WorldWideScience

Sample records for valley viticultural area

  1. 75 FR 9827 - Proposed Expansion of the Santa Maria Valley Viticultural Area (2008R-287P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ...,'' by Harry P. Bailey, University of California Press, 1966). The maritime fringe climate derives from... California Press, 1975.) Soils: According to the petition, the current Santa Maria Valley viticultural area... viticultural area in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties, California, by 18,790 acres. We designate...

  2. 77 FR 56541 - Establishment of the Inwood Valley Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Decision. SUMMARY: The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) establishes the 28,441-acre ``Inwood... may purchase. DATES: Effective Date: October 15, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen A... consumers and helps consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment of a viticultural area is...

  3. 76 FR 70866 - Expansions of the Russian River Valley and Northern Sonoma Viticultural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    .... ACTION: Final rule; Treasury decision. SUMMARY: This Treasury decision expands the Russian River Valley... describe the origin of their wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. DATES... consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment of a viticultural area is neither an approval...

  4. 75 FR 81846 - Expansion of the Santa Maria Valley Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... decision. SUMMARY: This Treasury decision expands the Santa Maria Valley viticultural area in Santa Barbara... may purchase. DATES: Effective Date: January 28, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elisabeth C... origin of their wines to consumers and helps consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment...

  5. 77 FR 64033 - Establishment of the Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... rule; Treasury decision. SUMMARY: The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) establishes the... wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. DATES: Effective Date: November... consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment of a viticultural area is neither an approval...

  6. 75 FR 53877 - Proposed Establishment of the Antelope Valley of the California High Desert Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Viticulture,'' by Albert J. Winkler, University of California Press, 1974, pp. 61-64). As a measurement of..., eighth edition, January 2007, Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, California), which is discussed... Service, in cooperation with the University of California Agricultural Experiment Station). Annual...

  7. 76 FR 75830 - Proposed Establishment of the Inwood Valley Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ..., which are evidence of the 1864 plantings, are still found in one of the Inwood Valley vineyards. After a... sides. In addition, a reduction in solar radiation in the early and late months of the growing season... slopes on Bear Creek Ridge, which increase the amount of warming solar radiation and moderate the cooling...

  8. 75 FR 42601 - Establishment of the Sierra Pelona Valley Viticultural Area (2010R-004P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ...; Treasury decision. SUMMARY: This Treasury decision establishes the 9.7-square mile ``Sierra Pelona Valley... purchase. DATES: Effective Date: August 23, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Christina McMahon... origin of their wines to consumers and helps consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment...

  9. 77 FR 27001 - Proposed Establishment of the Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... comments that TTB receives about this proposal by appointment at the TTB Information Resource Center, 1310... and avoid any potential confusion with any other locations referred to as ``Ancient Lakes... such usage. The newspaper article concerned a geological tour of the Quincy Valley and listed one of...

  10. New geologic mapping of the northwestern Willamette Valley, Oregon, and its American Viticultural Areas (AVAs)—A foundation for understanding their terroir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ray E.; Haugerud, Ralph A.; Niem, Alan; Niem, Wendy; Ma, Lina; Madin, Ian; Evarts, Russell C.

    2018-04-10

    A geologic map of the greater Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area is planned that will document the region’s complex geology (currently in review: “Geologic map of the greater Portland metropolitan area and surrounding region, Oregon and Washington,” by Wells, R.E., Haugerud, R.A., Niem, A., Niem, W., Ma, L., Evarts, R., Madin, I., and others). The map, which is planned to be published as a U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map, will consist of 51 7.5′ quadrangles covering more than 2,500 square miles, and it will represent more than 100 person-years of geologic mapping and studies. The region was mapped at the relatively detailed scale of 1:24,000 to improve understanding of its geology and its earthquake hazards. More than 100 geologic map units will record the 50-million-year history of volcanism, sedimentation, folding, and faulting above the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The geology contributes to the varied terroir of four American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) in the northwestern Willamette Valley: the Yamhill-Carlton, Dundee Hills, Chehalem Mountains, and Ribbon Ridge AVAs. Terroir is defined as the environmental conditions, especially climate and soils, that influence the quality and character of a region’s crops—in this case, grapes for wine.On this new poster (“New geologic mapping of the northwestern Willamette Valley, Oregon, and its American Viticultural Areas (AVAs)—A foundation for understanding their terroir”), we present the geologic map at a reduced scale (about 1:175,000) to show the general distribution of geologic map units, and we highlight, discuss, and illustrate six major geologic events that helped shape the region and form its terrior. We also discuss the geologic elements that contribute to the character of each of the four AVAs in the northwestern Willamette Valley.

  11. 76 FR 77677 - Establishment of the Coombsville Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Decision. SUMMARY: This final rule establishes the 11,075-acre ``Coombsville'' viticultural area in Napa... describe the origin of their wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. DATES... consumers and helps consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment of a viticultural area is...

  12. 76 FR 77696 - Establishment of the Naches Heights Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Decision. SUMMARY: This final rule establishes the 13,254-acre ``Naches Heights'' viticultural area in... origin of their wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. DATES: Effective... consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment of a viticultural area is neither an approval...

  13. 77 FR 16674 - Establishment of the Wisconsin Ledge Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Decision. SUMMARY: The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau establishes the approximately 3,800 square... wines they may purchase. DATES: Effective Date: April 23, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen A... consumers and helps consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment of a viticultural area is...

  14. 77 FR 56544 - Establishment of the Middleburg Virginia Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ...; Treasury Decision. SUMMARY: The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) establishes the... the origin of their wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. DATES... consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment of a viticultural area is neither an approval...

  15. 78 FR 60693 - Establishment of the Ballard Canyon Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... decision. SUMMARY: The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) establishes the approximately 7,800... wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. DATES: This final rule is... consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment of a viticultural area is neither an approval...

  16. Viticulture – Challenge for Tourism Development (Znojmo Case Study Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Foret

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article, which deals with the issue whether the viticulture can be the challenge for tourism development, is based on research conducted in Znojmo case study area (the Czech Republic. It starts with general introduction of wine tourism concept based on the selected results of the previous scientific researches. The second part of the article brings description of the methods and brief characterisation of case study area. The third part pays attention to the analyses of the selected statistical data showing importance of viticulture for the case study area. The main fourth part is focused on selected activities which are connected with projects developing wine tourism (especially vineyards and vine festivals, where cooperation of different actors is necessary and continues by analysing of the potential of more intensive development of wine tourism on example of the important actor in case study area – wine producer Znovín Znojmo. The conducted research shows strong local embededness and association of company with the tourism industry. The article concludes with general recommendations, which emphasize the importance of effective partnership of the different actors by successful development of wine tourism.

  17. 76 FR 22338 - Proposed Fort Ross-Seaview Viticultural Area; Comment Period Reopening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... May 9, 2005, from all interested persons. In response to a request from a local wine industry member... the Fort Ross-Seaview viticultural area. Two local wine industry members supported the petition without qualification; a third industry member supported the viticultural area's establishment while...

  18. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley...

  19. 77 FR 33985 - Proposed Establishment of the Indiana Uplands Viticultural Area and Modification of the Ohio...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... commercially produced wine until the early 1900s (Ted Huber, in an April 2006 interview with the petitioner... viticultural area petition are on a scale of 1:100,000 meters on 30- x 60-minute quadrangles. For consistency...

  20. 75 FR 9831 - Proposed Renaming of the Yamhill-Carlton District Viticultural Area (2008R-305P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... attribute a given quality, reputation, or other characteristic of a wine made from grapes grown in an area...-Carlton AVA [name] would be much preferable for use in our labeling and marketing materials.'' Brian O... wine to be labeled with a viticultural area name or with a brand name that includes a viticultural area...

  1. 78 FR 41891 - Proposed Establishment of the Upper Hiwassee Highlands Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... neither an approval nor an endorsement by TTB of the wine produced in that area. Requirements Section 4.25... gorges. To the west, below the Hiwassee Dam, are a series of lower ridges, mountains, and deep, narrow... Hiwassee Highlands viticultural area also has significantly shallower slope angles. According to the slope...

  2. 78 FR 60690 - Establishment of the Moon Mountain District Sonoma County Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... rule; Treasury Decision. SUMMARY: The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) establishes the... describe the origin of their wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. DATES... consumers and helps consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment of a viticultural area is...

  3. 75 FR 67616 - Yamhill-Carlton Viticultural Area (2008R-305P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...) AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, Treasury. ACTION: Final rule; Treasury decision. SUMMARY: This Treasury decision renames the ``Yamhill-Carlton District'' viticultural area, located in... better identify wines they may purchase. DATES: Effective Date: December 3, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  4. 76 FR 77684 - Establishment of the Fort Ross-Seaview Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ...; Treasury decision. SUMMARY: This Treasury decision establishes the 27,500-acre ``Fort Ross-Seaview... may purchase. DATES: Effective Date: January 13, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elisabeth C... may purchase. Establishment of a viticultural area is neither an approval nor an endorsement by TTB of...

  5. 78 FR 60686 - Establishment of the Big Valley District-Lake County and Kelsey Bench-Lake County Viticultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... viticultural areas. Definition Section 4.25(e)(1)(i) of the TTB regulations (27 CFR 4.25(e)(1)(i)) defines a... to the road's intersection with Manning Creek, northern boundary of section 6, T13N/R9W; then (23) Proceed northwesterly (downstream) along Manning Creek to the shore of Clear Lake, section 30, T14N/R9W...

  6. Climate trends in a specific Mediterranean viticultural area between 1950 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Laget

    2008-09-01

    Significance and impact of study: Climate is a major factor in vine cultivation and in the understanding of viticultural terroirs and wine typicality. The climate trends observed over a 50-year period are discussed in the viticultural context of a Mediterranean region. However, the interaction between climate change and technical progress in viticulture and oenology complicate the analysis over the time frame under consideration.

  7. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of viticultural...

  8. Analysis and definition of potential new areas for viticulture in the Azores (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, J.; Azevedo, E. B.; Sampaio, J. F.; Fernandes, F.; Reis, F.; Pinheiro, J.

    2015-07-01

    Vineyards in the Azores have been traditionally settled on lava field terroirs but the practical limitations of mechanization and high demand on man labor imposed by the typical micro parcel structure of these vineyards contradict the sustainability of these areas for wine production, except under government policies of heavy financial support. Besides the traditional vineyards there are significant areas in some of the islands whose soils, climate and physiographic characteristics suggest a potential for wine production that deserves to be the object of an assessment, with a view to the development of new vineyard areas offering conditions for better management and sustainability. The landscape zoning approach for the present study was based in a geographic information system (GIS) analysis incorporating factors related to climate, topography and soils. Three thermal intervals referred to climate maturity groups were defined and combined with a single slope interval of 0-15 % to exclude the landscape units above this limit. Over this resulting composite grid, the soils were then selectively cartographed through the exclusion of the soil units not fulfilling the suitability criteria. The results show that the thermal interval of warmer conditions, well represented in the traditional terroir of Pico island, has practically no expression in the other islands. However, for the intermediate and the cooler classes, we could map areas of 5611 and 18 115 ha respectively, fulfilling the defined soils and slope criteria, indicating thus the existence of some landscapes in the studied islands revealing adequate potential for future development of viticulture, although certainly demanding a good judgment on the better grape varieties to be adapted to those climatic conditions.

  9. Humans and viticulture in Sardinia: The history and social relations as signs of identity of the wine-growing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto Graziella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The premise of this paper is that viticulture is an expression of history and social relations. In this sense, we embrace a post-modern vision of development that characterized both economic and cultural geography and agricultural economics. Such an approach does consider culture as an element of mediation between humans and the nature, placing it at the heart of the wine-growing territory. So history and social relations have influenced the today spatial densification by types of grape and the persistence, the reduction and/or disappearance of vines’ cultivations due to the different level of integration between humans and wine territories in the Italian region of Sardinia. In this region, there are selected areas where winegrowers have been forced to grub vineyards up, depleting the regional viticultural heritage, others–within which the fabric of the system of social relationships were denser–and where we saw a real rush to purchase of replanting rights for the expansion of the production surface for the increasing of production. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of history and social relations in the determination of the structure of the regional viticulture through the identification and analysis of diverse case studies.

  10. 76 FR 63852 - Proposed Establishment of the Wisconsin Ledge Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ..., University of Wisconsin Press, 1965, page 281). The western portion of the proposed boundary line extends... grapevine growth (``General Viticulture,'' by Albert J. Winkler, University of California Press, 1974, pages... River National Wildlife Refuges. Finally, the petition adds that Horicon Ledge Park, Ledge View County...

  11. 27 CFR 9.119 - Middle Rio Grande Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Middle Rio Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is... 1979. (24) Veguita, N. Mex. (1952), revised 1979. (25) Wind Mesa, N. Mex. (1952), revised 1967. (c...

  12. A calculation method of available soil water content : application to viticultural terroirs mapping of the Loire valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Goulet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Vine water supply is one of the most important elements in the determination of grape composition and wine quality. Water supply conditions are in relation with available soil water content, therefore this one has to be determined when vineyard terroir mapping is undertaken. The available soil water content depends on soil factors like water content at field capacity, water content at the permanent wilting point, apparent density and rooting depth. The aim of this study is to seek the relationship between these factors and a simple soil characteristic such as texture which could be easily measurable in routine cartography. Study area is located in the Loire valley, in two different geological regions. First results indicate that it is possible to determine available soil water content from clay percentage, then from soil texture. These results also show that available soil water content algorithms differ with geological properties. This calculation can be used at each auger boring and results can be spatialised within a Geographical Information System that allows the production of available water content maps.

  13. 76 FR 30060 - Proposed Establishment of the Naches Heights Viticultural Area (2009R-107P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... acres of wine grape producing vines. Name Evidence The ``Naches Heights'' name applies to an elevated... carved much of the basin geography within the Columbia Valley AVA. The proposed Naches Heights.... Distinguishing Features The petition states that geology, geography, and soils distinguish the proposed...

  14. 75 FR 43446 - Proposed Establishment of the Pine Mountain-Mayacmas Viticultural Area; Comment Period Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Schorske of Compliance Service of American, prepared and filed on her own behalf and that of local wine... posted on the TTB Web site at http://www.ttb.gov/wine/wine-rulemaking.shtml under Notice No. 105. You... attorney Richard Mendelson on behalf of the Napa Valley Vintners (NVV), a wine industry trade association...

  15. 76 FR 30002 - Establishment of the Antelope Valley of the California High Desert Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...: Final rule; Treasury decision. SUMMARY: This Treasury decision establishes the 665-square mile... purchase. DATES: Effective Date: June 23, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elisabeth C. Kann... accurately the origin of their wines to consumers and helps consumers to identify wines they may purchase...

  16. 75 FR 29686 - Proposed Establishment of the Pine Mountain-Mayacmas Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... states that local growers report that Pine Mountain vineyards are naturally free of mildew, a vineyard... often stall over Pine Mountain and the Mayacmas range, dropping more rain than in other areas. Pine..., these mountain soils include large amounts of sand and gravel. Pine Mountain soils are generally less...

  17. Humans and viticulture in Sardinia: the history and social relations as signs of identity of the wine-growing area

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetto, Graziella; Carboni, Donatella; Corinto, Gian Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The premise of this paper is that viticulture is an expression of history and social relations. In this sense, we embrace a post-modern vision of development that characterized both economic and cultural geography and agricultural economics. Such an approach does consider culture as an element of mediation between humans and the nature, placing it at the heart of the wine-growing territory. So history and social relations have influenced the today spatial densification by types of grape and t...

  18. Implementation of research results to prevent land degradation in viticultural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqués Pérez, Maria Jose; Bienes, Ramon; de Benito, Alejandro; Velasco, Ana

    2013-04-01

    This study shows the lack of interest of land users to establish contact with scientific institutions and their reluctance to change their traditional way to manage their soils. It is conducted in Madrid and Castilla La Mancha, Spain, where the production of wine is an important source of income. The basic research was dealing with sustainable land management in sloping vineyards to prevent soil degradation. The usual reduced tillage practice in the area is compared with different cover grasses in the inter-rows of vines. The results demonstrate that these managements are able to increase soil organic matter, improve infiltration, reduce runoff and soil loss and increase soil aggregate stability. Nevertheless a decrease in production is noticed in some permanent cover treatments. A survey to know the feasibility of implementation of this sustainable land management was conducted. Less than 5% of vine growers coming to cellars and cooperatives were willing to be interviewed. Finally 64 vine growers answered a questionnaire regarding different aspects of their environmental concerns, age, land management practices and economic situation. The majority of respondents (82%) are worried about erosion problems in their sloping vineyards. They were informed about the results of the abovementioned project but only 32% of them would change the cultivation by grasses in the inter-rows. The respondents were not old (72% below 50 years old), and the agriculture was not their first activity (69% had other different sources of income). It is remarkable that they have some misunderstandings and lack of knowledge in questions regarding soil conservation. Only 3% of them receive some kind of economic aid from the institutions to avoid land degradation. This could be related to the small or medium size of their lands as 87% of them have plots smaller than 50 ha. The extension services and policy makers have to face this situation to achieve the proper implementation of scientific

  19. Biochar in viticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggli, C.; Schmidt, H.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Viticulture is becoming the pioneering culture for biochar research. Biochar has been applied to many large-scale viticulture experiments across Europe this spring. After the first large-scale and long term experiments at the Delinat Institute in 2007-08, expectations are high. The latest results confirm these expectations and also show that only scientifically sound experiments will lead to conclusive information on the effect of biochar on vine growth and wine quality in many different climates and soil types. In the last three years it has been clearly shown that biologically activated biochar does not only have positive impact on soil-plant systems in the tropics, but in all soil types and climatic zones [Crane Droescher [2011], Ogawa [2010], IBI [2011]). While biochar improves water availability for plants and microorganisms in dry or seasonally dry farming areas, it also plays a substantial role in high rainfall zones because it improves nutrient dynamics through prevention of nutrient leaching. Spectacular crop growth can be seen in extreme climates (tropical or semi-desert), partly due to biochar's buffering capacity leading to the compensation of strong limiting factors (water in semi-deserts, washed-out nutrients in the tropics). In temperate climates, however, the achievable increase in harvest is lower as there are no extremely limiting elements which have to be compensated. In addition, potential maximum growth of many plant species is easily reached in temperate zones through using good fertilizers and careful seed selection. Therefore the advantage of biochar application in temperate climates is less evident as crop growth but rather is seen as plant quality improvement through optimizing plant nutrition. 1. Increase of plant resistance and hence reduction of plant protection products 2. Stimulation of soil microbial activity and symbioses between plants and soil organisms 3. Reduction in fertilizer use by optimizing the supply of nutrients, limiting

  20. 78 FR 8018 - Establishment of the Indiana Uplands Viticultural Area and Modification of the Ohio River Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... comments from industry members whose wine labels would potentially be affected by the proposed Ohio River... origin of their wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. DATES: Effective... Secretary of the Treasury to prescribe regulations for the labeling of wine, distilled spirits, and malt...

  1. REE Distribution in Cultivated and No Cultivated Soils in Two Viticultural Areas of Central Chile: Mineralogical, Pedological and Anthropic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, P.; Townley, B.; Aburto, F.

    2017-12-01

    Within the scope of a Corfo-Innova Project (I+D Wines of Chile-University of Chile) we have recognized remarkable REE patterns in soils of two vineyards located in traditional vinicultural areas: Casablanca and Santa Cruz. Both vineyards have granitic parent rock, with similar petrographic features and REE patterns. We studied REE distribution on twelve cultivated soil profiles at each vineyard, where a full mineralogical, geochemical and pedogenic sampling and characterization was performed. To establish the effect of management no cultivated soil profiles were included from each vineyard location. REE in soil samples were measured by ICP-MS using two digestion methods: lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion to obtain REE contents in total soil and MMI® partial extraction technique for REE contents on bioavailable phases.Soils display similar signatures of REEs respect to the rock source at both vineyards, but showing relative enrichments in soils of Casablanca and depletion in soils of Santa Cruz. Bioavailable phase data indicates a relative depletion of LREEs compared to HREEs and different anomalies for Ce (positive vs negative) in different areas of the same vineyard. Similar patterns of soils and parent rock suggest that REEs are adequate tracers of lithological source. Enrichments and/or depletions of REE patterns in soils respect to the rock source and Ce anomalies, evidence differential pedogenetic processes occurring at each sampled site. Results of bioavailable phase are coherent with the immobilization and fractionation of LREEs by stable minerals within soils as clays and Fe oxides. Mineralogical results in soil thin sections of Casablanca evidence the occurrence of Ti phases as sphene, ilmenite and rutile, which probably control the relative REE enrichment, since these minerals are considered more stable under pedogenic conditions.Finally, cultivated soils show a depleted but analogous pattern of REE regarding to no cultivated soil, indicating the

  2. Dynamism of viticultural systems in Mendoza (1988–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Bosch M. Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture holdings of Mendoza Argentina, were classified by the allocation and the stratum size according to their total acreage based on the data of the last three National Agricultural Censuses (1988, 2002 and 2008. There are different behaviors in each stratum according to each growing zone. It has been observed that in all “oasis” smaller is the holding, higher is the rate of shrinkage. On the other hand the bigger sizes grow and the acreage concentration of these units has increased significantly. Behaviors were clustered according to their path: taking into account its relationship with both zonal and provincial level stratum averages. Areas like the Oasis Sur have suffered a major a regressive process that has involved almost all the strata. The Uco Valley has shown a significant dynamism in units of more than 25 ha, while the small holdings have moved back, but with lower rates than the average of these strata. The Oasis Norte has also been subject to a bipolar process where a significant loss of small vineyards with the rise of new big holdings. Oasis Este is the only one that remains with lower regression rates.

  3. Yampa River Valley sub-area contingency plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Yampa River Valley sub-area contingency plan (Contingency Plan) has been prepared for two counties in northwestern Colorado: Moffat County and Routt County. The Contingency Plan is provided in two parts, the Contingency Plan and the Emergency Response Action Plan (ERAP). The Contingency Plan provides information that should be helpful in planning to minimize the impact of an oil spill or hazardous material incident. It contains discussions of planning and response role, hazards identification, vulnerability analysis, risk analysis, cleanup, cost recovery, training, and health and safety. It includes information on the incident command system, notifications, response capabilities, emergency response organizations, evacuation and shelter-in-place, and immediate actions.

  4. Viticulture modernization program – Modervitis

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva Protas José Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The Modernization Program of the Brazilian Viticulture is focused on establishing criteria, mechanisms and policies that support the implementation of a policy able to promote the restructuring/modernization of physical and technological base of wine production (grape production) and winery (juice preparation grape, wine and other derivatives of grape and wine), on traditional wine regions of Brazil, it being understood that with this, this segment of the wine sector, which is characterized b...

  5. VITICULTURAL POTENTIAL AND VINE TOURISM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian NEDELCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania, a member of the International Organization of Vine and Wine in 1927, has a wine heritage of European notoriety and worldwide, privileged positions it occupies in economic statistics every year, confirm this fact. Vine are grown, especially in areas traditionally enshrined, located mainly in the hilly area, on the sands, and in other fields with favourable conditions, and disposed as an architectural viticulture landscape grouped in 8 wine regions of the assigned three growing areas of the European Union.Wine tourism is on an incipient phase in Romania, compared to other countries of Europe with significant wine heritage, but it has real chances of development, sustained especially, by the potential value of wine recently indicated, once again, by the studies undertaken in order to implement reform wine sector of the European Union.

  6. Viticulture modernization program – Modervitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Protas José Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Modernization Program of the Brazilian Viticulture is focused on establishing criteria, mechanisms and policies that support the implementation of a policy able to promote the restructuring/modernization of physical and technological base of wine production (grape production and winery (juice preparation grape, wine and other derivatives of grape and wine, on traditional wine regions of Brazil, it being understood that with this, this segment of the wine sector, which is characterized by a strong bond with the family farm, achieve quality levels and sustainable competitiveness.

  7. Future scenarios for viticultural bioclimatic indices in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João.; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Fraga, Helder; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2010-05-01

    Winemaking has a predominant economic, social and environmental relevance in several European countries. Studies addressing the influence of climate variability and change in viticulture are particularly pertinent, as climate is one of the main conditioning factors of this activity. In this context, bioclimatic indices are a useful zoning tool, allowing the description of the suitability of a particular region for wine production. In this study, we compute climatic indices (concerning to thermal and hydrological conditions) for Europe, characterize regions with different viticultural aptitude, and assess possible variations in these regions under a future climate conditions using a state-of-the-art regional climate model. The indices are calculated from climatic variables (mostly daily maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation) obtained from the NCEP reanalysis dataset. Then, the same indices are calculated for present and future climate conditions using data from the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (Consortium for Small Scale Modelling - Climate Limited-area Modelling). Maps of theses indices for recent-past periods (1961-2008) and for the SRES A1B scenario are considered in order to identify significant changes in their patterns. Results show that climate change is projected to have a significant negative impact in wine quality by increased dryness and cumulative thermal effects during growing seasons in Southern European regions (e.g. Portugal, Spain and Italy). These changes represent an important constraint to grapevine growth and development, making crucial adaptation/mitigation strategies to be adopted. On the other hand, regions of western and central Europe (e.g. southern Britain, northern France and Germany) will benefit from this scenario both in wine quality, and in new potential areas for viticulture. This approach provides a macro-characterization of European areas where grapevines may preferentially grow, as well as their projected changes

  8. The Habitus of an Expanding Network: the characteristics of the São Francisco Valley viticulture arrangementO Habitus de uma Rede em Expansão: as disposições do arranjo vitivinícola do Vale do São FranciscoEl Habitus de una Red en Expansión: disposiciones de la red vitivinícola del Valle São Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEÃO, André Luiz Maranhão de Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOver the last few decades, fine wines have begun to be produced in the São Francisco Valley – and the activity has established itself and led to a viticulture productive arrangement in the Brazilian semi-arid region. Given the importance of this viticulture network, and as an attempt to better understand it, we took up bourdieusian theory to explain the subjective characteristics that permeate the dynamics of (interactions amongst network stakeholders. To this end, we used Pierre Bourdieu’s habitus theory as a basis. The research corpus was made up of in-depth interviews carried out with representatives from five out of six wineries located in that productive area. Interviews were analyzed through speech analysis based on categories taken from the bourdieusian theory. Our findings indicate four subjective characteristics amongst network stakeholders: the effort towards speech coherence; a “good neighbor” attitude; a belief in the role of the network towards local development; and the perception and repetition of disadvantages and prejudices. Limitations and directions for future research are considered.RESUMONas últimas décadas, teve início a produção de vinhos finos no Vale do São Francisco, atividade que se consolidou, dando origem a um arranjo produtivo vitivinícola no semiárido brasileiro. Diante da importância dessa rede de vitivinicultura, e na tentativa de melhor entendê-la, adotamos o pensamento bourdieusiano para explicitar as disposições subjetivas que permeiam a dinâmica de (interação dos agentes dessa rede. Para tal, utilizamos a teoria do habitus de Pierre Bourdieu como base teórica. O corpus da pesquisa foi constituído por entrevistas em profundidade realizadas com representantes de cinco das seis vinícolas instaladas naquele campo produtor. As entrevistas foram tratadas por meio de análise de discurso pautada em categorias da teoria bourdieusiana adotada. Nossos achados indicam quatro disposi

  9. An Isotopic view of water and nitrogen transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/MethodsGroundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nit...

  10. Views of West Valley area residents concerning the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamieniecki, S.; Milbrath, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    A number of major findings have emerged from this analysis. Although most people have heard or read about the Nuclear Fuel Services plant at West Valley, few exhibit a high level of knowledge about the issue area. A clear majority of residents living in the region are concerned about the presence of the facility. Many are particularly concerned about the health dangers that can result from radioactive contamination of the environment. People want to see something done about the facility, but do not know exactly what. When forced to choose one out of three possible alternatives, twice as many people preferred to ''completely remove the plant and restore the area'' than either of the two remaining alternatives. People who are concerned about the facility tend to favor removal of the plant and restoration of the area. Nearly three-fourths of West Valley area residents who believe that the plant did not employ enough people to significantly help the economy of the region favor removal of the facility and restoration of the area. The results of this study may help policymakers choose the most acceptable course of action

  11. DIVERSITY OF PTERIDOPHYTES IN THE PROTECTED AREA OF VÂLSAN VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cristina Soare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Vâlsan Valley there are two categories of regions that have been declared protected areas: The Natural Reserve Vâlsan Valley, code 2125 and The protected natural area of community interest Vâlsan Valley, code ROSCI0268. The aim of the research was to identify the species of pteridophytes in the protected areas, a necessary step for the conservation of their diversity. Within the area researched 26 species of pteridophytes were determined. Specific diversity across the genera identified ranges from 5 to 1, thus: Equisetum (5, Asplenium (4, Dryopteris (4, Polystichum (3 and Huperzia, Lycopodium, Selaginella, Botrychium, Polypodium, Phegopteris, Athyrium, Cystopteris, Gymnocarpium, Matteuccia with only one species. Concerning the abundance of the species identified, the pteridoflora in the area researched is made up of frequent (73% and sporadic species (27%, such as Huperzia selago, Lycopodium annotinum, Botrychium multifidum, Asplenium scolopendrium, Matteuccia struthiopteris, Dryopteris expansa, Polystichum braunii.

  12. Road infrastructure and mobility of consumption in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley border area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mungaray-Moctezuma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the mobility of consumption in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley border area. The study shows that the population in the Mexicali sections closer to border crossings generates the greatest amount of consumption dynamics with places located in Imperial Valley. Conversely, Imperial Valley sections that are more distant from the border concentrate a greater number of destination sites for these cross-border trips. It is concluded that a higher quality and more integrated road infrastructure allows the new consumption centers in Imperial Valley to be located farther away from the border and that the Mexicali population with visas can cross indiscriminately through any border crossing by taking longer journeys toward these centers.

  13. Analysis of viticultural potential and delineation of homogeneous viticultural zones in a temperate climate region of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Mihai Irimia

    2014-09-01

    Significance and impact of the study: This study provides the necessary information for viticultural zoning in the Huşi wine growing region in Romania. The methodology allows to evaluate viticultural potential and to delineate homogeneous viticultural zones in wine growing regions with a temperate continental climate.

  14. Viticultural zoning of Graciosa island of the Azores archipelago - Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, João; Reis, Francisco; Felipe, João; Azevedo, Eduardo; Pinheiro, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    The management and sustainability of the traditional vineyards of the Azores settled on lava field terrains is strongly affected by practical limitations of mechanization and high demand on man labor imposed by the typical micro parcel structure of the vineyards. In a recent macrozoning approach study Madruga et al (2015) showed that besides the traditional vineyards there are significant areas in some of the Azores islands whose soils, climate and physiographic characteristics indicate a potential for the development of new vineyard areas offering conditions for better management and sustainability. The objective of this study was to conduct a detailed viticultural zoning at the level of the small mapscale (smaller than 1:25,000), for the island of Graciosa where, besides the traditional lava field terroir, there are also some localized experiences of grapevine production over normal soils, offering thus some comparative information on this type of production conditions. The zoning approach for the present study was based in a geographic information system (GIS) analysis incorporating factors related to climate and topography which was then combined with the soil mapping units fulfilling the suitable criteria concerning the soil properties taken as the most relevant for viticulture, being the result a map of homogeneous environmental units. The climatic zoning examined the direct quantitative variables (precipitation, temperature, evaporation) in relation to climate index, bioclimatic and viticultural specific values. Topography (elevation, slope, aspect, orientation) was analyzed based on the tridimensional models of the islands in GIS to include the best slopes for the mechanization of the vineyard cultural operations (0-15%). Soils were analyzed based on data and soil map units as defined in the soil surveys of the Azores archipelago. The soil properties taken for the analysis and definition of the potential vineyard areas were drainage, water holding capacity

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.A.

    1991-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

  16. 78 FR 16792 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of California; Imperial Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... (see, e.g., the PM 10 area designations in 40 CFR 81.305 for Coso Junction planning area, Owens Valley..., this action: Is not ``significant regulatory actions'' subject to review by the Office of Management..., 1999); Is not economically significant regulatory actions based on health or safety risks subject to...

  17. Environment and forest regeneration in the Illinois Valley area of southwestern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Minore; Joseph N. Graham; Edward W. Murray

    1984-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses were used to relate environmental factors to forest regeneration on clearcut and partial cut areas managed by the Bureau of Land Management in the Illinois Valley area southwest of Grants Pass, Oregon. Difficulty of regenerating clearcuttings at elevations between 3,000 and 4,900 feet (914 and 1 494 m) increased with increases in soil...

  18. Geologic characterization report for the Paradox Basin Study Region, Utah Study Areas. Volume 6. Salt Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Surface landforms in the Salt Valley Area are generally a function of the Salt Valley anticline and are characterized by parallel and subparallel cuestaform ridges and hogbacks and flat valley floors. The most prominent structure in the Area is the Salt Valley anticline. Erosion resulting from the Tertiary uplift of the Colorado Plateau led to salt dissolution and subsequent collapse along the crest of the anticline. Continued erosion removed the collapse material, forming an axial valley along the crest of the anticline. Paleozoic rocks beneath the salt bearing Paradox Formation consist of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, siltstone and shale. The salt beds of the Paradox Formation occur in distinct cycles separated by an interbed sequence of anhydrite, carbonate, and clastic rocks. The Paradox Formation is overlain by Pennsylvanian limestone; Permian sandstone; and Mesozoic sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate and shale. No earthquakes have been reported in the Area during the period of the historic record and contemporary seismicity appears to be diffusely distributed, of low level and small magnitude. The upper unit includes the Permian strata and upper Honaker Trail Formation. The current data base is insufficient to estimate ground-water flow rates and directions in this unit. The middle unit includes the evaporites in the Paradox Formation and no laterally extensive flow systems are apparent. The lower unit consists of the rocks below the Paradox Formation where permeabilities vary widely, and the apparent flow direction is toward the west. 108 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs

  19. Geologic characterization report for the Paradox Basin Study Region, Utah Study Areas. Volume 6: Salt Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Surface landforms in the Salt Valley Area are generally a function of the Salt Valley anticline and are characterized by parallel and subparallel cuestaform ridges and hogbacks and flat valley floors. The most prominent structure in the Area is the Salt Valley anticline. Erosion resulting from the Tertiary uplift of the Colorado Plateau led to salt dissolution and subsequent collapse along the crest of the anticline. Continued erosion removed the collapse material, forming an axial valley along the crest of the anticline. Paleozoic rocks beneath the salt bearing Paradox Formation consist of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, siltstone and shale. The salt beds of the Paradox formation occur in distinct cycles separated by an interbed sequence of anhydrite, carbonate, and clastic rocks. The Paradox Formation is overlain by Pennsylvanian limestone; Permian sandstone; and Mesozoic sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate and shale. No earthquakes have been reported in the area during the period of the historic record and contemporary seismicity appears to be diffusely distributed, of low level and small magnitude. The upper unit includes the Permian strata and upper Honaker trail formation.

  20. The Values of Tourism in the Area (Valley) of Drenica

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Isufi; , B. Bajraktari; , S. Bulliqi; , F. Humolli

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the work ‘The values of tourism in the area of Drenica’ is to present the natural touristic values of this part of Kosovo, because this area has natural tourist values such as: Drenica River, Cave of Pjetershtica, Cave of Baica, Cave of Kishnareka, mineral resource in Poklek, as well as natural spring of Baica, etc. These are potential values for the development of tourism in this area, whereas if there is a promotion of these values, the number of visitors would increas. This ...

  1. PEARLS OF THE PČINJA VALLEY – RURAL TOURISM ATTRACTIONS OF THIS AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trajković

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available River Valley Pčinja, with its source part and tributaries that make up the Aegean Sea with its configuration, where the gorge turns between nearby mountains and flat areas, meadows, gardens and of our arable land, remains of old mills, houses and villages, which, still do not leave the inhabitants of this region, contains tourist potential. This valley is adorned with rich flora and fauna where one can see examples of the unique flora and fauna, with its diversity and natural material in the form of a "devil's stone" Witness antiquities and places of worship as well as a special value of the Monastery of St. Prohor of Pcinja. The pleasant climate and in some areas of the river gurgling disrupts primordial peace and makes the holiday for eyes, soul of every lover of nature.

  2. What Factors Encourage Intrafamily Farm Succession in Mountain Areas? Evidence From an Alpine Valley in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cavicchioli, D.; Bertoni, D.; Tesser, F.; Frisio, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    Family farming plays a vital role in mountain areas. Its survival is related to multiple factors, including intrafamily farm succession. This study examined data on apple-producing family farms in an Italian Alpine valley, trying to identify which factors foster or discourage intrafamily succession and to what extent they do this, both at the farm level and from the potential successor's viewpoint. To do so, various farm, farmer, and individual characteristics were analyzed using probabilisti...

  3. Correlations between the air pollution and the rainfall composition in Jiului Valley area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traistă Eugen

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall composition is conditional on the air quality. If the air is polluted, the rainfall will be also polluted. In fact, rainfall contains the same compounds like the air as nitrites, nitrates, sulphites, sulphates, ammonia etc. Some cations like calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium are present in rainfall because of dust. This paper presents the air qualities and the soil composition influenced by the rainfall in one of the most polluted mining areas from our country, Jiului Valley.

  4. Ground-water conditions in the Grand County area, Utah, with emphasis on the Mill Creek-Spanish Valley area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    The Grand County area includes all of Grand County, the Mill Creek and Pack Creek drainages in San Juan County, and the area between the Colorado and Green Rivers in San Juan County. The Grand County area includes about 3,980 square miles, and the Mill Creek-Spanish Valley area includes about 44 square miles. The three principal consolidated-rock aquifers in the Grand County area are the Entrada, Navajo, and Wingate aquifers in the Entrada Sandstone, the Navajo Sandstone, and the Wingate Sandstone, and the principal consolidated-rock aquifer in the Mill Creek-Spanish Valley area is the Glen Canyon aquifer in the Glen Canyon Group, comprised of the Navajo Sandstone, the Kayenta Formation, and the Wingate Sandstone.Recharge to the Entrada, Navajo, and Glen Canyon aquifers typically occurs where the formations containing the aquifers crop out or are overlain by unconsolidated sand deposits. Recharge is enhanced where the sand deposits are saturated at a depth of more than about 6 feet below the land surface, and the effects of evaporation begin to decrease rapidly with depth. Recharge to the Wingate aquifer typically occurs by downward movement of water from the Navajo aquifer through the Kayenta Formation, and primarily occurs where the Navajo Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, and the Wingate Sandstone are fractured.

  5. Precision Viticulture from Multitemporal, Multispectral Very High Resolution Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandylakis, Z.; Karantzalos, K.

    2016-06-01

    In order to exploit efficiently very high resolution satellite multispectral data for precision agriculture applications, validated methodologies should be established which link the observed reflectance spectra with certain crop/plant/fruit biophysical and biochemical quality parameters. To this end, based on concurrent satellite and field campaigns during the veraison period, satellite and in-situ data were collected, along with several grape samples, at specific locations during the harvesting period. These data were collected for a period of three years in two viticultural areas in Northern Greece. After the required data pre-processing, canopy reflectance observations, through the combination of several vegetation indices were correlated with the quantitative results from the grape/must analysis of grape sampling. Results appear quite promising, indicating that certain key quality parameters (like brix levels, total phenolic content, brix to total acidity, anthocyanin levels) which describe the oenological potential, phenolic composition and chromatic characteristics can be efficiently estimated from the satellite data.

  6. Provenance of radioactive placers, Big Meadow area, Valley and Boise Counties, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truesdell, D.; Wegrzyn, R.; Dixon, M.

    1977-02-01

    For many years, radioactive black-sand placers have been known to be present in the Bear Valley area of west-central Idaho. The largest of these is in Big Meadow, near the head of Bear Valley Creek. Presence of these placers suggests that low-grade uranium deposits might occur in rocks of the Idaho Batholith, adjacent to Bear Valley. This study was undertaken to locate the provenance of the radioactive minerals and to identify problems that need to be solved before undertaking further investigations. The principal radioactive minerals in these placers are monazite and euxenite. Other minerals include columbite, samarskite, fergusonite, xenotime, zircon, allanite, sphene, and brannerite. Only brannerite is a uranium mineral; the others contain uranium as an impurity in crystal lattices. Radiometric determinations of the concentration of uranium in stream sediments strongly indicate that the radioactive materials originate in an area drained by Casner and Howard Creeks. Equivalent uranium levels in bedrock are highest on the divide between Casner and Howard Creeks. However, this area is not known to contain low-grade uranium occurrences. Euxenite, brannerite, columbite-tantalite, samarskite, and allanite are the principal radioactive minerals that were identified in rock samples. These minerals were found in granite pegmatites, granites, and quartz monzonites. Appreciably higher equivalent uranium concentrations were also found within these rock types. The major problem encountered in this study was the difficulty in mapping bedrock because of extensive soil and glacial mantle. A partial solution to this problem might be the application of radon emanometry so that radiometric measurements would not be limited to the sparse bedrock samples

  7. Hydrogeology of Valley-Fill Aquifers and Adjacent Areas in Eastern Chemung County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-10-19

    The extent, hydrogeologic framework, and potential well yields of valley-fill aquifers within a 151-square-mile area of eastern Chemung County, New York, were investigated, and the upland distribution of till thickness over bedrock was characterized. The hydrogeologic framework of these valleyfill aquifers was interpreted from multiple sources of surficial and subsurface data and an interpretation of the origin of the glacial deposits, particularly during retreat of glacial ice from the region. Potential yields of screened wells are based on the hydrogeologic framework interpretation and existing well-yield data, most of which are from wells finished with open-ended well casing.

  8. Geologic Map of the House Rock Valley Area, Coconino County, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, George H.; Priest, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    This geologic map is a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, and the U.S. Forest Service to provide a geologic database for resource management officials and visitor information services. This map was produced in response to information needs related to a proposed withdrawal of three segregated land areas near Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, from new hard rock mining activity. House Rock Valley was designated as the east parcel of the segregated lands near the Grand Canyon. This map was needed to provide connectivity for the geologic framework of the Grand Canyon segregated land areas. This geologic map of the House Rock Valley area encompasses approximately 280 mi2 (85.4 km2) within Coconino County, northern Arizona, and is bounded by longitude 111 degrees 37'30' to 112 degrees 05' W. and latitude 36 degrees 30' to 36 degrees 50' N. The map area is in the eastern part of the Arizona Strip, which lies within the southern Colorado Plateaus geologic province (herein Colorado Plateau). The Arizona Strip is the part of Arizona lying north of the Colorado River. The map is bound on the east by the Colorado River in Marble Canyon within Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, on the south and west by the Kaibab National Forest and Grand Canyon National Game Preserve, and on the north by the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, the Paria Canyon Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness Area, and the Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. House Rock State Buffalo Ranch also bounds the southern edge of the map area. The Bureau of Land Management Arizona Field Office in St. George, Utah, manages public lands of the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, Paria Canyon - Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness and Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. The North Kaibab Ranger District in Fredonia, Arizona, manages U.S. Forest Service land along the west edge of the map area and House Rock State Buffalo Ranch

  9. Climate Influence on Emerging Risk Areas for Rift Valley Fever Epidemics in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweya, Clement N; Mboera, Leonard E G; Kimera, Sharadhuli I

    2017-07-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a climate-related arboviral infection of animals and humans. Climate is thought to represent a threat toward emerging risk areas for RVF epidemics globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate influence of climate on distribution of suitable breeding habitats for Culex pipiens complex, potential mosquito vector responsible for transmission and distribution of disease epidemics risk areas in Tanzania. We used ecological niche models to estimate potential distribution of disease risk areas based on vectors and disease co-occurrence data approach. Climatic variables for the current and future scenarios were used as model inputs. Changes in mosquito vectors' habitat suitability in relation to disease risk areas were estimated. We used partial receiver operating characteristic and the area under the curves approach to evaluate model predictive performance and significance. Habitat suitability for Cx. pipiens complex indicated broad-scale potential for change and shift in the distribution of the vectors and disease for both 2020 and 2050 climatic scenarios. Risk areas indicated more intensification in the areas surrounding Lake Victoria and northeastern part of the country through 2050 climate scenario. Models show higher probability of emerging risk areas spreading toward the western parts of Tanzania from northeastern areas and decrease in the southern part of the country. Results presented here identified sites for consideration to guide surveillance and control interventions to reduce risk of RVF disease epidemics in Tanzania. A collaborative approach is recommended to develop and adapt climate-related disease control and prevention strategies.

  10. Assessment of road traffic noise indices in urban residential areas of Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Herni; Abdullah, Ramdzani; Nor, Mohd Jailani Mohd; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Rahman, Noorhazlinda Abd

    2017-10-01

    Traffic noise has been recognized as a serious threat to the quality of life in most industrialised nations. Klang valley is rapidly emerging as industrialized and urbanized city and has started facing severe noise pollution problems. Urban noise quality assessment is studied in three residential areas; Desa Tun Razak, Kinrara Court and Taman Sentul Utama. Noise pollution indices of L10, L50, L90, Lmax and Lmin as well as equivalent continuous noise level (Leq) were measured for all dwellings. Noise indices results illustrate that Desa Tun Razak recorded the highest values of noise levels among three studied sites. Results also indicate that the highest Leq of 75.7 dB(A) was observed in Desa Tun Razak followed by 74.3 dB(A) in Kinrara Court, and 72.1 dB(A) in Taman Sentul Utama. The noise assessment study clearly reveals the alarming condition of noise pollution in residential areas of Klang Valley as the noise level measured exceeded permissible limit by WHO and Malaysia Guidelines.

  11. Effects of Climate and Social Change on Pasture Productivity and Area in the Alay Valley, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Smithwick, E. A. H.

    2017-12-01

    The high elevation Alay Valley, located in the central Asian country of Kyrgyzstan, has experienced substantial socio-political and environmental changes in recent decades, resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and an increase in average annual temperature from 1.8 C to 2.7 C between 1990 and 2014. However, the consequences of these changes on pastureland productivity and area has not been previously assessed, despite the critical cultural and economic importance of pasturelands for sustaining livelihoods in this region. We assessed spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture, pasture productivity and pasture area in the Alay Valley. Supervised classification was performed on Landsat imagery over the study region to distinguish pastures and agricultural land in order to relate changes in soil moisture to specific land classes. Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM) was estimated between May 2015 and June 2017 from Soil Moisture Active Passive L4 RZSM product. Average monthly NDVI for 2016 was calculated to obtain seasonal patterns in productivity of the pasturelands in the region. Results show that annual RZSM trends closely matched those of precipitation, as RZSM peaks during May (the wettest month) and decreases during the dry summer. The NDVI trend is also notable as it peaks very early in June before declining due to limited precipitation and grazing practices. There has been a sharp increase in pasturelands encompassing the bank of the Kyzyl Suu river from 1993 to 2016. Likely due to turmoil from collapse of the USSR, the area of pasturelands decreased slightly from 59.98 to 55.99 km^2 from 1993-1994, corresponding with a decline in livestock count and GDP per capita. The area of pasturelands has since recovered and is hovering around 104.47 - 107.95 km^2 between 2009-2016. Overall results highlight both sensitivity and resilience of high elevation pasture to coupled socio-environmental drivers.

  12. Assessing Ecotourism Potential of Traditional Wooden Architecture in Rural Areas: The Case of Papart Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Okan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reveal the resource values that the rural areas host, and with a very disciplined approach, to discuss opportunities to benefit from those values in terms of ecotourism practices specific to Papart Valley. As a first step in this study, we took an inventory of natural and cultural assets of Papart Valley in Eastern Black Sea Region, Artvin province. Then, a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis was conducted with the participation of all stakeholders and the current situation was analyzed in terms of ecotourism practices. In light of SWOT results, along with observed natural resource assets in the region, the traditional wooden houses were seen to have potential in terms of ecotourism and it was detected that there were a large number of wooden homes and home plans suitable for both the settlement of the local people and accommodation of guests. On the other hand, it was determined that there was a lack of information for sufficient protection and care of wooden houses, and despite their potential, there was a lack of regulations and positive attitudes towards accomodation businesses in traditional wooden houses. In order to eliminate these deficiencies, proposals for the protection of traditional building stock were developed, by first determining the causes of material degradation in the wooden houses. Also, to emphasize the worth and importance of these structures, dendrochronology studies were conducted in order to determine the antiquity of the structures and potentially to make them more attractive for eco-tourism.

  13. Information on the confinement capability of the facility disposal area at West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, T.J.; Hurt, R.D.

    1985-12-01

    This report summarizes the previous NRC research studies, NRC licensee source term data and recent DOE site investigations that deal with assessment of the radioactive waste inventory and confinement capability of the Facility Disposal Area (FDA) at West Valley, New York. The radioactive waste inventory for the FDA has a total radioactivity of about 135,000 curies (Ci) and is comprised of H-3 (9,500 Ci), Co-60 (64,000 Ci), SR-90/Y-90 (24,300 Ci), Cs-137/Ba-137m (24,400 Ci), and Pu-241 (13,300 Ci). These wastes are buried in the Lavery Till, a glacial till unit comprised of a clayey silt with very low hydraulic conductivity properties. Recent studies of a tributylphosphate-kerosene plume moving through the shallow ground-water flow system in the FDA indicate a need to better assess the fracture flow components of this system particularly the weathered and fractured Lavery Till unit. The analysis of the deeper ground-water flow system studied by the USGS and NYSGS staffs indicated relatively long pathways and travel times to the accessible environment. Mass wasting, endemic to the glacial-filled valley, contributed to the active slumping in the ravines surrounding the FDA and also need attention. 31 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Using SLAM to Look For the Dog Valley Fault, Truckee Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.; Ashburn, J. A.; Sverdrup, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Truckee earthquake (9/12/1966, ML6.0) was a left-lateral event on a previously unrecognized NW-trending fault. The Prosser Creek and Boca Dams sustained damage, and the trace of the suspected causative fault passes near or through the site of the then-incomplete Stampede Dam. Another M6 earthquake occurred along the same general trend in 1948 with an epicenter in Dog Valley ~14 km to the NW of the 1966 epicenter. This trend is called the Dog Valley Fault (DVF), and its location on the ground surface is suggested by a prominent but broad zone of geomorphic lineaments near the cloud of aftershock epicenters determined for the 1966 event. Various ground effects of the 1966 event described by Kachadoorian et al. (1967) were located within this broad zone. The upper shoreface of reservoirs in the Truckee-Prosser-Martis basin are now exposed due to persistent drought. We have examined fault strands in a roadcut and exposed upper shoreface adjacent to the NE abutment of Stampede Dam. These are interpreted to be small-displacement splays associated with the DVF -- perhaps elements of the DVF damage zone. We have used the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) to help us constrain the location of the DVF, based on earthquake focal mechanisms. Seismo-lineaments were computed, using recent revisions in the SLAM code (bearspace.baylor.edu/Vince_Cronin/www/SLAM/), for the 1966 main earthquake and for the better-recorded earthquakes of 7/3/1983 (M4) and 8/30/1992 (M3.2) that are inferred to have occurred along the DVF. Associated geomorphic analysis and some field reconnaissance identified a trend that might be associated with a fault, extending from the NW end of Prosser Creek Reservoir ~32° toward the Stampede Dam area. Triangle-strain analysis using horizontal velocities of local Plate Boundary Observatory GPS sites P146, P149, P150 and SLID indicates that the area rotates clockwise ~1-2°/Myr relative to the stable craton, as might be expected because the study area is

  15. Climate change projections for Greek viticulture as simulated by a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazoglou, Georgia; Anagnostopoulou, Christina; Koundouras, Stefanos

    2017-07-01

    Viticulture represents an important economic activity for Greek agriculture. Winegrapes are cultivated in many areas covering the whole Greek territory, due to the favorable soil and climatic conditions. Given the dependence of viticulture on climate, the vitivinicultural sector is expected to be affected by possible climatic changes. The present study is set out to investigate the impacts of climatic change in Greek viticulture, using nine bioclimatic indices for the period 1981-2100. For this purpose, reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and data from the regional climatic model Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3) are used. It was found that the examined regional climate model estimates satisfactorily these bioclimatic indices. The results of the study show that the increasing trend of temperature and drought will affect all wine-producing regions in Greece. In vineyards in mountainous regions, the impact is positive, while in islands and coastal regions, it is negative. Overall, it should be highlighted that for the first time that Greece is classified into common climatic characteristic categories, according to the international Geoviticulture Multicriteria Climatic Classification System (MCC system). According to the proposed classification, Greek viticulture regions are estimated to have similar climatic characteristics with the warmer wine-producing regions of the world up to the end of twenty-first century. Wine growers and winemakers should take the findings of the study under consideration in order to take measures for Greek wine sector adaptation and the continuation of high-quality wine production.

  16. ESTIMATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN THE ABURRA VALLEY METROPOLITAN AREA - COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deicy Catalina Guerra Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG generated by the agricultural activities carried out in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (AMVA, located in Medellin - Colombia. A TIER 1 approach of the methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC was followed. Emissions of GHG from cropland, aggregate sources and non-CO2 emissions from land were estimated and analysis of the uncertainty of activity data and emission factors were made. The estimated total emission was 63.1 and 66 Gg CO2 eq for 2009 and 2011, respectively. The greatest contribution to greenhouse gases in agricultural production was the application of nitrogen to soils in the form of synthetic and organic fertilizers, which was associated with direct and indirect N2O emissions. The main sources of uncertainty were those derived from the activity data.

  17. Raw data report: Cave Valley orientation study, Lund 10 x 20 NTMS area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchlik, K.P.; Holder, B.E.; Smith, C.F.

    1977-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Cave Valley, Nevada, orientation study in the Lund 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle of the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS). Wet, dry, and playa sediment samples were collected throughout the 360 km 2 semi-arid, closed basin. Water samples were collected at the few available streams and springs. In addition to neutron activation analysis for uranium and 15 to 20 trace elements on all samples, field and laboratory measurements were made on water samples. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tabular hardcopy and fiche format. Four full-size overlays for use with the Lund NTMS 1:250,000 quadrangle are included. Water site locations, water sample uranium concentration, sediment site locations, and sediment sample total uranium concentration are shown on the separate overlays. A general description of the area and the rock type distribution is presented

  18. Impact of the Rhône and Durance valleys on sea-breeze circulation in the Marseille area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Sophie; Drobinski, Philippe; Dabas, Alain; Delville, Patricia; Reitebuch, Oliver; Werner, Christian

    2005-03-01

    Sea-breeze dynamics in the Marseille area, in the south of France, is investigated in the framework of the ESCOMPTE experiment conducted during summer 2001 in order to evaluate the role of thermal circulations on pollutant transport and ventilation. Under particular attention in this paper is the sea-breeze channelling by the broad Rhône valley and the narrow Durance valley, both oriented nearly-north-south, i.e., perpendicular to the coastline, and its possible impact on the sea-breeze penetration, intensity and depth, which are key information for air pollution issues. One situation of slight synoptic pressure gradient leading to a northerly flow in the Rhône valley (25 June 2001) and one situation of a weak onshore prevailing synoptic wind (26 June 2001) are compared. The impact of the Rhône and Durance valleys on the sea-breeze dynamics on these two typical days is generalized to the whole ESCOMPTE observing period. The present study shows by combining simple scaling analysis with wind data from meteorological surface stations and Doppler lidars that (i) the Durance valley always affects the sea breeze by accelerating the flow. A consequence is that the Durance valley contributes to weaken the temperature gradient along the valley and thus the sea-breeze circulation. In some cases, the acceleration of the channelled flow in the Durance valley suppresses the sea-breeze flow by temperature gradient inhibition; (ii) the Rhône valley does not generally affect the sea breeze significantly. However, if the sea breeze is combined with an onshore flow, it leads to further penetration inland and intensification of the low-level southerly flow. In this situation, lateral constriction may accelerate the sea breeze. Simple scaling analysis suggests that Saint Paul (44.35°N, about 100 km from the coastline) is the lower limit where sea breeze can be affected by the Rhône valley. These conclusions have implications in air quality topics as channelled sea breeze may

  19. Granitoids of the Dry Valleys area, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica : plutons, field relationships, and isotopic dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Cox, S.C.; Johnstone, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed mapping throughout much of the Dry Valleys area indicates the region is underlain by 15 major granitoid plutons and numerous smaller plugs and dikes. Intrusive relationships of these plutons and dikes indicate repeated intrusion of superficially similar granitoids at different times. Sufficient internal lithologic variation occurs within individual plutons, to allow correlation with several of the previously defined granitoid units based on lithologic character. Consequently, previous subdivision schemes based on lithology are no longer tenable and are here replaced with a subdivision scheme based on the identification of individual plutons. The elongate, concordant Bonney, Denton, Cavendish, and Wheeler Plutons, which range in composition between monzodiorite and granodiorite, are the oldest relatively undeformed plutons in the Dry Valleys area. Each pluton is characterised by flow alignment of K-feldspar megacrysts, hornblende, biotite, and mafic enclaves. Field relationships and radiometric dating indicate these are deep-level plutons, emplaced synchronous with upper amphibolite facies metamorphism of the adjacent Koettlitz Group between 589 and 490 Ma ago. Elongate, discordant plutons of equigranular homogeneous biotite granodiorite and granite (Hedley, Valhalla, St Johns, Suess) were subsequently emplaced by stoping at a relatively high crustal level at 490 Ma. These eight plutons are cut by numerous swarms of Vanda mafic and felsic porphyry dikes. The ovoid, discordant, high level Pearse, Nibelungen, Orestes, Brownworth, Swinford, and Harker Plutons, emplaced between c. 486 and 477 Ma, display mutually crosscutting relationships with the youngest of the Vanda dikes. These younger plutons range in composition between monzonite and granite. Some are characterised by K-feldspar megacrystic textures superficially similar to some of the oldest concordant plutons. (author). 57 refs.; 2 tabs.; 4 figs

  20. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station was conducted during September 18 to 21, 1998, and encompassed a 53.1-square-kilometer area. The survey was conducted by the U. S. Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada, and maintained and operated by Bechtel Nevada. The purpose of the survey was to measure and map the general exposure-rate levels that existed within the survey area and to define the areas of man-made radionuclide activity. The inferred exposure rates were generally uniform and typical of the natural background radiation, which varied from less than 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour. Enhanced exposure rates, not attributable to natural background, and activity from man-made radionuclides were detected over the power station. The detected man-made radionuclide activity was due to the presence of cobalt-60, which is a nuclear activation product, and cesium-137, which is a long-lived fission product. The detected man-made radionuclides were generally consistent with those expected from routine plant operations. Areas outside of the power station boundaries were found to be free of any detectable man-made radionuclides. A series of ground-based, pressurized ionization chamber exposure-rate measurements were acquired at four locations within the survey boundaries. The results of these measurements were compared and found to be within 5 to 30 percent of the corresponding 1998 inferred aerial exposure-rate data

  1. Subsurface-controlled geological maps for the Y-12 plant and adjacent areas of Bear Creek Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.L.; Haase, C.S.

    1987-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley in the vicinity of the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant is underlain by Middle to Late Cambrian strata of the Conasauga Group. The group consists of interbedded limestones, shales, mudstones, and siltstones, and it can be divided into six discrete formations. Bear Creek Valley is bordered on the north by Pine Ridge, which is underlain by sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Rome Formation, and on the south by Chestnut Ridge, which is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group. Subsurface-controlled geological maps illustrating stratigraphic data and formational contacts for the formations within the Conasauga Group have been prepared for the Y-12 Plant vicinity and selected areas in Bear Creek Valley westward from the plant. The maps are consistent with all available surface and subsurface data for areas where sufficient data exist to make map construction feasible. 13 refs

  2. Modeling the intraurban variation in nitrogen dioxide in urban areas in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Anobha; Levy, Jonathan I; Bell, Michelle L

    2017-05-01

    With growing urbanization, traffic has become one of the main sources of air pollution in Nepal. Understanding the impact of air pollution on health requires estimation of exposure. Land use regression (LUR) modeling is widely used to investigate intraurban variation in air pollution for Western cities, but LUR models are relatively scarce in developing countries. In this study, we developed LUR models to characterize intraurban variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in urban areas of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, one of the fastest urbanizing areas in South Asia. Over the study area, 135 monitoring sites were selected using stratified random sampling based on building density and road density along with purposeful sampling. In 2014, four sampling campaigns were performed, one per season, for two weeks each. NO 2 was measured using duplicate Palmes tubes at 135 sites, with additional information on nitric oxide (NO), NO 2 , and nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations derived from Ogawa badges at 28 sites. Geographical variables (e.g., road network, land use, built area) were used as predictor variables in LUR modeling, considering buffers 25-400m around each monitoring site. Annual average NO 2 by site ranged from 5.7 to 120ppb for the study area, with higher concentrations in the Village Development Committees (VDCs) of Kathmandu and Lalitpur than in Kirtipur, Thimi, and Bhaktapur, and with variability present within each VDC. In the final LUR model, length of major road, built area, and industrial area were positively associated with NO 2 concentration while normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was negatively associated with NO 2 concentration (R 2 =0.51). Cross-validation of the results confirmed the reliability of the model. The combination of passive NO 2 sampling and LUR modeling techniques allowed for characterization of nitrogen dioxide patterns in a developing country setting, demonstrating spatial variability and high pollution levels. Copyright © 2017

  3. Ecological restoration experiments (1992-2007) at the G.A. Pearson Natural Area, Fort Valley Experimental Forest (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret M. Moore; Wallace Covington; Peter Z. Fulé; Stephen C. Hart; Thomas E. Kolb; Joy N. Mast; Stephen S. Sackett; Michael R. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    In 1992 an experiment was initiated at the G. A. Pearson Natural Area on the Fort Valley Experimental Forest to evaluate long-term ecosystem responses to two restoration treatments: thinning only and thinning with prescribed burning. Fifteen years of key findings about tree physiology, herbaceous, and ecosystem responses are presented.

  4. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis infections among people living in a slum area in Kathmandu valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachan, Balkrishna; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadhur; Tandukar, Sarmila; Dhoubhadel, Bhim Gopal; Gauchan, Leesa; Rai, Ganesh

    2017-09-07

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium parvum infections among people living a slum in Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Ten different parasites were detected in the stool samples; the prevalence of any parasite was in 27.1% (71/262). The prevalence of C. cayetanensis and C. parvum were 14.1% (10/71) and 5.6% (4/71), respectively. This study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections along with the coccidian parasites in the slum area of Kathmandu Valley.

  5. What Factors Encourage Intrafamily Farm Succession in Mountain Areas? Evidence From an Alpine Valley in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavicchioli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Family farming plays a vital role in mountain areas. Its survival is related to multiple factors, including intrafamily farm succession. This study examined data on apple-producing family farms in an Italian Alpine valley, trying to identify which factors foster or discourage intrafamily succession and to what extent they do this, both at the farm level and from the potential successor's viewpoint. To do so, various farm, farmer, and individual characteristics were analyzed using probabilistic regression. We found that intrafamily succession was more likely when the farm was managed by a woman (+20% with a high school diploma (+13% who had at least 1 child with specialized education in agriculture (+27% and when farm sales had increased in recent years (+25%. We also found that a child's willingness to take over the family farm decreases as the number of farm children increases and when the child is a female with a high school diploma; however, the likelihood that children will take over the family business rises as farmer education level and work experience increase. These findings, while mixed, suggest that women play a key role in keeping family farming alive in mountain areas, along with education of family members, improved marketability of agricultural products, and in general, competitiveness and profitability of the family farm.

  6. West Valley Demonstration Project, Waste Management Area #3 -- Closure Alternative I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschke, Stephen F. [Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), New York, NY (United States)

    2000-06-30

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the completion of the West Valley Demonstration Project and closure and/or long-term management of facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center divided the site into Waste Management Areas (WMAs), and for each WMA, presented the impacts associated with five potential closure alternatives. This report focuses on WMA 3 (the High-Level Waste (HLW) Storage Area (Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2), the Vitrification Facility and other facilities) and closure Alternative I (the complete removal of all structures, systems and components and the release of the area for unrestricted use), and reestimates the impacts associated with the complete removal of the HLW tanks, and surrounding facilities. A 32-step approach was developed for the complete removal of Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2, the Supernatant Treatment System Support Building, and the Transfer Trench. First, a shielded Confinement Structure would be constructed to reduce the shine dose rate and to control radioactivity releases. Similarly, the tank heels would be stabilized to reduce potential radiation exposures. Next, the tank removal methodology would include: 1) excavation of the vault cover soil, 2) removal of the vault roof, 3) cutting off the tank’s top, 4) removal of the stabilized heel remaining inside the tank, 5) cutting up the tank’s walls and floor, 6) removal of the vault’s walls, the perlite blocks, and vault floor, and 7) radiation surveying and backfilling the resulting hole. After the tanks are removed, the Confinement Structure would be decontaminated and dismantled, and the site backfilled and landscaped. The impacts (including waste disposal quantities, emissions, work-effort, radiation exposures, injuries and fatalities, consumable materials used, and costs) were estimated based on this 32 step removal methodology, and added to the previously estimated impacts for closure of the other facilities within WMA 3 to obtain the total impacts from

  7. Biopetrology of coals from Krishnavaram area, Chintalapudi sub-basin, Godavari valley coalfields, Andhra Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarate, O.S. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2001-07-01

    Critical analysis of the constitution and rank of the sub-surface coal deposits from Krishnavaram area in the Chintalapudi sub-basin of Godavari valley coalfield is presented. Three coal/shale zones viz. A, B and C (in the ascending order) are encountered from Barakar Formation and lower Kamthi Member of the Lower Gondwana sequence. Zone C mostly contains shaly beds interbedded with thin coal bands (mostly shaly coal), and as such has no economic significance. Zone B is dominated by the vitric and mixed type of coal which has attained high volatile bituminous B and C ranks. The lowermost Zone A is characterised by mixed and fusic coal types with high volatile bituminous C rank. Both the zones A and B contain good quality coal and bear high economic potential. Cold and humid climate with alternating dry and oxidising spells have been interpreted from the constitution of coal. Moreover, the accumulation of thick pile of sediments rich in organic matter is attributed to the sinking of the basin floor due to the activation of faults. Later tectonic events either caused extinction or drastically reduced the number of the floral elements and formed thick shaly horizons interrupting the continuity of the coal facies.

  8. Application of heat-flow techniques to geothermal energy exploration, Leach Hot Springs area, Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sass, J.H.; Ziagos, J.P.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Munroe, R.J.; di Somma, D.E.; Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 82 holes ranging in depth from 18 to 400 meters were drilled for thermal and hydrologic studies in a 200 km/sup 2/ area of Grass Valley, Nevada, near Leach Hot Springs. Outside the immediate area of Leach Hot Springs, heat flow ranges from 1 to 6.5 hfu with a mean of 2.4 hfu (1 hfu = 10/sup -6/ cal cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ = 41.8 mWm/sup -2/). Within 2 km of the springs, conductive heat flow ranges between 1.6 and more than 70 hfu averaging 13.6 hfu. Besides the conspicuous thermal anomaly associated with the hot springs, two additional anomalies were identified. One is associated with faults bounding the western margin of the Tobin Range near Panther Canyon, and the other is near the middle of Grass Valley about 5 km SSW of Leach Hot Springs. The mid-valley anomaly appears to be caused by hydrothermal circulation in a bedrock horst beneath about 375 meters of impermeable valley sediments. If the convective and conductive heat discharge within 2 km of the Leach Hot Springs is averaged over the entire hydrologic system (including areas of recharge), the combined heat flux from this part of Grass Valley is about 3 hfu, consistent with the average regional conductive heat flow in the Battle Mountain High. The hydrothermal system can be interpreted as being in a stationary stable phase sustained by high regional heat flow, and no localized crustal heat sources (other than hydrothermal convection to depths of a few kilometers) need be invoked to explain the existence of Leach Hot Springs.

  9. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Corning area, Steuben County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Belli, J.L.; Allen, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of 11 map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together, the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southeastern Steuben County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, aquifer thickness, potentiometric-surface elevations, and land use. The valley-fill deposits consist of alluvial silt, sand, and gravel, glacial-outwash (sand and gravel), till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities, whereas the till and silt deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions prevail in unconfined sand and gravel along the valley margin. Artesian conditions are found locally in sand and gravel confined under silt and clay in the middle of the valley. Recharge occurs nearly everywhere on the valley floor, but principally along the margin of the valley, where highly permeable land surface conditions exist, and runoff from the hillsides is concentrated. The use of land overlying the aquifer is a mixture of residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial uses. (USGS)

  10. Identifying Areas Suitable for the Occurrence of Rift Valley Fever in North Africa: Implications for Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsevska, E; Hellal, J; Mejri, S; Hammami, S; Marianneau, P; Calavas, D; Hénaux, V

    2016-12-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that has caused widespread outbreaks throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with serious consequences for livestock-based economies and public health. Although there have never been any reports of RVF in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, it is a priority disease in the Maghreb, due to the threat of introduction of the virus through transboundary livestock movements or infected mosquito vectors. However, the implementation of surveillance activities and early warning contingency plans requires better knowledge of the epidemiological situation. We conducted a multicriteria decision analysis, integrating host distribution with a combination of important ecological factors that drive mosquito abundance, to identify hotspots and suitable time periods for RVF enzootic circulation (i.e. stable transmission at a low to moderate level for an extended period of time) and an RVF epizootic event (i.e. a sudden occurrence of a large number of infected animals over a large geographic area) in the Maghreb. We also modelled vector species distribution using available information on vector presence and habitat preference. We found that the northern regions of the Maghreb were moderately suitable for RVF enzootics, but highly suitable for RVF epizootics. The vector species distribution model identified these regions as the most favourable mosquito habitats. Due to the low density of animal hosts and arid conditions, the desert region showed low RVF suitability, except in oases. However, the presence of competent vectors in putative unsuitable areas underlines the need for further assessments of mosquito habitat preference. This study produced monthly RVF suitability maps useful for animal health managers and veterinary services involved in designing risk-based surveillance programmes. The suitability maps can be further enhanced using existing country-specific sources of information and by incorporating knowledge

  11. Bryophytes use like atmospheric indicators of heavy metals in the metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblano B, J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in species of frequent and abundant bryophytes in the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV). The concentration of the studied metals was determined in two different seasons (cold-dry and warm-humid) in 11 sites of the MATV, 7 of them classified as urban areas, 2 as transition areas and 2 as protected natural areas. Only epiphyte organisms found to a superior height of 100 cm of the floor were considered and the species determination was realized in the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, while the processing of the samples was carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The samples processing consisted on separating the bryophytes of the bark of the trees, later on each one of the samples was washed, milled and homogenized, at the end they were subjected to a digestion process accelerated by microwaves. The concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in the bryophytes was determined applying the X-rays Fluorescence technique, using a spectrometer Tx-2000 Ital-Structures, with a detector type Si (Li), a tube of Mo (40 kV, 30 m A) with 17,4 keV like excitement energy. Each sample was analyzed six times with a counting time of 500 seconds. Additionally enrichment factors were obtained using reference soils considered as not impacted by anthropogenic activities. With the obtained results space and temporary differences were established through descriptive statistic, also the enrichment factor to infer the possible origin of the metals was calculated, as well as the sites that could represent a risk for the health. The species more frequent and abundant were F. ciliaris and L. angustata, presenting the following tendency in their metals concentration Fe>Ti>Mn>Zn>Pb>V ≅ Cu>Cr, being observed that the temporality is a factor that influences in the metals concentration and that in general F. ciliaris

  12. Hydrogeology of the Ramapo River-Woodbury Creek valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Orange County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system and surrounding watershed areas was investigated within a 23-mile long, fault-controlled valley in eastern Orange County, New York. Glacial deposits form a divide within the valley that is drained to the north by Woodbury Creek and is drained to the south by the Ramapo River. Surficial geology, extent and saturated thickness of sand and gravel aquifers, extent of confining units, bedrock-surface elevation beneath valleys, major lineaments, and the locations of wells for which records are available were delineated on an interactive map.

  13. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND PRODUCTION OF COPAIBA OLEORESIN BETWEEN VALLEYS AND HILLSIDES OF THE MINING AREA OFTROMBETAS RIVER - PARÁ1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Gebara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We aimed in this work to study natural populations of copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne on the Monte Branco mountain at Porto Trombetas-PA, in order to support sustainable management and the exploitation of oleoresin from copaiba. We studied the population structure of copaiba on hillsides and valleys of the south face of Monte Branco, within Saracá Taquera National Forest, where bauxite ore was extracted in the biennium 2013-2014 by Mineração Rio do Norte (MRN. We produced a 100% forest inventory of the specie and of oleoresin extraction in order to quantify the potential production of the remaining area. The density of copaiba individuals with DBH > 30 cm was 0.33 individuals per hectare in the hillside and 0.25 individuals per hectare in the valley. Both environments presented a density of 0.28 individuals per hectare. The average copaiba oleoresin yield was 0.661±0.334 liters in the hillside and 0.765±0.280 liters in the valley. The average value of both environments together (hillside and valley was 0.714±0.218 liters. From all individuals with DBH over 30 cm, 38 (58% produced some amount of oleoresin, averaging 1.113±0.562 liters in the hillside, 1.329±0.448 liters in the valley and 1.190±0.355 liters in both environments together. The results show the need for planning the use of the surroundings of the study area in order to reach the required volume of copaiba to make feasible the sustainable management of oleoresin extraction in the region.

  14. Glacier area and volume changes of Hidden Valley, Mustang, Nepal from ~1980s to 2010 based on remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lama

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are one of the important natural resources of freshwater and sources of water for hydropower, agriculture and drinking whenever the water is scarce. This mapping and change analysis helps to understand the status and decadal changes of glaciers in Hidden Valley, Mustang district, Nepal. The investigation is carried out using Landsat images of the years 1977 (~1980s, 1990, 2000 and 2010. We mapped 10 glaciers of the Hidden Valley covering an area of 19.79 km2 based on the object-based image classification method using an automatic method and manual delineation by a Geographic Information System (GIS, separately. The glacier outlines for 2010, 2000, 1990 and 1980s in both methods are delineated from the multispectral Landsat images of the respective years. The total area losses of the glaciers from the automatic method are 1.713 and 0.625 km2 between 1990−2000 and 2000−2010 and from manual delineation are 2.021, 1.264, 1.041 km2 between ~1980s−1990, 1990−2000 and 2000−2010. The amount of average estimated glacier ice reserves lost is 0.326 km3 (26.26 % and the total glacier area loss is 4.33 km2 (21.87 % from the 1980s to 2010 based on manual delineation. The glaciers of Hidden Valley are shrinking and fragmented due to decrease in glacier area and ice reserves.

  15. Geology and formation of titaniferous placer deposits in Upper Jogaz Valley area, Fanuj, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Moghaddasi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Fanuj titaniferous placer deposits are located 35 km northwest of the Fanuj, Sistan and Baluchestan province (1 . The studied area comprises a (2 small part of the late Cretaceous Fanuj-Maskutan (Rameshk ophiolite complex (Arshadi and Mahdavi, 1987. Reconnaissance and comprehensive exploration programs in the Fanuj district (East of the 1:100000 Fanuj quadrangle map,Yazdi, 2010 revealed that the Upper Jogaz Valley area has the highest concentration of titaniferous placer deposits. In this study, geology and formation of the titaniferous placer deposits in Upper Jogaz Valley area are discussed. Materials and Methods (3 Forty samples were collected from surface and drainage sediments to evaluate the potential for titaniferous placers. Mineralogical studies indicated the high Ti (ilmenite bearing areas, which led to detailed exploration by 29 shallow drill holes and 9 trenches. A total of 61 sub-surface samples were collected for heavy mineral studies and ore grade determination. The exploration studies suggest that the the Upper Jogaz Valley area in the Fanuj district has a high potential for titaniferous placer deposits. Extensive exposures of black sands in the sreambeds of this area suggested detailed sampling, so that 12 holes were drilled (2-3 m depthfrom which 26 samples were collected, and five trenches were excavated to 2-4 m depth (4. The distribution of drill holes and trenches were plotted with “Logplot” software for further interpretation. Twenty-two samples from these drill holes were analyzed for TiO2. Results The reconnaissance and comprehensive exploration in Fanuj district shows that the Upper Jogaz Valley area has the highest concentration of titaniferous placer deposits. The general geology of the region and petrology and mineralogy of collected samples suggest that the source rock of the Upper Jogaz Valley titaniferous placers is the hornblende- and olivine-gabbro unit of the Fanuj-Ramesh ophiolites. The Ti

  16. Technology in precision viticulture: a state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matese A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Matese,1 Salvatore Filippo Di Gennaro1,2 1Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council (IBIMET-CNR, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy Abstract: Precision viticulture aims to maximize the oenological potential of vineyards. This is especially true in regions where the high quality standards of wine production justify the adoption of site-specific management practices to simultaneously increase both quality and yield. The introduction of new technologies for supporting vineyard management allows the efficiency and quality of production to be improved and, at the same time, reduces the environmental impact. The rapid evolution of information communication technologies and geographical science offers enormous potential for the development of optimized solutions for distributed information for precision viticulture. Recent technological developments have allowed useful tools to be elaborated that help in the monitoring and control of many aspects of vine growth. Precision viticulture thus seeks to exploit the widest range of available observations to describe the vineyard spatial variability with high resolution, and provide recommendations to improve management efficiency in terms of quality, production, and sustainability. This review presents a brief outline of state of the art of technologies in precision viticulture. It is divided in two sections, the first focusing on monitoring technologies such as geolocating and remote and proximal sensing; the second focuses on variable-rate technologies and the new agricultural robots. Keywords: remote sensing, proximal sensing, variable-rate technology, robot 

  17. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Jamestown area, Chautauqua County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.R.; Stelz, W.G.; Belli, J.L.; Allen, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the sixth in a series of 11 map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together, the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southeastern Chautauqua County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, aquifer thickness, potentiometric-surface elevations and land use. The valley-fill deposits consist of alluvial silt and sand, glacial-outwash (sand and gravel), ice-contact sand and gravel, till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities whereas the till, silt and clay deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions prevail in u nconfined sand and gravel beds along the valley margin. Artesian conditions prevail in confined sand and gravel buried under silt and clay in the middle of the valley. Recharge occurs mainly along the margin of the valley, where the land surface is highly permeable and runoff from the hillsides is concentrated. The use of land overlying the aquifer is predominantly agricultural and residential with lesser amounts of commercial and industrial uses. (USGS)

  18. Results of environmental monitoring in the Kinta Valley and Cameron Highland areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoste, V.

    1994-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity of the Kinta Valley and the Cameron Highlands show relative high values of gamma and alpha radiation. Both types of radiation are strongly related to meteorological conditions. In the Kinta Valley the average environmental values for Ra-222 are I 00 Bq/m sup 3 air. The monitoring chart shows a sinus shaped curve of the Radon 222 daughter concentration (EER = energy equivalent radon concentration). The concentration levels differ by I 0 times from a low in the late afternoon (around 18:00) and a high with the sunrise in the early morning (around 7:00). In the Kinta Valley and at the Pangkor island the observed interval is 24-hours. In the Kinta Valley three different surveys each of one week length showed, that the daily fluctuations exists over the whole year and doe not depend on rainy or dry seasons.. In the Cameron Highlands the outdoor radioactivity varies much faster than in the valley. There wash-out and building up periods during and between rain falls control external gamma and alpha concentration. Immediately after wash-out local gamma values can rise to 10 μSv/hour near the ground. It is concluded that the radioactivity concentration in the air is controlled by the building up time of the Rn 222 (around two hours) and the Rn 220 progeny (around 12 hours). An equilibrium factor of around 0.2 to 0.3 shows that full equilibrium is never reached in the air system. The calculation of the yearly external exposure is only possible with the knowledge of the local monitored concentration curve. A first calculation of the external dose rate for the persons living in the Kinta Valley was made. The calculations suggest dose rates between 5 and 15 mSv per year. High effective doses rates are expected film inhalation of indoor Radon progeny concentrations and from ingestion of contaminated food. (author)

  19. Estimation of the recharge area contributing water to a pumped well in a glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Daniel J.

    1989-01-01

    The highly permeable, unconfined, glacial-drift aquifers that occupy most New England river valleys constitute the principal source of drinking water for many of the communities that obtain part or all of their public water supply from ground water. Recent events have shown that these aquifers are highly susceptible to contamination that results from a number of sources, such as seepage from wastewater lagoons, leaking petroleum-product storage tanks, and road salting. To protect the quality of water pumped from supply wells in these aquifers, it is necessary to ensure that potentially harmful contaminants do not enter the ground in the area that contributes water to the well. A high degree of protection can be achieved through the application of appropriate land-use controls within the contributing area. However, the contributing areas for most supply wells are not known. This report describes the factors that affect the size and shape of contributing areas to public supply wells and evaluates several methods that may be used to delineate contributing areas of wells in glacial-drift, river-valley aquifers. Analytical, two-dimensional numerical, and three-dimensional numerical models were used to delineate contributing areas. These methods of analysis were compared by applying them to a hypothetical aquifer having the dimensions and geometry of a typical glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer. In the model analyses, factors that control the size and shape of a contributing area were varied over ranges of values common to glacial-drift aquifers in New England. The controlling factors include the rate of well discharge, rate of recharge to the aquifer from precipitation and from adjacent till and bedrock uplands, distance of a pumping well from a stream or other potential source of induced recharge, degree of hydraulic connection of the aquifer with a stream, horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity, and

  20. Late Quaternary pollen records from the Lower Cobb Valley and adjacent areas, north-west Nelson, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulmeister, J.; McLea, W.L.; Singer, C.; McKay, R.M.; Hosie, C.

    2003-01-01

    Ten pollen records from the Cobb Valley and adjacent areas in North-West Nelson are described. Collectively they provide a vegetation record extending from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present day. During the Last Glacial Maximum the uplands of North-West Nelson were glaciated. By about 17,000 radiocarbon years BP ice had retreated some distance up the Cobb River Valley and a podocarp heath and tussockland vegetation covered non-glaciated areas. By 14,000 radiocarbon years BP, the valley floor and adjacent lower ridges were occupied by montane podocarp forest dominated by Phyllocladus and Halocarpus. Beech forest expanded into some sites as early as 13,000 yr BP but the modern beech cover was not established until the Holocene. Forest cover has fluctuated in response to disturbance over the Holocene, but the most significant recent change, which is related to clearing for pastoralism in the last two centuries, has had surprisingly little impact on the pollen records. (author). 40 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  1. Propagation Analysis for Wireless Sensor Networks Applied to Viticulture

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Felipe Pinheiro; Alencar, Marcelo Sampaio de; Lopes, Waslon Terllizzie Araújo; Assis, Mauro Soares de; Leal, Brauliro Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks have been proposed as a solution to obtain soil and environment information in large distributed areas. The main economic activity of the São Francisco Valley region in the Northeast of Brazil is the irrigated fruit production. The region is one of the major agricultural regions of the country. Grape plantations receive large investments and provide good financial return. However, the region still lacks electronic sensing systems to extract adequate information from p...

  2. 75 FR 70024 - Notice of Expansion of the Lisbon Valley Known Potash Leasing Area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... to the BLM. Recent advances in drilling technology have provided the capability to extract deep... information to determine that the Lisbon Valley KPLA should be expanded to include deep solution-mineable... Web site: http://www.blm.gov/ut/st/en/prog/more/Land_Records.html . The lands included in the Lisbon...

  3. Electromagnetic surveys to detect clay-rich sediment in the Rio Grande inner valley, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Sterling, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Information on the presence of clay-rich layers in the inner-valley alluvium is essential for quantifying the amount of water transmitted between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. This report describes a study that used electromagnetic surveys to provide this information. In the first phase of the study, electromagnetic soundings were made using time-domain and frequency-domain electro- magnetic methods. On the basis of these initial results, the time- domain method was judged ineffective because of cultural noise in the study area, so subsequent surveys were made using the frequency-domain method. For the second phase of the study, 31 frequency-domain electromagnetic surveys were conducted along the inner valley and parallel to the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area in the spring and summer of 1997 to determine the presence of hydrologically significant clay-rich layers buried in the inner-valley alluvium. For this report, the 31 survey sections were combined into 10 composite sections for ease of interpretation. Terrain-conductivity data from the surveys were modeled using interpretation software to produce geoelectric cross sections along the survey lines. This modeling used lithologic logs from two wells installed near the survey lines: the Bosque South and Rio Bravo 5 wells. Because of cultural interference, location of the wells and soundings, complex stratigraphy, and difficulty interpreting lithology, such interpretation was inconclusive. Instead, a decision process based on modeling results was developed using vertical and horizontal dipole 40-meter intercoil spacing terrain-conductivity values. Values larger than or equal to 20 millisiemens per meter were interpreted to contain a hydrologically significant thickness of clay-rich sediment. Thus, clay-rich sediment was interpreted to underlie seven segments of the 10 composited survey lines, totaling at least 2,660 meters of the Rio Grande inner valley. The longest of these clay

  4. Trace element mobility and transfer to vegetation within the Ethiopian Rift Valley lake areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaye, Yetneberk A; Skipperud, Lindis; Meland, Sondre; Dadebo, Elias; Einset, John; Salbu, Brit

    2012-10-26

    To evaluate critical trace element loads in native vegetation and calculate soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs), 11 trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb and Mn) have been determined in leaves of 9 taxonomically verified naturally growing terrestrial plant species as well as in soil samples collected around 3 Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes (Koka, Ziway and Awassa). The Cr concentration in leaves of all the plant species was higher than the "normal" range, with the highest level (8.4 mg per kg dw) being observed in Acacia tortilis from the Lake Koka area. Caper species (Capparis fascicularis) and Ethiopian dogstooth grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) from Koka also contained exceptionally high levels of Cd (1 mg per kg dw) and Mo (32.8 mg per kg dw), respectively. Pb, As and Cu concentrations were low in the plant leaves from all sites. The low Cu level in important fodder plant species (Cynodon aethiopicus, Acacia tortilis and Opuntia ficus-indicus) implies potential deficiency in grazing and browsing animals. Compared to the Canadian environmental quality guideline and maximum allowable concentration in agricultural soils, the total soil trace element concentrations at the studied sites are safe for agricultural crop production. Enrichment factor was high for Zn in soils around Lakes Ziway and Awassa, resulting in moderate to high transfer of Zn to the studied plants. A six step sequential extraction procedure on the soils revealed a relatively high mobility of Cd, Se and Mn. Strong association of most trace elements with the redox sensitive fraction and mineral lattice was also confirmed by partial redundancy analysis. TF (mg per kg dw plants/mg per kg dw soil) values based on the total (TF(total)) and mobile fractions (TF(mobile)) of soil trace element concentrations varied widely among elements and plant species, with the averaged TF(total) and TF(mobile) values ranging from 0.01-2 and 1-60, respectively. Considering the mobile fraction in soils should

  5. Hydrogeologic and geochemical characterization of groundwater resources in Deep Creek Valley and adjacent areas, Juab and Tooele Counties, Utah, and Elko and White Pine Counties, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Masbruch, Melissa D.

    2015-09-18

    The water resources of Deep Creek Valley were assessed during 2012–13 with an emphasis on better understanding the groundwater flow system and groundwater budget. Surface-water resources are limited in Deep Creek Valley and are generally used for agriculture. Groundwater is the predominant water source for most other uses and to supplement irrigation. Most groundwater withdrawal in Deep Creek Valley occurs from the unconsolidated basin-fill deposits, in which conditions are generally unconfined near the mountain front and confined in the lower-altitude parts of the valley. Productive aquifers are also present in fractured bedrock that occurs along the valley margins and beneath the basin-fill deposits. The consolidated-rock and basin-fill aquifers are hydraulically connected in many areas with much of the recharge occurring in the consolidated-rock mountain blocks and most of the discharge occurring from the lower-altitude basin-fill deposits.

  6. Predicted Liquefaction in the Greater Oakland and Northern Santa Clara Valley Areas for a Repeat of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, T. L.; Noce, T. E.; Bennett, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction due to a repeat of the 1868 (M6.7-7.0) earthquake on the southern segment of the Hayward Fault were calculated for two areas along the margin of San Francisco Bay, California: greater Oakland and the northern Santa Clara Valley. Liquefaction is predicted to be more common in the greater Oakland area than in the northern Santa Clara Valley owing to the presence of 57 km2 of susceptible sandy artificial fill. Most of the fills were placed into San Francisco Bay during the first half of the 20th century to build military bases, port facilities, and shoreline communities like Alameda and Bay Farm Island. Probabilities of liquefaction in the area underlain by this sandy artificial fill range from 0.2 to ~0.5 for a M7.0 earthquake, and decrease to 0.1 to ~0.4 for a M6.7 earthquake. In the greater Oakland area, liquefaction probabilities generally are less than 0.05 for Holocene alluvial fan deposits, which underlie most of the remaining flat-lying urban area. In the northern Santa Clara Valley for a M7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault and an assumed water-table depth of 1.5 m (the historically shallowest water level), liquefaction probabilities range from 0.1 to 0.2 along Coyote and Guadalupe Creeks, but are less than 0.05 elsewhere. For a M6.7 earthquake, probabilities are greater than 0.1 along Coyote Creek but decrease along Guadalupe Creek to less than 0.1. Areas with high probabilities in the Santa Clara Valley are underlain by latest Holocene alluvial fan levee deposits where liquefaction and lateral spreading occurred during large earthquakes in 1868 and 1906. The liquefaction scenario maps were created with ArcGIS ModelBuilder. Peak ground accelerations first were computed with the new Boore and Atkinson NGA attenuation relation (2008, Earthquake Spectra, 24:1, p. 99-138), using VS30 to account for local site response. Spatial liquefaction probabilities were then estimated using the predicted ground motions

  7. A GIS-based multivariate clustering for characterization and ecoregion mapping from a viticultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Moral

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In wine-growing regions, zoning studies define areas according to their potential to produce specific wines and also identify the key drivers behind their variability and optimize vineyard management for sustainable viticulture. However, delineation of homogeneous zones is difficult because of the complex combination of factors which could affect zone classifications. One possibility to capture potential variability is the use of natural environmental properties as they are related to success in grape growing. With the aim of characterizing the spatial variability of the main vine-related environmental variables and determining different zones, climate and topographical data were obtained for Extremadura (southwestern Spain, an important wine region. Firstly, accurate maps of all climate indices were generated by using regression-kriging as the most suitable algorithm in which exhaustive secondary information on elevation was incorporated, and maps of topography-derived variables were obtained using GIS (Geographical Information System tools. Secondly, principal component analysis and multivariate geographic classification were used to define homogeneous classes, resulting in three zones. Each zone was further characterized by overlaying the zonation map with a geology map and all enviromental layers. It was obtained that although a wide part of the Extremaduran territory has warm climate characteristics, the zones have different viticultural potential and a high proportion of the region lays on suitable substrate. This zonation in Extremadura is the basis for further zoning studies at more detailed field scale and the modeling of vineyard response to climate change.

  8. A GIS-based multivariate clustering for characterization and ecoregion mapping from a viticultural perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moral, F.J.; Rebollo, F.J.; Paniagua, L.L.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-01-01

    In wine-growing regions, zoning studies define areas according to their potential to produce specific wines and also identify the key drivers behind their variability and optimize vineyard management for sustainable viticulture. However, delineation of homogeneous zones is difficult because of the complex combination of factors which could affect zone classifications. One possibility to capture potential variability is the use of natural environmental properties as they are related to success in grape growing. With the aim of characterizing the spatial variability of the main vine-related environmental variables and determining different zones, climate and topographical data were obtained for Extremadura (southwestern Spain), an important wine region. Firstly, accurate maps of all climate indices were generated by using regression-kriging as the most suitable algorithm in which exhaustive secondary information on elevation was incorporated, and maps of topography-derived variables were obtained using GIS (Geographical Information System) tools. Secondly, principal component analysis and multivariate geographic classification were used to define homogeneous classes, resulting in three zones. Each zone was further characterized by overlaying the zonation map with a geology map and all enviromental layers. It was obtained that although a wide part of the Extremaduran territory has warm climate characteristics, the zones have different viticultural potential and a high proportion of the region lays on suitable substrate. This zonation in Extremadura is the basis for further zoning studies at more detailed field scale and the modeling of vineyard response to climate change. (Author)

  9. A GIS-based multivariate clustering for characterization and ecoregion mapping from a viticultural perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral, F.J.; Rebollo, F.J.; Paniagua, L.L.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-11-01

    In wine-growing regions, zoning studies define areas according to their potential to produce specific wines and also identify the key drivers behind their variability and optimize vineyard management for sustainable viticulture. However, delineation of homogeneous zones is difficult because of the complex combination of factors which could affect zone classifications. One possibility to capture potential variability is the use of natural environmental properties as they are related to success in grape growing. With the aim of characterizing the spatial variability of the main vine-related environmental variables and determining different zones, climate and topographical data were obtained for Extremadura (southwestern Spain), an important wine region. Firstly, accurate maps of all climate indices were generated by using regression-kriging as the most suitable algorithm in which exhaustive secondary information on elevation was incorporated, and maps of topography-derived variables were obtained using GIS (Geographical Information System) tools. Secondly, principal component analysis and multivariate geographic classification were used to define homogeneous classes, resulting in three zones. Each zone was further characterized by overlaying the zonation map with a geology map and all enviromental layers. It was obtained that although a wide part of the Extremaduran territory has warm climate characteristics, the zones have different viticultural potential and a high proportion of the region lays on suitable substrate. This zonation in Extremadura is the basis for further zoning studies at more detailed field scale and the modeling of vineyard response to climate change. (Author)

  10. Hydrological Responses of Weather Conditions and Crop Change of Agricultural Area in the Rincon Valley, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, S.; Sheng, Z.; Abudu, S.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic cycle of agricultural area has been changing due to the impacts of climate and land use changes (crop coverage changes) in an arid region of Rincon Valley, New Mexico. This study is to evaluate the impacts of weather condition and crop coverage change on hydrologic behavior of agricultural area in Rincon Valley (2,466km2) for agricultural watershed management using a watershed-scale hydrologic model, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool). The SWAT model was developed to incorporate irrigation of different crops using auto irrigation function. For the weather condition and crop coverage change evaluation, three spatial crop coverages including a normal (2008), wet (2009), and dry (2011) years were prepared using USDA crop data layer (CDL) for fourteen different crops. The SWAT model was calibrated for the period of 2001-2003 and validated for the period of 2004-2006 using daily-observed streamflow data. Scenario analysis was performed for wet and dry years based on the unique combinations of crop coverages and releases from Caballo Reservoir. The SWAT model simulated the present vertical water budget and horizontal water transfer considering irrigation practices in the Rincon Valley. Simulation results indicated the temporal and spatial variability for irrigation and non-irrigation seasons of hydrologic cycle in agricultural area in terms of surface runoff, evapotranspiration, infiltration, percolation, baseflow, soil moisture, and groundwater recharge. The water supply of the dry year could not fully cover whole irrigation period due to dry weather conditions, resulting in reduction of crop acreage. For extreme weather conditions, the temporal variation of water budget became robust, which requires careful irrigation management of the agricultural area. The results could provide guidelines for farmers to decide crop patterns in response to different weather conditions and water availability.

  11. Heat flow and radioactivity studies in the Ross Island-dry valley area, Antarctica and their tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    In conjunction with the Dry Valley Drilling Project, the University of Wyoming conducted heat flow and basement radioactivity studies in the Ross Island-dry valley area of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. This part of Antarctica is characterized by late Cenozoic alkaline basaltic volcanism and uplift. Six heat flow (q) values for the area range from 1.4 to 2.0 HFU, with a mean value of 1.7 HFU. Radioactive heat production (A) values for basement rocks from the dry valleys range from 2.2 to 4.1 HGU, with a mean value of 3.0 HGU. The combined q-A data imply that this area is a zone of high reduced heat flow, similar to the Basin and Range province in the western United States and other zones of late Cenozoic tectonof Antarctica is probably in the range of 1.2 to 1.6 HFU, which is about 50 to 100% higher than the reduced flux which characterizes stable continental areas. The results of the transient conductive models presented herein imply that the high flux in this part of Antarctica cannot be explained by the residual thermal effects of a major episode of lithospheric thinning associated with the generation of the Ferrar Dolerites. The correlation between steady conductive thermal models and the late Cenozoic, silica-undersaturated, alkaline basalts of the region is similarly obscure. For example, purely conductive steady-state temperature-depth models predict partial melting at depths of only 45 to 50 km in the mantle, whereas geochemical data for the volcanic units are consistent with the basalts being generated at depths of at least 60 to 80 km

  12. Lead and other heavy metals in stream sediments in the area of Meža valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Fux

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Meža valley, lead – zinc ore has been exploited and processed for more than 300 years, which has strongly influenced the environment.Previous investigation shave shown increased concentrations of lead and some other metals. At the end of the 20th century, the Meža River was considered a stream with the highest concentrations of heavy metals in Slovenia.When the mine and processing plants ceased to operate, the direct transfer of heavy metals into the environment has strongly decreased. However, the deposits of poor ore and wastes from ore processing have remained as an indirect source of heavy metal pollution. From those places heavy metals have been washed out into the nearby streams, and carried into the Meža River and further into the Drava River. Chemical analysis of the Meža River and its tributaries has shown heavy pollution of the upper Meža River sediments with lead, zinc, molybdenum and cadmium, and partly with arsenic. In the lower Meža valley, those concentrations are mildly decreased. Concentrations of cobalt, chrome, copper and nickel are increased in the area around Ravne as a result of the ironworks industry. Mušenik and Jančarjev potok, both tributaries of the Meža River, contribute a high portion of heavy metal load to the Meža River. A specific case is Helenski potok,in which the concentrations of heavy metals strongly surpass the concentrations measured at all other locations. Although more than 10 years have passed since the mine and ore processing plant in the upper Meža valley were closed, the production has ceased and the rehabilitation measures have been taken, the environment in the upper Meža valley is still highly polluted.

  13. An optimal control model of crop thinning in viticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop an economic model of cluster thinning in viticulture to control for grape quantity harvested and grape quality, applying a simple optimal control model with the aim to raise grape quality and related economic profits. The model maximizes vineyard owner profits and allows to discuss two relevant scenarios using a phase diagram analysis: (1 when the initial grape quantity is sufficiently small, thinning grapes will not be optimal and (2 when the initial grape quantity is high enough, it is optimal to thin grapes from the beginning of the relevant planning horizon and to reduce the quantity over time until the stock of grapes arrives at its optimum. Depending on the model's parameters, the “stopping time” for thinning grapes is reached sooner or later. After the stopping time, grape quantity evolves solely according to natural decay. The results relate to observed dynamics in viticulture and for other horticultural crops.

  14. New geoarchaeological investigations of the valley systems in the Aksum area of northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    French, Charles; Sulas, Federica; Madella, Marco

    2009-01-01

    landscape stability and resilience. This is reflected in the development of soils with vertic-like properties, which instead appear to be more like organic brown earths that gradually begin to aggrade through colluvial and alluvial additions. How much this is the result of sympathetic, long-term landscape...... of the sediment captured in the valley systems and lower slopes to the north of Aksum. This no doubt reflects a growing population and arable intensification....

  15. An optimal control model of crop thinning in viticulture

    OpenAIRE

    Schamel Guenter H.; Schubert Stefan F.

    2016-01-01

    We develop an economic model of cluster thinning in viticulture to control for grape quantity harvested and grape quality, applying a simple optimal control model with the aim to raise grape quality and related economic profits. The model maximizes vineyard owner profits and allows to discuss two relevant scenarios using a phase diagram analysis: (1) when the initial grape quantity is sufficiently small, thinning grapes will not be optimal and (2) when the initial grape quantity is high enoug...

  16. Relationship between viticultural climatic indices and grape maturity in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, C.; Barlow, E.; Darbyshire, R.; Eckard, R.; Goodwin, I.

    2017-10-01

    Historical temperature data and maturity records were analyzed for 45 vineyard blocks in 15 winegrowing regions across Australia in order to evaluate the suitability of common viticultural indices to estimate date of grape maturity. Five temperature-based viticultural indices (mean January temperature, mean growing season temperature, growing degree days, biologically effective degree days, Huglin Index) along with four springtime temperature indices (mean and maximum temperature summations for September, October, and November; growing degree days and biologically effective degree days modified to include September) were compared to maturity data in order to investigate index relationship to observed maturity timing. Daily heat summations for the months of September, October, and November showed the best correlation to day of year of maturity, suggesting that springtime temperatures are important relative to the timing of grape maturity. Mean January temperature, a commonly used index, had the poorest correlation with day of year of maturity of all the indices included in this study. Indices that included the month of April had poorer correlation than indices that shifted the months included in the growing season to be from September to March inclusive. Calculated index values for the past 30 years for every region included in this study showed increasing temporal trends to various degrees, indicating that all regions studied are experiencing warming temperatures during the growing season. These results emphasize the need to reevaluate viticultural indices in the context of a changing climate.

  17. Cost-Benefit Analysis applied to the natural gas program for vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldarriaga Isaza, Carlos Adrian; Vasquez Sanchez, Edison; Chavarria Munera, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the evaluation of the natural gas program for vehicles applied in Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley. By using the Cost- Benefit Analysis method, four cost variables were identified: private, fiscal, gas tax, and conversion tax; and three types of benefits: private, fiscal and social. For the environmental social benefit estimation the benefit transfer technique was employed, carrying out meta-analysis function estimation. The cost-benefit net outcome is positive and favors the program application in the study site; in real terms the total profits are about COP$ 803265 million for the complete eight year period it took place (2001- 2008).

  18. The upper Sava valley at the three border area of Austria, Italy ans Yugoslavia - a geographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klemenčič

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis on the alpine spatial factors was carried out in the area of Kranjska gora and the Upper Sava valley, in the NW corner of Slovenia (Yugoslavia. As a part of a similar study Austrians and Italians, at their side of the border, ther research focused on future regional development. The so called "Three Border Area", in the above-mentioned countries, candidates for the winter olympics in 1998 and in general seek cross-border cooperation. The mountainous region of the Julian Alps here is separated from another mountainous and border strech of the Karawanks by the deep glacial river valley of the river Sava. The central place within the valley is Kranjska Gora — a famous winter šport center. World cup alpine skiing races and ski-jumping competitions (Planica take place here every year. The past post-war period were not very much in favour of developing tourism in general. That is why many inhabitants of the Upper Sava Valley decided to abandon agriculture and look for jobs in the governmentaly supported steel mills of the communal center of Jesenice. Daily migration accures today in both directions: man from the area migrate to the industry, woman from the above-mentioned town travel daily the same distance to work in hotels. Lately a couple of hundred inhabitants found jobs also in the nearby employment centers of Carinthia and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Future complex regional development in the area of the bordering countries of Italy, Austria and Yugoslavia can be supported in the part of Slovenia with the tradition of mountaineering and ski jumping as well as vvith an international tradition in hosting guests from distantplaces and vvith the tradition of organizing sporting events. The relatively "underdeveloped alpine landscape" here. mostly within the borders of the Triglav National Park could attract visitors too. Among other developments Mountaineering — and Ski-jumping Schools and Courses of

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-31

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 366 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended).

  20. 78 FR 8016 - Establishment of the Elkton Oregon Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... are titled: (1) Kellogg Quadrangle, Oregon-Douglas Co., Provisional Edition 1990; (2) Old Blue... described as follows: (1) The beginning point is on the Kellogg map at the intersection of the T23S/T24S and..., and then north along the meandering 1,000-foot elevation line, crossing first onto the Kellogg map...

  1. 76 FR 3489 - Revision of American Viticultural Area Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... submitted comments comments Federal Government 2 State Government 2 Local Government 6 Wine Industry Members... United States.'' The Senator's comment further noted that ``California's wine industry contributes over..., complicated and irreparable consequences for the future of America's growing wine industry, which now...

  2. Prospects of domestic viticulture transition to ecological (adaptive management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. А. Ковальова

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the possibility of the domestic viticulture transition to the ecological (adaptive management system, based on the use of highly adaptive varieties. Methods. Procedures are conventional in viticulture. All stages of agrobiological research were carried out according to the M. A. Lazarevskiy technique. The resistance of genetic resources to fungal diseases was assessed using the 9-point scale on the natural infectious background with maximum damage. Organoleptic evaluation of wine and fresh grapes was performed using 8-point and a 10-point scales respectively.  Results. The main agrobiological traits (resistance to diseases, productivity and yield quality of 22 perspective grape varieties and forms were studied. The level of resistance to fungal diseases was determined as one of the main criteria of the variety suitability for ecological (adaptive viticulture. During five years, the average resistance level of this group of table and wine varieties was not lower than the relative one (6.5–7 points, and in ‘Zagrei’ variety – up to 7,5 points. The level of quality characteristics of products of new grape varieties and forms was determined (wine evaluation, marketability and assessment of fresh table grapes. Samples with a combination of high wine and grape quality characteristics and high productivity were selected. To replenish the gene pool of grapes by adaptive varieties, such perspective hybrid combinations as ‘Opalovyi’ ´ ‘Burmunk, ‘Avgustin’ ´ ‘Oryhinal and ‘Ohoniok tairovskyi’ ´ ‘Kardyshakh’ were studied. The level of group resistance to fungal diseases was identified and the perspective genotypes were preliminarily selected. Conclusions. The level of display of a number of economic characters in the group of perspective table and wine grape varieties and forms was determined. Highly adaptive and highly productive varieties and forms suitable for the use in the adaptive viticulture were

  3. Iodine-125 and Iodine-131 in the Thames Valley and other areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, J.R.; Lloyd, M.K.; Bowlt, C.

    1985-01-01

    Part of the Iodine-125 and Iodine-131 waste from hospitals and research centres is discarded down drains and passes through sewage and water reclamation works into the river system. Relatively high concentration of radioiodine occur in outfalls that discharge into the river Thames, lower levels are found in the mainstream river and less still in the reservoirs and tap water supplies abstracted from the river. The pathway from waste to drinking water could account for the low levels of Iodine-125 found in the thyroid glands of some farm animals and human beings in the Thames valley

  4. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Ackermann, Hans D.; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.

    1976-01-01

    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  5. Is it working? A look at the changing nutrient practices in Oregon's Southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlstein, S.; Compton, J.; Eldridge, A.; Henning, A.; Selker, J. S.; Brooks, J. R.; Schmitz, D.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater exceeding the human health standard of 10 mg nitrate-N L-1. Much of the nitrogen inputs to the GWMA comes from agricultural nitrogen use, and thus efforts to reduce N inputs to groundwater are focused upon improving N management. Previous work in the 1990s in the Willamette Valley by researchers at Oregon State University determined the importance of cover crops and irrigation practices and made recommendations to the local farm community for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching. We are currently re-sampling many of the same fields studied by OSU to examine the influence of current crops and nutrient management practices on nitrate leaching below the rooting zone. This study represents important crops currently grown in the GWMA and includes four grass fields, three vegetable row-crop fields, two peppermint and wheat fields, and one each of hazelnuts and blueberries. New nutrient management practices include slow release fertilizers and precision agriculture approaches in some of the fields. Results from the first two years of sampling show nitrate leaching is lower in some crops like row crops grown for seed and higher in others like perennial rye grass seed when compared to the 1990s data. We will use field-level N input-output balances in order to determine the N use efficiency and compare this across crops and over time. The goal of this project is to provide information and tools that will help farmers, managers and conservation groups quantify the water quality benefits of management practices they are conducting or funding.

  6. The disasters administration in the metropolitan area, of the Aburra Valley - An analysis of the CLEPAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero Acosta, Humberto; Hincapie Palacio, Juan David; Lopera Restrepo, Juan Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    This article is a preliminary analysis of eight workshops developed with the local committees for disasters prevention on the Aburra Valley. No one of these committees has at this moment a clear and coherent policies for disasters prevention that make possible to establish administration and community procedures according to the national laws. As a result they do not have specific goals to achieve a permanent action. In most of cases is missing an organized structure to articulate all the different agencies and employees involved. The committees do not have a periodical prepared meetings schedule, what they do is just making emergency reunions to answer to calamity situations. Even though all the cities have a responsible officials staff for emergency management, they have others priorities so the prevention disasters work is left on a second level. In the second part of this article are presented some theoretical elements about disasters and are developed some legal aspects that support the policies related to this topic

  7. Modelling climate change impacts on viticultural yield, phenology and stress conditions in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Helder; García de Cortázar Atauri, Iñaki; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Santos, João A

    2016-11-01

    Viticulture is a key socio-economic sector in Europe. Owing to the strong sensitivity of grapevines to atmospheric factors, climate change may represent an important challenge for this sector. This study analyses viticultural suitability, yield, phenology, and water and nitrogen stress indices in Europe, for present climates (1980-2005) and future (2041-2070) climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and 8.5). The STICS crop model is coupled with climate, soil and terrain databases, also taking into account CO 2 physiological effects, and simulations are validated against observational data sets. A clear agreement between simulated and observed phenology, leaf area index, yield and water and nitrogen stress indices, including the spatial differences throughout Europe, is shown. The projected changes highlight an extension of the climatic suitability for grapevines up to 55°N, which may represent the emergence of new winemaking regions. Despite strong regional heterogeneity, mean phenological timings (budburst, flowering, veraison and harvest) are projected to undergo significant advancements (e.g. budburst/harvest can be >1 month earlier), with implications also in the corresponding phenophase intervals. Enhanced dryness throughout Europe is also projected, with severe water stress over several regions in southern regions (e.g. southern Iberia and Italy), locally reducing yield and leaf area. Increased atmospheric CO 2 partially offsets dryness effects, promoting yield and leaf area index increases in central/northern Europe. Future biomass changes may lead to modifications in nitrogen demands, with higher stress in northern/central Europe and weaker stress in southern Europe. These findings are critical decision support systems for stakeholders from the European winemaking sector. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Triggered surface slips in the Coachella Valley area associated with the 1992 Joshua Tree and Landers, California, Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Coachella Valley area was strongly shaken by the 1992 Joshua Tree (23 April) and Landers (28 June) earthquakes, and both events caused triggered slip on active faults within the area. Triggered slip associated with the Joshua Tree earthquake was on a newly recognized fault, the East Wide Canyon fault, near the southwestern edge of the Little San Bernardino Mountains. Slip associated with the Landers earthquake formed along the San Andreas fault in the southeastern Coachella Valley. Surface fractures formed along the East Wide Canyon fault in association with the Joshua Tree earthquake. The fractures extended discontinuously over a 1.5-km stretch of the fault, near its southern end. Sense of slip was consistently right-oblique, west side down, similar to the long-term style of faulting. Measured offset values were small, with right-lateral and vertical components of slip ranging from 1 to 6 mm and 1 to 4 mm, respectively. This is the first documented historic slip on the East Wide Canyon fault, which was first mapped only months before the Joshua Tree earthquake. Surface slip associated with the Joshua Tree earthquake most likely developed as triggered slip given its 5 km distance from the Joshua Tree epicenter and aftershocks. As revealed in a trench investigation, slip formed in an area with only a thin (Salton Trough. A paleoseismic trench study in an area of 1992 surface slip revealed evidence of two and possibly three surface faulting events on the East Wide Canyon fault during the late Quaternary, probably latest Pleistocene (first event) and mid- to late Holocene (second two events). About two months after the Joshua Tree earthquake, the Landers earthquake then triggered slip on many faults, including the San Andreas fault in the southeastern Coachella Valley. Surface fractures associated with this event formed discontinuous breaks over a 54-km-long stretch of the fault, from the Indio Hills southeastward to Durmid Hill. Sense of slip was right

  9. Granitoids of the Dry Valleys area, southern Victoria Land : geochemistry and evolution along the early Paleozoic Antarctic Craton margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Cox, S.C.; Smillie, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    Field relationships and geochemistry indicate granitoid plutons of the Dry Valleys area comprise at least three petrogenetically distinct suites. The older Dry Valleys 1a (DV1a) suite, comprising the Bonney, Catspaw, Denton, Cavendish, and Wheeler Plutons and hornblende-biotite orthogneisses, and Dry Valleys 1b (DV1b) suite, comprising the Hedley, Valhalla, St Johns, Dun, Calkin, and Suess Plutons, biotite granitoid dikes and biotite orthogneisses, were emplaced before prominent swarms of Vanda mafic and felsic dikes. Both the DV1a and DV1b suites are time transgressive, with older intrusions in each suite being emplaced during the later stages of deformation of the Koettlitz Group. Younger granitoids that postdate the majority of the Vanda dikes include: the Dry Valleys 2 (DV2) suite, comprising the Pearse and Nibelungen Plutons plus several smaller, unnamed plugs; and the Harker, Swinford, Orestes, and Brownworth Plutons with identical field relationships and enclaves but distinct chemistries. Chemical characteristics and limited Rb-Sr isotopic dating indicate plutonism before c. 500 Ma was dominated by the Cordilleran I-type DV1a suite, inferred to have developed during melting above a west-dipping subduction zone along the Antarctic Craton margin. The chemical characteristics of the DV1b suite indicate large-scale melting of a quartzo-feldspathic protolith lacking residual plagioclase, but containing refractory garnet. Potential DV1b suite source rocks include metamorphosed immature sediments, possibly underplated along the subduction zone associated with DV1a magmatism, or older granitoid orthogneisses. Major DV1b plutonism at 490 Ma marks the end of subduction-related plutonism in southern Victoria Land. Younger DV2 alkali-calcic, Caledonian I-type plutonism is inferred to have formed in response to uplift and extension between 480 and 455 Ma. Lack of DV2 suite correlatives and Vanda mafic and felsic dikes in northern Victoria Land suggests significantly

  10. Towards the environmental sustainability assessment for the viticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Recchia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades in Italy the wine sector focused on the environmental sustainability of the production processes, including the agricultural, the agro-industrial and the packaging phases. Recent surveys highlighted that the wine consumers are interested in the environmental certifications, even if they are not familiar with them. Several environmental pressures can be evaluated in the viticulture phase, but an elevated number of the analysed impacts require the collection of a large set of input data and significant efforts during the elaboration phase. Therefore, the aim of the present work was the identification of the inventory data and impacts, which mainly describe the environmental pressures associated with the viticulture phase. Particularly, the results of the life cycle assessment (LCA were integrated with those of a model and a simplified approach for evaluating the risks due to the pesticides use. The LCA identified three phases, which are responsible of 70-80% of the CO2eq (CO2 equivalent, the cumulated energy utilisation, the acidification potential (expressed in SO2 equivalent and the eutrophication (expressed in PO4 equivalent, i.e. the harvesting, the crop protection and the ligature. The phase of the pesticides use was analysed also through the pesticides risk indicator (PERI model and a simplified approach elaborated by the Regional Agency for the Environment Protection in Tuscany, Italy. Results concerning the environmental risk showed that the PERI model, the Arpat approach and the LCA were coherent for the pesticide mix highlighting that the associated environmental risk is more than doubled from 2004 to 2010. Finally, some operative indications were elaborated in order to reduce the impacts and improve the local and global environmental sustainability of the viticulture phase.

  11. Sustainable viticulture and winery practices in California: What is it, and do customers care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Zucca

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Gary Zucca1,2, David E Smith3,4, Darryl J Mitry5,61National University, Stockton, CA, USA; 2Owner and Winemaker, Zucca Mountain Vineyards, Vallecito, CA, USA; 3National University, Costa Mesa, CA, USA; 4Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark; 5Graduate School Faculty, Norwich University, Northfield, VT, USA; 6National University, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: Producers in the wine industry are increasingly competing in the area of product differentiation. The focus of this article is product differentiation via sustainable viticulture and consumer perception. The authors report on their independent research, assess previous findings in the literature, and examine the industry trends. The study concludes with important observations on wine consumer perceptions of sustainable practices in the wine industry and implications for industry practices and product development.Keywords: California, biologique, organic, biodynamic, sustainable

  12. La viticulture bio, une nouvelle modernité

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaël Schirmer

    2004-01-01

    Les difficultés d'expansion de la viticulture biologique en France proviennent avant tout de la rupture conséquente qu'elle introduit en ce qui concerne notre rapport à l'espace. La place de l'agriculteur dans la société est refondée, les paysages tels que nous les entendions sont bouleversés. Il semble bien qu'une nouvelle modernité soit en train de se développer, à côté de tant d'autres il est vrai.

  13. Landscape Mapping and Tree Diversity Assessment of Pangi Valley: A Remote Tribal Area of Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pangi valley in Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh is one of the remote tribal areas in Indian western Himalaya. The plant resources in its landscapes are flourishing under least anthropogenic conditions. For social upliftment of the tribals in this area, a number of developmental activities are being implemented by the government. A study was conducted for mapping of its landuse/landcover using satellite remote sensing to identify major forested landscapes in the region. It was followed by a detailed random stratified sampling of the forested landscapes for phytosociological estimation of its tree species. The 21.97 % of study area was estimated under forests followed by Scrublands and Grassy meadows (18.24 %. Majority of area (54.05 % was Snow and Scree slopes. Among the forests, maximum area was occupied by Mixed Broad Leaved Forest LSE type (36.08% followed by Cedrus deodara (26.94% and Betula utilis (18.07% forest LSE types. These species, owing to immense medicinal properties and value for their economic utilization, feature in threatened and endangered category list of plants. It is, therefore, recommended that the developmental activities may be implemented in scientific way, which may not pose threat to bioresources in this region.

  14. Contamination by intestinal parasites in vegetables marketed in an area of Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Guimarães LUZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the presence of helminthes and intestinal protozoa in vegetables commercialized in Diamantina, a municipality located at Jequitinhonha Valley, one of the poorest regions of the world. Methods: A total of 108 specimens, including lettuce, green onion and rocket, were monthly collected from the most popular open street market, green grocery and supermarket of the municipality. The samples were processed by a concentration method and evaluated by light microscopy for parasitological identification. Results: The percentage of contamination was 50.9% (55/108, with predominance of nematode larvae (36.5%, cysts of Entamoeba coli (26.0% and eggs of hookworms/Strongyloides spp. (12.9%. Lettuce showed greater contamination rate (61.1% and samples from the open street market were more contaminated (77.8%. Information collected at each point of sale pointed the field cultivation as the critical step for such contaminations. Conclusion: Vegetables marketed in Diamantina presents a wide variety of intestinal parasites, which may represent a potential risk to the health of consumers of fresh vegetables.

  15. Radioanalytical laboratory quality control: Current status at Tennessee Valley Authority's western area radiological laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority operates a laboratory for radiological analysis of nuclear plant environmental monitoring samples and also for analysis of environmental samples from uranium mining and milling decommissioning activities. The laboratory analyzes some 9,000 samples per year and employs approximately 20 people as analysts, sample collectors, and supervisory staff members. The laboratory is supported by a quality control section of four people involved in computer support, production of radioactive standards, quality control data assessment and reporting, and internal reviews of compliance. The entire laboratory effort is controlled by 60 written procedures or standards. An HP-1000 computer and data base software are used to schedule samples for collection, assign and schedule samples within the laboratory for preparation and analysis, calculate sample activity, review data, and report data outside the laboratory. Gamma spectroscopy systems with nine germanium detectors, an alpha spectroscopy system, five alpha/beta counters, two liquid scintillation counters, four beta-gamma coincidence systems, two sodium iodide single-channel systems, and four photomultipliers for counting Lucas cells are all employed. Each device has various calibration and quality control checks performed on it routinely. Logbooks and control charts are in use for each instrument

  16. White Oak Creek watershed: Melton Valley area Remedial Investigation report, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes A and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This document contains Appendixes A ''Source Inventory Information for the Subbasins Evaluated for the White Oak Creek Watershed'' and B ''Human Health Risk Assessment for White Oak Creek / Melton Valley Area'' for the remedial investigation report for the White Oak Creek Watershed and Melton Valley Area. Appendix A identifies the waste types and contaminants for each subbasin in addition to the disposal methods. Appendix B identifies potential human health risks and hazards that may result from contaminants present in the different media within Oak Ridge National Laboratory sites

  17. LDL (Landscape Digital Library) a Digital Photographic Database of a Case Study Area in the River Po Valley, Northern Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, D

    2001-01-01

    Landscapes are both a synthesis and an expression of national, regional and local cultural heritages. It is therefore very important to develop techniques aimed at cataloguing and archiving their forms. This paper discusses the LDL (Landscape Digital Library) project, a Web accessible database that can present the landscapes of a territory with documentary evidence in a new format and from a new perspective. The method was tested in a case study area of the river Po valley (Northern Italy). The LDL is based on a collection of photographs taken following a systematic grid of survey points identified through topographic cartography; the camera level is that of the human eye. This methodology leads to an innovative landscape archive that differs from surveys carried out through aerial photographs or campaigns aimed at selecting "relevant" points of interest. Further developments and possible uses of the LDL are also discussed.

  18. Natural Inspired Intelligent Visual Computing and Its Application to Viticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Li Minn; Seng, Kah Phooi; Ge, Feng Lu

    2017-05-23

    This paper presents an investigation of natural inspired intelligent computing and its corresponding application towards visual information processing systems for viticulture. The paper has three contributions: (1) a review of visual information processing applications for viticulture; (2) the development of natural inspired computing algorithms based on artificial immune system (AIS) techniques for grape berry detection; and (3) the application of the developed algorithms towards real-world grape berry images captured in natural conditions from vineyards in Australia. The AIS algorithms in (2) were developed based on a nature-inspired clonal selection algorithm (CSA) which is able to detect the arcs in the berry images with precision, based on a fitness model. The arcs detected are then extended to perform the multiple arcs and ring detectors information processing for the berry detection application. The performance of the developed algorithms were compared with traditional image processing algorithms like the circular Hough transform (CHT) and other well-known circle detection methods. The proposed AIS approach gave a Fscore of 0.71 compared with Fscores of 0.28 and 0.30 for the CHT and a parameter-free circle detection technique (RPCD) respectively.

  19. A multiple-tracer approach to understanding regional groundwater flow in the Snake Valley area of the eastern Great Basin, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Heilweil, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Age tracers and noble gases constrain intra- and inter-basin groundwater flow. • Tritium indicates modern (<60 yr) recharge occurring in all mountain areas. • Noble-gas data identify an important interbasin hydraulic discontinuity. • Further groundwater development may significantly impact Snake Valley springs. - Abstract: Groundwater in Snake Valley and surrounding basins in the eastern Great Basin province of the western United States is being targeted for large-scale groundwater extraction and export. Concern about declining groundwater levels and spring flows in western Utah as a result of the proposed groundwater withdrawals has led to efforts that have improved the understanding of this regional groundwater flow system. In this study, environmental tracers (δ 2 H, δ 18 O, 3 H, 14 C, 3 He, 4 He, 20 Ne, 40 Ar, 84 Kr, and 129 Xe) and major ions from 142 sites were evaluated to investigate groundwater recharge and flow-path characteristics. With few exceptions, δ 2 H and δ 18 O show that most valley groundwater has similar ratios to mountain springs, indicating recharge is dominated by relatively high-altitude precipitation. The spatial distribution of 3 H, terrigenic helium ( 4 He terr ), and 3 H/ 3 He ages shows that modern groundwater (<60 yr) in valley aquifers is found only in the western third of the study area. Pleistocene and late-Holocene groundwater is found in the eastern parts of the study area. The age of Pleistocene groundwater is supported by minimum adjusted radiocarbon ages of up to 32 ka. Noble gas recharge temperatures (NGTs) are generally 1–11 °C in Snake and southern Spring Valleys and >11 °C to the east of Snake Valley and indicate a hydraulic discontinuity between Snake and Tule Valleys across the northern Confusion Range. The combination of NGTs and 4 He terr shows that the majority of Snake Valley groundwater discharges as springs, evapotranspiration, and well withdrawals within Snake Valley rather than

  20. Precision Viticulture : is it relevant to manage the vineyard according to the within field spatial variability of the environment ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisseyre, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    For more than 15 years, research projects are conducted in the precision viticulture (PV) area around the world. These research projects have provided new insights into the within-field variability in viticulture. Indeed, access to high spatial resolution data (remote sensing, embedded sensors, etc.) changes the knowledge we have of the fields in viticulture. In particular, the field which was until now considered as a homogeneous management unit, presents actually a high spatial variability in terms of yield, vigour an quality. This knowledge will lead (and is already causing) changes on how to manage the vineyard and the quality of the harvest at the within field scale. From the experimental results obtained in various countries of the world, the goal of the presentation is to provide figures on: - the spatial variability of the main parameters (yield, vigor, quality), and how this variability is organized spatially, - the temporal stability of the observed spatial variability and the potential link with environmental parameters like soil, topography, soil water availability, etc. - information sources available at a high spatial resolution conventionally used in precision agriculture likely to highlight this spatial variability (multi-spectral images, soil electrical conductivity, etc.) and the limitations that these information sources are likely to present in viticulture. Several strategies are currently being developed to take into account the within field variability in viticulture. They are based on the development of specific equipments, sensors, actuators and site specific strategies with the aim of adapting the vineyard operations at the within-field level. These strategies will be presented briefly in two ways : - Site specific operations (fertilization, pruning, thinning, irrigation, etc.) in order to counteract the effects of the environment and to obtain a final product with a controlled and consistent wine quality, - Differential harvesting with the

  1. An unexpected recurrent transmission of Rift Valley fever virus in cattle in a temperate and mountainous area of Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Chevalier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is an acute, zoonotic viral disease of domestic ruminants, caused by a phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae family. A large outbreak occurred in Madagascar in 2008-2009. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the point prevalence of antibodies against Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV in cattle in the Anjozorobe district, located in the wet and temperate highland region of Madagascar and yet heavily affected by the disease, and analyse environmental and trade factors potentially linked to RVFV transmission. A serological study was performed in 2009 in 894 bovines. For each bovine, the following variables were recorded: age, location of the night pen, minimum distance from the pen to the nearest water point and the forest, nearest water point type, and herd replacement practices. The serological data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. The overall anti-RVFV IgG seroprevalence rate was 28% [CI95% 25-31]. Age was statistically linked to prevalence (p = 10(-4, being consistent with a recurrent RVFV circulation. Distance from the night pen to the nearest water point was a protective factor (p = 5.10(-3, which would be compatible with a substantial part of the virus transmission being carried out by nocturnal mosquito vectors. However, water point type did not influence the risk of infection: several mosquito species are probably involved. Cattle belonging to owners who purchase animals to renew the herd were significantly more likely to have seroconverted than others (p = 0.04: cattle trade may contribute to the introduction of the virus in this area. The minimum distance of the night pen to the forest was not linked to the prevalence. This is the first evidence of a recurrent transmission of RVFV in such an ecosystem that associates a wet, temperate climate, high altitude, paddy fields, and vicinity to a dense rain forest. Persistence mechanisms need to be further investigated.

  2. Late Quaternary loess-like paleosols and pedocomplexes, geochemistry, provenance and source area weathering, Manasbal, Kashmir Valley, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babeesh, C.; Achyuthan, Hema; Jaiswal, Manoj Kumar; Lone, Aasif

    2017-05-01

    The late Quaternary loess and loess-like deposits in Kashmir Valley are natural archives that have preserved paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental records of the region. We present a loess-like paleosol located along the margin of the Manasbal Lake, Ganderbal, which was studied in detail for understanding the pedological processes and reconstructing the late Quaternary soil formation. In this paper we present loess-like paleosol formation of a nearly 10.6 m thick sequence exposed along the margin of Manasbal Lake, Ganderbal District, Srinagar, Kashmir. Geochemical and textural data of this loess-like sedimentary sequence fluctuate reflecting the varied depositional processes operating in the valley, differential intensity of weathering, and processes of pedogenesis. Weathering indices such as chemical index of alteration, chemical index of weathering, and plagioclase index of alteration reveal weak to moderate weathering of the parent material. Provenance discrimination diagrams of the present study disclose that the Manasbal loess-like paleosol sediments are derived from the mixed source rocks suggesting a variety of provenance with variable geological settings, which apparently have undergone weak to moderate recycling processes. The Manasbal paleosol horizons have been dated by the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) method to the marine isotope stages mid-MIS-3 (41.7 ± 8.0 ka) and late-MIS-2 (14.6 ± 3.8 ka). During the MIS-3 period, the climate was wetter, forming a strong AhBtk paleosol as inferred from the geochemical data. A steady increase in the CaCO3 content and C/N ratio in the paleosols from 6.50 m (MIS-3) indicates arid and drier climatic conditions. The area around Manasbal Lake incised because of climate change and neotectonic activity since post-14 ka.

  3. Global change and viticulture in the Mediterranean region: a case of study in north-eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Albert Lopez-Bustins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture in the Mediterranean region has been improved by agronomic methods based on ecophysiological and genetic knowledge of the species and varieties cultivated. Plant growth, yield and quality are highly dependent on climate. Grape sugar content and wine alcohol content are considered as important quality parameters. The objective of our study is to analyse the effects of the current global change on the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV in red wines from vineyards located in the Montsant Designation of Origin (DO (Priorat County, north-eastern Spain. We present an annual series of percentage of ABV in red wines over the 1984-2008 period (25 years, which is one of the longest series of this viticultural variable in Spain. We do not detect any significant trend of alcohol levels in red wines from the Montsant DO along the 1984-2004 subperiod, but a sharp increase about 1% (by volume is observed after 2004; we statistically checked that the last four years constitute an outlier period in the series. We consider climate evolution over the 1984-2004 period in the study area in order to find some relation with alcohol levels in red wines. Agronomic practices and land cover changes are also taken into account. Results show that the interannual variability of the alcohol levels in red wines are partially explained by temperature and precipitation conditions few days before the vintage. The high percentages of ABV since 2005 may be associated with new trends in viticulture techniques rather than with climate change.

  4. Global change and viticulture in the Mediterranean region: a case of study in north-eastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Bustins, J. A.; Pla, E.; Nadal, M.; Herralde, F. de; Save, R.

    2014-06-01

    Viticulture in the Mediterranean region has been improved by agronomic methods based on eco physiological and genetic knowledge of the species and varieties cultivated. Plant growth, yield and quality are highly dependent on climate. Grape sugar content and wine alcohol content are considered as important quality parameters. The objective of our study is to analyse the effects of the current global change on the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV) in red wines from vineyards located in the Montsant Designation of Origin (DO) (Priorat County, north-eastern Spain). We present an annual series of percentage of ABV in red wines over the 1984-2008 period (25 years), which is one of the longest series of this viticultural variable in Spain. We do not detect any significant trend of alcohol levels in red wines from the Montsant DO along the 1984-2004 subperiod, but a sharp increase about 1% (by volume) is observed after 2004; we statistically checked that the last four years constitute an outlier period in the series. We consider climate evolution over the 1984-2004 period in the study area in order to find some relation with alcohol levels in red wines. Agronomic practices and land cover changes are also taken into account. Results show that the interannual variability of the alcohol levels in red wines are partially explained by temperature and precipitation conditions few days before the vintage. The high percentages of ABV since 2005 may be associated with new trends in viticulture techniques rather than with climate change. (Author)

  5. Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system in the Endicott-Vestal area of southwestern Broome County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.; Kappel, William M.

    2015-07-29

    The village of Endicott, New York, and the adjacent town of Vestal have historically used groundwater from the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system for municipal water supply, but parts of some aquifers in this urban area suffer from legacy contamination from varied sources. Endicott would like to identify sites distant from known contamination where productive aquifers could supply municipal wells with water that would not require intensive treatment. The distribution or geometry of aquifers within the Susquehanna River valley fill in western Endicott and northwestern Vestal are delineated in this report largely on the basis of abundant borehole data that have been compiled in a table of well records.

  6. Effect of the air pollution by heavy metals in the tree leaves in the metropolitan area of Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledesma O, C. I.

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of two tree species: Juniperus sp and Ligustrum sp were studied as indicators of pollution heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the atmosphere of the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley. Bio markers of catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol, proteins and pigments were measured in order to determine the effects to atmospheric stress caused by heave metals during two periods in the year (December 2012 and May 2013). Metals were quantified in dry deposit and tissue on trees tissue leaves using the technique of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy respectively. The results show greater response of enzyme inhibition in Juniperus sp. species, with decreased protein content and increased lipid peroxidation at sites with higher content of metals in tissue belonging to urban areas with increased industrial activity and traffic flow. In dry deposit bioavailability factor of metals was Fe>Mn> Zn> Cu>Pb for the first time of sampling and Fe>Mn> Cu> Zn>Pb for the second sampling period. (Author)

  7. Tritium-helium 3 dating under complex conditions in hydraulically stressed areas of a buried-valley aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Stephanie Dunkle; Rowe, Gary L.; Schlosser, Peter; Ludin, Andrea; Stute, Martin

    1998-01-01

    The 3H-3He dating method is applied in a buried-valley aquifer near Dayton, Ohio. The study area is large, not all sampling locations lie along well-defined flow paths, and existing wells with variable screen lengths and diameters are used. Reliable use of the method at this site requires addressing several complications: (1) The flow system is disturbed because of high pumping rates and induced infiltration; (2) tritium contamination is present in several areas of the aquifer; and (3) radiogenic helium concentrations are elevated in a significant number of the wells. The 3H-3He ages are examined for self-consistency by comparing the reconstructed tritium evolution to the annual weighted tritium measured in precipitation; deviations result from dispersion, tritium contamination, and mixing. 3H-3He ages are next examined for consistency with chlorofluorocarbon ages; the agreement is poor because of degradation of CFCs. Finally, the 3H-3He ages are examined for consistency with the current understanding of local hydrologic processes; the ages are generally supported by hydrogeologic data and the results of groundwater flow modeling coupled with particle-tracking analyses.

  8. Equations for predicting diameter, height, crown width, and leaf area of San Joaquin Valley street trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Peper; E.G. McPherson; S.M. Mori

    2001-01-01

    Although the modeling of energy-use reduction, air pollution uptake, rainfall interception, and microclimate modification associated with urban trees depends on data relating diameter at breast height (dbh) , crown height, crown diameter, and leaf area to tree age or dbh, scant information is available for common municipal tree species . I n this study , tree height ,...

  9. Sacramento River Flood Control Project, California Mid-Valley Area, Phase 3. Design Memorandum Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    in the study area. Plants that are candidates for Federal listing are the Suisun aster, heart-scale, California hibiscus , delta tule-pea. Mason’s...agricultural chemicals. According to Sutter County Environmental Health , the State Water Resources Control Board tested a sediment sample taken under the

  10. Quantitative risk assessment of the New York State operated West Valley Radioactive Waste Disposal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, B John; Stetkar, John W; Bembia, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    This article is based on a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) that was performed on a radioactive waste disposal area within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in western New York State. The QRA results were instrumental in the decision by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to support a strategy of in-place management of the disposal area for another decade. The QRA methodology adopted for this first of a kind application was a scenario-based approach in the framework of the triplet definition of risk (scenarios, likelihoods, consequences). The measure of risk is the frequency of occurrence of different levels of radiation dose to humans at prescribed locations. The risk from each scenario is determined by (1) the frequency of disruptive events or natural processes that cause a release of radioactive materials from the disposal area; (2) the physical form, quantity, and radionuclide content of the material that is released during each scenario; (3) distribution, dilution, and deposition of the released materials throughout the environment surrounding the disposal area; and (4) public exposure to the distributed material and the accumulated radiation dose from that exposure. The risks of the individual scenarios are assembled into a representation of the risk from the disposal area. In addition to quantifying the total risk to the public, the analysis ranks the importance of each contributing scenario, which facilitates taking corrective actions and implementing effective risk management. Perhaps most importantly, quantification of the uncertainties is an intrinsic part of the risk results. This approach to safety analysis has demonstrated many advantages of applying QRA principles to assessing the risk of facilities involving hazardous materials.

  11. AN APPLICATION OF CLOSE-UP PHOTOGRAMMETRY IN VITICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. D'Urso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of Geomatic-based Agriculture an application of close-up photogrammetry is illustrated with reference to precision farming. The application has been carried out in a particularly attractive archaeological site and concerns some viticulture species produced in situ by following a farming technique dated about two thousand years. Specifically we illustrate and comment the photogrammetric close-range acquisitions, carried out both outdoor and indoor, aimed at producing a digital botanic atlas that can adequately replace the traditional ones drawn by hand. High precision geometric measurements of vineyard leaves and grapes, are suitable indices of their growth rate and an objective estimate of the relevant repening degree.

  12. Application of a very detailed soil survey method in viticultural zoning in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Miquel Ubalde

    2009-06-01

    Significance and impact of study: This study showed how very detailed soil maps, which can be difficult to interpret and put into practice, can be valorised as viticultural zoning maps by means of a simple methodology.

  13. BRS Isis: New seedless grape cultivar for the tropical viticulture in Northeastern of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leão Patrícia Coelho de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the yield components of the grape BRS Isis grown in tropical conditions of the São Francisco Valley. The work was carried out during five growing seasons (2013–2015 in Petrolina, PE. The phenological cycle was 127 days between pruning to harvest. It was obtained 65.8% of sprouting on the rootstock IAC 313 and 60.4% on ‘SO4’. The bud fertility rates were high, around 1.00 bunches per shoot. The average production per plant was 20.63 kg on ‘SO4’ and 18.34 kg on ‘IAC 313’, corresponding to an yield at 29.45 ton/ha/season on ‘SO4’ and 26.19 ton/ha/season on ‘IAC 313’. The bunches are medium in size and cylindrical shaped with mass of 400 g on ‘SO4’ and 370 g on ‘IAC 313’. The bunch length and width were also slightly higher on ‘SO4’ (21.32 cm × 11.89 cm compared to ‘IAC 313’ (20.42 cm × 11.50 cm. The berries are large, elliptical shaped, crunchy with a neutral flavor. The grape presented SS content around 16.0°Brix and low TA (0.44 and 0.49%, giving an apropriate SS/TA ratio and pleasant taste. The results showed that ‘BRS Isis’ can be considered as a new option of seedless grape for the tropical viticulture in the Northeastern of Brazil.

  14. Eskers and bedrock gorges (tunnel valleys in the Pakasaivo area, western Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johansson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the deglaciation of the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet, including the behavior of the ice sheet and meltwater activity, were conducted in the vicinity of the Pakasaivo canyon lake, located in western Finnish Lapland. Pakasaivo itself, a circular basin up to 100 m deep, was formed in the broken bedrock by glacial erosion and meltwater streams. It was originally related to a former subglacial meltwater system, including the deep Keinokursu gorge. Both this gorge and the Pakasaivo canyon lake were formed subglacially duringan early stage of deglaciation. It was characterized by intense meltwater erosion, which in Pakasaivo also seems to have generated a strong whirl. Steep-crested esker ridges were subsequently deposited; subaerial meltwater activity then followed. Finally the meltwaterwas discharged from the ice-dammed lake north of the area and passed through the Pakasaivo canyon to the ice-free areas. This caused additional intense erosion of the canyon floor and walls, and the deep circular basin is highly similar to a plunge pool formed at the base of a cataract.

  15. Environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy): aspects of soil and vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Paolo; Giupponi, Luca; Cassinari, Chiara; Trevisan, Marco

    2014-05-01

    This work, originating in the preliminary analyses of a Life project and co-financed by the European Union ("Environmental recovery of degraded soils and desertified by a new treatment technology for land reconstruction", Life 10 ENV IT 400 "New Life"; http://www.lifeplusecosistemi.eu), aims to evaluate the environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy) by analysing the characteristics of soil and vegetation. The area of study is located in the municipal territory of Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) along the eastern shores of the river Trebbia and is made up of the closed landfill of Solid Urban Waste of Borgotrebbia (active from 1972 to 1985) and of the neighbouring areas (in North-South order: riverside area, northern borders of the landfill, landfill disposal, southern borders and cultivated corn fields). For each area pedological and vegetational analyses were carried out and in particular, as regards the soil, various chemical-physical analyses were done among which: pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, salinity, exchangeable bases and granulometry. The ground vegetation data were collected using phytosociological relevés according to the method of the Zurich-Montpellier Sigmatist School, (Braun-Blanquet, 1964). For the analysis of the environmental quality of each area, the floristic-vegetation indexes system was applied as proposed by Taffetani & Rismondo (2009) (updated by Rismondo et al., 2011) conveniently created for analysing the ecological functionality of the agro-ecosystems. The results obtained by such applications drew attention to a dynamic vegetation mass in the landfill which, despite a value of the floristic biodiversity index (IFB) comparable to that of the borders, shows a much lower value of the maturity index (IM). This is due to the elevated percentage of annual species (index of the therophytic component = 52.78%) belonging to the phytosociological class Stellarietea mediae Tüxen, Lohmeyer & Preising ex

  16. An isotopic view of water and nitrate transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J. R.; Pearlstein, S.; Hutchins, S.; Faulkner, B. R.; Rugh, W.; Willard, K.; Coulombe, R.; Compton, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the USA. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater exceeding the human health standard of 10 mg nitrate-N L-1. Much of the nitrogen (N) inputs to the GWMA comes from agricultural fertilizers, and thus efforts to reduce N inputs to groundwater are focused upon improving N management. However, the effectiveness of these improvements on groundwater quality is unclear because of the complexity of nutrient transport through the vadose zone and long groundwater residence times. Our objective was to focus on vadose zone transport and understand the dynamics and timing of N and water movement below the rooting zone in relation to N management and water inputs. Stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking water movement, and understanding N transformations. In partnership with local farmers and state agencies, we established lysimeters and groundwater wells in multiple agricultural fields in the GWMA, and have monitored nitrate, nitrate isotopes, and water isotopes weekly for multiple years. Our results indicate that vadose zone transport is highly complex, and the residence time of water collected in lysimeters was much longer than expected. While input precipitation water isotopes were highly variable over time, lysimeter water isotopes were surprisingly consistent, more closely resembling long-term precipitation isotope means rather than recent precipitation isotopic signatures. However, some particularly large precipitation events with unique isotopic signatures revealed high spatial variability in transport, with some lysimeters showing greater proportions of recent precipitation inputs than others. In one installation where we have groundwater wells and lysimeters at multiple depths, nitrate/nitrite concentrations decreased with depth. N concentrations

  17. Regulatory analysis and lessons learned from the LLRW [low-level radioactive waste] disposal area at West Valley, New York: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority has sponsored a project to develop an integrated set of site management plans for the West Valley low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal area. The plans were directed to upgrade the disposal area so that passive custodial care and monitoring activities would be sufficient to protect public health and safety and the environment. Tasks 5 and 6, Regulatory Analysis and Lessons Learned, are the subject of this report. The regulatory analysis identified areas of inconsistencies between the historic site operations and the current state and federal LLRW disposal regulations and guidelines. The lessons learned task identified the causes of the disposal problems at West Valley, discussed the lessons learned, and described the responses developed by the NRC and industry to the lessons learned. 85 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs

  18. Determination of different contaminants in selective drinking water samples collected from Peshawar valley area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihsanullah; Khan, M.; Khattak, T.N.; Sattar, A.

    1999-01-01

    Among the pollutants carried through sewage, industrial effluents, fertilizers, pesticides; heavy metals and various pathogenic bacteria are directly related to human/animal diseases. Samples of drinking water were collected from different locations, in the Peshawar area. Cadmium, lead and copper levels in these samples were determined by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA). The data indicated wide variation in the concentration of these heavy metals. Variation in results is discussed on the basis of some possible sources of contamination. The concentration of cadmium and lead in all the samples was higher compared to the values given in the guideline of World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Copper was below the detection limit in majority of the samples. The values of Cd, Pb and Cu were in the range of 0.023-2.75, 0.025-1.88 and 0-0.67 mg/1 respectively. Various physical quality indices (ph, electrical conductivity and total solids) and pathogenic bacteria (E. coli and total coliforms) were also determined in water samples. Most of the drinking waters was found contaminated with higher levels of Cd and Pb and pathogenic bacteria and hence, considered unfit for drinking purposes. (author)

  19. Geochemistry of trace elements and REE in phosphate deposits of el Sibaiya west AREA, nile valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.M.; Hussein, H.A.; Elkammar, A.A.; Mahdy, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The present work deals essentially with the study of the geochemistry of trace elements and rare earth elements (REE s) patterns in the upper cretaceous phosphate deposit in El Sibaiya west area located on the western side of the River Nile. About 20 Km south from Esna town, upper Egypt. It was evident throughout this study that the average shale normalized pattern of six analyzed rare earth elements indicates that the phosphate deposits under study were deposited under marine environment. In addition some geochemical ratios such as Cl/Br and Na/Br have been proposed as indicators of the paleosalinity of the upper cretaceous tethys compared with the nowadays sea. Uranium equilibrium status of the studied phosphate deposits suggests a remarkably secondary enrichment at the lower horizon at the expense of the upper one due to downward leaching. Such secondary enrichment of uranium is thought to take place under oxidizing vadose conditions by the action of descending meteoric water. 6 fig., 4 tab

  20. Hydrologic data, 1974-77, Stovepipe Wells Hotel area, Death Valley National Monument, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Charles Edwin; Downing, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Ground-water levels in most wells did not change significantly from 1974 to 1977 in the Stovepipe Wells Hotel area, California. The average water-level decline was less than 0.10 foot between August 1974 and August 1977 in 10 observation wells. Water-level contours show a depression centered on the two pumping wells, but this depression existed before the National Park Service started pumping its well. The chemical quality of the ground water is poor. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water samples ranged from 2,730 to 6,490 milligrams per liter. Analyses of water samples from two wells showed large changes in some constituents from 1976 to 1977. Streamflow in Salt Creek has been monitored since February 1974. Base flow is seasonal, being 0.10 to 0.20 cubic foot per second during the summer and as much as three times that amount during the winter. Two chemical analyses of water from Salt Creek, representing summer and winter flow conditions, show large differences for many constituents. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Ramapo and Mahwah rivers area, Rockland County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard Bridge; Cadwell, D.H.; Stelz, W.G.; Belli, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the eighth in a series of 11 map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together, the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southeastern Rockland County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, aquifer thickness, water-table elevations, well yields, and land use. The valley-fill deposits consists of alluvial silt and sand, glacial outwash (sand and gravel), ice-contact sand and gravel, till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities, whereas the till, silt, and clay deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions prevail in unconfined sand and gravel along the Ramapo River valley and much of the Mahwah River valley. Artesian conditions prevail in confined sand and gravel buried under silt and clay and till in parts of the Mahway valley. The aquifer is recharged throughout, where the land surface is most permeable and is greatest along the margin of the valley, where runoff from the hillsides is concentrated. The use of land overlying the aquifer is predominantly commercial, agricultural and residential, with lesser industrial uses. (USGS)

  2. Identification of suitable areas for the occurrence of Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Spain using a multiple criteria decision framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-07-26

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease that may produce a considerable impact on the economy in affected countries. In the last decades, the geographic distribution of RVF virus has increased including most of the countries in Africa, Arabia Saudi and Yemen. This situation has raised the concerns regarding its potential introduction in the European Union (EU) countries where the high number of susceptible species and competent vectors may contribute to the spread of the disease and challenge its rapid control. Thus, the identification of the areas and time periods with highest suitability for RVF outbreak occurrence would be useful for improving the early detection and rapid response of the disease into free countries. The objective of this study was to identify suitable areas for the occurrence of RVF outbreaks in Spain using a multiple criteria decision making model based on weighted linear combination of factors in geographical information systems (GIS). To the best of the author's knowledge this is the first comprehensive GIS-based framework that provides risk maps for RVF suitability in an EU country. Spanish zones with the highest suitability for RVF were concentrated in the regions of Extremadura, south-western Castile and Leon, eastern Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, Basque Country, northern-central and southern region of Andalusia and in the Balearic Islands. October and May were the most suitable months for RVF outbreak occurrence. Methods and results presented here may be useful to target risk-based surveillance strategies and to more cost-effectively control potential RVFV incursions into Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Propagation Analysis for Wireless Sensor Networks Applied to Viticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pinheiro Correia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks have been proposed as a solution to obtain soil and environment information in large distributed areas. The main economic activity of the São Francisco Valley region in the Northeast of Brazil is the irrigated fruit production. The region is one of the major agricultural regions of the country. Grape plantations receive large investments and provide good financial return. However, the region still lacks electronic sensing systems to extract adequate information from plantations. Considering these facts, this paper presents a study of path loss in grape plantations for a 2.4 GHz operating frequency. In order to determine the position of the sensor nodes, the research dealt with various environmental factors that influence the intensity of the received signal. It has been noticed that main plantation aisles favor the guided propagation, and the vegetation along the secondary plantation aisles compromises the propagation. Diffraction over the grape trees is the main propagation mechanism in the diagonal propagation path. Transmission carried out above the vineyard showed that reflection on the top of the trees is the main mechanism.

  4. Recharge sources and geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Quaternary aquifer at Atfih area, the northeastern Nile Valley, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Salah Abdelwahab; Morsy, Samah M.; Zakaria, Khalid M.

    2018-06-01

    This study addresses the topic of recharge sources and evolution of groundwater in the Atfih area situated in the northeastern part of the Nile Valley, Egypt. Inventory of water wells and collection of groundwater and surface water samples have been achieved. Water samples are analyzed for major ions according to the American Society for Testing and Materials and for the environmental isotopes analysis (oxygen-18 and deuterium) by using a Triple Liquid Isotopic Water Analyzer (Los Gatos). The groundwater is available from the Quaternary aquifer formed mainly of graded sand and gravel interbedded with clay lenses. The hydrogeologic, hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations indicate the hydrodynamic nature of the aquifer, where different flow paths, recharge sources and evolution mechanisms are distinguished. The directions of groundwater flow are from E, W and S directions suggesting the contribution from Nile River, the Eocene aquifer and the Nile basin, respectively. The groundwater altitudes range from 13 m (MSL) to 44 m (MSL). The hydraulic gradient varies between 0.025 and 0.0015. The groundwater is alkaline (pH > 7) and has salinity ranging from fresh to brackish water (TDS between 528 mg/l and 6070 mg/l). The observed wide range in the ionic composition and water types reflects the effect of different environmental and geological conditions through which the water has flowed. The isotopic compositions of groundwater samples vary between -14.13‰ and +23.56 for δD and between - 2.91‰ and +3.10 for δ18O. The isotopic data indicates that the Quaternary aquifer receive recharge from different sources including the Recent Nile water, surplus irrigation water, old Nile water before the construction of Aswan High Dam, surface runoff of local rains and Eocene aquifer. Evaporation, water rock interaction and mixing between different types of waters are the main processes in the groundwater evolution. Major suggestions are presented to develop the aquifer

  5. Processes of Terrace Formation on the Piedmont of the Santa Cruz River Valley During Quaternary Time, Green Valley-Tubac Area, Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we describe a series of stepped Quaternary terraces on some piedmont tributaries of the Santa Cruz River valley in southeastern Arizona. These terraces began to form in early Pleistocene time, after major basin-and-range faulting ceased, with lateral planation of basin fill and deposition of thin fans of alluvium. At the end of this cycle of erosion and deposition, tributaries of the Santa Cruz River began the process of dissection and terrace formation that continues to the present. Vertical cutting alternated with periods of equilibrium, during which streams cut laterally and left thin deposits of channel fill. The distribution of terraces was mapped and compiled with adjacent mapping to produce a regional picture of piedmont stream history in the middle part of the Santa Cruz River valley. For selected tributaries, the thickness of terrace fill was measured, particle size and lithology of gravel were determined, and sedimentary features were photographed and described. Mapping of terrace stratigraphy revealed that on two tributaries, Madera Canyon Wash and Montosa Canyon Wash, stream piracy has played an important role in piedmont landscape development. On two other tributaries, Cottonwood Canyon Wash and Josephine Canyon Wash, rapid downcutting preempted piracy. Two types of terraces are recognized: erosional and depositional. Gravel in thin erosional terraces has Trask sorting coefficients and sedimentary structures typical of streamflood deposits, replete with bar-and-swale surface topography on young terraces. Erosional-terrace fill represents the channel fill of the stream that cuts the terrace; the thickness of the fill indicates the depth of channel scour. In contrast to erosional terraces, depositional terraces show evidence of repeated deposition and net aggradation, as indicated by their thickness (as much as 20+ m) and weakly bedded structure. Depositional terraces are common below mountain-front canyon mouths where streams drop their

  6. Precision viticulture in Brazil: Current research status on wine grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies associated to precision viticulture (PV are not currently used by Brazilian growers. To overcome this situation, a research is being carried out since 2011 in a vineyard of Merlot using a wide range of PV technologies. During this period, several PV research activities were performed which will be concluded in a couple of years. Therefore, final results depend on further variable evaluation which should be done by means of geostatistic, Geographic Information Systems and Principal Component Analysis. This paper briefly presents a series of methodological procedures used in different ways to attain the objective of this research project. In the sequence, it describes one final result and nine partial ones. Morphological and physicochemical analyses of soil showed that the vineyards are established on three taxonomic classes of soil – Argissolo, Cambissolo and Neossolo −, which are formed by ten mapping units. The partial results are mainly related to the utilization of GIS, modeling and must and wine composition of five mapping units; however they show results of only one year. With the complete set of analyses, data should be spatialized and maps prepared. Then, it will be possible to recommend different practices to each soil type and to aid oenologists to direct wines to a specific quality pattern.

  7. Can vineyard biodiversity be beneficial for viticulture and tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Morgane; Kratschmer, Sophie; Gregorich, Claudia; Silvia, Winter; Montembault, David; Zaller, Johann G.; Guernion, Muriel; Jung, Vincent; Schuette, Rebekka; Paredes, Daniel; Guzman Diaz, Gema; Cabezas Luque, Jose Manuel; Hoble, Adela; Popescu, Daniela; Burel, Françoise; Cluzeau, Daniel; Bergmann, Holger; Potthoff, Martin; Nicolai, Annegret

    2017-04-01

    The European research BiodivERsA project VineDivers aims to link ecosystem services and vine production, in an integrative approach that considers both landscape structure and cultural practices (cover-crops versus bare soils), in vineyards of Austria, France, Romania and Spain. Such services studied are (i) provisioning and regulation services by soil biota and pollinators, and (ii) landscape cultural services. In this study, we want to know if landscape beneficial for biodiversity providing ecosystem services at a plot scale also have an aesthetical value. An interdisciplinary approach was chosen to include both ecological and sociological data. First, we analyzed the influence of soil management practices and landscape complexity on soil biota, inter-row flora and bees. Second, we implemented a questionnaire based on photographs about biodiversity perception and visual aesthetic evaluation. Our results highlighted the effect of landscape complexity and soil management intensity on biodiversity and their ecological and cultural ecosystem services. This allows us to discuss the global importance of biodiversity for a wine-producing region. Further analysis within the VineDivers project will focus on an assessment of the biodiversity importance for local viticulture economy.

  8. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, Southern Coast Ranges, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    The Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit covers approximately 7,820 square kilometers (km2) in Santa Cruz, Monterey, and San Luis Obispo Counties in the Central Coast Hydrologic Region of California. The study unit was divided into four study areas—Santa Cruz, Pajaro Valley, Salinas Valley, and Highlands. More than 75 percent of the water used for drinking-water supply in the Central Coast Hydrologic Region of California is groundwater, and there are more than 8,000 well driller’s logs for domestic wells (California Department of Water Resources, 2013).

  9. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the groundwater basins around Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the highlands adjacent to the Salinas Valley constitute one of the study units.

  10. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  11. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality

  12. Greening Turner Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed remedial activities undertaken in the Turner Valley. Remedial action in the valley must satisfy the financial concerns of engineers and investors as well as the environmental concerns of residents and regulators. Natural gas production in the Turner Valley began in 1914. The production practices were harmful and wasteful. Soil and water pollution was not considered a problem until recently. The impacts of cumulative effects and other pollution hazards are now being considered as part of many oil and gas environmental management programs. Companies know it is cheaper and safer to prevent pollutants from being released, and more efficient to clean them up quickly. Oil and gas companies are also committed to remediating historical problems. Several factors have simplified remediation plans in the Turner Valley. Area real estate values are now among the highest in Alberta. While the valley residents are generally friendly to the petroleum industry, strong communication with all stakeholders in the region is needed. 1 fig.

  13. Bibliometric analysis of publications by South African viticulture and oenology research centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Aleixandre-Benavent

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the production, impact factor of, and scientific collaboration involved in viticulture and oenology articles associated with South African research centres published in international journals during the period 1990–2009. The articles under scrutiny were obtained from the Science Citation Index database, accessed via the Web of Knowledge platform. The search strategy employed specific viticulture and oenology terms and was restricted to the field ‘topic’. The results showed that 406 articles were published during the review period, with the most number of publications being in the South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture (n = 34, American Journal of Enology and Viticulture (n = 16 and Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (n = 16. The articles were published by 851 authors from 236 institutions. The collaboration rate was 3.7 authors per article, having grown over the two decades examined. The most productive institutions (i.e. those receiving a greater number of citations were Stellenbosch University (219 published articles and 2592 citations and the Agricultural Research Council (49 published articles and 454 citations, both from South Africa. Graphical representation of co-authorship networks identified 18 groups of authors and a single network of institutions whose core is Stellenbosch University. In conclusion, we have identified a significant growth in South African viticulture and oenology research in recent years, with a high degree of internationalisation and a constant level of domestic collaboration.

  14. Using an Automatic Resistivity Profiler Soil Sensor On-The-Go in Precision Viticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Amato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial information on vineyard soil properties can be useful in precision viticulture. In this paper a combination of high resolution soil spatial information of soil electrical resistivity (ER and ancillary topographic attributes, such as elevation and slope, were integrated to assess the spatial variability patterns of vegetative growth and yield of a commercial vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo located in the wine-producing region of La Rioja, Spain. High resolution continuous geoelectrical mapping was accomplished by an Automatic Resistivity Profiler (ARP on-the-go sensor with an on-board GPS system; rolling electrodes enabled ER to be measured for a depth of investigation approximately up to 0.5, 1 and 2 m. Regression analysis and cluster analysis algorithm were used to jointly process soil resistivity data, landscape attributes and grapevine variables. ER showed a structured variability that matched well with trunk circumference spatial pattern and yield. Based on resistivity and a simple terrain attribute uniform management units were delineated. Once a spatial relationship to target variables is found, the integration of point measurement with continuous soil resistivity mapping is a useful technique to identify within-plots areas of vineyard with similar status.

  15. VineSens: An Eco-Smart Decision-Support Viticulture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josman P. Pérez-Expósito

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents VineSens, a hardware and software platform for supporting the decision-making of the vine grower. VineSens is based on a wireless sensor network system composed by autonomous and self-powered nodes that are deployed throughout a vineyard. Such nodes include sensors that allow us to obtain detailed knowledge on different viticulture processes. Thanks to the use of epidemiological models, VineSens is able to propose a custom control plan to prevent diseases like one of the most feared by vine growers: downy mildew. VineSens generates alerts that warn farmers about the measures that have to be taken and stores the historical weather data collected from different spots of the vineyard. Such data can then be accessed through a user-friendly web-based interface that can be accessed through the Internet by using desktop or mobile devices. VineSens was deployed at the beginning in 2016 in a vineyard in the Ribeira Sacra area (Galicia, Spain and, since then, its hardware and software have been tested to prevent the development of downy mildew, showing during its first season that the system can led to substantial savings, to decrease the amount of phytosanitary products applied, and, as a consequence, to obtain a more ecologically sustainable and healthy wine.

  16. VineSens: An Eco-Smart Decision-Support Viticulture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Expósito, Josman P; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Castedo, Luis

    2017-02-25

    This article presents VineSens, a hardware and software platform for supporting the decision-making of the vine grower. VineSens is based on a wireless sensor network system composed by autonomous and self-powered nodes that are deployed throughout a vineyard. Such nodes include sensors that allow us to obtain detailed knowledge on different viticulture processes. Thanks to the use of epidemiological models, VineSens is able to propose a custom control plan to prevent diseases like one of the most feared by vine growers: downy mildew. VineSens generates alerts that warn farmers about the measures that have to be taken and stores the historical weather data collected from different spots of the vineyard. Such data can then be accessed through a user-friendly web-based interface that can be accessed through the Internet by using desktop or mobile devices. VineSens was deployed at the beginning in 2016 in a vineyard in the Ribeira Sacra area (Galicia, Spain) and, since then, its hardware and software have been tested to prevent the development of downy mildew, showing during its first season that the system can led to substantial savings, to decrease the amount of phytosanitary products applied, and, as a consequence, to obtain a more ecologically sustainable and healthy wine.

  17. Transnational Comparison of Sustainability Assessment Programs for Viticulture and a Case-Study on Programs’ Engagement Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Santiago-Brown; Andrew Metcalfe; Cate Jerram; Cassandra Collins

    2014-01-01

    This article documents and compares the most prominent sustainability assessment programs for individual organisations in viticulture worldwide. Certification and engagement processes for membership uptake; benefits; motives; inhibiting factors; and desirable reporting system features of viticultural sustainability programs, are all considered. Case-study results are derived from nine sustainability programs; 14 focus groups with 83 CEOs, Chief Viticulturists or Winemakers from wine grape pro...

  18. Meteorology drives ambient air quality in a valley: a case of Sukinda chromite mine, one among the ten most polluted areas in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Soumya Ranjan; Pradhan, Rudra Pratap; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Sahu, Sanjat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearson's correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine.

  19. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 3 Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report provides details on the baseline ecological risk assessment conducted in support of the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for the Melton Valley areas of the White Oak Creek watershed (WOCW). The RI presents an analysis meant to enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. The ecological risk assessment builds off of the WOCW screening ecological risk assessment. All information available for contaminated sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy`s Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Federal Facilities Agreement within the White Oak Creek (WOC) RI area has been used to identify areas of potential concern with respect to the presence of contamination posing a potential risk to ecological receptors within the Melton Valley area of the White Oak Creek watershed. The risk assessment report evaluates the potential risks to receptors within each subbasin of the watershed as well as at a watershed-wide scale. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminant releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent waste area groupings.

  20. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 3 Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This report provides details on the baseline ecological risk assessment conducted in support of the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for the Melton Valley areas of the White Oak Creek watershed (WOCW). The RI presents an analysis meant to enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. The ecological risk assessment builds off of the WOCW screening ecological risk assessment. All information available for contaminated sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy's Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Federal Facilities Agreement within the White Oak Creek (WOC) RI area has been used to identify areas of potential concern with respect to the presence of contamination posing a potential risk to ecological receptors within the Melton Valley area of the White Oak Creek watershed. The risk assessment report evaluates the potential risks to receptors within each subbasin of the watershed as well as at a watershed-wide scale. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminant releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent waste area groupings

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2012-09-01

    CAU 366 comprises six corrective action sites (CASs): • 11-08-01, Contaminated Waste Dump #1 • 11-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump #2 • 11-23-01, Radioactively Contaminated Area A • 11-23-02, Radioactively Contaminated Area B • 11-23-03, Radioactively Contaminated Area C • 11-23-04, Radioactively Contaminated Area D The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of corrective action alternatives (CAA) for the six CASs within CAU 366. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 12, 2011, to May 14, 2012, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites.

  2. Wines of Baja Mexico: A qualitative study examining viticulture, enology, and marketing practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Covarrubias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has been producing wine since the 1500, yet very little is known about their viticulture, enology, and marketing practices. This qualitative research study was designed to shed more light on these issues. Based on 10 in-depth interviews with winery owners and winemakers in the Valle de Guadualupe of the Baja Peninsula, where the majority of Mexican wineries are located, this study describes viticulture, enology, and marketing practices for Baja wines. It concludes with a discussion on the future of Mexican wines.

  3. Touristic infrastructure of municipalities in the border section of Bug valley's Dołhobyczów-Włodawa in the context of existing protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałamucka, Wioletta; Kałamucki, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This article presents results of research concerning tourist infrastructure in some districts located in the Bug river valley, in the context of protected areas. The territory examined includes 9 rural districts and 2 towns in the immediate neighborhood of the river. These administrative units are characterized by great natural value. Their total area is 687,7 km2 that makes 6,7% of the whole Lublin voivodship. On the other hand, the share of protected areas (without Natura 2000) is twice as high - 11,1%. Protected areas makes 37,6% of the territory under study. In some units, share of protected areas is very high: Dubienka - 72%, Horodło - 69,5%. In 2009 in the region examined there were 48 objects of collective accommodation - 16,8% of total number in the voivodship. 83,6% of all objects were situated in Włodawa. Characteristic feature of accommodation is seasonality. There are only 7 objects that functions the whole year and year-round lodging places (280) makes barely 9,3% of the totality. Comparing tourist management with presence of areas of the highest natural values, one can see strong correlation between these two indexes only in rural unit - Włodawa, located within the borders of Biosphere Reserves "Polesie Zachodnie" (West Polesie) In case of other units such a interdependance does not exist. On the contrary, there is opposite relation. In Dołhobyczów, Mircze, Horodło, where apart from areas of Natura 2000, in the Bug river valley landscapes protected areas and landscapes parks were created, tourist infrastructure is insignificant or even does not exist. The existence of large protected areas and natural value make it possible to develop various forms of environmentally friendly tourism - tourism qualified, especially fishing and canoeing, hiking, biking, nature education tourism. Tourist service centers should be located outside the valley. Due to the high natural values, caution is advisable to adapt the area for tourism. Such decisions should

  4. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Endicott-Johnson City area, Broome County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecek, Thomas J.; Randall, A.D.; Belli, J.L.; Allen, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the tenth in a series of 11 map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on five maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together, the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southwestern Broome County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, aquifer thickness, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, potentiometric-surface altitude, and land use. The valley-fill deposits consist of alluvial silt and sand, glacial outwash (sand and gravel), ice-contact sand and gravel, till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities whereas the till, silt, and clay deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions are found in unconfined sand and gravel, whereas artesian conditions prevail within sand and gravel confined by silty deposits. Recharge occurs over the entire surface of the aquifer, due to permeable land-surface conditions, but is greatest along the margin of the valley, where runoff from the hillsides is concentrated, and near streams. The use of land overlying the aquifer is predominantly commercial and residential with lesser amounts of agricultural and industrial uses. (USGS)

  5. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the South Fallsburgh-Woodbourne area, Sullivan County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.R.; Dineen, R.J.; Stelz, W.G.; Belli, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the ninth in a series of map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southeastern Sullivan County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, aquifer thickness, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, potentiometric surface elevations, well yields, and land use. The valley-fill deposits consist of alluvial silt and sand, glacial outwash (sand and gravel), ice-contact sand and gravel, till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities whereas the till, silt, and clay deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions prevail in unconfined sand and gravel whereas artesian conditions prevail within sand and gravel confined by silty deposits. The aquifer is recharged throughout, where the land surface is most permeable and is greatest along the margin of the valley, where runoff from the hillsides is concentrated. The use of land overlying the aquifer is predominantly commercial, agricultural, and residential with lesser industrial uses. (USGS)

  6. A web-based spatial decision supporting system (S-DSS) for grapevine quality: the viticultural tool of the SOILCONS-WEB Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Piero; Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo; Langella, Giuliano; Agrillo, Antonietta; De Mascellis, Roberto; Florindo Mileti, Antonio; Minieri, Luciana; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    The SOILCONSWEB Project aims to create a decision support system operating at the landscape scale (Spatial-DSS) for the protection and the management of soils in both agricultural and environmental issues; it is a cyber-infrastructure built on remote servers operating through the web at www.landconsultingweb.eu. It includes - among others - a series of tools specifically designed to a Viticulture aiming at high quality wines production. The system is realized thanks to a collaboration between the University of Naples Federico II, CNR ISAFoM, Ariespace srl and SeSIRCA-Campania Region within a 5-years LIFE+ project funded by European Community. The system includes tools based on modelling procedures at different level of complexity some of which specifically designed for viticulture issues. One of the implemented models arise from the original desktop based SWAP model (Kroes et al, 2008). It can be run "on the fly" through a very user friendly web-interface. The specific tool, thanks to the model based on the Richard's equation can produce data on vineyard water stress, simulating the soil water balances of the different soil types within an area of interest. Thanks to a specific program developed within the project activities, the Spatial-DSS every day acquires punctual weather data and automatically spatialize them with geostatistical approaches in order to use the data as input for the SPA (Soil Plant Atmosphere ) model running. In particular for defining the upper boundary condition (rainfall and temperatures to estimate ET0 by the Hargraves model). Soil hydraulic properties (47 soil profiles within the study area), also essential for modelling simulation, were measured in laboratory using the Wind's approach or estimated through HYPRES PTF. Water retention and hydraulic conductivity relationships were parameterized according to the van Genuchten-Mualem model; Decision makers (individuals, groups of interests and public bodies) through the DSS can have real

  7. Research on Eco-environment Carrying Capacity of Nanyi Valley Scenic Area%南伊沟景区生态环境承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包杰; 杨小林; 王忠斌

    2015-01-01

    Eco-environment carrying capacity of Nanyi Valley Scenic Area in Milin County,Linzhi area,Tibet was studied, the results showed that the recent ecological footprint of the scenic area was 674.70 hm2,effective ecological carrying capacity was 841.13 hm2,and ecological surplus was 166.43 hm2. In terms of current and short-term planning of the scenic area,tourism activities will not bring serious damages to the ecological environment,and ecological footprint of the study area can be further developed. But from the perspective of ecological carrying capacity,the scenic area needs a proper long-term planning,so the paper proposes the sustainable development strategies for the Nanyi Valley Scenic Area. It provides the theoretic basis for the reasonable planning,effective management and sustainable development of the scenic area.%对西藏林芝地区米林县南伊沟景区进行生态环境承载力研究,结果表明,近期南伊沟景区生态足迹量为674.70 hm2,有效生态承载力841.13 hm2,生态盈余166.43 hm2。就景区目前及近期规划来说,开展旅游活动不会对景区生态环境产生大的影响,景区生态足迹还可进一步发展。但从生态承载力方面考虑,景区应特别注意远期规划。提出了南伊沟景区可持续发展对策。

  8. Selection of priority areas for tsetse control in Africa; A decision tool using GIS in Didessa Valley, Ethiopia, as a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkelens, A.M.; Dwinger, R.H.; Bedane, B.; Slingenbergh, J.H.W.; Wint, W.

    2000-01-01

    Trypanosomosis is one of the main constraints to livestock production, particularly in the sub-humid and the semi-arid zones in Africa. To study the impact of the disease and the people economically affected by the disease GIS has proven to be a valuable decision tool to prioritise intervention areas and to select control or eradication methods. In this study a GIS and remote sensing based model have been used in the Didessa Valley and southwestern Ethiopia to study valley specific relationships of all factors (host, vector, disease, human population/activity) with geography, environment and farming systems to answer the following questions: Where does trypanosomosis have a negative effect on (agricultural) development? In which areas will control measures have the highest impact/economical benefit? These findings have been extrapolated to set priority areas for tsetse control for Ethiopia as a whole, using a multi-criterion evaluation technique and a Boolean disease data-set to create signatures (training sets) to predict the probability of agricultural suitability and disease suitability based on a set of environmental predictors. Data sets have been validated through ground-truthing using a random data-set for the specified window of Southwestern Ethiopia. A logical expression has been used to combine the factors (vector distribution, agricultural suitability, climatically disease suitability, control area suitability) to select the priority areas for tsetse control. Areas permanently infested by malaria, one of the life-threatening human diseases in Africa, have been considered as not suitable for intervention, The result, a Boolean representation of the priority areas for southwestern Ethiopia can be prioritised further by the decision maker (government, donor, specialist) using criteria such as cost/benefit, administrative organisation and control method. The unique altitude related dynamic tsetse situation in Ethiopia, makes wider extrapolation using the

  9. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  10. Functional homogeneous zones (fHZs) in viticultural zoning procedure: an Italian case study on Aglianico vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, A.; Agrillo, A.; Albrizio, R.; Basile, A.; Buonomo, R.; De Mascellis, R.; Gambuti, A.; Giorio, P.; Guida, G.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Minieri, L.; Moio, L.; Siani, T.; Terribile, F.

    2015-06-01

    This paper aims to test a new physically oriented approach to viticulture zoning at farm scale that is strongly rooted in hydropedology and aims to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirements and wine production. The physics of our approach are defined by the use of soil-plant-atmosphere simulation models, applying physically based equations to describe the soil hydrological processes and solve soil-plant water status. This study (part of the ZOVISA project) was conducted on a farm devoted to production of high-quality wines (Aglianico DOC), located in southern Italy (Campania region, Mirabella Eclano, AV). The soil spatial distribution was obtained after standard soil survey informed by geophysical survey. Two homogeneous zones (HZs) were identified; in each one a physically based model was applied to solve the soil water balance and estimate the soil functional behaviour (crop water stress index, CWSI) defining the functional homogeneous zones (fHZs). For the second process, experimental plots were established and monitored for investigating soil-plant water status, crop development (biometric and physiological parameters) and daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind). The effects of crop water status on crop response over must and wine quality were then evaluated in the fHZs. This was performed by comparing crop water stress with (i) crop physiological measurement (leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, leaf area index (LAI) measurement), (ii) grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and (iii) wine quality (aromatic response). This experiment proved the usefulness of the physically based approach, also in the case of mapping viticulture microzoning.

  11. Episodic Late Holocene dune movements on the sand-sheet area, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, San Luis Valley, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, S. L.; Spaeth, M.; Marín, L.; Pierson, J.; Gómez, J.; Bunch, F.; Valdez, A.

    2006-07-01

    The Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (GSDNPP) in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, contains a variety of eolian landforms that reflect Holocene drought variability. The most spectacular is a dune mass banked against the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, which is fronted by an extensive sand sheet with stabilized parabolic dunes. Stratigraphic exposures of parabolic dunes and associated luminescence dating of quartz grains by single-aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocols indicate eolian deposition of unknown magnitude occurred ca. 1290-940, 715 ± 80, 320 ± 30, and 200-120 yr ago and in the 20th century. There are 11 drought intervals inferred from the tree-ring record in the past 1300 yr at GSDNPP potentially associated with dune movement, though only five eolian depositional events are currently recognized in the stratigraphic record. There is evidence for eolian transport associated with dune movement in the 13th century, which may coincide with the "Great Drought", a 26-yr-long dry interval identified in the tree ring record, and associated with migration of Anasazi people from the Four Corners areas to wetter areas in southern New Mexico. This nascent chronology indicates that the transport of eolian sand across San Luis Valley was episodic in the late Holocene with appreciable dune migration in the 8th, 10-13th, and 19th centuries, which ultimately nourished the dune mass against the Sangre de Cristo Mountains.

  12. GIS- and field based mapping of geomorphological changes in a glacier retreat area: A case study from the Kromer valley, Silvretta Alps (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann, Markus; Pöppl, Ronald

    2017-04-01

    Global warming results in an ongoing retreat of Alpine glaciers, leaving behind large amounts of easily erodible sediments. As a consequence processes like rockfalls, landslides and debris flows as well as fluvial processes occur more frequently in pro- and paraglacial areas, often involving catastrophic consequences for humans and infrastructure in the affected valleys. The main objective of the presented work was to map and spatially quantify glacier retreat and geomorphological changes in the Kromer valley, Silvretta Alps (Austria) by applying GIS- and field-based geomorphological mapping. In total six geomorphological maps (1950s, 1970s, 2001, 2006, 2012, and 2016) were produced and analyzed in the light of the study aim. First results have shown a significant decrease of total glaciated area from 96 ha to 53 ha which was accompanied by increased proglacial geomorphic activity (i.e. fluvial processes, rockfalls, debris flows, shallow landslides) in the last 15 years. More detailed results will be presented at the EGU General Assembly 2017.

  13. Evaluation of urban transformation areas in terms of user satisfaction: the case study of Zağnos Valley (Trabzon/Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzgüneş, Ertan; Saraç, Elif

    2017-12-08

    Following the Industrial Revolution, rapid urbanization brought about many socio-economic, physical, and cultural problems. The concept of urban transformation has come to the fore as a solution to these emerging troubles. Especially since 1980, in Turkey, like other developing countries, the concept of urban transformation has only been evaluated as an economic standpoint ignoring the social and spatial dimensions of that area and the quality of life of people residing in the area. Therefore, the necessity of these socially accessible areas where individuals can regenerate themselves in spiritual and physical terms has increased even more. However, when the urban transformation projects are put into practice, the needs and demands of the users are not taken into account; moreover, there are no studies showing the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the users following the implementation. In the current study, satisfaction/dissatisfaction levels of the users were determined by asserting the user profile of Zağnos Valley, which is the first urban transformation area of Trabzon. In the valley, which is an important air corridor and a recreation area for Trabzon, questionnaires were implemented through face-to-face interview technique. Factor analysis was carried out in order to reveal the socio-demographic characteristics, space usage trends, and spatial usage characteristics of the users. In order to measure satisfaction and dissatisfaction levels, the determined criteria were weighted on a 5-point Likert scale and frequency distributions were examined. In this way, solution proposals have been made in order to increase the level of satisfaction and remediate the level of dissatisfaction of users.

  14. Modeling of Dust Levels Associated with Potential Utility-Scale Solar Development in the San Luis Valley-Taos Plateau Study Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y. -S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kotamarthi, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hartmann, H. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patton, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The San Luis Valley (SLV)–Taos Plateau study area in south-central Colorado and north-central New Mexico is a large alpine valley surrounded by mountains with an area of approximately 6,263,000 acres (25,345 km2) (Figure ES.1-1). This area receives ample sunshine throughout the year, making it an ideal location for solar energy generation, and there are currently five photovoltaic facilities operating on private lands in the SLV, ranging in capacity from 1 to 30 megawatt (MW). In 2012 the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) launched its Solar Energy Program, which included the identification of four solar energy zones (SEZs) in the SLV totaling 16,308 acres (66 km2), as well as over 50,000 (202 km2) acres of other BLM-administered lands potentially available for application for solar development. The SEZ areas, named Antonito Southeast, De Tilla Gulch, Fourmile East, and Los Mogotes East, were defined by the BLM as areas well-suited for utility-scale (i.e., larger than 20 MW) production of solar energy where solar energy development would be prioritized (BLM 2012). Nonetheless, it was recognized that solar development in the SEZs would result in some unavoidable adverse impacts, and so the BLM initiated a solar regional mitigation strategy (SRMS) study for three of the SEZs (BLM and Argonne 2016). The SRMS is designed to identify residual impacts of solar development in the SEZs (that is, those that cannot be avoided or minimized onsite), identify those residual impacts that warrant compensatory mitigation when considering the regional status and trends of the resources, identify appropriate regional compensatory mitigation locations and actions to address those residual impacts, and recommend appropriate fees to implement those compensatory mitigation measures.

  15. THE REALIZATION OF THE AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SCHEME IN THE AREA OF NATURA 2000 IN THE VALLEY OF BIEBRZA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Gotkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to analyse the functioning of agricultural farms located in the areas of Natura 2000 network. The research was conducted in 2015 among 70 farmers whose lands were located in the Valley of Biebrza River in Podlaskie Voivodeship. The main research method was a questionnaire. According to the results of the research, the agri-environmental scheme is a proper tool that combines the environmental protection and local producers’ interests; however, it requires the implementation of a supplement adjusted to the nature of the areas. It is also indicated that even though the economic part of the program does not raise any doubts, the natural eff ects are practically not recognized, which may lead to an incomplete protection of precious species and habitats.

  16. Ground-water flow directions and estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley aquifer system, Hamilton Area, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Rodney A.; Bossenbroek, Karen E.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System is one of the most productive sources of potable water in the Midwest, yielding as much as 3,000 gallons per minute to wells. Many water-supply wells tapping this aquifer system are purposely placed near rivers to take advantage of induced infiltration from the rivers. The City of Hamilton's North Well Field consists of 10 wells near the Great Miami River, all completed in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. A well-drilling program and a multiple-well aquifer test were done to investigate ground-water flow directions and to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower part of the Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. Descriptions of lithology from 10 well borings indicate varying amounts and thickness of clay or till, and therefore, varying levels of potential aquifer confinement. Borings also indicate that the aquifer properties can change dramatically over relatively short distances. Grain-size analyses indicate an average bulk hydraulic conductivity value of aquifer materials of 240 feet per day; the geometric mean of hydraulic conductivity values of aquifer material was 89 feet per day. Median grain sizes of aquifer material and clay units were 1.3 millimeters and 0.1 millimeters, respectively. Water levels in the Hamilton North Well Field are affected by stream stage in the Great Miami River and barometric pressure. Bank storage in response to stream stage is evident. Results from a multiple-well aquifer test at the well field indicate, as do the lithologic descriptions, that the aquifer is semiconfined in some areas and unconfined in others. Transmissivity and storage coefficient of the semiconfined part of the aquifer were 50,000 feet squared per day and 5x10-4, respectively. The average hydraulic conductivity (450 feet per day) based on the aquifer test is reasonable for glacial outwash but is higher than calculated from grain-size analyses, implying a scale effect

  17. ECA&D and E-OBS: High-resolution datasets for monitoring climate change and effects on viticulture in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Photiadou Christiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and climate variability profoundly affect the production of wine. When facing a changing climate, the characteristics of wine produced in each region will change while the natural year-to-year variations in climate will increase variability of income for wine businesses and therefore affect profitability and economic resilience. The challenge posed to the viticulture community is thus to closely monitor these changes to be able to adapt business practices. The European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA&D and its gridded version E-OBS are tools to monitor the changing climatic conditions over Europe, with an emphasis on changes in extreme climatic conditions. In this paper, the potential of ECA&D and E-OBS for viticulture is demonstrated by a few examples. The examples include the changing areal suitable for Chardonnay cultivation, showing an expansion to areas which have been too cold only a few decades ago and retraction of optimal conditions from areas which have been suitable in the recent past. Other examples show the change in the diurnal temperature range in the latter stages of the ripening process of grapes and the variability in heavy precipitation events. Finally, first results of a new dataset for South America are presented.

  18. Factors Influencing Farmers’ Adoption of Soil and Water Control Technology (SWCT in Keita Valley, a Semi-Arid Area of Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boureima Yacouba Karidjo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The AderDoutchiMaggia in Niger, as with other Sahelian zones, undergoes a process of climatic deterioration, which combines with the growing social and economic needs of the increasing population and causes a general economic crisis. Land degradation due to biophysical factors requires that priority action be given to land reclamation and soil conservation and to activities intended to increase agricultural production. This paper takes a look at socio-economic and established factors affecting the adoption of soil and water control technology (SWCT in Keita valley, a semi-arid area in the central of Niger. Well-designed questionnaire survey on key agents was used to gather the indispensable data from farm ménages. The binary dichotomous logistic regression model prognosticated six factors to be affecting the adoption of soil and water control technology in Keita. These variables cover the gender of the respondent, age of the household’s head, income evolution within the family, small craft referring to off farm income, training provide by local institutions, use of credit and, possession of full rights on land and its resources. The results revealed that diffusion of adoption from local organized community is a good alternative to increase the adoption of soil and water control technology in Keita valley agriculture system in Niger. Researchers and policy makers should conceive proper strategies and agenda reflecting the farmers’ interest, position and restriction in advocating new technologies for greater assumption and adoption by the farmers.

  19. Facies Analysis of Tertiary Basin-Filling Rocks of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water System and Surrounding Areas, Nevada and California; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweetkind, D.S.; Fridrich, C.J.; Taylor, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Existing hydrologic models of the Death Valley region typically have defined the Cenozoic basins as those areas that are covered by recent surficial deposits, and have treated the basin-fill deposits that are concealed under alluvium as a single unit with uniform hydrologic properties throughout the region, and with depth. Although this latter generalization was known to be flawed, it evidently was made because available geologic syntheses did not provide the basis for a more detailed characterization. As an initial attempt to address this problem, this report presents a compilation and synthesis of existing and new surface and subsurface data on the lithologic variations between and within the Cenozoic basin fills of this region. The most permeable lithologies in the Cenozoic basin fills are freshwater limestones, unaltered densely welded tuffs, and little-consolidated coarse alluvium. The least permeable lithologies are playa claystones, altered nonwelded tuffs, and tuffaceous and cl ay-matrix sediments of several types. In all but the youngest of the basin fills, permeability probably decreases strongly with depth owing to a typically increasing abundance of volcanic ash or clay in the matrices of the clastic sediments with increasing age (and therefore with increasing depth in general), and to increasing consolidation and alteration (both hydrothermal and diagenetic) with increasing depth and age. This report concludes with a categorization of the Cenozoic basins of the Death Valley region according to the predominant lithologies in the different basin fills and presents qualitative constraints on the hydrologic properties of these major lithologic categories

  20. Pesticide emission modelling and freshwater ecotoxicity assessment for Grapevine LCA: adaptation of PestLCI 2.0 to viticulture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Renaud-Gentié; Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Bjørn, Anders

    2015-01-01

    . The comparison with two simplified emission modelling approaches, considering field soil and air as part of the ecosphere, shows that PestLCI 2.0 yields considerable lower emissions and, consequently, lower freshwater ecotoxicity. The sensitivity analyses reveal the importance of soil and climate characteristics...... and ecotoxicological impacts of pesticides applied to viticulture. The paper presents (i) a tailored version of PestLCI 2.0, (ii) corresponding characterization factors for freshwater ecotoxicity characterization and (iii) result comparison with other inventory approaches. The purpose of this paper is hence to present...... a viticulture customized version of PestLCI 2.0 and illustrate the application of this customized version on a viticulture case study. Methods The customization of the PestLCI 2.0 model for viticulture includes (i) addition of 29 pesticide active ingredients commonly used in vineyards, (ii) addition of 9...

  1. Maps of the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley, San Diego County, California, showing geology, hydrology, and ground-water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.

    1985-01-01

    In November 1984, 84 wells and 1 spring in the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley were inventoried by U.S. Geological Survey personnel. Depth to water in 38 wells ranged from 1.3 to 38 ft and 23 wells had depths to water less than 10 feet. Dissolved solids concentration of water from 29 wells and 1 spring sampled in autumn 1983 and spring 1984 ranged from 574 to 2,370 mgs/L. Groundwater with a dissolved solids concentration less than 1,000 mgs/L was generally restricted to the eastern part of the aquifer. The total volume of alluvial fill in the Bonsall area is 113,000 acre-feet; the amount of groundwater storage available in the alluvial aquifer is 18,000 acre-feet. The alluvial aquifer is, in part, surrounded and underlain by colluvium and weathered crystalline rock that add some additional groundwater storage capacity to the system. Data in this report are presented on five maps showing well locations , thickness of alluvial fill, water level contours in November 1983 and hydrographs of selected wells, groundwater quality in spring 1960 and graphs showing changes in dissolved solids concentrations of water from selected wells with time, and groundwater quality in spring 1984. This report is part of a larger cooperative project between the Rainbow Municipal Irrigation District and the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of the larger project is to develop an appropriate groundwater management plan for the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley. (USGS)

  2. Interest of seeing Precision Viticulture through two distributed competences: Determination of resources and schemes allowing some practical recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Moreiro Leslie B.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to better understand resources needed and constraints to avoid in implementation of Precision Viticulture technologies. In this view, we adapt distributed cognition theory to multilevel model of competence in management sciences. We use a qualitative methodology based on semi-structured interviews in 7 cases study. The main results allow us to distinguish the two aspects of Precision Viticulture, artifacts, providers of resources, and their utilization scheme. Furth...

  3. Groundwater-level change and evaluation of simulated water levels for irrigated areas in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, west-central Nevada, 1992 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David W.; Buto, Susan G.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2016-09-14

    The acquisition and transfer of water rights to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley, Nevada, has caused concern over the potential effects on shallow aquifer water levels. In 1992, water levels in Lahontan Valley were measured to construct a water-table map of the shallow aquifer prior to the effects of water-right transfers mandated by the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribal Settlement Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-618, 104 Stat. 3289). From 1992 to 2012, approximately 11,810 water-righted acres, or 34,356 acre-feet of water, were acquired and transferred to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley. This report documents changes in water levels measured during the period of water-right transfers and presents an evaluation of five groundwater-flow model scenarios that simulated water-level changes in Lahontan Valley in response to water-right transfers and a reduction in irrigation season length by 50 percent.Water levels measured in 98 wells from 2012 to 2013 were used to construct a water-table map. Water levels in 73 of the 98 wells were compared with water levels measured in 1992 and used to construct a water-level change map. Water-level changes in the 73 wells ranged from -16.2 to 4.1 feet over the 20-year period. Rises in water levels in Lahontan Valley may correspond to annual changes in available irrigation water, increased canal flows after the exceptionally dry and shortened irrigation season of 1992, and the increased conveyance of water rights transferred to Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. Water-level declines generally occurred near the boundary of irrigated areas and may be associated with groundwater pumping, water-right transfers, and inactive surface-water storage reservoirs. The largest water-level declines were in the area near Carson Lake.Groundwater-level response to water-right transfers was evaluated by comparing simulated and observed water-level changes for periods representing water-right transfers and a shortened irrigation season in areas near Fallon

  4. Responses of soil physical and chemical properties to karst rocky desertification evolution in typical karst valley area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Zhou, Dequan; Bai, Xiaoyong; zeng, Cheng; Xiao, Jianyong; Qian, Qinghuan; Luo, Guangjie

    2018-01-01

    In order to reveal the differences of soil physical and chemical properties and their response mechanism to the evolution of KRD. The characteristics of soil physical and chemical properties of different grades of KRD were studied by field sampling method to research different types of KRD in the typical karst valley of southern China. Instead of using space of time, to explore the response and the mechanisms of the soil physical and chemical properties at the different evolution process. The results showed that: (1) There were significant differences in organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, sediment concentration, clay content and AWHC in different levels of KRD environment. However, these indicators are not with increasing desertification degree has been degraded, but improved after a first degradation trends; (2) The correlation analysis showed that soil organic matter, acid, alkali, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and clay contents were significantly correlated with other physical and chemical factors. They are the key factors of soil physical and chemical properties, play a key role in improving soil physical and chemical properties and promoting nutrient cycling; (3) The principal component analysis showed that the cumulative contribution rate of organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and sediment concentration was 80.26%, which was the key index to evaluate rocky desertification degree based on soil physical and chemical properties. The results have important theoretical and practical significance for the protection and restoration of rocky desertification ecosystem in southwest China.

  5. Ecological niche modeling and land cover risk areas for rift valley fever vector, culex tritaeniorhynchus giles in Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Mohamed F; Al Ahmed, Azzam M; Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S; Abdullah, Mohamed A R

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles is a prevalent and confirmed Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) vector. This vector, in association with Aedimorphus arabiensis (Patton), was responsible for causing the outbreak of 2000 in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. Larval occurrence records and a total of 19 bioclimatic and three topographic layers imported from Worldclim Database were used to predict the larval suitable breeding habitats for this vector in Jazan Province using ArcGIS ver.10 and MaxEnt modeling program. Also, a supervised land cover classification from SPOT5 imagery was developed to assess the land cover distribution within the suitable predicted habitats. Eleven bioclimatic and slope attributes were found to be the significant predictors for this larval suitable breeding habitat. Precipitation and temperature were strong predictors of mosquito distribution. Among six land cover classes, the linear regression model (LM) indicated wet muddy substrate is significantly associated with high-very high suitable predicted habitats (R(2) = 73.7%, Presearchers.

  6. Radon and radon progeny in 70 houses in the Tennessee Valley area: study design and measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, C.S.; Hawthorne, A.R.; Monar, K.P.; Quillen, J.L.; Clark, C. Jr.; Doane, R.W.; Wallace, R.G.; Reed, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Levels of radon and its short-lived airborne progeny are being measured in a year-long study of 70 houses in four states in the Tennessee Valley. Various methods were used to solicit volunteers with differing degrees of success. Criteria for selection of houses in the study included presence of a lower level with cement floor and one or more block walls in contact with the soil, absence of obvious indications of technologically enhanced sources of radium, and proximity to one of four cities (Knoxville, Chattanooga, Birmingham, or Florence). By design, most houses in the study are in the same neighborhood as at least one other house in the study. Houses range in age from newly constructed to about 40 years old. Most of the houses have more than 2000 square feet of finished floor space. The lower level encompasses a garage in most cases. More complete information pertaining to house characteristics will be gathered in the course of the study. 19 refs., 1 fig

  7. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, NY (United States); Sundquist, J. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  8. Concentration and distribution of heavy metals and radionuclides in topsoils from Middle Jiu Valley surface coal exploitations sourrounding area (Gorj County, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneanu, Mihaela; Corneanu, Gabriel; Lacatusu, Anca-Rovena; Cojocaru, Luminita; Butnariu, Monica

    2013-04-01

    Middle Jiu Valley is one of the largest surface coal exploitation area in Romania. The coal exploitation area is a dense populated one, along the valleys are villages and the inhabitants produce for their own consumption fruits and vegetables, in their personal gardens, or cereals in the fields, nearby the villages. There was considered to be of great interest to investigate the heavy metals and radionuclides content in gardens and cropfield soils from the villages sourrounding the Thermo Electric Power Plants (TEPP) and coal surface exploitation, as well as in crude /cultivated sterile soil or ash. The topsoil samples (104) were harvested from population gardens (58), cropfields sourronding Thermo Electric Power Plants (24), crude sterile dumps (7), cultivated sterile dumps (9) and ash dumps (6). The content in radionuclides in soil was performed by Duggan (1988) method. Radionuclide activity was expressed in Bqkg-1, confidence level 95%. The total content of heavy metals in soil (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Co) was measured with flame atomic mass spectrometry. The content in heavy metals was expressed in mgkg-1. Soil analysis revealed the presence of natural radionuclides, beloging from ash and coal dust, as well as of Cs-137, of Cernobal provenance. In the cropfields radionuclides content in topsoil is lower than in gardens, due to the deepper soil mobilisation. Radionuclides content over the normal limits for Romania were registered for Th-234, Pb-210, U-235 and in few locations for Ra-226. The soil content for all analysed metals was over the normal limits in most samples, in few cases with values close to allert limits. Concentrations between allert and intervention limits were registered in samples collected from 15-20 km North of TEPP Turceni, in population gardens.

  9. Modeling pesticides emissions for Grapevine LCA: adaptation of Pest-LCI model to viticulture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Renaud-Gentié; Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Bjørn, Anders

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a tailored version of PestLCI 2.0, the most advanced life cycle inventory model for quantification of organic pes-ticide emissions from arable land, customized to appropriately account for viticulture specificities affecting pesticides emissions from vineyards. PestLCI 2.......0 customization is further supported by the calculation of USEtox™ freshwater ecotoxicity characterization factors for active ingredients relevant in viticulture. Case studies on two different vineyard management systems illustrate PestLCI 2.0 model ap-plication. The customization of the PestLCI 2.0 model...... includes addition of 29 active substances, 9 application techniques, interception by a dual canopy (vine /grass cover), new soil and climate databases and further account of multiple vinerow treatment. Four substances dominate the overall toxicity profiles. Comparing the results obtained with PestLCI 2...

  10. Identification of artificial groundwater recharging zone using a GIS-based fuzzy logic approach: a case study in a coal mine area of the Damodar Valley, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Lavy, Muriel; Amanzio, Gianpiero; De Maio, Marina; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Mahato, Mukesh Kumar

    2017-12-01

    The West Bokaro coalfield is a richest coal-mining belt in the Damodar Valley, India. The extensive mining of the area has resulted in disruption of the groundwater availability in terms of both quantity and quality. This has led to a drinking water crisis, especially during the pre-monsoon period in the West Bokaro coalfield area. The characterization of the hydrogeological system and the artificial recharging of the aquifers might help to better manage the problem of the groundwater-level depletion. For this purpose, seven important hydrogeological factors (water depth, slope, drainage, soil, infiltration, lithology, and landuse) have been considered to define the most suitable locations for artificial groundwater recharging in the mining area. Different thematic maps were prepared from existing maps and data sets, remote-sensing images, and field investigations for identification of the most suitable locations for artificial recharge. Thematic layers for these parameters were prepared, classified, weighted, and integrated into a geographic information system (GIS) environment by means of fuzzy logic. The results of the study indicate that about 29 and 31% of the area are very suitable and suitable for recharging purposes in the West Bokaro coalfield. However, the rest of the area is moderate to unsuitable for recharging due to the ongoing mining and related activities in the study area. The groundwater recharging map of the study area was validated with measured electrical conductivity (EC) values in the groundwater, and it indicated that validation can be accepted for the identification of groundwater recharging sites. These findings are providing useful information for the proper planning and sustainable management of the groundwater resources in the study area.

  11. Radon and radon progeny in 70 houses in the Tennessee Valley area: study design and measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, C.S.; Hawthorne, A.R.; Monar, K.P.; Quillen, J.L.; Clark, C. Jr.; Doane, R.W.; Wallace, R.G.; Reed, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Levels of radon and its short-lived airborne progeny are being measured in a year-long study of 70 houses in four states in the Tennessee Valley. Various methods were used to solicit volunteers with differing degrees of success. Criteria for selection of houses in the study included presence of a lower level with cement floor and one or more block walls in contact with the soil, absence of obvious indications of technologically enhanced sources of radium, and proximity to one of four cities, (Knoxville, Chattanooga, Birmingham, or Florence). By design, most houses in the study are in the same neighborhood as at least one other house in the study. Houses range in age from newly constructed to about 40 years old. Most of the houses have more than 2000 square feet of finished floor space. The lower level encompasses a garage in most cases. More complete information pertaining to house characteristics will be gathered in the course of the study. Measurements are being made to obtain information on both location- and season-dependent variation of radon and radon progeny. Simultaneous measurements are made quarterly on both upper and lower levels of each house. Grab samples of air are collected and analyzed for radon using a modified Lucas cell technique. Short-term (10-minute) samples of airborne particulate material are collected and analyzed for radon progeny. One-week integrated measurements of working levels are made once each quarter using modified thermoluminescent dosimeters. Both three- and twelve-month integrated measurements of radon using track-etch monitors are being made. 19 references, 1 figures

  12. Scenario earthquake hazards for the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, east-central California (ver. 2.0, January 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Branum, David M.; Wills, Chris J.; Hill, David P.

    2014-06-30

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) multi-hazards project in the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, the California Geological Survey (CGS) developed several earthquake scenarios and evaluated potential seismic hazards, including ground shaking, surface fault rupture, liquefaction, and landslide hazards associated with these earthquake scenarios. The results of these analyses can be useful in estimating the extent of potential damage and economic losses because of potential earthquakes and also for preparing emergency response plans.The Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area has numerous active faults. Five of these faults or fault zones are considered capable of producing magnitude ≥6.7 earthquakes according to the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2) developed by the 2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) and the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping Program. These five faults are the Fish Slough, Hartley Springs, Hilton Creek, Mono Lake, and Round Valley Faults. CGS developed earthquake scenarios for these five faults in the study area and for the White Mountains Fault Zone to the east of the study area.In this report, an earthquake scenario is intended to depict the potential consequences of significant earthquakes. A scenario earthquake is not necessarily the largest or most damaging earthquake possible on a recognized fault. Rather it is both large enough and likely enough that emergency planners should consider it in regional emergency response plans. In particular, the ground motion predicted for a given scenario earthquake does not represent a full probabilistic hazard assessment, and thus it does not provide the basis for hazard zoning and earthquake-resistant building design.Earthquake scenarios presented here are based on fault geometry and activity data developed by the WGCEP, and are consistent with the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM). Alternatives

  13. Entomological Opportunities and Challenges for Sustainable Viticulture in a Global Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Kent M; Vincent, Charles; Isaacs, Rufus; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2018-01-07

    Viticulture has experienced dramatic global growth in acreage and value. As the international exchange of goods has increased, so too has the market demand for sustainably produced products. Both elements redefine the entomological challenges posed to viticulture and have stimulated significant advances in arthropod pest control programs. Vineyard managers on all continents are increasingly combating invasive species, resulting in the adoption of novel insecticides, semiochemicals, and molecular tools to support sustainable viticulture. At the local level, vineyard management practices consider factors such as the surrounding natural ecosystem, risk to fish populations, and air quality. Coordinated multinational responses to pest invasion have been highly effective and have, for example, resulted in eradication of the moth Lobesia botrana from California vineyards, a pest found in 2009 and eradicated by 2016. At the global level, the shared pests and solutions for their suppression will play an increasing role in delivering internationally sensitive pest management programs that respond to invasive pests, climate change, novel vector and pathogen relationships, and pesticide restrictions.

  14. Vegetation index cartography as a methodology complement to the terroir zoning for its use in precision viticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Martínez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Precision Viticulture (PV is a form of vineyard management based on tools that offer winegrowers georeferenced information of each vineyard, mainly sector mapping (sub-areas differentiated by characteristics capable of influencing vineyard usage. This provides knowledge of the variations in these sectors and PV treats each one of them in an independent and optimised manner. This allows, amongst many other possibilities, to monitor fruit ripening with the objective of performing site-specific harvest based on the characteristics of each given sector. Local variations in soil features and natural environmental factors, such as climate, lithology, geomorphology and soil, determine the units that drive or limit PV. Methods and results: In this paper, multispectral images are used. These have been obtained between veraison and harvest in three different years in order to calculate four vegetation indexes (VI that have been used since the end of the last century to delimit homogenous sectors in vineyards: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Improved Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, the Simple Ratio Index (SR and the Modified Simple Ratio Index (MSR. Mapping of these VI has allowed to relate their distribution with natural environmental factors with the objective of valuing their use in the discrimination of homogenous sectors as a complement and/or alternative to traditional methodologies to terroir zoning. Results show that, in the area studied, the vineyards planted in alluvial soil and conglomerated zones, over dominant fine-loamy, mixed, mesic, Calcixerollic Xerochrept soil series, at elevations between 519 and 604 m, oriented east and on slopes less than 5º present higher values for all four indexes throughout the three years of study. Conclusions: It is precisely these environmental elements (lithology, soil, elevation, orientation and slope and many soil features that must be relatively uniform in order to make an

  15. Application Of Two Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography Method For Delineating Cavities And Flowpath In Sinkhole Prone Area Of Armala Valley, Pokhara, Western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusal, U. C.; Dwivedi, S.; Ghimire, H.; Ulak, P. D.; Khatiwada, B.; Rijal, M. L.; Neupane, Y.; Aryal, S.; Pandey, D.; Gautam, A.; Mishra, S.

    2017-12-01

    Sudden release of turbid groundwater through piping in the Kali Khola and subsequent formation of over one hundred twenty sinkholes since 18 November, 2013 to May, 2014 in Armala Valley in northern part of Pokhara created havoc to the local residents. The main objective of the work is to investigate subsurface anomalies so as to locate the subsurface cavities, groundwater movement and areas prone to sinkholes formation in the area. Findings of the several studies and observations carried out in area by the authors and preventive measures carried out by Department of Water Induced Disaster Management are presented in the paper. To fulfill the objective 2D-Electrical Resistivity Tomography Survey was carried out at sixty five profiles with minimum electrode spacing from 1 m to 5 m on different profiles using WDJD-4 Resistivity meter. Res2Dinv Software was used for processing and interpretation of the acquired data. Geological mapping, preparation of columnar section of the sinkholes and river bank were conducted. Hand auguring, tracer test and topography survey were also carried out in the area. Different geophysical anomalies were identified in 2D-ERT survey which indicates the presence of compositional difference in layered sediments, undulations in depositional pattern with top humus layer of thickness 0.5 m, loose unconsolidated gravel layer 0.5 m - 4 m and clayey silt/silty clay layer upto 75 m depth. The cavities were found both in clayey silt layer and gravel layer with size ranging from 1-2 m to 10-12 m in depth and 2 m-10 m in diameter either empty or water filled depending on locations. Fifteen cavities that were detected during survey were excavated and immediately filled up. Three major and four minor groundwater flow paths were detected which has been later confirmed by tracer test, formation of new sinkholes along the path and during excavation for construction of underground structures for blocking the underground flow. Major flow path was detected at

  16. Groundwater components in the alluvial aquifer of the alpine Rhone River valley, Bois de Finges area, Wallis Canton, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Marc; Vuataz, François-D.

    2000-09-01

    Source, type, and quantity of various components of groundwater, as well as their spatial and temporal variations were determined by different hydrochemical methods in the alluvial aquifer of the upper Rhone River valley, Bois de Finges, Wallis Canton, Switzerland. The methods used are hydrochemical modeling, stable-isotope analysis, and chemical analysis of surface water and groundwater. Sampling during high- and low-water periods determined the spatial distribution of the water chemistry, whereas monthly sampling over three years provided a basis for understanding seasonal variability. The physico-chemical parameters of the groundwater have spatial and seasonal variations. The groundwater chemical composition of the Rhone alluvial aquifer indicates a mixing of weakly mineralized Rhone River water and SO4-rich water entering from the south side of the valley. Temporal changes in groundwater chemistry and in groundwater levels reflect the seasonal variations of the different contributors to groundwater recharge. The Rhone River recharges the alluvial aquifer only during the summer high-water period. Résumé. Origine, type et quantité de nombreux composants d'eau de l'aquifère alluvial dans la vallée supérieure du Rhône, Bois de Finges, Valais, Suisse, ainsi que leurs variations spatiales et temporelles ont été déterminés par différentes méthodes hydrochimiques. Les méthodes utilisées sont la modélisation hydrochimique, les isotopes stables, ainsi que l'échantillonnage en période de hautes eaux et de basses eaux pour étudier la distribution spatiale de la composition chimique, alors qu'un échantillonnage mensuel pendant trois ans sert à comprendre les processus de la variabilité saisonnière. Les paramètres physico-chimiques des eaux souterraines montrent des variations spatiales et saisonnières. La composition chimique de l'aquifère alluvial du Rhône indique un mélange entre une eau peu minéralisée venant du Rhône et une eau sulfatée s

  17. COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN OR NEAR A HIGHLY INDUSTRIALIZED AREA OF KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: ENDOMETRIOSIS AND BLOOD LEVELS OF DIOXIN AND DIOXIN-LIKE CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Historical releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals with subsequent impacts to environmental media in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have been well documented.' The bulk of dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,...

  18. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valley fever. These fungi are commonly found in soil in specific regions. The fungi's spores can be stirred into the air by ... species have a complex life cycle. In the soil, they grow as a mold with long filaments that break off into airborne ...

  19. Social conflict in response to urban sprawl in rural areas: urban reconfiguration of the Mezquital valley as influence area of the megalopolis of Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Brisa; Cadena, Edel; Campos, Juan; Hinojosa, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The urban sprawl of metropolitan areas involves complex processes of coexistence between urban and rural dynamics, the functional redefining of central urban areas and rural areas or urban-rural surrounding transition generates land conflicts. In this paper the context of Mexico City megalopolis and its expansion process, will be discussed in the new specialization of the central city to tertiary services and increasing the value of land, it has resulted in the expulsion of the industry and s...

  20. Surficial geologic map of the Heath-Northfield-Southwick-Hampden 24-quadrangle area in the Connecticut Valley region, west-central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in west-central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text, quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  1. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 1 Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this Remedial Investigation (RI) report is to present an analysis of the Melton Valley portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which will enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of cost-effective remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. In this RI existing levels of contamination and radiological exposure are compared to levels acceptable for future industrial and potential recreational use levels at the site. This comparison provides a perspective for the magnitude of remedial actions required to achieve a site condition compatible with relaxed access restrictions over existing conditions. Ecological risk will be assessed to evaluate measures required for ecological receptor protection. For each subbasin, this report will provide site-specific analyses of the physical setting including identification of contaminant source areas, description of contaminant transport pathways, identification of release mechanisms, analysis of contaminant source interactions with groundwater, identification of secondary contaminated media associated with the source and seepage pathways, assessment of potential human health and ecological risks from exposure to contaminants, ranking of each source area within the subwatershed, and outline the conditions that remedial technologies must address to stop present and future contaminant releases, prevent the spread of contamination and achieve the goal of limiting environmental contamination to be consistent with a potential recreational use of the site.

  2. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 1 Main Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this Remedial Investigation (RI) report is to present an analysis of the Melton Valley portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which will enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of cost-effective remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. In this RI existing levels of contamination and radiological exposure are compared to levels acceptable for future industrial and potential recreational use levels at the site. This comparison provides a perspective for the magnitude of remedial actions required to achieve a site condition compatible with relaxed access restrictions over existing conditions. Ecological risk will be assessed to evaluate measures required for ecological receptor protection. For each subbasin, this report will provide site-specific analyses of the physical setting including identification of contaminant source areas, description of contaminant transport pathways, identification of release mechanisms, analysis of contaminant source interactions with groundwater, identification of secondary contaminated media associated with the source and seepage pathways, assessment of potential human health and ecological risks from exposure to contaminants, ranking of each source area within the subwatershed, and outline the conditions that remedial technologies must address to stop present and future contaminant releases, prevent the spread of contamination and achieve the goal of limiting environmental contamination to be consistent with a potential recreational use of the site

  3. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA; NNSA NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-04-01

    This post-closure inspection and monitoring report has been prepared according to the stipulations laid out in the Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)--Surface (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV], 2001), and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This report provides an analysis and summary of site inspections, subsidence surveys, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data for CAU 417, which is located in Hot Creek Valley, Nye County, Nevada. This report covers Calendar Year 2004. Inspections at CAU 417 are conducted quarterly to document the physical condition of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 soil covers, monuments, signs, fencing, and use restricted areas. The physical condition of fencing, monuments, and signs is noted, and any unusual conditions that could impact the integrity of the covers are reported. The objective of the soil moisture monitoring program is to monitor the stability of soil moisture conditions within the upper 1.2 meters (m) (4 feet [ft]) of the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) cover and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement exceeding the cover design performance expectations.

  4. Landscape history and man-induced landscape changes in the young morainic area of the North European Plain — a case study from the Bäke Valley, Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böse, Margot; Brande, Arthur

    2010-10-01

    The Bäke creek valley is part of the young morainic area in Berlin. Its origin is related to meltwater flow and dead-ice persistence resulting in a valley with a lake-creek system. During the Late Glacial, the slopes of the valley were affected by solifluction. A Holocene brown soil developed in this material, whereas parts of the lakes were filled with limnic-telmatic sediments. The excavation site at Goerzallee revealed Bronze Age and Iron Age burial places at the upper part of the slope, as well as a fireplace further downslope, but the slope itself remained stable. Only German settlements in the 12th and 13th centuries changed the processes in the creek-lake system: the construction of water mills created a retention system with higher ground water levels in the surrounding areas. On the other hand, deforestation on the till plain and on the slope triggered erosion. Therefore, in medieval time interfingering organic sediments and sand layers were deposited in the lower part of the slope on top of the Holocene soil. The new soil which formed on top of these sediments was transformed by ploughing until the 19th century. In 1905/06 the lower part of the slope was reshaped by the construction of the Teltow Canal, following the valley of the former Bäke creek. Finally, the whole area was levelled by infill after World War II.

  5. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada For Calendar Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites, CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit, and CAS 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill, and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits (5), an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action.

  6. TP53 mutations, human papilloma virus DNA and inflammation markers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from the Rift Valley, a high-incidence area in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martel-Planche Ghislaine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Esophagus is one of the most common malignancies in both men and women in eastern and south-eastern Africa. In Kenya, clinical observations suggest that this cancer is frequent in the Rift Valley area. However, so far, there has been no report on the molecular characteristics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC in this area. Results We have analyzed TP53 mutations, the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV DNA and expression of inflammation markers Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2 and Nitrotyrosine (NTyR in 28 cases (13 males and 15 females of archived ESCC tissues collected at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya. Eleven mutations were detected in TP53 exons 5 to 8 (39%. All ESCC samples were negative for HPV 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 70, 73 and 82. Immunohistochemical analysis of Cox-2 and NTyR showed a low proportion of positive cases (17.4% and 39.1%, respectively. No association between the above markers and suspected risk factors (alcohol or tobacco use, hot tea drinking, use of charcoal for cooking was found. Conclusion Our findings suggest that mechanisms of esophageal carcinogenesis in eastern Africa might be different from other parts of the world. Low prevalence of TP53 mutation compared with other intermediate or high incidence areas of the world highlights this hypothesis. Our data did not support a possible ole of HPV in this series of cases. Further studies are needed to assess and compare the molecular patterns of ESCC from Kenya with those of high-incidence areas such as China or Central Asia.

  7. Analysis of particulate matter in anthropized areas characterized by the presence of crude oil pre-treatment plants: The case study of the Agri Valley (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, Serena; Caggiano, Rosa; Telesca, Luciano

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 (i.e., aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10, 2.5 and 1 μm, respectively) daily mass concentrations and daily particle number concentration were performed for the first time in Agri Valley (Basilicata Region - Southern Italy) from July to November 2011. This area is characterized by anthropogenic activities having high potential environmental and human health impacts. In fact, the Agri Valley houses the largest European on-shore reservoir and the largest crude oil pre-treatment plant within an anthropized area. The PM measurements were analyzed combining an innovative statistical methodology, the Singular Spectral Analysis, with forecast models and remote sensing observations. Our findings show that most of the PM collected was made up of particles in the fine and sub-micrometric fractions (i.e., PM2.5 and PM1, respectively) very likely originated by common anthropogenic sources. Moreover, PM2.5 and PM1 daily mass concentrations were characterized by a slightly increasing trend that could be related to the contribution of local sources, such as the crude oil pre-treatment plant, whose combustion processes also produce the emission of particles mainly in the fine and sub-micrometric size ranges. The integrated use of model forecasts, satellite observations and in-situ measurements shows that the only PM10 exceedance was affected by the contribution of Saharan dust, while the three PM2.5 exceedances were mainly due to local anthropogenic sources. Finally, the analysis of the PM10 and PM2.5 Air Quality Index (AQI) values shows that air quality was always “good” with respect to PM10 and “moderate” with respect to PM2.5 suggesting that fine particles, if they will be not kept under control, should represent a real problem also posing health risks to the population living close to the crude oil pre-treatment plant.

  8. Sacramento River Flood Control Project, California, Mid-Valley Area, Phase III. Design Memorandum, Volume 2 of 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    a mix of native grasses upon completion of construction. The lime treatment construction alternative would render the top 4 feet of treated soil...project area. Site CA-Sut-il is a prehistoric burial mound recorded in 1934 by R.F. Heizer . He noted that this mound could be "a key mound to...Endangered Species section. The topical lime treatment construction alternative proposed for Sites 3, 12, 12A, 13, 15, 15A, and 15B, would render the

  9. Land-cover mapping of Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. LaRue; Damar, Nancy A.; Charlet, David A.; Westenburg, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    DigitalGlobe’s QuickBird satellite high-resolution multispectral imagery was classified by using Visual Learning Systems’ Feature Analyst feature extraction software to produce land-cover data sets for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and the Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern in Clark County, Nevada. Over 1,000 vegetation field samples were collected at the stand level. The field samples were classified to the National Vegetation Classification Standard, Version 2 hierarchy at the alliance level and above. Feature extraction models were developed for vegetation on the basis of the spectral and spatial characteristics of selected field samples by using the Feature Analyst hierarchical learning process. Individual model results were merged to create one data set for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and one for each of the Areas of Critical Environmental Concern. Field sample points and photographs were used to validate and update the data set after model results were merged. Non-vegetation data layers, such as roads and disturbed areas, were delineated from the imagery and added to the final data sets. The resulting land-cover data sets are significantly more detailed than previously were available, both in resolution and in vegetation classes.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 366 comprises the six corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 11-08-01, Contaminated Waste Dump No.1; (2) 11-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2; (3) 11-23-01, Radioactively Contaminated Area A; (4) 11-23-02, Radioactively Contaminated Area B; (5) 11-23-03, Radioactively Contaminated Area C; and (6) 11-23-04, Radioactively Contaminated Area D. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed July 6, 2011, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 366. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 366 will be evaluated based on information collected from a field investigation. Radiological contamination will be evaluated based on a comparison of the total effective dose (TED) at sample locations to the dose-based final action level (FAL). The TED will be calculated by summing the estimates of internal and external dose. Results from the analysis of soil samples collected from sample plots will be used to calculate internal radiological dose. Thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at each sample location will be used to measure external radiological dose. Based on historical documentation of the releases

  11. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  12. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  13. Interest of seeing Precision Viticulture through two distributed competences: Determination of resources and schemes allowing some practical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreiro Leslie B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to better understand resources needed and constraints to avoid in implementation of Precision Viticulture technologies. In this view, we adapt distributed cognition theory to multilevel model of competence in management sciences. We use a qualitative methodology based on semi-structured interviews in 7 cases study. The main results allow us to distinguish the two aspects of Precision Viticulture, artifacts, providers of resources, and their utilization scheme. Furthermore, Precision Viticulture is decomposed here in two tasks. The first task is characterization of heterogeneity. The second is modulation of technical itineraries. These two tasks are complementary. In addition, we present ours results by highlighting resources used by firm using these technologies and constraints that they face. Finally, with these results, we can do some practical recommendations to designers and users of these technologies.

  14. 78 FR 22425 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... Valley, Fernley Area, Mason Valley, and Clovers Area. EPA is taking this action under the Clean Air Act... Reese Valley, Fernley Area, Mason Valley, and Clovers Area III. Final Action and Request for Comment IV... Reese Valley (HA 59), Gabbs Valley (HA 122), Fernley Area (HA 76), Truckee Meadows (HA 87), Mason Valley...

  15. Dynamics of Domestic Water Consumption in the Urban Area of the Kathmandu Valley: Situation Analysis Pre and Post 2015 Gorkha Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Shrestha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding domestic water consumption is vital, as the Kathmandu Valley will soon be implementing the Melamchi Water Supply Project; however, updated information on the current situation after the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake (GEQ is still lacking. We investigated the dynamics of domestic water consumption pre- and post-GEQ. The piped water supply was short, and consumption varied widely across the Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL branches and altitude. The reduction in piped, ground, and jar water consumption and the increase in tanker water consumption post-GEQ appeared to be due to the impact of the GEQ. However, the impact did not appear to be prominent on per capita water consumption, although it was reduced from 117 to 99 L post-GEQ. Piped, ground, and tanker water use were associated with an increase and jar water use was associated with a decrease in water consumption. Despite improvements in quantity, inequality in water consumption and inequity in affordability across wealth status was well established. This study suggests to KUKL the areas of priority where improvements to supply are required, and recommends an emphasis on resuming performance. Policy planners should consider the existing inequity in affordability, which is a major issue in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

  16. Consumer characterization of three types of meat (beef, chicken, and pork in the metropolitan area of the México valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Saturnino Mora-Flores

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of any kind of meat is important for the proper functioning and development of the human organism. The Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico (MAVM is the main meat marketing and consumption center in the country. The objective of this work was to characterize the consumers of the three main types of meat (beef, chicken, and pork in the MAVM in order to know the products demanded, associated to variables such as income level, consumption, product value-added services, among others. The methodology used was the CHAID algorithm (Chi-squares Automatic Interaction Detection, and association tests through the X2 distribution, economic and social quantitative segmentation variables. The information was obtained through a semi-structured survey applied to 440 individuals. Data analysis was done on contingency tables with relative frequencies. The results showed that low and medium level consumers, with low and middle incomes, mainly demand popular cuts; they buy them in local supermarkets, open markets, and neighborhood butcheries. Mostly consumed is unrefrigerated meat with few value-added services.

  17. Blood feeding patterns of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera, Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Marassa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the blood feeding sources of Nyssomyia intermedia (Ny. intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Ny. neivai, which are Leishmania vectors and the predominant sandfly species in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2003 on a smallholding and a small farm situated in the Serra district in the Iporanga municipality. The blood meals of 988 engorged females were tested using the avidin-biotin immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Seven blood meal sources were investigated: human, dog, chicken, bovine, pig, horse and rat. Results The results showed that among the females that fed on one or more blood sources, the respective percentages for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were as follows: human (23% and 36.8%, pig (47.4% and 26.4%, chicken (25.7% and 36.8% and dog (3.9% and 0%, and the differences in the blood sources between the two species were statistically significant (p = 0.043. Conclusions Both species had predominant reactivity for one or two blood sources, and few showed reactivity indicating three or four sources. Many different combinations were observed among the females that showed reactivity for more than one source, which indicated their opportunistic habits and eclecticism regarding anthropic environmental conditions.

  18. Thermal impact of a small alas-valley river in a continuous permafrost area - insights and issues raised from a field monitoring Site in Syrdakh (Central Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Nicolas, Roux; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel; Séjourné, Antoine; Costard, François; Marlin, Christelle; Khristoforov, Ivan; Saintenoy, Albane

    2017-04-01

    Lakes are probably the most prominent surface water bodies in continuous permafrost areas. As a consequence, they are also the most studied features in these regions (e.g. Fedorov et al. 2014). They are indeed of great interest, not only for local populations that use the water resource they represent both in winter and summer, but also from a climatic point of view as they can be a specific source of green-house gases due to the relatively warmer environment they create, especially associated with their taliks (thawed zone surrounded by permafrost located beneath large enough lakes). From a hydrogeological perspective, such taliks can form complex groundwater networks, thus possibly connecting sub-permafrost groundwater with surface water in the present context of climate change. On the other hand, rivers, another important feature of permafrost landscapes providing similar challenges, have drawn less attention so that only a few studies focus on river interactions with permafrost (e.g. Costard et al. 2014, Grenier et al. 2013). However, the processes of heat transfer at stake between river and permafrost strongly differ from lake systems for several reasons. The geometries differ, the river water flow and thermal regimes and interactions with the lateral slopes (valley) are specific. Of particular importance is the fact that the water, in the case of rivers, is in motion leading to specific heat exchange phenomena between water and soil. (Roux et al., accepted) addressed this issue recently by means of an experimental study in a cold room and associated numerical simulations. The present study focuses on a real river-permafrost system with its full natural complexity. A small alas-valley in the vicinity of Yakutsk (Central Yakutia, Siberia) was chosen. Monitoring was started in October 2012 to study the thermal and hydrological interactions between a river and its underground in this continuous permafrost environment. Thermal sensors were installed inside the

  19. Geologic map and upper Paleozoic stratigraphy of the Marble Canyon area, Cottonwood Canyon quadrangle, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.; Belasky, Paul; Montañez, Isabel P.; Martin, Lauren G.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Sandberg, Charles A.; Wan, Elmira; Olson, Holly A.; Priest, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    This geologic map and pamphlet focus on the stratigraphy, depositional history, and paleogeographic significance of upper Paleozoic rocks exposed in the Marble Canyon area in Death Valley National Park, California. Bedrock exposed in this area is composed of Mississippian to lower Permian (Cisuralian) marine sedimentary rocks and the Jurassic Hunter Mountain Quartz Monzonite. These units are overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary nonmarine sedimentary deposits that include a previously unrecognized tuff to which we tentatively assign an age of late middle Miocene (~12 Ma) based on tephrochronologic analysis, in addition to the previously recognized Pliocene tuff of Mesquite Spring. Mississippian and Pennsylvanian rocks in the Marble Canyon area represent deposition on the western continental shelf of North America. Mississippian limestone units in the area (Tin Mountain, Stone Canyon, and Santa Rosa Hills Limestones) accumulated on the outer part of a broad carbonate platform that extended southwest across Nevada into east-central California. Carbonate sedimentation was interrupted by a major eustatic sea-level fall that has been interpreted to record the onset of late Paleozoic glaciation in southern Gondwana. Following a brief period of Late Mississippian clastic sedimentation (Indian Springs Formation), a rise in eustatic sea level led to establishment of a new carbonate platform that covered most of the area previously occupied by the Mississippian platform. The Pennsylvanian Bird Spring Formation at Marble Canyon makes up the outer platform component of ten third-order (1 to 5 m.y. duration) stratigraphic sequences recently defined for the regional platform succession. The regional paleogeography was fundamentally changed by major tectonic activity along the continental margin beginning in middle early Permian time. As a result, the Pennsylvanian carbonate shelf at Marble Canyon subsided and was disconformably overlain by lower Permian units (Osborne Canyon and

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Two Vineyards after the Application of Precision Viticulture Techniques: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios T. Balafoutis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Precision viticulture is the application of site-specific techniques to vineyard production to improve grape quality and yield and minimize the negative effects on the environment. While there are various studies on the inherent spatial and temporal variability of vineyards, the assessment of the environmental impact of variable rate applications has attracted limited attention. In this study, two vineyards planted with different grapevine cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc and Syrah were examined for four consecutive growing seasons (2013–2016. The first year, the two vineyards were only studied in terms of soil properties and crop characteristics, which resulted in the delineation of two distinct management zones for each field. For the following three years, variable rate nutrient application was applied to each management zone based on leaf canopy reflectance, where variable rate irrigation was based on soil moisture sensors, meteorological data, evapotranspiration calculation, and leaf canopy reflectance. Life cycle assessment was carried out to identify the effect of variable rate applications on vineyard agro-ecosystems. The results of variable rate nutrients and water application in the selected management zones as an average value of three growing seasons were compared to the conventional practice. It was found that the reduction of product carbon footprint (PCF of grapes in Sauvignon Blanc between the two periods was 25% in total. Fertilizer production and distribution (direct and application (indirect was the most important sector of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions reduction, accounting for 17.2%, and the within-farm energy use was the second ranked sector with 8.8% (crop residue management increase GHG emissions by 1.1%, while 0.1% GHG reduction is obtained by pesticide use. For the Syrah vineyard, where the production was less intensive, precision viticulture led to a PCF reduction of 28.3% compared to conventional production. Fertilizers

  1. Archaeological, historical and cultural importance and significance of surviving coal spoil tips in the Heads of the Valleys area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The overall aim of this study was to enable management decisions to be made as to which is the most appropriate strategy in the preservation of lichen heaths in the South Wales coal fields. From the results of a study of eight sites it was concluded that the lichens are colonizing and exploiting a nutrient poor ecological niche. They are also subject to a range of pressures that may enhance their success or promote their decline. Some of the threats could be actively managed. However, this is hampered to some extent by our lack of understanding of the ecological and secessional processes occurring at the sites. The management decision also needs to made about whether we should try and halt primary succession at the sites to preserve these relatively rare habitats or whether we should just let natural succession take its course ultimately leading to a complete loss of the lichen heaths. Complete encroachment by woodlands and grasses would occur within 20-50 years at most sites. Any intervention measure will also have a cost associated with it and this money would be best concentrated at some sites where the lichen heaths are of greatest value whilst letting others of lesser value go unmanaged. The correct choice of management regime, however, is critical. The lack of long-term ecological information at the sites limits the potential for a science-led management approach. The study also identified areas for future work including: (1) a better mapping and inventory of the different lichen heath types at the sites; (2) the establishment of long term monitoring plots to assess potential spatial/temporal changes; (3) studies on the role of ants as ecosystems engineers and determinants of natural succession at the sites; (4) investigate a number of land management options to allow a science-led rather than empirical management approach.

  2. Decontamination of the product handling area at the West Valley Demonstration Project: Final topical report for period July 1985 to February 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, E.C.

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) preparations of an existing facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the Product Handling Area (PHA), to be part of a Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS) in conjunction with the Cement Solidification System (CSS). Two interconnected facilities, the Uranium Product Cell (UPC) and the Uranium Loadout Area (ULO), form the PHA. Both of these facilities contain large tanks. Both of the tanks in the UPC are suitable for use as components of the LWTS. In addition, the UPC is the only existing means of access to the bottom of the Product Purification Cell (PPC) in which some of the equipment for the LWTS will be installed. Consequently, this report describes the decontamination of the PHA from a radioactively contaminated environment to one which may be entered in street clothes. Of the two facilities of the PHA, the UPC was the more highly contaminated prior to decontamination. Decontamination of the UPC has been completed leaving most of the surfaces in the facility smearably clean. Decontamination of the UPC consisted of washing all surfaces, draining the floor sump, removing unneeded piping, installing a back flow filter system, painting all surfaces, installing rubber matting on the floor and placing new stainless steel covering on the UPC ledge. Decontamination operations in the ULO have been completed and were similar to those in the UPC consisting of decontaminating by hand wipedown, removing contamination fixed in paint, and applying new paint. In addition, two pumps and a concrete pump niche were removed. Prior to decontamination, surface contamination was present in the ULO. After decontamination, most of the surfaces in the ULO were clean of smearable contamination. D and D Operations were initiated in the PHA in July 1985 and completed in February 1986. 13 figs., 9 tabs

  3. IMAA (Integrated Measurements of Aerosol in Agri valley) campaign: Multi-instrumental observations at the largest European oil/gas pre-treatment plant area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvello, Mariarosaria; Caggiano, Rosa; Esposito, Francesco; Lettino, Antonio; Sabia, Serena; Summa, Vito; Pavese, Giulia

    2017-11-01

    A short-term intensive multi-instrumental measurement campaign (Integrated Measurements of Aerosol in Agri valley - IMAA) was carried out near the largest European oil and gas pre-treatment plant (Centro Olio Val d'Agri - COVA) in a populated area, where, so far, ample characterization of aerosol loading is missing. As such, between the 2 and 17 July in 2013, using a number of instruments analyses were carried out on physical, chemical, morphological and optical properties of aerosol at this distinctive site, at both ground and over the atmospheric column, including the investigation of the mixing and transformation of particles. The observation of slag silicates with a rough surface texture is consistent with the presence of oil-related activities which represent the only industrial activity in the area. Desulfurization/sulfur liquefaction processes occurring at COVA can explain the peculiar morphology of calcium-sodium-aluminum particles. The common COVA source was associated with high concentrations of sulfur, nickel and zinc, and with significant correlations between zinc-sulfur and zinc-nickel. The Optical Particle Sizer (OPS) data, hygroscopicity and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol are consistent with the typical oil-derived gaseous emissions (e.g. sulfur dioxide and methane) that strongly influence the mixing state of particles and their size distributions. Continuous combustion processes at COVA were found to be responsible for Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) concentrations from their relevant contribution to the total number of fine particles. The expected significant contribution of WS (water soluble) and BC (Black Carbon) components to the total Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) are consistent with the results from the radiometric model especially for July 3 and 16.

  4. Soft-sediment deformation in a tectonically active area: The Plio-Pleistocene Zarzal Formation in the Cauca Valley (Western Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwerth, Ralph; Suter, Fiore; Guzman, Carlos A.; Gorin, Georges E.

    2006-04-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene Zarzal Formation corresponds to fluvio-lacustrine sediments deposited in an intramontane depression within the Colombian Andes, associated with the Cauca-Romeral Fault System. It crops out mainly in the Cauca Valley where numerous field sections have permitted the mapping of the vertical and lateral lithological variations. Lacustrine deposits of sands, silts, clays and diatomites are interbedded with fluvial sand and gravel beds and fluvio-volcanic mass flows derived from the volcanic Central Cordillera. Numerous soft-sediment deformation structures are encountered in this formation, particularly in fine- to medium-grained sands, silts and clays: load structures (load casts, flame structures, pseudonodules), water escape structures (water escape cusps, dish-and-pillar and pocket-and-pillar structures), soft-sediment intrusions (clastic sills and dykes), disturbed laminites, convolute laminations, slumps and synsedimentary faulting. Deformation mechanisms and driving forces are related essentially to gravitational instabilities, dewatering, liquidization and brittle deformations. Field and regional geological data show that most of these deformations are related to seismicity and can be interpreted as seismites. This area has a geological and recent seismic history and outcrops show both syn- and post-depositional faulting related to the transpressional regime of this part of the Colombian Andes, which generates strike-slip faults and associated local normal faults. The drainage pattern within the Zarzal Formation shows the signature of neotectonics. Moreover, the fine to coarse-grained sands of the Zarzal Formation are lithologies prone to liquefaction when affected by seismic waves. The intercalation of the deformed intervals within undisturbed strata confirms the catastrophic nature of the events. Finally, the large areal extent of the deformations and the type of structures are compatible with seismites. Consequently, the existence of

  5. Food survey of three areas of the lower Rhone valley: Codolet, Tresques, and the Camargue. Consumption/home consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, B.; Guillet, F.

    2003-01-01

    In 1996 the IRSN studied the dosimetric impact of the Marcoule site on the inhabitants of reference village, Codolet. The ingestion-related impact highlighted by this study revealed the need for further familiarization with the eating habits of the villagers, and more precisely their home consumption habits (that is consumption of locally-produced foodstuffs, own personal production, however, supplied or purchased). Accordingly a food survey was carried out in May 1998 in the village of Codolet and also in the village of Tresques that acted as control village and in the area of the Camargue that was flooded when the Rhone burst its banks in October 1993 and January 1994. Knowledge of 'real and current' home consumption habits is important as in the 1996 study, it was taken that all consumption was of the home consumption type. The survey, comprising a 14-page survey questionnaire, covers some twenty selected households per site. A 'fictitious' unit was used to make allowance for the wide variations in household make-up for this type of week long survey. This unit is called a 'unit of consumption, uc' and is expressed in g or cl per uc, per day (g or cl uc -1 j -1 ). It differs very little from the more conventional unit expressed in g or ell per inhabitant, per day (g or cl h -1 j -1 ). The thirteen main home consumption foodstuffs in the three survey samples were (mean values in g or cl uc -1 j -1 ): potatoes (62), lettuces (42), tomatoes (18), carrots (16), leeks, French beans and strawberries (13), cherries and radishes (11) in the fruit and vegetable category; eggs and chicken (15) for produce of animal origin; wine and water (10) in the liquids category. As regards Codolet, the home consumption figures for foodstuffs included in the 1996 dosimetric study are all, with the exception of wine, much higher than those revealed by our food survey. Applying our figures to update this dosimetric study would cause the ingestion aspect of dosimetric impact to drop very

  6. Groundwater-quality data in the Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study unit, 2010: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas (BEAR) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The BEAR study unit was the thirty-first study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as the zones corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the BEAR study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallow or deep water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the BEAR study unit, groundwater samples were collected from two study areas (Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas) in San Bernardino County. Of the 38 sampling sites, 27 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining 11 sites were selected to aid in the understanding of the potential groundwater-quality issues associated with septic tank use and with ski areas in the study unit (understanding sites). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and

  7. Hydrology and numerical simulation of groundwater movement and heat transport in Snake Valley and surrounding areas, Juab, Miller, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Gardner, Philip M.; Brooks, Lynette E.

    2014-01-01

    Snake Valley and surrounding areas, along the Utah-Nevada state border, are part of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system. The groundwater system in the study area consists of water in unconsolidated deposits in basins and water in consolidated rock underlying the basins and in the adjacent mountain blocks. Most recharge occurs from precipitation on the mountain blocks and most discharge occurs from the lower altitude basin-fill deposits mainly as evapotranspiration, springflow, and well withdrawals.The Snake Valley area regional groundwater system was simulated using a three-dimensional model incorporating both groundwater flow and heat transport. The model was constructed with MODFLOW-2000, a version of the U.S. Geological Survey’s groundwater flow model, and MT3DMS, a transport model that simulates advection, dispersion, and chemical reactions of solutes or heat in groundwater systems. Observations of groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration, springflow, mountain stream base flow, and well withdrawals; groundwater-level altitudes; and groundwater temperatures were used to calibrate the model. Parameter values estimated by regression analyses were reasonable and within the range of expected values.This study represents one of the first regional modeling efforts to include calibration to groundwater temperature data. The inclusion of temperature observations reduced parameter uncertainty, in some cases quite significantly, over using just water-level altitude and discharge observations. Of the 39 parameters used to simulate horizontal hydraulic conductivity, uncertainty on 11 of these parameters was reduced to one order of magnitude or less. Other significant reductions in parameter uncertainty occurred in parameters representing the vertical anisotropy ratio, drain and river conductance, recharge rates, and well withdrawal rates.The model provides a good representation of the groundwater system. Simulated water-level altitudes range over

  8. Viticulture and landscape, values for the society in Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Laura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The landscape is a perception of the agroecosystem valued as aesthetic, cultural, recreational and touristic, for conservation, among others. It is considered an environmental service and cultural heritage according to the International UN Conference 1972 (Paris, France. The agroecosystem of Mendoza's Northern Oasis creates a landscape with the presence of vineyards framed by the Andes, which is a scenic resource characterized as an environmental cultural service. The disordered process of urban growth in North of Mendoza, threatens the provision of the mentioned service. In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative assessment aim to characterize the perceptions of urban residents on the vineyards landscape. Two methodologies were applied: expert opinion through focus groups and survey data collection. By working with focus groups, positive impacts of this kind of landscape were recognized. In the 638 surveys made in the urban area of Mendoza, a six landscape images valuation was requested (with a score of 1 to 10, where 10 is the maximum. The highest average scores were for the view of Aconcagua, secondly the agricultural landscape with vineyards and mountains and thirdly another view of vineyards in the North Oasis.

  9. Soil and culture viewed through the prism of viticultural terroir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle

    2017-04-01

    Soil is at the heart of 'terroir', a French word with no full equivalent in other languages, meaning delimited areas with homogeneous environmental features that are likely to confer typical wine qualities identified through collective memory and conveyed from generation to generation within a territory marked by social context and crop technical choices (Vaudour, 2002, 2003). The tradition of terroir wines has strong cultural connections, referring to tradition of drinking well, of farming and of producing typical wines that are rooted in a region or made from specific places with organoleptic features easily distinguishable from other wines from other regions. As an entity distributed over space and time, terroir has cultural aspects that have heritage, landscape and reputation value-added components that come from historical, empirically derived technical adjustments, the transmission of taste typicity over generations and strong gastronomical traditions. As such, terroir has long been a source of inspiration for poetry, literature, and art in overall. Its tradition is also marked by the inheritance of long-standing practices of soil conservation and soil management. The tradition of terroir wines is a living tradition with positive values for the conservation of both cultural and soil patrimonies, that is likely to be shared by several winegrowing or wine-drinking countries.

  10. 'From graft to bottle'. Analysis of energy use in viticulture and wine production and the potential for solar renewable technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, M. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Russell, J. [Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The practice of viticulture and winemaking is highly dependent upon the weather and climate. Any future changes in the seasons, their duration, local maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, frost occurrence and heat accumulation could have a major impact on the winegrowing areas of the world. Given that the winegrowing industry has substantial energy requirements and is directly influenced by any changes in climate, the industry should be at the forefront in promoting the case of energy efficiency and the adoption of renewable technologies. Solar renewables in the form of solar thermal and photovoltaics (PVs) offer a complimentary solution to many winegrowing processes. This paper examines the limited number of world wineries that have adopted solar renewables and presents a viable case for their wide scale integration into the industry. The paper presents a range of viticultural and winemaking processes where solar energy can be directly or indirectly applied and suggests the potential for solar energy in making substantial savings in both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. In 2005, almost 8 million hectares were under vines producing 40.2 million tonnes of grapes for crushing. The total global energy use within the winemaking industry is estimated at over 105 PJ emitting nearly 16 million tonnes of CO{sub 2}. If ancillary industries, such as bottle making and transportation are included, the total carbon footprint of the industry is estimated at over 76 million tonnes of CO{sub 2}. This paper calculates that if the commercial winemaking establishments in the 'developed' wine producing regions of the world integrated a 'small' solar installation into their wineries, the potential savings are 18.3% or 19.24 PJ of the energy used in the global winemaking industry. (author)

  11. Death Valley 10 x 20 NTMS area, California and Nevada. Data report: National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1980-04-01

    Results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Death Valley 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle are presented. Stream sediment samples were collected from small streams at 649 sites or at a nominal density of one site per 20 square kilometers. Ground water samples were collected at 62 sites or at a nominal density of one site per 220 square kilometers. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water and surface water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Key data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) scintillometer readings, and (3) elemental analyses (U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, and V). Supplementary data include site descriptors, tabulated analytical data for Al, Dy, and Mg, and histograms and cumulative frequency plots for all elements. Key data from stream sediment sites include (1) water quality measurements (2) important elemental analyses, (U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Sc, Na, Ti, and V), and (3) scintillometer readings. Supplementary data from stream sediment sites include sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.), additional elemental analyses (Dy, Eu, La, Lu, Sm, and Yb), and histograms and cumulative frequency plots for all elements

  12. Imaging the Shallow Crust in the Epicentral Area of the 1857 M7 Agri Valley Earthquake (Southern Italy) by Combined Traveltime and Full-Waveform Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improta, L.; Operto, S.; Piromallo, C.; Valoroso, L.

    2008-12-01

    The Agri Valley is a Quaternary extensional basin located in the Southern Apennines range. This basin was struck by a M7 earthquake in 1857. In spite of extensive morphotectonic surveys and hydrocarbon exploration, major unsolved questions remain about the upper crustal structure, the recent tectonic evolution and seismotectonics of the area. Most authors consider a SW-dipping normal-fault system bordering the basin to the East as the major seismogenic source. Alternatively, some authors ascribe the high seismogenic potential of the region to NE-dipping normal faults identified by morphotectonic surveys along the ridge bounding the basin to the West. These uncertainties mainly derive from the poor performance of commercial reflection profiling that suffers from an extreme structural complexity and unfavorable near-surface conditions. To overcome these drawbacks, ENI and Shell Italia carried out a non-conventional wide-aperture survey with densely spaced sources (60 m) and receivers (90 m). The 18-km-long wide-aperture profile crosses the basin, yielding a unique opportunity to get new insights into the crustal structure by using advanced imaging techniques. Here, we apply a two-step imaging procedure. We start determining multi- scale Vp images down to 2.5 km depth by using a non-linear traveltime tomographic technique able to cope with strongly heterogeneous media. Assessment of an accurate reference Vp model is indeed crucial for the subsequent application of a frequency-domain full-waveform inversion aimed at improving spatial resolution of the velocity images. Frequency components of the data are then iteratively inverted from low to high frequency values in order to progressively incorporate smaller wavelength components into the model. Inversion results accurately image the shallow crust, yielding valuable constraints for a better understanding of the recent basin evolution and of the surrounding normal-fault systems.

  13. Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenea, Oljira; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2011-06-01

    Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia and elsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporal variation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables (water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables) were measured, characterized and analyzed. Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV) of anopheline larvae collected throughout the study period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only 3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus). Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis and An. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logistic regression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vector species. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquatic vegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly and positively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies. Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintained by perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vector control operations.

  14. "IREP EN KEMET" Wine of Ancient Egypt: Documenting the Viticulture and Winemaking Scenes in the Egyptian Tombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch-Jané, M. R.; Fonseca, S.; Ibrahim, M.

    2013-07-01

    Presented are the research objectives of the project "Irep en Kemet", Wine of Ancient Egypt, and the content of the project's website. This research aims at documenting the complete corpus of wine in ancient Egypt and analysing the data (iconography, textual sources and artefacts) to unveil the importance of the ancient Egyptian wine culture legacy in the Mediterranean region. At this stage, a bibliographical researchable database relevant to wine, viticulture and winemaking in the ancient Egypt has been completed, with 197 entries including articles, books, chapters in book, academic thesis (PhD and MA), essay, abstracts, on-line articles and websites. Moreover, a scene-detail database for the viticulture and winemaking scenes in the Egyptian private tombs has been recorded with 97 entries, some of them unpublished, and the collected data is under study. The titles of the tombs' owners and the texts related to the scenes will be also recorded. A photographic survey of the graves containing images related with viticulture and winemaking will be carried out in order to have the most accurate information on the location and stage of conservation of those images. Our main goal is to provide scholars with a complete, comprehensive archaeological and bibliographical database for the scenes of viticulture and winemaking depicted in the Egyptian private tombs throughout the ancient Egyptian history. The project's website (http://www.wineofancientegypt.com) will include all the collected data, the study and analysis, the project's history and team members, publications as well as the results of our research.

  15. Integration of climatic indices in an objective probabilistic model for establishing and mapping viticultural climatic zones in a region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Francisco J.; Rebollo, Francisco J.; Paniagua, Luis L.; García, Abelardo; Honorio, Fulgencio

    2016-05-01

    Different climatic indices have been proposed to determine the wine suitability in a region. Some of them are related to the air temperature, but the hydric component of climate should also be considered which, in turn, is influenced by the precipitation during the different stages of the grapevine growing and ripening periods. In this study, we propose using the information obtained from ten climatic indices [heliothermal index (HI), cool night index (CI), dryness index (DI), growing season temperature (GST), the Winkler index (WI), September mean thermal amplitude (MTA), annual precipitation (AP), precipitation during flowering (PDF), precipitation before flowering (PBF), and summer precipitation (SP)] as inputs in an objective and probabilistic model, the Rasch model, with the aim of integrating the individual effects of them, obtaining the climate data that summarize all main climatic indices, which could influence on wine suitability from a climate viewpoint, and utilizing the Rasch measures to generate homogeneous climatic zones. The use of the Rasch model to estimate viticultural climatic suitability constitutes a new application of great practical importance, enabling to rationally determine locations in a region where high viticultural potential exists and establishing a ranking of the climatic indices which exerts an important influence on wine suitability in a region. Furthermore, from the measures of viticultural climatic suitability at some locations, estimates can be computed using a geostatistical algorithm, and these estimates can be utilized to map viticultural climatic zones in a region. To illustrate the process, an application to Extremadura, southwestern Spain, is shown.

  16. The integration of bioclimatic indices in an objective probabilistic model for establishing and mapping viticulture suitability in a region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral García, Francisco J.; Rebollo, Francisco J.; Paniagua, Luis L.; García, Abelardo

    2014-05-01

    Different bioclimatic indices have been proposed to determine the wine suitability in a region. Some of them are related to the air temperature, but the hydric component of climate should also be considered which, in turn, is influenced by the precipitation during the different stages of the grapevine growing and ripening periods. In this work we propose using the information obtained from 10 bioclimatic indices and variables (heliothermal index, HI, cool night index, CI, dryness index, DI, growing season temperature, GST, the Winkler index, WI, September mean thermal amplitude, MTA, annual precipitation, AP, precipitation during flowering, PDF, precipitation before flowering, PBF, and summer precipitation, SP) as inputs in an objective and probabilistic model, the Rasch model, with the aim of integrating the individual effects of them, obtaining the climate data that summarize all main bioclimatic indices which could influence on wine suitability, and utilize the Rasch measures to generate homogeneous climatic zones. The use of the Rasch model to estimate viticultural suitability constitutes a new application of great practical importance, enabling to rationally determine locations in a region where high viticultural potential exists and establishing a ranking of the bioclimatic indices or variables which exerts an important influence on wine suitability in a region. Furthermore, from the measures of viticultural suitability at some locations, estimates can be computed using a geostatistical algorithm, and these estimates can be utilized to map viticultural suitability potential in a region. To illustrate the process, an application to Extremadura, southewestern Spain, is shown. Keywords: Rasch model, bioclimatic indices, GIS.

  17. 78 FR 40644 - Proposed Establishment of the Malibu Coast Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... has a new address for comments submitted by U.S. mail): Internet: http://www.regulations.gov (via the... regulations should, among other things, prohibit consumer deception and the use of misleading statements on... slopes to receive high amounts of solar radiation. The southerly orientation of the slopes also exposes...

  18. 78 FR 14046 - Proposed Establishment of the Moon Mountain District Sonoma County Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... comments submitted by U.S. mail): Internet: http://www.regulations.gov (via the online comment form for..., among other things, prohibit consumer deception and the use of misleading statements on labels, and... faces to the west, allowing the vineyards to receive sunlight in the afternoon, when solar radiation is...

  19. 78 FR 38618 - Proposed Establishment of the Eagle Peak Mendocino County Viticultural Area and Realignments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ..., among other things, prohibit consumer deception and the use of misleading statements on labels, and... Western Bison Association's internet directory that shows a listing for Eagle Peak Bison Ranch, which is... creates a high erosion hazard that must be considered when planting vineyards. The southerly solar aspect...

  20. 76 FR 30052 - Proposed Establishment of the Coombsville Viticultural Area (2010R-009P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Register, Nov. 27, 2008). That report further noted: ``Coombsville is still wild country. The birds are... winery (ibid.). The historic winery still exists and is now used as a private residence, the petition... Coombsville region growing season include the amount of solar radiation and daytime heating. The solar...

  1. 78 FR 3370 - Proposed Establishment of the Ballard Canyon Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... samples and the neutral and alkaline soils appearing at greater depths, where most root activity takes... deficient, with levels varying from 70 to 220 ppm and most soil samples having a range from 120 to 160 ppm... requirements for submitting comments, and for information on how to request a public hearing. You may view...

  2. 76 FR 69198 - Proposed Establishment of the Middleburg Virginia Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ..., University of California Press, 1974, pp. 61-64). One degree day accumulates for each degree Fahrenheit that... John Leven Powell Returns to Middleburg,'' Audrey Windsor Bergner, Middleburg Press, 1995). Originally..., creeks, roads, elevation points, a national park boundary line, and other points shown on the USGS maps...

  3. 76 FR 66629 - Establishment of the Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... explains. The petition states that local growers report that Pine Mountain vineyards are naturally free of.... Southern storms often stall over Pine Mountain and the Mayacmas range, dropping more rain than in other..., and very well to excessively well-drained. Also, these mountain soils include large amounts of sand...

  4. 77 FR 36433 - Proposed Establishment of the Elkton Oregon Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... enters from the south, through a gap in the mountain range near the town of Kellogg, and exits through a... are titled: (1) Kellogg Quadrangle, Oregon-Douglas Co., Provisional Edition 1990; (2) Old Blue... described below: (1) The beginning point is on the Kellogg map at the intersection of the T23S/T24S and R7W...

  5. 75 FR 78944 - Proposed Establishment of the Pine Mountain-Mayacmas Viticultural Area; Comment Period Reopening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...://www.ttb.gov/wine/wine-rulemaking.shtml under Notice No. 105. You also may view copies of all published... Bureau (TTB) received a petition from Sara Schorske of Compliance Service of America, prepared and filed on her own behalf and on behalf of local wine industry members, to establish the 4,600-acre ``Pine...

  6. 77 FR 2027 - Proposed Establishment of the Middleburg Virginia Viticultural Area; Comment Period Reopening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Register on November 8, 2011. TTB is taking this action in response to a request from a local wine industry... January 9, 2012. On January 6, 2012, TTB received a request from the president of the Loudoun Wine Growers... Notice No. 123 for an additional 45 days. We believe this additional time will allow industry members and...

  7. Wine Industry Competitiveness: A survey of the Shawnee Hills American Viticultural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Matthew Rendleman

    2016-06-01

    Shawnee Hill׳s AVA winery owner/operators regard increases in regional tourism, growth in the US wine market continuous innovation, unique services and processes, and flow of information from customers to have the most enhancing effects on their businesses, and that confidence/trust in Illinois state political systems, tax systems, and administrative/bureaucratic regulations were the most constraining factors. Furthermore the Shawnee Hills AVA has growing competition, yet consists of innovative winery owners. It may currently lack external financial support, but with a community focus on product differentiation, the Shawnee Hills AVA has a chance, owners believe, to capture a portion of the growing market for regional products.

  8. The River Valleys as Biodiversity Reservoirs for Land Snails in Highly Anthropic Areas – The Case of Cisnădie River (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheoca Voichiţa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the snail fauna of a river valley passing through two closely located settlements. Thirty six species of terrestrial gastropods were identified. Species such as Macrogastra borealis, Alinda fallax, Alinda viridana, Bulgarica vetusta, Monachoides vicinus, Drobacia banatica, are present along the river and abundant in the sampling stations downstream of Cisnădie town. The high specific diversity and the presence of typical forest species demonstrate the presence of fragments of habitat that can preserve populations of terrestrial gastropods, underlining the importance of river valleys in conservation and dispersion of these species.

  9. Data Mining and NIR Spectroscopy in Viticulture: Applications for Plant Phenotyping under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Salvador; Tardaguila, Javier; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Diago, Maria P

    2016-02-16

    Plant phenotyping is a very important topic in agriculture. In this context, data mining strategies may be applied to agricultural data retrieved with new non-invasive devices, with the aim of yielding useful, reliable and objective information. This work presents some applications of machine learning algorithms along with in-field acquired NIR spectral data for plant phenotyping in viticulture, specifically for grapevine variety discrimination and assessment of plant water status. Support vector machine (SVM), rotation forests and M5 trees models were built using NIR spectra acquired in the field directly on the adaxial side of grapevine leaves, with a non-invasive portable spectrophotometer working in the spectral range between 1600 and 2400 nm. The ν-SVM algorithm was used for the training of a model for varietal classification. The classifiers' performance for the 10 varieties reached, for cross- and external validations, the 88.7% and 92.5% marks, respectively. For water stress assessment, the models developed using the absorbance spectra of six varieties yielded the same determination coefficient for both cross- and external validations (R² = 0.84; RMSEs of 0.164 and 0.165 MPa, respectively). Furthermore, a variety-specific model trained only with samples of Tempranillo from two different vintages yielded R² = 0.76 and RMSE of 0.16 MPa for cross-validation and R² = 0.79, RMSE of 0.17 MPa for external validation. These results show the power of the combined use of data mining and non-invasive NIR sensing for in-field grapevine phenotyping and their usefulness for the wine industry and precision viticulture implementations.

  10. Data Mining and NIR Spectroscopy in Viticulture: Applications for Plant Phenotyping under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Gutiérrez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenotyping is a very important topic in agriculture. In this context, data mining strategies may be applied to agricultural data retrieved with new non-invasive devices, with the aim of yielding useful, reliable and objective information. This work presents some applications of machine learning algorithms along with in-field acquired NIR spectral data for plant phenotyping in viticulture, specifically for grapevine variety discrimination and assessment of plant water status. Support vector machine (SVM, rotation forests and M5 trees models were built using NIR spectra acquired in the field directly on the adaxial side of grapevine leaves, with a non-invasive portable spectrophotometer working in the spectral range between 1600 and 2400 nm. The ν-SVM algorithm was used for the training of a model for varietal classification. The classifiers’ performance for the 10 varieties reached, for cross- and external validations, the 88.7% and 92.5% marks, respectively. For water stress assessment, the models developed using the absorbance spectra of six varieties yielded the same determination coefficient for both cross- and external validations (R2 = 0.84; RMSEs of 0.164 and 0.165 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, a variety-specific model trained only with samples of Tempranillo from two different vintages yielded R2 = 0.76 and RMSE of 0.16 MPa for cross-validation and R2 = 0.79, RMSE of 0.17 MPa for external validation. These results show the power of the combined use of data mining and non-invasive NIR sensing for in-field grapevine phenotyping and their usefulness for the wine industry and precision viticulture implementations.

  11. Viticulture microzoning: a functional approach aiming to grape and wine qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, A.; Agrillo, A.; Albrizio, R.; Basile, A.; Buonomo, R.; De Mascellis, R.; Gambuti, A.; Giorio, P.; Guida, G.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Minieri, L.; Moio, L.; Siani, T.; Terribile, F.

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to test a new physically oriented approach to viticulture zoning at the farm scale, strongly rooted on hydropedology and aiming to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirement and wine production. The physics of our approach is defined by the use of soil-plant-atmosphere simulation models which applies physically-based equations to describe the soil hydrological processes and solves soil-plant water status. This study (ZOVISA project) was conducted in a farm devoted to high quality wines production (Aglianico DOC), located in South Italy (Campania region, Mirabella Eclano-AV). The soil spatial distribution was obtained after standard soil survey informed by geophysical survey. Two Homogenous Zones (HZs) were identified; in each one of those a physically based model was applied to solve the soil water balance and estimate the soil functional behaviour (crop water stress index, CWSI) defining the functional Homogeneous Zones (fHzs). In these last, experimental plots were established and monitored for investigating soil-plant water status, crop development (biometric and physiological parameters) and daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind). The effects of crop water status on crop response over must and wine quality were then evaluated in the fHZs. This was performed by comparing crop water stress with (i) crop physiological measurement (leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, LAI measurement), (ii) grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and (iii) wine quality (aromatic response). Eventually this experiment has proved the usefulness of the physical based approach also in the case of mapping viticulture microzoning.

  12. Detailed study of selenium and other constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, alfalfa, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D.L.; Wright, W.G.; Stewart, K.C.; Osmundson, B.C.; Krueger, R.P.; Crabtree, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Department of the Interior began a program to study the effects of irrigation drainage in the Western United States. These studies were done to determine whether irrigation drainage was causing problems related to human health, water quality, and fish and wildlife resources. Results of a study in 1991-93 of irrigation drainage associated with the Uncompahgre Project area, located in the lower Gunnison River Basin, and of the Grand Valley, located along the Colorado River, are described in this report. The focus of the report is on the sources, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in the hydrologic and biological systems and the effects on biota. Generally, other trace- constituent concentrations in water and biota were not elevated or were not at levels of concern. Soils in the Uncompahgre Project area that primarily were derived from Mancos Shale contained the highest concentrations of total and watrer-extractable selenium. Only 5 of 128\\x11alfalfa samples had selenium concentrations that exceeded a recommended dietary limit for livestock. Selenium data for soil and alfalfa indicate that irrigation might be mobilizing and redistributing selenium in the Uncompahgre Project area. Distribution of dissolved selenium in ground water is affected by the aqueous geochemical environment of the shallow ground- water system. Selenium concentrations were as high as 1,300\\x11micrograms per liter in water from shallow wells. The highest concentrations of dissolved selenium were in water from wells completed in alluvium overlying the Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age; selenium concentrations were lower in water from wells completed in Mancos Shale residuum. Selenium in the study area could be mobilized by oxidation of reduced selenium, desorption from aquifer sediments, ion exchange, and dissolution. Infiltration of irrigation water and, perhaps nitrate, provide oxidizing conditions for mobilization of selenium from alluvium and shale residuum and for

  13. Dynamics of Domestic Water Consumption in the Urban Area of the Kathmandu Valley: Situation Analysis Pre and Post 2015 Gorkha Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Sadhana Shrestha; Yoko Aihara; Arun Prasad Bhattarai; Niranjan Bista; Sudarshan Rajbhandari; Naoki Kondo; Futaba Kazama; Kei Nishida; Junko Shindo

    2017-01-01

    Information regarding domestic water consumption is vital, as the Kathmandu Valley will soon be implementing the Melamchi Water Supply Project; however, updated information on the current situation after the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake (GEQ) is still lacking. We investigated the dynamics of domestic water consumption pre- and post-GEQ. The piped water supply was short, and consumption varied widely across the Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) branches and altitude. The reduction in piped...

  14. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA; FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit and 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits 9, an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action. Quarterly post-closure inspections are performed at the CASs that were closed in place at UC-I, UC-3, and UC-4. During calendar year 2005, site inspections were performed on March 15, June 16, September 22, and December 7. The inspections conducted at the UC-1 CMP documented that the site was in good condition and continued to show integrity of the cover unit. No new cracks or fractures were observed until the December inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover showed evidence of lateral expansion; however, it is not at an actionable level. The crack will be sealed by filling with

  15. Bench-scale treatability testing of biological, UV oxidation, distillation, and ion-exchange treatment of trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundquist, J.A.; Gillings, J.C. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T.L. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (United States); Denault, R.P. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Ecology and Environment, Inc. (E and E), under subcontract to Pacific Nuclear Services (PNS), conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) treatability tests to support the selection and design of a treatment system for leachate from Trench 14 of the West Valley State-Licensed, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA). In this paper E and E presents and discusses the treatability test results and provides recommendations for the design of the full-scale treatment system.

  16. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  17. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil of dry areas like the southwestern U.S. You get it ... that expose them to soil dust. These include construction workers, agricultural workers, and military forces doing field ...

  18. Chemical and thermal evolution of diagenetic fluids and the genesis of U and Cu ore in and adjacent to the Paradox Basin with emphasis on the Lisbon Valley and Temple Mountain areas, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Strata-of the central Colorado Plateau of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado hot Cu(+/-Ag) ore in salt anticline related faults, and stratiform sandstone-type uranium deposits. The goals of this study were to develop, evaluate, and interpret a geochemical data base from a restricted stratigraphic interval, and to develop models of the chemical and thermal evolution of the interaction of rock framework with pore fluids. Fluid inclusions, mineral chemistry, and C/O stable isotopes in calcite gangue associated with vein-type copper ore at Lisbon Valley suggest mixing of two solutions caused precipitation of the ore. Regularly interstratified chlorite/smectite (corrensite) coats grains in marine and eolian sandstones of the Permian Cutler Formation in the Lisbon Valley area. Local hydrothermal fluids rising along the Lisbon fault apparently permeated the Cutler red-bed section and precipitated the clay minerals. Detailed petrographic studies and fluid inclusion data from calcite cements in the Moss Back Member, support theories of syndiagenetic mobilization of humic compounds, uranium fixation and cementation at Lisbon Valley. The Temple Mountain area hosts uranium ore bodies that are unique among sandstone-type uranium deposits in structural setting, mineralogy, exotic elements, and the occurrence of asphaltite in the ores. This study suggests that warm fluids (70 0 C) have migrated along ring fractures bounding the collapse structure as evidenced by fluid inclusions trapped in authigenic dolomite in the basal Triassic Wingate Sandstone. K/Ar dates using alunite indicate that fluid migration was active as late as 13 my. Modeling suggests that dolomite at the Wingate/Chinle contact precipitated as two fluids mixed

  19. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): North Hollywood/Burbank Well Field Area 1, San Fernando Valley Site, California (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-24

    The North Hollywood - Burbank Well Field (NHBWF) is located within the San Fernando Valley Ground Water basin, which can provide drinking water for approximately 500,000 people residing in the San Fernando Valley and Los Angeles. In 1980 TCE and PCE were discovered in 25% of DWP's wells. In July 1981, DWP and the Southern California Association of Governments began a two-year study funded by EPA. The study revealed the occurrence of ground-water contamination plume patterns that are spreading toward the southeast. The primary contaminant of concern to the ground-water is TCE with PCE and other VOCs present. The selected remedial action for the site is ground-water pump and treatment using aeration and granular-activated-carbon - air-filtering units, with discharge to the DWP Pumping Station for chlorination and distribution. Spent carbon will be removed and replaced with fresh carbon, with the spent carbon scheduled either for disposal or regeneration. The estimated capital cost for this remedial action is $2,192,895 with present worth OandM of $2,284,105.

  20. Aburra Valley: Quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, Michel

    2008-01-01

    These paper intents a brief description of the evolution that characterised natural risk prevention in the area surrounding the city of Medellin, Colombia, called the Aburra Valley. Both the lithological and structural composition of the Valle and its topographic and climatic conditions contribute to the abundance of destructive natural phenomena as earthquakes, slope movements, flash floods and, in a lower proportion, to floods. The population increase, which reaches now 3.5 millions inhabitants and the frequent occupation of sites exposed to natural hazards have resulted in numerous disasters. At present two entities called SIMPAD and DAPARD work on risk prevention, on city and department scale respectively. The amount of knowledge about physical environment is considered to be insufficient, together with regulations which should direct land use in accordance to restrictions related to natural hazards. Several seminars on this topic have already been carried out and the organisers of the present one, destined to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Villatina disaster, should make the decision to meet each two years. Furthermore, the creation of a permanent commission dedicated to study past events, to foster information broadcasting and to seek a better knowledge of the Aburra Valley, should be considered

  1. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Fraga

    Full Text Available The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  2. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M; Soares, Pedro M M; Cancela, Javier J; Pinto, Joaquim G; Santos, João A

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  3. The Role and Importance of the Light and Temperature in Viticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent KÖSE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The light and temperature come at the beginning of the climatic factors that have an impact on the development of grapevine. Light and temperature have a direct impact on photosynthesis, respiration, assimilation, transpration, formation of color pigments, shading, berry set, acidity, productivity, shoot growth, blooming, soluble solid accummulation and maturation on the grapevine. Temperature is one of the most important parameters that determines whether viticulture can be made or not in an ecology. Temperature is driving several physiological processes such as bud burst, flowering, berry set, colorization, photosynthesis, respiration, sugar accimilation and ripening. In particular, in order to carry out maximum photosynthesis of vine should be sufficient sunshine in the vegetation period. On condition that carbon dioxide and other factors not be limitting, the light increases the photosynthesis up to a certain point. Not only the limited amount of the light, but also the excess of light intensity may have an adverse impact on the development of the plant. While low light causes poor development in the shoots, high light intensity prevents the photosynthesis as a result of chlorophyll degradation. In the vineyards to ensure the highest level of sunshine should be attention to the selection of appropriate training systems and canopy management.

  4. Detection of Rift Valley Fever Virus Interepidemic Activity in Some Hotspot Areas of Kenya by Sentinel Animal Surveillance, 2009–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Kasiiti Lichoti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus causes an important zoonotic disease of humans and small ruminants in Eastern Africa and is spread primarily by a mosquito vector. In this region, it occurs as epizootics that typically occur at 5–15-year intervals associated with unusual rainfall events. It has hitherto been known that the virus is maintained between outbreaks in dormant eggs of the mosquito vector and this has formed the basis of understanding of the epidemiology and control strategies of the disease. We show here that seroconversion and sporadic acute disease do occur during the interepidemic periods (IEPs in the absence of reported cases in livestock or humans. The finding indicates that previously undetected low-level virus transmission during the IEPs does occur and that epizootics may also be due to periodic expansion of mosquito vectors in the presence of both circulating virus and naïve animals.

  5. Addendum to the remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This addendum to the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. This addendum is a supplement to a document that was previously issued in January 1995 and that provided the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation performed at OU 2. The January 1995 D2 version of the RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 included information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in the document formed the basis for the development of the Feasibility Study Report. This addendum includes revisions to four chapters of information that were a part of the document issued in January 1995. Specifically, it includes revisions to Chaps. 2, 3, 4, and 9. Volume 1 of this document is not being reissued in its entirety as a D3 version because only the four chapters just mentioned have been affected by requested changes. Note also that Volume 2 of this RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 is not being reissued in conjunction with Volume 1 of this document because there have been no changes requested or made to the previously issued version of Volume 2 of this document.

  6. Effects of fluvial processes in different order river valleys on redistribution and storage of particle-bound radioactive caesium-137 in area of significant Chernobyl fallout and impact on linked rivers with lower contamination levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Golosov, Valentin; Shamshurina, Evgeniya; Ivanov, Maxim; Ivanova, Nadezhda; Bezukhov, Dmitry; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Evrard, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Detailed investigations of the post-fallout fate of radionuclide contamination represent an important task in terms of environmental quality assessment. In addition, particle-bound radionuclides such as the most widespread anthropogenic isotope caesium-137 can be used as tracers for quantitative assessment of different sediment redistribution processes. In landscapes of humid plains with agriculture-dominated land use the post-fallout redistribution of caesium-137 is primarily associated with fluvial activity of various scales in cascade systems starting from soil erosion on cultivated hillslopes through gully and small dry valley network into different order perennial streams and rivers. Our investigations in the so-called Plavsk hotspot (area of very high Chernobyl caesium-137 contamination within the Plava River basin, Tula Region, Central European Russia) has been continuing for more than 15 years by now, while the time passed since the Chernobyl disaster and associated radioactive fallout (1986) is almost 29 years. Detailed information on the fluvial sediment and associated caesium-137 redistribution has been obtained for case study sites of different size from individual cultivated slopes and small catchments of different size (2-180 km2) to the entire Plava River basin scale (1856 km2). It has been shown that most of the contaminated sediment over the time passed since the fallout has remained stored within the small dry valleys of the 1-4 Hortonian order and local reservoirs (>70%), while only about 5% reached the 5-6 order valleys (main tributaries of the Plava River) and storage of the Plava floodplain itself represents as low as 0.3% of the basin-scale total sediment production from eroded cultivated hillslopes. Nevertheless, it has been shown that contaminated sediment yield from the Plava River basin exerts significant influence on less polluted downstream-linked river system. Recent progress of the investigations involved sampling of 7 detailed depth

  7. The development of viticulture and the possibilities of implantation wine tourism routes in the Region of São Joaquim (SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Baratieri Losso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the origins and development of viticulture in the region of São Joaquim (SC, this paper proposes wine tourism routes for an area of the Serra de Santa Catarina already recognized for their experience to the segment of tourism in rural areas, based on their climatic and scenic resources. In order to achieve those goals are focused on the introduction and development of production of fine wines, as well as tourism in the region. Although the investigation has focused on the central cities of Bom Retiro, São Joaquim, Urubici and Urupema, where are the wines with wine companies launched in the market since 2004, the coverage area of research also includes the cities of Bom Jardim da Serra and Lages, because of its significance for the development of activities linked to tourism. As a fundamental theoretical basis is used the category of socio-spatial formation allied to the idea of geographical combinations, the analysis of the geographical area, considering how they are combined, over time, the physical, biological and human. The interest in wine in altitude, its origins, evolution and current situation in Santa Catarina, stems from the understanding that this reality presents itself as a new potential to be exploited by tourism, in view of the natural landscape features of the producing areas, the new parameters of articulation of resources and strategies of competitiveness that has affected the global market and domestic wines. Thus, grape growing and wine production in the region of São Joaquim provides an alternative to the growth of regional tourism, from the definition and deployment scripts for the practice of wine tourism.

  8. Better building of valley fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1980-03-01

    Current US regulations for building valley fills or head of hollow fills to hold excess spoil resulting from contour mining are meeting with considerable opposition, particularly from operators in steep-slope areas. An alternative method has been submitted to the Office of Surface Mining by Virgina. Known as the zoned concept method, it has already been used successfully in building water-holding dams and coal refuse embankments on sloping terrain. The ways in which drainage and seepage are managed are described.

  9. Multi-temporal image analysis of historical aerial photographs and recent satellite imagery reveals evolution of water body surface area and polygonal terrain morphology in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necsoiu, Marius; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L; Walter, Gary R; Stothoff, Stuart A; Larsen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Multi-temporal image analysis of very-high-resolution historical aerial and recent satellite imagery of the Ahnewetut Wetlands in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska, revealed the nature of thaw lake and polygonal terrain evolution over a 54-year period of record comprising two 27-year intervals (1951–1978, 1978–2005). Using active-contouring-based change detection, high-precision orthorectification and co-registration and the normalized difference index, surface area expansion and contraction of 22 shallow water bodies, ranging in size from 0.09 to 179 ha, and the transition of ice-wedge polygons from a low- to a high-centered morphology were quantified. Total surface area decreased by only 0.4% during the first time interval, but decreased by 5.5% during the second time interval. Twelve water bodies (ten lakes and two ponds) were relatively stable with net surface area decreases of ≤10%, including four lakes that gained area during both time intervals, whereas ten water bodies (five lakes and five ponds) had surface area losses in excess of 10%, including two ponds that drained completely. Polygonal terrain remained relatively stable during the first time interval, but transformation of polygons from low- to high-centered was significant during the second time interval. (letter)

  10. Valley polarization in bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauque, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of certain crystal lattices can contain multiple degenerate valleys for their charge carriers to occupy. The principal challenge in the development of valleytronics is to lift the valley degeneracy of charge carriers in a controlled way. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. According to our recent study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth, a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. As a consequence of a unique combination of high mobility and extreme mass anisotropy in bismuth, the effect is visible even at room temperature in a magnetic field of 1 T. Thus, a modest magnetic field can be used as a valley valve in bismuth. The results of our recent investigation of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in other semi-metals and doped semiconductors suggest that a rotating magnetic field can behave as a valley valve in a multi-valley system with sizeable mass anisotropy.

  11. Late glacial and Holocene history of the dry forest area in south Colombian Cauca Valley from sites Quilichao and la Teta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrio, Juan Carlos; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Marchant, Rob; Rangel Orlando

    2002-01-01

    Two sedimentary cores with records of pollen and charcoal content within a chronology provided by radiocarbon are presented from the southern Cauca Valley in Colombia (1020 m). These records document the late glacial and Holocene dry forest vegetation, fire and environment history. Specifically, core Quilichao -1 (640 cm; 3 degrade 6' N, 76 degrade 31' W) represents the periods of 13/150-7720 14 C yr BP and following a hiatus from 2880 14 C yr BP to recent. Core la Teta - 2 (250 cm; 3 degrade 5' N, 76 degrade 32' W) provides a record from 8700 14 C yr BP around 13/150 21 4 C yr BP Quilichao shown an active late glacial drainage system and presence of dry forest. From 11/465-10/520 14 C yr BP dry forest consists mainly of Crotalaria Moraceae Urticaceae, Melastomataceae, Piper and low stature trees, such as Acalypha, Alchornea, Cecropia and Celtis. At higher elevation on the slopes Andean forest with Quercus, Hedyosmum, Myrica and Alnus are common

  12. Geologic summary of the Owens Valley drilling project, Owens and Rose Valleys, Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, D.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Owens Valley Drilling Project consists of eight drill holes located in southwest Inyo County, California, having an aggregate depth of 19,205 feet (5853 m). Project holes penetrated the Coso Formation of upper Pliocene or early Pleistocene age and the Owens Lake sand and lakebed units of the same age. The project objective was to improve the reliability of uranium-potential-resource estimates assigned to the Coso Formation in the Owens Valley region. Uranium-potential-resource estimates for this area in $100 per pound U 3 O 8 forward-cost-category material have been estimatd to be 16,954 tons (15,384 metric tons). This estimate is based partly on project drilling results. Within the Owens Valley project area, the Coso Formation was encountered only in the Rose Valley region, and for this reason Rose Valley is considered to be the only portion of the project area favorable for economically sized uranium deposits. The sequence of sediments contained in the Owens Valley basin is considered to be largely equivalent but lithologically dissimilar to the Coso Formation of Haiwee Ridge and Rose Valley. The most important factor in the concentration of significant amounts of uranium in the rock units investigated appears to be the availability of reducing agents. Significant amounts of reductants (pyrite) were found in the Coso Formation. No organic debris was noted. Many small, disconnected uranium occurrences, 100 to 500 ppM U 3 O 8 , were encountered in several of the holes

  13. Transnational Comparison of Sustainability Assessment Programs for Viticulture and a Case-Study on Programs’ Engagement Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Santiago-Brown

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article documents and compares the most prominent sustainability assessment programs for individual organisations in viticulture worldwide. Certification and engagement processes for membership uptake; benefits; motives; inhibiting factors; and desirable reporting system features of viticultural sustainability programs, are all considered. Case-study results are derived from nine sustainability programs; 14 focus groups with 83 CEOs, Chief Viticulturists or Winemakers from wine grape production organizations from five countries (Australia, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States; 12 semi-structured interviews with managers either currently or formerly in charge of the sustainability programs; researcher observations; and analysis of documents. Programs were categorized by their distinct program assessment methods: process-based, best practice-based, indicator-based and criterion-based. We found that programs have been created to increase growers’ sustainability, mainly through the direct and indirect education they receive and promote, and the economic benefit to their business caused by overall improvement of their operations. The main finding from this study is that the success of each of these programs is largely due to the people driving the programs (program managers, innovative growers and/or early adopters and the way these people communicate and engage with their stakeholders and peers.

  14. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  15. Monitoring meteorological spatial variability in viticulture using a low-cost Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matese, Alessandro; Crisci, Alfonso; Di Gennaro, Filippo; Primicerio, Jacopo; Tomasi, Diego; Guidoni, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    In a long-term perspective, the current global agricultural scenario will be characterize by critical issues in terms of water resource management and environmental protection. The concept of sustainable agriculture would become crucial at reducing waste, optimizing the use of pesticides and fertilizers to crops real needs. This can be achieved through a minimum-scale monitoring of the crop physiologic status and the environmental parameters that characterize the microclimate. Viticulture is often subject to high variability within the same vineyard, thus becomes important to monitor this heterogeneity to allow a site-specific management and maximize the sustainability and quality of production. Meteorological variability expressed both at vineyard scale (mesoclimate) and at single plant level (microclimate) plays an important role during the grape ripening process. The aim of this work was to compare temperature, humidity and solar radiation measurements at different spatial scales. The measurements were assessed for two seasons (2011, 2012) in two vineyards of the Veneto region (North-East Italy), planted with Pinot gris and Cabernet Sauvignon using a specially designed and developed Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The WSN consists of various levels: the Master/Gateway level coordinates the WSN and performs data aggregation; the Farm/Server level takes care of storing data on a server, data processing and graphic rendering. Nodes level is based on a network of peripheral nodes consisting of a sensor board equipped with sensors and wireless module. The system was able to monitor the agrometeorological parameters in the vineyard: solar radiation, air temperature and air humidity. Different sources of spatial variation were studied, from meso-scale to micro-scale. A widespread investigation was conducted, building a factorial design able to evidence the role played by any factor influencing the physical environment in the vineyard, such as the surrounding climate

  16. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  17. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when the ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures Implementation process. Under CERCLA, the actions follow the preliminary assessment/site investigation/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. This document incorporates requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA in the form of an RI report for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2

  18. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2

  19. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  20. Changes in surface area of the Böön Tsagaan and Orog lakes (Mongolia, Valley of the Lakes, 1974-2013) compared to climate and permafrost changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumińska, Danuta

    2016-07-01

    The main aim of the study is the analysis of changes in surface area of lake Böön Tsagaan (45°35‧N, 99°8‧E) and lake Orog (45°3‧N, 100°44‧E) taking place in the last 40 years in the context of climate conditions and permafrost degradation. The lakes, located in Central Mongolia, at the borderline of permafrost range are fed predominantly by river waters and groundwater from the surrounding mountain areas, characterized by continuous and discontinuous permafrost occurrence - mostly the Khangai. The analysis of the Böön Tsagaan and Orog lake surface area in 1974-2013 was conducted based on satellite images, whereas climate conditions were analysed using the NOAA climate data and CRU dataset. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to study the relationship patterns between the climatic factors and changes in the surface area of the lakes. A tendency for a decrease in surface area, intermittent with short episodes of resupply, was observed in both studied lakes. Climate changes recorded in the analysed period had both direct and indirect impacts on water supply to lakes. Taking into account the results of PCA analysis, the most significant factors include: fluctuation of annual precipitation, increase in air temperature and thickness of snow cover. The extended duration of snow cover in the last decades of the 20th century may constitute a key factor in relation to permafrost degradation.

  1. Al Sahawa - The Awakening: Volume III-A: Al Anbar Province, Western Euphrates River Valley, Area of Operations Denver Al Qaim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    They were locals who for what- ever reason decided to attack us and then go back to their store or farm . [4] There were also local, pseudo-Hamza...with a platoon of Marines. The town was just right off of the map there, right across that field. So we tried to take areas, and not take farm areas...kabobs. I said goat before, you know, you eat goat in Afghanistan, especially eastern Afghanistan. In Iraq, poor people eat goat . People of any stature

  2. Regional potentiometric-surface map of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in Snake Valley and surrounding areas, Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Plume, Russell W.; Buto, Susan G.

    2011-01-01

    Water-level measurements from 190 wells were used to develop a potentiometric-surface map of the east-central portion of the regional Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in and around Snake Valley, eastern Nevada and western Utah. The map area covers approximately 9,000 square miles in Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada. Recent (2007-2010) drilling by the Utah Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey has provided new data for areas where water-level measurements were previously unavailable. New water-level data were used to refine mapping of the pathways of intrabasin and interbasin groundwater flow. At 20 of these locations, nested observation wells provide vertical hydraulic gradient data and information related to the degree of connection between basin-fill aquifers and consolidated-rock aquifers. Multiple-year water-level hydrographs are also presented for 32 wells to illustrate the aquifer system's response to interannual climate variations and well withdrawals.

  3. Adaptive management of forest fires in periurban areas in the Federal District, Brazil: A case study from the Urubu Valley rural community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel Constantino Zacharias; Renata Marson Teixeira de Andrade

    2013-01-01

    In a climate change scenario, where global warming increases the critical period of drought, the risk of wildfire is expected to increase. In the Federal District (DF) - Brazil, wildfire in periruban areas have economic, financial, environmental and public health significance, however it is poorly studied. Thus, one wonders if the DF is prepared to deal with the higher...

  4. Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya | Wakhisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya. ... Our finding also contrast with an earlier reported study that indicated that Rift Valley is a low prevalence area for this type of cancer. The mean age ... This may lead to identification of molecular biomarkers to be used in future for the early detection of this neoplasm.

  5. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galean, L.; Gamarra, R.; Sainz, H.; Millan, R.

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  6. BRS Isis: new seedless grape cultivar for the tropical viticulture in Northeastern of Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    LEAO, P. C. de S.; NUNES, B. T. G.; SOUZA, E. M. C. de; REGO, J. I. de S.; NASCIMENTO, J. H. B. do

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the yield components of the grape BRS Isis grown in tropical conditions of the São Francisco Valley. The work was carried out during five growing seasons (2013–2015) in Petrolina, PE. The phenological cycle was 127 days between pruning to harvest. It was obtained 65.8% of sprouting on the rootstock IAC 313 and 60.4% on ‘SO4’. The bud fertility rates were high, around 1.00 bunches per shoot. The average production per plant was 20.63 kg on ‘SO4’ and 18...

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit 366 comprises the six corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 11-08-01, Contaminated Waste Dump No.1; (2) 11-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2; (3) 11-23-01, Radioactively Contaminated Area A; (4) 11-23-02, Radioactively Contaminated Area B; (5) 11-23-03, Radioactively Contaminated Area C; and (6) 11-23-04, Radioactively Contaminated Area D. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed July 6, 2011, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 366. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 366 will be evaluated based on information collected from a field investigation. Radiological contamination will be evaluated based on a comparison of the total effective dose (TED) at sample locations to the dose-based final action level (FAL). The TED will be calculated by summing the estimates of internal and external dose. Results from the analysis of soil samples collected from sample plots will be used to calculate internal radiological dose. Thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at each sample location will be used to measure external radiological dose. Based on historical documentation of the releases

  8. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-09-01

    This report presents data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May 2007. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated the site and soil cover were in good condition. No new cracks or fractures were observed in the soil cover during the annual inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover was observed during the last quarterly inspection in December 2006. This crack was filled with bentonite as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007 and will be monitored during subsequent annual inspections. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate but showing signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. New DOE Office of Legacy Management signs with updated emergency phone numbers were installed as part of this annual inspection, no issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The annual subsidence survey was conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. A vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas was conducted as part of the annual inspection in May 2007. The vegetation survey indicated that revegetation continues to be successful, although stressed due to the area's prevailing drought conditions. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and to identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action to maintain a viable

  9. Al Sahawa - The Awakening. Volume III-A: Al Anbar Province, Western Euphrates River Valley, Area of Operations Denver - Al Qaim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    reason decided to attack us and then go back to their store or farm . [4] There were also local, pseudo-Hamza groups who considered it their duty to... farm areas, we didn’t take anybody’s houses, it was very important. You know, I used to think, an empty house was empty for a reason, especially in...I said goat before, you know, you eat goat in Afghanistan, especially eastern Afghanistan. In Iraq, poor people eat goat . People of any stature eat

  10. Distribution and Schistosoma mansoni infection of Biomphalaria glabrata in different habitats in a rural area in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil: environmental and epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kloos

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the distribution and infection of Biomphalaria glabrata with Schistosoma mansoni in all aquatic snail habitats in a rural area in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in relation to physico/biotic and behavioral factors. Snail and environmental surveys were carried out semi-annually between July 2001 and November 2002 at 106 sites. Collected snails were examined in the laboratory for infection. B. glabrata densities were highest in overflow ponds, irrigation ponds, springs, canals and wells, and lowest in fishponds and water tanks. Snail densities were higher during the hot, rainy season except for streams and canals and were statistically associated with the presence of fish, pollution, and vegetation density. Tilapia fish and an unidentified Diptera larva were found to be predators of B. glabrata but ducks were not. Twenty-four of the 25 infected snails were collected in 2001(1.4% infection rate and only one in 2002, after mass chemotherapy. The occurrence of B. glabrata in all 11 snail habitats both at and away from water contact sites studied indicates widespread risk of human infection in the study area. In spite of the strong association between B. glabrata and tilapia in fishponds we do not recommend its use in schistosomiasis control for ecological reasons and its relative inefficiency in streams and dams.

  11. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Cherie J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in the Speleological Province of the Ribeira Valley: 3. Serra district - area of hostels for tourists who visit the Parque Estadual do Alto Ribeira (PETAR, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in the Speleological Province of the Ribeira Valley: 3. Area of hostels for tourists who visit the Parque Estadual do Alto Ribeira (PETAR, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The study characterizes some ecological aspects of the phlebotomine fauna in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL situated in the Serra district, Iporanga municipality where the hostels for tourists visiting the PETAR are located. Captures were undertaken on a smallholding and a small farm situated near the hostels, monthly between January/2001 and December/2003 with automatic light traps (ALT in pigsty, hen-house and veranda of a domicile at the two sites, and in peridomicile of the small farm also with black/white Shannon traps. With the ALT a total of 87,224 phlebotomines representing 19 species and also two hybrids of Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto and two anomalous specimens were captured. The standardized index species abundance was for Ny. intermedia = 1.0 and Ny. neivai = 0.935. The highest frequencies of the smallholding occurred in the pigsty, the Williams' mean/capture for Ny. intermedia being 63.7 specimens and for Ny. neivai 29.2, and on the small farm, in the hen-house, Ny. intermedia 402.6 and Ny. neivai 116.2. A total of 863 phlebotomines (Ny. intermedia: 75.4%; Ny. neivai: 24.3% were captured with black/white Shannon traps; females of both species being predominant in the white trap. The high frequencies of Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, both implicated in CL transmission, indicate the areas presenting risk of the disease.

  13. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  14. Organic viticulture and wine-making: development of environment and consumer friendly technologies for organic wine quality improvement and scientifically based legislative framework. Deliverable: D 2.7 Public report about first round qualitative consumer research and market needs

    OpenAIRE

    Stolz, Hanna; Schmid, Otto

    2007-01-01

    This survey of consumers’ perceptions and expectations regarding organic wine and viticulture in the selected case study countries of Italy (IT), France (FR), Germany (DE) and Switzerland (CH) was conducted within the framework of the EU research project ORWINE (Organic viticulture and wine-making: development of environment and consumer friendly technologies for organic wine quality improvement and scientifically based legislative framework). The objectives of the study were to investigat...

  15. Bryophytes use like atmospheric indicators of heavy metals in the metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley; Uso de briofitas como indicadores atmosfericos de metales pesados en la zona metropolitana del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poblano B, J.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in species of frequent and abundant bryophytes in the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV). The concentration of the studied metals was determined in two different seasons (cold-dry and warm-humid) in 11 sites of the MATV, 7 of them classified as urban areas, 2 as transition areas and 2 as protected natural areas. Only epiphyte organisms found to a superior height of 100 cm of the floor were considered and the species determination was realized in the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, while the processing of the samples was carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The samples processing consisted on separating the bryophytes of the bark of the trees, later on each one of the samples was washed, milled and homogenized, at the end they were subjected to a digestion process accelerated by microwaves. The concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in the bryophytes was determined applying the X-rays Fluorescence technique, using a spectrometer Tx-2000 Ital-Structures, with a detector type Si (Li), a tube of Mo (40 kV, 30 m A) with 17,4 keV like excitement energy. Each sample was analyzed six times with a counting time of 500 seconds. Additionally enrichment factors were obtained using reference soils considered as not impacted by anthropogenic activities. With the obtained results space and temporary differences were established through descriptive statistic, also the enrichment factor to infer the possible origin of the metals was calculated, as well as the sites that could represent a risk for the health. The species more frequent and abundant were F. ciliaris and L. angustata, presenting the following tendency in their metals concentration Fe>Ti>Mn>Zn>Pb>V ≅ Cu>Cr, being observed that the temporality is a factor that influences in the metals concentration and that in general F. ciliaris

  16. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  17. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  18. Steelhead Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds123

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer depicts areas designated for Steelhead Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the California Central Valley Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  19. Depths to Ice-cemented Soils in High-elevation Quartermain Mountains, Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is comprised of four surveyed valleys focusing on the depth to ground ice in the high-elevation Quartermain Mountains in the Beacon Valley area:...

  20. ECA&D and E-OBS: High-resolution datasets for monitoring climate change and effects on viticulture in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Photiadou Christiana; Fontes Natacha; Rocha Graça Antonio; Schrier Gerard van der

    2017-01-01

    Climate change and climate variability profoundly affect the production of wine. When facing a changing climate, the characteristics of wine produced in each region will change while the natural year-to-year variations in climate will increase variability of income for wine businesses and therefore affect profitability and economic resilience. The challenge posed to the viticulture community is thus to closely monitor these changes to be able to adapt business practices. The European Climate ...

  1. Treatability study on the Bear Creek Valley characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Phase II work plan for S-3 site contaminated groundwater interception--in-field media evaluation and groundwater capture methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    A treatability study is being conducted to support implementation:of early actions at the S-3 Site in the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). The objectives of the early actions Will be (1) to reduce concentrations of uranium and nitrate in Bear Creek and (2) to reduce contaminants of concern in North Tributary (NT)-1 and NT-2. The BCV CA is located within the US DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Hazardous and radioactive materials from the Y-12 Plant operations were, disposed of at various sites within BCV. Groundwater and surface water in the BCV CA have been contaminated. The remedial investigation (RI) for the BCV CA identified that the greatest mass flux of contaminants from the various sources migrates via groundwater at the source and discharges to surface water in Bear Creek and its tributaries. In the RI, the combined discharge from the S-3 Site and the Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY) was identified as accounting for 75% of the cancer risk and more than 80% of the chemical toxicity to Potential downgradient human receptors. In addition, the S-3 Site has caused degradation of surface water quality in upper Bear Creek and two of its tributaries. The BCV CA treatability study focuses on capture and treatment of shallow groundwater before it discharges to tributary waters. The objectives Of treatment of this groundwater are (1) to reduce the concentrations of uranium and nitrate in NT-1 and Bear Creek such that the concentrations of these chemicals in surface water and groundwater are reduced to acceptable levels, (2) to reduce the concentrations of nitrate and metals, and reduce the overall concentration of total dissolved solids; and (3) to hydraulically contain the plume of contaminated, groundwater that is moving in bedrock in the Nolichucky Shale such that the rate of contaminant discharge will be reduced in the long term. The objective of Phase II is to produce conceptual designs for treatment system configurations

  2. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  3. Preliminary study of the uranium favorability of granitic and contact-metamorphic rocks of the Owens Valley area, Inyo and Mono Counties, California, and Esmeralda and Mineral Counties, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupp, G.M.; Mitchell, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Granitic and contact-metamorphic rocks of the Owens Valley area were sampled to determine their favorability for uranium. Uranium deposits associated with these rocks were examined to determine the mode of occurrence. Metamorphic rocks near contacts with intrusive rocks include skarns, schists, quartzites, metaconglomerates, hornfels, gneisses, and metavolcanics. The grade of contact metamorphism ranges from slight to intense, depending upon the distance from the intrusive contact. The average U 3 O 8 content of the metamorphic rock samples is 3 ppM. Metamorphic rock samples in a roof pendant at the Claw prospect contain as much as 3 percent U 3 O 8 . Skarn samples from the Birch Creek pluton contain as much as 114 ppM U 3 O 8 ; those from the Santa Rita Flat pluton contain as much as 23 ppM U 3 O 8 . Most of the intrusive rocks are granite, quartz monzonite, or monzonite. Granodiorite and diorite are less common, and gabbro is rare. The average U 3 O 8 content of the crystalline rock samples is 4 ppM. Samples from a quartz-monzonite pluton east of Lone Pine, California, and quartz monzonite in the Santa Rosa Hills had maximum contents of 28 and 13 ppM U 3 O 8 , respectively. Areas of contact metamorphism and metasomatism, such as those at the Claw prospect and Birch Creek pluton, are probably the most favorable sites for uranium deposits. There are many miles of granitic and contact-metamorphic zones in which undiscovered uranium deposits may exist. Although the overall uranium content of granitic rocks appears to be low, the pluton east of Lone Pine and the Hunter Mountain pluton in the area of the Santa Rosa Hills have sufficient uranium to have acted as uranium and detrital source rocks for uranium deposits that may now be buried in Tertiary sediments in the basins around the plutons. The Claw deposit is the only known uranium deposit of a size and grade to be of possible commercial interest

  4. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1

  5. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1.

  6. Delineation of tunnel valley across the North Sea coastline, Denmark based on reflection seismic data, boreholes, TEM and Schlumberger soundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Jørgensen, Flemming; Christensen, Steen

    Buried tunnel valleys are elongated depressions eroded into the substratum during the Pleistocene glaciations. Nine such valleys are mapped on- and offshore in a 300 km2 area located at the Danish North Sea coast. The delineation of the buried valleys is based on an extensive data set consisting......, preferred orientations, and morphology support that three of the tunnel valleys cross the North Sea coastline. It is suggested that the nine valleys were formed during at least six events that occurred through one or more pre-Weichselian glaciations. Key words: Pleistocene valleys, geophysical mapping...

  7. Retracing recurring vine mortality patterns over a long duration: case study of a Mediterranean viticultural estate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Leclercq, Léa; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Chaignon, Benoît

    2017-04-01

    This study was aimed at performing both long term historical and spatial tracing, focusing on the vine mortality patterns and their temporal repetition, across a 6 ha-farm, "Domaine des Chauvets", mainly planted with rainfed black Grenache and Syrah varieties in the Southern Rhone Valley in France. In this estate of long-standing wine-growing history, were mortality patterns randomly distributed or were they related to soil or historical management? Along with soil parameters, soil surface condition, vine biological parameters including vigour, presence of diseases, stock-unearthing were collected in the field at a total of 112 sampling locations. A total of 25 aerial photographs in digitized format from the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN) were examined over the 1947-2010 period, of which 7 were retained for further rectification and processing. This dataset was used to retrace the landuse and planting history for each plot, and then extract the frequency of missing vines. Within-field terroir units were demarcated using support vector machine classification of a set of present-day very high resolution data, including soil apparent electrical conductivity EM38 maps and very high resolution Pléiades satellite images of May 2014 and July 2015. Field and recent data revealed important soil erosion rates which are likely to ruin terroir sustainability and pointed out those units for which soil restoration practices are urgently needed, while the temporal dataset exhibited a repeated spatial pattern of missing vines, throughout several plantings, uprootings, and vine replacements. The frequency of missing vines was related to within-field terroir units and also to past landuse, particularly forest or orchard dating back the 1940s, and current soil organic carbon content. This brings renewed questions about the determinism of vine decline, suggesting contribution of soil degradation processes.

  8. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Panjsher Valley mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter M in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Panjsher Valley mineral district, which has emerald and silver-iron deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2009, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from

  9. SOECO : indicateurs socio-économiques pour la viticulture et les systèmes de culture innovants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keichinger Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the concept and assessment of sustainability has developed considerably in recent years. If we found a lot of evaluation methods, majority do not treat or more succinctly the social impacts. Then we developed a method of socio-economic evaluation for wine-producing farms in order to know the impact of practices on profitability (gross margin but also on human capital (painfulness, pesticides risks, safety and social capital (landscape, dissemination of acquired knowledge. Whether for more sustainability or to cope with new constraints such as climate change, reduced inputs or agronomic dead ends (limited number of active substances allowed, it is necessary to change the systems of wine production . These so-called innovative systems generally aim to reduce the impact on the environment. But here too it is necessary to evaluate their effects on the other domains of sustainability: the social and economic domains to ensure their adoption by winegrowers. Our method thus has a specific module that makes it possible to carry out this comparison between classical and innovative systems within the same vineyard. In this paper we describe the construction of our method and the feasibility test on four Alsatian viticulture farms.

  10. Le guide de l'agroécologie en viticulture, un outil pour la filière

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempereur Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the French public authorities launched the agroecological project for France. This project aimed at starting the transition of French agriculture towards new production systems that are more efficient in the economic, social and environmental dimensions. In 2016, the National Institute of Origin and Quality (INAO, in charge of French geographical indications (GI, validated the integration of agrienvironmental measures into specifications of French GIs. A work involving the French Institute of Vine and Wine (IFV and INAO resulted in the publication of a “Guide for agroecology in viticulture” in early 2017. This guide describes agroecological measures that can be integrated into the production rules of French GIs. Those measures are classified according to the five themes initially identified by INAO. An agrienvironmental measure is the implementation of a strategic orientation articulated on the five themes of agroecology. Each measure is constructed on the basis of the knowledge of sustainable viticulture, the evolution of practices, examples already existing in the regions, including the specifications of the GIs. Accessible to all, the ambition of this guide is to provide technical benchmarks for winegrowers who wish to develop their practices individually or collectively in order to initiate or deepen an agrienvironmental approach.

  11. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  12. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  13. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley

  14. Water resources of Parowan Valley, Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.

    2017-08-29

    . Groundwater flows from the high-altitude recharge areas downward toward the basin-fill aquifer in Parowan Valley. Almost all groundwater discharge occurs as withdrawals from irrigation wells in the valley with a small amount of discharge from phreatophytic evapotranspiration. Subsurface groundwater discharge to Cedar Valley is likely minimal. Withdrawals from wells during 2013 were about 32,000 acre-ft. The estimated withdrawals from wells from 1994 to 2013 have ranged from 22,000 to 39,000 acre-ft per year. Declining water levels are an indication of the estimated average annual decrease in groundwater storage of 15,000 acre-ft from 1994 to 2013.Groundwater and surface-water samples were collected from 46 sites in Parowan Valley and Cedar Valley near the town of Enoch during June 2013. Groundwater samples from 34 wells were submitted for geochemical analysis. The total dissolved-solids concentration in water from these wells ranged from 142 to 886 milligrams per liter. Results of stable isotope analysis of oxygen and deuterium from groundwater and surface-water samples indicate that most of the groundwater in Parowan Valley and in Cedar Valley near Enoch is similar in isotopic composition to water from mountain streams, which reflects meteoric water recharged in high-altitude areas east of the valley. In addition, results of stable isotope analysis of a subset of samples from wells located near Little Salt Lake may indicate recharge of precipitation that occurred during cooler climatic conditions of the Pleistocene Epoch.

  15. Seismicity related to geothermal development in Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryall, A.S.; Vetter, U.R.

    1982-07-08

    A ten-station seismic network was operated in and around the Dixie Valley area from January 1980 to November 1981; three of these stations are still in operation. Data from the Dixie Valley network were analyzed through 30 Jun 1981, and results of analysis were compared with analysis of somewhat larger events for the period 1970-1979. The seismic cycle in the Western Great Basic, the geologic structural setting, and the instrumentation are also described.

  16. Cryostratigraphy and sedimentology of high-Arctic fjord-valleys

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Graham Lewis

    2018-01-01

    Fjord-valleys, as sediment-filled palaeofjords, are characteristic of formerly glaciated mountainous coastal areas. High-Arctic fjord-valleys commonly host permafrost, but are poorly accessible and hence have drawn relatively little research. The research presented in this thesis combines the methods of cryostratigraphy, clastic sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy, geomorphology and geochronology to investigate the sedimentary infilling, permafrost formation and late Quaternary landscape dev...

  17. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National Park, Inyo... an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan, Death Valley... analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death Valley [[Page 33238...

  18. Subglacial tunnel valleys in the Alpine foreland: an example from Bern, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerst Stucki, M.; Reber, R.; Schlunegger, F.

    2010-01-01

    The morphology of the Alpine and adjacent landscapes is directly related to glacial erosion and associated sediment transport. Here we report the effects of glacio-hydrologic erosion on bedrock topography in the Swiss Plateau. Specifically, we identify the presence of subsurface valleys beneath the city of Bern and discuss their genesis. Stratigraphic investigations of more than 4'000 borehole data within a 430 km 2 -large area reveal the presence of a network of >200 m-deep and 1'000 m-wide valleys. They are flat floored with steep sided walls and are filled by Quaternary glacial deposits. The central valley beneath Bern is straight and oriented towards the NNW, with valley flanks more than 20 o steep. The valley bottom has an irregular undulating profile along the thalweg, with differences between sills and hollows higher than 50-100 m over a reach of 4 km length. Approximately 500 m high bedrock highlands flank the valley network. The highlands are dissected by up to 80 m-deep and 500 m-broad hanging valleys that currently drain away from the axis of the main valley. We interpret the valleys beneath the city of Bern to be a tunnel valley network which originated from subglacial erosion by melt water. The highland valleys served as proglacial meltwater paths and are hanging with respect to the trunk system, indicating that these incipient highland systems as well as the main gorge beneath Bern formed by glacial melt water under pressure. (authors)

  19. The California Valley grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  20. Rift Valley Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Amy

    2017-06-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe veterinary disease of livestock that also causes moderate to severe illness in people. The life cycle of RVF is complex and involves mosquitoes, livestock, people, and the environment. RVF virus is transmitted from either mosquitoes or farm animals to humans, but is generally not transmitted from person to person. People can develop different diseases after infection, including febrile illness, ocular disease, hemorrhagic fever, or encephalitis. There is a significant risk for emergence of RVF into new locations, which would affect human health and livestock industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The soils of Champaign are still alive. An assessment of socio-ecological co-evolution in viticulture using DPSIR framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Annegret; Cluzeau, Daniel; Descotes, Arnaud; Georget, Cédric; Chaussod, Rémi; Nouaim-Chaussod, Rachida; Peres, Guénola; Guernion, Muriel; Cylly, Daniel; Rougé, Laurence; Garcia, Olivier; Panigai, Laurent; Moncomble, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Conventional agricultural practices have lead to a loss of ecosystem services, such as soil fertility and soil integrity, water quality, and carbon storage. The importance of soil health to sustain agriculture in the future has raised sociological and political awareness. Wine growers in the Champaign have been the top one users of pesticides in France, and soils were declared by media "being dead" in the 1980ies. Using the DPSIR framework (Driving forces, Pressure, State, Impact, Response circle) we show the mechanism for the evolution of practices in viticulture between 1990 and 2010 in this region. The observed change from 90% to 33% conventional pesticide use is the result of the interaction between scientists and stakeholders via impact studies and technical advices, thereby modulating socio-economic driving forces. Until 1995, 100% of newly planted vineyard were subjected to fumigation by nematicides which represented the highest pressure in Champaign observed through the negative impact on Lombricidae biomass and diversity as well as on aging of vine. In response, a first warning message was published in 1993 in the Professional Technical Guide for Champaign's Viticulture followed by systematic yearly recommendation of alternative practices, such as 3 years of fallow before plantation. The increased fear of economic losses for vine farmers drove the nematicide treatment gradually down to 1% in 2010. The restoration of the soil's biological activities was observed progressively since 2000, associated to an improvement in ecosystem services. The assessment of Champaign's viticulture show, how studying and communicating indicators within a DPSIR framework at a regional scale allow for a directed evolution of management measures in socio-ecosystems.

  2. Hydrogeologic Framework and Ground Water in Basin-Fill Deposits of the Diamond Valley Flow System, Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbusch, Mary L.; Plume, Russell W.

    2006-01-01

    The Diamond Valley flow system, an area of about 3,120 square miles in central Nevada, consists of five hydrographic areas: Monitor, Antelope, Kobeh, and Diamond Valleys and Stevens Basin. Although these five areas are in a remote part of Nevada, local government officials and citizens are concerned that the water resources of the flow system eventually could be further developed for irrigation or mining purposes or potentially for municipal use outside the study area. In order to better understand the flow system, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka, Lander, and Nye Counties and the Nevada Division of Water Resources, is conducting a multi-phase study of the flow system. The principal aquifers of the Diamond Valley flow system are in basin-fill deposits that occupy structural basins comprised of carbonate rocks, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks, igneous intrusive rocks, and volcanic rocks. Carbonate rocks also function as aquifers, but their extent and interconnections with basin-fill aquifers are poorly understood. Ground-water flow in southern Monitor Valley is from the valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large area of discharge by evapotranspiration (ET) that is formed south of a group of unnamed hills near the center of the valley. Ground-water flow from northern Monitor Valley, Antelope Valley, and northern and western parts of Kobeh Valley converges to an area of ground-water discharge by ET in central and eastern Kobeh Valley. Prior to irrigation development in the 1960s, ground-water flow in Diamond Valley was from valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large discharge area at the north end of the valley. Stevens Basin is a small upland basin with internal drainage and is not connected with other parts of the flow system. After 40 years of irrigation pumping, a large area of ground-water decline has developed in southern Diamond Valley around the irrigated area. In this part of Diamond

  3. Climate change and viticulture in Mediterranean climates: the complex response of socio-ecosystems. A comparative case study from France and Australia (1955-2040)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereboullet, A.-L.; Beltrando, G.; Bardsley, D. K.

    2012-04-01

    The wine industry is very sensitive to extreme weather events, especially to temperatures above 35°C and drought. In a context of global climate change, Mediterranean climate regions are predicted to experience higher variability in rainfall and temperatures and an increased occurrence of extreme weather events. Some viticultural systems could be particularly at risk in those regions, considering their marginal position in the growth climatic range of Vitis vinifera, the long commercial lifespan of a vineyard, the high added-value of wine and the volatile nature of global markets. The wine industry, like other agricultural systems, is inserted in complex networks of climatic and non-climatic (other physical, economical, social and legislative) components, with constant feedbacks. We use a socio-ecosystem approach to analyse the adaptation of two Mediterranean viticultural systems to recent and future increase of extreme weather events. The present analysis focuses on two wine regions with a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (CSb type in the Köppen classification): Côtes-du-Roussillon in southern France and McLaren Vale in southern Australia. Using climate data from two synoptic weather stations, Perpignan (France) and Adelaide (Australia), with time series running from 1955 to 2010, we highlight changes in rainfall patterns and an increase in the number of days with Tx >35°c since the last three decades in both regions. Climate models (DRIAS project data for France and CSIRO Mk3.5 for Australia) project similar trends in the future. To date, very few projects have focused on an international comparison of the adaptive capacity of viticultural systems to climate change with a holistic approach. Here, the analysis of climate data was complemented by twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews with key actors of the two regional wine industries, in order to analyse adaptation strategies put in place regarding recent climate evolution. This mixed-methods approach

  4. Valley Topological Phases in Bilayer Sonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Deng, Weiyin; Huang, Xueqin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Shuqi; Liu, Zhengyou

    2018-03-01

    Recently, the topological physics in artificial crystals for classical waves has become an emerging research area. In this Letter, we propose a unique bilayer design of sonic crystals that are constructed by two layers of coupled hexagonal array of triangular scatterers. Assisted by the additional layer degree of freedom, a rich topological phase diagram is achieved by simply rotating scatterers in both layers. Under a unified theoretical framework, two kinds of valley-projected topological acoustic insulators are distinguished analytically, i.e., the layer-mixed and layer-polarized topological valley Hall phases, respectively. The theory is evidently confirmed by our numerical and experimental observations of the nontrivial edge states that propagate along the interfaces separating different topological phases. Various applications such as sound communications in integrated devices can be anticipated by the intriguing acoustic edge states enriched by the layer information.

  5. Groundwater availability of the Central Valley Aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.

    2009-01-01

    California's Central Valley covers about 20,000 square miles and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. More than 250 different crops are grown in the Central Valley with an estimated value of $17 billion per year. This irrigated agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage. Approximately one-sixth of the Nation's irrigated land is in the Central Valley, and about one-fifth of the Nation's groundwater demand is supplied from its aquifers. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California's expanding urban population. Since 1980, the population of the Central Valley has nearly doubled from 2 million to 3.8 million people. The Census Bureau projects that the Central Valley's population will increase to 6 million people by 2020. This surge in population has increased the competition for water resources within the Central Valley and statewide, which likely will be exacerbated by anticipated reductions in deliveries of Colorado River water to southern California. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conservation of agricultural land, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS Groundwater Resources Program made a detailed assessment of groundwater availability of the Central Valley aquifer system, that includes: (1) the present status of groundwater resources; (2) how these resources have changed over time; and (3) tools to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate variability and change. This effort builds on previous investigations, such as the USGS Central Valley Regional Aquifer System and Analysis (CV-RASA) project and several other groundwater studies in the Valley completed by Federal, State and local agencies at differing scales. The

  6. Ground water in Fountain and Jimmy Camp Valleys, El Paso County, Colorado with a section on Computations of drawdowns caused by the pumping of wells in Fountain Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Edward D.; Glover, Robert E.

    1964-01-01

    The part of Fountain Valley considered in this report extends from Colorado Springs to the Pueblo County line. It is 23 miles long and has an area of 26 square miles. The part of Jimmy Camp Valley discussed is 11 miles long and has an area of 9 square miles. The topography is characterized by level flood plains and alluvial terraces that parallel the valley and by rather steep hills along the valley sides. The climate is semiarid, average annual precipitation being about 13 inches. Farming and stock raising are the principal occupations in the valleys; however, some of the agricultural land near Colorado Springs is being used for housing developments. The Pierre Shale and alluvium underlie most of the area, and mesa gravel caps the shale hills adjacent to Fountain Valley. The alluvium yields water to domestic, stock, irrigation, and public-supply wells and is capable of yielding large quantities of water for intermittent periods. Several springs issue along the sides of the valley at the contact of the mesa gravel and the underlying Pierre Shale. The water table ranges in depth from less than 10 feet along the bottom lands to about 80 feet along the sides of the valleys; the saturated thickness ranges from less than a foot to about 50 feet. The ground-water reservoir in Fountain Valley is recharged by precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Fountain Creek, which originates in the Pikes Peak, Monument Valley, and Rampart Range areas, and by seepage from irrigation water. This reservoir contains about 70,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage. The ground-water reservoir in Jimmy Camp Valley is recharged from precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Jimmy Camp Creek during periods of streamflow, and by seepage from irrigation water. The Jimmy Camp ground-water reservoir contains about 25,000 acre-feet of water in storage. Ground water is discharged from the area by movement to the south, by evaporation and transpiration in

  7. Decontamination and decommissioning of the West Valley Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, H.F.; Keel, R.

    1986-11-01

    This report presents the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities at the West Valley Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant through September 1, 1986. The topics addressed are: D and D of areas for reuse by the Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS); D and D of areas for reuse as High Level Waste (HLW) canister storage; and technologies developed in D and D work

  8. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  9. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  10. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Gulick, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains

  11. Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Exploitation in Quetta Valley, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeebullah Kakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence is affecting several metropolitan cities in developing as well as developed countries around the world such as Nagoya (Japan, Shanghai (China, Venice (Italy and San Joaquin valley (United States. This phenomenon is attributed to natural as well as anthropogenic activities that include extensive groundwater withdrawals. Quetta is the largest city of Balochistan province in Pakistan. This valley is mostly dry and ground water is the major source for domestic and agricultural consumption. The unplanned use of ground water resources has led to the deterioration of water quality and quantity in the Quetta valley. Water shortage in the region was further aggravated by the drought during (1998-2004 that hit the area forcing people to migrate from rural to urban areas. Refugees from the war torn neighboring Afghanistan also contributed to rapid increase in population of Quetta valley that has increased from 0.26 million in 1975 to 3.0 million in 2016. The objective of this study was to measure the land subsidence in Quetta valley and identify the effects of groundwater withdrawals on land subsidence. To achieve this goal, data from five Global Positioning System (GPS stations were acquired and processed. Furthermore the groundwater decline data from 41 observation wells during 2010 to 2015 were calculated and compared with the land deformation. The results of this study revealed that the land of Quetta valley is subsiding from 30mm/y on the flanks to 120 mm/y in the central part. 1.5-5.0 m/y of groundwater level drop was recorded in the area where the rate of subsidence is highest. So the extensive groundwater withdrawals in Quetta valley is considered to be the driving force behind land subsidence.

  12. Delineation of tunnel valleys across the North Sea coastline, Denmark based on reflection seismic data, boreholes, TEM and Schlumberger soundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Jørdensen, Flemming; Christensen, Steen

    Buried tunnel valleys are elongated depressions eroded into the substratum during the Pleistocene glaciations. Nine such valleys are mapped on- and offshore in a 300 km2 area located at the Danish North Sea coast. The delineation of the buried valleys is based on an extensive data set consisting......, preferred orientations, and morphology support that three of the tunnel valleys cross the North Sea coastline. It is suggested that the nine valleys were formed during at least six events that occurred through one or more pre-Weichselian glaciations...

  13. Immigrant Labour and viticulture activity: the Case of the Ribera del Duero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Judith Sánchez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Spain is one of the main countries with significant presence in the global wine market. Ribera de Duero is a region which currently has a very important presence both nationally and internationally in the global production of wine. Studies conducted in the area have addressed different angles of those changes. One of the aspects more addressed in existing studies is the wine tourism strategy, the elements that have enabled the growth of this strategy and the impacts on the region. However, one of the aspects that has not been very much discussed is the importance of the labor force involved in this activity. On this communication, we will focus on analyzing the importance of the migrant labor force on the wine industry in Ribera del Duero. We will also put effort to analyze the actual changes occurring on this labor market in the current context of economic crisis in Spain. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  14. Groundwater-flow and land-subsidence model of Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, Adam J.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Rewis, Diane L.; Martin, Peter; Phillips, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley groundwater basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, groundwater provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most groundwater pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley groundwater basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Groundwater-level declines of more than 270 feet in some parts of the groundwater basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may increase reliance on groundwater.

  15. A preliminary research of characteristic of selected frequency luminescence for debris flow in Jiangjiagou valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhaowen; Wei Mingjian; Li Dongxu; Pan Baolin; Ge Yonggang

    2009-01-01

    Four debris flow samples were separated from Nidepin, Duozhao and Dawazigou valleys in Jiangjiagou valley area, Yunnan province. They were measured with BG2003 luminescence spectrograph. The characteristic spectra of the selected frequency luminescence of samples from the different locations were obtained. The wave length of emission photons from samples of Dawazigou valley and Jiangjia valley are 300, 310, 320, 400 and 460 nm when it was using blue light (488)nm excited. When the green light (532 nm) has been used to excited, the wave length of emission photons from samples of Dawazigou valley and Duozhao valley are similar high at 310 and 320 nm. Furthermore, using the green light excited the samples from desert sand at the same lab condition; the number of absorbed photons of samples from desert sand is much higher than from debris flow. (authors)

  16. Diversity and ecological ranges of plant species from dry inter-Andean valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Catalina

    found on steep slopes and in ravines. These areas of original dry valley vegetation preserve many wild relatives of cultivated plants on the one hand and old lineages of other wild plant groups. Dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) in Ecuador therefore makeup a biodiversity hot spot for both plants......Dry valleys in the American Andes and other mountains have provided excellent agricultural lands since millennia. Besides agriculture, wood extraction and the establishment of urban areas have diminished the native vegetation of these valleys. Consequently the original vegetation is now mostly...... and animals, but unfortunately only very few botanical studies have been carried out in these areas. This thesis intends to shed light on the vegetation of the Dry Ecuadorean Inter-Andean Valleys in four chapters, each with a different focus. 1) A review paper that summarizes all scientific knowledge...

  17. Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    The Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada, is near the Oregon-Nevada border in the Sheldon Game Refuge. Nineteen claims owned by Jack and Toni Crane were examined, sampled, and tested radiometrically for uranium. Numerous discontinuous layers of opal are interbedded with a gently-dipping series of vitric tuff and ash which is at least 300 ft thick. The tuff and ash are capped by a dark, vesicular basalt in the eastern part of the area and by a thin layer of terrace qravels in the area along the west side of Virgin Valley. Silicification of the ash and tuff has produced a rock that ranges from partly opalized rock that resembles silicified shale to completely altered rock that is entirely translucent, and consists of massive, brown and pale-green opal. Carnotite, the only identified uranium mineral, occurs as fracture coatings or fine layers in the opal; in places, no uranium minerals are visible in the radioactive opal. The opal layers are irregular in extent and thickness. The exposed length of the layers ranges from 8 to 1, 200 ft or more, and the thickness of the layers ranges from 0. 1 to 3. 9 ft. The uranium content of each opal layer, and of different parts of the same layer, differs widely. On the east side of Virgin Valley four of the seven observed opal layers, nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 002 to 0. 12 percent. Two samples, taken 5 ft apart across opal layer no. 7, contained 0. 003 and 0. -049 percent uranium. On the west side of the valley only four of the fifteen observed opal layers, nos; 9, , 10, 14, and 15, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 004 to 0. 047 percent. Material of the highest grade was found in a small discontinuous layer of pale-green opal (no. 4) on the east side of Virgin Valley. The grade of this layer ranged from 0. 027 to 0. 12 percent uranium.

  18. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near the boundary of the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-07-19

    The increasing demands on groundwater for water supply in desert areas in California and the western United States have resulted in the need to better understand groundwater sources, availability, and sustainability. This is true for a 650-square-mile area that encompasses the Antelope Valley, El Mirage Valley, and Upper Mojave River Valley groundwater basins, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles, California, in the western part of the Mojave Desert. These basins have been adjudicated to ensure that groundwater rights are allocated according to legal judgments. In an effort to assess if the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins could be better defined, the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study in 2014 with the Mojave Water Agency to better understand the hydrogeology in the area and investigate potential controls on groundwater flow and availability, including basement topography.Recharge is sporadic and primarily from small ephemeral washes and streams that originate in the San Gabriel Mountains to the south; estimates range from about 400 to 1,940 acre-feet per year. Lateral underflow from adjacent basins has been considered minor in previous studies; underflow from the Antelope Valley to the El Mirage Valley groundwater basin has been estimated to be between 100 and 1,900 acre-feet per year. Groundwater discharge is primarily from pumping, mostly by municipal supply wells. Between October 2013 and September 2014, the municipal pumpage in the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins was reported to be about 800 and 2,080 acre-feet, respectively.This study was motivated by the results from a previously completed regional gravity study, which suggested a northeast-trending subsurface basement ridge and saddle approximately 3.5 miles west of the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins that might influence groundwater flow. To better define potential basement

  19. 78 FR 53113 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley; Contingency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley; Contingency Measures for... California to address Clean Air Act nonattainment area contingency measure requirements for the 1997 annual... Air Act Requirements for Contingency Measures III. Review of the Submitted San Joaquin Valley PM 2.5...

  20. Infill of tunnel valleys associated with landward‐flowing ice sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Huuse, Mads

    2014-01-01

    The southern termination of the Middle and Late Pleistocene Scandinavian ice sheets was repeatedly located in the southern North Sea (sNS) and adjacent, north-sloping land areas. Giant meltwater-excavated valleys (tunnel valleys) formed at the southern termination of the ice sheets and contain...

  1. Ethno-botanical study of medicinal plants of Paddar Valley of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Paddar Valley, historically known as Sapphire Valley situated in Kishtwar district, is a prime landmark in the Jammu region of J&K state and is known for its rich cultural and plant diversity because of diverse habitats such as rivers, streams, meadows and steep mountain slopes. The area is located in the dry temperate ...

  2. 77 FR 60237 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... in the southern San Joaquin Valley. This subspecies is a wood borer that is dependent on its host... also abut or overlap in that area. The valley elderberry longhorn beetle is a wood borer, dependent on... the elderberry stem, feeding on the pith (dead woody material) until they complete their development...

  3. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, W. de.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  4. BPA/Lower Valley transmission project. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration and Lower Valley Power and Light, Inc. propose to solve a voltage stability problem in the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. Lower Valley buys electricity from BPA and then supplies it to the residences and businesses of the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. BPA is considering five alternatives. For the Agency Proposed Action, BPA and Lower Valley would construct a new 115-kV line from BPA's Swan Valley Substation near Swan Valley in Bonneville County, Idaho about 58 km (36 miles) east to BPA's Teton Substation near Jackson in Teton County, Wyoming. The new line would be next to an existing 115-kV line. The Single-Circuit Line Alternative has all the components of the Agency Proposed Action except that the entire line would be supported by single-circuit wood pole H-frame structures. the Short Line Alternative has all the components of the Single-Circuit Line Alternative except it would only be half as long. BPA would also construct a new switching station near the existing right-of-way, west or north of Targhee Tap. Targhee Tap would then be removed. For the Static Var Compensation Alternative, BPA would install a Static Var Compensator (SVC) at Teton or Jackson Substation. An SVC is a group of electrical equipment placed at a substation to help control voltage on a transmission system. The No Action Alternative assumes that no new transmission line is built, and no other equipment is added to the transmission system

  5. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.; Sherwood, P.B.

    1983-07-01

    The commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 to 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source was assessed. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (IGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstocks for the production of ethanol.

  6. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Sherwood, P.B.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 and 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstock for the production of ethanol.

  7. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  8. Hydrogeological reconnaissance study: Dyfi Valley, Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendining, S.J.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes work carried out for the Department of the Environment as part of its research programme into radioactive waste management. It presents an account of a hydrogeological reconnaissance study in the Dyfi Valley area of Central Wales. Initially the purposes of such a study are given and the assumptions used in deriving parameters such as flow volume, path length and transit time in areas of massive fractured rocks are described. Using these assumptions with geological, topographic and hydrometeorological data the potential ranges in properties such as bulk hydraulic conductivity, path lengths, hydraulic gradients and volumes of groundwater flow have been determined. These ranges have been used to estimate solute transport model parameters. The limitations and usefulness of the reconnaissance study in planning research and siting exploratory boreholes in the Dyfi area are discussed. (author)

  9. Society and Health in the Lower Rio Grande Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, William

    Shedding light on problems of mental health and illness that have baffled public health workers attempting to improve the health and welfare of Mexican Americans living in the lower Rio Grande Valley, this document reports the folk customs, social organization, medical practices, and beliefs of the Mexican American of this area. Chapters describe…

  10. A DECADE FROM THE MAJOR LAYOFFS IN THE JIU VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN VALENTIN FULGER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an overview of how the population of the largest coalfield of Romania Jiu Valley, the perceived major staff cuts in the mining industry, the solutions required for economic rehabilitation of the area and difficulties of everyday faced by residents of the region.

  11. Opening remarks for the Fort Valley Centennial Celebration

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sam Foster

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station recognizes and values the contributions of our scientists and collaborators for their work over the past century at Fort Valley Experimental Forest. With the help of our partners and collaborators, Rocky Mountain Research Station is working to improve coordination across its research Program Areas and Experimental Forests and Ranges...

  12. Opening remarks for the Fort Valley Centennial Celebration (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sam Foster

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station recognizes and values the contributions of our scientists and collaborators for their work over the past century at Fort Valley Experimental Forest. With the help of our partners and collaborators, Rocky Mountain Research Station is working to improve coordination across its research Program Areas and Experimental Forests and Ranges...

  13. The Luangwa Valley, Zambia: flyway and stopover site for White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses of satellite telemetry data of White Storks Ciconia ciconia from the eastern populations at their stopover sites and staging areas document the importance of the Luangwa Valley, eastern Zambia, as a migration corridor bridging eastern and southern Africa. Twice each year from November to April, up to 100 000 ...

  14. Analysis of overdeepened valleys using the digital elevation model of the bedrock surface of Northern Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, P.

    2010-11-15

    Based on surface and borehole information, together with pre-existing regional and local interpretations, a 7,150 square kilometre Raster Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface of northern Switzerland was constructed using a 25 m cell size. This model represents a further important step in the understanding of Quaternary sediment distribution and is open to a broad field of application and analysis, including hydrogeological, geotechnical and geophysical studies as well as research in the field of Pleistocene landscape evolution. An analysis of the overdeepened valleys in the whole model area and, more specifically in the Reuss area, shows that, in most cases, overdeepening is restricted to the areas covered by the Last Glaciation Maximum (LGM). However, at various locations relatively narrow overdeepened valleys outreach the tongue basins and the LGM ice shield limits. Therefore, an earlier and further-reaching glacial event has probably contributed significantly to the overdeepening of these valleys. No significant overdeepening has been identified downstream of Boettstein (Aare) and Kaiserstuhl (Rhine), although the ice extended considerably further downstream, at least during the most extensive glaciation. Except for the bedrock between Brugg and Boettstein, no overdeepened valleys are found significantly north of the outcrop of Mesozoic limestone of the Folded and Tabular Jura. A detailed analysis of the Reuss area shows that the Lake and Suhre valleys are separated from the Emmen-Gisikon Reuss valley basin by a significant bedrock barrier. The individual bedrock valleys are divided into several sub-basins, indicating a multiphase evolution of the valleys. Some of the swells or barriers separating the sub-basins coincide with known late LGM retreat stages. In the Suhre valley, an old fluvial valley floor with restricted overdeepened sections is documented. (author)

  15. Evolution des pratiques viticoles françaises : de la viticulture raisonnée à l'agroécologie

    OpenAIRE

    Rochard Joël

    2017-01-01

    Après la deuxième guerre mondiale, l'agriculture et la viticulture s'inscrivaient dans un contexte de défi alimentaire. La priorité de l'époque était avant tout d'intégrer les progrès de la science dans les itinéraires de production pour augmenter la productivité et les rendements. En complément des effets sur le milieu naturel, l'utilisation massive des produits phytosanitaires a pu conduire à la présence de résidus dans le raisin. Progressivement, la lutte puis la production intégrée ont ém...

  16. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  17. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  18. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  19. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alluvial valley floor exists if it finds that— (i) Unconsolidated streamlaid deposits holding streams are... on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial valley floors in the arid and semiarid areas west of....19 Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

  20. West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-11-01

    The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Geology and sinkhole development of the Hagerstown Valley : phase II summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    As a part of this study, karst areas of the Hagerstown, Mason Dixon, Williamsport, Clear Spring, and Hedgesville : quadrangles (western half of the Hagerstown Valley) were mapped in detail to determine the distribution of karst : features relative to...

  2. Geohydrology of the Unconsolidated Valley-Fill Aquifer in the Meads Creek Valley, Schuyler and Steuben Counties, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Bugliosi, Edward F.; Reddy, James E.

    2008-01-01

    percent was from losing reaches of tributaries, 38 percent was unchanneled flow from hillsides that slope toward the valley (this estimate includes runoff and shallow ground-water inflow from till and bedrock), and the remaining 2 percent was from deep ground-water inflow from till and bedrock to the sides and bottom of the aquifer. Nearly all (94 percent) of the water discharged from the aquifer is equivalent to the streamflow gain in Meads Creek; the remaining 6 percent discharges as deep outflow to unconsolidated deposits in the Cohocton River valley. Several characteristics of the Meads Creek valley may contribute to flooding in the downstream area: (1) the southward decrease in the ground-water gradient impedes the ability of the aquifer to transmit water southward and can cause water levels to rise, (2) a high water table, typically only 5 to 10 feet below land surface, results in little storage capacity to absorb water from large storms, (3) a downstream narrowing of the valley impedes the southward flow of ground water and can cause water levels to rapidly rise during periods of prolonged or heavy precipitation, and (4) the upland slopes (till-covered bedrock) produce rapid runoff that recharges the aquifer. The combined effect of these conditions limits the ability of the aquifer to transmit sudden, large increases in recharge from precipitation and thereby provides a high potential for flooding in the southern third of the valley.

  3. Stratigraphy and uranium deposits, Lisbon Valley district, San Juan County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium occurrences are scattered throughout southeastern Utah in the lower sandstones of the Triassic Chinle Formation. The Lisbon Valley district, however, is the only area with uranium deposits of substantial size. The stratigraphy of the Lisbon Valley district was investigated to determine the nature of the relationship between the mineralized areas and the lower Chinle sandstones. The geochemistry of the Lisbon Valley uranium deposits indicates a possible district-wide zoning. Interpretation of the elemental zoning associated with individual ore bodies suggests that humates overtaken by a geochemical oxidation-reduction interface may have led to formation of the uranium deposits. Refs

  4. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be more than $500/lb of U 3 O 8 by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  5. Applicability of 1994-1995 USRADS reg-sign surveys of Bear Creek Valley flood plain and Operable Unit 1 to the radiological characterization of Y-12 grassy/wooded areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Brown, K.S.

    1997-03-01

    This document, provided in support of the Y-12 Site Radiological Characterization Study, analyzes the utility of data from two reports by Chemrad Tennessee Corporation in identifying radiological contamination in excess of contamination control guidelines at the surface of soils in the Bear Creek Valley Flood Plain (BCVFP) and in Y-12 Operable Unit 1 (OU1). The Chemrad reports were developed under subcontract to Science Applications International Corporation for their remedial investigation of these sites for Martin Marietta Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division. Surveys were performed by Chemrad using the UltraSonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS reg-sign), which utilizes ultrasonic triangulation to determine the location of a survey technician at the same time that radiological monitoring data are telemetered from his instruments to a remote receiving station. Floor monitor and Geiger-Mueller pancake meter results from the USRADS reg-sign surveys are shown to be sufficiently precise to reliably detect contamination in excess of the limiting radioactivity value of 1,000 dpm/100 cm 2 for removable uranium contamination specified in 10 CFR 835 Appendix D. MicroRem meter survey results, also included as part of the USRADS reg-sign surveys, indicate that the derived limiting value of 56.8 μrem/h for penetrating dose at 1 m (corresponding to 100 mrem/γ) was not exceeded. However, both the pancake meter and floor monitor results suggest that surface contamination exceeding 1,000 dpm/100 cm 2 is not uncommon. Sites in OU1 and BCVFP were visited, and independent surveys made with hand-held instruments, to confirm conclusions about the USRADS close-quote survey results and to verify that these results are from contamination uniformly distributed on the soil surface, and not from discrete sources which are not likely transferred to shoes, vehicles, or clothing

  6. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  7. Changes in active eolian sand at northern Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katra, Itzhak; Scheidt, Stephen; Lancaster, Nicholas

    2009-04-01

    Climate variability and rapid urbanization have influenced the sand environments in the northern Coachella Valley throughout the late 20th century. This paper addresses changes in the spatial relationships among different sand deposits at northern Coachella Valley between two recent time periods by using satellite data acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). The approach employed here, involving multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) data and spectral mixture analysis, has shown that the major sand deposits can be spatially modeled at northern Coachella Valley. The "coarse-grained (quartz-rich) sand" deposit is associated with active eolian sand, and the "mixed sandy soil" and "fine-grained (quartz-rich) sand" deposits are associated with inactive eolian sand. The fractional abundance images showed a significant decrease between 2000 and 2006 in the percentage of active sand in the major depositional area for fluvial sediment, the Whitewater River, but also in two downwind areas: the Whitewater and Willow Hole Reserves. The pattern of the active sand appears to be related to variations in annual precipitation (wet and dry years) and river discharge in the northern Coachella Valley. We suggest here that recent human modifications to the major watercourses that supply sand affect the capability of fluvial deposition areas to restore sediments over time and consequently the responses of the sand transport system to climate change, becoming more sensitive to dry years where areas of active sand may shrink, degrade, and/or stabilize faster. The approach utilized in this study can be advantageous for future monitoring of sand in the northern Coachella Valley for management of these and similar environments.

  8. Subglacial tunnel valleys in the Alpine foreland: an example from Bern, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerst Stucki, M.; Reber, R.; Schlunegger, F.

    2010-12-15

    The morphology of the Alpine and adjacent landscapes is directly related to glacial erosion and associated sediment transport. Here we report the effects of glacio-hydrologic erosion on bedrock topography in the Swiss Plateau. Specifically, we identify the presence of subsurface valleys beneath the city of Bern and discuss their genesis. Stratigraphic investigations of more than 4'000 borehole data within a 430 km{sup 2}-large area reveal the presence of a network of >200 m-deep and 1'000 m-wide valleys. They are flat floored with steep sided walls and are filled by Quaternary glacial deposits. The central valley beneath Bern is straight and oriented towards the NNW, with valley flanks more than 20 {sup o} steep. The valley bottom has an irregular undulating profile along the thalweg, with differences between sills and hollows higher than 50-100 m over a reach of 4 km length. Approximately 500 m high bedrock highlands flank the valley network. The highlands are dissected by up to 80 m-deep and 500 m-broad hanging valleys that currently drain away from the axis of the main valley. We interpret the valleys beneath the city of Bern to be a tunnel valley network which originated from subglacial erosion by melt water. The highland valleys served as proglacial meltwater paths and are hanging with respect to the trunk system, indicating that these incipient highland systems as well as the main gorge beneath Bern formed by glacial melt water under pressure. (authors)

  9. Preliminary results of hydrogeologic investigations Humboldt River Valley, Winnemucca, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip M.

    1964-01-01

    Most of the ground water of economic importance and nearly all the ground water closely associated with the flow o# the Humboldt River in the. 40-mile reach near Winnemucca, Nev., are in unconsolidated sedimentary deposits. These deposits range in age from Pliocene to Recent and range in character from coarse poorly sorted fanglomerate to lacustrine strata of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The most permeable deposit consists of sand and gravel of Lake Lahontan age--the so-called medial gravel unit--which is underlain and overlain by fairly impermeable silt and clay also of Lake Lahontan age. The ultimate source of nearly all the water in the study area is precpitation within the drainage basin of the Humboldt River. Much of this water reaches the study, area as flow or underflow of the Humboldt River and as underflow from other valleys tributary to the study area. Little if any flow from the tributary streams in the study area usually reaches the Humboldt River. Most of the tributary streamflow within the study area evaporates or is transpired by vegetation, but a part percolates downward through unconsolidated deposits of the alluvial fans flanking the mountains and move downgradient as ground-water underflow toward the Humboldt River. Areas that contribute significant amounts of ground-water underflow to. the valley of the Humboldt River within the study area are (1) the valley of the Humboldt River upstream from the study area, (2) the Pole Creek-Rock Creek area, (3) Paradise Valley, and (4) Grass Valley and the northwestern slope of the Sonoma Range. The total average underflow from these areas in the period 1949-61 was about 14,000-19,000 acre-feet per year. Much of this underflow discharged into the Humboldt River within the study area and constituted a large part of the base flow of the river. Streamflow in the Humboldt River increases substantially in the early spring, principally because of runoff to the river in the reaches upstream from the study area

  10. 75 FR 62852 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Chevron Energy Solutions Lucerne Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ..., 22835 Calle San Juan de Los Lagos, Moreno Valley, California 92553 or via the Internet at http://www.blm..., parking area, and set-back area. A portion of Zircon Road will also be relocated. Pursuant to BLM's CDCA...

  11. Interaction of valleys and circulation patterns (CPs on spatial precipitation patterns in southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Topography exerts influence on the spatial precipitation distribution over different scales, known typically at the large scale as the orographic effect, and at the small scale as the wind-drift rainfall (WDR effect. At the intermediate scale (1~10 km, which is characterized by secondary mountain valleys, topography also demonstrates some effect on the precipitation pattern. This paper investigates such intermediate-scale topographic effects on precipitation patterns, focusing on narrow-steep valleys in the complex terrain of southern Germany, based on the daily observations over a 48 yr period (1960~2007 from a high-density rain-gauge network covering two sub-areas, Baden-Wuerttemberg (BW and Bavaria (BY. Precipitation data at the valley and non-valley stations are compared under consideration of the daily general circulation patterns (CPs classified by a fuzzy rule-based algorithm. Scatter plots of precipitation against elevation demonstrate a different behavior of valley stations comparing to non-valley stations. A detailed study of the precipitation time series for selected station triplets, each consisting of a valley station, a mountain station and an open station have been investigated by statistical analysis with the Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS test supplemented by the One-way analysis of variance (One-way ANOVA and a graphical comparison of the mean precipitation amounts. The results show an interaction of valley orientation and the direction of the CPs at the intermediate scale, i.e. when the valley is shielded from the CP which carries the precipitation, the precipitation amount within the valley is comparable to that on the mountain crest, and both larger than the precipitation at the open station. When the valley is open to the CP, the precipitation within the valley is similar to the open station but much less than that on the mountain. Such phenomenon where the precipitation is "blind" to the valleys at the intermediate scale

  12. The greenway as a means to recover valley floor areas: A proposal for the Mandacarú stream, Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil=O parque linear na recuperação de áreas de fundos de vale: propostas para o Córrego Mandacarú, Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Luiz Domingos De Angelis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to recover the Mandacarú Stream, located in the city of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil by developing a greenway. The stream in question has been extremely degraded, principally by human activity. The proposed methodology begins with preparing a scenario for the valley floor with a greenway in place. This is followed by an investigation of the corridor’s ecological and cultural variables, taking a holistic view to synthesise and diagnose the information collected. Guidelines for recovering the valley floor and developing the greenway are then drawn up to direct the preparation of the final plan. As a result, the principal environmental impacts that undermine the quality of the study area were surveyed, such as erosion, loss of riparian vegetation, illegal sewage connections and lack of environmental education. A list of guidelines was developed for recovering and conserving the area, in combination with the development of a greenway along the valley floor. It is hoped that these guidelines can assist a future intervention at this location and that the proposed method can be used as the basis for the recovery of other urban valley floors.O presente estudo propõe a recuperação do fundo de vale do córrego Mandacarú, localizado na cidade de Maring, Estado do Paraná, por meio da implantação de um parque linear. O córrego em questão encontra-se bastante degradado, principalmente, pela ação antrópica. A metodologia proposta parte da elaboração de um cenário prévio para o fundo de vale com o parque linear implantado, em seguida será realizada uma investigação das variáveis ecológicas e culturais do corredor, além de uma síntese e diagnóstico destas informações coletadas por meio de uma visão holística, traçando-se diretrizes para recuperação do fundo de vale e implantação do parque que nortearão a elaboração do plano final. Como resultado, foram levantados os principais impactos ambientais que

  13. Rock-fall potential in the Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Morrissey, M.M.; Iovine, Giulio; Godt, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    We used two methods of estimating rock-fall potential in the Yosemite Valley, California based on (1) physical evidence of previous rock-fall travel, in which the potential extends to the base of the talus, and (2) theoretical potential energy considerations, in which the potential can extend beyond the base of the talus, herein referred to as the rock-fall shadow. Rock falls in the valley commonly range in size from individual boulders of less than 1 m3 to moderate-sized falls with volumes of about 100,000 m3. Larger rock falls exceeding 100,000 m3, referred to as rock avalanches, are considered to be much less likely to occur based on the relatively few prehistoric rock-fall avalanche deposits in the Yosemite Valley. Because the valley has steep walls and is relatively narrow, there are no areas that are absolutely safe from large rock avalanches. The map shows areas of rock-fall potential, but does not predict when or how frequently a rock fall will occur. Consequently, neither the hazard in terms of probability of a rock fall at any specific location, nor the risk to people or facilities to such events can be assessed from this map.

  14. Analysis, design and interventions on valley floors at the city of Alfenas [MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Cardoso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The floor of valleys are areas with important physical and environmental characteristics, interacting with diverse natural processes that occur in our planet. With the urbanization, degradation of such areas usually occurs, resulting in the physical, social and cultural withdrawing of the population from the urban river and stream lands. The purpose of this paper is to study the action of the public administration on valley floors and the management tools which may render feasable thee environmental preservation as well as environment and landscape renaturalization of such areas thus promoting echological and functional balance in the urban fluviatic lands. In order to prepare a proposal, several items were studied: the physical environmental characteristics of the valley floors, the transformations associated to urbanization. Based on this research, a plan was made for city of Alfenas [MG] as regards the management of the valley floor lands: a proposal of intervention in one of the hydrographic basins.

  15. GIS for the Valorization of Hardly Accessible Alpine Areas with Complex Potentials for Tourism, with a View to Their Inclusion in Tourist Routes. Development of the Valleys of Lotru and Olteţ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available VALOT originates in the experience of European countries from the Alpine Space that succeeded to establish three top priorities for hardly accessible mountain areas based on communitarian programs (Natura 2000, Interreg IIIB – AlpNa Tour, VIADVENTURE, RegioMarket, etc.: competitiveness and attractiveness of the Alpine Space, accessibility and connectivity between high altitude settlements, environmental protection and prevention of natural hazards and disasters (snow falls, land slides, etc.. Starting from the project of Law on Approving the National Spatial Plan – Section VI – Tourism, the project aims at evaluating the current resources of hardly accessible mountain areas with complex potentials for tourism according to the experience of the European Union. GIS analysis will underline national/regional disparities of these areas, leading to conclusions on their typology and intervention proposals. The second part will focus on a case study of a hardly accessible area with a high landscape value and still un-valorized potentials for tourism. The existing situation of the area between the Lotru and Parâng mountains, consisting of the territories of four communes and a city, belonging to the counties of Vâlcea and Gorj, will be analyzed. Based on a spatial development scenario using selected statistical and geographic indicators, intervention priorities will be analyzed with the SPATIAL ANALYST, as well as funding possibilities for the creation of a cluster of mountain resorts (Rânca, Vidra, Voineasa in order to valorize the recreational and balneary patrimony of the area, observing principles and objectives of sustainable development in mountain areas. The project will create a methodology for diagnosing problems and dysfunctions of such areas, development possibilities based on the experience of the pilot study, proposals for improving the institutional framework for implementing, monitoring and evaluating the results and (last but not

  16. Groundwater budgets for Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys, Mohave County, Arizona, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bradley D.; Truini, Margot

    2011-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources, initiated an investigation of the hydrogeology and water resources of Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys in northwestern Arizona in 2005, and this report is part of that investigation. Water budgets were developed for Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys to provide a generalized understanding of the groundwater systems in this rural area that has shown some evidence of human-induced water-level declines. The valleys are within the Basin and Range physiographic province and consist of thick sequences of permeable alluvial sediment deposited into basins bounded by relatively less permeable igneous and metamorphic rocks. Long-term natural recharge rates (1940-2008) for the alluvial aquifers were estimated to be 1,400 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) for Detrital Valley, 5,700 acre-ft/yr for Hualapai Valley, and 6,000 acre-ft/yr for Sacramento Valley. Natural discharge rates were assumed to be equal to natural recharge rates, on the basis of the assumption that all groundwater withdrawals to date have obtained water from groundwater storage. Groundwater withdrawals (2007-08) for the alluvial aquifers were less than 300 acre-ft/yr for Detrital Valley, about 9,800 acre-ft/yr for Hualapai Valley, and about 4,500 acre-ft/yr for Sacramento Valley. Incidental recharge from leaking water-supply pipes, septic systems, and wastewater-treatment plants accounted for about 35 percent of total recharge (2007-08) across the study area. Natural recharge and discharge values in this study were 24-50 percent higher than values in most previously published studies. Water budgets present a spatially and temporally "lumped" view of water resources and incorporate many sources of uncertainty in this study area where only limited data presently are available.

  17. Gravity study of the Middle Aterno Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Nezza, Maria; di Filippo, Michele; Cesi, Claudio; Ferri, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    A gravity study was carried out to identify the geological and structural features of the Middle Aterno Valley, and intramontane depression in the central Appennines, which was targeted to assess the seismic hazard of the city of L'Aquila and surrounding areas, after the Abruzzo 2009 earthquake. Gravity anomalies have been used for the construction of a 3D model of the area, and gravity data for the construction of Bouguer and residual anomaly maps. These data, together with geological surface data allowed for the understanding of the Plio-quaternary tectonic setting of the basins. The study area has been differentiated into different domains with respect to structural and morphological features of different styles of faults. Geology and gravity data show that the local amplification phenomena are due to the fact that the historical center of L'Aquila was built on a coarse breccias (debris-flow deposits with decameter scale limestone blocks) overlying sandy and clayey lacustrine sediments. As these sediments have a low density, gravity prospecting very easily identifies them. Residual anomalies, showing a relative gravity low corresponding to the historical center of L'Aquila, and surrounding areas, indicated that these sediments are up to 250 m-thick. Gravity prospecting also revealed the uprooting of the reliefs which outcrop in the area of Coppito. These reliefs, practically outcrop in the middle of the basin. Here, the gravity anomalies are negative and not positive as would be expected from outcropping geological bedrock.

  18. Fy00 Treasure Valley ITS Deployment Project : advanced traffic management system (ATMS) software procurement and implementation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-02

    In 2000, the Treasure Valley area of the State of Idaho received a federal earmark of $390,000 to develop an Advanced Transportation Management System (ATMS) for the Treasure Valley region of Idaho. The Ada County Highway District (ACHD), located in ...

  19. Evaluation of Water Security in Kathmandu Valley before and after Water Transfer from another Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Bhesh Raj Thapa; Hiroshi Ishidaira; Vishnu Prasad Pandey; Tilak Mohan Bhandari; Narendra Man Shakya

    2018-01-01

    Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) has planned to harness water from outside the valley from Melamchi as an inter-basin project to supply water inside the ring road (core valley area) of the Kathmandu Valley (KV). The project, called the “Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP)”, is expected to have its first phase completed by the end of September 2018 and its second phase completed by the end of 2023 to supply 170 MLD (million liters a day) through the first phase and an additional 34...

  20. Effect of the air pollution by heavy metals in the tree leaves in the metropolitan area of Toluca Valley; Efecto de la contaminacion atmosferica por metales pesados en las hojas de los arboles de la zona metropolitana del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma O, C. I.

    2014-07-01

    Leaves of two tree species: Juniperus sp and Ligustrum sp were studied as indicators of pollution heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the atmosphere of the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley. Bio markers of catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol, proteins and pigments were measured in order to determine the effects to atmospheric stress caused by heave metals during two periods in the year (December 2012 and May 2013). Metals were quantified in dry deposit and tissue on trees tissue leaves using the technique of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy respectively. The results show greater response of enzyme inhibition in Juniperus sp. species, with decreased protein content and increased lipid peroxidation at sites with higher content of metals in tissue belonging to urban areas with increased industrial activity and traffic flow. In dry deposit bioavailability factor of metals was Fe>Mn> Zn> Cu>Pb for the first time of sampling and Fe>Mn> Cu> Zn>Pb for the second sampling period. (Author)

  1. Susceptibility assessment of debris flows using the analytic hierarchy process method − A case study in Subao river valley, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingzhang Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many debris flows have occurred in the areas surrounding the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake. Susceptibility assessment of debris flows in this area is especially important for disaster prevention and mitigation. This paper studies one of the worst hit areas, the Subao river valley, and the susceptibility assessment of debris flows is performed based on field surveys and remote sensing interpretation. By investigating the formation conditions of debris flows in the valley, the following assessment factors are selected: mixture density of landslides and rock avalanches, distance to the seismogenic fault, stratum lithology, ground roughness, and hillside angle. The weights of the assessment factors are determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method. Each of the assessment factors is further divided into five grades. Then, the assessment model is built using the multifactor superposition method to assess the debris flow susceptibility. Based on the assessment results, the Subao river valley is divided into three areas: high susceptibility areas, medium susceptibility areas, and low susceptibility areas. The high susceptibility areas are concentrated in the middle of the valley, accounting for 17.6% of the valley area. The medium susceptibility areas are in the middle and lower reaches, most of which are located on both sides of the high susceptibility areas and account for 45.3% of the valley area. The remainders are classified as low susceptibility areas. The results of the model are in accordance with the actual debris flow events that occurred after the earthquake in the valley, confirming that the proposed model is capable of assessing the debris flow susceptibility. The results can also provide guidance for reconstruction planning and debris flow prevention in the Subao river valley.

  2. Geologic evaluation of the Oasis Valley basin, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridrich, C.J.; Minor, S.A.; and Mankinen, E.A.

    2000-01-13

    This report documents the results of a geologic study of the area between the underground-nuclear-explosion testing areas on Pahute Mesa, in the northwesternmost part of the Nevada Test Site, and the springs in Oasis Valley, to the west of the Test Site. The new field data described in this report are also presented in a geologic map that is a companion product(Fridrich and others, 1999) and that covers nine 7.5-minute quadrangles centered on Thirsty Canyon SW, the quadrangle in which most of the Oasis Valley springs are located. At the beginning of this study, published detailed maps were available for 3 of the 9 quadrangles of the study area: namely Thirsty Canyon (O'Connor and others, 1966); Beatty (Maldonado and Hausback, 1990); and Thirsty Canyon SE (Lipman and others, 1966). Maps of the last two of these quadrangles, however, required extensive updating owing to recent advances in understanding of the regional structure and stratigraphy. The new map data are integrated in this re port with new geophysical data for the Oasis Valley area, include gravity, aeromagnetic, and paleomagnetic data (Grauch and others, 1997; written comm., 1999; Mankinen and others, 1999; Hildenbrand and others, 1999; Hudson and others, 1994; Hudson, unpub. data).

  3. Martian channels and valleys - Their characteristics, distribution, and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. H.; Clow, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and ages of Martian channels and valleys, which are generally believed to have been cut by running water, are examined with particular emphasis on the small branching networks referred to as runoff channels or valley networks. Valleys at latitudes from 65 deg S to 65 deg N were surveyed on Viking images at resolutions between 125 and 300 m. Almost all of the valleys are found in the old cratered terrain, in areas characterized by high elevations, low albedos and low violet/red ratios. The networks are deduced to have formed early in the history of the planet, with a formation rate declining rapidly shortly after the decline of the cratering rate 3.9 billion years ago. Two types of outflow channels are distinguished: unconfined, in which broad swaths of terrain are scoured, and confined, in which flow is restricted to discrete channels. Both types start at local sources, and have formed episodically throughout Martian history. Fretted channels, found mainly in two latitude belts characterized by relatively rapid erosion along escarpments, are explained by the lateral enlargement of other channels by mass wasting.

  4. 2D Semiconductors for Valley-Polarized LEDs and Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting

    The recently discovered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, such as transitional-metal-dichalcogenide monolayers, have aroused great interest due to the underlying quantum physics and the appealing optoelectronic applications like atomically thin light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors. On the one hand, valley-polarized electroluminescence and photocurrent from such monolayers have not caused enough attention but highly demanded as building blocks for the new generation valleytronic applications. On the other hand, most reports on these devices are based on the mechanically exfoliated small samples. Considering real applications, a strategy which could offer mass-product and high compatibility to the current planar processes is greatly demanded. Large-area samples prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) are perfect candidates towards such a goal. Here, we report electrically tunable valley-polarized electroluminescence and the selective spin-valley-coupled photocurrent in optoelectronic devices based on monolayer WS2 and MoS2 grown by CVD, exhibiting large electroluminescence and photocurrent dichroisms of 81% and 60%, respectively. The controllable valley polarization and emission components of the electroluminescence have been realized by varying electrical injection of carriers. For the observed helicity-dependent photocurrent, the circular photogalvanic effect at resonant excitations has been found to take the dominant responsibility.

  5. Testing a Mars science outpost in the Antarctic dry valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D. T.; Mckay, C. P.; Wharton, R. A.; Rummel, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Field research conducted in the Antarctic has been providing insights about the nature of Mars in the science disciplines of exobiology and geology. Located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of southern Victoria Land (160 deg and 164 deg E longitude and 76 deg 30 min and 78 deg 30 min S latitude), research outposts are inhabited by teams of 4-6 scientists. It is proposed that the design of these outposts be expanded to enable meaningful tests of many of the systems that will be needed for the successful conduct of exploration activities on Mars. Although there are some important differences between the environment in the Antarctic dry valleys and on Mars, the many similarities and particularly the field science activities, make the dry valleys a useful terrestrial analog to conditions on Mars. Three areas have been identified for testing at a small science outpost in the dry valleys: (1) studying human factors and physiology in an isolated environment; (2) testing emerging technologies (e.g. innovative power management systems, advanced life support facilities including partial bioregenerative life support systems for water recycling and food growth, telerobotics, etc.); and (3) conducting basic scientific research that will enhance understanding of Mars while contributing to the planning for human exploration. It is suggested that an important early result of a Mars habitat program will be the experience gained by interfacing humans and their supporting technology in a remote and stressful environment.

  6. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  7. Diversity of inland valleys and opportunities for agricultural development in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Ronald Dossou-Yovo

    Full Text Available Inland valleys are becoming increasingly important agricultural production areas for rural households in sub-Saharan Africa due to their relative high and secure water availability and soil fertility. In addition, inland valleys are important as water buffer and biodiversity hot spots and they provide local communities with forest, forage, and fishing resources. As different inland-valley ecosystem functions may conflict with agricultural objectives, indiscriminate development should be avoided. This study aims to analyze the diversity of inland valleys in Sierra Leone and to develop guidelines for more precise interventions. Land use, biophysical and socio-economic data were analyzed on 257 inland valleys using spatial and multivariate techniques. Five cluster groups of inland valleys were identified: (i semi-permanently flooded with high soil organic carbon (4.2% and moderate available phosphorus (10.2 ppm, mostly under natural vegetation; (ii semi-permanently flooded with low soil organic carbon (1.5% and very low available phosphorus (3.1 ppm, abandoned by farmers; (iii seasonally flooded with moderate soil organic carbon (3.1% and low available phosphorus (8.3 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced without fertilizer application for household consumption and market; (iv well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.8% and moderate available phosphorus (10.0 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced with fertilizer application for household consumption and market; and (v well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.6% and moderate available phosphorus (11 ppm, used for household consumption without fertilizer application. Soil organic carbon, available phosphorus, hydrological regime, physical accessibility and market opportunity were the major factors affecting agricultural intensification of inland valleys. Opening up the areas in which inland valleys occur through improved roads and

  8. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366) FY2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil transport from the Plutonium Valley Contamination Area (CA) as a result of wind transport and storm runoff in support of National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the contamination areas. The DRI work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism(s) of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils. The emphasis of the work is on collecting sediment transported by channelized storm runoff at the Plutonium Valley investigation sites. These data will inform closure plans that are being developed, which will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring.

  9. Geothermal systems of the Mono Basin-Long Valley region, eastern California and western Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, C.T.; Flynn, T.; Chapman, R.H.; Trexler, D.T.; Chase, G.R.; Bacon, C.F.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The region that includes Mono Basin, Long Valley, the Bridgeport-Bodie Hills area, and Aurora, in eastern California and western Nevada was studied to determine the possible causes and interactions of the geothermal anomalies in the Mono Basin-Long Valley region as a whole. A special goal of the study was to locate possible shallow bodies of magma and to determine their influence on the hydrothermal systems in the region. (ACR)

  10. Titan's fluvial valleys: Morphology, distribution, and spectral properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, M.H.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; Baines, K.H.; Nicholson, P.D.; Lorenz, R.D.; Soderblom, L.A.; Soderblom, J.M.; Sotin, Christophe; Barnes, J.W.; Nelson, R.

    2012-01-01

    Titan's fluvial channels have been investigated based on data obtained by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instrument and the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft. In this paper, a database of fluvial features is created based on radar-SAR data aiming to unveil the distribution and the morphologic and spectral characteristics of valleys on Titan on a global scale. It will also study the spatial relations between fluvial valleys and Titan's geologic units and spectral surface units which have become accessible thanks to Cassini-VIMS data. Several distinct morphologic types of fluvial valleys can be discerned by SAR-images. Dendritic valley networks appear to have much in common with terrestrial dendritic systems owing to a hierarchical and tree-shaped arrangement of the tributaries which is indicative of an origin from precipitation. Dry valleys constitute another class of valleys resembling terrestrial wadis, an indication of episodic and strong flow events. Other valley types, such as putative canyons, cannot be correlated with rainfall based on their morphology alone, since it cannot be ruled out that they may have originated from volcanic/tectonic action or groundwater sapping. Highly developed and complex fluvial networks with channel lengths of up to 1200 km and widths of up to 10 km are concentrated only at a few locations whereas single valleys are scattered over all latitudes. Fluvial valleys are frequently found in mountainous areas. Some terrains, such as equatorial dune fields and undifferentiated plains at mid-latitudes, are almost entirely free of valleys. Spectrally, fluvial terrains are often characterized by a high reflectance in each of Titan's atmospheric windows, as most of them are located on Titan's bright 'continents'. Nevertheless, valleys are spatially associated with a surface unit appearing blue due to its higher reflection at 1.3??m in a VIMS false color RGB composite with R: 1.59/1.27??m, G: 2

  11. 75 FR 61174 - Warner Valley Comprehensive Site Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Lassen Volcanic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Warner Valley fen and wetland areas; (3) Removal or repair of Dream Lake Dam and restoration of associated riparian/wetland complex; (4) Protect and enhance the Drakesbad Historic District through removal... project planning area. This area includes Dream Lake Dam, built in 1932 by Alex Sifford, which impounds an...

  12. Results of two consecutive years on mould prevention in viticulture by means of UV C application of vines (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkelmann-Löhnertz Beate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, impacts of climate change on cool climate viticulture were most obvious concerning cluster infections caused by Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould. The control of primary and secondary fungal pathogens is economically most important since bunch rot may severely affect the annual harvest with regard to quality and quantity. Trials with UV C applications, a new approach to control bunch rot, were conducted in 2013 and 2014, representing years with intensive bunch rot epidemics. UV C irradiation was applied by a prototype at an experimental site of Hochschule Geisenheim University. At both canopy sides, leaves and cluster zones were irradiated repeatedly at a dose of ≤160 mWs/cm2 alone or in combination with chemical control. The results of our experiments indicated that irradiation with UV C, in addition to fungicide treatments at reduced number of applications, was able to significantly decrease infection with grey mould to a degree of efficiency of 82% compared to standard chemical treatment that achieved 51% efficiency in 2014. Accordingly, the new technology is suitable for reducing cluster infection with mould fungi allowing a prolonged grape ripening time, which leads to a better harvest quality and a decreased yield loss.

  13. Soil of the lower valley of the Dragonja river (Slovenia)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaž PRUS; Nina ZUPANČIČ; Helena GRČMAN

    2015-01-01

    Soil of the lower valley of the river Dragonja developed under specific soil-forming factors. Soil development in the area was influenced by alluvial sediments originating from surrounding hills, mostly of flysch sequence rocks, as a parent material, Sub-Mediterranean climate and the vicinity of the sea. Different soil classification units (Gleysol and Fluvisol) were proposed for that soil in previous researches. The aim of our study was the evaluation of morphological, chemical and mineralog...

  14. NONMARKET VALUE OF WESTERN VALLEY RANCHLAND USING CONTINGENT VALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberger, Randall S.; Walsh, Richard G.

    1997-01-01

    With the irreversible loss of agricultural land to develop uses in certain areas, there is increased concern that land be preserved for posterity'Â’s sake. We estimate the nonmarket value of a ranchland protection program in the Yampa River Valley in Routt County, Colorado, including the Steamboat Springs resort. The case study builds on previous land preservation studies by adding several preferences indicators. We find that local residentsÂ’' willingness to pay is substantial, but insuffici...

  15. Influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the distribution of xerothermic plants in the lower San river valley (SE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Krawczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the distribution of xerothermic species of vascular plants in the lower San River valley and the relationship between their density and the intensity of selected environmental (natural and anthropogenic factors. Xerothermic species occurred more frequently in the present valley floor compared to the glacial terrace. Within the present valley, the highest density was observed in the floodplain. The examined species also occurred more often on steep slopes of the valley, at the margins of the present valley terraces, and in the area of occurrence of aeolian sands. Moreover, a positive correlation has been found between the number of xerothermic species and the area of polyhemeroby ecosystems. The distribution of xero- and thermophilous species is determined by natural edaphic and geomorphological factors as well as anthropogenic ones (land use, lowering of the groundwater level as a result of river regulation.

  16. Valley formation by groundwater seepage, pressurized groundwater outbursts and crater-lake overflow in flume experiments with implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Wouter A.; Braat, Lisanne; Baar, Anne W.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

    2014-04-01

    Remains of fluvial valleys on Mars reveal the former presence of water on the surface. However, the source of water and the hydrological setting is not always clear, especially in types of valleys that are rare on Earth and where we have limited knowledge of the processes involved. We investigated three hydrological scenarios for valley formation on Mars: hydrostatic groundwater seepage, release of pressurized groundwater and crater-lake overflow. Using physical modeling in laboratory experiments and numerical hydrological modeling we quantitatively studied the morphological development and processes involved in channel formation that result from these different sources of water in unconsolidated sediment. Our results show that valleys emerging from seeping groundwater by headward erosion form relatively slowly as fluvial transport takes place in a channel much smaller than the valley. Pressurized groundwater release forms a characteristic source area at the channel head by fluidization processes. This head consist of a pit in case of superlithostatic pressure and may feature small radial channels and collapse features. Valleys emerging from a crater-lake overflow event develop quickly in a run-away process of rim erosion and discharge increase. The valley head at the crater outflow point has a converging fan shape, and the rapid incision of the rim leaves terraces and collapse features. Morphological elements observed in the experiments can help in identifying the formative processes on Mars, when considerations of experimental scaling and lithological characteristics of the martian surface are taken into account. These morphological features might reveal the associated hydrological settings and formative timescales of a valley. An estimate of formative timescale from sediment transport is best based on the final channel dimensions for groundwater seepage valleys and on the valley dimensions for pressurized groundwater release and crater-lake overflow valleys. Our

  17. Small martian valleys: Pristine and degraded morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Partridge, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The equatorial heavily cratered uplands of Mars are dissected by two classes of small valleys that are intimately associated in compound networks. Pristine valleys with steep valley walls preferentially occupy downstream portions of compound basins. Degraded valleys with eroded walls are laterally more extensive and have higher drainage densities than pristine valleys. Morphometric and crater-counting studies indicate that relatively dense drainage networks were emplaced on Mars during the heavy bombardment about 4.0 b.y. ago. Over a period of approximately 10 8 years, these networks were degraded and subsequently invaded by headwardly extending pristine valleys. The pristine valleys locally reactivated the compound networks, probably through sapping processes dependent upon high water tables. Fluvial activity in the heavily cratered uplands generally ceased approximately 3.8--3.9 b.y. ago, coincident with the rapid decline in cratering rates. The relict compound valleys on Mars are morphometrically distinct from most terrestrial drainage systems. The differences might be caused by a Martian valley formation episode characterized by hyperaridity, by inadequate time for network growth, by very permeable rock types, or by a combination of factors

  18. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  19. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi 2 , closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area

  20. Landform Evolution of the Zanskar Valley, Ladakh Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, P.; Kumar, A.; Sharma, P.; Sundriyal, Y.; Srivastava, P.

    2017-12-01

    Zanskar River flow from south-west to north-east, perpendicularly through Higher Himalayan crystalline sequences, Tethyan sedimentary sequences, and Indus Molasses; and finally merge with the Indus River at Nimu. Geologically, the Indus valley is bounded by Ladakh Batholith in the north and highly folded and thrusted Zanskar mountain ranges in the south. Sedimentary sequences of Zanskar ranges are largely of continental origin, which were uplifted and deformed via several north verging thrusts, where Zanskar counter thrust, Choksti and Indus-Bazgo thrusts are important thrust zone, and there is atleast 36 km of crustal shortening in the Zanskar section which continued from middle Miocene to the late Pleistocene. This shortening is accommodated mainly by north or north-east directed Zanskar backthrusts. Two major tributaries of Zanskar: Tsrapchu and Doda, flow in the headwaters, along the strike of South Tibetan Detachment System (STDs), an east-west trending regional fault. The present study incorporate field sedimentology, geomorphology and chronology of landform associated with Zanskar valley. In the upper Zanskar, alluvial fan, valley fill and strath terraces configured the major landforms with paleo-lake deposits­­­ in the area between the fans. The lower catchment, at the confluence of Zanskar and Indus rivers, exhibit mainly valley fill terraces and strath terraces. Chronology suggests diachronous aggradation in the upper and lower Zanskar catchments. In the upper Zanskar large scale valley aggradation took place with simultaneously fan progradation and flooding events from 45-15 ka. Luminescence chronology of the lower Zanskar indicates aggradation from 145-55 ka and 18-12 ka. The two aggradation basins are separated by a deep V-shaped gorge which is approximately 60 km long. The longitudinal profile of the Zanskar River shows several local convexities marking knick point zone, which suggests tectonically controlled topography.

  1. A landscape scale valley confinement algorithm: Delineating unconfined valley bottoms for geomorphic, aquatic, and riparian applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Nagel; John M. Buffington; Sharon L. Parkes; Seth Wenger; Jaime R. Goode

    2014-01-01

    Valley confinement is an important landscape characteristic linked to aquatic habitat, riparian diversity, and geomorphic processes. This report describes a GIS program called the Valley Confinement Algorithm (VCA), which identifies unconfined valleys in montane landscapes. The algorithm uses nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) at 10-30 m resolution to...

  2. Groundwater quality in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Indian Wells Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Indian Wells study area is approximately 600 square miles (1,554 square kilometers) and includes the Indian Wells Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Indian Wells Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lake beds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 97.0 percent (%) natural, 0.4% agricultural, and 2.6% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Ridgecrest (2010 population of 28,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from the Sierra Nevada to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and direct infiltration from irrigation and septic systems. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells and evapotranspiration near the dry lakebeds. The primary aquifers in the Indian Wells study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in

  3. 3D View of Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D perspective view looking north over Death Valley, California, was produced by draping ASTER nighttime thermal infrared data over topographic data from the US Geological Survey. The ASTER data were acquired April 7, 2000 with the multi-spectral thermal infrared channels, and cover an area of 60 by 80 km (37 by 50 miles). Bands 13, 12, and 10 are displayed in red, green and blue respectively. The data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color variations that highlight differences in types of surface materials. Salt deposits on the floor of Death Valley appear in shades of yellow, green, purple, and pink, indicating presence of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride minerals. The Panamint Mtns. to the west, and the Black Mtns. to the east, are made up of sedimentary limestones, sandstones, shales, and metamorphic rocks. The bright red areas are dominated by the mineral quartz, such as is found in sandstones; green areas are limestones. In the lower center part of the image is Badwater, the lowest point in North America.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide

  4. Dispersal and survival of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the speleological province of the Ribeira Valley, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Eunice A B; Fonseca, Mauro Breviglieri; Marassá, Ana Maria; Bueno, Edna Fátima M

    2009-12-01

    The dispersal and survival of the phlebotomines Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (both implicated as vectors of the cutaneous leishmaniasis agent) in an endemic area was investigated using a capture-mark-release technique in five experiments from August-December 2003 in municipality of Iporanga, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 1,749 males and 1,262 females of Ny. intermedia and 915 males and 411 females of Ny. neivai were marked and released during the five experiments. Recapture attempts were made using automatic light traps, aspiration in natural resting places and domestic animal shelters and Shannon traps. A total of 153 specimens (3.48%) were recaptured: 2.59% (78/3,011) for Ny. intermedia and 5.35% (71/1,326) for Ny. neivai. Both species were recaptured up to 144 h post-release, with the larger part of them recaptured within 48 h. The median dispersion distances for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were 109 m and 100 m. The greatest dispersal range of Ny. intermedia was 180 m, while for Ny. neivai one female was recaptured in a pasture at 250 m and another in a pigsty at 520 m, showing a tendency to disperse to more open areas. The daily survival rates calculated based on regressions of the numbers of marked insects recaptured on the six successive days after release were 0.746 for males and 0.575 for females of Ny. intermedia and 0.649 for both sexes of Ny. neivai. The size of the populations in the five months ranged from 8,332-725,085 for Ny. intermedia males, 2,193-104,490 for Ny. intermedia females, 1,687-350,122 for Ny. neivai males and 254-49,705 for Ny. neivai females.

  5. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued

  6. Mapping Ecosystem Services in the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Ana; Marques, Ana; Ribeiro, Inês; Alho, Maria; Catarina Afonso, Ana; Almeida, Erika; Branquinho, Cristina; Talozi, Samer; Pinho, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade researchers started using ecosystem services as a new framework to understand the relationships between environment and society. Habitat quality and water quality are related with ecosystem services regulation and maintenance, or even provision. According to the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) both habitat quality and water quality are associated with lifecycle maintenance, habitat and gene pool protection, and water conditions, among others. As there is increased pressure on habitats and rivers especially for agricultural development, mapping and evaluating habitat and water quality has important implications for resource management and conservation, as well as for rural development. Here, we model and map habitat and water quality in the Jordan Valley, Jordan. In this study, we aim to identify and analyse ecosystem services both through 1) habitat quality and 2) water quality modelling using InVest, an integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs. The data used in this study mainly includes the LULC, Jordan River watershed and main threats and pollutants in the study area, such as agriculture, industry, fish farms and urbanization. Results suggest a higher pressure on natural habitats in the Northern region of the Jordan Valley, where industry is dominant. Agriculture is present along the Jordan Valley and limits the few natural forested areas. Further, water pollution is mainly concentrated in disposal sites due to the low flow of the Jordan River. Our results can help to identify areas where natural resources and water resource management is most needed in the Jordan Valley. Acknowledgements: Transbasin FP7 project

  7. The Pocatello Valley, Idaho, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. M.; Langer, C.J.; Bucknam, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A Richter magnitude 6.3 earthquake occurred at 8:31 p.m mountain daylight time on March 27, 1975, near the Utah-Idaho border in Pocatello Valley. The epicenter of the main shock was located at 42.094° N, 112.478° W, and had a focal depth of 5.5 km. This earthquake was the largest in the continental United States since the destructive San Fernando earthquake of February 1971. The main shock was preceded by a magnitude 4.5 foreshock on March 26. 

  8. Radwaste challenge at Beaver Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Duquesne Light Company met the problem of accumulating low-level radioactive waste at its Beaver Valley nuclear plant with an aggressive program to reduce the quantity of contaminated material and demonstrate that the plant was improving its radiological protection. There was also an economic incentive to reduce low-level wastes. The imaginative campaign involved workers in the reduction effort through training and the adoption of practical approaches to reducing the amount of material exposed to radiation that include sorting trash by radiation level and a compacting system. 4 figures

  9. The Owens Valley Millimeter Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padin, S.; Scott, S.L.; Woody, D.P.; Scoville, N.Z.; Seling, T.V.

    1991-01-01

    The telescopes and signal processing systems of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are considered, and improvements in the sensitivity and stability of the instrument are characterized. The instrument can be applied to map sources in the 85 to 115 GHz and 218 to 265 GHz bands with a resolution of about 1 arcsec in the higher frequency band. The operation of the array is fully automated. The current scientific programs for the array encompass high-resolution imaging of protoplanetary/protostellar disk structures, observations of molecular cloud complexes associated with spiral structure in nearby galaxies, and observations of molecular structures in the nuclei of spiral and luminous IRAS galaxies. 9 refs

  10. Biogeochemical studies of wintering waterfowl in the Imperial and Sacramento Valleys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, J.J.; Stuart, M.; Thompson, S.; Conrado, C.

    1979-10-01

    Trace and major elemental composition were determined in the organs of wintering waterfowl in the Imperial and Sacramento Valleys of California, and in soils, sediments, and agricultural fertilizer that constitute the various sources of elements in the waterfowl. These data provide a biogeochemical baseline for waterfowl populations wintering in an area being developed for geothermal power. This baseline in the Imperial Valley is affected by soil and sediment composition, agricultural effluents in irrigation and stream water, and spent shot deposited by hunters in waterfowl habitats. The waterfowl acquire a set of trace elements from these sources and concentrations increase in their organs over the wintering period. Nickel, arsenic, selenium, bromine, and lead are the primary elements acquired from soil sources, agricultural effluents, and spent shot in the Imperial Valley. The assessment of effects from geothermal effluents on waterfowl populations in complex because there are large influxes of materials into the Imperial Valley ecosystem that contain trace elements, i.e., irrigation water, phosphatic fertilizers, pesticides, and lead shot. Multiple sources exist for many elements prominent in the expected geothermal effluents. The relationships between the two California valleys, the Imperial and Sacramento, are apparent in the trace element concentrations in the organs of waterfowl obtained in those two valleys. Arsenic is absent in the waterfowl organs obtained in the Sacramento Valley and relatively common in the Imperial Valley waterfowl. The effect of any release of geothermal effluent in the Imperial Valley waterfowl habitats will be difficult to describe because of the complexity of the biogeochemical baseline and the multiple sources of trace and major elements in the ecosystem.

  11. Budgets and chemical characterization of groundwater for the Diamond Valley flow system, central Nevada, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David L.; Mayers, C. Justin; Garcia, C. Amanda; Buto, Susan G.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2016-07-29

    The Diamond Valley flow system consists of six hydraulically connected hydrographic areas in central Nevada. The general down-gradient order of the areas are southern and northern Monitor Valleys, Antelope Valley, Kobeh Valley, Stevens Basin, and Diamond Valley. Groundwater flow in the Diamond Valley flow system terminates at a large playa in the northern part of Diamond Valley. Concerns relating to continued water-resources development of the flow system resulted in a phased hydrologic investigation that began in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka County. This report presents the culmination of the phased investigation to increase understanding of the groundwater resources of the basin-fill aquifers in the Diamond Valley flow system through evaluations of groundwater chemistry and budgets. Groundwater chemistry was characterized using major ions and stable isotopes from groundwater and precipitation samples. Groundwater budgets accounted for all inflows, outflows, and changes in storage, and were developed for pre-development (pre-1950) and recent (average annual 2011–12) conditions. Major budget components include groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration and groundwater withdrawals; groundwater recharge by precipitation, and interbasin flow; and storage change.

  12. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area?s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in: *the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices); *recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation); *approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and *other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley. The alternatives developed in the SLDFRE EIS and other recently proposed drainage plans (refer to appendix A for details) differ from the strategies proposed by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (1990a). The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in March 2007 signed a record of decision for an in-valley disposal option that would retire 194,000 acres of land, build 1,900 acres of evaporation ponds, and develop a treatment system to remove salt and selenium from drainwater. The recently proposed SLU Plans emphasize pumping drainage to the surface, storing approximately 33% in agricultural water re-use areas, treating selenium through biotechnology, enhancing the evaporation of water to concentrate salt, and identifying ultimate storage facilities for the remaining approximately 67% of waste selenium and salt. The treatment sequence of reuse, reverse osmosis, selenium bio-treatment, and enhanced solar evaporation is unprecedented and untested at the scale needed to meet plan requirements. All drainage management strategies that have been proposed

  13. Study on Plan of Rural Waterfront Greenway in Beijing Based On Valley Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Ma, Xiaoyan

    2018-01-01

    Valley economy is a major strategy for the development of Beijing mountainous area. This paper tried to apply the theory of rural waterfront greenway in valley, propose the grade system of rural greenway, which has important meaning to the refining of ecological network, the integration of tourism resources, and the promotion of agricultural industry in rural area. By way of illustration, according to the detailed analysis of the hydrology, altitude, slope, aspect, soil and vegetation conditions by GIS, the waterfront greenway, named ‘four seasons flowers’, in Yanqing county area was planned, so as to provide scientific guidance for the rural waterfront greenway construction.

  14. A participatory modelling approach to define farm-scale effects of reclaimed wastewater irrigation in the Lockyer Valley, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstal, van J.D.; Huibers, F.P.; Cresswell, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    The Lockyer Valley is an important agricultural area experiencing water insecurity, which causes a decrease in agricultural production. Regional authorities are initiating a wastewater reclamation project conveying treated municipal wastewater to water users, including potentially the Lockyer

  15. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  16. Sustainable agricultural development in inland valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The inland valley in Africa are common landscapes that have favorable conditions for agricultural production. Compared to the surrounding uplands they are characterized by a relatively high and secure water availability and high soil fertility levels. Inland valleys thus have a high agricultural

  17. Valley dependent transport in graphene L junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    We studied the valley dependent transport in graphene L junctions connecting an armchair lead and a zigzag lead. The junction can be used in valleytronic devices and circuits. Electrons injected from the armchair lead into the junction is not valley polarized, but they can become valley polarized in the zigzag lead. There are Fermi energies, where the current in the zigzag lead is highly valley polarized and the junction is an efficient generator of valley polarized current. The features of the valley polarized current depend sensitively on the widths of the two leads, as well as the number of dimers in the armchair lead, because this number has a sensitive effect on the band structure of the armchair lead. When an external potential is applied to the junction, the energy range with high valley polarization is enlarged enhancing its function as a generator of highly valley polarized current. The scaling behavior found in other graphene devices is also found in L junctions, which means that the results presented here can be extended to junctions with larger dimensions after appropriate scaling of the energy.

  18. Fifty years after Welles and Welles: Distribution and genetic structure of Desert Bighorn Sheep in Death Valley National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Clinton W.; Wehausen, John D.; Sloan, William B.; Holt, Stacy; Creech, Tyler G.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Jaeger, Jef R.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Monello, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    The status of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in the mountains around Death Valley was first evaluated in 1938, shortly after designation of Death Valley National Monument. However, the most comprehensive evaluation of bighorn sheep in the region was conducted by Ralph and Florence Welles during 1955-1961. They documented patterns of use at water sources and other focal areas around Death Valley and roughly estimated numbers of bighorn sheep from observational data. Data collection on bighorn sheep in the area since that time has

  19. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366) FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil transport from the Plutonium Valley Contamination Area (CA) as a result of wind transport and storm runoff in support of National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the contamination areas. The DRI work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism(s) of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils. The emphasis of the work is on collecting sediment transported by channelized storm runoff at the Plutonium Valley investigation sites. These data will inform closure plans that are being developed, which will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring. In 2011, DRI installed two meteorological monitoring stations south (station #1) and north (station #2) of the Plutonium Valley CA and a runoff sediment sampling station within the CA. Temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, barometric pressure, soil temperature, and airborne particulate concentration are collected at both meteorological stations. The maximum, minimum, and average or total (as appropriate) for each of these parameters are recorded for each 10-minute interval. The sediment sampling station includes an automatically activated ISCO sampling pump with collection bottles for suspended sediment, which is activated when sufficient flow is present in the channel, and passive traps for bedload material that is transported down the channel during runoff events. This report presents data collected from these stations during fiscal year (FY) 2015.

  20. Geologic map of the Lower Valley quadrangle, Caribou County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlindacher, H. Peter; Hovland, R. David; Miller, Susan T.; Evans, James G.; Miller, Robert J.

    2018-04-05

    The Lower Valley 7.5-minute quadrangle, located in the core of the Southeast Idaho Phosphate Resource Area, includes Mississippian to Triassic marine sedimentary rocks, Pliocene to Pleistocene basalt, and Tertiary to Holocene surficial deposits. The Mississippian to Triassic marine sedimentary sequence was deposited on a shallow shelf between an emergent craton to the east and the Antler orogenic belt to the west. The Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member of the Permian Phosphoria Formation hosts high-grade deposits of phosphate that were the subject of geologic studies through much of the 20th century. Open-pit mining of the phosphate has been underway within and near the Lower Valley quadrangle for several decades.

  1. The Virtual Museum of the Tiber Valley Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Arnoldus Huyzendveld

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Virtual Museum of the Tiber Valley project is the creation of an integrated digital system for the knowledge, valorisation and communication of the cultural landscape, archaeological and naturalistic sites along the Tiber Valley, in the Sabina area between Monte Soratte and the ancient city of Lucus Feroniae (Capena. Virtual reality applications, multimedia contents, together with a web site, are under construction and they will be accessed inside the museums of the territory and in a central museum in Rome. The different stages of work will cover the building of a geo-spatial archaeological database, the reconstruction of the ancient potential landscape and the creation of virtual models of the major archaeological sites. This paper will focus on the methodologies used and on present and future results.

  2. Geological literature on the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, J.C.; Trollman, W.M.; Denman, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    The following list of references includes most of the geological literature on the San Joaquin Valley and vicinity in central California (see figure 1) published prior to January 1, 1973. The San Joaquin Valley comprises all or parts of 11 counties -- Alameda, Calaveras, Contra Costa, Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, and Tulare (figure 2). As a matter of convenient geographical classification the boundaries of the report area have been drawn along county lines, and to include San Benito and Santa Clara Counties on the west and Mariposa and Tuolumne Counties on the east. Therefore, this list of geological literature includes some publications on the Diablo and Temblor Ranges on the west, the Tehachapi Mountains and Mojave Desert on the south, and the Sierra Nevada Foothills and Mountains on the east.

  3. Fifteen years of Superfund at South Valley: Reengineering required

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, J.; Horak, F.

    1995-01-01

    It is no surprise to many of Superfund's practitioners that the law and its application are flawed. The South Valley Superfund Site in Albuquerque, New Mexico has not escaped Superfund's problems. The problems and issues arising out of the South Valley Superfund site have spurred the desire to seek a better way to administer and manage cleanup. This new method applies organizational and role changes that bring Superfund closer to an efficient business-like entity. This ''Reengineered'' Superfund strives for reorganization, contractor reduction, improved communication, reporting reduction, and teaming. In addition, modifications are made to the roles of regulators, potentially responsible parties (PRPs), and the public. Today the site encompasses roughly one square mile in area, includes six identified contaminant sources, and deals with solvent and petroleum by-product contamination

  4. Cambios en coberturas de áreas y usos del suelo en tres humedales en el Valle del Cauca Changes of the coverage of three wetland areas in Cauca Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Andrés Núñez Restrepo

    2009-10-01

    in coverage in the study zone. The usage of GIS and correct processing of satellite images will be very helpful not only to evidence changes in soil usage in wetlands, but also in different areas where use of these technologies is very unusual.

  5. The Impact of the Bituminous Coal Combustion from the Thermoelectric Power Plant from Paroseni on the Environment of Jiu Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Rebrisoreanu; Eugen Traistă; Aronel Matei; Ovidiu Barbu; Vlad A. Codrea

    2002-01-01

    The Jiu Valley Basin is one of the most important coal mining areas in Romania. Other industries, including a power plant, are also well developed in this area. Therefore, pollution is very high. One of the most polluted environmental compounds is the air. High mountains surround the Jiu Valley, which makes difficult the air refreshing. For this reason, it is very important to discuss the air pollution and especially that produced by dust. Since the industrial companies are concentrated in a ...

  6. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references

  7. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references. (MCW)

  8. 77 FR 8895 - Jimbilnan, Pinto Valley, Black Canyon, Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ..., Pinto Valley, Black Canyon, Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and Bridge Canyon..., Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and Bridge Canyon Wilderness Areas, Lake Mead... wilderness character; providing for reasonable use of Spirit Mountain and adjacent areas in a manner meeting...

  9. The Yosemite Extreme Panoramic Imaging Project: Monitoring Rockfall in Yosemite Valley with High-Resolution, Three-Dimensional Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, G. M.; Hansen, E.; Downing, G.

    2008-12-01

    Yosemite Valley experiences numerous rockfalls each year, with over 600 rockfall events documented since 1850. However, monitoring rockfall activity has proved challenging without high-resolution "basemap" imagery of the Valley walls. The Yosemite Extreme Panoramic Imaging Project, a partnership between the National Park Service and xRez Studio, has created an unprecedented image of Yosemite Valley's walls by utilizing gigapixel panoramic photography, LiDAR-based digital terrain modeling, and three-dimensional computer rendering. Photographic capture was accomplished by 20 separate teams shooting from key overlapping locations throughout Yosemite Valley. The shots were taken simultaneously in order to ensure uniform lighting, with each team taking over 500 overlapping shots from each vantage point. Each team's shots were then assembled into 20 gigapixel panoramas. In addition, all 20 gigapixel panoramas were projected onto a 1 meter resolution digital terrain model in three-dimensional rendering software, unifying Yosemite Valley's walls into a vertical orthographic view. The resulting image reveals the geologic complexity of Yosemite Valley in high resolution and represents one of the world's largest photographic captures of a single area. Several rockfalls have already occurred since image capture, and repeat photography of these areas clearly delineates rockfall source areas and failure dynamics. Thus, the imagery has already proven to be a valuable tool for monitoring and understanding rockfall in Yosemite Valley. It also sets a new benchmark for the quality of information a photographic image, enabled with powerful new imaging technology, can provide for the earth sciences.

  10. Hidden Valley Search at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Verducci, M

    2011-01-01

    A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in neutral and weakly-coupled particles that decay to multi hadrons or multi leptons with macroscopic decay lengths. These particles with decay paths that can be comparable with ATLAS detector dimensions represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS detector. We will present a set of signature driven triggers for the ATLAS detector that target such displaced decays and evaluate their performances for some benchmark models and describe analysis strategies and limits on the production of such long-lived particles. A first estimation of the Hidden Valley trigger rates has been evaluated with 6 pb-1 of data collected at ATLAS during the data taking of 2010.

  11. 78 FR 3026 - Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... ensure effective conservation. SHC entails strategic biological planning and conservation design... planning process for the easement program. At the beginning of the planning process, the Service initiated....gov/mountain-prairie/planning/ . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Toni Griffin, Planning Team Leader...

  12. Proposed Operational Base Site, Steptoe Valley, Ely Area, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-31

    1629, respectively (White Pine Chamber of Commerce , WPCC, 1980). The city of Ely is incorporated; the suburb of East Ely is not. For purposes of this...Site SAF Security Alert Facility WPCC White Pine Chamber of Commerce WPPP White Pine Power Project IL__ _ FN-TR-35 38 BIBLIOGRAPHY Cardinalli, J., 1979...Nevada Forecasts for the Future--Agriculture, State Engineer’s Office, Carson City, Nevada. *1 White Pine Chamber of Commerce , 1980, Oral

  13. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppenjan, S.; Martinez, M.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE's Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a ''chirped'' FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site

  14. Resource development and the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donihee, J.

    1999-01-01

    Changes to the resource management regime of the Northwest Territories based on land claim agreements with native peoples which result from the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act are the result of commitments made by Canada during the negotiation of these land claims. This statute effects important changes to the legislative framework for environmental impact assessment and land and water management. It also establishes land use planning processes for the Gwich'in and Sahtu settlement areas and will result in an environmental and cumulative effects monitoring program for the Mackenzie Valley. The Act also establishes new institutions of public government responsible for environmental impact assessment, land and water management, and land use planning. These boards will play an internal and continuing role in resource development and management in the Mackenzie Valley. A brief overview is included of some features of the new legislative scheme, specifically focussing on environmental impact assessment and water management. An understanding of the new regime will be important for oil and gas companies that are looking north with renewed interest as a result of improved oil and gas prices and also for mining companies given the continuing interest in diamond exploration and development in the Northwest Territories. 29 refs

  15. Effects of Groundwater Development on Uranium: Central Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, B.C.; Fram, M.S.; Belitz, K.; Burow, K.R.; Landon, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium (U) concentrations in groundwater in several parts of the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, have exceeded federal and state drinking water standards during the last 20 years. The San Joaquin Valley is located within the Central Valley of California and is one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world. Increased irrigation and pumping associated with agricultural and urban development during the last 100 years have changed the chemistry and magnitude of groundwater recharge, and increased the rate of downward groundwater movement. Strong correlations between U and bicarbonate suggest that U is leached from shallow sediments by high bicarbonate water, consistent with findings of previous work in Modesto, California. Summer irrigation of crops in agricultural areas and, to lesser extent, of landscape plants and grasses in urban areas, has increased Pco2 concentrations in the soil zone and caused higher temperature and salinity of groundwater recharge. Coupled with groundwater pumping, this process, as evidenced by increasing bicarbonate concentrations in groundwater over the last 100 years, has caused shallow, young groundwater with high U concentrations to migrate to deeper parts of the groundwater system that are tapped by public-supply wells. Continued downward migration of U-affected groundwater and expansion of urban centers into agricultural areas will likely be associated with increased U concentrations in public-supply wells. The results from this study illustrate the potential long-term effects of groundwater development and irrigation-supported agriculture on water quality in arid and semiarid regions around the world. Journal compilation ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  16. Temperature and Precipitation trends in Kashmir valley, North Western Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Mifta Ul; Rasool, Rehana; Ahmed, Pervez; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change has emerged as an important issue ever to confront mankind. This concern emerges from the fact that our day-to-day activities are leading to impacts on the Earth's atmosphere that has the potential to significantly alter the planet's shield and radiation balance. Developing countries particularly whose income is particularly derived from agricultural activities are at the forefront of bearing repercussions due to changing climate. The present study is an effort to analyze the changing trends of precipitation and temperature variables in Kashmir valley along different elevation zones in the north western part of India. As the Kashmir valley has a rich repository of glaciers with its annual share of precipitation, slight change in the temperature and precipitation regime has far reaching environmental and economic consequences. The results from Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) data of the period 1980-2014 reveals that the annual mean temperature of Kashmir valley has increased significantly. Accelerated warming has been observed during 1980-2014, with intense warming in the recent years (2001-2014). During the period 1980-2014, steeper increase, in annual mean maximum temperature than annual mean minimum temperature, has been observed. In addition, mean maximum temperature in plain regions has shown higher rate of increase when compared with mountainous areas. In case of mean minimum temperature, mountainous regions have shown higher rate of increase. Analysis of precipitation data for the same period shows a decreasing trend with mountainous regions having the highest rate of decrease which can be quite hazardous for the fragile mountain environment of the Kashmir valley housing a large number of glaciers.

  17. Draft environmental impact statement - BPA/Lower Valley transmission project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration and Lower Valley Power and Light, Inc., propose to solve a voltage stability problem in the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. For the Agency Proposed Action, BPA and Lower Valley would construct a new 115-kV line from BPA's Swan Valley Substation near Swan Valley in Bonneville County, Idaho about 58 km (36 miles) east to BPA's Teton Substation near Jackson in Teton County, Wyoming. The new line would be next to an existing 115-kV line. Most of the line would be supported by a mix of single-circuit wood pole H-frame structures would be used. The Single-Circuit Line Alternative has all the components of the Agency Proposed Action except that the entire line would be supported by single-circuit structures. The Short Line Alternative has all the components of the Single-Circuit Line Alternative except it would then be removed. For the Static Var Compensation Alternative, BPA would install a Static Var Compensator (SVC) at Teton or Jackson Substation. An SVC is a group of electrical equipment placed at a substation to help control voltage on a transmission system. The No Action Alternative assumes that no new transmission line is built, and no other equipment is added to the transmission system. The USFS (Targhee and Bridger-Teton National Forests) must select al alternative based on their needs and objectives, decide if the project complies with currently approved forest plans, decide if special use permits or easements are needed for construction, operation, and maintenance of project facilities, and decide if they would issue special use permits and letters of consent to grant easements for the project

  18. Rock-fall Hazard In The Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.; Wieczorek, G. F.

    Rock slides and rock falls are the most frequent slope movements in Yosemite Na- tional Park, California. In historical time (1851-2001), more than 400 rock falls and rock slides have been documented in the valley, and some of them have been mapped in detail. We present the preliminary results of an attempt to assess rockfall hazard in the Yosemite Valley using STONE, a 3-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. The software computes 3-dimensional rock-fall trajectories starting from a digital terrain model (DTM), the location of rock-fall release points (source areas), and maps of the dynamic rolling coefficient and of the coefficients of normal and tan- gential energy restitution. For each DTM cell the software also calculates the number of rock falls passing through the cell, the maximum rock-fall velocity and the maxi- mum flying height. For the Yosemite Valley, a DTM with a ground resolution of 10 x 10 m was prepared using topographic contour lines from USGS 1:24,000-scale maps. Rock-fall release points were identified as DTM cells having a slope steeper than 60 degrees, an assumption based on the location of historical rock falls. Maps of the nor- mal and tangential energy restitution coefficients and of the rolling friction coefficient were produced from a surficial geologic map. The availability of historical rock falls mapped in detail allowed us to check the computer program performance and to cali- brate the model parameters. Visual and statistical comparison of the model results with the mapped rock falls confirmed the accuracy of the model. The model results are also compared with a geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazard based on potential energy referred to as a "shadow angle" approach, recently completed for the Yosemite Valley.

  19. Structural Evolution of the East Sierra Valley System (Owens Valley and Vicinity, California: A Geologic and Geophysical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Blakely

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS, which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm, which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3–3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  20. Structural evolution of the east Sierra Valley system (Owens Valley and vicinity), California: a geologic and geophysical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Blakely, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS), which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm), which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3-3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  1. Grape and wine amino acid composition from Carignan noir grapevines growing under rainfed conditions in the Maule Valley, Chile: Effects of location and rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, G; Carrasco-Quiroz, M; Martínez-Gil, A M; Pérez-Álvarez, E P; Garde-Cerdán, T; Moreno-Simunovic, Y

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen compounds play a key role on grape and wine quality. Their composition in grapes depends mainly on variety, viticultural management, and terroir, and affects fermentation kinetics and the volatile compound formation. The aim of this work was to study grape and wine amino acid composition of ungrafted or grafted onto cv. País Carignan grapevines growing under rainfed conditions in ten sites of the Maule Valley (Chile). The results showed that proline was the most abundant amino acid in grapes and wines. In general, Carignan noir grapevines grafted over País showed lower grape amino acid content respect to ungrafted vines. Cool night index (CI) was inversely correlated to several amino acids, showing that their plant synthesis or accumulation increased with lower minimum temperatures during the last month before harvest. Truquilemu (Tru) and Ciénaga de Name (Cdn) sites showed the highest concentration for several amino acids and total amino acid content in grapes, which led to a faster alcoholic fermentation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Implications of ammonia emissions for fine aerosol formation and visibility impairment. A case study from the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    of nitrogen and sulphur oxides over agricultural areas in the eastern and central valley with higher ammonia emissions favours subsequent ammonium nitrate and sulphate formation. This leads to higher fine mass concentrations and lowest visibility in the predominantly agricultural regions of the valley. (C...

  3. Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-10

    Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.

  4. Torrential floods: A potential hazard at the Aburra valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero Acosta, Jose Humberto

    2011-01-01

    Torrential foods are a type of mass movement generally moving through the channels of the creeks, leading to transport large volumes of sediment and debris, unsafe speeds for the people and infrastructure located in areas of accumulation of mountain watersheds susceptible to this phenomenon. Although there is no adequate historical record of such events to the valley of Aburra, if there are some experiences that validate the growing concern about this threat in the region. The geomorphologic and climatic conditions in the valley allow us to call attention to this problem, especially when we consider that the basins have been practically occupied in low or accumulation areas are being subjected to strong constructive pressure, without concern in the negative impact that the inappropriate intervention, can have in the lowlands. It requires interdisciplinary research programs of these phenomena in order to have the scientific information needed to advance threat assessments appropriated to our conditions. It is also important that the authorities and people understand that, in part, the protection of the settlements of the lowland areas of accumulation, depending on management given to the upper reaches of the escarpment and transportation areas.

  5. Rockfall failure mechanisms in Yosemite Valley, California (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matasci, Battista; Guerin, Antoine; Carrea, Dario; Stock, Greg M.; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Collins, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Rockfall hazard is especially high in Yosemite Valley, with tens of rockfalls inventoried every year. A rockfall on 5 October 2013 from Ahwiyah Point consisted of a volume of 740 cubic meters and occurred within the perimeter of a larger event on 28 March 2009 that released 25'400 cubic meters of rock (Zimmer et al., 2012). In both events (2009 and 2013), the initial rockfall volumes dislodged a second one approximately equivalent in size by impacting the cliff below the source area during the fall. Rock fragments of up to several cubic meters were deposited on the talus slope, damaging a heavily used and recently reconstructed hiking path. We performed extensive mapping of structural features for several cliffs of Yosemite Valley to improve the assessment of the most susceptible rockfall areas. In particular we mapped and characterized the main brittle structures, the exfoliation joints and the failure mechanisms of the past rockfalls. Several failure mechanisms exist in Yosemite including the propagation of brittle structures that may lead to tensile, planar sliding, wedge sliding or toppling failures. Frequently, topographically-parallel exfoliation joints and topographically-oblique discontinuities coexist, resulting in complex failures. We also developed a methodology to examine how the distribution of joints within the cliff faces of Yosemite Valley affects overall stability with respect to the identified failure mechanisms. For these analyses, we used terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to collect high resolution point clouds of the vertical and overhanging rock faces throughout the Valley. This provided the necessary 3D data to identify the main joint sets, perform spacing and trace length measurements, and calculate volumes of previous and potential rockfalls. We integrated this information with stability calculations to identify the likely failure mechanisms for each area of cliff and to obtain the number of potential failures per square meter of cliff face

  6. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.

  7. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  8. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  9. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  10. Mapping the depth to ice-cemented ground in the high elevation Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, M.; McKay, C. P.; Heldmann, J. L.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D. T.; Jackson, A.; Lacelle, D.; Paulsen, G.; Pollard, W. H.; Zacny, K.

    2011-12-01

    The high elevation Dry Valleys of Antarctica provide a unique location for the study of permafrost distribution and stability. In particular, the extremely arid and cold conditions preclude the presence of liquid water, and the exchange of water between the ice-cemented ground and the atmosphere is through vapour transport (diffusion). In addition, the low atmospheric humidity results in the desiccation of the subsurface, forming a dry permafrost layer (i.e., cryotic soils which are dry and not ice-cemented). Weather data suggests that subsurface ice is unstable under current climatic conditions. Yet we do find ice-cemented ground in these valleys. This contradiction provides insight into energy balance modeling, vapour transport, and additional climate effects which stabilize subsurface ice. To study the driving factors in the stability and distribution of ice-cemented ground, we have extensively mapped the depth to ice-cemented ground in University Valley (1730 m; 77°S 51.8', 160°E 43'), and three neighbouring valleys in the Beacon Valley area. We measured the depth to ice-cemented ground at 15-40 locations per valley by digging soil pits and drilling until ice was reached; for each location 3-5 measurements within a ~1 m2 area were averaged (see figure). This high-resolution mapping of the depth to ice-cemented ground provides new insight on the distribution and stability of subsurface ice, and shows significant variability in the depth to ground ice within each valley. We are combining data from mapping the depth to ice-cemented ground with year-round, in situ measurements of the atmospheric and subsurface conditions, such as temperature, humidity, wind, and light, to model the local stability of ice-cemented ground. We are using this dataset to examine the effects of slopes, shading, and soil properties, as well as the suggested importance of snow recurrence, to better understand diffusion-controlled subsurface ice stability.

  11. Source apportionment of PM10 mass and particulate carbon in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Mann; Park, Jin-Soo; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Hyunjae; Jeon, Haeun; Cho, Chaeyoon; Kim, Ji-Hyoung; Hong, Seungkyu; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico K.; Park, Rokjin J.; Hong, Jihyung; Yoon, Soon-Chang

    2015-12-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal is a bowl-shaped urban basin in the Himalayan foothills with a serious problem of fine particulate air pollution that impacts local health and impairs visibility. Particulate carbon concentrations have reached severe levels that threaten the health of 3.5 million local residents. Moreover, snow and ice on the Himalayan mountains are melting as a result of additional warming due to particulate carbon, especially high black carbon concentrations. To date, the sources of the Valley's particulate carbon and the impacts of different sources on particulate carbon concentrations are not well understood. Thus, before an effective control strategy can be developed, these particulate carbon sources must be identified and quantified. Our study has found that the four primary sources of particulate carbon in the Kathmandu Valley during winter are brick kilns, motor vehicles, fugitive soil dust, and biomass/garbage burning. Their source contributions are quantified using a recently developed new multivariate receptor model SMP. In contrast to other highly polluted areas such as China, secondary contribution is almost negligible in Kathmandu Valley. Brick kilns (40%), motor vehicles (37%) and biomass/garbage burning (22%) have been identified as the major sources of elemental carbon (black carbon) in the Kathmandu Valley during winter, while motor vehicles (47%), biomass/garbage burning (32%), and soil dust (13%) have been identified as the most important sources of organic carbon. Our research indicates that controlling emissions from motor vehicles, brick kilns, biomass/garbage burning, and soil dust is essential for the mitigation of the particulate carbon that threatens public health, impairs visibility, and influences climate warming within and downwind from the Kathmandu Valley. In addition, this paper suggests several useful particulate carbon mitigation methods that can be applied to Kathmandu Valley and other areas in South Asia with

  12. Evolution des pratiques viticoles françaises : de la viticulture raisonnée à l'agroécologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochard Joël

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Après la deuxième guerre mondiale, l'agriculture et la viticulture s'inscrivaient dans un contexte de défi alimentaire. La priorité de l'époque était avant tout d'intégrer les progrès de la science dans les itinéraires de production pour augmenter la productivité et les rendements. En complément des effets sur le milieu naturel, l'utilisation massive des produits phytosanitaires a pu conduire à la présence de résidus dans le raisin. Progressivement, la lutte puis la production intégrée ont émergé en France avec un souci de limitation des impacts sur les auxiliaires de la vigne. Parallèlement à ces enjeux territoriaux, la notion de développement durable a mis l'accent sur l'impact planétaire de l'homme, et vis-à-vis des générations futures. Ainsi, la biodiversité, l'utilisation des énergies fossiles, la production de déchet et de gaz à effet de serre, s'immiscent progressivement dans les contraintes viticoles. Parallèlement aux aspects techniques, la certification des démarches s'est appuyée sur un processus d'évaluation et de contrôle. L'IFV a accompagné cette évolution, notamment par de nombreuses recherches (modélisation des maladies, pulvérisation, mécanismes de résistance des cépages, dépérissements, etc. et par l'élaboration de supports de vulgarisation (publications, colloques, plaquette, site Internet ainsi que par la création d'outils d'aide à la décision.

  13. Composição e configuração da paisagem da sub-bacia do arroio jacaré, Vale do Taquari, RS, com ênfase nas áreas de florestas Landscape composition and configuration of jacaré stream sub-basin, Taquari Valley, RS, with emphasis on the forest areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cemin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A conversão de áreas com cobertura florestal contínua por fragmentos florestais vem contribuindo para a diminuição da diversidade biológica, em função da perda de micro-habitats únicos, mudanças nos padrões de dispersão e migração, isolamento de habitats e erosão do solo. A solução desses problemas está intimamente vinculada ao planejamento e manutenção de bacias hidrográficas. A sub-bacia do Arroio Jacaré, localizada no Vale do Taquari, RS, compreende uma área de 538,98 km², onde estão parcial ou totalmente inseridos nove municípios. Essa bacia se encontra em uma região de ecótono entre as formações vegetais do tipo Floresta Estacional Decidual (FED e Floresta Ombrófila Mista - Mata de Araucária (FOM. Foram elaboradas e analisadas informações relacionadas às características estruturais das classes de mata na região (FED, FOM e vegetação secundária, utilizando-se imagem do satélite Landsat 7 ETM+, referente à passagem 04/02/2002 e software de Sistemas de Informações Geográficas (SIG Idrisi, 3.2, software de Ecologia de Paisagem Fragstats 3.3. Os resultados indicaram que a região apresenta aproximadamente 50% de suas matas nativas conservadas ou em estágio de regeneração, porém de forma altamente fragmentada, com 87,82% dos fragmentos menores que 1 ha. Considerando um efeito de borda de 50 m, em torno de 40% dos fragmentos ainda apresentam área nuclear.The conversion of continuous forest coverage areas into forest fragments has contributed to the decrease of the biological diversity due to the micro-habitat loss, changes in dispersion and migration patterns, habitats' isolation and soil erosion. The solution for those problems is intimately linked to the planning and maintenance of hydrographic basins. Jacaré's stream sub-basin is located in Taquari Valley, RS, with an area of 538,98 km², where nine municipal districts are partially or totally inserted. This basin is in an ecotone area among

  14. Preliminary analysis of West Valley Waste Removal System equipment development and mock demonstration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicek, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    This report defines seven areas requiring further investigation to develop and demonstrate a safe and viable West Valley Waste Removal System. These areas of endeavor are discussed in terms of their minimum facility requirements. It is concluded that utilizing separated specific facilities at different points in time is of a greater advantage than an exact duplication of the West Valley tanks. Savannah River Plant's full-scale, full-circle and half-circle tanks, and their twelfth scale model tank would all be useful to varying degrees but would require modifications. Hanford's proposed full-size mock tank would be useful, but is not seriously considered because its construction may not coincide with West Valley needs. Costs of modifying existing facilities and/or constructing new facilities are assessed in terms of their benefit to the equipment development and mock demonstration. Six facilities were identified for further analysis which would benefit development of waste removal equipment

  15. Impacts of Geomorphic Disturbances on Plant Colonization in Ebba Valley, Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stawska Monika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming observed nowadays causes an increase in geomorphic activity in polar regions. Within the areas influenced by cold climatic conditions, relief dynamics and vegetation development are the main landscape shaping processes. The study is limited to the Ebba Valley (78°43’N; 16°37’E in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard, where geomorphologic observations and vegetation sampling were conducted in 2007. The valley was divided into three zones differentiated by dominating geomorphic activity and stability of deposits. The settlement and the evolution of plant cover have been documented there. The main factors that control well developed vegetation cover within raised marine terraces are frost heave and solifluction. In deeper parts of the valley, aeolian processes dominate and high differentiation of microsite conditions causes high variability in plant coverage. The area close to the Ebba glacier marginal zone is characterized by initial stages of plant colonisation where disturbance to vegetation is mainly caused by hydrological processes.

  16. Electrical valley filtering in transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Chou, Mei-Yin; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the feasibility of electrical valley filtering for holes in transition metal dichalcogenides. We look specifically into the scheme that utilizes a potential barrier to produce valley-dependent tunneling rates, and perform the study with both a k .p -based analytic method and a recursive Green's function-based numerical method. The study yields the transmission coefficient as a function of incident energy and transverse wave vector, for holes going through lateral quantum barriers oriented in either armchair or zigzag directions, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The main findings are the following: (1) The tunneling current valley polarization increases with increasing barrier width or height; (2) both the valley-orbit interaction and band structure warping contribute to valley-dependent tunneling, with the former contribution being manifest in structures with asymmetric potential barriers, and the latter being orientation dependent and reaching maximum for transmission in the armchair direction; and (3) for transmission ˜0.1 , a tunneling current valley polarization of the order of 10 % can be achieved.

  17. Lung cancer in the Kashmir valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Parvaiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer has been found to be the second commonest cancer according to a hospital-based data from Kashmir, India. However, no incidence studies are available. Objective: To ascertain the incidence of lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: All newly histologically diagnosed cases of lung cancer seen in various hospital and private laboratories of the Kashmir valley were registered over a period of two years (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005. Also included were patients attending the various oncological service areas of the institute and those diagnosed from any other laboratory outside the state. The incidence rate was calculated using the January 2005 population as the reference population estimated using the census-based projected populations. Results: Four hundred and sixty-two incident cases of lung cancer were seen during the study period. The crude incidence rate, age standardized (world and truncated age adjusted (40-69 years, world incidence rates for lung cancer per 100 000 population were 4.01, 6.48 and 15.28 respectively (males 6.55, 10.09 and 23.94 respectively and females 1.19, 2.14 and 4.65. The age adjusted rates for males in district Srinagar was 19.34 per 100 000. One hundred and fifty nine (69.8% of the 221 had a history of Hukkah smoking. Conclusions: Even though Kashmir as a whole is a low incidence area for lung cancer (ASR of < 15, Srinagar district has the highest incidence of lung cancer among the males in Kashmir. The data presented is assumed to be the closest approximation to a population-based data registry and the geographical incidence maps of ICMR need appropriate updating

  18. West Valley demonstration project: Implementation of the kerosene mitigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blickwedehl, R.R.; Goodman, J.; Valenti, P.J.

    1987-05-01

    An aggressive program was implemented to mitigate the migration of radioactive kerosene believed to have originated from the West Valley NRC-Licensed Disposal Area (NDA) disposal trenches designated as SH-10 and SH-11 (Special Holes 10 and 11). This report provides a historical background of the events leading to the migration problem, the results of a detailed investigation to determine the location and source of the kerosene migration, the remediation plan to mitigate the migration, and the actions taken to successfully stabilize the kerosene. 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  19. Control of medfly by SIT in the Nereva river valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjelis, Mario; Ljubetic, Visnja; Novosel, Nevenka

    2006-01-01

    A feasibility study of medfly suppression by means of sterile males released program in the Neretva Vallley, Croatia, is presented. The increase of medfly infestation is considered, as almost all cultures of the region represent host plants for the insect. Environmental friendly methods such well developed SIT technique associated with other organic methods are mentioned as an option of no disruption of the present natural balance. Area study and strategy planning is briefly presented. Population dynamics of Ceratitis capitata in the different parts of the delta Neretva valley, during period 2002 - 2004 Year is reported. Medfly capture on selected locations with different host availability in Neretva river is studied. (MAC)

  20. Control of medfly by SIT in the Nereva river valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjelis, Mario, E-mail: mario.bjelis@zzb.h [Institut for Plant Protection in Agriculture and Foresty of Republic of Croatia, Zagreb, Zvonimirova (Croatia); Ljubetic, Visnja [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Watter Managment of Republic of Croatia, Zagreb (Croatia); Novosel, Nevenka [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    A feasibility study of medfly suppression by means of sterile males released program in the Neretva Vallley, Croatia, is presented. The increase of medfly infestation is considered, as almost all cultures of the region represent host plants for the insect. Environmental friendly methods such well developed SIT technique associated with other organic methods are mentioned as an option of no disruption of the present natural balance. Area study and strategy planning is briefly presented. Population dynamics of Ceratitis capitata in the different parts of the delta Neretva valley, during period 2002 - 2004 Year is reported. Medfly capture on selected locations with different host availability in Neretva river is studied. (MAC)

  1. Audiomagnetotelluric investigation of Snake Valley, eastern Nevada and western Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Darcy K.; Pari, Keith; Baird, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data along four profiles in western Snake Valley and the corresponding two-dimensional (2-D) inverse models reveal subsurface structures that may be significant to ground-water investigations in the area. The AMT method is a valuable tool for estimating the electrical resistivity of the earth over depth ranges from a few meters to less than one kilometer. The method has the potential to identify faults and stratigraphy within basins of eastern Nevada, thereby helping define the hydrogeologic framework of the region.

  2. Faulting at Mormon Point, Death Valley, California: A low-angle normal fault cut by high-angle faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Charles; Serpa, Laura; Pavlis, Terry L.

    1993-04-01

    New geophysical and fault kinematic studies indicate that late Cenozoic basin development in the Mormon Point area of Death Valley, California, was accommodated by fault rotations. Three of six fault segments recognized at Mormon Point are now inactive and have been rotated to low dips during extension. The remaining three segments are now active and moderately to steeply dipping. From the geophysical data, one active segment appears to offset the low-angle faults in the subsurface of Death Valley.

  3. Interpreting Fracture Patterns in Sandstones Interbedded with Ductile Strata at the Salt Valley Anticline, Arches National Park, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, John C.; Cooper, Scott P.

    2001-01-01

    Sandstones that overlie or that are interbedded with evaporitic or other ductile strata commonly contain numerous localized domains of fractures, each covering an area of a few square miles. Fractures within the Entrada Sandstone at the Salt Valley Anticline are associated with salt mobility within the underlying Paradox Formation. The fracture relationships observed at Salt Valley (along with examples from Paleozoic strata at the southern edge of the Holbrook basin in northeastern Arizona, a...

  4. An Isotopic View of Water and Nitrate Transport Through the Vadose Zone in Oregon’s Southern Willamette Valley’s Groundwater Management Area (S-GWMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon’s southern Willamette Valley and many more across the USA. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater exceedi...

  5. Geophysical Surveys of the Hydrologic Basin Underlying Yosemite Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, E. L.; Shaw, K. A.; Carey, C.; Dunn, M. E.; Whitman, S.; Bourdeau, J.; Eckert, E.; Louie, J. N.; Stock, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    UNR students in an Applied Geophysics course conducted geophysical investigations in Yosemite Valley during the months of March and August 2017. The goal of the study is to understand better the depth to bedrock, the geometry of the bedrock basin, and the properties of stratigraphy- below the valley floor. Gutenberg and others published the only prior geophysical investigation in 1956, to constrain the depth to bedrock. We employed gravity, resistivity, and refraction microtremor(ReMi) methods to investigate the interface between valley fill and bedrock, as well as shallow contrasts. Resistivity and ReMi arrays along three north-south transects investigated the top 50-60m of the basin fill. Gravity results constrained by shallow measurements suggest a maximum depth of 1000 m to bedrock. ReMi and resistivity techniques identified shallow contrasts in shear velocity and electrical resistivity that yielded information about the location of the unconfined water table, the thickness of the soil zone, and spatial variation in shallow sediment composition. The upper several meters of sediment commonly showed shear velocities below 200 m/s, while biomass-rich areas and sandy river banks could be below 150 m/s. Vs30 values consistently increased towards the edge of the basin. The general pattern for resistivity profiles was a zone of relatively high resistivity, >100 ohm-m, in the top 4 meters, followed by one or more layers with decreased resistivity. According to gravity measurements, assuming either -0.5 g/cc or -0.7 g/cc density contrast between bedrock and basin sediments, a maximum depth to bedrock is found south of El Capitan at respectively, 1145 ± 215 m or 818 ± 150 m. Longitudinal basin geometry coincides with the basin depth geometry discussed by Gutenberg in 1956. Their results describe a "double camel" shape where the deepest points are near El Capitan and the Ahwahnee Hotel and is shallowest near Yosemite Falls, in a wider part of the valley. An August Deep

  6. Environment, safety and health, management and organization compliance assessment, West Valley Demonstration Program, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    An Environment, Safety and Health ''Tiger Team'' Assessment was conducted at the West Valley Demonstration Project. The Tiger Team was chartered to conduct an onsite, independent assessment of WVDP's environment, safety and health (ES ampersand H) programs to assure compliance with applicable Federal and State laws, regulations, and standards, and Department of Energy Orders. The objective is to provide to the Secretary of Energy the following information: current ES ampersand H compliance status of each facility; specific noncompliance items; ''root causes'' for noncompliance items; evaluation of the adequacy of ES ampersand H organization and resources (DOE and contractor) and needed modifications; and where warranted, recommendations for addressing identified problem areas

  7. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  8. MX Siting Investigation Geotechnical Evaluation Verification Study - Cave Valley, Nevada. Volume I. Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-26

    areas of non- rippable materials may be encountered throughout the northwestern portion of the valley. Laboratory test results and field observations...non- rippable at shallow depths, thereby classifying them in this instance as areas of rock and/or shallow rock. When this occurs, these areas may...OCCUR- Rock is defined as any earth material which is not rippable RING WITHIN 50 FEET 015m) AND by conventional excavation methods. Where available

  9. Foehn-induced effects on local dust pollution, frontal clouds and solar radiation in the Dead Sea valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Starobinets, Boris; Savir, Amit; Alpert, Pinhas; Kaplan, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Despite the long history of investigation of foehn phenomena, there are few studies of the influence of foehn winds on air pollution and none in the Dead Sea valley. For the first time the foehn phenomenon and its effects on local dust pollution, frontal cloudiness and surface solar radiation were analyzed in the Dead Sea valley, as it occurred on 22 March 2013. This was carried out using both numerical simulations and observations. The foehn winds intensified local dust emissions, while the foehn-induced temperature inversion trapped dust particles beneath this inversion. These two factors caused extreme surface dust concentration in the western Dead Sea valley. The dust pollution was transported by west winds eastward, to the central Dead Sea valley, where the speed of these winds sharply decreased. The transported dust was captured by the ascending airflow contributing to the maximum aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the central Dead Sea valley. On the day under study, the maximum surface dust concentration did not coincide with the maximum AOD: this being one of the specific effects of the foehn phenomenon on dust pollution in the Dead Sea valley. Radar data showed a passage of frontal cloudiness through the area of the Dead Sea valley leading to a sharp drop in noon solar radiation. The descending airflow over the downwind side of the Judean Mountains led to the formation of a cloud-free band followed by only the partial recovery of solar radiation because of the extreme dust pollution caused by foehn winds.

  10. The glacially overdeepened trough of the Salzach Valley, Austria: Bedrock geometry and sedimentary fill of a major Alpine subglacial basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Johannes; Salcher, Bernhard C.; Eichkitz, Christoph; Prasicek, Günther; Lang, Andreas; Lindner, Martin; Götz, Joachim

    2017-10-01

    Overdeepened valleys are unambiguous features of glacially sculpted landscapes. They result from erosion at the bed of the glacier and their size and shape is determined by ice dynamics and the characteristics of the underlying bedrock. Major overdeepened valleys representing vertical bedrock erosion of several hundreds of meters are characteristic features of many trunk valleys in the formerly glaciated parts of the Alpine mountain belt. The thick sedimentary fill usually hinders attempts to unravel bedrock geometry, formation history and fill characteristics. Based on reflection seismic data and core-logs from multiple deep drillings we construct a detailed bedrock model of the Lower Salzach Valley trough, one of the largest overdeepened valleys in the European Alps. The analysed overdeepened structure characterized by a strongly undulating topography. Two reaches of enhanced erosion can be identified and are suggested to be related to variations in bedrock erodibility and a triple glacier confluence. The sedimentary fill shows clear characteristics of rapid infilling and subaqueous fan delta deposits indicate a strong influence of tributary streams. Associated surface lowering of the valley floor had a major impact on tributary stream incision but also on the available ice accumulation area at subsequent glaciations. The extent to which fills of earlier glaciations have been preserved from erosion during the last glacial maximum remains ambiguous and demands further exploration. To our knowledge the presented bedrock model is one of the best defined of any major overdeepened trunk valley.

  11. Variations of surface ozone concentration across the Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Mohd Talib; Huey, Lim Shun; Juneng, Liew

    2012-12-01

    Hourly air quality data covering the period 2004-2008 was obtained from the Air Quality Division, the Department of Environment (DOE) through long-term monitoring by Alam Sekitar Sdn. Bhd. (ASMA) were analysed to investigate the variations of surface ozone (O3) in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. A total of nine monitoring stations were selected for analysis in this study and the results show that there are distinct seasonal patterns in the surface O3 across the Klang Valley. A high surface O3 concentration is usually observed between January and April, while a low surface O3 concentration is found between June and August. Analysis of daily variations in surface O3 and the precursors - NO, NO2, CO, NMHC and UVb, indicate that the surface O3 photochemistry in this study area exhibits a positive response to the intensity and wavelength in UVb while being influenced by the concentration of NOx, particularly through tritration processes. Although results from our study suggested that NMHCs may influence the maximum O3 concentration, further investigation is required. Wind direction during different monsoons was found to influence the concentration of O3 around the Klang Valley. HYSPLIT back trajectories (-72 h) were used to indicate the air-mass transport patterns on days with high concentrations of surface O3 in the study area. Results show that 47% of the high O3 days was associated with the localized circulation. The remaining 32% and 22% were associated with mid-range and long-range transport across the South China Sea from the northeast.

  12. Hydrological functioning of West-African inland valleys explored with a critical zone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, B.; Cohard, J. M.; Séguis, L.; Peugeot, C.; Galle, S.

    2017-12-01

    In west Africa, recurrent floods are still a major issue, and hydropower has been recognized as an important development pathway. Furthermore, inland valleys carry an important agronomic potential, which could meet the necessary increase of the crop production associated with the strong demographic rates of the region. This can lead to land cover and subsequent hydrologic changes. However, the hydrological role of the inland valleys in the humid, hard rock-dominated Sudanian area is not yet well understood, specifically for streamflow (Q) generation processes. We address both the questions of the hydrological functioning of inland valleys in the Sudanian area of West-Africa and the impact of land cover changes on these systems through deterministic sensitivity experiments using a physically-based critical zone model (ParFlow-CLM) applied on a synthetic catchment which comprises an inland valley. The conceptual lithological/pedological model for the catchment includes the main features of such a hydrological elementary unit derived from the literature and from a previously published model based on data from a highly instrumented elementary catchment. Model forcings and parameters are based on data from the AMMA-CATCH observation service and multiple field experiments. We found yearly water budgets were much more sensitive to vegetation distribution than lithology features of the inland valley (presence of the low permeability layer commonly found below the inland valley and the hydrodynamic properties of upstream and lateral areas). Yearly evapotranspiration budget between a fully tree-covered and an herbaceous-covered catchment increases between 6 and 21% of the precipitation of the year (depending on the tested cases) which reduces considerably the yearly streamflow budgets ( 30%). On the other hand, the lithology distribution has clear impacts on the spatial distribution of water storage dynamics.

  13. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  14. Controls on valley spacing in landscapes subject to rapid base-level fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Luke; Pelletier, John D.

    2015-01-01

    What controls the architecture of drainage networks is a fundamental question in geomorphology. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of drainage network development in steadily uplifting landscapes, but the controls on drainage-network morphology in transient landscapes are relatively unknown. In this paper we exploit natural experiments in drainage network development in incised Plio-Quaternary alluvial fan surfaces in order to understand and quantify drainage network development in highly transient landscapes, i.e. initially unincised low-relief surfaces that experience a pulse of rapid base-level drop followed by relative base-level stasis. Parallel drainage networks formed on incised alluvial-fan surfaces tend to have a drainage spacing that is approximately proportional to the magnitude of the base-level drop. Numerical experiments suggest that this observed relationship between the magnitude of base-level drop and mean drainage spacing is the result of feedbacks among the depth of valley incision, mass wasting and nonlinear increases in the rate of colluvial sediment transport with slope gradient on steep valley side slopes that lead to increasingly wide valleys in cases of larger base-level drop. We identify a threshold magnitude of base-level drop above which side slopes lengthen sufficiently to promote increases in contributing area and fluvial incision rates that lead to branching and encourage drainage networks to transition from systems of first-order valleys to systems of higher-order, branching valleys. The headward growth of these branching tributaries prevents the development of adjacent, ephemeral drainages and promotes a higher mean valley spacing relative to cases in which tributaries do not form. Model results offer additional insights into the response of initially unincised landscapes to rapid base-level drop and provide a preliminary basis for understanding how varying amounts of base-level change influence valley network morphology.

  15. Bottomland Hardwoods of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: Characteristics and Management of Natural Function, Structure, and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul B. Hamel; Thomas L. Foti; [Editors

    2001-01-01

    A symposium entitled "Bottomland hardwoods of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: characteristics and management of natural function, structure, and composition" convened on October 28, 1995, as part of the Natural Areas Conference, October 25-28, 1995, In Fayetteville, AR. The symposium's goal was to provide informatibn that managers need to begin...

  16. Vertical transmission of Rift Valley Fever Virus without detectable maternal viremia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonis, A.F.G.; Kortekaas, J.A.; Kant-Eenbergen, H.C.M.; Vloet, R.P.M.; Vogel-Brink, A.; Stockhofe, N.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic bunyavirus that causes abortions in domesticated ruminants. Sheep breeds exotic to endemic areas are reportedly the most susceptible to RVFV infection. Within the scope of a risk assessment program of The Netherlands, we investigated the susceptibility of

  17. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.72 Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.... Uncontrolled surface drainage may not be directed over the outslope of the fill. (2) Runoff from areas above the fill and runoff from the surface of the fill shall be diverted into stabilized diversion channels...

  18. Outlook for Mississippi Alluvial Valley forests: a subregional report from the Southern Forest Futures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner

    2015-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley, which can be broadly subdivided into the Holocene Deposits section and the Deltaic Plain section, is a 24.9-million-acre area generally approximating the alluvial floodplain and delta of the lower Mississippi River. Its robust agricultural economy is maintained by a largely rural population, and recreational resources draw high...

  19. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.4 Production area. Production area...

  20. Study of the inter-relation between shallow and deep aquifers in Mardan Valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishaq Sajjad, M.

    1987-04-01

    This study concerns the determination of the relationship between shallow and deep aquifers in the Mardan Valley, in Pakistan. The environmental isotopes, 18 O, 2 H, 3 H, 14 C and 13 C were used in conjunction with classical hydrogeological methods to determine the origins of the different groundwaters in the valley. The irrigation water contributes significantly to the water logging of the study area. There is also the evidence of upward leakage from the deep groundwater system which contributes to this effect. There is no evidence of contamination of the deep aquifers as the quality is good. Groundwater movement in the deep aquifer is slow in the order of tens of years