Therefore, the study of the influence of the different quantities of garlic and hot pepper additions on chemical composition of finished product is very important. The influence of plant additions used on chemical composition of finished product had been well determined. It was shown that through increased doses of garlic and hot pepper ingredients as compared with control, the carotene and dry matter content then decreased by 1.16%-3.43% in pickled pumpkin, while the pectin content depended on added component. The highest pectin content, 0.71% was observed at addition of 10 g. garlic ingredient per 1 kg. of raw matter, that was 4.1 times higher than control. With increased addition of hot pepper ingredient the pectin accumulation was decreasing from 0.58% in control to 0.36% in variant 10g. per 1kg. of raw matter.

  19. Social Salience Discriminates Learnability of Contextual Cues in an Artificial Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Péter; Hay, Jennifer B; Pierrehumbert, Janet B

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the learning of contextual meaning by adults in an artificial language. Contextual meaning here refers to the non-denotative contextual information that speakers attach to a linguistic construction. Through a series of short games, played online, we test how well adults can learn different contextual meanings for a word-formation pattern in an artificial language. We look at whether learning contextual meanings depends on the social salience of the context, whether our players interpret these contexts generally, and whether the learned meaning is generalized to new words. Our results show that adults are capable of learning contextual meaning if the context is socially salient, coherent, and interpretable. Once a contextual meaning is recognized, it is readily generalized to related forms and contexts.

  20. Contextual Advantage for State Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, David; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2018-02-01

    Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.

  1. Contextual cueing by global features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A.; Flusberg, Stephen J.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2008-01-01

    In visual search tasks, attention can be guided to a target item, appearing amidst distractors, on the basis of simple features (e.g. find the red letter among green). Chun and Jiang’s (1998) “contextual cueing” effect shows that RTs are also speeded if the spatial configuration of items in a scene is repeated over time. In these studies we ask if global properties of the scene can speed search (e.g. if the display is mostly red, then the target is at location X). In Experiment 1a, the overall background color of the display predicted the target location. Here the predictive color could appear 0, 400 or 800 msec in advance of the search array. Mean RTs are faster in predictive than in non-predictive conditions. However, there is little improvement in search slopes. The global color cue did not improve search efficiency. Experiments 1b-1f replicate this effect using different predictive properties (e.g. background orientation/texture, stimuli color etc.). The results show a strong RT effect of predictive background but (at best) only a weak improvement in search efficiency. A strong improvement in efficiency was found, however, when the informative background was presented 1500 msec prior to the onset of the search stimuli and when observers were given explicit instructions to use the cue (Experiment 2). PMID:17355043

  2. Contextual Advantage for State Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schmid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.

  3. Contextuality supplies the 'magic' for quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

    2014-06-19

    Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via 'magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple 'hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

  4. Contextual sensitivity in scientific reproducibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bavel, Jay J.; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Brady, William J.; Reinero, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, scientists have paid increasing attention to reproducibility. For example, the Reproducibility Project, a large-scale replication attempt of 100 studies published in top psychology journals found that only 39% could be unambiguously reproduced. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the lack of reproducibility in psychology and other fields stems from various methodological factors, including low statistical power, researcher’s degrees of freedom, and an emphasis on publishing surprising positive results. However, there is a contentious debate about the extent to which failures to reproduce certain results might also reflect contextual differences (often termed “hidden moderators”) between the original research and the replication attempt. Although psychologists have found extensive evidence that contextual factors alter behavior, some have argued that context is unlikely to influence the results of direct replications precisely because these studies use the same methods as those used in the original research. To help resolve this debate, we recoded the 100 original studies from the Reproducibility Project on the extent to which the research topic of each study was contextually sensitive. Results suggested that the contextual sensitivity of the research topic was associated with replication success, even after statistically adjusting for several methodological characteristics (e.g., statistical power, effect size). The association between contextual sensitivity and replication success did not differ across psychological subdisciplines. These results suggest that researchers, replicators, and consumers should be mindful of contextual factors that might influence a psychological process. We offer several guidelines for dealing with contextual sensitivity in reproducibility. PMID:27217556

  5. The Role of Public Interaction with the Juno Mission: Contextual Information about the Atmosphere and Target Selection for the JunoCam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G. S.; Hansen, C. J.; Momary, T.; Bolton, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Among the many "firsts" of the Juno mission is the open enlistment of the public in the operation of its visible camera, JunoCam. Although the scientific thrust of the Juno mission is largely focused on innovative approaches to understanding the structure and composition of the interior of Jupiter, JunoCam was added to the payload largely to function in the role of education and public outreach (E/PO). For the first time, the public will be able to engage in the discussion and choice of targets for a major NASA mission, other than two images of Jupiter's polar regions that will be made on each orbit. The discussion about which "electable" features to image is enabled by a continuously updated map of Jupiter's cloud system while Jupiter is far enough from the sun to be observable by the amateur community. This map is created bi-weekly from a set of images uploaded by a world-wide network of amateur astronomers, ranging from very devoted astrophotographers to telescope and video `hobbyists'. Juno therefore engages the world-wide amateur-astronomy community as a vast network of co-investigators, whose products stimulate conversation and global public awareness of Jupiter and Juno's investigative role. Contributed images also provide a temporal context to inform the Juno atmospheric investigation team of the state and evolution of the atmosphere. These bi-weekly maps provide the focus for ongoing discussion about various planetary features over a long time frame. Approximately two weeks before Juno's closest approach to Jupiter on each orbit, starting in mid-November of 2016, the atmospheric features that have been under discussion and will be in the field of view of the instrument nominated for voting, and the public will vote on where to point JunoCam's "elective" features (each orbit will otherwise image the north polar region and south polar region from a non-oblique viewpoint for the first time in over 40 years since the passage of Pioneer 11. The Juno mission

  6. Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  7. Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2013-01-01

    interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work...... of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us...... to contextual validities involving yesterday, today and tomorrow as well....

  8. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  9. Linear contextual modal type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...... a mathematical account of the nature of logic variables. Our type theory is conservative over intuitionistic contextual modal type theory proposed by Nanevski, Pfenning, and Pientka. Our main contributions include a mechanically checked proof of soundness and a working implementation....

  10. Contextualizing mobile IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Brandt, Eva; Halse, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Information and communication technologies are moving into the era of ubiquitous computing, with increased density of technology and increased mobility and continuity in use. From a design perspective, addressing the accommodation and coordination of multiple devices and services in situated use ...

  11. Contextualizing the self: the emergence of a biographical understanding in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Hatiboğlu, Neşe

    2014-01-01

    In adolescence, remembering the personal past and understanding what kind of person one is intertwine to form a story of one's life as the most extant, informative, and flexible form of self-representation. In adolescence, the striving for self-coherence translates into a quest for global coherence of the life story. We suggest that contextualizing is a fifth means for creating global coherence in life narratives besides the cultural concept of biography, temporal, causal-motivational, and thematic coherence. We present three kinds of contextualizing in life narratives, the temporal macrostructure, sociohistorical contextualizing of one's life, and hierarchical and linear segmenting of the text and life. These three forms of contextualizing in life narratives by their authors are complemented by three forms of contextual influences on life narratives analyzed by researchers, namely the historical, personal, and communicative situation in which they are recounted. Contextualizing is exemplified by the life narrative of a young migrant. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. DISCOURSE STYLISTICS AS CONTEXTUALIZED STYLISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Katnić-Bakaršić

    2003-01-01

    The focus of the paper is on discourse stylistics, viewed as contextualized discipline. Context includes various factors (sociohistorical, cognitive, cultural and intertextual). The paper investigates the most important approaches to discourse stylistics: pragmatic stylistics, discourse and/ or conversational analysis, cognitive stylistics, critical stylistics, feminists stylistics. In discourse stylistics analysis is always combined with interpretation, and description is followed by explana...

  13. Contextualizing Data Warehouses with Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Juan Manuel; Berlanga, Rafael; Aramburu, Maria Jose

    2008-01-01

    warehouse with a document warehouse, resulting in a contextualized warehouse. Thus, the user first selects an analysis context by supplying some keywords. Then, the analysis is performed on a novel type of OLAP cube, called an R-cube, which is materialized by retrieving and ranking the documents...

  14. 3-D contextual Bayesian classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    In this paper we will consider extensions of a series of Bayesian 2-D contextual classification pocedures proposed by Owen (1984) Hjort & Mohn (1984) and Welch & Salter (1971) and Haslett (1985) to 3 spatial dimensions. It is evident that compared to classical pixelwise classification further...

  15. CORRELATION LINKS BETWEEN SOME ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE SIGNS IN BROCCOLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Zablotskaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the correlation relationship between the signs, the informativeness of the indicators makes it possible to conduct a preliminary assessment of the plants and more objectively to identify forms with high economically valuable characteristics. Their integrated assessment will identify the best source material for further selection. In literary sources, information on the correlation in broccoli between yields and its elements are not the same. The purpose of our study was to analyze the contingency of various traits and to identify significant correlation links between quantitative traits in broccoli hybrids (42 samples. They were obtained using doubled haploid lines (DH-line of early maturity at 2 planting dates (spring and summer. Studies were conducted in the Odintsovo district of the Moscow region in field experience in 2015, 2016. Significant influence on growth and development was provided by the developing weather conditions during the growing period. The fluctuation of humidification and temperature conditions differed significantly during the years of study and the time of planting, which is an important circumstance for analyzing the data obtained. Based on the results of the research, it was concluded that the value of the correlation coefficient and the strength of the correlation relationship between the characteristics (mass, diameter, head height, plant height, vegetation period are different and depend on the set of test specimens and growing conditions. A significant stable manifestation of positive correlation was revealed during all the years of research and the time of planting between the diameter and mass of the head (r = 0.45-0.96. The variability of the correlation of other economically valuable traits is marked. 

  16. Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Contextual Learning but Not Recall of Prior Contextual Associations: Implications for Nicotine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...

  17. Mobile and contextual learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kukulska-Hulme

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Is mobile learning just a part of everyday learning? This is a relevant question in an age when most people throughout the world now have access to mobile phones and mobility is increasingly taken for granted. In one sense, mobile learning is no different to carrying a textbook or learning through conversations at home, as part of formal education or in the workplace. The technology may be more engaging, but is the learning any different? Despite the ubiquity of mobile phones, smartphones, mp3 players and, increasingly, access to Wi-Fi connections and GPS navigation, the reasons for using mobile and wireless technologies in education are not yet widely known. There is significant specialist expertise, built from ten years of research (and more recently, reflective practice to demonstrate the unique characteristics of mobile learning, which include orchestrating shared learning with personal devices across formal and informal settings, providing immediately useful information, offering timely revision and reflection, connecting real and virtual locations, and enriching field trips and cultural visits. This knowledge needs to be disseminated and examined from new perspectives.

  18. Brazilian readers and contextual reference Brazilian readers and contextual reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. O. Carioni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experiment carried out using Brazilian university students at UFSC, the purpose being to check comprehension relationships between two types of contextual reference and two languages, Portuguese and English. A major stimulus for the research was the question: are Brazilian students' difficulties in reading English related more to English language difficulties or to difficulties in processing text in general?

  19. Contextualizing Social Science in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Raj Dahal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Social science informs about the ideals and trains experts to deal with the complex social realities. It has a public purpose rooted in what we call dharma (professional and institutional responsibility as opposed to the arrogance of reason, self-will and self-rationalization intrinsic to contemporary rational choice and modernity. Learning has a synergy - establishing connection between the world of social science theories and the drama of social life. A lack of mutual learning between Nepal's traditional faith intellectuals and modern reason-based social scientists has created a big hiatus and contradiction. The academic life of social scientists in Nepal is completely outside of spiritual, moral and ethical influence experienced by ordinary public. The spiritual blindness of modern social scientists has thus opened multiple gaps between their worldview and those of the citizens on various frontiers--theoretical knowledge and practical experience, technical understanding and composite knowledge and secularity of social science and the vitality of the Hindu-Buddhist scriptures in the popular mind, culture, behavior and practices. This has reinforced a division between the system of knowledge of social scientists and the life-world of people. The proponents of new social movements in Nepal, such as women, Dalits, Janajatis, Madhesis, youths and marginalized population are seeking a structural shift in reason-based knowledge to both reason and feeling in social science knowledge discovery. This movement can open the "captive mind" to social learning of contextual knowledge, conduct research with the citizens, provide inputs to the policy makers and reverse their linear, structure-bound, rationalist and disciplinary thinking into the one that represents what the Nepal mandala, the Nepali space, is really like and how to improve it for the better. The renewal and indigenization of qualitative social science research is important to overcome the

  20. Competing definitions of contextual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrett Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1 and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2 defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3 generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables. Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what

  1. Towards Contextualized Learning Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Marcus

    Personalization of feedback and instruction has often been considered as a key feature in learning support. The adaptations of the instructional process to the individual and its different aspects have been investigated from different research perspectives as learner modelling, intelligent tutoring systems, adaptive hypermedia, adaptive instruction and others. Already in the 1950s first commercial systems for adaptive instruction for trainings of keyboard skills have been developed utilizing adaptive configuration of feedback based on user performance and interaction footprints (Pask 1964). Around adaptive instruction there is a variety of research issues bringing together interdisciplinary research from computer science, engineering, psychology, psychotherapy, cybernetics, system dynamics, instructional design, and empirical research on technology enhanced learning. When classifying best practices of adaptive instruction different parameters of the instructional process have been identified which are adapted to the learner, as: sequence and size of task difficulty, time of feedback, pace of learning speed, reinforcement plan and others these are often referred to the adaptation target. Furthermore Aptitude Treatment Interaction studies explored the effect of adapting instructional parameters to different characteristics of the learner (Tennyson and Christensen 1988) as task performance, personality characteristics, or cognitive abilities, this is information is referred to as adaptation mean.

  2. Identifying Meaningful Behaviors for Social Competence: A Contextual Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnes, Emily D.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Geske, Jenenne; Warnes, William A.

    An exploratory study was conducted which assessed behaviors that characterize social competence in the 2nd and 5th grades. A contextual approach was used to gather information from 2nd and 5th grade children and their parents and teachers regarding the behaviors they perceived to be important for getting along well with peers. Data were gathered…

  3. Contextual segment-based classification of airborne laser scanner data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosselman, George; Coenen, Maximilian; Rottensteiner, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Classification of point clouds is needed as a first step in the extraction of various types of geo-information from point clouds. We present a new approach to contextual classification of segmented airborne laser scanning data. Potential advantages of segment-based classification are easily offset

  4. Contextual approach to quantum formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this book is to show that the probabilistic formalisms of classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be unified on the basis of a general contextual probabilistic model. By taking into account the dependence of (classical) probabilities on contexts (i.e. complexes of physical conditions), one can reproduce all distinct features of quantum probabilities such as the interference of probabilities and the violation of Bell’s inequality. Moreover, by starting with a formula for the interference of probabilities (which generalizes the well known classical formula of total probability), one can construct the representation of contextual probabilities by complex probability amplitudes or, in the abstract formalism, by normalized vectors of the complex Hilbert space or its hyperbolic generalization. Thus the Hilbert space representation of probabilities can be naturally derived from classical probabilistic assumptions. An important chapter of the book critically reviews known no-go theorems...

  5. Contextualized B2B Registries

    OpenAIRE

    Radetzki, U; Boniface, M.J.; Surridge, M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. Service discovery is a fundamental concept underpinning the move towards dynamic service-oriented business partnerships. The business process for integrating service discovery and underlying registry technologies into busi-ness relationships, procurement and project management functions has not been examined and hence existing Web Service registries lack capabilities required by business today. In this paper we present a novel contextualized B2B registry that supports dynamic regist...

  6. DISCOURSE STYLISTICS AS CONTEXTUALIZED STYLISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Katnić-Bakaršić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the paper is on discourse stylistics, viewed as contextualized discipline. Context includes various factors (sociohistorical, cognitive, cultural and intertextual. The paper investigates the most important approaches to discourse stylistics: pragmatic stylistics, discourse and/ or conversational analysis, cognitive stylistics, critical stylistics, feminists stylistics. In discourse stylistics analysis is always combined with interpretation, and description is followed by explanation and critique.

  7. Ecological theories of systems and contextual change in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Bates, Joanna; Teunissen, Pim W

    2017-12-01

    Contemporary medical practice is subject to many kinds of change, to which both individuals and systems have to respond and adapt. Many medical education programmes have their learners rotating through different training contexts, which means that they too must learn to adapt to contextual change. Contextual change presents many challenges to medical education scholars and practitioners, not least because of a somewhat fractured and contested theoretical basis for responding to these challenges. There is a need for robust concepts to articulate and connect the various debates on contextual change in medical education. Ecological theories of systems encompass a range of concepts of how and why systems change and how and why they respond to change. The use of these concepts has the potential to help medical education scholars explore the nature of change and understand the role it plays in affording as well as limiting teaching and learning. This paper, aimed at health professional education scholars and policy makers, explores a number of key concepts from ecological theories of systems to present a comprehensive model of contextual change in medical education to inform theory and practice in all areas of medical education. The paper considers a range of concepts drawn from ecological theories of systems, including biotic and abiotic factors, panarchy, attractors and repellers, basins of attraction, homeostasis, resilience, adaptability, transformability and hysteresis. Each concept is grounded in practical examples from medical education. Ecological theories of systems consider change and response in terms of adaptive cycles functioning at different scales and speeds. This can afford opportunities for systematic consideration of responses to contextual change in medical education, which in turn can inform the design of education programmes, activities, evaluations, assessments and research that accommodates the dynamics and consequences of contextual change.

  8. The role of peripheral vision in implicit contextual cuing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Marieke; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Implicit contextual cuing refers to the ability to learn the association between contextual information of our environment and a specific target, which can be used to guide attention during visual search. It was recently suggested that the storage of a snapshot image of the local context of a target underlies implicit contextual cuing. To make such a snapshot, it is necessary to use peripheral vision. In order to test whether peripheral vision can underlie implicit contextual cuing, we used a covert visual search task, in which participants were required to indicate the orientation of a target stimulus while foveating a fixation cross. The response times were shorter when the configuration of the stimuli was repeated than when the configuration was new. Importantly, this effect was still found after 10 days, indicating that peripherally perceived spatial context information can be stored in memory for long periods of time. These results indicate that peripheral vision can be used to make a snapshot of the local context of a target.

  9. Contextual Compression of Large-Scale Wind Turbine Array Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruchalla, Kenny M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Potter, Kristin C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clyne, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

    2017-12-04

    Data sizes are becoming a critical issue particularly for HPC applications. We have developed a user-driven lossy wavelet-based storage model to facilitate the analysis and visualization of large-scale wind turbine array simulations. The model stores data as heterogeneous blocks of wavelet coefficients, providing high-fidelity access to user-defined data regions believed the most salient, while providing lower-fidelity access to less salient regions on a block-by-block basis. In practice, by retaining the wavelet coefficients as a function of feature saliency, we have seen data reductions in excess of 94 percent, while retaining lossless information in the turbine-wake regions most critical to analysis and providing enough (low-fidelity) contextual information in the upper atmosphere to track incoming coherent turbulent structures. Our contextual wavelet compression approach has allowed us to deliver interative visual analysis while providing the user control over where data loss, and thus reduction in accuracy, in the analysis occurs. We argue this reduced but contextualized representation is a valid approach and encourages contextual data management.

  10. IoT Contextual Factors on Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Konstantinos; Caridakis, George

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of the Internet of Things, new services in healthcare will be available and existing systems will be integrated in the IoT framework, providing automated medical supervision and efficient medical treatment. Context awareness plays a critical role in realizing the vision of the IoT, providing rich contextual information that can help the system act more efficiently. Since context in healthcare has its unique characteristics, it is necessary to define an appropriate context aware framework for healthcare IoT applications. We identify this context as perceived in healthcare applications and describe the context aware procedures. We also present an architecture that connects the sensors that measure biometric data with the sensory networks of the environment and the various IoT middleware that reside in the geographical area. Finally, we discuss the challenges for the realization of this vision.

  11. Mutual Contextualization in Tripartite Graphs of Folksonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ching-Man Au; Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

    The use of tags to describe Web resources in a collaborative manner has experienced rising popularity among Web users in recent years. The product of such activity is given the name folksonomy, which can be considered as a scheme of organizing information in the users' own way. This research work attempts to analyze tripartite graphs - graphs involving users, tags and resources - of folksonomies and discuss how these elements acquire their semantics through their associations with other elements, a process we call mutual contextualization. By studying such process, we try to identify solutions to problems such as tag disambiguation, retrieving documents of similar topics and discovering communities of users. This paper describes the basis of the research work, mentions work done so far and outlines future plans.

  12. Contextualized pain management in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Valerio Bellieni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal pain treatment requires personalization, and pain assessment should be contextualized to be effective. Here we summarize the available tools in neonatal analgesia, paying a special attention to highlight the personalization of antalgic behavior, both in assessment and in treatment of neonatal pain. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  13. Contextual logic for quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech, Graciela; Freytes, Hector

    2005-01-01

    In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated with the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Different from standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction

  14. Facets of contextual realism in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Alok Kumar; Home, Dipankar

    2011-01-01

    In recent times, there is an upsurge of interest in demonstrating the quantum contextuality. In this proceedings, we explore the two different forms of arguments that have been used for showing the contextual character of quantum mechanics. First line of study concerns the violations of the noncontextual realist models by quantum mechanics, where second line of study that is qualitatively distinct from the earlier one, demonstrates the contextuality within the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  15. Templates and Queries in Contextual Hypermedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Kenneth Mark; Hansen, Frank Allan; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2006-01-01

    discuss a framework, HyConSC, that implements this model and describe how it can be used to build new contextual hypermedia systems. Our framework aids the developer in the iterative development of contextual queries (via a dynamic query browser) and offers support for con-text matching, a key feature...... of contextual hypermedia. We have tested the framework with data and sensors taken from the HyCon contextual hypermedia system and are now migrating HyCon to this new framework....

  16. Contextual risk and child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-10-01

    In developmental psychopathology it almost goes without saying that contextual risk factors do not occur in isolation and that it is the combination of various risk factors that portends numerous negative child outcomes. Despite this, the body of literature that examines the relation between multiple risk exposure and child psychopathology using a cumulative risk approach is still relatively small. Even when studies use a cumulative risk approach they rarely test properly whether the relation between cumulative risk and child psychopathology is linear or nonlinear, with consequences for both theory development and intervention design: if cumulative risk impacts problem behavior in a positively accelerated exponential manner, for instance, it means that exposure to multiple risk is especially difficult to manage as problem behavior accelerates at a critical level of risk. Furthermore, few studies have actually examined factors that protect from negative outcomes in those exposed to cumulative risk and even fewer have explored cumulative protection in relation to cumulative risk. On the other hand, there is the view that a cumulative risk approach at least implicitly assumes that risk factors are, in essence, interchangeable. According to this view, the importance of testing for specificity should not be underestimated. Finally, the renewed interest in the role of neighborhood risk in child development has initiated a lively debate as to whether contextual risk should be operationalized at the family or the area level. In this letter I discuss these issues, and offer some suggestions as to how future research can address them.

  17. Rapid contextual conditioning in autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, P D; Schwartz, A L

    1981-10-01

    Two experiments are reported which investigate the speed of contextual conditioning in autoshaping. In both experiments, a procedure was employed in which ring doves were magazine trained in one context prior to the manipulation of background values in a second context. In Experiment 1, subjects were exposed to 4, 8, 64, 128, or 256 US-only presentations prior to autoshaping. Acquisition speed and maintained response measures were monotonically related to the number of pretraining trials. Subjects in Group 4 acquired the key-peck response fastest, and retardation was maximal within 64 pretraining trials. In Experiment 2, subjects given 20 pretraining trials were significantly more retarded than subjects given 2 pretraining trials, but only when pretraining and testing were conducted in the same context. Overall, the results of these experiments show that in autoshaping, contextual conditioning is very rapid; this demonstrates the plausibility of theoretical accounts of Pavlovian conditioning which assert that the development of the conditioned response depends on the associative values of both the CS and background stimuli.

  18. New Therapies Offer Valuable Options for Patients with Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two phase III clinical trials of new therapies for patients with metastatic melanoma presented in June at the 2011 ASCO conference confirmed that vemurafenib and ipilimumab (Yervoy™) offer valuable new options for the disease.

  19. Evaluating physician performance at individualizing care: a pilot study tracking contextual errors in medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Saul J; Schwartz, Alan; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Schiff, Gordon D; Weaver, Frances M; Goldberg, Julie; Weiss, Kevin B

    2007-01-01

    Clinical decision making requires 2 distinct cognitive skills: the ability to classify patients' conditions into diagnostic and management categories that permit the application of research evidence and the ability to individualize or-more specifically-to contextualize care for patients whose circumstances and needs require variation from the standard approach to care. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a methodology for measuring physicians' performance at contextualizing care and compare it to their performance at planning biomedically appropriate care. First, the authors drafted 3 cases, each with 4 variations, 3 of which are embedded with biomedical and/or contextual information that is essential to planning care. Once the cases were validated as instruments for assessing physician performance, 54 internal medicine residents were then presented with opportunities to make these preidentified biomedical or contextual errors, and data were collected on information elicitation and error making. The case validation process was successful in that, in the final iteration, the physicians who received the contextual variant of cases proposed an alternate plan of care to those who received the baseline variant 100% of the time. The subsequent piloting of these validated cases unmasked previously unmeasured differences in physician performance at contextualizing care. The findings, which reflect the performance characteristics of the study population, are presented. This pilot study demonstrates a methodology for measuring physician performance at contextualizing care and illustrates the contribution of such information to an overall assessment of physician practice.

  20. Valuable Internet Advertising and Customer Satisfaction Cycle(VIACSC)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Awais; Tanzila Samin; Muhammad Bilal

    2012-01-01

    Now-a-days it is very important for the business persons to attract their target customers towards their products through valuable mode of promotion and communication. Increasing use of World Wide Web has completely changed the scenario of business sector. Customized products and services, customers preferences, @ and dot com craze have elevated the importance of internet advertising. This research paper investigates valuable internet advertising which will help to enhance the value of intern...

  1. Are C-reps contextual representations? A reply to Brewin and Burgess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David G

    2014-03-01

    Brewin and Burgess (2013) argue that our recent papers investigating the role of contextual representations in intrusive memories do not pose a challenge to dual-representation theory as originally claimed (Pearson, 2012; Pearson, Ross, & Webster, 2012). Here I point out that their alternative explanation for our results can be rejected using data already published in both papers. I also argue that their definition of what constitutes a contextual representation renders their revised dual-representation theory incompatible with experimental results that have previously been argued in the literature to support it. Valuable though their contribution is, it does not impact on our main conclusion that abstract contextual representations serve to increase intrusive memories for traumatic material. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity, and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  3. The Role of Search Speed in the Contextual Cueing of Children's Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Kevin; Burling, Joseph; Yoshida, Hanako

    2014-01-01

    The contextual cueing effect is a robust phenomenon in which repeated exposure to the same arrangement of random elements guides attention to relevant information by constraining search. The effect is measured using an object search task in which a target (e.g., the letter T) is located within repeated or nonrepeated visual contexts (e.g., configurations of the letter L). Decreasing response times for the repeated configurations indicates that contextual information has facilitated search. Although the effect is robust among adult participants, recent attempts to document the effect in children have yielded mixed results. We examined the effect of search speed on contextual cueing with school-aged children, comparing three types of stimuli that promote different search times in order to observe how speed modulates this effect. Reliable effects of search time were found, suggesting that visual search speed uniquely constrains the role of attention toward contextually cued information.

  4. The Role of Search Speed in the Contextual Cueing of Children’s Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Kevin; Burling, Joseph; Yoshida, Hanako

    2013-01-01

    The contextual cueing effect is a robust phenomenon in which repeated exposure to the same arrangement of random elements guides attention to relevant information by constraining search. The effect is measured using an object search task in which a target (e.g., the letter T) is located within repeated or nonrepeated visual contexts (e.g., configurations of the letter L). Decreasing response times for the repeated configurations indicates that contextual information has facilitated search. Although the effect is robust among adult participants, recent attempts to document the effect in children have yielded mixed results. We examined the effect of search speed on contextual cueing with school-aged children, comparing three types of stimuli that promote different search times in order to observe how speed modulates this effect. Reliable effects of search time were found, suggesting that visual search speed uniquely constrains the role of attention toward contextually cued information. PMID:24505167

  5. Recycled Cell Phones - A Treasure Trove of Valuable Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel E.

    2006-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheet examines the potential value of recycling the metals found in obsolete cell phones. Cell phones seem ubiquitous in the United States and commonplace throughout most of the world. There were approximately 1 billion cell phones in use worldwide in 2002. In the United States, the number of cell phone subscribers increased from 340,000 in 1985 to 180 million in 2004. Worldwide, cell phone sales have increased from slightly more than 100 million units per year in 1997 to an estimated 779 million units per year in 2005. Cell phone sales are projected to exceed 1 billion units per year in 2009, with an estimated 2.6 billion cell phones in use by the end of that year. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated that, by 2005, as many as 130 million cell phones would be retired annually in the United States. The nonprofit organization INFORM, Inc., anticipated that, by 2005, a total of 500 million obsolete cell phones would have accumulated in consumers' desk drawers, store rooms, or other storage, awaiting disposal. Typically, cell phones are used for only 1 1/2 years before being replaced. Less than 1 percent of the millions of cell phones retired and discarded annually are recycled. When large numbers of cell phones become obsolete, large quantities of valuable metals end up either in storage or in landfills. The amount of metals potentially recoverable would make a significant addition to total metals recovered from recycling in the United States and would supplement virgin metals derived from mining.

  6. Moral contextualism and the problem of triviality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daan

    Moral contextualism is the view that claims like ‘A ought to X’ are implicitly relative to some (contextually variable) standard. This leads to a problem: what are fundamental moral claims like ‘You ought to maximize happiness’ relative to? If this claim is relative to a utilitarian standard, then

  7. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  8. Moral contextualism and the problem of triviality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, H.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Moral contextualism is the view that claims like ‘A ought to X’ are implicitly relative to some (contextually variable) standard. This leads to a problem: what are fundamental moral claims like ‘You ought to maximize happiness’ relative to? If the claim is relative to a utilitarian standard, then

  9. Contextual factors and effective school improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Hechuan; Creemers, Bert P. M.; de Jong, Rob

    This research provides policy-makers, researchers, and educators at all levels with a glimpse of the contextual influence on effective school improvement (ESI) in 8 European countries. What are the factors at the contextual level, particularly at the national level, which influence ESI? Are there

  10. Contextual Cueing Effects across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Edward C.; Conners, Frances A.; Roskos, Beverly; Klinger, Mark R.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated age-related variations in contextual cueing, which reflects the extent to which visuospatial regularities can facilitate search for a target. Previous research produced inconsistent results regarding contextual cueing effects in young children and in older adults, and no study has investigated the phenomenon across the life…

  11. Discriminative latent models for recognizing contextual group activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Wang, Yang; Yang, Weilong; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Mori, Greg

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we go beyond recognizing the actions of individuals and focus on group activities. This is motivated from the observation that human actions are rarely performed in isolation; the contextual information of what other people in the scene are doing provides a useful cue for understanding high-level activities. We propose a novel framework for recognizing group activities which jointly captures the group activity, the individual person actions, and the interactions among them. Two types of contextual information, group-person interaction and person-person interaction, are explored in a latent variable framework. In particular, we propose three different approaches to model the person-person interaction. One approach is to explore the structures of person-person interaction. Differently from most of the previous latent structured models, which assume a predefined structure for the hidden layer, e.g., a tree structure, we treat the structure of the hidden layer as a latent variable and implicitly infer it during learning and inference. The second approach explores person-person interaction in the feature level. We introduce a new feature representation called the action context (AC) descriptor. The AC descriptor encodes information about not only the action of an individual person in the video, but also the behavior of other people nearby. The third approach combines the above two. Our experimental results demonstrate the benefit of using contextual information for disambiguating group activities.

  12. Reliable computation from contextual correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestereich, André L.; Galvão, Ernesto F.

    2017-12-01

    An operational approach to the study of computation based on correlations considers black boxes with one-bit inputs and outputs, controlled by a limited classical computer capable only of performing sums modulo-two. In this setting, it was shown that noncontextual correlations do not provide any extra computational power, while contextual correlations were found to be necessary for the deterministic evaluation of nonlinear Boolean functions. Here we investigate the requirements for reliable computation in this setting; that is, the evaluation of any Boolean function with success probability bounded away from 1 /2 . We show that bipartite CHSH quantum correlations suffice for reliable computation. We also prove that an arbitrarily small violation of a multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger noncontextuality inequality also suffices for reliable computation.

  13. The impact of signal-to-noise ratio on contextual cueing in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingying; Merrill, Edward C

    2015-04-01

    Contextual cueing refers to a form of implicit spatial learning where participants incidentally learn to associate a target location with its repeated spatial context. Successful contextual learning produces an efficient visual search through familiar environments. Despite the fact that children exhibit the basic ability of implicit spatial learning, their general effectiveness in this form of learning can be compromised by other development-dependent factors. Learning to extract useful information (signal) in the presence of various amounts of irrelevant or distracting information (noise) characterizes one of the most important changes that occur with cognitive development. This research investigated whether signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) affects contextual cueing differently in children and adults. S/N was operationally defined as the ratio of repeated versus new displays encountered over time. Three ratio conditions were created: high (100%), medium (67%), and low (33%) conditions. Results suggested no difference in the acquisition of contextual learning effects in the high and medium conditions across three age groups (6- to 8-year-olds, 10- to 12-year-olds, and young adults). However, a significant developmental difference emerged in the low S/N condition. As predicted, adults exhibited significant contextual cueing effects, whereas older children showed marginally significant contextual cueing and younger children did not show cueing effects. Group differences in the ability to exhibit implicit contextual learning under low S/N conditions and the implications of this difference are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dual-state modulation of the contextual cueing effect: Evidence from eye movement recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guang; Liu, Qiang; Jiao, Jun; Zhou, Peiling; Li, Hong; Sun, Hong-jin

    2012-06-08

    The repeated configurations of random elements induce a better search performance than that of the displays of novel random configurations. The mechanism of such contextual cueing effect has been investigated through the use of the RT × Set Size function. There are divergent views on whether the contextual cueing effect is driven by attentional guidance or facilitation of initial perceptual processing or response selection. To explore this question, we used eye movement recording in this study, which offers information about the substages of the search task. The results suggest that the contextual cueing effect is contributed mainly by attentional guidance, and facilitation of response selection also plays a role.

  15. Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y

    2014-04-01

    Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects׳ attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects׳ task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploration of Opinion-aware Approach to Contextual Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    effectiveness of the proposed method. 1 Introduction TREC 1014 Contextual Suggestion Track gives researchers the chance to test their methods on providing...each category. Information including the name, average rating, address, business hour, all ratings and the associated text reviews of the candidate...Annals of Statistics , 29:1189–1232, 2000. 5. K. Ganesan, C. Zhai, and J. Han. Opinosis: a graph-based approach to abstractive summarization of highly

  17. Contextualization of drug-mediator relations using evidence networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai Joey; Speyer, Gil; Kiefer, Jeff; Kim, Seungchan

    2017-05-31

    Genomic analysis of drug response can provide unique insights into therapies that can be used to match the "right drug to the right patient." However, the process of discovering such therapeutic insights using genomic data is not straightforward and represents an area of active investigation. EDDY (Evaluation of Differential DependencY), a statistical test to detect differential statistical dependencies, is one method that leverages genomic data to identify differential genetic dependencies. EDDY has been used in conjunction with the Cancer Therapeutics Response Portal (CTRP), a dataset with drug-response measurements for more than 400 small molecules, and RNAseq data of cell lines in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) to find potential drug-mediator pairs. Mediators were identified as genes that showed significant change in genetic statistical dependencies within annotated pathways between drug sensitive and drug non-sensitive cell lines, and the results are presented as a public web-portal (EDDY-CTRP). However, the interpretability of drug-mediator pairs currently hinders further exploration of these potentially valuable results. In this study, we address this challenge by constructing evidence networks built with protein and drug interactions from the STITCH and STRING interaction databases. STITCH and STRING are sister databases that catalog known and predicted drug-protein interactions and protein-protein interactions, respectively. Using these two databases, we have developed a method to construct evidence networks to "explain" the relation between a drug and a mediator.  RESULTS: We applied this approach to drug-mediator relations discovered in EDDY-CTRP analysis and identified evidence networks for ~70% of drug-mediator pairs where most mediators were not known direct targets for the drug. Constructed evidence networks enable researchers to contextualize the drug-mediator pair with current research and knowledge. Using evidence networks, we were

  18. Selecting team players: Considering the impact of contextual performance and workplace deviance on selection decisions in the National Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Steven W; Maynes, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    Contextual performance and workplace deviance likely influence team functioning and effectiveness and should therefore be considered when evaluating job candidates for team-based roles. However, obtaining this information is difficult given a lack of reliable sources and the desire of job applicants to present themselves in a favorable light. Thus, it is unknown whether those selecting employees for teams incorporate prior contextual performance and workplace deviance into their evaluations, or whether doing so improves the quality of selection decisions. To address these issues, we examined the impact of prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance on National Football League (NFL) decision maker (organizational insider) and external expert (organizational outsider) evaluations of college football players in the NFL draft, using a content analysis methodology to generate measures of contextual performance and workplace deviance. Our findings indicate that insiders value contextual performance more than outsiders, which is likely because of differing interests and goals that lead to different levels of motivation and/or ability to acquire information about prior contextual performance. We also propose that prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance will predict player performance in the NFL. Our results support this prediction for task and contextual performance. In addition, we investigated the quality of insider and outsider judgments using Brunswik's (1952) lens model. Implications of our findings for the team selection, contextual performance, and workplace deviance literatures are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Representing idioms: syntactic and contextual effects on idiom processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsinger, Edward

    2013-09-01

    Recent work on the processing of idiomatic expressions argues against the idea that idioms are simply big words. For example, hybrid models of idiom representation, originally investigated in the context of idiom production, propose a priority of literal computation, and a principled relationship between the conceptual meaning of an idiom, its literal lemmas and its syntactic structure. We examined the predictions of the hybrid representation hypothesis in the domain of idiom comprehension. We conducted two experiments to examine the role of syntactic, lexical and contextual factors on the interpretation of idiomatic expressions. Experiment I examines the role of syntactic compatibility and lexical compatibility on the real-time processing of potentially idiomatic strings. Experiment 2 examines the role of contextual information on idiom processing and how context interacts with lexical information during processing. We find evidence that literal computation plays a causal role in the retrieval of idiomatic meaning and that contextual, lexical and structural information influence the processing of idiomatic strings at early stages during processing, which provide support for the hybrid model of idiom representation in the domain of idiom comprehension.

  20. Effects of Forward and Backward Contextual Elaboration on Lexical Inferences: Evidence from a Semantic Relatedness Judgment Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the process of lexical inferences differs according to the direction of contextual elaboration using a semantic relatedness judgment task. In Experiment 1, Japanese university students read English sentences where target unknown words were semantically elaborated by prior contextual information (forward lexical…

  1. Contextual Guidance of Eye Movements and Attention in Real-World Scenes: The Role of Global Features in Object Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba, Antonio; Oliva, Aude; Castelhano, Monica S.; Henderson, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Many experiments have shown that the human visual system makes extensive use of contextual information for facilitating object search in natural scenes. However, the question of how to formally model contextual influences is still open. On the basis of a Bayesian framework, the authors present an original approach of attentional guidance by global…

  2. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis.

  3. Using contextual advertising in Internet marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Олександрівна Левицька

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the substantiation of the use of contextual advertising in Internet marketing as one of the most universal and expedient tools of modern advertising, applied for the first time in 1994, describing the principles of its implementation and the prospects for using it. The shortcomings and advantages of Internet marketing and contextual advertising in particular, its types and technologies, on which it is implemented, the possibilities, as well as the purposes of application, are considered. The main characteristics of contextual advertising, namely its characteristic properties as compared to the other types of Internet marketing, were highlighted. The use of contextual advertising in the search, on partner sites of the advertising network and an example of the report that was received by means of the Yandex.Metrika service have been shown. On the basis of the analysis the use of contextual advertising has been proved and its basic types and methods of measuring the effectiveness of advertising campaigns using deep analytics services have been demonstrated. The factor of the complexity of the configuration process has been singled out, and in this connection, a variant of professional intervention in setting up contextual advertising by specialized agencies has been offered. In the long term, the tools of contextual advertising are to expand. Every year, more and more services are being created for a deeper analysis of statistics, end-to-end analytics, and the improvement of the campaign management interface

  4. A More Efficient Contextuality Distillation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui-xian; Cao, Huai-xin; Wang, Wen-hua; Fan, Ya-jing; Chen, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Based on the fact that both nonlocality and contextuality are resource theories, it is natural to ask how to amplify them more efficiently. In this paper, we present a contextuality distillation protocol which produces an n-cycle box B ∗ B ' from two given n-cycle boxes B and B '. It works efficiently for a class of contextual n-cycle ( n ≥ 4) boxes which we termed as "the generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes". For any two generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes B and B ', B ∗ B ' is more contextual than both B and B '. Moreover, they can be distilled toward to the maximally contextual box C H n as the times of iteration goes to infinity. Among the known protocols, our protocol has the strongest approximate ability and is optimal in terms of its distillation rate. What is worth noting is that our protocol can witness a larger set of nonlocal boxes that make communication complexity trivial than the protocol in Brunner and Skrzypczyk (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 160403 2009), this might be helpful for exploring the problem that why quantum nonlocality is limited.

  5. Object-Location Training Elicits an Overlapping but Temporally Distinct Transcriptional Profile from Contextual Fear Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Poplawski, Shane G.; Schoch, Hannah; Wimmer, Mathieu; Hawk, Joshua D.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Giese, Karl P.; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning is known to induce changes in gene expression, but information on gene expression differences between different learning paradigms that require the hippocampus is limited. The bulk of studies investigating RNA expression after learning use the contextual fear conditioning task, which couples a novel environment with a footshock. Although contextual fear conditioning has been useful in discovering gene targets, gene expression after spatial memory tasks has recei...

  6. Field Trips as Valuable Learning Experiences in Geography Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowka, Amy Richmond

    2012-01-01

    Field trips have been acknowledged as valuable learning experiences in geography. This article uses Kolb's (1984) experiential learning model to discuss how students learn and how field trips can help enhance learning. Using Kolb's experiential learning theory as a guide in the design of field trips helps ensure that field trips contribute to…

  7. an assessment of timber trees producing valuable fruits and seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    It is observed that most of the timber trees producing valuable fruits and seeds have low ... sector of the economy by providing major raw materials (saw logs, ... the trees also produce industrial raw materials like latex, ... villagers while avoiding some of the ecological costs of ..... enzymes of rats with carbon tetrachloride.

  8. Ravens reconcile after aggressive conflicts with valuable partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Orlaith N; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2011-03-25

    Reconciliation, a post-conflict affiliative interaction between former opponents, is an important mechanism for reducing the costs of aggressive conflict in primates and some other mammals as it may repair the opponents' relationship and reduce post-conflict distress. Opponents who share a valuable relationship are expected to be more likely to reconcile as for such partners the benefits of relationship repair should outweigh the risk of renewed aggression. In birds, however, post-conflict behavior has thus far been marked by an apparent absence of reconciliation, suggested to result either from differing avian and mammalian strategies or because birds may not share valuable relationships with partners with whom they engage in aggressive conflict. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of reconciliation in a group of captive subadult ravens (Corvus corax) and show that it is more likely to occur after conflicts between partners who share a valuable relationship. Furthermore, former opponents were less likely to engage in renewed aggression following reconciliation, suggesting that reconciliation repairs damage caused to their relationship by the preceding conflict. Our findings suggest not only that primate-like valuable relationships exist outside the pair bond in birds, but that such partners may employ the same mechanisms in birds as in primates to ensure that the benefits afforded by their relationships are maintained even when conflicts of interest escalate into aggression. These results provide further support for a convergent evolution of social strategies in avian and mammalian species.

  9. Salt Lakes of the African Rift System: A Valuable Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt Lakes of the African Rift System: A Valuable Research Opportunity for Insight into Nature's Concenrtated Multi-Electrolyte Science. JYN Philip, DMS Mosha. Abstract. The Tanzanian rift system salt lakes present significant cultural, ecological, recreational and economical values. Beyond the wealth of minerals, resources ...

  10. Digital image comparison by subtracting contextual transformations—percentile rank order differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehde, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    The common method of digital image comparison by subtraction imposes various constraints on the image contents. Precise registration of images is required to assure proper evaluation of surface locations. The attribute being measured and the calibration and scaling of the sensor are also important to the validity and interpretability of the subtraction result. Influences of sensor gains and offsets complicate the subtraction process. The presence of any uniform systematic transformation component in one of two images to be compared distorts the subtraction results and requires analyst intervention to interpret or remove it. A new technique has been developed to overcome these constraints. Images to be compared are first transformed using the cumulative relative frequency as a transfer function. The transformed images represent the contextual relationship of each surface location with respect to all others within the image. The process of differentiating between the transformed images results in a percentile rank ordered difference. This process produces consistent terrain-change information even when the above requirements necessary for subtraction are relaxed. This technique may be valuable to an appropriately designed hierarchical terrain-monitoring methodology because it does not require human participation in the process.

  11. CONTEXTUALIZING NATURALISTIC DRIVING DATA IN A RURAL STATE AMONG DRIVERS WITH AND WITHOUT OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jeffrey D; Bair, Elizabeth; Askan, Nazan; Sewell, Kelly; Tippin, Jon; Rizzo, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    In naturalistic studies, Global Positioning System (GPS) data and date/time stamps can link driver exposure to specific environments (e.g., road types, speed limits, night driving, etc.), providing valuable context for analyzing critical events, such as crashes, near crashes, and breaches of accelerometer limits. In previous work, we showed how to automate this contextualization, using GPS data obtained at 1 Hz and merging this with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) databases maintained by the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT). Here we further demonstrate our methods by analyzing data from 80 drivers with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 48 controls, and comparing the two groups with respect to several factors of interest. The majority of comparisons found no difference between groups, suggesting similar patterns of exposures to driving environments in OSA and control drivers. However, OSA drivers appeared to spend slightly more time on roads with annual traffic counts of 500-10,000 and less time driving on wider highways, during twilight, and on roads with 10,000-25,000 annual traffic counts.

  12. The Contextual Antecedents of Organizational Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Bai, Yuntao; Xi, Youmin

    2012-01-01

    In this article we seek to explore the contextual antecedents of organizational trust. In light of the complex links between organizational contexts and organizational behaviours, we focus on the effects of the three most critical contextual antecedents, i.e., leadership role, structural rule...... in China, lent support for our multidimensional cross-level model of context–trust–behaviour link. We extend the research on organizational trust by treating it as a cross-level phenomenon and by specifying its core contextual antecedents and behavioural consequences....

  13. Testing quantum contextuality. The problem of compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szangolies, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Jochen Szangolies contributes a novel way of dealing with the problem of the experimental testability of the Kochen-Specker theorem posed by realistic, that is, noisy, measurements. Such noise spoils perfect compatibility between successive measurements, which however is a necessary requirement to test the notion of contextuality in usual approaches. To overcome this difficulty, a new, extended notion of contextuality that reduces to Kochen-Specker contextuality in the limit of perfect measurement implementations is proposed by the author, together with a scheme to test this notion experimentally. Furthermore, the behaviour of these tests under realistic noise conditions is investigated.

  14. Pharmacological Fingerprints of Contextual Uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Marshall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful interaction with the environment requires flexible updating of our beliefs about the world. By estimating the likelihood of future events, it is possible to prepare appropriate actions in advance and execute fast, accurate motor responses. According to theoretical proposals, agents track the variability arising from changing environments by computing various forms of uncertainty. Several neuromodulators have been linked to uncertainty signalling, but comprehensive empirical characterisation of their relative contributions to perceptual belief updating, and to the selection of motor responses, is lacking. Here we assess the roles of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and dopamine within a single, unified computational framework of uncertainty. Using pharmacological interventions in a sample of 128 healthy human volunteers and a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we characterise the influences of noradrenergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic receptor antagonism on individual computations of uncertainty during a probabilistic serial reaction time task. We propose that noradrenaline influences learning of uncertain events arising from unexpected changes in the environment. In contrast, acetylcholine balances attribution of uncertainty to chance fluctuations within an environmental context, defined by a stable set of probabilistic associations, or to gross environmental violations following a contextual switch. Dopamine supports the use of uncertainty representations to engender fast, adaptive responses.

  15. Optimal Classical Simulation of State-Independent Quantum Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Adán; Gu, Mile; Gühne, Otfried; Xu, Zhen-Peng

    2018-03-01

    Simulating quantum contextuality with classical systems requires memory. A fundamental yet open question is what is the minimum memory needed and, therefore, the precise sense in which quantum systems outperform classical ones. Here, we make rigorous the notion of classically simulating quantum state-independent contextuality (QSIC) in the case of a single quantum system submitted to an infinite sequence of measurements randomly chosen from a finite QSIC set. We obtain the minimum memory needed to simulate arbitrary QSIC sets via classical systems under the assumption that the simulation should not contain any oracular information. In particular, we show that, while classically simulating two qubits tested with the Peres-Mermin set requires log224 ≈4.585 bits, simulating a single qutrit tested with the Yu-Oh set requires, at least, 5.740 bits.

  16. The Impact of Contextual Clue Selection on Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Barati

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic information can be conveyed in the form of speech and written text, but it is the content of the message that is ultimately essential for higher-level processes in language comprehension, such as making inferences and associations between text information and knowledge about the world. Linguistically, inference is the shovel that allows receivers to dig meaning out from the text with selecting different embedded contextual clues. Naturally, people with different world experiences infer similar contextual situations differently. Lack of contextual knowledge of the target language can present an obstacle to comprehension (Anderson & Lynch, 2003. This paper tries to investigate how true contextual clue selection from the text can influence listener’s inference. In the present study 60 male and female teenagers (13-19 and 60 male and female young adults (20-26 were selected randomly based on Oxford Placement Test (OPT. During the study two fiction and two non-fiction passages were read to the participants in the experimental and control groups respectively and they were given scores according to Lexile’s Score (LS[1] based on their correct inference and logical thinking ability. In general the results show that participants’ clue selection based on their personal schematic references and background knowledge differ between teenagers and young adults and influence inference and listening comprehension. [1]- This is a framework for reading and listening which matches the appropriate score to each text based on degree of difficulty of text and each text was given a Lexile score from zero to four.

  17. Acceptance of lean redesigns in primary care: A contextual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Dorothy; Gray, Caroline; Martinez, Meghan; Schmittdiel, Julie; Harrison, Michael I

    Lean is a leading change strategy used in health care to achieve short-term efficiency and quality improvement while promising longer-term system transformation. Most research examines Lean intervention to address isolated problems, rather than to achieve broader systemic changes to care delivery. Moreover, no studies examine contextual influences on system-wide Lean implementation efforts in primary care. The aim of this study was to identify contextual factors most critical to implementing and scaling Lean redesigns across all primary care clinics in a large, ambulatory care delivery system. Over 100 interviews and focus groups were conducted with frontline physicians, clinical staff, and operational leaders. Data analysis was guided by a modified Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), a popular implementation science framework. On the basis of expert recommendations, the modified framework targets factors influencing the implementation of process redesigns. This modified framework, the CFIR-PR, informed our identification of contextual factors that most impacted Lean acceptance among frontline physicians and staff. Several domains identified by the CFIR-PR were critical to acceptance of Lean redesigns. Regarding the implementation process acceptance was influenced by time and intensity of exposure to changes, "top-down" versus "bottom-up" implementation styles, and degrees of employee engagement in developing new workflows. Important factors in the inner setting were the clinic's culture and style of leadership, along with availability of information about Lean's effectiveness. Last, implementation efforts were impacted by individual and team characteristics regarding changed work roles and related issues of professional identity, authority, and autonomy. This study underscores the need for change leaders to consider the contextual factors that surround efforts to implement Lean in primary care. As Lean redesigns are scaled across a system

  18. Contextualizing Asian American College Student Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Liu, Jessica; Nguyen, David; Song, Ge

    2017-01-01

    With attention to race, culture, and gender, this chapter contextualizes the help-seeking behaviors and psychological aspects of health facing Asian American college students. Recommendations are provided to student affairs professionals and counselors.

  19. An Order-Theoretic Quantification of Contextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Durham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I develop order-theoretic notions of determinism and contextuality on domains and topoi. In the process, I develop a method for quantifying contextuality and show that the order-theoretic sense of contextuality is analogous to the sense embodied in the topos-theoretic statement of the Kochen–Specker theorem. Additionally, I argue that this leads to a relation between the entropy associated with measurements on quantum systems and the second law of thermodynamics. The idea that the second law has its origin in the ordering of quantum states and processes dates to at least 1958 and possibly earlier. The suggestion that the mechanism behind this relation is contextuality, is made here for the first time.

  20. Designing clinically valuable telehealth resources: processes to develop a community-based palliative care prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, Jennifer Joy; Morgan, Deidre Diane; Swetenham, Kate; To, Timothy Hong Man; Currow, David Christopher

    2014-09-04

    Changing population demography and patterns of disease are increasing demands on the health system. Telehealth is seen as providing a mechanism to support community-based care, thus reducing pressure on hospital services and supporting consumer preferences for care in the home. This study examined the processes involved in developing a prototype telehealth intervention to support palliative care patients involved with a palliative care service living in the community. The challenges and considerations in developing the palliative care telehealth prototype were reviewed against the Center for eHealth Research (CeHRes) framework, a telehealth development model. The project activities to develop the prototype were specifically mapped against the model's first four phases: multidisciplinary project management, contextual inquiry, value specification, and design. This project has been developed as part of the Telehealth in the Home: Aged and Palliative Care in South Australia initiative. Significant issues were identified and subsequently addressed during concept and prototype development. The CeHRes approach highlighted the implicit diversity in views and opinions among participants and stakeholders and enabled issues to be considered, resolved, and incorporated during design through continuous engagement. The CeHRes model provided a mechanism that facilitated "better" solutions in the development of the palliative care prototype by addressing the inherent but potentially unrecognized differences in values and beliefs of participants. This collaboration enabled greater interaction and exchange among participants resulting in a more useful and clinically valuable telehealth prototype.

  1. Valuable human capital: the aging health care worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    With the workforce growing older and the supply of younger workers diminishing, it is critical for health care managers to understand the factors necessary to capitalize on their vintage employees. Retaining this segment of the workforce has a multitude of benefits including the preservation of valuable intellectual capital, which is necessary to ensure that health care organizations maintain their competitive advantage in the consumer-driven market. Retaining the aging employee is possible if health care managers learn the motivators and training differences associated with this category of the workforce. These employees should be considered a valuable resource of human capital because without their extensive expertise, intense loyalty and work ethic, and superior customer service skills, health care organizations could suffer severe economic repercussions in the near future.

  2. VALUABLE AND ORIENTATION FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF THE COUNTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir I. Zagvyazinsky

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to show that in modern market conditions it is necessary to keep humanistic valuable and orientation installations of domestic education and not to allow its slipping on a line item of utilitarian, quickly achievable, but not long-term benefits. Theoretical significance. The author emphasizes value of forming of an ideal – harmonious development of the personality – and the collectivist beginnings for disclosure of potential of each school student, a student, a...

  3. Using the Virtual Reality-Cognitive Rehabilitation Approach to Improve Contextual Processing in Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a novel virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR intervention to improve contextual processing of objects in children with autism. Previous research supports that children with autism show deficits in contextual processing, as well as deficits in its elementary components: abstraction and cognitive flexibility. Methods. Four children with autism participated in a multiple-baseline, single-subject study. The children were taught how to see objects in context by reinforcing attention to pivotal contextual information. Results. All children demonstrated statistically significant improvements in contextual processing and cognitive flexibility. Mixed results were found on the control test and changes in context-related behaviours. Conclusions. Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness and usability in comprehensive educational programs.

  4. Socio-contextual Network Mining for User Assistance in Web-based Knowledge Gathering Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Balaji; Kombiah, Iyakutti

    Web-based Knowledge Gathering (WKG) is a specialized and complex information seeking task carried out by many users on the web, for their various learning, and decision-making requirements. We construct a contextual semantic structure by observing the actions of the users involved in WKG task, in order to gain an understanding of their task and requirement. We also build a knowledge warehouse in the form of a master Semantic Link Network (SLX) that accommodates and assimilates all the contextual semantic structures. This master SLX, which is a socio-contextual network, is then mined to provide contextual inputs to the current users through their agents. We validated our approach through experiments and analyzed the benefits to the users in terms of resource explorations and the time saved. The results are positive enough to motivate us to implement in a larger scale.

  5. Using the Virtual Reality-Cognitive Rehabilitation Approach to Improve Contextual Processing in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Background. This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a novel virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR) intervention to improve contextual processing of objects in children with autism. Previous research supports that children with autism show deficits in contextual processing, as well as deficits in its elementary components: abstraction and cognitive flexibility. Methods. Four children with autism participated in a multiple-baseline, single-subject study. The children were taught how to see objects in context by reinforcing attention to pivotal contextual information. Results. All children demonstrated statistically significant improvements in contextual processing and cognitive flexibility. Mixed results were found on the control test and changes in context-related behaviours. Conclusions. Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness and usability in comprehensive educational programs. PMID:24324379

  6. Taking in account of contextual parameters in post accidental radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Maubert, H.; Bernie, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The consequences on agricultural or breeding products of a radioactive accidental release are strongly linked to the context in which radioactive deposits occur: for example conditions of deposition in relation with agricultural and feeding schedules. These contextual parameters lead to a variation of results given by models greater than transfer factors uncertainties. For example, cow milk contamination stretches on several decades during the months following deposit as a function of feeding practices. In the same way, if a wheat plant receives the deposit during grain development, harvested grains will have a contamination level 10 3 to 10 4 times higher that if deposition occurs before the growing stage. To create a decision support system like the ASTRAL software, the need to realize a modelling of these contextual parameters has been encountered. Moreover, to help experts for evaluations, default informations relative to agricultural and breeding practices for France are given through databases. However, in case of a real accident, it would be important to re-initialize these contextual parameters which change from year to year, in order to obtain more precise assessments. (authors)

  7. Neural correlates of contextual cueing are modulated by explicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Carmen E; Miller, Brennan B; Reber, Paul J; Cohen, Neal J; Paller, Ken A

    2011-10-01

    Contextual cueing refers to the facilitated ability to locate a particular visual element in a scene due to prior exposure to the same scene. This facilitation is thought to reflect implicit learning, as it typically occurs without the observer's knowledge that scenes repeat. Unlike most other implicit learning effects, contextual cueing can be impaired following damage to the medial temporal lobe. Here we investigated neural correlates of contextual cueing and explicit scene memory in two participant groups. Only one group was explicitly instructed about scene repetition. Participants viewed a sequence of complex scenes that depicted a landscape with five abstract geometric objects. Superimposed on each object was a letter T or L rotated left or right by 90°. Participants responded according to the target letter (T) orientation. Responses were highly accurate for all scenes. Response speeds were faster for repeated versus novel scenes. The magnitude of this contextual cueing did not differ between the two groups. Also, in both groups repeated scenes yielded reduced hemodynamic activation compared with novel scenes in several regions involved in visual perception and attention, and reductions in some of these areas were correlated with response-time facilitation. In the group given instructions about scene repetition, recognition memory for scenes was superior and was accompanied by medial temporal and more anterior activation. Thus, strategic factors can promote explicit memorization of visual scene information, which appears to engage additional neural processing beyond what is required for implicit learning of object configurations and target locations in a scene. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Valuable metals - recovery processes, current trends, and recycling strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Peter; Lorenz, Tom; Martin, Gunther; Brett, Beate; Bertau, Martin [Institut fuer Technische Chemie, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Strasse 29, 09599, Freiberg (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    This Review provides an overview of valuable metals, the supply of which has been classified as critical for Europe. Starting with a description of the current state of the art, novel approaches for their recovery from primary resources are presented as well as recycling processes. The focus lies on developments since 2005. Chemistry strategies which are used in metal recovery are summarized on the basis of the individual types of deposit and mineral. In addition, the economic importance as well as utilization of the metals is outlined. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from foundry sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vite T, J.

    1996-01-01

    There were extracted valuable metals from foundry sands such as: gold, platinum, silver, cobalt, germanium, nickel and zinc among others, as well as highly toxic metals such as chromium, lead, vanadium and arsenic. The extraction efficiency was up to 100% in some cases. For this reason there were obtained two patents at the United States, patent number 5,356,601, in October 1994, given for the developed process and patent number 5,376,000, in December 1994, obtained for the equipment employed. Therefore, the preliminary parameters for the installation of a pilot plant have also been developed. (Author)

  10. Differential patterns of contextual organization of memory in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; McKinney, Rachel A; DuBrow, Sarah; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Haas, Gretchen L; Luna, Beatriz

    2018-02-15

    Contextual information is used to support and organize episodic memory. Prior research has reliably shown memory deficits in psychosis; however, little research has characterized how this population uses contextual information during memory recall. We employed an approach founded in a computational framework of free recall to quantify how individuals with first episode of psychosis (FEP, N = 97) and controls (CON, N = 55) use temporal and semantic context to organize memory recall. Free recall was characterized using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R). We compared FEP and CON on three measures of free recall: proportion recalled, temporal clustering, and semantic clustering. Measures of temporal/semantic clustering quantified how individuals use contextual information to organize memory recall. We also assessed to what extent these measures relate to antipsychotic use and differentiated between different types of psychosis. We also explored the relationship between these measures and intelligence. In comparison to CON, FEP had reduced recall and less temporal clustering during free recall (p contextual organization of memory. IQ was related to free recall accuracy, but not the use of contextual information during recall in either group (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected). These results show that in addition to deficits in memory recall, FEP differed in how they organize memories compared to CON.

  11. Valuable Subversions: Gendered Generativity and Sorcerous Production in Central Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Enge Bertelsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available How is one to analyze the existence of a subterranean dwarfish couple (zwidoma occupying the space underneath cooking places and whose central purpose is to reinforce a market woman's sales - but simultaneously feeding off her very body? Using urban and rural ethnographic material from central Mozambique, where such assemblages comprising the zwidoma and a woman are integral to economic life and social orders, this article contextualizes such constellations - effectively interferences within various domains of value - by undertaking an analysis of gendered modalities of generativity. Further, by meditating on various understandings of cosmology and, ultimately, the dynamics constituting the realms of the real, it presents an alternative to influential analyses of capitalism, such as the notion of "occult economies." An argument is made not only for value's dynamic and changeable nature but also for the necessity to appreciate instances of its subversion with destructive effects. The article underlines, therefore, how such subversions of value, in various forms, is in line with Tsing's (2015 general argument that critical explorations of capitalism and regimes of valuation and production are best undertaken in peri-capitalist zones- such as urban and rural Mozambique.

  12. Privacy implications of location and contextual data on the social web

    OpenAIRE

    Zafeiropoulou, Aristea-Maria; Millard, David; Webber, Craig; O'Hara, Kieron

    2011-01-01

    Location-based applications have recently begun to emerge on the Social Web. After their appearance numerous concerns with regards to location privacy have been provoked. However, these privacy concerns seem to have effects beyond location, as other contextual information can be inferred through location information. This research addresses these implications, which keep on growing on the Social Web.

  13. Contextualized personality: traditional and new assessment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Daniel; Watson, David; Komar, Jennifer; Min, Ji-A; Perunovic, Wei Qi Elaine

    2007-12-01

    We describe our ongoing program of research related to the assessment of contextualized personality, focusing on social roles and cultural cues as contextual factors. First, we present our research employing the traditional assessment approach, wherein participants are asked to rate explicitly their personality across several different roles. We argue that this hypothetical approach is potentially susceptible to the influence of stereotypes, social desirability, and demand characteristics. We therefore describe the development of three novel and subtle assessment procedures that are based on obtaining online self-representations that are activated while occupying a specific context. Finally, the strengths and limitations of all four approaches, as well as directions for future research in the study of contextualized personality, are discussed.

  14. Improving Acquisition Outcomes with Contextual Ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The results of research on mergers and acquisitions often point to a need to improve acquisition outcomes and lessen the organizational turmoil that can often follow integration efforts. We assert that viewing acquisition integration through the lens of contextual ambidexterity may improve...... acquisition outcomes in two ways: by providing an integrated solution to the economic and social tensions in acquisitions, and by enabling managers to effectively confront the competing needs of task and human integration. We also posit that by building on contextual ambidexterity, we can extend...... the possibilities for both research and practice regarding task and human integration in acquisitions. We also emphasize the role of an integration manager and integration mechanisms in enabling contextual ambidexterity for successful acquisition integration. Finally, we identify implications for research...

  15. Contextuality for preparations, transformations, and unsharp measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spekkens, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    The Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem establishes the impossibility of a noncontextual hidden variable model of quantum theory, or equivalently, that quantum theory is contextual. In this paper, an operational definition of contextuality is introduced which generalizes the standard notion in three ways: (i) it applies to arbitrary operational theories rather than just quantum theory (ii) it applies to arbitrary experimental procedures rather than just sharp measurements, and (iii) it applies to a broad class of ontological models of quantum theory rather than just deterministic hidden variable models. We derive three no-go theorems for ontological models, each based on an assumption of noncontextuality for a different sort of experimental procedure; one for preparation procedures, another for unsharp measurement procedures (that is, measurement procedures associated with positive-operator valued measures), and a third for transformation procedures. All three proofs apply to two-dimensional Hilbert spaces, and are therefore stronger than traditional proofs of contextuality

  16. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    -seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts......, given an example expert. Our approach combines expertise-seeking and retrieval research. First, we conduct a user study to identify contextual factors that may play a role in the studied task and environment. Then, we design expert retrieval models to capture these factors. We combine these with content......-based retrieval models and evaluate them in a retrieval experiment. Our main finding is that while content-based features are the most important, human participants also take contextual factors into account, such as media experience and organizational structure. We develop two principled ways of modeling...

  17. Contextual factors in maternal and newborn health evaluation: a protocol applied in Nigeria, India and Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabot, Kate; Marchant, Tanya; Spicer, Neil; Berhanu, Della; Gautham, Meenakshi; Umar, Nasir; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the context of a health programme is important in interpreting evaluation findings and in considering the external validity for other settings. Public health researchers can be imprecise and inconsistent in their usage of the word "context" and its application to their work. This paper presents an approach to defining context, to capturing relevant contextual information and to using such information to help interpret findings from the perspective of a research group evaluating the effect of diverse innovations on coverage of evidence-based, life-saving interventions for maternal and newborn health in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and India. We define "context" as the background environment or setting of any program, and "contextual factors" as those elements of context that could affect implementation of a programme. Through a structured, consultative process, contextual factors were identified while trying to strike a balance between comprehensiveness and feasibility. Thematic areas included demographics and socio-economics, epidemiological profile, health systems and service uptake, infrastructure, education, environment, politics, policy and governance. We outline an approach for capturing and using contextual factors while maximizing use of existing data. Methods include desk reviews, secondary data extraction and key informant interviews. Outputs include databases of contextual factors and summaries of existing maternal and newborn health policies and their implementation. Use of contextual data will be qualitative in nature and may assist in interpreting findings in both quantitative and qualitative aspects of programme evaluation. Applying this approach was more resource intensive than expected, in part because routinely available information was not consistently available across settings and more primary data collection was required than anticipated. Data was used only minimally, partly due to a lack of evaluation results that needed further explanation

  18. Contextual influences on reverse knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2010-01-01

    Further development of theories about how contextual factors influence the beneficial reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiary to head quarters in disparate national country contexts, is the aim of our study. Earlier studies do not fully capture the different effects national country cultures can....... A proposition model is developed where the dependent variable is beneficial reverse knowledge transfer. The independent variables are: higher relative knowledge level in subsidiaty than in HQ, authority respect, activity fit with contextual learning preference. The conclusion suggest that different contexts...

  19. Involving Customer Relations in Contextual Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in the form of a contextual design project, the aim of which was to design a system for a particular organization. The starting point in the case was a need in the organization for a specific system. The case involved an analysis of the organizations customer...... point of the design project, how the project was conducted, and which results it ended up with. This is followed by a discussion of the effects of, and lessons learned by, involving customer relations in contextual design....

  20. Animals as an indicator of carbon sequestration and valuable landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Szyszko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of the assessment of a landscape with the use of succession development stages, monitored with the value of the Mean Individual Biomass (MIB of carabid beetles and the occurrence of bird species are discussed on the basis of an example from Poland. Higher variability of the MIB value in space signifies a greater biodiversity. Apart from the variability of MIB, it is suggested to adopt the occurrence of the following animals as indicators, (in the order of importance, representing underlying valuable landscapes: black stork, lesser spotted eagle, white-tailed eagle, wolf, crane and white stork. The higher number of these species and their greater density indicate a higher value of the landscape for biodiversity and ecosystem services, especially carbon sequestration. All these indicators may be useful to assess measures for sustainable land use.

  1. Factor analysis of the contextual fine motor questionnaire in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Meng, Ling-Fu; Yu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Che-Kuo; Li, Kuan-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Most studies treat fine motor as one subscale in a developmental test, hence, further factor analysis of fine motor has not been conducted. In fact, fine motor has been treated as a multi-dimensional domain from both clinical and theoretical perspectives, and therefore to know its factors would be valuable. The aim of this study is to analyze the internal consistency and factor validity of the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ). Based on the ecological observation and literature, the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ) was developed and includes 5 subscales: Pen Control, Tool Use During Handicraft Activities, the Use of Dining Utensils, Connecting and Separating during Dressing and Undressing, and Opening Containers. The main purpose of this study is to establish the factorial validity of the CFMQ through conducting this factor analysis study. Among 1208 questionnaires, 904 were successfully completed. Data from the children's CFMQ submitted by primary care providers was analyzed, including 485 females (53.6%) and 419 males (46.4%) from grades 1 to 5, ranging in age from 82 to 167 months (M=113.9, SD=16.3). Cronbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency and explorative factor analysis was applied to test the five factor structures within the CFMQ. Results showed that Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the CFMQ for 5 subscales ranged from .77 to .92 and all item-total correlations with corresponding subscales were larger than .4 except one item. The factor loading of almost all items classified to their factor was larger than .5 except 3 items. There were five factors, explaining a total of 62.59% variance for the CFMQ. In conclusion, the remaining 24 items in the 5 subscales of the CFMQ had appropriate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Contextual emotion regulation therapy: a developmentally based intervention for pediatric depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Maria; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L

    2012-04-01

    For this special issue about child and adolescent depression, the authors were asked to describe contextual emotion regulation therapy as an example of a developmentally informed psychosocial intervention. The article begins with the authors' definition of the elements that should comprise such an intervention. A succinct summary of this contextual emotion regulation therapy is then provided, including its explanatory paradigm of depression, followed by an exposition of how it addresses the various definitional criteria of a developmentally informed intervention. The article concludes with a brief overview of the challenges of implementing a developmentally sensitive psychotherapy for depressed children and adolescents.

  3. Interpreting Contextual Effects By Contextual Modeling In Recommender Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Recommender systems have been widely applied to assist user's decision making by providing a list of personalized item recommendations. Context-aware recommender systems (CARS) additionally take context information into considering in the recommendation process, since user's tastes on the items may vary from contexts to contexts. Several context-aware recommendation algorithms have been proposed and developed to improve the quality of recommendations. However, there are limited research which...

  4. CONTEXTUAL APPROACH TO LITERARY CRITICISM: DOSTOEVSKY AND PSYCHOANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kalashnikov

    2016-01-01

    of socio-cultural influences, and also macrocontext of perception and interpretation of works in culture and science. The critical view of psychoanalysis as the literary criticism tool in the Russian culture is presented. Through the systematization of complementary contexts and psychoanalytic interpretation the myth about F. M. Dostoyevsky’s epilepsy as a source of his creativity is discredited; though by recognition of the writer, personal problems and neuroses nevertheless were reflected in his works. The hypothesis of the opposite influence of creativity of F. M. Dostoyevsky on S. Freud’s concept, i.e. formation of psychoanalysis under impact of art creativity is made.Scientific novelty. Methods of engaging of an intertextual and socio-cultural environment are known in linguistics and literary criticism long ago. However, diverse environments of existence of the personality and works of the artist as the unified system of contexts psychological in essence have not been considered yet. The novelty of the proposed way of a research consists in systematicity of formation of a complex of contexts of the studied phenomenon that makes it possible to correlate the diversified information through its origin. As a result, the researcher receives a number of complementary descriptions in the spirit of «the principle of a complementarity» by N. Bohr that provides dimensions and completeness of perception of the studied phenomenon.Practical significance of the work lies in the hard proof of the prospects of the contextual approach to interdisciplinary psychological and literary research.

  5. International Perspectives on Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Contextual Considerations for Advancing Global Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbin-MacNab, Megan L; Yancura, Loriena A

    2018-01-01

    Globally, it is common for grandparents to serve as surrogate parents to their grandchildren, often in response to family crises and other challenges such as poverty, disease epidemics, and migration. Despite the global nature of this intergenerational caregiving arrangement, there have been few contextually focused examinations of how grandparents' surrogate parenting roles are enacted across countries and cultures. This analytic review addresses this issue by exploring demographic and cultural contexts, needs and experiences, and formal and informal supports for grandparents raising grandchildren in four diverse countries: China, New Zealand, Romania, and South Africa. We conclude our analysis by discussing key contextual factors, and their associated interrelationships, from which future research may elucidate how cultural, historical, and sociopolitical factors uniquely shape grandparents' experiences. We also make recommendations for contextually informed policies and practice.

  6. Contextuality in canonical systems of random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Cervantes, Víctor H.; Kujala, Janne V.

    2017-10-01

    Random variables representing measurements, broadly understood to include any responses to any inputs, form a system in which each of them is uniquely identified by its content (that which it measures) and its context (the conditions under which it is recorded). Two random variables are jointly distributed if and only if they share a context. In a canonical representation of a system, all random variables are binary, and every content-sharing pair of random variables has a unique maximal coupling (the joint distribution imposed on them so that they coincide with maximal possible probability). The system is contextual if these maximal couplings are incompatible with the joint distributions of the context-sharing random variables. We propose to represent any system of measurements in a canonical form and to consider the system contextual if and only if its canonical representation is contextual. As an illustration, we establish a criterion for contextuality of the canonical system consisting of all dichotomizations of a single pair of content-sharing categorical random variables. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  7. Scene-Based Contextual Cueing in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Brooks, Daniel I.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of such contextual cueing. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four locations on color photographs of real-world scenes. On half of the trials, each of four scenes was consistently paired with one of four possible target locations; on the other half of the trials, each of four different scenes was randomly paired with the same four possible target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, pigeons exhibited robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 1 s to 8 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials. Pigeons also responded more frequently during the delay on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials; indeed, during the delay on predictive-scene trials, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. In Experiment 3, involving left-right and top-bottom scene reversals, pigeons exhibited stronger control by global than by local scene cues. These results attest to the robustness and associative basis of contextual cueing in pigeons. PMID:25546098

  8. Cultural and Contextual Issues in Exemplar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James

    2013-01-01

    This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…

  9. Which Social Media? A Call for Contextualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Dahlberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay briefly reflects upon digital social media in the mid-1990s in order to encourage: first, investigation of pre-twenty first century social media, towards the identification of lessons and resources for present-day research, practice, policy, and activism; and, second, the discursive and socio-historical contextualization of today’s social media.

  10. Locality and realism in contextual theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekzema, D.

    1987-01-01

    Two types of contextual theories are distinguished and shown to be related. For theories of each type a criterion of locality is formulated which is weaker than the classical requirement of separability at spacelike intervals. The relations between the concepts of locality, realism, and ontic chance are discussed

  11. Towards a service centric contextualized vehicular cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Xiping; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Zhengguo; TalebiFard, Peyman; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jia; Leung, Victor C.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a service-centric contextualized vehicular (SCCV) cloud platform to facilitate the deployment and delivery of cloud-based mobile applications over vehicular networks. SCCV cloud employs a multi-tier architecture that consists of the network, mobile device, and cloud tiers. Based

  12. Significant Statistics: Viewed with a Contextual Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the pedagogical and organisational changes three lead teachers made to their statistics teaching and learning programs. The lead teachers posed the research question: What would the effect of contextually integrating statistical investigations and literacies into other curriculum areas be on student achievement? By finding the…

  13. Quantum contextuality in N-boson systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benatti, Fabio; Floreanini, Roberto; Genovese, Marco; Olivares, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Quantum contextuality in systems of identical bosonic particles is explicitly exhibited via the maximum violation of a suitable inequality of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt type. Unlike the approaches considered so far, which make use of single-particle observables, our analysis involves collective observables constructed using multiboson operators. An exemplifying scheme to test this violation with a quantum optical setup is also discussed.

  14. Accident prevention in a contextual approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    of such a contextual approach is shortly described and demonstrated in relation to a Danish case on accident prevention. It is concluded that the approach presently offers a post-ante, descriptive analytical understanding, and it is argued that it can be developed to a frame of reference for planning actions...

  15. Technologies for Extracting Valuable Metals and Compounds from Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen [SIMBOL Materials

    2014-04-30

    Executive Summary Simbol Materials studied various methods of extracting valuable minerals from geothermal brines in the Imperial Valley of California, focusing on the extraction of lithium, manganese, zinc and potassium. New methods were explored for managing the potential impact of silica fouling on mineral extraction equipment, and for converting silica management by-products into commercial products.` Studies at the laboratory and bench scale focused on manganese, zinc and potassium extraction and the conversion of silica management by-products into valuable commercial products. The processes for extracting lithium and producing lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide products were developed at the laboratory scale and scaled up to pilot-scale. Several sorbents designed to extract lithium as lithium chloride from geothermal brine were developed at the laboratory scale and subsequently scaled-up for testing in the lithium extraction pilot plant. Lithium The results of the lithium studies generated the confidence for Simbol to scale its process to commercial operation. The key steps of the process were demonstrated during its development at pilot scale: 1. Silica management. 2. Lithium extraction. 3. Purification. 4. Concentration. 5. Conversion into lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate products. Results show that greater than 95% of the lithium can be extracted from geothermal brine as lithium chloride, and that the chemical yield in converting lithium chloride to lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate products is greater than 90%. The product purity produced from the process is consistent with battery grade lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide. Manganese and zinc Processes for the extraction of zinc and manganese from geothermal brine were developed. It was shown that they could be converted into zinc metal and electrolytic manganese dioxide after purification. These processes were evaluated for their economic potential, and at the present time Simbol

  16. Mobile Contextualized learning games for decision support training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland

    2014-01-01

    This interactive workshop session introduces mobile serious games as situated, contextualized learning games. Example cases for mobile serious games for decision support training are introduced and discussed. Participants will get to know contextualization techniques used in modern mobile devices

  17. Mobile Contextualized learning games for decision support training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Börner, Dirk; Suarez, Angel; Schneider, Jan; Antonaci, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    This interactive workshop session introduces mobile serious games as situated, contextualized learning games. Example cases for mobile serious games for decision support training are introduced and discussed. Participants will get to know contextualization techniques used in modern mobile

  18. Testing a pedagogy for promoting historical contextualization in classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Tim; Holthuis, Paul; van Boxtel, Carla; van de Grift, Wim

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and testing of a pedagogy aimed at promoting students’ ability to perform historical contextualization. Promoting historical contextualization was conceptualized as three different pedagogical principles: 1) the awareness of the consequences of a present-oriented

  19. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT: A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Muetze

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly connected nodes (hubs in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest.   Availability: CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store (http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat.

  20. Conversion of waste polystyrene through catalytic degradation into valuable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jasmin; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Adnan [University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2014-08-15

    Waste expanded polystyrene (EPS) represents a source of valuable chemical products like styrene and other aromatics. The catalytic degradation was carried out in a batch reactor with a mixture of polystyrene (PS) and catalyst at 450 .deg. C for 30 min in case of Mg and at 400 .deg. C for 2 h both for MgO and MgCO{sub 3} catalysts. At optimum degradation conditions, EPS was degraded into 82.20±3.80 wt%, 91.60±0.20 wt% and 81.80±0.53 wt% liquid with Mg, MgO and MgCO{sub 3} catalysts, respectively. The liquid products obtained were separated into different fractions by fractional distillation. The liquid fractions obtained with three catalysts were compared, and characterized using GC-MS. Maximum conversion of EPS into styrene monomer (66.6 wt%) was achieved with Mg catalyst, and an increase in selectivity of compounds was also observed. The major fraction at 145 .deg. C showed the properties of styrene monomer. The results showed that among the catalysts used, Mg was found to be the most effective catalyst for selective conversion into styrene monomer as value added product.

  1. GC Analyses of Salvia Seeds as Valuable Essential Oil Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Ben Taârit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of seeds of Salvia verbenaca, Salvia officinalis, and Salvia sclarea were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and GC-mass spectrometry. The oil yields (w/w were 0.050, 0.047, and 0.045% in S. verbenaca, S. sclarea, and S. officinalis, respectively. Seventy-five compounds were identified. The essential oil composition of S. verbenaca seeds showed that over 57% of the detected compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes followed by sesquiterpenes (24.04% and labdane type diterpenes (5.61%. The main essential oil constituents were camphor (38.94%, caryophyllene oxide (7.28%, and 13-epi-manool (5.61%, while those of essential oil of S. officinalis were α-thujone (14.77%, camphor (13.08%, and 1,8-cineole (6.66%. In samples of S. sclarea, essential oil consists mainly of linalool (24.25%, α-thujene (7.48%, linalyl acetate (6.90%, germacrene-D (5.88%, bicyclogermacrene (4.29%, and α-copaene (4.08%. This variability leads to a large range of naturally occurring volatile compounds with valuable industrial and pharmaceutical outlets.

  2. Sea Buckthorn Oil—A Valuable Source for Cosmeceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Koskovac

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae. is a thorny shrub that has small, yellow to dark orange, soft, juicy berries. Due to hydrophilic and lipophilic ingredients, berries have been used as food and medicine. Sea buckthorn (SB oil derived from berries is a source of valuable ingredients for cosmeceuticals. The unique combination of SB oil ingredients, in qualitative and quantitative aspects, provides multiple benefits of SB oil for internal and external use. Externally, SB oil can be applied in both healthy and damaged skin (burns or skin damage of different etiology, as it has good wound healing properties. Due to the well-balanced content of fatty acids, carotenoids, and vitamins, SB oil may be incorporated in cosmeceuticals for dry, flaky, burned, irritated, or rapidly ageing skin. There have been more than 100 ingredients identified in SB oil, some of which are rare in the plant kingdom (e.g., the ratio of palmitoleic to γ-linolenic acid. This review discusses facts related to the origin and properties of SB oil that make it suitable for cosmeceutical formulation.

  3. User Adoption Tendency Modeling for Social Contextual Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of studies on the existing recommender system for Netflix-style sites (scenarios with explicit user feedback focus on rating prediction, but few have systematically analyzed users’ motivations to make decisions on which items to rate. In this paper, the authors study the difficult and challenging task Item Adoption Prediction (IAP for predicting the items users will rate or interact with. It is not only an important supplement to previous works, but also a more realistic requirement of recommendation in this scenario. To recommend the items with high Adoption Tendency, the authors develop a unified model UATM based on the findings of Marketing and Consumer Behavior. The novelty of the model in this paper includes: First, the authors propose a more creative and effective optimization method to tackle One-Class Problem where only the positive feedback is available; second, the authors systematically and conveniently integrate the user adoption information (both explicit and implicit feedbacks included and the social contextual information with quantitatively characterizing different users’ personal sensitivity to various social contextual influences.

  4. Top-down contextual knowledge guides visual attention in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummeltshammer, Kristen; Amso, Dima

    2017-10-26

    The visual context in which an object or face resides can provide useful top-down information for guiding attention orienting, object recognition, and visual search. Although infants have demonstrated sensitivity to covariation in spatial arrays, it is presently unclear whether they can use rapidly acquired contextual knowledge to guide attention during visual search. In this eye-tracking experiment, 6- and 10-month-old infants searched for a target face hidden among colorful distracter shapes. Targets appeared in Old or New visual contexts, depending on whether the visual search arrays (defined by the spatial configuration, shape and color of component items in the search display) were repeated or newly generated throughout the experiment. Targets in Old contexts appeared in the same location within the same configuration, such that context covaried with target location. Both 6- and 10-month-olds successfully distinguished between Old and New contexts, exhibiting faster search times, fewer looks at distracters, and more anticipation of targets when contexts repeated. This initial demonstration of contextual cueing effects in infants indicates that they can use top-down information to facilitate orienting during memory-guided visual search. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Enrichment Rescues Contextual Discrimination Deficit Associated With Immediate Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemenson, Gregory D.; Lee, Star W.; Deng, Wei; Barrera, Vanessa R.; Iwamoto, Kei S.; Fanselow, Michael S.; Gage, Fred H.

    2015-01-01

    Adult animals continue to modify their behavior throughout life, a process that is highly influenced by past experiences. To shape behavior, specific mechanisms of neural plasticity to learn, remember, and recall information are required. One of the most robust examples of adult plasticity in the brain occurs in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, through the process of adult neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis is strongly upregulated by external factors such as voluntary wheel running (RUN) and environmental enrichment (EE); however, the functional differences between these two factors remain unclear. Although both manipulations result in increased neurogenesis, RUN dramatically increases the proliferation of newborn cells and EE promotes their survival. We hypothesize that the method by which these newborn neurons are induced influences their functional role. Furthermore, we examine how EE-induced neurons may be primed to encode and recognize features of novel environments due to their previous enrichment experience. Here, we gave mice a challenging contextual fear-conditioning (FC) procedure to tease out the behavioral differences between RUN-induced neurogenesis and EE-induced neurogenesis. Despite the robust increases in neurogenesis seen in the RUN mice, we found that only EE mice were able to discriminate between similar contexts in this task, indicating that EE mice might use a different cognitive strategy when processing contextual information. Furthermore, we showed that this improvement was dependent on EE-induced neurogenesis, suggesting a fundamental functional difference between RUN-induced neurogenesis and EE-induced neurogenesis. PMID:25330953

  6. Contextually guided very-high-resolution imagery classification with semantic segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenzhi; Du, Shihong; Wang, Qiao; Emery, William J.

    2017-10-01

    Contextual information, revealing relationships and dependencies between image objects, is one of the most important information for the successful interpretation of very-high-resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery. Over the last decade, geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) technique has been widely used to first divide images into homogeneous parts, and then to assign semantic labels according to the properties of image segments. However, due to the complexity and heterogeneity of VHR images, segments without semantic labels (i.e., semantic-free segments) generated with low-level features often fail to represent geographic entities (such as building roofs usually be partitioned into chimney/antenna/shadow parts). As a result, it is hard to capture contextual information across geographic entities when using semantic-free segments. In contrast to low-level features, "deep" features can be used to build robust segments with accurate labels (i.e., semantic segments) in order to represent geographic entities at higher levels. Based on these semantic segments, semantic graphs can be constructed to capture contextual information in VHR images. In this paper, semantic segments were first explored with convolutional neural networks (CNN) and a conditional random field (CRF) model was then applied to model the contextual information between semantic segments. Experimental results on two challenging VHR datasets (i.e., the Vaihingen and Beijing scenes) indicate that the proposed method is an improvement over existing image classification techniques in classification performance (overall accuracy ranges from 82% to 96%).

  7. A qualitative study of contextual factors' impact on measures to reduce surgery cancellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovlid, Einar; Bukve, Oddbjørn

    2014-05-13

    Contextual factors influence quality improvement outcomes. Understanding this influence is important when adapting and implementing interventions and translating improvements into new settings. To date, there is limited knowledge about how contextual factors influence quality improvement processes. In this study, we explore how contextual factors affected measures to reduce surgery cancellations, which are a persistent problem in healthcare. We discuss the usefulness of the theoretical framework provided by the model for understanding success in quality (MUSIQ) for this kind of research. We performed a qualitative case study at Førde Hospital, Norway, where we had previously demonstrated a reduction in surgery cancellations. We interviewed 20 clinicians and performed content analysis to explore how contextual factors affected measures to reduce cancellations of planned surgeries. We identified three common themes concerning how contextual factors influenced the change process: 1) identifying a need to change, 2) facilitating system-wide improvement, and 3) leader involvement and support. Input from patients helped identify a need to change and contributed to the consensus that change was necessary. Reducing cancellations required improving the clinical system. This improvement process was based on a strategy that emphasized the involvement of frontline clinicians in detecting and improving system problems. Clinicians shared information about their work by participating in improvement teams to develop a more complete understanding of the clinical system and its interdependencies. This new understanding allowed clinicians to detect system problems and design adequate interventions. Middle managers' participation in the improvement teams and in regular work processes was important for successfully implementing and adapting interventions. Contextual factors interacted with one another and with the interventions to facilitate changes in the clinical system, reducing

  8. Current smoking among young adolescents: assessing school based contextual norms

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorny, S; Jason, L; Schoeny, M

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To extend research on the relation of school based contextual norms to current smoking among adolescents by using three analytic techniques to test for contextual effects. It was hypothesised that significant contextual effects would be found in all three models, but that the strength of these effects would vary by the statistical rigor of the model.

  9. Maternal Burnout Syndrome: Contextual and Psychological Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Lebert-Charron

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Becoming a parent is one of the most significant experiences in a woman’s life. Including substantial and long-lasting mental, social, and physical charge, the parenting experience may also be a potentially stressful and overwhelming task. Since the eighties, the notion of parental burnout syndrome has gained increasing attention, but its contextual and psychological factors need to be better identified.Aims: To investigate a large array of contextual and psychological factors associated with maternal burnout syndrome in a French community-based population in order to contribute to better operationalize the notion of parental burnout and to explore its determinants.Method: A total of 304 French-speaking mothers (mean age = 34.8 years, SD = 6.72 completed a set of questionnaires including a sociodemographic form (in order to gather general information about the mothers, their spouses, and children living at home. The Perceived Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory adapted to parents (MBI-parental, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Parental Stress Index-Short Form and the Ways of Coping Checklist were used in this study.Results: Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that scores on the MBI-parental version were strongly and positively associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as with perceived stress related to parenthood and parenting stress levels. Moreover, using the task-oriented coping style in parenthood was strongly and positively associated with personal accomplishment. Conversely, some sociodemographic characteristics were found to be negatively associated with maternal burnout: being employed, working full time and being a mother living without a coparent.Conclusion: The construct of maternal burnout syndrome seems to be linked to a conjunction of psychological and contextual factors associated with maternal exhaustion. The implication of the results for prevention and

  10. Maternal Burnout Syndrome: Contextual and Psychological Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebert-Charron, Astrid; Dorard, Géraldine; Boujut, Emilie; Wendland, Jaqueline

    2018-01-01

    Background: Becoming a parent is one of the most significant experiences in a woman’s life. Including substantial and long-lasting mental, social, and physical charge, the parenting experience may also be a potentially stressful and overwhelming task. Since the eighties, the notion of parental burnout syndrome has gained increasing attention, but its contextual and psychological factors need to be better identified. Aims: To investigate a large array of contextual and psychological factors associated with maternal burnout syndrome in a French community-based population in order to contribute to better operationalize the notion of parental burnout and to explore its determinants. Method: A total of 304 French-speaking mothers (mean age = 34.8 years, SD = 6.72) completed a set of questionnaires including a sociodemographic form (in order to gather general information about the mothers, their spouses, and children living at home). The Perceived Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory adapted to parents (MBI-parental), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Parental Stress Index-Short Form and the Ways of Coping Checklist were used in this study. Results: Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that scores on the MBI-parental version were strongly and positively associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as with perceived stress related to parenthood and parenting stress levels. Moreover, using the task-oriented coping style in parenthood was strongly and positively associated with personal accomplishment. Conversely, some sociodemographic characteristics were found to be negatively associated with maternal burnout: being employed, working full time and being a mother living without a coparent. Conclusion: The construct of maternal burnout syndrome seems to be linked to a conjunction of psychological and contextual factors associated with maternal exhaustion. The implication of the results for prevention and intervention strategies

  11. Age-related changes in contextual associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trinh T; Pirogovsky, Eva; Gilbert, Paul E

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a critical role in processing contextual information. Although age-related changes in the hippocampus are well documented in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents, few studies have examined contextual learning deficits in old rats. The present study investigated age-related differences in contextual associative learning in young (6 mo) and old (24 mo) rats using olfactory stimuli. Stimuli consisted of common odors mixed in sand and placed in clear plastic cups. Testing was conducted in two boxes that represented two different contexts (Context 1 and Context 2). The contexts varied based on environmental features of the box such as color (black vs. white), visual cues on the walls of the box, and flooring texture. Each rat was simultaneously presented with two cups, one filled with Odor A and one filled with Odor B in each context. In Context 1, the rat received a food reward for digging in the cup containing Odor A, but did not receive a food reward for digging in the cup containing Odor B. In Context 2, the rat was rewarded for digging in the cup containing Odor B, but did receive a reward for digging in the cup containing Odor A. Therefore, the rat learned to associate Context 1 with Odor A and Context 2 with Odor B. The rat was tested for eight days using the same odor problem throughout all days of testing. The results showed no significant difference between young and old rats on the first two days of testing; however, young rats significantly outperformed old rats on Day 3. Young rats continued to maintain superior performance compared to old rats on Days 4-8. The results suggest that aging results in functional impairments in brain regions that support memory for associations between specific cues and their respective context.

  12. VALUABLE AND ORIENTATION FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Zagvyazinsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to show that in modern market conditions it is necessary to keep humanistic valuable and orientation installations of domestic education and not to allow its slipping on a line item of utilitarian, quickly achievable, but not long-term benefits. Theoretical significance. The author emphasizes value of forming of an ideal – harmonious development of the personality – and the collectivist beginnings for disclosure of potential of each school student, a student, a worker, a specialist; also the author emphasizes on requirement of the stimulating, but not strictly regulated management of education. It is proved that copying of the western model of consecutive individualization of education without preserving the collectivist beginning is unacceptable in training, especially in educational process. In more general, strategic foreshortening this means that parity of the problem resolution of economy and the social sphere with which it is impossible to cope without support and educational development and first of all education, it is especially important during the periods of economic crises and stagnation for providing an exit from a crisis state on the basis of the advancing preparation and rational use of the personnel which neatly are considered as a human capital. Practical significance. Resources and positive tendencies in a development of education, especially elite, and also educational systems of some territories, including the Tyumen region where traditions of the enthusiasts-pioneers mastering the remote territories of oil and gas fields remain are shown. 

  13. Rabeto plus: a valuable drug for managing functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Asim; Halder, Susanta; Mandal, Sanjoy; Mandal, Arpan; Basu, Mitali; Dabholkar, Pareen

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate and document the efficacy and tolerability of rabeto plus (FDC of rabeprazole and itopride) in management of functional dyspepsia. It was an open, prospective, non-comparative, multidose study. The patients with functional dyspepsia (NERD or non-erosive reflux disease) attending OPD of a leading, tertiary care, teaching hospital in West Bengal (BS Medical College, Bankura) were inducted in the study. A total of 46 adult patients of either sex with functional dyspepsia and a clinical diagnosis of NERD were given 1 capsule of rabeto plus before breakfast, for up to 4 weeks. Primary efficacy variables were relief from symptoms of heartburn, nausea, vomiting, waterbrash and fullness. Secondary efficacy variables were global assessment of efficacy and toleration by patients and treating physicians. The tolerability was assessed on the basis of record of spontaneously reported adverse events with their nature, intensity and outcome. Out of 55 patients enrolled in the study, 46 completed the study as planned, while 9 patients were lost to follow-up (dropped). Most patients reported near total symptom relief by the end of study. Total symptom score showed remarkable and significant improvement from baseline to end of the study. Importantly, none of the patients reported any side-effect. All participants tolerated the drug well. Moreover, response to study drug was rated as excellent or good by over 93% patients and their treating physicians. This means that 9 out 10 patients receiving rabeto plus reported desired symptom relief from dyspepsia. Thus it was concluded that rabeto plus is a valuable drug for treatment of functional dyspepsia or NERD.

  14. Whey-derived valuable products obtained by microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescuma, Micaela; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Whey, the main by-product of the cheese industry, is considered as an important pollutant due to its high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Whey, often considered as waste, has high nutritional value and can be used to obtain value-added products, although some of them need expensive enzymatic synthesis. An economical alternative to transform whey into valuable products is through bacterial or yeast fermentations and by accumulation during algae growth. Fermentative processes can be applied either to produce individual compounds or to formulate new foods and beverages. In the first case, a considerable amount of research has been directed to obtain biofuels able to replace those derived from petrol. In addition, the possibility of replacing petrol-derived plastics by biodegradable polymers synthesized during bacterial fermentation of whey has been sought. Further, the ability of different organisms to produce metabolites commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (i.e., lactic acid, lactobionic acid, polysaccharides, etc.) using whey as growth substrate has been studied. On the other hand, new low-cost functional whey-based foods and beverages leveraging the high nutritional quality of whey have been formulated, highlighting the health-promoting effects of fermented whey-derived products. This review aims to gather the multiple uses of whey as sustainable raw material for the production of individual compounds, foods, and beverages by microbial fermentation. This is the first work to give an overview on the microbial transformation of whey as raw material into a large repertoire of industrially relevant foods and products.

  15. Perception and Information Behaviour of Institutional Repository End-Users Provides Valuable Insight for Future Development. A Review of: St. Jean, B., Rieh, S. Y., Yakel, E., & Markey, K. (2011. Unheard voices: Institutional repository end-users. College & Research Libraries, 72(1, 21-42.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Shen

    2012-06-01

    likened the IRs they used to a varying array of information resources and tools, including databases, interface, server, online forums, and “static Wikipedia” (p. 27. Furthermore, six of the interviewees had never heard of the actual term “Institutional Repository” (p. 27.How do end-users access and use IRs?The most common methods of accessing IRs included selecting the link on their institution library’s website and Google searches. Many interviewees found out about the IRs they are using through recommendations from professors, peers, or library workshops. Other interviewees found out about particular IRs “simply because a Google search had landed them there” (p. 29.Interviewees’ preferred method of interacting with an IR were divided between browsing and keyword searching. However, these preferences may have been the result of an IR’s content or interface limitations. For instance, some interviewees expressed difficulties with browsing a particular IR, while another interviewee preferred browsing because “there wasn’t much going on” when searching for a specific topic of interest (p. 30.For what purposes do end-users use IRs?Interviewees commonly cited keeping abreast with research projects from their own university as a reason to access their institutions’ IRs. Student interviewees also used IRs to find examples of theses and dissertations they would be expected to complete. Identifying people doing similar work across different departments in the same institution for collaboration and networking opportunities was another unique purpose for using IRs.How do end-users perceive the credibility of information from IRs?Many interviewees perceived IRs to be more “trustworthy” than Google Scholar (p. 33. In their view, an IR’s credibility was assured by the reputation of its affiliated institution. On the other hand, many interviewees viewed a lack of comprehensiveness in content negatively when judging the credibility of an information

  16. Equivalence between contextuality and negativity of the Wigner function for qudits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfosse, Nicolas; Okay, Cihan; Bermejo-Vega, Juan; Browne, Dan E.; Raussendorf, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Understanding what distinguishes quantum mechanics from classical mechanics is crucial for quantum information processing applications. In this work, we consider two notions of non-classicality for quantum systems, negativity of the Wigner function and contextuality for Pauli measurements. We prove that these two notions are equivalent for multi-qudit systems with odd local dimension. For a single qudit, the equivalence breaks down. We show that there exist single qudit states that admit a non-contextual hidden variable model description and whose Wigner functions are negative.

  17. Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Leana R; Newhouse, Robin P; Oweis, Arwa; Liang, Xiaokun

    2013-01-01

    Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enable the conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice. The current study aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries. After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on a literature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used. Nurse researchers (N=100) from 22 countries were invited to participate. The response rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD]=14.97). The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100). The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD=7.22). This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research. The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used to strategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

  18. Contextual socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in rural south-west China: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geater Alan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ≥ 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.

  19. A Contextual Approach to the Assessment of Social Skills: Identifying Meaningful Behaviors for Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnes, Emily D.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Geske, Jenenne; Warnes, William A.

    2005-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted which assessed behaviors that characterize social competence in the second and fifth grades. A contextual approach was used to gather information from second- and fifth-grade children and their parents and teachers regarding the behaviors they perceived to be important for getting along well with peers. Data were…

  20. Dissociation of the Neural Correlates of Visual and Auditory Contextual Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Lauren J.; Uncapher, Melina R.; Rugg, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study contrasted the neural correlates of encoding item-context associations according to whether the contextual information was visual or auditory. Subjects (N = 20) underwent fMRI scanning while studying a series of visually presented pictures, each of which co-occurred with either a visually or an auditorily presented name. The task…

  1. Implicit Sequence Learning and Contextual Cueing Do Not Compete for Central Cognitive Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Luis; Vazquez, Gustavo A.

    2011-01-01

    Sequence learning and contextual cueing explore different forms of implicit learning, arising from practice with a structured serial task, or with a search task with informative contexts. We assess whether these two learning effects arise simultaneously when both remain implicit. Experiments 1 and 2 confirm that a cueing effect can be observed…

  2. Cortical Dynamics of Contextually Cued Attentive Visual Learning and Search: Spatial and Object Evidence Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsung-Ren; Grossberg, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    How do humans use target-predictive contextual information to facilitate visual search? How are consistently paired scenic objects and positions learned and used to more efficiently guide search in familiar scenes? For example, humans can learn that a certain combination of objects may define a context for a kitchen and trigger a more efficient…

  3. Multilevel Mediation: Cumulative Contextual Risk, Maternal Differential Treatment, and Children's Behavior within Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jean Christophe; Boyle, Michael; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that links between contextual risk and children's outcomes are partially explained by differential parenting. Using multi-informant measurement and including up to four children per family (M[subscript age] = 3.51, SD = 2.38) in a sample of 397 families, indirect effects (through maternal differential…

  4. Quantum contextuality in neutron interferometer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yuji; Loidl, Rudolf; Baron, Matthias; Badurek, Gerald; Rauch, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    Non-local correlations between sufficiently separated subsystems have been extensively discussed. Such a non-locality can be interpreted as a consequence of the correlation between commuting observables. A more general concept, i.e., contextuality, compared to non-locality can be introduced to describe striking phenomena predicted by quantum theory. As the first example, we report a neutron interferometer experiment, where the spin and the path degrees of freedom are used to exhibit the clear violation of a Bell-like inequality. Other aspects of the quantum contextuality is presented, e.g., a flavor of Kochen-Specker-like contradiction in neutron optical experiments, in addition to the quantum state tomography of the Bell-states which are used in the experiments

  5. The Consortium for the Valuation of Applications Benefits Linked with Earth Science (VALUABLES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.; Mabee, B.; Wulf Tregar, S.

    2017-12-01

    National and international organizations are placing greater emphasis on the societal and economic benefits that can be derived from applications of Earth observations, yet improvements are needed to connect to the decision processes that produce actions with direct societal benefits. There is a need to substantiate the benefits of Earth science applications in socially and economically meaningful terms in order to demonstrate return on investment and to prioritize investments across data products, modeling capabilities, and information systems. However, methods and techniques for quantifying the value proposition of Earth observations are currently not fully established. Furthermore, it has been challenging to communicate the value of these investments to audiences beyond the Earth science community. The Consortium for the Valuation of Applications Benefits Linked with Earth Science (VALUABLES), a cooperative agreement between Resources for the Future (RFF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has the goal of advancing methods for the valuation and communication of the applied benefits linked with Earth observations. The VALUABLES Consortium will focus on three pillars: (a) a research pillar that will apply existing and innovative methods to quantify the socioeconomic benefits of information from Earth observations; (b) a capacity building pillar to catalyze interdisciplinary linkages between Earth scientists and social scientists; and (c) a communications pillar that will convey the value of Earth observations to stakeholders in government, universities, the NGO community, and the interested public. In this presentation, we will describe ongoing and future activities of the VALUABLES Consortium, provide a brief overview of frameworks to quantify the socioeconomic value of Earth observations, and describe how Earth scientists and social scientist can get involved in the Consortium's activities.

  6. Methylphenidate enhances extinction of contextual fear

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show that MPH, administered before or immediately following extinction of contextual fear, will enhance extinction retention in C57BL/6 mice. Animals that ...

  7. The Emergence of Contextual Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Thomas F

    2018-07-01

    Social psychology experiences recurring so-called "crises." This article maintains that these episodes actually mark advances in the discipline; these "crises" have enhanced relevance and led to greater methodological and statistical sophistication. New statistical tools have allowed social psychologists to begin to achieve a major goal: placing psychological phenomena in their larger social contexts. This growing trend is illustrated with numerous recent studies; they demonstrate how cultures and social norms moderate basic psychological processes. Contextual social psychology is finally emerging.

  8. Contextual Semantic Parsing using Crowdsourced Spatial Descriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Dukes, Kais

    2014-01-01

    We describe a contextual parser for the Robot Commands Treebank, a new crowdsourced resource. In contrast to previous semantic parsers that select the most-probable parse, we consider the different problem of parsing using additional situational context to disambiguate between different readings of a sentence. We show that multiple semantic analyses can be searched using dynamic programming via interaction with a spatial planner, to guide the parsing process. We are able to parse sentences in...

  9. Contextual-Analysis for Infrastructure Awareness Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurelien; Alt, Florian

    Infrastructures are persistent socio-technical systems used to deliver different kinds of services. Researchers have looked into how awareness of infrastructures in the areas of sustainability [6, 10] and software appropriation [11] can be provided. However, designing infrastructure-aware systems...... has specific requirements, which are often ignored. In this paper we explore the challenges when developing infrastructure awareness systems based on contextual analysis, and propose guidelines for enhancing the design process....

  10. Proposed test of macroscopic quantum contextuality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabello, Adan

    2010-01-01

    We show that, for any system with a number of levels which can be identified with n qubits, there is an inequality for the correlations between three compatible dichotomic measurements which must be satisfied by any noncontextual theory, but is violated by any quantum state. Remarkably, the violation grows exponentially with n, and the tolerated error per correlation also increases with n, showing that state-independent quantum contextuality is experimentally observable in complex systems.

  11. Against Contextualism: Belief, Evidence, & the Bank Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Paul Gage

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2013v17n1p57 Contextualism (the view that ‘knowledge’ and its variants are context-sensitive has been supported in large part through appeal to intuitions about Keith DeRose’s Bank Cases. Recently, however, the contextualist construal of these cases has come under fire from Kent Bach and Jennifer Nagel who question whether the Bank Case subject’s confidence can remain constant in both low- and high-stakes cases. Having explained the Bank Cases and this challenge to them, I argue that DeRose has given a reasonable reply to this initial challenge. However, I proceed to argue that the current stalemate can be broken. Seeking to extend the Bach–Nagel critique, I offer a novel interpretation of the Bank Cases according to which the subject’s evidence changes between low- and high-stakes cases. If I am correct, then, given the amount of support the Bank Cases have been thought to lend contextualism, the case for contextualism is seriously weakened.

  12. Viewpoint-independent contextual cueing effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    taiga etsuchiai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We usually perceive things in our surroundings as unchanged despite viewpoint changes caused by self-motion. The visual system therefore must have a function to process objects independently of viewpoint. In this study, we examined whether viewpoint-independent spatial layout can be obtained implicitly. For this purpose, we used a contextual cueing effect, a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays known to be an implicit effect. We compared the transfer of the contextual cueing effect between cases with and without self-motion by using visual search displays for 3D objects, which changed according to the participant’s assumed location for viewing the stimuli. The contextual cueing effect was obtained with self-motion but disappeared when the display changed without self-motion. This indicates that there is an implicit learning effect in spatial coordinates and suggests that the spatial representation of object layouts or scenes can be obtained and updated implicitly. We also showed that binocular disparity play an important role in the layout representations.

  13. Contextuality is about identity of random variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V

    2014-01-01

    Contextual situations are those in which seemingly ‘the same’ random variable changes its identity depending on the conditions under which it is recorded. Such a change of identity is observed whenever the assumption that the variable is one and the same under different conditions leads to contradictions when one considers its joint distribution with other random variables (this is the essence of all Bell-type theorems). In our Contextuality-by-Default approach, instead of asking why or how the conditions force ‘one and the same’ random variable to change ‘its’ identity, any two random variables recorded under different conditions are considered different ‘automatically.’ They are never the same, nor are they jointly distributed, but one can always impose on them a joint distribution (probabilistic coupling). The special situations when there is a coupling in which these random variables are equal with probability 1 are considered noncontextual. Contextuality means that such couplings do not exist. We argue that the determination of the identity of random variables by conditions under which they are recorded is not a causal relationship and cannot violate laws of physics. (paper)

  14. Perpendicularity misjudgments caused by contextual stimulus elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatov, Aleksandr; Bulatova, Natalija; Surkys, Tadas

    2012-10-15

    It has been demonstrated in previous studies that the illusions of extent of the Brentano type can be explained by the perceptual positional shifts of the stimulus terminators in direction of the centers-of-masses (centroids) of adjacent contextual flanks [Bulatov, A. et al. (2011). Contextual flanks' tilting and magnitude of illusion of extent. Vision Research, 51(1), 58-64]. In the present study, the applicability of the centroid approach to explain the right-angle misjudgments was tested psychophysically using stimuli composed of three small disks (dots) forming an imaginary rectangular triangle. Stimuli comprised the Müller-Lyer wings or line segments (bars) as the contextual distracters rotated around the vertices of the triangle, and changes in the magnitude of the illusion of perpendicularity were measured in a set of experiments. A good resemblance between the experimental data and theoretical predictions obtained strongly supports the suggestion regarding the common "centroid" origin of the illusions of extent of the Brentano type and misperception of the perpendicularity investigated. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  15. The strategic control of prospective memory monitoring in response to complex and probabilistic contextual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, Julie M; Ball, B Hunter

    2017-07-01

    Participants use simple contextual cues to reduce deployment of costly monitoring processes in contexts in which prospective memory (PM) targets are not expected. This study investigated whether this strategic monitoring pattern is observed in response to complex and probabilistic contextual cues. Participants performed a lexical decision task in which words or nonwords were presented in upper or lower locations on screen. The specific condition was informed that PM targets ("tor" syllable) would occur only in words in the upper location, whereas the nonspecific condition was informed that targets could occur in any location or word type. Context was blocked such that word type and location changed every 8 trials. In Experiment 1, the specific condition used the complex contextual cue to reduce monitoring in unexpected contexts relative to the nonspecific condition. This pattern largely was not evidenced when the complex contextual cue was probabilistic (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 confirmed that strategic monitoring is observed for a complex cue that is deterministic, but not one that is probabilistic. Additionally, Experiments 1 and 3 demonstrated a disadvantage associated with strategic monitoring-namely, that the specific condition was less likely to respond to a PM target in an unexpected context. Experiment 3 provided evidence that this disadvantage is attributable to impaired noticing of the target. The novel findings suggest use of a complex contextual cue per se is not a boundary condition for the strategic, context-specific allocation of monitoring processes to support prospective remembering; however, strategic monitoring is constrained by the predictive utility of the complex contextual cue.

  16. Local Choices: Rationality and the Contextuality of Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaev, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Rational explanation is ubiquitous in psychology and social sciences, ranging from rational analysis, expectancy-value theories, ideal observer models, mental logic to probabilistic frameworks, rational choice theory, and informal “folk psychological” explanation. However, rational explanation appears to be challenged by apparently systematic irrationality observed in psychological experiments, especially in the field of judgement and decision-making (JDM). Here, it is proposed that the experimental results require not that rational explanation should be rejected, but that rational explanation is local, i.e., within a context. Thus, rational models need to be supplemented with a theory of contextual shifts. We review evidence in JDM that patterns of choices are often consistent within contexts, but unstable between contexts. We also demonstrate that for a limited, though reasonably broad, class of decision-making domains, recent theoretical models can be viewed as providing theories of contextual shifts. It is argued that one particular significant source of global inconsistency arises from a cognitive inability to represent absolute magnitudes, whether for perceptual variables, utilities, payoffs, or probabilities. This overall argument provides a fresh perspective on the scope and limits of human rationality. PMID:29301289

  17. The hippocampal CA2 ensemble is sensitive to contextual change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintzer, Marie E; Boehringer, Roman; Polygalov, Denis; McHugh, Thomas J

    2014-02-19

    Contextual learning involves associating cues with an environment and relating them to past experience. Previous data indicate functional specialization within the hippocampal circuit: the dentate gyrus (DG) is crucial for discriminating similar contexts, whereas CA3 is required for associative encoding and recall. Here, we used Arc/H1a catFISH imaging to address the contribution of the largely overlooked CA2 region to contextual learning by comparing ensemble codes across CA3, CA2, and CA1 in mice exposed to familiar, altered, and novel contexts. Further, to manipulate the quality of information arriving in CA2 we used two hippocampal mutant mouse lines, CA3-NR1 KOs and DG-NR1 KOs, that result in hippocampal CA3 neuronal activity that is uncoupled from the animal's sensory environment. Our data reveal largely coherent responses across the CA axis in control mice in purely novel or familiar contexts; however, in the mutant mice subject to these protocols the CA2 response becomes uncoupled from CA1 and CA3. Moreover, we show in wild-type mice that the CA2 ensemble is more sensitive than CA1 and CA3 to small changes in overall context. Our data suggest that CA2 may be tuned to remap in response to any conflict between stored and current experience.

  18. Local Choices: Rationality and the Contextuality of Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaev, Ivo

    2018-01-02

    Rational explanation is ubiquitous in psychology and social sciences, ranging from rational analysis, expectancy-value theories, ideal observer models, mental logic to probabilistic frameworks, rational choice theory, and informal "folk psychological" explanation. However, rational explanation appears to be challenged by apparently systematic irrationality observed in psychological experiments, especially in the field of judgement and decision-making (JDM). Here, it is proposed that the experimental results require not that rational explanation should be rejected, but that rational explanation is local , i.e., within a context. Thus, rational models need to be supplemented with a theory of contextual shifts. We review evidence in JDM that patterns of choices are often consistent within contexts, but unstable between contexts. We also demonstrate that for a limited, though reasonably broad, class of decision-making domains, recent theoretical models can be viewed as providing theories of contextual shifts. It is argued that one particular significant source of global inconsistency arises from a cognitive inability to represent absolute magnitudes, whether for perceptual variables, utilities, payoffs, or probabilities. This overall argument provides a fresh perspective on the scope and limits of human rationality.

  19. Teaching statistics to social science students: Making it valuable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this age of rapid information expansion and technology, statistics is playing an ever increasing role in education, particularly also in the training of social scientists. Statistics enables the social scientist to obtain a quantitative awareness of socioeconomic phenomena hence is essential in their training. Statistics, however ...

  20. MIT Mints a Valuable New Form of Academic Currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has invented or improved many world-changing things--radar, information theory, and synthetic self-replicating molecules, to name a few. Last month the university announced, to mild fanfare, an invention that could be similarly transformative, this time for higher education itself. It is called MITx.…

  1. Catalytic conversion of CO2 into valuable products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham-Huu, C.; Ledoux, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    inertness the recovery of the active phase is extremely easy, i.e. acidic or basic washing, which reduce the cost investment of the process for the final spent catalyst disposal and the fully re-use of the support. The high thermal conductivity of the SiC support could also allow the reduction of the temperature loss during the reaction taken into account the high endothermicity of the reaction. The aim of the presentation is to report the synthesis and use of SiC-based catalyst for CO 2 reforming which allows the conversion of CO 2 into a more valuable products for further fuel processing via the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

  2. Microbial Leaching of Some Valuable Elements From Egyptian Phosphate Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, H.M.; Hassanein, R.A.; Mahdy, H.M.A.; Mahmoud, K.F.; Abouzeid, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Four phosphate rock samples representing different phosphate mineralization modes in Egypt were selected from Abu Tartar, Nile valley and Red sea areas. Factors affecting the phosphate rock solubilization and some of the contained valuable elements by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescence, were studied with especial orientation towards the completion of phosphate rock samples solubilization especially die low grade one. Effect of nitrogen source type on leaching efficiency by Aspergillus niger when two nitrogen sources on the phosphate bioleaching efficiency, it is clear that the ammonium chloride is more favorable as nitrogen source than sodium nitrate in the bioleaching of phosphate rocks. When Aspergillus niger was applied under die following conditions: 50 g/1 of sucrose as a carbon source, 0.1 N of ammonium chloride as a nitrogen source, 10 days incubation period, 0.5% solid: liquid ratio for P 2 O 5 and 5% for U and REE and - 270 mesh of grain size. The optimum leaching of P 2 O 5 , U and REE from phosphate rock samples reached (23.27%, 17.4%, 11.4%, respectively), while at -60 mesh they reached to 16.58%, 28.9%, 30.2% respectively. The optimum conditions for the maximal leaching efficiencies of P 2 O 5 , U and REE when applying the Penicillium sp. from the phosphate rock samples were: 100 g/1 of sucrose as a carbon source for P 2 O 5 and U and 10 g/1 for REE, 7,15 and 10 days incubation period for P 2 O 5 , U and REE, respectively, 0.5% solid: liquid ratio for P 2 O 5 and 5% for U and REE. Finally, the application of phosphate rock samples grinded to -270 mesh of grain size for P 2 O 5 and (-60 to -140) for U and REE. The studied leaching efficiency of P 2 O 5 , U and REE gave at -270 mesh 33.66%, 24.3%, 15.9% respectively, while at -60 mesh they gave 33.76%, 26.7%, 17.8% and at -140 mesh gave 31.32%, 27.9%, 17.6%, respectively.The optimum conditions for the P 2 O 5 leaching efficiency when applying the Pseudomonas fluorescence were

  3. Cursor Movement – a Valuable Indicator in Intelligent System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Versavia Ancusa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Systems that react to emotional information allow for better satisfaction of the user’s needs, stated or otherwise. Special support should be built-in, in order to read and measure the timevariable user’s affective state. This paper presents how cursor movement can accurately measure two basic emotional states and introduces a way to measure the emotional flow graph of an application, which allows for better user design.

  4. MALDI TOF imaging mass spectrometry in clinical pathology: a valuable tool for cancer diagnostics (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegsmann, Jörg; Kriegsmann, Mark; Casadonte, Rita

    2015-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is an evolving technique in cancer diagnostics and combines the advantages of mass spectrometry (proteomics), detection of numerous molecules, and spatial resolution in histological tissue sections and cytological preparations. This method allows the detection of proteins, peptides, lipids, carbohydrates or glycoconjugates and small molecules.Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue can also be investigated by IMS, thus, this method seems to be an ideal tool for cancer diagnostics and biomarker discovery. It may add information to the identification of tumor margins and tumor heterogeneity. The technique allows tumor typing, especially identification of the tumor of origin in metastatic tissue, as well as grading and may provide prognostic information. IMS is a valuable method for the identification of biomarkers and can complement histology, immunohistology and molecular pathology in various fields of histopathological diagnostics, especially with regard to identification and grading of tumors.

  5. Wrestling with Data: Learning Network Grapples with How to Gather and Analyze Valuable Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Harriette Thurber

    2012-01-01

    As facilitator, the author noted some trepidation in the room as the eight secondary principals from Eugene (Oregon.) School District 4J quietly discussed questions that surfaced through their hopes and fears exercise. Could the practice of visiting classrooms together help them to better lead instruction in their buildings? Would this process…

  6. Doppler examination of the periorbital arteries adds valuable hemodynamic information in carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T; Steenberg, H J

    1987-01-01

    The periorbital flow direction and internal carotid artery (ICA) angiogram were compared to the ICA pressure gradient across the stenosis and the distal ICA pressure in 51 patients subjected to carotid endarterectomy. All 17 patients with inverted periorbital flow had stenoses exceeding 50%. The ...... collaterals and, Patients with 50% stenosis or more and insufficient collaterals....

  7. Using Psychodynamic Interaction as a Valuable Source of Information in Social Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This article will address the issue of using understandings of psychodynamic interrelations as a means to grasp how social and cultural dynamics are processed individually and collectively in narratives. I apply the two theoretically distinct concepts of inter- and intrasubjectivity to gain insight into how social and cultural dynamics are…

  8. Long-term contextual memory in infant rats as evidenced by an ethanol conditioned tolerance procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Stefanía; Molina, Juan Carlos; Arias, Carlos

    2017-08-14

    Conditioned tolerance can be conceptualized as a particular case of Pavlovian conditioning in which contextual cues play the role of the conditioned stimulus. Although the evidence is contradictory, it is frequently assumed that long-term contextual conditioning in pre-weanling rats is weak or even absent. This hypothesis comes from and is sustained mainly by behavioral studies that explored different contextual effects in 16-18day-old rats using a fear-conditioning paradigm, but their conclusions are stated in terms of an immature (hippocampal-dependent) declarative memory system. The main goal of the present manuscript was based on a recent antecedent from our laboratory, to analyze whether context-dependent tolerance induced by ethanol during the pre-weanling period persists over time. Results showed that the context was able to modulate ethanol-induced tolerance in 2- and 3-week-old rats. Interestingly, contextual conditioned tolerance was stronger (in terms of persistence) during the third than during the second postnatal week. When subjects were tested 8days after training, when the context presumably lost its influence over tolerance, the opposite effect emerged (sensitization). These results are important for the ethanol literature, adding new evidence of long-term retention of ethanol effects acquired during infancy, whilst also showing striking ontogenetic differences in the sensitivity to ethanol between the 2nd and 3rd postnatal weeks. Importantly, contextual information modulates the expression of these ethanol effects even eight days after training, a result that is particularly relevant to the discussion of the ontogeny of contextual memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A simple and valuable approach for measuring customer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, William C

    2005-08-01

    To determine the financial impact of poor customer satisfaction and the value of information gained from using a 1-question customer-satisfaction survey in a medical setting. A single-question customer-satisfaction survey was collected from customers presenting to an academic otolaryngology head and neck surgery outpatient clinic. The overall response rate was 25%, overall net promoter score was 67.3%, lowest net promoter score occurred on Wednesday and Friday, overall net potential referrals were 872, and potential lost revenue from dissatisfied customers equaled US 2.3 million dollars. A single-question customer-satisfaction survey may help identify areas of customer dissatisfaction that lead to a significant source of lost revenue. The competitive forces in today's health care environment require medical practices to address issues related to customer satisfaction.

  10. Fish Lipids as a Valuable Source of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merdzhanova Albena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents information about omega-3 (h-3 and omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA contents in a broad range of commercially important fish species available on Bulgarian fish markets. The aim is to raise consumers’ awareness and encourage them to eat fish. Fish species from the Black Sea coast have relatively high proportion of n-3 PUFAs, of which more than 80% is by EPf (eicosapentaenoic acid, C 20:5 n-3 and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, C 22:6 n-3. Extensive epidemiological studies show that fish consumption is inversely associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, stroke and the functioning of the brain. About 0.5 g of omega-3 (EPA+DHA a day or two savings of oily fish a week are required to reduce the risk of death from CVD. PUFAs needs should be satisfied not only with food additives but with fish lipids containing food.

  11. Fish Lipids as a Valuable Source of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdzhanova, Albena; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Dobreva, Diana A.; Makedonski, Lyubomir

    2017-03-01

    This article presents information about omega-3 (h-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents in a broad range of commercially important fish species available on Bulgarian fish markets. The aim is to raise consumers' awareness and encourage them to eat fish. Fish species from the Black Sea coast have relatively high proportion of n-3 PUFAs, of which more than 80% is by EPf (eicosapentaenoic acid, C 20:5 n-3) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, C 22:6 n-3). Extensive epidemiological studies show that fish consumption is inversely associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), stroke and the functioning of the brain. About 0.5 g of omega-3 (EPA+DHA) a day or two savings of oily fish a week are required to reduce the risk of death from CVD. PUFAs needs should be satisfied not only with food additives but with fish lipids containing food.

  12. Contextual Learning Requires Functional Diversity at Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses onto CA1 Pyramidal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Mitsushima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the hippocampus is processing temporal and spatial information in particular context, the encoding rule creating memory is completely unknown. To examine the mechanism, we trained rats on an inhibitory avoidance (IA task, a hippocampus-dependent rapid one-trial contextual learning paradigm. By combining Herpes virus-mediated in vivo gene delivery with in vitro patch-clamp recordings, I reported contextual learning drives GluR1-containing AMPA receptors into CA3-CA1 synapses. The molecular event is required for contextual memory, since bilateral expression of delivery blocker in CA1 successfully blocked IA learning. Moreover, I found a logarithmic correlation between the number of delivery blocking cells and learning performance. Considering that one all-or-none device can process 1-bit of data per clock (Nobert Wiener 1961, the logarithmic correlation may provides evidence that CA1 neurons transmit essential data of contextual information. Further, I recently reported critical role of acetylcholine as an intrinsic trigger of learning-dependent synaptic plasticity. IA training induced ACh release in CA1 that strengthened not only AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory synapses, but also GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory synapses on each CA1 neuron. More importantly, IA-trained rats showed individually different excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs with wide variation on each CA1 neuron. Here I propose a new hypothesis that the diversity of synaptic inputs on CA1 neurons may depict cell-specific outputs processing experienced episodes after training.

  13. Contextual advertisement placement in printed media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sam; Joshi, Parag

    2010-02-01

    Advertisements today provide the necessary revenue model supporting the WWW ecosystem. Targeted or contextual ad insertion plays an important role in optimizing the financial return of this model. Nearly all the current ads that appear on web sites are geared for display purposes such as banner and "pay-per-click". Little attention, however, is focused on deriving additional ad revenues when the content is repurposed for alternative mean of presentation, e.g. being printed. Although more and more content is moving to the Web, there are still many occasions where printed output of web content is desirable, such as maps and articles; thus printed ad insertion can potentially be lucrative. In this paper, we describe a contextual ad insertion network aimed to realize new revenue for print service providers for web printing. We introduce a cloud print service that enables contextual ads insertion, with respect to the main web page content, when a printout of the page is requested. To encourage service utilization, it would provide higher quality printouts than what is possible from current browser print drivers, which generally produce poor outputs, e.g. ill formatted pages. At this juncture we will limit the scope to only article-related web pages although the concept can be extended to arbitrary web pages. The key components of this system include (1) the extraction of article from web pages, (2) the extraction of semantics from article, (3) querying the ad database for matching advertisement or coupon, and (4) joint content and ad layout for print outputs.

  14. Contextual factors and challenges to e-health literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle A. Olaniran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a digital world or digital era. Hence, People will argue that not only do information communication technologies (ICTs make e-health possible but rather that it is an innovation advance whose time has come. Notwithstanding, e-health while hoping to create well needed improvement in health care, it is rife with certain challenges which are not limited to e-health literacy. However, this paper looks specifically at e-health literacy. The paper, in particular overviews e-health while addressing the impacts of key contextual factors that impacts e-health and e-health literacy regarding the propensity to adopt and use e-health in LEDCs.

  15. Personalization and Contextualization of Learning Experiences based on Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Capuano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context-aware e-learning is an educational model that foresees the selection of learning resources to make the e-learning content more relevant and suitable for the learner in his/her situation. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an ontological approach can be used to define leaning contexts and to allow contextualizing learning experiences finding out relevant topics for each context. To do that, we defined a context model able to formally describe a learning context, an ontology-based model enabling the representation of a teaching domain (including context information and a methodology to generate personalized and context-aware learning experiences starting from them. Based on these theoretical components we improved an existing system for personalized e-learning with contextualisation features and experimented it with real users in two University courses. The results obtained from this experimentation have been compared with those achieved by similar systems.

  16. The Contextualization of Archetypes: Clinical Template Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rune; Ulriksen, Gro-Hilde; Ellingsen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a status report from a large-scale openEHR-based EPR project from the North Norway Regional Health Authority. It concerns the standardization of a regional ICT portfolio and the ongoing development of a new process oriented EPR systems encouraged by the unfolding of a national repository for openEHR archetypes. Subject of interest; the contextualization of clinical templates is governed over multiple national boundaries which is complex due to the dependency of clinical resources. From the outset of this, we are interested in how local, regional, and national organizers maneuver to standardize while applying OpenEHR technology.

  17. Contextual factors, methodological principles and teacher cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Rupert; Wyatt, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Teachers in various contexts worldwide are sometimes unfairly criticized for not putting teaching methods developed for the well-resourced classrooms of Western countries into practice. Factors such as the teachers’ “misconceptualizations” of “imported” methods, including Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), are often blamed, though the challenges imposed by “contextual demands,” such as large class sizes, are sometimes recognised. Meanwhile, there is sometimes an assumption that in the Wes...

  18. Increasing the Effectiveness of Mobile Advertising by Using Contextual Information

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews Michelle

    2017-01-01

    To avoid overtargeting consumers or targeting them at the wrong moment, mobile ads need to be relevant. Geographically, consumers have been shown to be more responsive to promotional offers from shops that were located close to them. For the lead time of promotions, insights are similar: The closer in time, the better the response. When considering the interplay of time and space, though, the picture becomes more complex. Recipients need enough time to respond given their distance from the pr...

  19. Facebook and the Risks of "De-contextualization" of Information

    OpenAIRE

    Dumortier, Franck

    2009-01-01

    Peer reviewed Participation in online social networking sites (OSNS) has increased dramatically in recent years. Services such as the well-known Facebook and Myspace but also Frienster, WAYN, Bebo, Google's Orkut and many others, have millions of registered active users and are continuously growing. The most common model for these sites is based on the presentation of the participants' profiles and the visualisation of their network of relations to others. OSNS also connect participants' p...

  20. On Improving Face Detection Performance by Modelling Contextual Information

    OpenAIRE

    Atanasoaei, Cosmin; McCool, Chris; Marcel, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method to enhance object detection by removing false alarms and merging multiple detections in a principled way with few parameters. The method models the output of an object classiï¬er which we consider as the context. A hierarchical model is built using the detection distribution around a target sub-window to discriminate between false alarms and true detections. Next the context is used to iteratively reï¬ne the detections. Finally the detections are clustere...

  1. Increasing the Effectiveness of Mobile Advertising by Using Contextual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Michelle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To avoid overtargeting consumers or targeting them at the wrong moment, mobile ads need to be relevant. Geographically, consumers have been shown to be more responsive to promotional offers from shops that were located close to them. For the lead time of promotions, insights are similar: The closer in time, the better the response. When considering the interplay of time and space, though, the picture becomes more complex. Recipients need enough time to respond given their distance from the promoted venue, but too much time may reduce response rates. It appears that people do not plan too far in advance for events such as movie watching or with small-screen devices such as smartphones. Another context that can affect people’s response to mobile ads is that of the environment - what is going on around people. In a study of mobile promotions during subway rides, mobile campaigns turned out to be more effective on more crowded trains. Even if this finding cannot be generalized to all forms of crowded environments, it clearly shows that context matters. Understanding its impact can help marketers become better gatekeepers by delivering the right mobile ad to the right person at the right time at the right place in the right context.

  2. Fluvial archives, a valuable record of vertical crustal deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A.; Mather, A.; Whittaker, A.

    2017-06-01

    The study of drainage network response to uplift is important not only for understanding river system dynamics and associated channel properties and fluvial landforms, but also for identifying the nature of crustal deformation and its history. In recent decades, geomorphic analysis of rivers has proved powerful in elucidating the tectonic evolution of actively uplifting and eroding orogens. Here, we review the main recent developments that have improved and expanded qualitative and quantitative information about vertical tectonic motions (the effects of horizontal deformation are not addressed). Channel long profiles have received considerable attention in the literature, and we briefly introduce basic aspects of the behaviour of bedrock rivers from field and numerical modelling perspectives, before describing the various metrics that have been proposed to identify the information on crustal deformation contained within their steady-state characteristics. Then, we review the literature dealing with the transient response of rivers to tectonic perturbation, through the production of knickpoints propagating through the drainage network. Inverse modelling of river profiles for uplift in time and space is also shown to be very effective in reconstructing regional tectonic histories. Finally, we present a synthetic morphometric approach for deducing the tectonic record of fluvial landscapes. As well as the erosional imprint of tectonic forcing, sedimentary deposits, such as fluvial terrace staircases, are also considered as a classical component of tectonic geomorphology. We show that these studies have recently benefited from rapid advances in dating techniques, allowing more reliable reconstruction of incision histories and estimation of incision rates. The combination of progress in the understanding of transient river profiles and larger, more rigorous data sets of terrace ages has led to improved understanding of river erosion and the implications for terrace

  3. GMO quantification: valuable experience and insights for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milavec, Mojca; Dobnik, David; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Gruden, Kristina; Zel, Jana

    2014-10-01

    Cultivation and marketing of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been unevenly adopted worldwide. To facilitate international trade and to provide information to consumers, labelling requirements have been set up in many countries. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently the method of choice for detection, identification and quantification of GMOs. This has been critically assessed and the requirements for the method performance have been set. Nevertheless, there are challenges that should still be highlighted, such as measuring the quantity and quality of DNA, and determining the qPCR efficiency, possible sequence mismatches, characteristics of taxon-specific genes and appropriate units of measurement, as these remain potential sources of measurement uncertainty. To overcome these problems and to cope with the continuous increase in the number and variety of GMOs, new approaches are needed. Statistical strategies of quantification have already been proposed and expanded with the development of digital PCR. The first attempts have been made to use new generation sequencing also for quantitative purposes, although accurate quantification of the contents of GMOs using this technology is still a challenge for the future, and especially for mixed samples. New approaches are needed also for the quantification of stacks, and for potential quantification of organisms produced by new plant breeding techniques.

  4. Selective pathology fellowships: diverse, innovative, and valuable subspecialty training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzoni, Julia C; Ewton, April; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia; Moore, Stephen; Thorsen, Linda M; Naritoku, Wesley Y

    2014-04-01

    Although selective pathology fellowships have a long-standing history of developing trainees with advanced expertise in specific areas of pathology other than those of the American Board of Pathology-certified subspecialties, the widespread interest in this training continues to grow. To describe the historical background and current status of selective pathology fellowships, and to provide examples of 3 programs. In addition, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited programs and nonaccredited programs in Selective Pathology are compared. ACGME data banks and publicly available online materials were used. Program directors of the fellowships examples in this paper provided program-specific information. Additionally, an online survey of the program directors and program coordinators of ACGME-accredited programs and nonaccredited programs in selective pathology was performed. There are currently 76 ACGME-accredited selective pathology programs. The programs are distributed between 3 major categories: surgical pathology, focused anatomic pathology, and focused clinical pathology. Although the vast majority of programs are concerned that their funding source may be cut in the next 3 years, most programs will not change the number of fellowship positions in their programs. Program requirements devoted specifically and solely to selective pathology have been developed and are in effect. The value of this training is recognized not only by pathologists, but by clinicians as well, in both academia and private practice. Importantly, the diversity and innovation inherent in selective pathology allow these programs to adeptly address new subspecialty areas and technologic advances in the current and evolving practice of pathology.

  5. The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading

    OpenAIRE

    Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence readi...

  6. Exhibition of Monogamy Relations between Entropic Non-contextuality Inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Feng; Zhang Wei; Huang Yi-Dong

    2017-01-01

    We exhibit the monogamy relation between two entropic non-contextuality inequalities in the scenario where compatible projectors are orthogonal. We show the monogamy relation can be exhibited by decomposing the orthogonality graph into perfect induced subgraphs. Then we find two entropic non-contextuality inequalities are monogamous while the KCBS-type non-contextuality inequalities are not if the orthogonality graphs of the observable sets are two odd cycles with two shared vertices. (paper)

  7. INFOMAR, Ireland's National Seabed Mapping Programme; Sharing Valuable Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, M. T.; McGrath, F.; Cullen, S.; Verbruggen, K.

    2017-12-01

    Following the successful high-resolution deep-sea mapping carried out as part of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS), a strategic, long term programme was established: INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Ireland MArine Resources (INFOMAR). Funded by Ireland's Department of Communication, Climate Action and Environment, INFOMAR comprises a multi-platform approach to completing Ireland's marine mapping, and is a key action in the integrated marine plan, Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth. Co-managed by Geological Survey Ireland and the Marine Institute, the programme has three work strands: Data Acquisition; Data Exchange and Integration; Value Added Exploitation.The Data Acquisition strand includes collection of geological, hydrographic, oceanographic, habitat and heritage datasets that underpin sustainable development and management of Ireland's marine resources. INFOMAR operates a free data policy; data and outputs are delivered online through the Data Exchange and Integration strand. Uses of data and outputs are wide-ranging and multipurpose. In order to address the evolution and diversification of user requirements, further data product development is facilitated through the Value Added Exploitation strand.Ninety percent of Ireland's territory lies offshore. Therefore, strategic national seabed mapping continues to provide critical, high-resolution baseline datasets for numerous economic sectors and societal needs. From these we can glean important geodynamic knowledge of Ireland's vast maritime territory. INFOMAR remains aligned with national and European policies and directives. Exemplified by our commitment to EMODnet, a European Commission funded project that supports the collection, standardisation and sharing of available marine information, data and data products across all European Seas. As EMODnet Geology Minerals leaders we have developed a framework for mapping marine minerals. Furthermore, collaboration with the international research

  8. Context matters: the experience of 14 research teams in systematically reporting contextual factors important for practice change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Scammon, Debra L; Waitzman, Norman J; Cronholm, Peter F; Halladay, Jacqueline R; Driscoll, David L; Solberg, Leif I; Hsu, Clarissa; Tai-Seale, Ming; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Shih, Sarah C; Fetters, Michael D; Wise, Christopher G; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Hauser, Diane; McMullen, Carmit K; Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Tirodkar, Manasi A; Schmidt, Laura; Donahue, Katrina E; Parchman, Michael L; Stange, Kurt C

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to advance the internal and external validity of research by sharing our empirical experience and recommendations for systematically reporting contextual factors. Fourteen teams conducting research on primary care practice transformation retrospectively considered contextual factors important to interpreting their findings (internal validity) and transporting or reinventing their findings in other settings/situations (external validity). Each team provided a table or list of important contextual factors and interpretive text included as appendices to the articles in this supplement. Team members identified the most important contextual factors for their studies. We grouped the findings thematically and developed recommendations for reporting context. The most important contextual factors sorted into 5 domains: (1) the practice setting, (2) the larger organization, (3) the external environment, (4) implementation pathway, and (5) the motivation for implementation. To understand context, investigators recommend (1) engaging diverse perspectives and data sources, (2) considering multiple levels, (3) evaluating history and evolution over time, (4) looking at formal and informal systems and culture, and (5) assessing the (often nonlinear) interactions between contextual factors and both the process and outcome of studies. We include a template with tabular and interpretive elements to help study teams engage research participants in reporting relevant context. These findings demonstrate the feasibility and potential utility of identifying and reporting contextual factors. Involving diverse stakeholders in assessing context at multiple stages of the research process, examining their association with outcomes, and consistently reporting critical contextual factors are important challenges for a field interested in improving the internal and external validity and impact of health care research.

  9. The transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, William F; Fidalgo, Adriana P; Kovac, Roberta; Nico, Yara C

    2015-05-01

    Derived relational responding is affected by contextual stimuli (Cfunc) that select specific stimulus functions. The present study investigated the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations by evaluating both (a) the maintenance of Cfunc contextual control after the expansion of a relational network, and (b) the establishment of novel contextual stimuli by the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations. Initially, equivalence relations were established and contingencies were arranged so that colors functioned as Cfunc stimuli controlling participants' key-pressing responses in the presence of any stimulus from a three-member equivalence network. To investigate the first research question, the three-member equivalence relations were expanded to five members and the novel members were presented with the Cfunc stimuli in the key-pressing task. To address the second goal of this study, the colors (Cfunc) were established as equivalent to certain line patterns. The transfer of contextual cue function (Cfunc) was tested replacing the colored backgrounds with line patterns in the key-pressing task. Results suggest that the Cfunc contextual control was transferred to novel stimuli that were added to the relational network. In addition, the line patterns indirectly acquired the contextual cue function (Cfunc) initially established for the colored backgrounds. The conceptual and applied implications of Cfunc contextual control are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  10. Contextual Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Steven N; Elhai, Jon D; Rea, Bayard D; Weiss, Donna; Masino, Theodore; Morris, Staci Leon; McIninch, Jessica

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of contextual therapy, a new approach for treating adult survivors of prolonged child abuse (PCA), is provided via case studies of three women with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). Contextual therapy is based on the premise that it is not only traumatic experiences that account for PCA survivors' psychological difficulties. Even more fundamentally, many survivors grow up in an interpersonal context in which adequate resources for secure attachment and acquisition of adaptive living skills are not available. As a result, they are left with lasting deficits that undermine not only their current functioning, but also their ability to cope with reliving their traumatic memories in therapy. The primary focus of this treatment approach, therefore, is on developing capacities for feeling and functioning better in the present, rather than on extensive exploration and processing of the client's trauma history or, in the case of DID, of identity fragments. Treatment of the three cases presented ranged from eight months to two and one-half years' duration, and culminated in very positive outcomes. The women's reports of achievements, such as obtaining and maintaining gainful employment, greater self-sufficiency, and the establishment of more intimate and gratifying relationships, indicated marked improvements in daily functioning. Objective test data obtained at admission and discharge, and in one case, at follow-up, documented substantial reductions in dissociative, posttraumatic stress, depressive, and other symptoms.

  11. Multi-level Contextual Type Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Boespflug

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce meta^2-variables to characterize the dependency on meta-variables and bound variables. In other words, we must go beyond a two-level system granting only bound variables and meta-variables. In this paper we generalize contextual type theory to n levels for arbitrary n, so as to obtain a formal system offering bound variables, meta-variables and so on all the way to meta^n-variables. We obtain a uniform account by collapsing all these different kinds of variables into a single notion of variabe indexed by some level k. We give a decidable bi-directional type system which characterizes beta-eta-normal forms together with a generalized substitution operation.

  12. Contextual factors, methodological principles and teacher cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Walsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers in various contexts worldwide are sometimes unfairly criticized for not putting teaching methods developed for the well-resourced classrooms of Western countries into practice. Factors such as the teachers’ “misconceptualizations” of “imported” methods, including Communicative Language Teaching (CLT, are often blamed, though the challenges imposed by “contextual demands,” such as large class sizes, are sometimes recognised. Meanwhile, there is sometimes an assumption that in the West there is a happy congruence between policy supportive of CLT or Task-Based Language Teaching, teacher education and supervision, and curriculum design with teachers’ cognitions and their practices. Our case study of three EFL teachers at a UK adult education college is motivated by a wish to question this assumption. Findings from observational and interview data suggest the practices of two teachers were largely consistent with their methodological principles, relating to stronger and weaker forms of CLT respectively, as well as to more general educational principles, such as a concern for learners; the supportive environment seemed to help. The third teacher appeared to put “difficult” contextual factors, for example, tests, ahead of methodological principles without, however, obviously benefiting. Implications highlight the important role of teacher cognition research in challenging cultural assumptions.

  13. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area.

  14. Motivational interviewing: a valuable tool for the psychiatric advanced practice nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzenowski, Abby; Puskar, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is well known and respected by many health care professionals. Developed by Miller and Rollnick (2002) , it is a way to promote behavior change from within and resolve ambivalence. MI is individualized and is most commonly used in the psychiatric setting; it is a valuable tool for the Psychiatric Advanced Nurse Practice Nurse. There are many resources that talk about what MI is and the principles used to apply it. However, there is little information about how to incorporate MI into a clinical case. This article provides a summary of articles related to MI and discusses two case studies using MI and why advanced practice nurses should use MI with their patients.

  15. Contextual Learning Induces Dendritic Spine Clustering in Retrosplenial Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Frank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and electrophysiological studies find convergent evidence suggesting that plasticity within a dendritic tree is not randomly dispersed, but rather clustered into functional groups. Further, results from in silico neuronal modeling show that clustered plasticity is able to increase storage capacity 45 times compared to dispersed plasticity. Recent in vivo work utilizing chronic 2-photon microscopy tested the clustering hypothesis and showed that repetitive motor learning is able to induce clustered addition of new dendritic spines on apical dendrites of L5 neurons in primary motor cortex; moreover, clustered spines were found to be more stable than non-clustered spines, suggesting a physiological role for spine clustering. To further test this hypothesis we used in vivo 2-photon imaging in Thy1-YFP-H mice to chronically examine dendritic spine dynamics in retrosplenial cortex (RSC during spatial learning. RSC is a key component of an extended spatial learning and memory circuit that includes hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Importantly, RSC is known from both lesion and immediate early gene studies to be critically involved in spatial learning and more specifically in contextual fear conditioning. We utilized a modified contextual fear conditioning protocol wherein animals received a mild foot shock each day for five days; this protocol induces gradual increases in context freezing over several days before the animals reach a behavioral plateau. We coupled behavioral training with four separate in vivo imaging sessions, two before training begins, one early in training, and a final session after training is complete. This allowed us to image spine dynamics before training as well as early in learning and after animals had reached behavioral asymptote. We find that this contextual learning protocol induces a statistically significant increase in the formation of clusters of new dendritic spines in trained animals when compared to home

  16. Memory Contextualization: The Role of Prefrontal Cortex in Functional Integration across Item and Context Representational Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; van Ast, Vanessa A; Klumpers, Floris; Roelofs, Karin; Hermans, Erno J

    2018-04-01

    Memory recall is facilitated when retrieval occurs in the original encoding context. This context dependency effect likely results from the automatic binding of central elements of an experience with contextual features (i.e., memory "contextualization") during encoding. However, despite a vast body of research investigating the neural correlates of explicit associative memory, the neural interactions during encoding that predict implicit context-dependent memory remain unknown. Twenty-six participants underwent fMRI during encoding of salient stimuli (faces), which were overlaid onto unique background images (contexts). To index subsequent context-dependent memory, face recognition was tested either in intact or rearranged contexts, after scanning. Enhanced face recognition in intact relative to rearranged contexts evidenced successful memory contextualization. Overall subsequent memory effects (brain activity predicting whether items were later remembered vs. forgotten) were found in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and right amygdala. Effective connectivity analyses showed that stronger context-dependent memory was associated with stronger coupling of the left IFG with face- and place-responsive areas, both within and between participants. Our findings indicate an important role for the IFG in integrating information across widespread regions involved in the representation of salient items and contextual features.

  17. The use of contextual cues to improve warning symbol comprehension: making the connection for older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Mary F.; Powell, W. Ryan; Horrey, William J.; Wogalter, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    This study teased apart the effects of comprehensibility and complexity on older adults' comprehension of warning symbols by manipulating the relevance of additional information in further refining the meaning of the symbol. Symbols were systematically altered such that increased visual complexity (in the form of contextual cues) resulted in increased comprehensibility. One hundred older adults, aged 50–71 years, were tested on their comprehension of these symbols before and after training. High comprehensibility–complexity symbols were found to be better understood than low- or medium-comprehensibility–complexity symbols and the effectiveness of the contextual cues varied as a function of training. Therefore, the nature of additional detail determines whether increased complexity is detrimental or beneficial to older adults' comprehension – if the additional details provide ‘cues to knowledge’, older adults' comprehension improves as a result of the increased complexity. However, some cues may require training in order to be effective. Practitioner Summary: Research suggests that older adults have greater difficulty in understanding more complex symbols. However, we found that when the complexity of symbols was increased through the addition of contextual cues, older adults' comprehension actually improved. Contextual cues aid older adults in making the connection between the symbol and its referent. PMID:23767856

  18. Faces in context: A review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Wieser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant basic emotion approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, decontextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at 1 systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and 2 summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in

  19. Focal Event, Contextualization, and Effective Communication in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…

  20. Experimental demonstration of quantum contextuality with nonentangled photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B. H.; Huang, Y. F.; Gong, Y. X.; Sun, F. W.; Zhang, Y. S.; Li, C. F.; Guo, G. C.

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental test of quantum contextuality by using two-photon product states. The experimental results show that the noncontextual hidden-variable theories are violated by nonentangled states in spite of the local hidden-variable theories can be violated or not. We find that the Hong-Ou-Mandel-type quantum interference effect causes the quantum contextuality.

  1. Unfinished Student Answer in PISA Mathematics Contextual Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfianto, Moch.; Zulkardi; Hartono, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Solving mathematics contextual problems is one way that can be used to enable students to have the skills needed to live in the 21st century. Completion contextual problem requires a series of steps in order to properly answer the questions that are asked. The purpose of this study was to determine the steps performed students in solving…

  2. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  3. Consequences of contextual factors on clinical reasoning in resident physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Elexis; Ratcliffe, Temple; Picho, Katherine; Artino, Anthony R; Schuwirth, Lambert; Kelly, William; Masel, Jennifer; van der Vleuten, Cees; Durning, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Context specificity and the impact that contextual factors have on the complex process of clinical reasoning is poorly understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework, our aim was to evaluate the verbalized clinical reasoning processes of resident physicians in order to describe what impact the presence of contextual factors have on their clinical reasoning. Participants viewed three video recorded clinical encounters portraying straightforward diagnoses in internal medicine with select patient contextual factors modified. After watching each video recording, participants completed a think-aloud protocol. Transcripts from the think-aloud protocols were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. After iterative coding, utterances were analyzed for emergent themes with utterances grouped into categories, themes and subthemes. Ten residents participated in the study with saturation reached during analysis. Participants universally acknowledged the presence of contextual factors in the video recordings. Four categories emerged as a consequence of the contextual factors: (1) emotional reactions (2) behavioral inferences (3) optimizing the doctor patient relationship and (4) difficulty with closure of the clinical encounter. The presence of contextual factors may impact clinical reasoning performance in resident physicians. When confronted with the presence of contextual factors in a clinical scenario, residents experienced difficulty with closure of the encounter, exhibited as diagnostic uncertainty. This finding raises important questions about the relationship between contextual factors and clinical reasoning activities and how this relationship might influence the cost effectiveness of care. This study also provides insight into how the phenomena of context specificity may be explained using situated cognition theory.

  4. Is there contextuality in behavioural and social systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, E N; Zhang, Ru; Kujala, Janne

    2016-01-13

    Most behavioural and social experiments aimed at revealing contextuality are confined to cyclic systems with binary outcomes. In quantum physics, this broad class of systems includes as special cases Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky-type, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell-type and Suppes-Zanotti-Leggett-Garg-type systems. The theory of contextuality known as contextuality-by-default allows one to define and measure contextuality in all such systems, even if there are context-dependent errors in measurements, or if something in the contexts directly interacts with the measurements. This makes the theory especially suitable for behavioural and social systems, where direct interactions of 'everything with everything' are ubiquitous. For cyclic systems with binary outcomes, the theory provides necessary and sufficient conditions for non-contextuality, and these conditions are known to be breached in certain quantum systems. We review several behavioural and social datasets (from polls of public opinion to visual illusions to conjoint choices to word combinations to psychophysical matching), and none of these data provides any evidence for contextuality. Our working hypothesis is that this may be a broadly applicable rule: behavioural and social systems are non-contextual, i.e. all 'contextual effects' in them result from the ubiquitous dependence of response distributions on the elements of contexts other than the ones to which the response is presumably or normatively directed. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Effects of Normal Aging on Memory for Multiple Contextual Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Sylvain; Soulard, Kathleen; Brasgold, Melissa; Kreller, Joshua

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-four younger (18-35 years) and 24 older adult participants (65 or older) were exposed to three experimental conditions involving the memorization words and their associated contextual features, with contextual feature complexity increasing from Conditions 1 to 3. In Condition 1, words presented varied only on one binary feature (color,…

  6. Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

    2009-01-01

    Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. The theory, however, has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570…

  7. The Influence of Contextual Diversity on Eye Movements in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An…

  8. Contextual Aspects of Smart City Energy Systems Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck

    The thesis defines the concept of smart city energy systems. The thesis emphasises the need to investigate the smart city energy system and two contextual aspects. The system integration context and the geographical context. The system integration context emphasises that increased interrelation...... of the different contextual aspects....

  9. Valuable Virality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, E.; Berger, Jonah

    2017-01-01

    Given recent interest in social media, many brands now create content that they hope consumers will view and share with peers. While some campaigns indeed go “viral,” their value to the brand is limited if they do not boost brand evaluation or increase purchase. Consequently, a key question is how

  10. Contextual Teaching and Learning for Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Charles Hudson

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL is defined as a way to introduce content using a variety of activelearning techniques designed to help students connect what they already know to what they are expected to learn, and to construct new knowledge from the analysis and synthesis of this learning process. A theoretical basis for CTL is outlined, with a focus on Connection, Constructivist, and Active Learning theories. A summary of brain activity during the learning process illustrates the physiological changes and connections that occur during educational activities. Three types of learning scenarios (project-based, goal-based, and inquiry-oriented are presented to illustrate how CTL can be applied by practitioners.

  11. Probabilistic generation of quantum contextual sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, Norman D.; Fresl, Kresimir; Waegell, Mordecai; Aravind, P.K.; Pavicic, Mladen

    2011-01-01

    We give a method for exhaustive generation of a huge number of Kochen-Specker contextual sets, based on the 600-cell, for possible experiments and quantum gates. The method is complementary to our previous parity proof generation of these sets, and it gives all sets while the parity proof method gives only sets with an odd number of edges in their hypergraph representation. Thus we obtain 35 new kinds of critical KS sets with an even number of edges. We also give a statistical estimate of the number of sets that might be obtained in an eventual exhaustive enumeration. -- Highlights: → We generate millions of new Kochen-Specker noncontextual set. → We find thousands of novel critical Kochen-Specker (KS) sets. → We give algorithms for generating KS sets from a new 4-dim class. → We represent KS sets by means of hypergraphs and their figures. → We give a new exact estimation method for random sampling of sets.

  12. Variables as Contextual Constraints in Translating Irony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babîi Oana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The translator’s role and responsibility are high in any act of interlingual communication, and even higher when irony, an indirect and deliberately elusive form of communication, is involved in the translation process. By allowing more than one possible interpretation, irony is inevitably exposed to the risk of being misunderstood. This paper attempts to capture the complexity of translating irony, making use of theoretical frameworks provided by literary studies and translation studies. It analyses if and how the types of irony, the literary genres and the cultural, normative factors, perceived as potential contextual constraints, have an impact on the translator’ choices in rendering irony in translation, taking illustrative examples from Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde, Aldous Huxley and David Lodge’s works.

  13. Liberalism and gender: a contextual persepctive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Escalante Beltrán

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This article contextually discusses the category of gender from a liberal perspective. The six sections of the study provide a deep criticism of the social sciences from a less rigid perspective in the handling of dichotomous and exclusionary categories such as masculine-feminine, rational-emotional, private-public, liberal-community, to mention some of the central issues raised by the various debates about gender. A comparative methodology is used to analyze authors such as Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls and others. One of the principal conclusions reached in this study is that traditional theoretical schemes, still in use, impede achieving broader consensuses and delay the resolution of practical problems such as, in the Peruvian case, those resulting from the translation of the discourse of equity into actions and concrete daily practices that provide citizens true access to justice.

  14. School variation in asthma: compositional or contextual?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy K Richmond

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood asthma prevalence and morbidity have been shown to vary by neighborhood. Less is known about between-school variation in asthma prevalence and whether it exists beyond what one might expect due to students at higher risk of asthma clustering within different schools. Our objective was to determine whether between-school variation in asthma prevalence exists and if so, if it is related to the differential distribution of individual risk factors for and correlates of asthma or to contextual influences of schools.Cross-sectional analysis of 16,640 teens in grades 7-12 in Wave 1 (data collected in 1994-5 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Outcome was current diagnosis of asthma as reported by respondents' parents. Two-level random effects models were used to assess the contribution of schools to the variance in asthma prevalence before and after controlling for individual attributes.The highest quartile schools had mean asthma prevalence of 21.9% compared to the lowest quartile schools with mean asthma prevalence of 7.1%. In our null model, the school contributed significantly to the variance in asthma (sigma(u0(2 = 0.27, CI: 0.20, 0.35. Controlling for individual, school and neighborhood attributes reduced the between-school variance modestly (sigma(u0(2 = 0.19 CI: 0.13-0.29.Significant between-school variation in current asthma prevalence exists even after controlling for the individual, school and neighborhood factors. This provides evidence for school level contextual influences on asthma. Further research is needed to determine potential mechanisms through which schools may influence asthma outcomes.

  15. Microdevelopment of Complex Featural and Spatial Integration with Contextual Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L. Hirsch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex spatial decisions involve the ability to combine featural and spatial information in a scene. In the present work, 4- through 9-year-old children completed a complex map-scene correspondence task under baseline and supported conditions. Children compared a photographed scene with a correct map and with map-foils that made salient an object feature or spatial property. Map-scene matches were analyzed for the effects of age and featural-spatial information on children’s selections. In both conditions children significantly favored maps that highlighted object detail and object perspective rather than color, landmark, and metric elements. Children’s correct performance did not differ by age and was suboptimal, but their ability to choose correct maps improved significantly when contextual support was provided. Strategy variability was prominent for all age groups, but at age 9 with support children were more likely to give up their focus on features and transition to the use of spatial strategies. These findings suggest the possibility of a U-shaped curve for children’s development of geometric knowledge: geometric coding is predominant early on, diminishes for a time in middle childhood in favor of a preference for features, and then reemerges along with the more advanced abilities to combine featural and spatial information.

  16. Experimental demonstration of quantum contextuality on an NMR qutrit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogra, Shruti; Dorai, Kavita, E-mail: kavita@iisermohali.ac.in; Arvind

    2016-05-20

    We experimentally test quantum contextuality of a single qutrit using NMR. The contextuality inequalities based on nine observables developed by Kurzynski et al. are first reformulated in terms of traceless observables which can be measured in an NMR experiment. These inequalities reveal the contextuality of almost all single-qutrit states. We demonstrate the violation of the inequality on four different initial states of a spin-1 deuterium nucleus oriented in a liquid crystal matrix, and follow the violation as the states evolve in time. We also describe and experimentally perform a single-shot test of contextuality for a subclass of qutrit states whose density matrix is diagonal in the energy basis. - Highlights: • A contextuality inequality for a single qutrit was designed using traceless observables. • The violation of the inequality was experimentally demonstrated using NMR. • A single-shot test was experimentally performed for a subclass of diagonal qutrit states.

  17. Experimental demonstration of quantum contextuality on an NMR qutrit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogra, Shruti; Dorai, Kavita; Arvind

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally test quantum contextuality of a single qutrit using NMR. The contextuality inequalities based on nine observables developed by Kurzynski et al. are first reformulated in terms of traceless observables which can be measured in an NMR experiment. These inequalities reveal the contextuality of almost all single-qutrit states. We demonstrate the violation of the inequality on four different initial states of a spin-1 deuterium nucleus oriented in a liquid crystal matrix, and follow the violation as the states evolve in time. We also describe and experimentally perform a single-shot test of contextuality for a subclass of qutrit states whose density matrix is diagonal in the energy basis. - Highlights: • A contextuality inequality for a single qutrit was designed using traceless observables. • The violation of the inequality was experimentally demonstrated using NMR. • A single-shot test was experimentally performed for a subclass of diagonal qutrit states.

  18. Conflict adaptation in time: foreperiods as contextual cues for attentional adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mike; Kiesel, Andrea

    2011-10-01

    Interference evoked by distractor stimulus information, such as flankers in the Eriksen task, is reduced when the proportion of conflicting stimuli is increased. This modulation is sensitive to contextual cues such as stimulus location or color, suggesting attentional adjustment to conflict contingencies on the basis of context information. In the present study, we explored whether conflict adjustment is modulated by temporal variation of conflict likelihood. To this end, we associated low and high proportions of conflict stimuli with foreperiods of different lengths. Flanker interference was higher with foreperiods associated with low conflict proportions, suggesting that participants use the foreperiod as a contextual cue for attentional adjustment. We conjecture that participants initially adopt the strategy useful for conflict contingencies associated with short foreperiods, and then readjust during the trial, in the absence of any additional exogenous cue, when the imperative stimulus has not occurred during a certain time interval.

  19. Energetical fly ashes – separation and utilization of metallic valuable components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalíková Františka

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution, methods of separating metals – Fe, Al, Ge from energetic wastes – fly ashes are presented along with further possibilities of utilization of particular valuable components for industrial purposes.In the contribution, properties of energetic wastes are presented influencing the contents, separability, and utilizability of metal-bearing valuable components. From among physical properties these are grain size distribution and surface area. Chemical properties are characterized by elements contained in combusted coal whose content after combustion is increased 2 to 4 times, depending on the content of ash and combustible matters in original coal. Mineralogical properties of energetic wastes are determined by the combustion process conditions in the course of which mineral novelties are produced in concentrations suitable for separation.In the contribution, methods of separation and utilization of metals such as Fe, Al, Ge are described. From literature information on the processing of Fe component, as well as from results of experiments made at the Department of Mineral Processing and Environmental Protection, Technical University of Kosice follows that the highest concentration and mass yield of the component can be obtained from black coal fly ashes produced in smelting boilers. The content of Al in Slovak energetic wastes is lower than the 30 % Al2O3 limit that conditions an economic technological processing. Only in the case of black coal fly ash from TEKO Kosice and EVO Vojany was the Al2O3 content of 32.93 %. Therefore, in an indirect way – by separating the residues of uncombusted coal and magnetite Fe – the content of Al in fly ash was increased.For Ge, a principle of selective sizing has been utilized.A complex utilization of energetic wastes, that is the separation of metallic components, elimination of particular metals and the subsequent treatment of nonmetallic residue, should be an effective solution in various

  20. CDinFusion--submission-ready, on-line integration of sequence and contextual data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hankeln

    Full Text Available State of the art (DNA sequencing methods applied in "Omics" studies grant insight into the 'blueprints' of organisms from all domains of life. Sequencing is carried out around the globe and the data is submitted to the public repositories of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. However, the context in which these studies are conducted often gets lost, because experimental data, as well as information about the environment are rarely submitted along with the sequence data. If these contextual or metadata are missing, key opportunities of comparison and analysis across studies and habitats are hampered or even impossible. To address this problem, the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC promotes checklists and standards to better describe our sequence data collection and to promote the capturing, exchange and integration of sequence data with contextual data. In a recent community effort the GSC has developed a series of recommendations for contextual data that should be submitted along with sequence data. To support the scientific community to significantly enhance the quality and quantity of contextual data in the public sequence data repositories, specialized software tools are needed. In this work we present CDinFusion, a web-based tool to integrate contextual and sequence data in (MultiFASTA format prior to submission. The tool is open source and available under the Lesser GNU Public License 3. A public installation is hosted and maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology at http://www.megx.net/cdinfusion. The tool may also be installed locally using the open source code available at http://code.google.com/p/cdinfusion.

  1. CDinFusion--submission-ready, on-line integration of sequence and contextual data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankeln, Wolfgang; Wendel, Norma Johanna; Gerken, Jan; Waldmann, Jost; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Kottmann, Renzo; Yilmaz, Pelin; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2011-01-01

    State of the art (DNA) sequencing methods applied in "Omics" studies grant insight into the 'blueprints' of organisms from all domains of life. Sequencing is carried out around the globe and the data is submitted to the public repositories of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. However, the context in which these studies are conducted often gets lost, because experimental data, as well as information about the environment are rarely submitted along with the sequence data. If these contextual or metadata are missing, key opportunities of comparison and analysis across studies and habitats are hampered or even impossible. To address this problem, the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) promotes checklists and standards to better describe our sequence data collection and to promote the capturing, exchange and integration of sequence data with contextual data. In a recent community effort the GSC has developed a series of recommendations for contextual data that should be submitted along with sequence data. To support the scientific community to significantly enhance the quality and quantity of contextual data in the public sequence data repositories, specialized software tools are needed. In this work we present CDinFusion, a web-based tool to integrate contextual and sequence data in (Multi)FASTA format prior to submission. The tool is open source and available under the Lesser GNU Public License 3. A public installation is hosted and maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology at http://www.megx.net/cdinfusion. The tool may also be installed locally using the open source code available at http://code.google.com/p/cdinfusion.

  2. Contextual consistency facilitates long-term memory of perceptual detail in barely seen images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronau, Nurit; Shachar, Meytal

    2015-08-01

    It is long known that contextual information affects memory for an object's identity (e.g., its basic level category), yet it is unclear whether schematic knowledge additionally enhances memory for the precise visual appearance of an item. Here we investigated memory for visual detail of merely glimpsed objects. Participants viewed pairs of contextually related and unrelated stimuli, presented for an extremely brief duration (24 ms, masked). They then performed a forced-choice memory-recognition test for the precise perceptual appearance of 1 of 2 objects within each pair (i.e., the "memory-target" item). In 3 experiments, we show that memory-target stimuli originally appearing within contextually related pairs are remembered better than targets appearing within unrelated pairs. These effects are obtained whether the target is presented at test with its counterpart pair object (i.e., when reiterating the original context at encoding) or whether the target is presented alone, implying that the contextual consistency effects are mediated predominantly by processes occurring during stimulus encoding, rather than during stimulus retrieval. Furthermore, visual detail encoding is improved whether object relations involve implied action or not, suggesting that, contrary to some prior suggestions, action is not a necessary component for object-to-object associative "grouping" processes. Our findings suggest that during a brief glimpse, but not under long viewing conditions, contextual associations may play a critical role in reducing stimulus competition for attention selection and in facilitating rapid encoding of sensory details. Theoretical implications with respect to classic frame theories are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. ReputationPro: The Efficient Approaches to Contextual Transaction Trust Computation in E-Commerce Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haibin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Lim, Ee-Peng

    2013-01-01

    In e-commerce environments, the trustworthiness of a seller is utterly important to potential buyers, especially when the seller is unknown to them. Most existing trust evaluation models compute a single value to reflect the general trust level of a seller without taking any transaction context information into account. In this paper, we first present a trust vector consisting of three values for Contextual Transaction Trust (CTT). In the computation of three CTT values, the identified three ...

  4. Walk and Learn: Facial Attribute Representation Learning from Egocentric Video and Contextual Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing; Cheng, Yu; Feris, Rogerio Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    The way people look in terms of facial attributes (ethnicity, hair color, facial hair, etc.) and the clothes or accessories they wear (sunglasses, hat, hoodies, etc.) is highly dependent on geo-location and weather condition, respectively. This work explores, for the first time, the use of this contextual information, as people with wearable cameras walk across different neighborhoods of a city, in order to learn a rich feature representation for facial attribute classification, without the c...

  5. The Contextual Database of the Generations and Gender Programme: Concept, content, and research examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Caporali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences in demographic behaviours across countries and subnational regions have stimulated interest in studying the relationships between individual characteristics and the contexts in which individuals are embedded. Analytical approaches that include contextual indicators in statistical analyses of demographic behaviour need well-documented comparative data at the national and the subnational regional level. The Contextual Database (CDB of the Generations and Gender Programme (GGP; http://www.ggp-i.org/data/ggp-contextual-database supports such analyses by providing comparative data on demographic and socio-economic contexts in up to 60 countries in Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceania. Objective: This paper presents conceptual considerations and an overview of the content and the functionality of the CDB. Research examples illustrate how data from this database can increase the analytical potential of demographic analyses. Conclusions: The CDB is a state-of-the-art research tool that provides well-documented comparative data at the national and the subnational regional level. Although it is conceptually linked to the Generations and Gender Survey (GGS, it can also be used to analyse data from other surveys, to study macro developments, and for teaching and lecturing. The CDB has a number of valuable features. First, it has a large number of indicators specifically geared towards demographic analyses, which provide extensive temporal and geographic coverage. Second, its dynamic web environment provides a high degree of transparency on data sources, as it offers meta-data for each individual entry. Finally, the CDB supports geocoding schemes that are used by the GGS and other surveys to denote region and country of residence.

  6. Robust visual tracking using a contextual boosting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wanyue; Wang, Yin; Wang, Daobo

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, detection-based image trackers have been gaining ground rapidly, thanks to its capacity of incorporating a variety of image features. Nevertheless, its tracking performance might be compromised if background regions are mislabeled as foreground in the training process. To resolve this problem, we propose an online visual tracking algorithm designated to improving the training label accuracy in the learning phase. In the proposed method, superpixels are used as samples, and their ambiguous labels are reassigned in accordance with both prior estimation and contextual information. The location and scale of the target are usually determined by confidence map, which is doomed to shrink since background regions are always incorporated into the bounding box. To address this dilemma, we propose a cross projection scheme via projecting the confidence map for target detecting. Moreover, the performance of the proposed tracker can be further improved by adding rigid-structured information. The proposed method is evaluated on the basis of the OTB benchmark and the VOT2016 benchmark. Compared with other trackers, the results appear to be competitive.

  7. Hierarchical acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Kin-Pou

    2015-01-01

    Spatial contextual cueing refers to visual search performance's being improved when invariant associations between target locations and distractor spatial configurations are learned incidentally. Using the instance theory of automatization and the reverse hierarchy theory of visual perceptual learning, this study explores the acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing. Two experiments in which detailed visual features were irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts found that spatial contextual cueing was visually generic in difficult trials when the trials were not preceded by easy trials (Experiment 1) but that spatial contextual cueing progressed to visual specificity when difficult trials were preceded by easy trials (Experiment 2). These findings support reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that even when detailed visual features are irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts, spatial contextual cueing can progress to visual specificity if the stimuli remain constant, the task is difficult, and difficult trials are preceded by easy trials. However, these findings are inconsistent with instance theory, which predicts that when detailed visual features are irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts, spatial contextual cueing will not progress to visual specificity. This study concludes that the acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing is more plausibly hierarchical, rather than instance-based.

  8. Stimulus homogeneity enhances implicit learning: evidence from contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Schubö, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Visual search for a target object is faster if the target is embedded in a repeatedly presented invariant configuration of distractors ('contextual cueing'). It has also been shown that the homogeneity of a context affects the efficiency of visual search: targets receive prioritized processing when presented in a homogeneous context compared to a heterogeneous context, presumably due to grouping processes at early stages of visual processing. The present study investigated in three Experiments whether context homogeneity also affects contextual cueing. In Experiment 1, context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-relevant dimension (orientation) and contextual cueing was most pronounced for context configurations with high orientation homogeneity. When context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-irrelevant dimension (color) and orientation homogeneity was fixed, no modulation of contextual cueing was observed: high orientation homogeneity led to large contextual cueing effects (Experiment 2) and low orientation homogeneity led to low contextual cueing effects (Experiment 3), irrespective of color homogeneity. Enhanced contextual cueing for homogeneous context configurations suggest that grouping processes do not only affect visual search but also implicit learning. We conclude that memory representation of context configurations are more easily acquired when context configurations can be processed as larger, grouped perceptual units. However, this form of implicit perceptual learning is only improved by stimulus homogeneity when stimulus homogeneity facilitates grouping processes on a dimension that is currently relevant in the task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  10. 77 FR 30263 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... proposed data collection for the Social Innovation Fund (SIF) National Evaluation. Research questions for... brief telephone surveys with 138 sub grantees to obtain contextual and explanatory information...

  11. No apparent influence of psychometrically-defined schizotypy on orientation-dependent contextual modulation of visual contrast detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien J. Mannion

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between psychometrically-defined schizotypy and the ability to detect a visual target pattern. Target detection is typically impaired by a surrounding pattern (context with an orientation that is parallel to the target, relative to a surrounding pattern with an orientation that is orthogonal to the target (orientation-dependent contextual modulation. Based on reports that this effect is reduced in those with schizophrenia, we hypothesised that there would be a negative relationship between the relative score on psychometrically-defined schizotypy and the relative effect of orientation-dependent contextual modulation. We measured visual contrast detection thresholds and scores on the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE from a non-clinical sample (N = 100. Contrary to our hypothesis, we find an absence of a monotonic relationship between the relative magnitude of orientation-dependent contextual modulation of visual contrast detection and the relative score on any of the subscales of the O-LIFE. The apparent difference of this result with previous reports on those with schizophrenia suggests that orientation-dependent contextual modulation may be an informative condition in which schizophrenia and psychometrically-defined schizotypy are dissociated. However, further research is also required to clarify the strength of orientation-dependent contextual modulation in those with schizophrenia.

  12. Pre-Training Reversible Inactivation of the Basal Amygdala (BA Disrupts Contextual, but Not Auditory, Fear Conditioning, in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Mari Akagi Jordão

    Full Text Available The basolateral amygdala complex (BLA, including the lateral (LA, basal (BA and accessory basal (AB nuclei, is involved in acquisition of contextual and auditory fear conditioning. The BA is one of the main targets for hippocampal information, a brain structure critical for contextual learning, which integrates several discrete stimuli into a single configural representation. Congruent with the hodology, selective neurotoxic damage to the BA results in impairments in contextual, but not auditory, fear conditioning, similarly to the behavioral impairments found after hippocampal damage. This study evaluated the effects of muscimol-induced reversible inactivation of the BA during a simultaneous contextual and auditory fear conditioning training on later fear responses to both the context and the tone, tested separately, without muscimol administration. As compared to control rats micro-infused with vehicle, subjects micro-infused with muscimol before training exhibited, during testing without muscimol, significant reduction of freezing responses to the conditioned context, but not to the conditioned tone. Therefore, reversible inactivation of the BA during training impaired contextual, but not auditory fear conditioning, thus confirming and extending similar behavioral observations following selective neurotoxic damage to the BA and, in addition, revealing that this effect is not related to the lack of a functional BA during testing.

  13. Community Advisory Boards Guiding Engaged Research Efforts within a Clinical Translational Sciences Award: Key Contextual Factors Explored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Jacqueline R; Donahue, Katrina E; Sleath, Betsy; Reuland, Dan; Black, Adina; Mitchell, C Madeline; Breland, Carol E; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Mottus, Kathleen; Watson, Sable Noelle; Lewis, Virginia; Wynn, Mysha; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-01-01

    Engaging stakeholders in research carries the promise of enhancing the research relevance, transparency, and speed of getting findings into practice. By describing the context and functional aspects of stakeholder groups, like those working as community advisory boards (CABs), others can learn from these experiences and operationalize their own CABs. Our objective is to describe our experiences with diverse CABs affiliated with our community engagement group within our institution's Clinical Translational Sciences Award (CTSA). We identify key contextual elements that are important to administering CABs. A group of investigators, staff, and community members engaged in a 6-month collaboration to describe their experiences of working with six research CABs. We identified the key contextual domains that illustrate how CABS are developed and sustained. Two lead authors, with experience with CABs and identifying contextual domains in other work, led a team of 13 through the process. Additionally, we devised a list of key tips to consider when devising CABs. The final domains include (1) aligned missions among stakeholders (2) resources/support, (3) defined operational processes/shared power, (4) well-described member roles, and (5) understanding and mitigating challenges. The tips are a set of actions that support the domains. Identifying key contextual domains was relatively easy, despite differences in the respective CAB's condition of focus, overall mission, or patient demographics represented. By contextualizing these five domains, other research and community partners can take an informed approach to move forward with CAB planning and engaged research.

  14. CONTEXTUAL STRATEGIES FOR CONDUCTING EFFECTIVE NEGOTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia\tBĂEȘU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper we try to argue the development of contextual strategies for conducting effective negotiation. Throughout the paper we present that the first motivation which we manage to identify is that we negotiate to improve whatever situation we are involved in. It is of great relevance to identify a few reasons for what we negotiate. Another motivation is that negotiation is an opportunity for creativity and it does allow you to fashion a solution according to, usually different kinds of facts, different fact situation so you may get to express some creativity. Negotiation is perceived as an opportunity where we can also build relationship with the other person. We can also communicate better with the other side about where they are, what they want and where they want to go. Next, we try to identify what makes for successful negotiation during each stage of the negotiation process. According to this paper there are five things which are the essence of business negotiation.

  15. Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehtibar N Dzhafarov

    Full Text Available We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon. Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints. In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions.

  16. Group adaptation, formal darwinism and contextual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, S; Paternotte, C

    2012-06-01

    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Kontextualisierung von Queer Theory Contextualizing Queer Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Voigt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.

  18. Measurement contextuality is implied by macroscopic realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zeqian; Montina, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ontological theories of quantum mechanics provide a realistic description of single systems by means of well-defined quantities conditioning the measurement outcomes. In order to be complete, they should also fulfill the minimal condition of macroscopic realism. Under the assumption of outcome determinism and for Hilbert space dimension greater than 2, they were all proved to be contextual for projective measurements. In recent years a generalized concept of noncontextuality was introduced that applies also to the case of outcome indeterminism and unsharp measurements. It was pointed out that the Beltrametti-Bugajski model is an example of measurement noncontextual indeterminist theory. Here we provide a simple proof that this model is the only one with such a feature for projective measurements and Hilbert space dimension greater than 2. In other words, there is no extension of quantum theory providing more accurate predictions of outcomes and simultaneously preserving the minimal labeling of events through projective operators. As a corollary, noncontextuality for projective measurements implies noncontextuality for unsharp measurements. By noting that the condition of macroscopic realism requires an extension of quantum theory, unless a breaking of unitarity is invoked, we arrive at the conclusion that the only way to solve the measurement problem in the framework of an ontological theory is by relaxing the hypothesis of measurement noncontextuality in its generalized sense.

  19. Contextual modulation of primary visual cortex by auditory signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, L S; Paton, A T; Muckli, L

    2017-02-19

    Early visual cortex receives non-feedforward input from lateral and top-down connections (Muckli & Petro 2013 Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 23, 195-201. (doi:10.1016/j.conb.2013.01.020)), including long-range projections from auditory areas. Early visual cortex can code for high-level auditory information, with neural patterns representing natural sound stimulation (Vetter et al. 2014 Curr. Biol. 24, 1256-1262. (doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.04.020)). We discuss a number of questions arising from these findings. What is the adaptive function of bimodal representations in visual cortex? What type of information projects from auditory to visual cortex? What are the anatomical constraints of auditory information in V1, for example, periphery versus fovea, superficial versus deep cortical layers? Is there a putative neural mechanism we can infer from human neuroimaging data and recent theoretical accounts of cortex? We also present data showing we can read out high-level auditory information from the activation patterns of early visual cortex even when visual cortex receives simple visual stimulation, suggesting independent channels for visual and auditory signals in V1. We speculate which cellular mechanisms allow V1 to be contextually modulated by auditory input to facilitate perception, cognition and behaviour. Beyond cortical feedback that facilitates perception, we argue that there is also feedback serving counterfactual processing during imagery, dreaming and mind wandering, which is not relevant for immediate perception but for behaviour and cognition over a longer time frame.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Contextual marketing--the real business of the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, D; Marshall, J F

    2000-01-01

    The painful truth is that the Internet has been a letdown for most companies--largely because the dominant model for Internet commerce, the destination Web site, doesn't suit the needs of those companies or their customers. Most consumer product companies don't provide enough value or dynamic information to induce customers to make the repeat visits--and disclose the detailed information--that make such sites profitable. In this article, David Kenny and John F. Marshall suggest that companies discard the notion that a Web site equals an Internet strategy. Instead of trying to create destinations that people will come to, companies need to use the power and reach of the Internet to deliver tailored messages and information to customers. Companies have to become what the authors call "contextual marketers." Delivering the most relevant information possible to consumers in the most timely manner possible will become feasible, the authors say, as access moves beyond the PC to shopping malls, retail stores, airports, bus stations, and even cars. The authors describe how the ubiquitous Internet will hasten the demise of the destination Web site--and open up scads of opportunities to reach customers through marketing "mobilemediaries," such as smart cards, e-wallets, and bar code scanners. The companies that master the complexity of the ubiquitous Internet will gain significant advantages: they'll gain greater intimacy with customers and target market segments more efficiently. The ones that don't will be dismissed as nuisances, the authors conclude. They suggest ways to become welcome additions--not unwelcome intrusions--to customers' lives.

  1. Contextual Compression of Large-Scale Wind Turbine Array Simulations: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruchalla, Kenny M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Potter, Kristin C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clyne, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research

    2017-11-03

    Data sizes are becoming a critical issue particularly for HPC applications. We have developed a user-driven lossy wavelet-based storage model to facilitate the analysis and visualization of large-scale wind turbine array simulations. The model stores data as heterogeneous blocks of wavelet coefficients, providing high-fidelity access to user-defined data regions believed the most salient, while providing lower-fidelity access to less salient regions on a block-by-block basis. In practice, by retaining the wavelet coefficients as a function of feature saliency, we have seen data reductions in excess of 94 percent, while retaining lossless information in the turbine-wake regions most critical to analysis and providing enough (low-fidelity) contextual information in the upper atmosphere to track incoming coherent turbulent structures. Our contextual wavelet compression approach has allowed us to deliver interactive visual analysis while providing the user control over where data loss, and thus reduction in accuracy, in the analysis occurs. We argue this reduced but contexualized representation is a valid approach and encourages contextual data management.

  2. Recommendations from Friends Anytime and Anywhere: Toward a Model of Contextual Offer and Consumption Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The ubiquity and portability of mobile devices provide additional opportunities for information retrieval. People can easily access mobile applications anytime and anywhere when they need to acquire specific context-aware recommendations (contextual offer) from their friends. This study, thus, represents an initial attempt to understand users' acceptance of a mobile-based social reviews platform, where recommendations from friends can be obtained with mobile devices. Based on the consumption value theory, a theoretical model is proposed and empirically examined using survey data from 218 mobile users. The findings demonstrate that contextual offers based on users' profiles, access time, and geographic positions significantly predict their value perceptions (utilitarian, hedonic, and social), which, in turn, affect their intention to use a mobile social reviews platform. This study is also believed to provide some useful insights to both research and practice. PMID:23530548

  3. Contextual cueing of pop-out visual search: when context guides the deployment of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Thomas; Zehetleitner, Michael; Müller, Hermann J

    2010-05-01

    Visual context information can guide attention in demanding (i.e., inefficient) search tasks. When participants are repeatedly presented with identically arranged ('repeated') displays, reaction times are faster relative to newly composed ('non-repeated') displays. The present article examines whether this 'contextual cueing' effect operates also in simple (i.e., efficient) search tasks and if so, whether there it influences target, rather than response, selection. The results were that singleton-feature targets were detected faster when the search items were presented in repeated, rather than non-repeated, arrangements. Importantly, repeated, relative to novel, displays also led to an increase in signal detection accuracy. Thus, contextual cueing can expedite the selection of pop-out targets, most likely by enhancing feature contrast signals at the overall-salience computation stage.

  4. Applying a Comprehensive Contextual Climate Change Vulnerability Framework to New Zealand's Tourism Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-03-01

    Conceptualisations of 'vulnerability' vary amongst scholarly communities, contributing to a wide variety of applications. Research investigating vulnerability to climate change has often excluded non-climatic changes which may contribute to degrees of vulnerability perceived or experienced. This paper introduces a comprehensive contextual vulnerability framework which incorporates physical, social, economic and political factors which could amplify or reduce vulnerability. The framework is applied to New Zealand's tourism industry to explore its value in interpreting a complex, human-natural environment system with multiple competing vulnerabilities. The comprehensive contextual framework can inform government policy and industry decision making, integrating understandings of climate change within the broader context of internal and external social, physical, economic, and institutional stressors.

  5. Personal contextual characteristics and cognitions: predicting child abuse potential and disciplinary style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-02-01

    According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental expectations) predicted child abuse potential and overreactive disciplinary style beyond personal contextual factors characteristic of the parent (hostility, stress, and coping). 363 parents were recruited online. Results highlight the relative importance of the contextual characteristics (particularly stress, avoidant coping, and irritability) relative to cognitive processes in predicting abuse potential and overreactive discipline strategies, although an external locus of control also significantly contributed. Findings do not support that parents' developmental expectations uniquely predict elevated abuse risk. Results indicate stressed parents who utilize avoidance coping strategies are more likely to use overreactive discipline and report increased abuse potential. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention/intervention efforts.

  6. Personal Information as Communicative Acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens-Erik

    2016-01-01

    The paper extends previous accounts of informational privacy as a contextual notion. Where previous accounts have focused on interpretations of the privacy context itself as being contextual and open for negotiation and interpretation, this paper extends those analyses and shows that personal...... information itself is in fact best understood as contextual and situational—and as such open for interpretation. The paper reviews the notion of information as it has been applied in informational privacy and philosophy of information, and suggests that personal information ought to be regarded...... as communicative acts. The paper suggests a reconceptualization of informational privacy from having its focus on controlling, limiting, and restricting access to material carriers of information to a focus on a regulation of the use, analysis, and interpretation of personal information....

  7. A sequential model to link contextual risk, perception and public support for flood adaptation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wanyun; Xian, Siyuan; Lin, Ning; Small, Mitchell J

    2017-10-01

    The economic damage from coastal flooding has dramatically increased over the past several decades, owing to rapid development in shoreline areas and possible effects of climate change. To respond to these trends, it is imperative for policy makers to understand individuals' support for flood adaptation policy. Using original survey data for all coastal counties of the United States Gulf Coast merged with contextual data on flood risk, this study investigates coastal residents' support for two adaptation policy measures: incentives for relocation and funding for educational programs on emergency planning and evacuation. Specifically, this study explores the interactive relationships among contextual flood risks, perceived flood risks and policy support for flood adaptation, with the effects of social-demographic variables being controlled. Age, gender, race and partisanship are found to significantly affect individuals' policy support for both adaptation measures. The contextual flooding risks, indicated by distance from the coast, maximum wind speed and peak height of storm surge associated with the last hurricane landfall, and percentage of high-risk flood zone per county, are shown to impact one's perceptions of risk, which in turn influence one's support for both policy measures. The key finding -risk perception mediates the impact of contextual risk conditions on public support for flood management policies - highlights the need to ensure that the public is well informed by the latest scientific, engineering and economic knowledge. To achieve this, more information on current and future flood risks and options available for mitigation as well as risk communication tools are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic fluoxetine dissociates contextual from auditory fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jeff; Mayford, Mark

    2016-10-06

    Fluoxetine is a medication used to treat Major Depressive Disorder and other psychiatric conditions. These experiments studied the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on the contextual versus auditory fear memory of mice. We found that chronic fluoxetine treatment of adult mice impaired their contextual fear memory, but spared auditory fear memory. Hippocampal perineuronal nets, which are involved in contextual fear memory plasticity, were unaltered by fluoxetine treatment. These data point to a selective inability to form contextual fear memory as a result of fluoxetine treatment, and they suggest that a blunting of hippocampal-mediated aversive memory may be a therapeutic action for this medication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contextualized teaching on the problem solving performance of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando V. Obiedo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of contextualized teaching on students’ problem solving skills in physics through a quasi-experimental approach. Problem solving performance of students was described quantitatively through their mean problem solving scores and problem solving skills level. A unit plan patterned from the cognitive apprenticeship approach and contextualized using maritime context of ship stability was implemented on the experimental group while the control group had the conventional lecture method. Pre and post assessment, which is a researcher-developed word problem assessment, was administered to both groups. Results indicated increased problem solving mean scores (p < 0.001, problem solving skill level (p < 0.001 of the experimental group while the control group increased only their problem solving skill level (p = 0.008. Thus, contextualized teaching can improve the problem solving performance of students. This study recommends using contextualization using other physics topics where other contexts can be applied.

  10. Moderating effects of contextual factors on relationship between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decision–making by physicians on patients' treatment has received increased research attention. ... The main objective of this paper is to review the influence of the marketing strategies by pharmaceutical firms and contextual factors on ...

  11. Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D. (2009). Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments. Presented at the Doctoral Consortium of the Fourth European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2009). September, 29-October, 2, 2009, Nice, France.

  12. Organizational justice and health: Contextual determinants and psychobiological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational

  13. Anterior prefrontal involvement in implicit contextual change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pollmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10 and superior frontal (BA9 cortices showed selective signal increase for this target location change in repeated displays in an event-related fMRI experiment, which was most pronounced in participants with high contextual facilitation before the change. The data support the view that left lateral frontopolar cortex is involved in signaling contextual change to posterior brain areas as a precondition for adaptive changes of attentional resource allocation. This signaling occurs in the absence of awareness of learned contingencies or contextual change.

  14. Brain based learning with contextual approach to mathematics achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kartikaningtyas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know the effect of Brain Based Learning (BBL with a contextual approach to mathematics achievement. BBL-contextual is the learning model that designed to develop and optimize the brain ability for getting a new concept and solving the real life problem. This study method was a quasi-experiment. The population was the junior high school students. The sample chosen by using stratified cluster random sampling. The sample was 109 students. The data collected through a mathematics achievement test that was given after the treatment. The data analyzed by using one way ANOVA. The results of the study showed that BBL-contextual is better than direct learning on mathematics achievement. It means BBL-contextual could be an effective and innovative model.

  15. Pre- and post-selection, weak values and contextuality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollaksen, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    By analysing the concept of contextuality (Bell-Kochen-Specker) in terms of pre- and post-selection, it is possible to assign definite values to observables in a new and surprising way. Physical reasons are presented for restrictions on these assignments. When measurements are performed which do not disturb the pre- and post-selection (i.e. weak measurements), then novel experimental aspects of contextuality can be demonstrated. We also prove that every PPS-paradox with definite predictions directly implies 'quantum contextuality' which is introduced as the analogue of contextuality at the level of quantum mechanics rather than at the level of hidden variable theories. Finally, we argue that certain results of these measurements (e.g. eccentric weak values outside the eigenvalue spectrum) cannot be explained by a 'classical-like' hidden variable theory

  16. Contextually in a Peres—Mermin square using arbitrary operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laversanne-Finot, A; Ketterer, A; Coudreau, T; Milman, P; Barros, M R; Walborn, S P; Keller, A

    2016-01-01

    The contextuality of quantum mechanics can be shown by the violation of inequalities based on measurements of well chosen observables. These inequalities have been designed separately for both discrete and continuous variables. Here we unify both strategies by introducing general conditions to demonstrate the contextuality of quantum mechanics from measurements of observables of arbitrary dimensions. Among the consequences of our results is the impossibility of having a maximal violation of contextuality in the Peres-Mermin scenario with discrete observables of odd dimensions. In addition, we show how to construct a large class of observables with a continuous spectrum enabling the realization of contextuality tests both in the Gaussian and non-Gaussian regimes. (paper)

  17. Cine MR CSF flow study in hydrocephalus: What are the valuable parmeters?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Myung Hyun

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in diagnosis of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the hydrocephalus, we studied the various parameters of cine phase contrast (PC) magnetic resonance (MR) CSF flow images in cases of acutely progressive hydrocephalus, comparing them with those in normal CSF circulation. The MR images were obtained with a 1.5T (GE Signa, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, USA) unit using the 2 dimensional cine PC sequence with peripheral gating and gradient recalled echo imaging in ten cases of non-obstructive hydrocephalus(NOH), three of obstructive hydrocephalus(OH), and ten controls. The time-echo time-flip angle employed were 50 to 80 msec-11 to 15 msec-12 to 15 degrees. Temporal velocity information relating to cervical pericord CSF spaces, third and fourth ventricles, and the aqueduct were plotted as wave forms which were then analyzed for configuration, amplitude parameters(Vmax, Vmin, Vdif), and temporal parameters(R-S, R-SMV, R-D, R-DMV). The statistical significance of each parameter was examined using the paired t-test. All patients with OH underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy, whereas all with NOH underwent shunting procedures. In five ROIs, distinct reproducible configuration features were obtained at aqueduct and cervical pericord spaces, but not at ventricular levels. We determined the statistically significant differences between controls and hydrocephalus patients using temporal, rather than amplitude parameters. In NOH, the graph showed R-DMV shortening (p<0.01) at the anterior cervical pericord space. In OH, there were R-DMV shortening (p<0.05) was seen at the anterior cervical pericord space, and R-DMV shortening (p<0.02) at the posterior cervical pericord space. In one case of OH, a typical change of configuration, mirror image, was obtained at aqueduct level, and in all OH cases, the level of obstruction could be determined. The results of cine PC MR CSF flow study may be valuable for points for determining the level

  18. Does Contextual Cueing Guide the Deployment of Attention?

    OpenAIRE

    Kunar, Melina A.; Flusberg, Stephen; Horowitz, Todd S.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2007-01-01

    Contextual cueing experiments show that when displays are repeated, reaction times (RTs) to find a target decrease over time even when observers are not aware of the repetition. It has been thought that the context of the display guides attention to the target. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of guidance in a standard search task to the effects of contextual cueing. Firstly, in standard search, an improvement in guidance causes search slopes (derived from RT × Set Size func...

  19. Existential contextuality and the models of Meyer, Kent, and Clifton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleby, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the models recently proposed by Meyer, Kent, and Clifton (MKC) exhibit a novel kind of contextuality, which we term existential contextuality. In this phenomenon it is not simply the pre-existing value but the actual existence of an observable which is context dependent. This result confirms the point made elsewhere, that the MKC models do not, as the authors claim, 'nullify' the Kochen-Specker theorem. It may also be of some independent interest

  20. A case report on inVALUABLE: insect value chain in a circular bioeconomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, L.-H.; Andersen, J.L.; Eilenberg, J.

    2018-01-01

    partners span the entire value chain and include entrepreneurs, experts in biology, biotechnology, automation, processing and food tech and safety. This paper provides an overview of the goal, activities and some preliminary results obtained during the first year of the project.......The vision of inVALUABLE is to create a sustainable resource-efficient industry for animal production based on insects. inVALUABLE has focus on the R&D demand for scaling up production of insects in Denmark and assessing the application potential of particularly mealworms. The inVALUABLE consortium...

  1. Contextualizing educational differences in "vaccination uptake": A thirty nation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarovs, Kirils; Achterberg, Peter

    2017-09-01

    This paper addresses the issue of public acceptance of vaccination with specific attention being paid to the role of education in vaccine uptake. Using Flash Eurobarometer 287 (2009) survey data and exploring it through the lens of Beck's reflexive modernization and Roger's protection motivation theories we examined how individual-level factors affect intention to get vaccinated, particularly aimed at examining whether higher education predicts more or less vaccination intention in different societies. The empirical results support an idea that at least for seasonal flu educational differences in vaccination uptake are contextual upon the reflexivity of the society in which respondent happens to live. Educated people living in more reflexive modernized countries tend to oppose vaccination against seasonal flu more that those highly educated living in less advanced societies, indicating that skeptical attitude towards science that is intrinsic to the modern post-industrial nations induces the immunization opposition among most informed and distrustful social group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seugnet Blignaut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006 - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

  3. Contextual Multi-armed Bandits under Feature Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Seyoung [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nam, Jun Hyun [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Sangwoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jinwoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-03

    We study contextual multi-armed bandit problems under linear realizability on rewards and uncertainty (or noise) on features. For the case of identical noise on features across actions, we propose an algorithm, coined NLinRel, having O(T⁷/₈(log(dT)+K√d)) regret bound for T rounds, K actions, and d-dimensional feature vectors. Next, for the case of non-identical noise, we observe that popular linear hypotheses including NLinRel are impossible to achieve such sub-linear regret. Instead, under assumption of Gaussian feature vectors, we prove that a greedy algorithm has O(T²/₃√log d)regret bound with respect to the optimal linear hypothesis. Utilizing our theoretical understanding on the Gaussian case, we also design a practical variant of NLinRel, coined Universal-NLinRel, for arbitrary feature distributions. It first runs NLinRel for finding the ‘true’ coefficient vector using feature uncertainties and then adjust it to minimize its regret using the statistical feature information. We justify the performance of Universal-NLinRel on both synthetic and real-world datasets.

  4. Identification of Factors Determining Market Value of the Most Valuable Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Majewski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The problem of identifying the most important determinants of the market value of football players is quite well described in the literature. There are many works that try to identify these factors. Some of them are focused on variables to make a set complete and others are on models and methods. The aim of this article is to present the variables influencing the valuation and to build an econometric model valuing footballers playing on the forward position, taking into consideration the assumptions of the econometric modelling. Such an approach indicates managers as other sources for obtaining information. Methodology: Econometric models were used to verify the hypothesis formulated in this research. The database was created on the basis of variables presented on the website www.transfermarkt. de that presents the values of the most valuable football players in the world playing on the forward position. The Gretl program was used in the research. Findings: The literature review showed that there are many independent variables having an impact on the value of the player. There are also many different models used to valuate footballers’ performance rights. The results of estimation of models in the research indicated that such factors as Canadian classification points adjusted the market value of the team and dummy variables describing “goodwill” (only for the best players had an impact on the market value of footballers’ performance rights. Limitations/implications: Information about different factors having an impact on football players’ market value could support the investment decision process of football managers. Originality/value: The results were part of a study concerning economics of sport, particularly processes of management of football clubs and valuation of intangible assets.

  5. Hemodynamic exercise testing. A valuable tool in the selection of cardiac transplantation candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, D B; Lang, C C; Rayos, G H; Shyr, Y; Yeoh, T K; Pierson, R N; Davis, S F; Wilson, J R

    1996-12-15

    Peak exercise oxygen consumption (Vo2), a noninvasive index of peak exercise cardiac output (CO), is widely used to select candidates for heart transplantation. However, peak exercise Vo2 can be influenced by noncardiac factors such as deconditioning, motivation, or body composition and may yield misleading prognostic information. Direct measurement of the CO response to exercise may avoid this problem and more accurately predict prognosis. Hemodynamic and ventilatory responses to maximal treadmill exercise were measured in 185 ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure who had been referred for cardiac transplantation (mean left ventricular ejection fraction, 22 +/- 7%; mean peak Vo2, 12.9 +/- 3.0 mL. min-1.kg-1). CO response to exercise was normal in 83 patients and reduced in 102. By univariate analysis, patients with normal CO responses had a better 1-year survival rate (95%) than did those with reduced CO responses (72%) (P 14 mL.min-1.kg-1 (88%) was not different from that of patients with peak Vo2 of 10 mL.min-1.kg-1 (89%) (P < .0001). By Cox regression analysis, exercise CO response was the strongest independent predictor of survival (risk ratio, 4.3), with peak Vo2 dichotomized at 10 mL. min-1.kg-1 (risk ratio, 3.3) as the only other independent predictor. Patients with reduced CO responses and peak Vo2 of < or = 10 mL.min-1.kg-1 had an extremely poor 1-year survival rate (38%). Both CO response to exercise and peak exercise Vo2 provide valuable independent prognostic information in ambulatory patients with heart failure. These variables should be used in combination to select potential heart transplantation candidates.

  6. Smooth incidence maps give valuable insight into Q fever outbreaks in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim van der Hoek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available From 2007 through 2009, The Netherlands faced large outbreaks of human Q fever. Control measures focused primarily on dairy goat farms because these were implicated as the main source of infection for the surrounding population. However, in other countries, outbreaks have mainly been associated with non-dairy sheep and The Netherlands has many more sheep than goats. Therefore, a public discussion arose about the possible role of non-dairy (meat sheep in the outbreaks. To inform decision makers about the relative importance of different infection sources, we developed accurate and high-resolution incidence maps for detection of Q fever hot spots. In the high incidence area in the south of the country, full postal codes of notified Q fever patients with onset of illness in 2009, were georeferenced. Q fever cases (n = 1,740 were treated as a spatial point process. A 500 x 500 m grid was imposed over the area of interest. The number of cases and the population number were counted in each cell. The number of cases was modelled as an inhomogeneous Poisson process where the underlying incidence was estimated by 2-dimensional P-spline smoothing. Modelling of numbers of Q fever cases based on residential addresses and population size produced smooth incidence maps that clearly showed Q fever hotspots around infected dairy goat farms. No such increased incidence was noted around infected meat sheep farms. We conclude that smooth incidence maps of human notifications give valuable information about the Q fever epidemic and are a promising method to provide decision support for the control of other infectious diseases with an environmental source.

  7. Contextual Categorisation of Academics’ Conceptions of Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite large-class research-based instructional strategies being firmly established in the literature, traditional teacher-centred lecturing remains the norm. This is particularly the case in physics, where Physics Education Research (PER has blossomed as a discipline in its own right over the last few decades, but research-based strategies are not widely implemented. This variation in practice is underpinned by variations in beliefs and understandings about teaching. Studies investigating the spectrum of conceptions of teaching held by teachers and, in particular, academics have almost uniformly identified a single dimension from teacher-centred to student-centred. These studies have used a phenomenographic approach to capture the variety of conceptions of teaching, but have excluded contextual issues like class size. Research Question: How does class size affect academics’ conceptions of teaching? Method: This study used an online survey to compare and contrast respondents’ experiences of small and large classes, and in particular lectures. The survey was promoted to Australian university academics from a range of disciplines, predominantly science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM. Responses to the sets of small-class questions were analysed independently from the sets of equivalent large-class questions. For each respondent their small-class responses were categorised, where possible, as either being student-centred or teacher-centred, and likewise, independently, for their large-class responses. Results: In total, 107 survey responses were received. Of these, 51 had the sets of both their large- and small-class responses unambiguously categorised. Five of these were student-centred regardless of class size, and 17 of these were teacher-centred regardless of class size. All of the remaining 29 responses were teacher-centred in large classes, but student-centred in small classes. Conversely, none of the

  8. Does Contextual Cueing Guide the Deployment of Attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A.; Flusberg, Stephen; Horowitz, Todd S.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contextual cueing experiments show that when displays are repeated, reaction times (RTs) to find a target decrease over time even when observers are not aware of the repetition. It has been thought that the context of the display guides attention to the target. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of guidance in a standard search task to the effects of contextual cueing. Firstly, in standard search, an improvement in guidance causes search slopes (derived from RT × Set Size functions) to decrease. In contrast, we found that search slopes in contextual cueing did not become more efficient over time (Experiment 1). Secondly, when guidance is optimal (e.g. in easy feature search) we still found a small, but reliable contextual cueing effect (Experiments 2a and 2b), suggesting that other factors, such as response selection, contribute to the effect. Experiment 3 supported this hypothesis by showing that the contextual cueing effect disappeared when we added interference to the response selection process. Overall, our data suggest that the relationship between guidance and contextual cueing is weak and that response selection can account for part of the effect. PMID:17683230

  9. Human cortical activity evoked by contextual processing in attentional orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuo; Li, Chunlin; Uono, Shota; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2017-06-07

    The ability to assess another person's direction of attention is paramount in social communication, many studies have reported a similar pattern between gaze and arrow cues in attention orienting. Neuroimaging research has also demonstrated no qualitative differences in attention to gaze and arrow cues. However, these studies were implemented under simple experiment conditions. Researchers have highlighted the importance of contextual processing (i.e., the semantic congruence between cue and target) in attentional orienting, showing that attentional orienting by social gaze or arrow cues could be modulated through contextual processing. Here, we examine the neural activity of attentional orienting by gaze and arrow cues in response to contextual processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results demonstrated that the influence of neural activity through contextual processing to attentional orienting occurred under invalid conditions (when the cue and target were incongruent versus congruent) in the ventral frontoparietal network, although we did not identify any differences in the neural substrates of attentional orienting in contextual processing between gaze and arrow cues. These results support behavioural data of attentional orienting modulated by contextual processing based on the neurocognitive architecture.

  10. Understanding contextual influences of community reintegration among injured servicemembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brent L; McGuire, Francis A; Linder, Sandra M; Britt, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger mixed-methods research project investigating the influence of contextual factors on community reintegration (CR), this qualitative study sought to understand the subjective experiences of injured servicemembers and their perception of how contextual factors influenced their CR. More specifically, this article addresses how the influences of contextual factors differ between injured servicemembers with different levels of CR. Using a phenomenological framework, semistructured interviews were conducted with nine injured, community-dwelling servicemembers with low, moderate, and high levels of CR (three per category). Participants provided in-depth descriptions of the contextual barriers and facilitators of CR. Thematic analysis indicated the importance of social support and personal factors (e.g., self-efficacy, personal motivation) as the primary means for being reintegrated into their homes and communities. Other themes indicated factors that had an indirect but important influence on CR, including adapted sports, recreation, and other social programs; rehabilitation programs and therapists; school, work, and volunteering; and organizations and policies in developing social supports and personal factors. Comparisons between servicemembers indicated participants with low CR described many more contextual barriers and far fewer contextual facilitators to reintegration than those with high CR. Those with moderate CR were unique in that they described many facilitators and barriers to reintegration.

  11. Contextual modulation and stimulus selectivity in extrastriate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Matthew R; Pack, Christopher C

    2014-11-01

    Contextual modulation is observed throughout the visual system, using techniques ranging from single-neuron recordings to behavioral experiments. Its role in generating feature selectivity within the retina and primary visual cortex has been extensively described in the literature. Here, we describe how similar computations can also elaborate feature selectivity in the extrastriate areas of both the dorsal and ventral streams of the primate visual system. We discuss recent work that makes use of normalization models to test specific roles for contextual modulation in visual cortex function. We suggest that contextual modulation renders neuronal populations more selective for naturalistic stimuli. Specifically, we discuss contextual modulation's role in processing optic flow in areas MT and MST and for representing naturally occurring curvature and contours in areas V4 and IT. We also describe how the circuitry that supports contextual modulation is robust to variations in overall input levels. Finally, we describe how this theory relates to other hypothesized roles for contextual modulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contextual control of discriminated operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E; Todd, Travis P; León, Samuel P

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that changing the context after instrumental (operant) conditioning can weaken the strength of the operant response. That result contrasts with the results of studies of Pavlovian conditioning, in which a context switch often does not affect the response elicited by a conditioned stimulus. To begin to make the methods more similar, Experiments 1-3 tested the effects of a context switch in rats on a discriminated operant response (R; lever pressing or chain pulling) that had been reinforced only in the presence of a 30-s discriminative stimulus (S; tone or light). As in Pavlovian conditioning, responses and reinforcers became confined to presentations of the S during training. However, in Experiment 1, after training in Context A, a switch to Context B caused a decrement in responding during S. In Experiment 2, a switch to Context B likewise decreased responding in S when Context B was equally familiar, equally associated with reinforcement, or equally associated with the training of a discriminated operant (a different R reinforced in a different S). However, there was no decrement if Context B had been associated with the same response that was trained in Context A (Experiments 2 and 3). The effectiveness of S transferred across contexts, whereas the strength of the response did not. Experiment 4 found that a continuously reinforced response was also disrupted by context change when the same response manipulandum was used in both training and testing. Overall, the results suggest that the context can have a robust general role in the control of operant behavior. Mechanisms of contextual control are discussed.

  13. Classifier Fusion With Contextual Reliability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhunga; Pan, Quan; Dezert, Jean; Han, Jun-Wei; He, You

    2018-05-01

    Classifier fusion is an efficient strategy to improve the classification performance for the complex pattern recognition problem. In practice, the multiple classifiers to combine can have different reliabilities and the proper reliability evaluation plays an important role in the fusion process for getting the best classification performance. We propose a new method for classifier fusion with contextual reliability evaluation (CF-CRE) based on inner reliability and relative reliability concepts. The inner reliability, represented by a matrix, characterizes the probability of the object belonging to one class when it is classified to another class. The elements of this matrix are estimated from the -nearest neighbors of the object. A cautious discounting rule is developed under belief functions framework to revise the classification result according to the inner reliability. The relative reliability is evaluated based on a new incompatibility measure which allows to reduce the level of conflict between the classifiers by applying the classical evidence discounting rule to each classifier before their combination. The inner reliability and relative reliability capture different aspects of the classification reliability. The discounted classification results are combined with Dempster-Shafer's rule for the final class decision making support. The performance of CF-CRE have been evaluated and compared with those of main classical fusion methods using real data sets. The experimental results show that CF-CRE can produce substantially higher accuracy than other fusion methods in general. Moreover, CF-CRE is robust to the changes of the number of nearest neighbors chosen for estimating the reliability matrix, which is appealing for the applications.

  14. Informe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Lichetenberger

    1950-10-01

    Full Text Available Informe del doctor Egon Lichetenberger ante el Consejo Directivo de la Facultad, sobre el  curso de especialización en Anatomía Patológica patrocinado por la Kellogg Foundation (Departamento de Patología

  15. Object-Location Training Elicits an Overlapping but Temporally Distinct Transcriptional Profile from Contextual Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mathieu; Hawk, Joshua D.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Giese, Karl P.; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning is known to induce changes in gene expression, but information on gene expression differences between different learning paradigms that require the hippocampus is limited. The bulk of studies investigating RNA expression after learning use the contextual fear conditioning task, which couples a novel environment with a footshock. Although contextual fear conditioning has been useful in discovering gene targets, gene expression after spatial memory tasks has received less attention. In this study, we used the object-location memory task and studied gene expression at two time points after learning in a high-throughput manner using a microfluidic qPCR approach. We found that expression of the classic immediate-early genes changes after object-location training in a fashion similar to that observed after contextual fear conditioning. However, the temporal dynamics of gene expression are different between the two tasks, with object-location memory producing gene expression changes that last at least 2 hours. Our findings indicate that different training paradigms may give rise to distinct temporal dynamics of gene expression after learning. PMID:25242102

  16. Object-location training elicits an overlapping but temporally distinct transcriptional profile from contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawski, Shane G; Schoch, Hannah; Wimmer, Mathieu; Hawk, Joshua D; Walsh, Jennifer L; Giese, Karl P; Abel, Ted

    2014-12-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning is known to induce changes in gene expression, but information on gene expression differences between different learning paradigms that require the hippocampus is limited. The bulk of studies investigating RNA expression after learning use the contextual fear conditioning task, which couples a novel environment with a footshock. Although contextual fear conditioning has been useful in discovering gene targets, gene expression after spatial memory tasks has received less attention. In this study, we used the object-location memory task and studied gene expression at two time points after learning in a high-throughput manner using a microfluidic qPCR approach. We found that expression of the classic immediate-early genes changes after object-location training in a fashion similar to that observed after contextual fear conditioning. However, the temporal dynamics of gene expression are different between the two tasks, with object-location memory producing gene expression changes that last at least 2 hours. Our findings indicate that different training paradigms may give rise to distinct temporal dynamics of gene expression after learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Adolescents' Emotional Well-Being in the Classroom: The Role of Personal and Contextual Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Eva

    2018-02-01

    The objective was to predict early adolescents' emotional well-being from personal and contextual assets in the classroom. Emotional well-being is a key indicator of health. Aligned with the positive youth development (PYD) framework, a supportive classroom environment and positive relationships with teachers and peers were contextual assets in the present study; positive self-concept was a personal asset. The sample was 406 grade 4 to 7 public elementary school students from diverse backgrounds (mean = 11.27 years; SD = 0.89; 50% female). Data were self-, teacher-, and peer-reported. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses were used to evaluate model fit and identify significant pathways. SEM indicated a good model fit. Overall, 68% of variability in early adolescents' emotional well-being was explained. Positive self-concept directly predicted emotional well-being. Supportive classroom environment predicted emotional well-being directly and indirectly through increases in positive social relationships and self-concept. Positive social relationships predicted well-being only indirectly through positive self-concept. Contextual and personal assets are central for early adolescents' emotional well-being. The interrelation among assets needs to be considered when understanding, and ultimately promoting students' emotional well-being. The present findings extend previous research and inform school-based intervention and prevention programming and teacher professional development. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  18. Efektivitas Layanan Informasi dengan Pendekatan Contextual Teaching And Learning dalam Meningkatkan Arah Perencanaan Karier Siswa SMK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramtia Darma Putri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Direction of career planning become very important because it can guidelines students in decisions making of his career in the future.  Direction of career planning should be prepared and improved considering that not all students have a mature direction of career planning. Central Statistics Agency (BPS of West Sumatera in August 2014 recorded the open unemployment of about 6.99%  or reach 150 thousand people are more dominated by graduates SMK as much as 11.15%. In addition, the results of AUM umum in one of the SMK was indicated problems in careers and jobs as much to 33.56%. This demonstrates that students do not have a clear understanding about direction of career planning that will be chosen. One of the efforts to improve the students direction of career planning is the information service.  This research was intended to find out the effectiveness of information service with contextual teaching and learning approach to improve the direction of career planning student of SMK.This study uses quantitative methods. This type of research is Quasi Experiment with Nonrandomized Control Group Pretest-posttest Design. The subjects were students of SMK Padang Nusatama as an experimental group and the SMK Nasional Padang as a control group. The research instrument used Likert Scale models, and then analyzed using Paired Samples t-test and Independent Sample t-test with SPSS version 17.00.In general the study's findings that information service with contextual teaching and learning approach is effective in improving direction of career planning student of SMK. Specifically: (1 there was a significant differences between direction of career planning in the experimental group before and after the given information service with contextual teaching and learning approach, (2 there was a significant differences between direction of career planning in the control group before and after the given conventional information service, and (3 there was a

  19. Assessing roles of vocabulary knowledge predominating in contextual clues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharawadee Promduang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the use of contextual clues and whether EFL learners who are well-equipped with reading skills are able to comprehend the text despite a low level of vocabulary knowledge. Therefore, the study focused on which vocabulary dimensions help students guess unfamiliar words. The study was carried out at Hatyai University in Thailand. The population of this study consisted of 34 undergraduates who were studying International Business English and had taken a course in reading techniques. The present study was conducted to conceptually validate the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge to improve skills by contextual clue. Vocabulary Depth was specially employed to evaluate two dimensions namely Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic. The Schmitt and Clapham Vocabulary Level Test was used to test vocabulary breadth, while the vocabulary depth was implemented by Read’s Vocabulary Depth Test. Reading parts of the TOEFL were adopted for contextual clue items. There were two statistical analysis tools also implemented in this study: paired-sample t-test and bivariate correlation. First, in an attempt to find which vocabulary dimension predominates in guessing word meaning from the text, a paired-sample t-test was utilized to compare the difference of two vocabulary dimensions in reading part: vocabulary depth and contextual clues, and vocabulary breadth and contextual clues. Second, a bivariate correlation was used to find the degree of relationship between vocabulary knowledge and contextual clues. The consequences of this study identified empirical results that 1 there was a positive relationship between contextual clues and vocabulary depth, the reverse is true in vocabulary breadth. Moreover, vocabulary depth is more significantly crucial than breadth to enhance student’s ability to guess words’ meaning from the context.

  20. Awareness in contextual cueing of visual search as measured with concurrent access- and phenomenal-consciousness tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagbauer, Bernhard; Müller, Hermann J; Zehetleitner, Michael; Geyer, Thomas

    2012-10-25

    In visual search, context information can serve as a cue to guide attention to the target location. When observers repeatedly encounter displays with identical target-distractor arrangements, reaction times (RTs) are faster for repeated relative to nonrepeated displays, the latter containing novel configurations. This effect has been termed "contextual cueing." The present study asked whether information about the target location in repeated displays is "explicit" (or "conscious") in nature. To examine this issue, observers performed a test session (after an initial training phase in which RTs to repeated and nonrepeated displays were measured) in which the search stimuli were presented briefly and terminated by visual masks; following this, observers had to make a target localization response (with accuracy as the dependent measure) and indicate their visual experience and confidence associated with the localization response. The data were examined at the level of individual displays, i.e., in terms of whether or not a repeated display actually produced contextual cueing. The results were that (a) contextual cueing was driven by only a very small number of about four actually learned configurations; (b) localization accuracy was increased for learned relative to nonrepeated displays; and (c) both consciousness measures were enhanced for learned compared to nonrepeated displays. It is concluded that contextual cueing is driven by only a few repeated displays and the ability to locate the target in these displays is associated with increased visual experience.

  1. Cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells present a valuable alternative to fish lethal testing for azoxystrobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Elsa T.; Pardal, Miguel Â.; Laizé, Vincent; Cancela, M. Leonor; Oliveira, Paulo J.; Serafim, Teresa L.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims at identifying, among six mammalian and fish cell lines, a sensitive cell line whose in vitro median inhibitory concentration (IC_5_0) better matches the in vivo short-term Sparus aurata median lethal concentration (LC_5_0). IC_5_0_s and LC_5_0 were assessed after exposure to the widely used fungicide azoxystrobin (AZX). Statistical results were relevant for most cell lines after 48 h of AZX exposure, being H9c2 the most sensitive cells, as well as the ones which provided the best prediction of fish toxicity, with a LC_5_0_,_9_6_h/IC_5_0_,_4_8_h = 0.581. H9c2 cell proliferation upon 72 h of AZX exposure revealed a LC_5_0_,_9_6_h/IC_5_0_,_7_2_h = 0.998. Therefore, identical absolute sensitivities were attained for both in vitro and in vivo assays. To conclude, the H9c2 cell-based assay is reliable and represents a suitable ethical alternative to conventional fish assays for AZX, and could be used to get valuable insights into the toxic effects of other pesticides. - Highlights: • Fish toxicity data are still considered standard information in ecotoxicology. • Alternatives to animal testing have become an important topic of research. • Cell-based assays are currently a promising in vitro alternative. • Comparative studies to accelerate the validation of cell-based methods are required. • H9c2 cell line proved to produce in vitro reliable toxicity results for azoxystrobin. - The application of cell-based assays for environmental toxicity studies would greatly reduce the number of fish needed for toxicity testing without any loss of reliability.

  2. Contextual knowledge reduces demands on working memory during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cohen, Jason A; Wingfield, Arthur

    2006-09-01

    An experiment is reported in which young, middle-aged, and older adults read and recalled ambiguous texts either with or without the topic title that supplied contextual knowledge. Within each of the age groups, the participants were divided into those with high or low working memory (WM) spans, with available WM capacity further manipulated by the presence or absence of an auditory target detection task concurrent with the reading task. Differences in reading efficiency (reading time per proposition recalled) between low WM span and high WM span groups were greater among readers who had access to contextual knowledge relative to those who did not, suggesting that contextual knowledge reduces demands on WM capacity. This position was further supported by the finding that increased age and attentional demands, two factors associated with reduced WM capacity, exaggerated the benefits of contextual knowledge on reading efficiency. The relative strengths of additional potential predictors of reading efficiency (e.g., interest, effort, and memory beliefs), along with knowledge, WM span, and age, are reported. Findings showed that contextual knowledge was the strongest predictor of reading efficiency even after controlling for the effects of all of the other predictors.

  3. The time course of attentional deployment in contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Sigstad, Heather M; Swallow, Khena M

    2013-04-01

    The time course of attention is a major characteristic on which different types of attention diverge. In addition to explicit goals and salient stimuli, spatial attention is influenced by past experience. In contextual cueing, behaviorally relevant stimuli are more quickly found when they appear in a spatial context that has previously been encountered than when they appear in a new context. In this study, we investigated the time that it takes for contextual cueing to develop following the onset of search layout cues. In three experiments, participants searched for a T target in an array of Ls. Each array was consistently associated with a single target location. In a testing phase, we manipulated the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the repeated spatial layout and the search display. Contextual cueing was equivalent for a wide range of SOAs between 0 and 1,000 ms. The lack of an increase in contextual cueing with increasing cue durations suggests that as an implicit learning mechanism, contextual cueing cannot be effectively used until search begins.

  4. Pigeons Exhibit Contextual Cueing to Both Simple and Complex Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Castro, Leyre

    2014-01-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of this contextual cueing effect using a novel Cueing-Miscueing design. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four possible locations on four possible color backgrounds or four possible color photographs of real-world scenes. On 80% of the trials, each of the contexts was uniquely paired with one of the target locations; on the other 20% of the trials, each of the contexts was randomly paired with the remaining target locations. Pigeons came to exhibit robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 2 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on correctly-cued trials than on incorrectly-cued trials. Contextual cueing proved to be more robust with photographic backgrounds than with uniformly colored backgrounds. In addition, during the context-target delay, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. These findings confirm the effectiveness of animal models of contextual cueing and underscore the important part played by associative learning in producing the effect. PMID:24491468

  5. Contextual diversity facilitates learning new words in the classroom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Rosa

    Full Text Available In the field of word recognition and reading, it is commonly assumed that frequently repeated words create more accessible memory traces than infrequently repeated words, thus capturing the word-frequency effect. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that a seemingly related factor, contextual diversity (defined as the number of different contexts [e.g., films] in which a word appears, is a better predictor than word-frequency in word recognition and sentence reading experiments. Recent research has shown that contextual diversity plays an important role when learning new words in a laboratory setting with adult readers. In the current experiment, we directly manipulated contextual diversity in a very ecological scenario: at school, when Grade 3 children were learning words in the classroom. The new words appeared in different contexts/topics (high-contextual diversity or only in one of them (low-contextual diversity. Results showed that words encountered in different contexts were learned and remembered more effectively than those presented in redundant contexts. We discuss the practical (educational [e.g., curriculum design] and theoretical (models of word recognition implications of these findings.

  6. Hypobaric hypoxia impairs cued and contextual fear memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Punita; Kauser, Hina; Wadhwa, Meetu; Roy, Koustav; Alam, Shahnawaz; Sahu, Surajit; Kishore, Krishna; Ray, Koushik; Panjwani, Usha

    2018-04-26

    Fear memory is essential for survival, and its dysregulation leads to disorders. High altitude hypobaric hypoxia (HH) is known to induce cognitive decline. However, its effect on fear memory is still an enigma. We aimed to investigate the temporal effect of HH on fear conditioning and the underlying mechanism. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained for fear conditioning and exposed to simulated HH equivalent to 25,000 ft for different durations (1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days). Subsequently, rats were tested for cued and contextual fear conditioning. Neuronal morphology, apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were studied in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (BLA). We observed significant deficit in cued and contextual fear acquisition (at 1, 3 and 7 days) and consolidation (cued at 1 and 3 days and contextual fear at 1, 3 and 7 days) under HH. HH exposure with retraining showed the earlier restoration of contextual fear memory. Further, we found a gradual increase in the number of pyknotic and apoptotic neurons together with the increase in DNA fragmentation in mPFC, hippocampus, and BLA up to 7 days of HH exposure. The present study concludes that HH exposure equivalent to 25000 ft induced cued and contextual fear memory deficit (acquisition and consolidation) which is found to be correlated with the neurodegenerative changes in the limbic brain regions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. How Does Intentionality of Encoding Affect Memory for Episodic Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael; Butterworth, Karla; Nilsson, Jonna; Hamilton, Colin J.; Gallagher, Peter; Smulders, Tom V.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory enables the detailed and vivid recall of past events, including target and wider contextual information. In this paper, we investigated whether/how encoding intentionality affects the retention of target and contextual episodic information from a novel experience. Healthy adults performed (1) a "What-Where-When"…

  8. I thought that I heard you laughing: Contextual facial expressions modulate the perception of authentic laughter and crying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavan, Nadine; Lima, César F; Harvey, Hannah; Scott, Sophie K; McGettigan, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that categorising the emotional content of facial expressions may differ depending on contextual information. Whether this malleability is observed in the auditory domain and in genuine emotion expressions is poorly explored. We examined the perception of authentic laughter and crying in the context of happy, neutral and sad facial expressions. Participants rated the vocalisations on separate unipolar scales of happiness and sadness and on arousal. Although they were instructed to focus exclusively on the vocalisations, consistent context effects were found: For both laughter and crying, emotion judgements were shifted towards the information expressed by the face. These modulations were independent of response latencies and were larger for more emotionally ambiguous vocalisations. No effects of context were found for arousal ratings. These findings suggest that the automatic encoding of contextual information during emotion perception generalises across modalities, to purely non-verbal vocalisations, and is not confined to acted expressions.

  9. Consumers' Views Regarding Health Claims on Food Packages. Contextual Analysis by Means of Computer Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Gunilla Svederberg

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown consumers to generally have only a limited understanding of the nutritional information on packaged-food labels. This suggests it is difficult for them to select properly between different foods on the basis of such information. As a basis for information on the requirements of groups of consumers, the present study aimed at investigating how, when presented with health claims and other nutritional information on the labels of food products, consumers' thinking about foods is affected by various background factors as well as by various types of food-related experiences. Semi-structured interviews of 30 consumers in Sweden—men and women aged 25 to 64, with and without food-related health problems—were carried out. The interviews were tape-recorded and were transcribed word-for-word. In the analysis of the interview data, the qualitative methodology of contextual analysis was utilised. For the purpose of method development, the computer programme Atlas.ti was used to support the analysis. The objective of this article is to show step by step how the analysis was carried out. In connection with the analysis, some results are presented. However, the focus in the article is on methodology. The conclusion drawn is that Atlas.ti has qualities that can facilitate the contextual analysis of the interview data. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0201109

  10. Novel extractants with high selectivity for valuable metals in seawater. Calixarene derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakoi, Takahiko; Goto, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Seawater contains various valuable metals such as uranium and lithium. Therefore, attempts are being made to develop highly selective extractants which recognize target metal ions in reclaimed seawater. In this review, we have focused our study on the application of novel cyclic compound calixarene based extractants. A novel host compound calixarene, which is a cyclic compound connecting some phenol rings, is capable of forming several different extractant ring sizes and introducing various kinds of functional groups towards targeting of metal ions in seawater. Therefore, calixarene derivatives are capable of extracting valuable metals such as uranium, alkaline metals, heavy metals, rare earth metals and noble metals selectively by varying structural ring size and functional groups. The novel host compound calixarene has given promising results which line it up as a potential extractant for the separation of valuable metal ions in seawater. (author)

  11. Effect of Acid Dissolution Conditions on Recovery of Valuable Metals from Used Plasma Display Panel Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chan-Mi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this particular study was to recover valuable metals from waste plasma display panels using high energy ball milling with subsequent acid dissolution. Dissolution of milled (PDP powder was studied in HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4 acidic solutions. The effects of dissolution acid, temperature, time, and PDP scrap powder to acid ratio on the leaching process were investigated and the most favorable conditions were found: (1 valuable metals (In, Ag, Mg were recovered from PDP powder in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl:H2O = 50:50; (2 the optimal dissolution temperature and time for the valuable metals were found to be 60°C and 30 min, respectively; (3 the ideal PDP scrap powder to acid solution ratio was found to be 1:10. The proposed method was applied to the recovery of magnesium, silver, and indium with satisfactory results.

  12. Probing contextuality with pre- and post-selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollaksen, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    By analyzing the concept of contextuality (Bell-Kochen-Specker) in terms of pre-and-post-selection (PPS), it is possible to assign definite values to observables in a new way. Physical reasons are presented for restrictions on these assignments. When measurements are performed which do not disturb the pre- and post-selection (i.e. weak measurements), then novel experimental aspects of contextuality can be demonstrated including a proof that every PPS-paradox with definite predictions implies contextuality. Certain results of these measurements (eccentric weak values with e.g. negative values outside the spectrum), however, cannot be explained by a 'classical-like' hidden variable theory. Surprising theoretical implications are discussed

  13. Contextual profiles of young adult Ecstasy users: a multisite study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramtekkar, Ujjwal P.; Striley, Catherine W; Cottler, Linda B

    2010-01-01

    These analyses assess contextual profiles of 612 young adult Ecstasy users, 18–30 years of age, from St. Louis (USA), Miami (USA) and Sydney (Australia). Bivariate analyses revealed different contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use. Friends were the most common sources of Ecstasy at all sites and most used with friends. St. Louis and Miami use mostly occurred in residences, whereas in Sydney use was mostly at clubs, bars or restaurants. Ecstasy consumption at public places and in cars, trains or ferries was significantly higher in Miami (89% and 77%) than in St. Louis (67% and 65%) and Sydney (67% and 61%). At all sites, simultaneous use of LSD/mushroom and nitrous oxide with Ecstasy was common; concurrent amphetamines predominated in Sydney and heroin/opiates in St. Louis Contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use among young adults vary by geographic region. Their inclusion may help tailor effective prevention programs to reduce or ameliorate Ecstasy use. PMID:21094585

  14. Neutron polarimetric test of Leggett's contextual model of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Bartosik, H.; Klepp, J.; Sponar, S.; Badurek, G.; Hasegawa, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument attempted to dispute quantum theory. With the Bell inequality it was possible to set up an experimental test of the EPR argument. Here, we describe the rebuilding of the measurement station at the tangential beam exit of the TRIGA reactor of the Atominstitut in Vienna. A new polarimeter setup was constructed and adjusted to generate Bell states by entangling a neutron's energy and spin. After accomplishing visibilities of up to 98.7 %, it was possible to test a Leggett-type inequality, which challenges a 'contextual' hidden variable theory. Such a contextual model would have been capable of reproducing former Bell inequality violations. Measurement results of this Leggett inequality and a generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality show violations of this hidden variable model. Hence noncontextual and contextual hidden variable theories can be excluded simultaneously and quantum mechanical predictions are confirmed. (author)

  15. Recovery from equipment failures in ATC: Determination of contextual factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subotic, Branka; Ochieng, Washington Y.; Straeter, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Human reliability assessment (HRA) currently uses various approaches to determine and quantify human error. These approaches are increasingly being employed in various safety-critical domains, such as air traffic management and its ground component air traffic control. HRA research over the years has shown the important role of the context in which human errors take place. Recent techniques now put more emphasis on the definition of key contextual factors and their impact on the reliability of human performance. This paper presents a review of the current understanding of contextual factors in various industries. It uses this together with results from controller interviews to identify the contextual factors relevant to controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control. These factors should be used in conjunction with an appropriate method to analyse the performance of a controller during the process of recovery from failures

  16. Analysis of Some Recent Tests of Quantum Contextuality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Cour, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Contextuality plays a central role in many key proofs for the impossibility of hidden variables in quantum mechanics. The most famous among these is the Kochen-Specker theorem, which originally applied to a Hilbert space of three dimensions, but much simpler proofs in higher dimensions have since been found. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in contextuality, and a number of experiments have been performed to test it in the four-dimensional context. Recently, it has been shown that contextuality may be interpreted as the result of simple measurement disturbance if the set of measurements chosen are time-like separated [B. La Cour, Phys. Rev. A, 79, 012102 (2009)]. In this work, several such experiments will be reviewed, and it will be shown that none are capable of ruling out a realistic, local hidden variable interpretation.

  17. Contextualization processes and the initial education of physics teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cândida de Macedo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Contextualization of school contents has been seen as a possibility of facilitating students’ learning, since it makes the educative process more significant to them. However, there is no agreement as to the meaning and the forms of applying such processes. Particularly in the area of Science teaching, the creation of thematic projects has been seen as a way of contextualizing school contents. It is noteworthy that the experience with the education of Physics teachers shows that the creation and execution of such projects brings many difficulties to teachers, the main obstacle being the understanding of what contextualized educative processes are. Having this in mind, a project has been elaborated with the objective of analyzing the comprehension Physics teachers that are going through teacher education courses have of the processes of contextualization. The data for this investigation has been obtained from students who attended a course of the Physics Teacher Education module at the Federal University of Itajubá. It is significant to mention that in this course students are asked to create three versions of a thematic project. In order to analyze the data, the procedure of Thematic Content and Category Analysis was adopted. This research shows that Physics teachers to be incorporate the discourses of the educative ideas throughout the course. However, there is a series of obstacles they face as they attempt to understand and carry out contextualized educative processes. Those difficulties are connected to their experience with this kind of educative process throughout the years they spend at school and in the teacher education course. We conclude thus that it is essential that contextualized educative activities be part of the reality of teacher education programs.

  18. Robust Contextual Bandit via the Capped-$\\ell_{2}$ norm

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Feiyun; Zhu, Xinliang; Wang, Sheng; Yao, Jiawen; Huang, Junzhou

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the actor-critic contextual bandit for the mobile health (mHealth) intervention. The state-of-the-art decision-making methods in mHealth generally assume that the noise in the dynamic system follows the Gaussian distribution. Those methods use the least-square-based algorithm to estimate the expected reward, which is prone to the existence of outliers. To deal with the issue of outliers, we propose a novel robust actor-critic contextual bandit method for the mHealth inter...

  19. Social enterprises in Denmark: Historical, contextual and conceptual aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Linda Lundgaard; Hulgård, Lars; Jacobsen, Gurli

    Social enterprises in Denmark: Historical, contextual and conceptual aspectsLinda Lundgaard Andersen & Lars Hulgård, Center for Social Enterprise, Roskilde UniversityGurli Jakobsen, Copenhagen Business SchoolCOST Action (EMPOWER‐SE)Working Group 1, Lisbon 28. february & 1. march 2018......Social enterprises in Denmark: Historical, contextual and conceptual aspectsLinda Lundgaard Andersen & Lars Hulgård, Center for Social Enterprise, Roskilde UniversityGurli Jakobsen, Copenhagen Business SchoolCOST Action (EMPOWER‐SE)Working Group 1, Lisbon 28. february & 1. march 2018...

  20. Multilevel Contextual 3-D CNNs for False Positive Reduction in Pulmonary Nodule Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Qi; Chen, Hao; Yu, Lequan; Qin, Jing; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2017-07-01

    False positive reduction is one of the most crucial components in an automated pulmonary nodule detection system, which plays an important role in lung cancer diagnosis and early treatment. The objective of this paper is to effectively address the challenges in this task and therefore to accurately discriminate the true nodules from a large number of candidates. We propose a novel method employing three-dimensional (3-D) convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for false positive reduction in automated pulmonary nodule detection from volumetric computed tomography (CT) scans. Compared with its 2-D counterparts, the 3-D CNNs can encode richer spatial information and extract more representative features via their hierarchical architecture trained with 3-D samples. More importantly, we further propose a simple yet effective strategy to encode multilevel contextual information to meet the challenges coming with the large variations and hard mimics of pulmonary nodules. The proposed framework has been extensively validated in the LUNA16 challenge held in conjunction with ISBI 2016, where we achieved the highest competition performance metric (CPM) score in the false positive reduction track. Experimental results demonstrated the importance and effectiveness of integrating multilevel contextual information into 3-D CNN framework for automated pulmonary nodule detection in volumetric CT data. While our method is tailored for pulmonary nodule detection, the proposed framework is general and can be easily extended to many other 3-D object detection tasks from volumetric medical images, where the targeting objects have large variations and are accompanied by a number of hard mimics.

  1. Contextual determinants of neonatal mortality using two analysis methods, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Roselaine Ruviaro; Moraes, Anaelena Bragança de; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo; Riboldi, João

    2011-02-01

    To analyze neonatal mortality determinants using multilevel logistic regression and classic hierarchical models. Cohort study including 138,407 live births with birth certificates and 1,134 neonatal deaths recorded in 2003, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. The Information System on Live Births and mortality records were linked for gathering information on individual-level exposures. Sociodemographic data and information on the pregnancy, childbirth care and characteristics of the children at birth were collected. The associated factors were estimated and compared by traditional and multilevel logistic regression analysis. The neonatal mortality rate was 8.19 deaths per 1,000 live births. Low birth weight, 1- and 5-minute Apgar score below eight, congenital malformation, pre-term birth and previous fetal loss were associated with neonatal death in the traditional model. Elective cesarean section had a protective effect. Previous fetal loss did not remain significant in the multilevel model, but the inclusion of a contextual variable (poverty rate) showed that 15% of neonatal mortality variation can be explained by varying poverty rates in the microregions. The use of multilevel models showed a small effect of contextual determinants on the neonatal mortality rate. There was found a positive association with the poverty rate in the general model, and the proportion of households with water supply among preterm newborns.

  2. Permanent foresty plots: a potentially valuable teaching resource in undergraduate biology porgrams for the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Valles; C.M.S. Carrington

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent proposal to change the way that biology is taught and learned in undergraduate biology programs in the USA so that students develop a better understanding of science and the natural world. Here, we use this new, recommended teaching– learning framework to assert that permanent forestry plots could be a valuable tool to help develop biology...

  3. Recovery of valuable nitrogen compounds from agricultural liquid wastes: potential possibilities, bottlenecks and future technological challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.; Klapwijk, A.; Willers, H.C.

    1998-01-01

    Agricultural liquid livestock wastes are an important potential source of valuable nitrogen-containing compounds such as ammonia and proteins. Large volumetric quantities of these wastes are produced in areas with a high livestock production density. Much technological research has been carried out

  4. A field guide to valuable underwater aquatic plants of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    Underwater plants are a valuable part of the Great Lakes ecosystem, providing food and shelter for aquatic animals. Aquatic plants also help stabilize sediments, thereby reducing shoreline erosion. Annual fall die-offs of underwater plants provide food and shelter for overwintering small aquatic animals such as insects, snails, and freshwater shrimp.

  5. Is attention based on spatial contextual memory preferentially guided by low spatial frequency signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Buckley, Alice; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2013-01-01

    A popular model of visual perception states that coarse information (carried by low spatial frequencies) along the dorsal stream is rapidly transmitted to prefrontal and medial temporal areas, activating contextual information from memory, which can in turn constrain detailed input carried by high spatial frequencies arriving at a slower rate along the ventral visual stream, thus facilitating the processing of ambiguous visual stimuli. We were interested in testing whether this model contributes to memory-guided orienting of attention. In particular, we asked whether global, low-spatial frequency (LSF) inputs play a dominant role in triggering contextual memories in order to facilitate the processing of the upcoming target stimulus. We explored this question over four experiments. The first experiment replicated the LSF advantage reported in perceptual discrimination tasks by showing that participants were faster and more accurate at matching a low spatial frequency version of a scene, compared to a high spatial frequency version, to its original counterpart in a forced-choice task. The subsequent three experiments tested the relative contributions of low versus high spatial frequencies during memory-guided covert spatial attention orienting tasks. Replicating the effects of memory-guided attention, pre-exposure to scenes associated with specific spatial memories for target locations (memory cues) led to higher perceptual discrimination and faster response times to identify targets embedded in the scenes. However, either high or low spatial frequency cues were equally effective; LSF signals did not selectively or preferentially contribute to the memory-driven attention benefits to performance. Our results challenge a generalized model that LSFs activate contextual memories, which in turn bias attention and facilitate perception.

  6. Contextualizing Person Perception: Distributed Social Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eliot R.; Collins, Elizabeth C.

    2009-01-01

    Research on person perception typically emphasizes cognitive processes of information selection and interpretation within the individual perceiver and the nature of the resulting mental representations. The authors focus instead on the ways person perception processes create, and are influenced by, the patterns of impressions that are socially…

  7. IRIT at TREC 2012 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    the 2nd International Conference on Software and Data Technologies, volume 3, pages 166–171. INSTICC Press, 2007. [HM09] Gilles Hubert and Josiane...geographic information retrieval systems: Evaluation framework and case study. Int. J. Digit. Libr ., pages 91–109, 2010. [PSC+12] Damien Palacio, Christian

  8. What makes you tic? Translational approaches to study the role of stress and contextual triggers in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Sean C; Bortolato, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by multiple, recurring motor and phonic tics. Rich empirical evidence shows that the severity of tics and associated manifestations is increased by several stressors and contextual triggers; however, the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for symptom exacerbation in TS remain poorly understood. This conceptual gap partially reflects the high phenotypic variability in tics, as well as the existing difficulties in operationalizing and standardizing stress and its effects in a clinical setting. Animal models of TS may be highly informative tools to overcome some of these limitations; these experimental preparations have already provided critical insights on key aspects of TS pathophysiology, and may prove useful to identify the neurochemical alterations induced by different stressful contingencies. In particular, emerging knowledge on the role of contextual triggers in animal models of TS may inform the development of novel pharmacological interventions to reduce tic fluctuations in this disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. What makes you tic? Translational approaches to study the role of stress and contextual triggers in Tourette syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Sean C; Bortolato, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by multiple, recurring motor and phonic tics. Rich empirical evidence shows that the severity of tics and associated manifestations is increased by several stressors and contextual triggers; however, the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for symptom exacerbation in TS remain poorly understood. This conceptual gap partially reflects the high phenotypic variability in tics, as well as the existing difficulties in operationalizing and standardizing stress and its effects in a clinical setting. Animal models of TS may be highly informative tools to overcome some of these limitations; these experimental preparations have already provided critical insights on key aspects of TS pathophysiology, and may prove useful to identify the neurochemical alterations induced by different stressful contingencies. In particular, emerging knowledge on the role of contextual triggers in animal models of TS may inform the development of novel pharmacological interventions to reduce tic fluctuations in this disorder. PMID:27939782

  10. A Molecular Dissociation between Cued and Contextual Appetitive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirbek, Mazen A.; Beeler, Jeff A.; Chi, Wanhao; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2010-01-01

    In appetitive Pavlovian learning, animals learn to associate discrete cues or environmental contexts with rewarding outcomes, and these cues and/or contexts can potentiate an ongoing instrumental response for reward. Although anatomical substrates underlying cued and contextual learning have been proposed, it remains unknown whether specific…

  11. Students' Views on Contextual Vocabulary Teaching: A Constructivist View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Bahadir Cahit

    2016-01-01

    The current study is a quantitative research that aims to throw light on the place of students' views on contextual vocabulary teaching in conformity with Constructivism (CVTC) in the field of foreign language teaching. Hence, the study investigates whether any significant correlation exists between the fourth year university students' attitudes…

  12. On the problem of contextuality in macroscopic magnetization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kurzyński, Paweł; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Thompson, Jayne; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2013-01-01

    We show that sharp measurements of total magnetization cannot be used to reveal contextuality in macroscopic many-body systems of spins of arbitrary dimension. We decompose each such measurement into set of projectors corresponding to well-defined value of total magnetization. We then show that such sets of projectors are too restricted to construct Kochen–Specker sets.

  13. Survival of the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect after Contextual Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughner, Robert L.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of contextual shifts on the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) were studied in autoshaping with rats. Experiment 1 established that the two contexts used subsequently were easily discriminable and equally salient. In Experiment 2, independent groups of rats received acquisition training under partial reinforcement (PRF) or…

  14. Individual and contextual variation in Thomas langur male loud calls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wich, S.A.; Koski, S.; Vries, Han de; Schaik, Carel P. van

    2003-01-01

    Individual and contextual differences in male loud calls of wild Thomas langurs (Presbytis thomasi) were studied in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Loud calls were given in the following contexts: morning calls, vocal responses to other groups, between-group encounter calls and alarmcalls. Loud

  15. Using Embedded Visual Coding to Support Contextualization of Historical Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method study examines the think-aloud protocols of 48 randomly assigned undergraduate students to understand what effect embedding a visual coding system, based on reliable visual cues for establishing historical time period, would have on novice history students' ability to contextualize historic documents. Results indicate that using…

  16. Modeling Contextual Determinants of HIV/AIDS Prevalence in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    As a result, it was argued to go beyond the KABP determinant studies to focus on contextual ... guided most of the determinant studies which formed a basis .... risk factor, i.e. gender power relations or ..... communication with Anna Meyer-Weitz.

  17. Secondary Students' Stable and Unstable Optics Conceptions Using Contextualized Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on elucidating and explaining reasons for the stability of and interrelationships between students' conceptions about "Light Propagation" and "Visibility of Objects" using contextualized questions across 3 years of secondary schooling from Years 7 to 9. In a large-scale quantitative study involving 1,233…

  18. Consequences of contextual factors on clinical reasoning in resident physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBee, E.; Ratcliffe, T.; Picho, K.; Artino, A.R.; Schuwirth, L.; Kelly, W.; Masel, J.; Vleuten, C. van der; Durning, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Context specificity and the impact that contextual factors have on the complex process of clinical reasoning is poorly understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework, our aim was to evaluate the verbalized clinical reasoning processes of resident physicians in order to describe

  19. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efraimidis, Pavlos; Drosatos, George; Arampatzis, Avi; Stamatelatos, Giorgos; Athanasiadis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to

  20. Contextual Clues Vocabulary Strategies Choice among Business Management Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Siti Nurshafezan; Muhammad, Ahmad Mazli; Kasim, Aini Mohd

    2018-01-01

    New trends in vocabulary learning focus on strategic vocabulary learning to create more active and independent language learners. Utilising suitable contextual clues strategies is seen as vital in enabling and equipping language learners with the skill to guess word meaning accurately, moving away from dependency on a dictionary to improve their…

  1. Science, transformation and society: a contextual analysis of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, transformation and society: a contextual analysis of South Africa's SANCOR-managed marine and coastal research programmes. D Scott. Abstract. The paper aims to describe and analyse three research programmes over the period 1995–2011 managed by the South African Network for Coastal and Oceanic ...

  2. Neuroscientific evidence for contextual effects in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Kaisa

    2014-02-01

    Both internal and external states can cause inconsistencies in decision behavior. I present examples from behavioral decision-making literature and review neuroscientific knowledge on two contextual influences: framing effects and social conformity. The brain mechanisms underlying these behavioral adjustments comply with the dual-process account and simple learning mechanisms, and are weak indicators for unintentionality in decision-making processes.

  3. Political ideology is contextually variable and flexible rather than fixed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, G Scott; Skitka, Linda J; Wisneski, Daniel C

    2014-06-01

    Hibbing et al. argue that the liberal-conservative continuum is (a) universal and (b) grounded in psychological differences in sensitivity to negative stimuli. Our commentary argues that both claims overlook the importance of context. We review evidence that the liberal-conservative continuum is far from universal and that ideological differences are contextually flexible rather than fixed.

  4. State-independent quantum contextuality for continuous variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastino, Angel R.; Cabello, Adan

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that nature violates noncontextual inequalities regardless of the state of the physical system. So far, all these inequalities involve measurements of dichotomic observables. We show that state-independent quantum contextuality can also be observed in the correlations between measurements of observables with genuinely continuous spectra, highlighting the universal character of the effect.

  5. Negotiating Academic Teacher Identity Shifts during Higher Education Contextual Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Susan Maree; Billot, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Higher education teachers' roles and identities are constantly shifting in response to contextual change. Pedagogy, values, and professional and personal narratives of self are all affected, particularly by technological change. This paper explores the role and identity shifts of academics during the introduction of large-class videoconferencing.…

  6. Individual and Contextual Inhibitors of Sexual Harassment Training Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Benjamin M.; Bauerle, Timothy J.; Magley, Vicki J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have evaluated the outcomes of sexual harassment training, but considerably less research has focused on variables that influence sexual harassment training effectiveness. To address this need, we developed and tested a model of individual and contextual inhibitors of sexual harassment training motivation to learn. Survey data collected…

  7. Enhancing Argumentative Writing Skill through Contextual Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, Aceng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe the influence of contextual learning model and critical thinking ability toward argumentative writing skill on university students. The population of the research was 147 university students, and 52 university students were used as sample with multi stage sampling. The results of the research indicate that; group of…

  8. Travelling Policies and Contextual Considerations: On Threshold Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Adam; Kondakci, Yasar; Emil, Serap

    2018-01-01

    Educational policy borrowing has become rather common in our globalised world. However, the literature lacks contextual criteria that may be employed by researchers and policy makers to assess the correspondence of a particular policy to the local context of a borrowing system. Based on a secondary analysis of documents and research reports, this…

  9. Towards Computational Fronesis: Verifying Contextual Appropriateness of Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszynski, Michal; Dybala, Pawel; Mazur, Michal; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji; Momouchi, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents research in Contextual Affect Analysis (CAA) for the need of future application in intelligent agents, such as conversational agents or artificial tutors. The authors propose a new term, Computational Fronesis (CF), to embrace the tasks included in CAA applied to development of conversational agents such as artificial tutors.…

  10. Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D., & Specht, M. (2009). Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium of the Fourth European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2009). September, 29-October, 2, 2009, Nice, France. [unpublished

  11. Widening Participation and Contextual Entry Policy in Accounting and Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, N.

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the performance of accounting and finance students entering university via a "widening participation" scheme that seeks to attract students who have been historically under-represented in higher education. Focus is placed on the policy of providing contextual entry offers that recognise that academic qualifications be…

  12. Contextualizing the Impacts of Homelessness on Academic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, Alexandra E.; Goff, Peter; Miller, Peter M.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: Students experiencing homelessness are also often living in poverty and may share many of the same characteristics and experiences with children in low-income housing. Scholars aim to understand the impacts of homelessness above and beyond the effects of poverty, but studies are mixed. Contextual factors--such as the localized…

  13. Disentangling task and contextual performance : a multitrait-multimethod approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Xanthopoulou, D.; Tsaousis, I.; Bakker, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    This study among 244 employees and their colleagues working in various sectors investigated the dimensionality of self-ratings and peer-ratings of task and contextual performance, using the scales of Goodman and Svyantek (1999). By applying the multitrait-multimethod approach, we examined the degree

  14. Contextual Risk Profiles and Trajectories of Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Markiewitz, Nathan; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T

    2018-04-09

    Social ecological and developmental system perspectives suggest that interactions among factors within and across multiple contexts (e.g., neighborhood, peer, family) must be considered in explaining dating violence perpetration. Yet, to date, most extant research on dating violence has focused on individual, rather than contextual predictors, and used variable-centered approaches that fail to capture the configurations of factors that may jointly explain involvement in dating violence. The current study used a person-centered approach, latent profile analysis, to identify key configurations (or profiles) of contextual risk and protective factors for dating violence perpetration across the neighborhood, school, friend and family contexts. We then examine the longitudinal associations between these contextual risk profiles, assessed during middle school, and trajectories of psychological and physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. Five contextual risk profiles were identified: school, neighborhood, and family risk; school and family risk; school and friend risk; school and neighborhood risk; and low risk. The highest levels of psychological and physical perpetration across grades 8 through 12 were among adolescents in the profile characterized by high levels of school, neighborhood, and family risk. Results suggest that early interventions to reduce violence exposure and increase social regulation across multiple social contexts may be effective in reducing dating violence perpetration across adolescence.

  15. Contextual factors and social consequences of incident disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Kriegbaum, Margit; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted

    2008-01-01

    practice modify the employment effect of disease. We have studied risk of labour market exclusion following incident hospitalization for ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and whether this risk may be modified by contextual factors on the municipal level. Methods: A cohort design on a 10% random sample...

  16. Contextualizing user centered design with agile methods in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teka, Degif; Dittrich, Y.; Kifle, Mesfin

    2017-01-01

    in contextualization of UCD practices: personas mediated between rural and urban users and developers. Personas helped also customer representatives as well as product owners to understand users and their requirements and allowed to test releases against persona requirements before deployment. Personas were updated...

  17. Common cause and contextual realization of Bell correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, A.; Maleeh, R.; Golshani, M.

    2008-01-01

    Considering the common cause principle, we construct a local-contextual hidden-variable model for the Bohm version of EPR experiment. Our proposed model can reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics. It can be also extended to classical examples in which similar correlations may be revealed

  18. spirituality and contextuality 1. the historiography of spirituality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contextuality or historicity of spirituality is not self-evident. Not until modern times, in Europe, did it become more or less normal to look at spirituality from a historical perspective. It is thus not strange that the historiography of spirituality arose from the nineteenth century. In that time, the historical perspective was ...

  19. Mobile Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Börner, D., Glahn, C., & Specht, M. (2009). Mobile Informal Learning. Presentation for the Education in the Wild: contextual and location-based mobile learning in action workshop at the STELLAR Alpine Rendez-Vous 2009. November, 30-December, 3, 2009, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.

  20. Predicting Performance with Contextualized Inventories, No Frame-of-reference Effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtrop, D.J.; Born, M.P.; de Vries, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed that contextualized personality inventories have incremental predictive validity over generic personality inventories when predicting job performance. This study aimed to investigate the differences between two types of contextualization of items: Adding an 'at work'

  1. Contextual learning theory: Concrete form and a software prototype to improve early education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    In 'contextual learning theory' three types of contextual conditions (differentiation of learning procedures and materials, integrated ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress) are related to four aspects of the learning process (diagnostic, instructional, managerial, and

  2. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W.; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F.; de Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related to blood donor status and behaviour, to systematically discuss differences between study results, and to identify possible factors to target in recruitment and retention efforts. Methods The systematic review was conducted in accordance with a predefined PROSPERO protocol (CRD42016039591). After quality assessments by multiple independent raters, a final set of 66 peer-reviewed papers, published between October 2009 and January 2017, were included for review. Results Individual and contextual characteristics of blood donor status and behaviour were categorised into five main lines of research: donor demographics, motivations and barriers, adverse reactions and deferral, contextual factors, and blood centre factors. Results on donor demographics, motivations and barriers, and contextual factors were inconclusive, differing between studies, countries, and sample characteristics. Adverse reactions and deferral were negatively related to blood donor behaviour. Blood centre factors play an important role in donor management, e.g., providing information, reminders, and (non-)monetary rewards. No studies were found on network characteristics of (non-)donors. Discussion Although individual and contextual characteristics strongly relate to blood donor status and behaviour, mechanisms underlying these relations have not been studied sufficiently. We want to stress the importance of longitudinal studies in donor behaviour, exploring the role of life events and network characteristics within blood donor careers. Increased understanding of donor behaviour will assist policy makers of blood collection agencies, with the ultimate goal of safeguarding a sufficient and matching blood

  3. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F; De Kort, Wim L A M; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-09-01

    The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related to blood donor status and behaviour, to systematically discuss differences between study results, and to identify possible factors to target in recruitment and retention efforts. The systematic review was conducted in accordance with a predefined PROSPERO protocol (CRD42016039591). After quality assessments by multiple independent raters, a final set of 66 peer-reviewed papers, published between October 2009 and January 2017, were included for review. Individual and contextual characteristics of blood donor status and behaviour were categorised into five main lines of research: donor demographics, motivations and barriers, adverse reactions and deferral, contextual factors, and blood centre factors. Results on donor demographics, motivations and barriers, and contextual factors were inconclusive, differing between studies, countries, and sample characteristics. Adverse reactions and deferral were negatively related to blood donor behaviour. Blood centre factors play an important role in donor management, e.g., providing information, reminders, and (non-)monetary rewards. No studies were found on network characteristics of (non-)donors. Although individual and contextual characteristics strongly relate to blood donor status and behaviour, mechanisms underlying these relations have not been studied sufficiently. We want to stress the importance of longitudinal studies in donor behaviour, exploring the role of life events and network characteristics within blood donor careers. Increased understanding of donor behaviour will assist policy makers of blood collection agencies, with the ultimate goal of safeguarding a sufficient and matching blood supply.

  4. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Contextual cueing based on the semantic-category membership of the environment

    OpenAIRE

    GOUJON, A

    2005-01-01

    During the analysis of a visual scene, top-down processing is constantly directing the subject's attention to the zones of interest in the scene. The contextual cueing paradigm developed by Chun and Jiang (1998) shows how contextual regularities can facilitate the search for a particular element via implicit learning mechanisms. In the proposed study, contextual cueing task with lexical displays was used. The semantic-category membership of the contextual words predicted the location of the t...

  6. Intrusive images and voluntary memory for affective pictures: contextualization and dual-task interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krans, Julie; Langner, Oliver; Reinecke, Andrea; Pearson, David G

    2013-12-01

    The present study addressed the role of context information and dual-task interference during the encoding of negative pictures on intrusion development and voluntary recall. Healthy participants were shown negative pictures with or without context information. Pictures were either viewed alone or concurrently with a visuospatial or verbal task. Participants reported their intrusive images of the pictures in a diary. At follow-up, perceptual and contextual memory was tested. Participants in the context group reported more intrusive images and perceptual voluntary memory than participants in the no context group. No effects of the concurrent tasks were found on intrusive image frequency, but perceptual and contextual memory was affected according to the cognitive load of the task. The analogue method cannot be generalized to real-life trauma and the secondary tasks may differ in cognitive load. The findings challenge a dual memory model of PTSD but support an account in which retrieval strategy, rather than encoding processes, accounts for the experience of involuntary versus voluntary recall. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perception of contextual size illusions by honeybees in restricted and unrestricted viewing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Scarlett R; Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Garcia, Jair E; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Dyer, Adrian G

    2017-11-29

    How different visual systems process images and make perceptual errors can inform us about cognitive and visual processes. One of the strongest geometric errors in perception is a misperception of size depending on the size of surrounding objects, known as the Ebbinghaus or Titchener illusion. The ability to perceive the Ebbinghaus illusion appears to vary dramatically among vertebrate species, and even populations, but this may depend on whether the viewing distance is restricted. We tested whether honeybees perceive contextual size illusions, and whether errors in perception of size differed under restricted and unrestricted viewing conditions. When the viewing distance was unrestricted, there was an effect of context on size perception and thus, similar to humans, honeybees perceived contrast size illusions. However, when the viewing distance was restricted, bees were able to judge absolute size accurately and did not succumb to visual illusions, despite differing contextual information. Our results show that accurate size perception depends on viewing conditions, and thus may explain the wide variation in previously reported findings across species. These results provide insight into the evolution of visual mechanisms across vertebrate and invertebrate taxa, and suggest convergent evolution of a visual processing solution. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  9. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-09-16

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  10. Introduction to metabolic genetic engineering for the production of valuable secondary metabolites in in vivo and in vitro plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, Vagner A; Modolo, Luzia V

    2014-01-01

    Plants are capable of producing a myriad of chemical compounds. While these compounds serve specific functions in the plant, many have surprising effects on the human body, often with positive action against diseases. These compounds are often difficult to synthesize ex vivo and require the coordinated and compartmentalized action of enzymes in living organisms. However, the amounts produced in whole plants are often small and restricted to single tissues of the plant or even cellular organelles, making their extraction an expensive process. Since most natural products used in therapeutics are specialized, secondary plant metabolites, we provide here an overview of the classification of the main classes of these compounds, with its biochemical pathways and how this information can be used to create efficient in and ex planta production pipelines to generate highly valuable compounds. Metabolic genetic engineering is introduced in light of physiological and genetic methods to enhance production of high-value plant secondary metabolites.

  11. Impact of Contextuality on Mobile Learning Acceptance: An Empirical Study Based on a Language Learning App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Stephan; Constantine, Georges Philip

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on contextualized features for mobile language learning apps. The scope of this paper is to explore students' perceptions of contextualized mobile language learning. Design/Methodology/Approach: An extended Technology Acceptance Model was developed to analyze the effect of contextual app features on students'…

  12. Concept of an integrated waste economy represented on the example of recycling of valuable materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, H

    1980-08-01

    The historical development of waste elimination is discussed, followed by the waste problem in an environmental discussion, the possibilities of recycling within the framework of a waste industry, and the solution of the waste problem from a waste-economy viewpoint, including the definition of 'waste' and the grouping by types of waste, their amounts and increase rates, composition and valuable materials in community wastes with a review of waste technologies under waste-economy viewpoints. This is followed by a discussion of the sales possibilities for valuable components from mechanical sorting facilities, including used paper, old glass, hard substances, metals, plastics, succeeded by a comparative evaluation method, and the national economy aspect of the waste industry, with the savings effect in raw materials for different branches, effects on raw material reserves, the problem of dependence on imports, waste rates and living standard, and the importance of environmental instruments which are discussed in detail.

  13. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products and their valuable components: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Nyam, Kar-Lin; Norulaini, N A N; Sahena, F; Mohd Omar, A K

    2015-09-15

    The large amount of waste produced by the food industries causes serious environmental problems and also results in economic losses if not utilized effectively. Different research reports have revealed that food industry by-products can be good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds. As such, the mango juice industry uses only the edible portions of the mangoes, and a considerable amount of peels and seeds are discarded as industrial waste. These mango by-products come from the tropical or subtropical fruit processing industries. Mango by-products, especially seeds and peels, are considered to be cheap sources of valuable food and nutraceutical ingredients. The main uses of natural food ingredients derived from mango by-products are presented and discussed, and the mainstream sectors of application for these by-products, such as in the food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypnosis as a Valuable Tool for Surgical Procedures in the Oral and Maxillofacial Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Gil; Alves, Luiza; Zaninotto, Ana Luiza; Falcão, Denise Pinheiro; de Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista

    2017-04-01

    Hypnosis is a valuable tool in the management of patients who undergo surgical procedures in the maxillofacial complex, particularly in reducing and eliminating pain during surgery and aiding patients who have dental fear and are allergic to anesthesia. This case report demonstrates the efficacy of hypnosis in mitigating anxiety, bleeding, and pain during dental surgery without anesthesia during implant placement of tooth 14, the upper left first molar.

  15. The cost of being valuable: predictors of extinction risk in marine invertebrates exploited as luxury seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Steven W.; Polidoro, Beth A.; Hamel, Jean-François; Gamboa, Ruth U.; Mercier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Extinction risk has been linked to biological and anthropogenic variables. Prediction of extinction risk in valuable fauna may not follow mainstream drivers when species are exploited for international markets. We use results from an International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List assessment of extinction risk in all 377 known species of sea cucumber within the order Aspidochirotida, many of which are exploited worldwide as luxury seafood for Asian markets. Extinction risk was primari...

  16. Production of Fatty Acid-Derived Valuable Chemicals in Synthetic Microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ai-Qun; Pratomo Juwono, Nina Kurniasih; Leong, Susanna Su Jan; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid derivatives, such as hydroxy fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty acid methyl/ethyl esters, and fatty alka(e)nes, have a wide range of industrial applications including plastics, lubricants, and fuels. Currently, these chemicals are obtained mainly through chemical synthesis, which is complex and costly, and their availability from natural biological sources is extremely limited. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms has provided a platform for effective production of these valuable biochemicals. Notably, synthetic biology-based metabolic engineering strategies have been extensively applied to refactor microorganisms for improved biochemical production. Here, we reviewed: (i) the current status of metabolic engineering of microbes that produce fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals, and (ii) the recent progress of synthetic biology approaches that assist metabolic engineering, such as mRNA secondary structure engineering, sensor-regulator system, regulatable expression system, ultrasensitive input/output control system, and computer science-based design of complex gene circuits. Furthermore, key challenges and strategies were discussed. Finally, we concluded that synthetic biology provides useful metabolic engineering strategies for economically viable production of fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals in engineered microbes.

  17. Production of Fatty Acid-Derived Valuable Chemicals in Synthetic Microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ai-Qun; Pratomo Juwono, Nina Kurniasih [Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Synthetic Biology Research Program, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Leong, Susanna Su Jan [Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Synthetic Biology Research Program, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Technology, Singapore (Singapore); Chang, Matthew Wook, E-mail: bchcmw@nus.edu.sg [Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Synthetic Biology Research Program, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-12-23

    Fatty acid derivatives, such as hydroxy fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty acid methyl/ethyl esters, and fatty alka(e)nes, have a wide range of industrial applications including plastics, lubricants, and fuels. Currently, these chemicals are obtained mainly through chemical synthesis, which is complex and costly, and their availability from natural biological sources is extremely limited. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms has provided a platform for effective production of these valuable biochemicals. Notably, synthetic biology-based metabolic engineering strategies have been extensively applied to refactor microorganisms for improved biochemical production. Here, we reviewed: (i) the current status of metabolic engineering of microbes that produce fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals, and (ii) the recent progress of synthetic biology approaches that assist metabolic engineering, such as mRNA secondary structure engineering, sensor-regulator system, regulatable expression system, ultrasensitive input/output control system, and computer science-based design of complex gene circuits. Furthermore, key challenges and strategies were discussed. Finally, we concluded that synthetic biology provides useful metabolic engineering strategies for economically viable production of fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals in engineered microbes.

  18. World`s Most Valuable Brand Resonation With Categories of Different Customer Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspars VIKSNE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the key performance indicators of brand success is its value. Brand value is an outcome of brand`s performance in market, and is largely depended from brand`s ability to satisfy certain customer needs. For the greatest success in the world`s market brand should resonate its ability to satisfy some of customer`s most universal needs. In this paper authors strives to find out which of the needs world`s most successful brands are resonating with. Therefore paper goal is to is to determine what customer needs world`s most valuable brands are primarily satisfying. First part of paper authors briefly evaluate Maslow theory of needs. In second part of paper authors identify main challenges of brand valuation, and briefly describe today`s most valuable brands. In third part of paper authors analyzes if resonating certain human need in brand makes it to be more valuable. In last part of paper authors summarizes the main findings and gives recommendations for better marketing practices to other brands whose owners have high market ambitions. In order to attain the paper`s goal, authors will use following research methods: Comparative analysis for comparing brands in different brand rankings; Content analysis for determining what need satisfaction brand advertisements resonate; Data analysis for quantify the results gathered from content analysis

  19. The prelimbic cortex uses contextual cues to modulate responding towards predictive stimuli during fear renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Melissa; Killcross, Simon

    2015-02-01

    Previous research suggests the prelimbic (PL) cortex is involved in expression of conditioned fear (Burgos-Robles, Vidal-Gonzalez, & Quirk, 2009; Corcoran & Quirk, 2007). However, there is a long history of research in the appetitive domain which implicates this region in using higher-order cues to modulate a behavioural response (Birrell & Brown, 2000; Floresco, Block, & Tse, 2008; Marquis, Killcross, & Haddon, 2007; Sharpe & Killcross, 2014). For example, the PL cortex is necessary to allow animals to use contextual cues to disambiguate response conflict in ambiguous circumstances (Marquis et al., 2007). Using an ABA fear renewal procedure, we assessed the role of the PL cortex in using contextual cues to modulate a response towards a conditioned stimulus (CS) in an aversive setting. We found that pre-training lesions of the PL cortex did not impact on the expression or extinction of conditioned fear. Rather, they selectively abolished renewal. Functional inactivation of the PL cortex during extinction did not disrupt the subsequent renewal of conditioned fear or the ability of animals to exhibit fear towards a CS during the extinction session. However, PL inactivation during the renewal test session disrupted the ability of animals to demonstrate a reinstatement of responding in the renewal context. An analysis of orienting responses showed that renewal deficits were accompanied by a lack of change in attentional responding towards the CS. These data suggest the PL cortex uses contextual cues to modulate both a behavioural and an attentional response during aversive procedures. We argue that the role of the PL cortex in the expression of conditioned fear is to use higher-order information to modulate responding towards predictive cues in ambiguous circumstance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Theory-Based Contextual Nutrition Education Manual Enhanced Nutrition Teaching Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupolati, Mojisola D; MacIntyre, Una E; Gericke, Gerda J

    2018-01-01

    Background: A theory-based contextual nutrition education manual (NEM) may enhance effective teaching of nutrition in schools. School nutrition education should lead to the realization of such benefits as improved health, scholarly achievement leading to manpower development and consequently the nation's development. The purpose of the study was to develop a contextual NEM for teachers of Grade 5 and 6 learners in the Bronkhorstspruit district, South Africa, and to assess teachers' perception on the use of the manual for teaching nutrition. Methods: This descriptive case study used an interpretivist paradigm. The study involved teachers ( N = 6) who taught nutrition in Life Skills (LS) and Natural Science and Technology (NST) in a randomly selected primary school in the Bronkhorstspruit district. Findings from a nutrition education needs assessment were integrated with the constructs of the Social cognitive theory (SCT) and the Meaningful learning model (MLM) and the existing curriculum of the Department of Basic Education (DoBE) to develop a contextual NEM. The manual was used by the teachers to teach nutrition to Grades 5 and 6 learners during the 2015 academic year as a pilot project. A focus group discussion (FDG) was conducted with teachers to gauge their perceptions of the usefulness of the NEM. Data were analyzed using the thematic approach of the framework method for qualitative research. Results: Teachers described the NEM as rich in information, easy to use and perceived the supporting materials and activities as being effective. The goal setting activities contained in the NEM were deemed to be ineffective. Teachers felt that they did not have enough time to teach all the important things that the learners needed to know. Conclusion: Teachers perceived the NEM as helpful toward improving their nutrition teaching skills.The NEM template may furthermore guide teachers in planning theory-based nutrition lessons.