WorldWideScience

Sample records for valley energy zone

  1. Visual Resource Analysis for Solar Energy Zones in the San Luis Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Robert [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Abplanalp, Jennifer M. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Zvolanek, Emily [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Brown, Jeffery [Bureau of Land Management, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of the Interior

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory’s (Argonne’s) Environmental Science Division for the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The study analyzed the regional effects of potential visual impacts of solar energy development on three BLM-designated solar energy zones (SEZs) in the San Luis Valley (SLV) in Colorado, and, based on the analysis, made recommendations for or against regional compensatory mitigation to compensate residents and other stakeholders for the potential visual impacts to the SEZs. The analysis was conducted as part of the solar regional mitigation strategy (SRMS) task conducted by BLM Colorado with assistance from Argonne. Two separate analyses were performed. The first analysis, referred to as the VSA Analysis, analyzed the potential visual impacts of solar energy development in the SEZs on nearby visually sensitive areas (VSAs), and, based on the impact analyses, made recommendations for or against regional compensatory mitigation. VSAs are locations for which some type of visual sensitivity has been identified, either because the location is an area of high scenic value or because it is a location from which people view the surrounding landscape and attach some level of importance or sensitivity to what is seen from the location. The VSA analysis included both BLM-administered lands in Colorado and in the Taos FO in New Mexico. The second analysis, referred to as the SEZ Analysis, used BLM visual resource inventory (VRI) and other data on visual resources in the former Saguache and La Jara Field Offices (FOs), now contained within the San Luis Valley FO (SLFO), to determine whether the changes in scenic values that would result from the development of utility-scale solar energy facilities in the SEZs would affect the quality and quantity of valued scenic resources in the SLV region as a whole. If the regional effects were judged to be significant, regional

  2. Characterization of particulate matter from the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martiez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Avila-Perez, P.; Carapio-Morales, L.; Zarazua, G.; Tejeda, S.

    2005-01-01

    The urban air pollution issue is a concern in many Mega cities, because of hazardous effect to human health. The Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico (MZMV) is one of the ten largest urban areas around the World with a population of 24.4 million people by the year 2000. One or the 'six criteria pollutants' regulated by Norm (because the hazardous effect to human health) are those commonly designed as Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Respirable Particles (RP) lower than 10 μm (coarse, PM10 and fine PM2.5). Particulate matter consists of solids or liquid aerosol particles suspended in the air and has diverse chemical composition related to the sources. Under ambient conditions of sampling analysis particulate matter exists almost exclusively in solid phase but can include liquid aerosols such as the heavier components of diesel combustion products and nitric acid. In general particulate matter includes dust, dirt, soot, smoke and liquid droplets emitted in the air by sources such as factories, power plants, cars, fire, construction activities, aircrafts and winds blown dust. In this work the survey of TSP particles an PM10 was carried out with an automatic high volume sampler with an average flow rate of 1.5 m 3 min -1 during 24 h in five monitoring stations of the national network system chosen trying to cover the fourth cardinal directions and the central zone: Xalostoc (XAL) at NE; Tlanepantla (TLA) at NW; Merced (MER) at the downtown; Cerro de la Estrella (CES) at SE and Pedregal (PED) at SW. A sample of l cm 2 was cut from each filter and mounted with a graphite tape on an aluminum sample-holder. The analysis of 100 induvidual particles of each sample were done by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The analysis was performed using a scanning electron microscope PHILLIPS Model XL-30. X-ray analysis is carried out with an energy-dispersive Si(Li) detector Model Saphire, SUTW (super ultra thin window), allowing

  3. Energy balance of the metropolitan zone of the valley of Mexico, methodology and the entailment energy-air quality; Balance de energia de la zona metropolitana del valle de Mexico metodologia y la vinculacion energia - calidad del aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan Navarrete, Gerardo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The present document raises a methodology for the elaboration of the Energy Balance of the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico (ZMVM), in order to unify criteria and to facilitate the work of entities and investigators, mainly of those that require the entailment of energy and environment. The applied methodology, the consolidated format and the caloric unity facilitates the insertion of the Energy Balance of the ZMVM within the National Balance of Energy. The regional balances of energy have the intention of knowing the energy consumption patterns in the ZMVM and the indexes of energy intensity by sector. They establish the relationship of the indexes of energy intensity with the local and global air quality of the region, performing studies of incidence with the main polluting agents and with the greenhouse effect gases. [Spanish] El presente documento plantea una metodologia para la elaboracion del Balance de Energia de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de Mexico (ZMVM), con el proposito de unificar criterios y facilitar el trabajo de organismos e investigadores, sobre todo de aquellos que requieren vincular energia y medio ambiente. La metodologia aplicad, el formato consolidado y la unidad calorica facilitan la insercion del Balance de Energia de la ZMVM dentro del Balance Nacional de Energia. Los balances regionales de energia tienen el proposito de conocer los patrones de consumo de energia en la ZMVM y los indices de intensidad energetica por sector. Establecen la relacion de los indices de intensidad energetica con la calidad del aire local y global de la region, realizando estudios de incidencia con los principales contaminantes y con los gases de efecto invernadero.

  4. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  5. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  6. Potential Visual Impacts of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Development within Solar Energy Zones on Selected Viewpoints in Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, and El Camino Real De Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Robert G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Abplanalp, Jennifer M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cantwell, Brian L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Beckman, Kevin J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In connection with the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Solar PEIS), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has conducted an extended visual impact analysis for selected key observation points (KOPs) within three National Park Service (NPS) units located within the 25-mi (40-km) viewshed of four solar energy zones (SEZs) identified in the Solar PEIS. The analysis includes only those NPS units that the Solar PEIS identified as potentially subject to moderate or strong visual contrasts associated with solar development within the SEZs. The NPS units included in the analysis are Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks and El Camino Real De Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail. The analysis showed that certain KOPs in each of these NPS units could potentially be subject to major visual contrast and impacts from solar development within the SEZs, but many of the KOPs would likely be subject to moderate, minor, or negligible contrasts and impacts, generally because they were relatively distant from the relevant SEZ, had views of the SEZ partially blocked by intervening terrain, and/or had very low vertical angles of view toward the SEZ. For all three NPS units, power tower facilities were found to be major contributors to potential visual contrasts, primarily because of the long-distance visibility of intensely bright reflection of light from the receivers on the central towers, but also because of the height and strong vertical line of the tower structures and the potential for night-sky impacts from FAA-mandated hazard navigation lighting.

  7. Energy Band Gap Dependence of Valley Polarization of the Hexagonal Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalamkari, Kazu; Tatsumi, Yuki; Saito, Riichiro

    2018-02-01

    The origin of valley polarization of the hexagonal lattice is analytically discussed by tight binding method as a function of energy band gap. When the energy gap decreases to zero, the intensity of optical absorption becomes sharp as a function of k near the K (or K') point in the hexagonal Brillouin zone, while the peak intensity at the K (or K') point keeps constant with decreasing the energy gap. When the dipole vector as a function of k can have both real and imaginary parts that are perpendicular to each other in the k space, the valley polarization occurs. When the dipole vector has only real values by selecting a proper phase of wave functions, the valley polarization does not occur. The degree of the valley polarization may show a discrete change that can be relaxed to a continuous change of the degree of valley polarization when we consider the life time of photo-excited carrier.

  8. 75 FR 29975 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 272; Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1679] Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 272; Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June... Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, adjacent to the Philadelphia Customs and Border Protection port of entry (FTZ...

  9. Evidence for strong Holocene earthquake(s) in the Wabash Valley seismic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermeier, S.

    1991-01-01

    Many small and slightly damaging earthquakes have taken place in the region of the lower Wabash River Valley of Indiana and Illinois during the 200 years of historic record. Seismologists have long suspected the Wabash Valley seismic zone to be capable of producing earthquakes much stronger than the largest of record (m b 5.8). The seismic zone contains the poorly defined Wabash Valley fault zone and also appears to contain other vaguely defined faults at depths from which the strongest earthquakes presently originate. Faults near the surface are generally covered with thick alluvium in lowlands and a veneer of loess in uplands, which make direct observations of faults difficult. Partly because of this difficulty, a search for paleoliquefaction features was begun in 1990. Conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) an earthquake much stronger than any historic earthquake struck the lower Wabash Valley between 1,500 and 7,500 years ago; (2) the epicentral region of the prehistoric strong earthquake was the Wabash Valley seismic zone; (3) apparent sites have been located where 1811-12 earthquake accelerations can be bracketed

  10. Paleoseismology of the Southern Section of the Black Mountains and Southern Death Valley Fault Zones, Death Valley, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Marsha S.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    The Death Valley Fault System (DVFS) is part of the southern Walker Lane–eastern California shear zone. The normal Black Mountains Fault Zone (BMFZ) and the right-lateral Southern Death Valley Fault Zone (SDVFZ) are two components of the DVFS. Estimates of late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rates and recurrence intervals for these two fault zones are uncertain owing to poor relative age control. The BMFZ southernmost section (Section 1W) steps basinward and preserves multiple scarps in the Quaternary alluvial fans. We present optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates ranging from 27 to 4 ka of fluvial and eolian sand lenses interbedded with alluvial-fan deposits offset by the BMFZ. By cross-cutting relations, we infer that there were three separate ground-rupturing earthquakes on BMFZ Section 1W with vertical displacement between 5.5 m and 2.75 m. The slip-rate estimate is ∼0.2 to 1.8 mm/yr, with an earthquake recurrence interval of 4,500 to 2,000 years. Slip-per-event measurements indicate Mw 7.0 to 7.2 earthquakes. The 27–4-ka OSL-dated alluvial fans also overlie the putative Cinder Hill tephra layer. Cinder Hill is offset ∼213 m by SDVFZ, which yields a tentative slip rate of 1 to 8 mm/yr for the SDVFZ.

  11. Future of cluster developments : lessons from Energy Valley, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manickam, Anu

    2017-01-01

    The research explored how a Dutch energy cluster embedded within a larger context of European and global developments reflected complex dynamics due to changes in its context. The case study explored Energy Valley of the Netherlands, a peripheral region that meets the challenge of energy transition,

  12. Arsenic distribution along different hydrogeomorphic zones in parts of the Brahmaputra River Valley, Assam (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Runti; Mahanta, Chandan; Verma, Swati; Mukherjee, Abhijit

    2017-06-01

    The spatial distribution of arsenic (As) concentrations along three classified hydrogeomorphological zones in the Brahmaputra River Valley in Assam (India) have been investigated: zone I, comprising the piedmont and alluvial fans; zone II, comprising the runoff areas; and zone III, comprising the discharge zones. Groundwater (150 samples) from shallow hand-pumped and public water supply wells (2-60 m in depth) was analysed for chemical composition to examine the geochemical processes controlling As mobilization. As concentrations up to 0.134 mg/L were recorded, with concentrations below the World Health Organization and the Bureau of Indian Standards drinking-water limits of 0.01 mg/L being found mainly in the proximal recharge areas. Eh and other redox indicators (i.e., dissolved oxygen, Fe, Mn and As) indicate that, except for samples taken in the recharge zone, groundwater is reducing and exhibits a systematic decrease in redox conditions along the runoff and discharge zones. Hydrogeochemical evaluation indicated that zone I, located along the proximal recharge areas, is characterized by low As concentration, while zones II and III are areas with high and moderate concentrations, respectively. Systematic changes in As concentrations along the three zones support the view that areas of active recharge with high hydraulic gradient are potential areas hosting low-As aquifers.

  13. Hydrological functioning of West-African inland valleys explored with a critical zone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, B.; Cohard, J. M.; Séguis, L.; Peugeot, C.; Galle, S.

    2017-12-01

    In west Africa, recurrent floods are still a major issue, and hydropower has been recognized as an important development pathway. Furthermore, inland valleys carry an important agronomic potential, which could meet the necessary increase of the crop production associated with the strong demographic rates of the region. This can lead to land cover and subsequent hydrologic changes. However, the hydrological role of the inland valleys in the humid, hard rock-dominated Sudanian area is not yet well understood, specifically for streamflow (Q) generation processes. We address both the questions of the hydrological functioning of inland valleys in the Sudanian area of West-Africa and the impact of land cover changes on these systems through deterministic sensitivity experiments using a physically-based critical zone model (ParFlow-CLM) applied on a synthetic catchment which comprises an inland valley. The conceptual lithological/pedological model for the catchment includes the main features of such a hydrological elementary unit derived from the literature and from a previously published model based on data from a highly instrumented elementary catchment. Model forcings and parameters are based on data from the AMMA-CATCH observation service and multiple field experiments. We found yearly water budgets were much more sensitive to vegetation distribution than lithology features of the inland valley (presence of the low permeability layer commonly found below the inland valley and the hydrodynamic properties of upstream and lateral areas). Yearly evapotranspiration budget between a fully tree-covered and an herbaceous-covered catchment increases between 6 and 21% of the precipitation of the year (depending on the tested cases) which reduces considerably the yearly streamflow budgets ( 30%). On the other hand, the lithology distribution has clear impacts on the spatial distribution of water storage dynamics.

  14. Sublacustrine river valley in the shelf zone of the Black Sea parallel to the Bulgarian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisinger, A.; Aslanian, S.; Beigelbeck, R.; Heinitz, W.-D.

    2009-04-01

    The considered sublacustrine river valley is situated in the shelf zone of the Black Sea. It runs in parallel to the Bulgarian coast, was formed in the time period of the Younger Dryas (Preisinger et al., 2005), and features an inclination of about 0.5 m/km. An about 200 km long sediment wall separates the approximately 10 km broad river valley from the outside shelf zone. This wall was generated during the Older Dryas until the beginning of the Younger Dryas. Its shape was formed by transportation of water and sediment from the Strait of Kerch by a circulating rim current in the Black Sea and water as well as sediment flow of the Danube in direction to the Bosporus. New investigations of the sediments of this river valley were performed by utilizing a Sediment Echo Sounder (SES 2000). This Echo Sounder is a parametric sub-bottom profiler enabling a high resolution sub-bottom analyses. It is capable of penetrating sea beds up to more than 50 m of water depth. The received echo data are real-time processed. The signal amplitudes are valuated in context to a logarithmic scale and graphically visualized by means of a colorized echogram utilizing false colours ranging from red for a high to blue representing a low signal (W.-D. Heinitz et al., 1998). The highest signal (red) is given by the acoustic impedance of the boundary between sea water and river sediment. The echograms of the river valley depict spatially isolated (red) high-signal peaks, which are periodically repeated in vertical direction between the sediment surface and the bottom of the valley. The number of these high-signal parts increase with an increasing valley depth. Studying of the distribution of these peaks allows to draw conclusions regarding the content and composition of the sediment. This prediction of the sediment composition obtained by means of the SES 2000 was successfully verified by analyzing a gravity core taken near Nos Maslen (at 44 m water depth) with a particular focus on the water

  15. Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.

    2011-11-30

    Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various

  16. Water Supply Source Evaluation in Unmanaged Aquifer Recharge Zones: The Mezquital Valley (Mexico Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Hernández-Espriú

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mezquital Valley (MV hosts the largest unmanaged aquifer recharge scheme in the world. The metropolitan area of Mexico City discharges ~60 m3/s of raw wastewater into the valley, a substantial share of which infiltrates into the regional aquifer. In this work, we aim to develop a comprehensive approach, adapted from oil and gas reservoir modeling frameworks, to assess water supply sources located downgradient from unmanaged aquifer recharge zones. The methodology is demonstrated through its application to the Mezquital Valley region. Geological, geoelectrical, petrophysical and hydraulic information is combined into a 3D subsurface model and used to evaluate downgradient supply sources. Although hydrogeochemical variables are yet to be assessed, outcomes suggest that the newly-found groundwater sources may provide a long-term solution for water supply. Piezometric analyses based on 25-year records suggest that the MV is close to steady-state conditions. Thus, unmanaged recharge seems to have been regulating the groundwater balance for the last decades. The transition from unmanaged to managed recharge is expected to provide benefits to the MV inhabitants. It will also be likely to generate new uncertainties in relation to aquifer dynamics and downgradient systems.

  17. 78 FR 57629 - Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EL13-87-000; QF13-658-000] Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 9, 2013, Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC filed Form 556 and a petition for certification as a qualifying small power production...

  18. Seismic micro-zoning in the alpine valleys and local application in urban planning regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Cartier

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Confrontées au risque sismique, les vallées sédimentaires alpines testent différentes solutions politiques pour transcrire en règles d’urbanisme les connaissances apportées par les micro-zonages. France, Italie, Slovénie et Suisse composent avec leur tradition politique et l’adoption de codes européens pour améliorer la sécurité selon la vulnérabilité et la géologie locales.Management of earthquake risks in the sedimentary valleys of the Alps depends on the ability to transcribe scientific knowledge obtained from micro-zoning into urban planning regulations. France, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland are working with new European codes, and within their respective political contexts, to improve earthquake safety on the basis of enhanced input on local geological conditions and vulnerability levels.

  19. Energy Balance, Evapo-transpiration and Dew deposition in the Dead Sea Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jutta; Corsmeier, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique place on earth. It is a terminal hypersaline lake, located at the lowest point on earth with a lake level of currently -429 m above mean sea level (amsl). It is located in a transition zone of semiarid to arid climate conditions, which makes it highly sensible to climate change (Alpert1997, Smiatek2011). The Virtual Institute DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE) is an international project funded by the German Helmholtz Association and was established to study coupled atmospheric hydrological, and lithospheric processes in the changing environment of the Dead Sea. At the moment the most prominent environmental change is the lake level decline of approximately 1 m / year due to anthropogenic interferences (Gertman, 2002). This leads to noticeable changes in the fractions of the existing terrestrial surfaces - water, bare soil and vegetated areas - in the valley. Thus, the partitioning of the net radiation in the valley changes as well. To thoroughly study the atmospheric and hydrological processes in the Dead Sea valley, which are driven by the energy balance components, sound data of the energy fluxes of the different surfaces are necessary. Before DESERVE no long-term monitoring network simultaneously measuring the energy balance components of the different surfaces in the Dead Sea valley was available. Therefore, three energy balance stations were installed at three characteristic sites at the coast-line, over bare soil, and within vegetation, measuring all energy balance components by using the eddy covariance method. The results show, that the partitioning of the energy into sensible and latent heat flux on a diurnal scale is totally different at the three sites. This results in gradients between the sites, which are e.g. responsible for the typical diurnal wind systems at the Dead Sea. Furthermore, driving forces of evapo-transpiration at the sites were identified and a detailed analysis of the daily evaporation and dew deposition rates

  20. Robinson Rancheria Strategic Energy Plan; Middletown Rancheria Strategic Energy Plan, Scotts Valley Rancheria Strategic Energy Plan, Elem Indian Colony Strategic Energy Plan, Upperlake Rancheria Strategic Energy Plan, Big Valley Rancheria Strategic Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis and Associates LLC

    2008-08-01

    The Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians is located in Lake County in Northern California. Similar to the other five federally recognized Indian Tribes in Lake County participating in this project, Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians members are challenged by generally increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. Currently, Tribal decision makers lack sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribes have committed to the Lake County Tribal Energy Program, a multi Tribal program to be based at the Robinson Rancheria and including The Elem Indian Colony, Big Valley Rancheria, Middletown Rancheria, Habematolel Pomo of Upper Lake and the Scotts Valley Pomo Tribe. The mission of this program is to promote Tribal energy efficiency and create employment opportunities and economic opportunities on Tribal Lands through energy resource and energy efficiency development. This program will establish a comprehensive energy strategic plan for the Tribes based on Tribal specific plans that capture economic and environmental benefits while continuing to respect Tribal cultural practices and traditions. The goal is to understand current and future energy consumption and develop both regional and Tribe specific strategic energy plans, including action plans, to clearly identify the energy options for each Tribe.

  1. The Characteristic of Molten Heat Salt Storage System Utilizing Solar Energy Combined with Valley Electric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI .Jiu-ru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the environmental pollution and energy consumption clue to the large difference between peak and valley of power grid,the molten salt heat storage system(MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric is presented for good energy saving and low emissions. The costs of MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric are greatly reduced. The law of heat transfer in molten salt heat storage technology is studied with the method of grey correlation analysis. The results show the effect of elbow sizes on surface convective heat transfer coefficient with different flow velocities.

  2. A new subdivision of the central Sesia Zone (Aosta Valley, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Engi, Martin; Manzotti, Paola; Ballèvre, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The Sesia Zone in the Western Alps is a continental terrane probably derived from the NW-Adriatic margin and polydeformed at HP conditions during Alpine convergence. Subdivisions of the Sesia Zone classically have been based on the dominant lithotypes: Eclogitic Micaschist Complex, Seconda Zona Diorito-Kinzigitica, and Gneiss Minuti Complex. However, recent work (Regis et al., 2014) on what was considered a single internal unit has revealed that it comprises two or more tectonic slices that experienced substantially different PTDt-evolutions. Therefore, detailed regional petrographic and structural mapping (1:3k to 1:10k) was undertaken and combined with extensive sampling for petrochronological analysis. Results allow us to propose a first tectonic scheme for the Sesia Zone between the Aosta Valley and Val d'Ayas. A set of field criteria was developed and applied, aiming to recognize and delimit the first order tectonic units in this complex structural and metamorphic context. The approach rests on three criteria used in the field: (1) Discontinuously visible metasedimentary trails (mostly carbonates) considered to be monocyclic (Permo-Mesozoic protoliths); (2) mappable high-strain zones; and (3) visible differences in the metamorphic imprint. None of these key features used are sufficient by themselves, but in combination they allow us to propose a new map that delimits main units. We propose an Internal Complex with three eclogitic sheets, each 0.5-3 km thick. Dominant lithotypes include micaschists associated with mafic rocks and minor orthogneiss. The main foliation is of HP, dipping moderately NW. Each of these sheets is bounded by (most likely monometamorphic) sediments, <10-50 m thick. HP-relics (of eclogite facies) are widespread, but a greenschist facies overprint locally is strong close to the tectonic contact to neighbouring sheets. An Intermediate Complex lies NW of the Internal Complex and comprises two thinner, wedge-shaped units termed slices. These

  3. Environmental pollution and health in the metropolitan zone of Mexico Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Cabrera, L.; Ramirez, A.

    2002-01-01

    Concerned about pollution in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico Valley and its effects on inhabitant's health, the Faculty of Chemistry has been performing the monitoring of radon levels and heavy metals in environmental samples, since 1992. Samples consisted in aerosol fillers classified as Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Respirable Particles (PM10) as well as dry fallout. Surveys were carried out in several zones covering the MZMV and different seasons along successive years. Metallic elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), X-Ray Fluorescence (dispersive and total reflection) and other techniques. Simultaneously, TSP and PM10 were determined by gravimetry. Annual radon gas concentration was determined with passive electret system (type E-PERM) and short radon decay products with a continuous working level monitor. This work presents the distribution an evolution of metallic pollutants in the MZMV. The effective equivalent dose for radon, calculated by the measured annual mean values of Radon and its short decay products, are 1.233 mSvy -1 in good agreement with the world average reported by UNSCEAR of 1.3 mSvy -1 . Despite of substantial progress in elimination of Lead sources (primarily from the phase-out leaded gasoline and regulations to reduce motorized traffic as part of stricter environmental laws) well correlated with a dramatic diminution of 91% in the geometric mean (2.00 μg dL -1 compared with that of 1980, 22.2 μg dL -1 ), the risk of Lead exposure is stilI present. Besides, TSP and PM10 concentration continue at levels above annual average concentration specified in the Mexican Norm. It makes necessary the continuity in efforts targeted to diminish the pollution and also epidemiological studies to relate its effects on population health and suggest guidelines. (Author)

  4. Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Grace C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) is a study approach developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the support of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The approach combines geospatial, statistical, energy engineering, and economic methods to comprehensively identify and value high-quality wind, solar PV, and solar CSP resources for grid integration based on techno-economic criteria, generation profiles (for wind), and socio-environmental impacts. The Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor study sought to identify and comprehensively value high-quality wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) resources in 21 countries in the East and Southern Africa Power Pools to support the prioritization of areas for development through a multi-criteria planning process. These countries include Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The study includes the methodology and the key results including renewable energy potential for each region.

  5. 78 FR 28836 - Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1430-000] Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request..., of Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  6. Solar Energy within the Central Valley, CA: Current Practices and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Allen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Utility-scale solar energy (USSE, ≥ 1 megawatt [MW]) systems are rapidly being deployed in the Central Valley of California, generating clean electricity and new job opportunities. Utility-scale solar energy systems require substantial quantities of land or space, often prompting an evaluation of environmental impacts and trade-offs when selecting their placement. Utilizing salt-contaminated agricultural land (as the sodium absorption and electrical conductivity values are unsuitably high), unsuitable for food production, and lands within the built environment (developed), can serve as a co-benefit opportunity when reclamation of these lands for USSE development is prioritized. In this study, we quantify the theoretical and generation-based solar energy potential for the Central Valley according to land-cover type, crop type, and for salt-contaminated lands. Further, we utilize the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility (CEEC) model to identify and prioritize solar energy, integrating environmental resource opportunities and constraints most relevant to the Central Valley. We use the CEEC model to generate a value-based environmental compatibility output for the Central Valley. The Central Valley extends across nearly 60,000 km2 of California with the potential of generating 21,800 - 30,300 TWh y-1 and 41,600 TWh y-1 of solar energy for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP), respectively. Pasture, hay, and cultivated crops comprise over half of the Central Valley, much of which is considered prime agriculture or of statewide or local importance for farming (28,200 km2). Together, approximately one-third of this region is salt-contaminated (16%) or developed (11%). This confers a generation-based potential of 5713 - 7891 TWh y-1 and 2770 TWh y-1 for PV and CSP, respectively. As energy, food, and land are inextricably linked, our study shows how land favorable for renewable energy systems can be used more effectively in places where land is

  7. Yield gaps and resource use across farming zones in the central rift valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Getnet, Mezegebu; Ittersum, van Martin; Hengsdijk, Huib; Descheemaeker, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    In the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, low productive cereal systems and a declining resource base call for options to increase crop productivity and improve resource use efficiency to meet the growing demand of food. We compiled and analysed a large amount of data from farmers’ fields

  8. Inventory of greenhouse effect gases discharges associated to the production and use of the energy in the metropolitan zone of the valley of Mexico; Inventario de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero asociados a la produccion y uso de la energia en la zona metropolitana del valle de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, Claudia [Secretaria del Medio Ambiente, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico (ZMCM) consumed in 1996 nearly 635 of PJ in fuels and 76 PJ in electrical energy. In the fuel consumption, the transport sector participated with the 51.4%, followed by the industrial sector (21.6%), the residential one (16.6%), the electrical generation (9.5%), the commerce (0.8%) and the farming (0.2%). This proportion becomes patent in fuels since, the gasoline represents the 48.7% of the fuel consumption of the region, followed by the natural gas (21.4%), the liquefied petroleum gas (16.8%), diesel oil and gas oil (10.3%) and the rest is divided between fuel oil, diaphanous petroleum, kerosine and gas turbine fuel. The total emissions of this CO{sub 2} associated to the fuel consumption in the ZMCM ascended in 1996 to 34.9 Mtons of CO{sub 2}, which is equivalent to nearly 13% of the national emissions for that year. In a similar way to energy, transport represents the 54.9% of the CO{sub 2} emissions, followed by industry (21.3%), the residential sector (15.6%), the electric generation (8.2%) and the commercial and farming sector (1%). In the transport sector, stands out the importance of the private vehicle with the 38.4% of the emissions of this sector. With exception of sulfur oxides, the transport is the sector that contributes in a more important way to the discharges of greenhouse effect gases. Also, with exception of nitrogen oxides, the private vehicle is the one that contributes more to all the emissions. The vehicles previous to 1991 contribute with the emissions of this subsector in 24.5% of the CO{sub 2} emissions, between 54 and 59% of those of CO, between 22 and 25% to those of NO{sub x}, 50 and 51% to those of CH{sub 4}, 49 and 58% to those of NMVOC, 39% to those of N{sub 2}O and 24% to those of SO{sub 2}. In the case of nitrogen oxides, it calls the attention the loading vehicles of more than two axes with diesel engine, that contribute between 46 and 50% of the total emissions of this subsector

  9. [Rift Valley fever: sporadic infection of French military personnel outside currently recognized epidemic zones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, J P; Richecoeur, L; Peyrefitte, C; Boutin, J P; Davoust, B; Zeller, H; Bouloy, M; Tolou, H

    2002-01-01

    For three years the arbovirus surveillance unit of the Tropical Medicine Institute of the French Army Medical Corps (French acronym IMTSSA) in Marseille, France has been investigating causes of benign non-malarial febrile syndromes in French military personnel serving outside mainland France. The methodology used in N'Djamena consisted of sending frozen specimens collected concomitant with viremia, to Marseille for culture. During the rainy season of 2001, specimens were collected from a total of 50 febrile soldiers. Cultures allowed isolation and identification of two strains of Rift Valley virus. The risk of contamination exists not only in the field but also in mainland hospital departments treating infected patients. Routine serological diagnosis for Rift Valley fever must be DISCUSSED for all patients in the field or returning from Africa.

  10. An isotopic view of water and nitrate transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J. R.; Pearlstein, S.; Hutchins, S.; Faulkner, B. R.; Rugh, W.; Willard, K.; Coulombe, R.; Compton, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the USA. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater exceeding the human health standard of 10 mg nitrate-N L-1. Much of the nitrogen (N) inputs to the GWMA comes from agricultural fertilizers, and thus efforts to reduce N inputs to groundwater are focused upon improving N management. However, the effectiveness of these improvements on groundwater quality is unclear because of the complexity of nutrient transport through the vadose zone and long groundwater residence times. Our objective was to focus on vadose zone transport and understand the dynamics and timing of N and water movement below the rooting zone in relation to N management and water inputs. Stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking water movement, and understanding N transformations. In partnership with local farmers and state agencies, we established lysimeters and groundwater wells in multiple agricultural fields in the GWMA, and have monitored nitrate, nitrate isotopes, and water isotopes weekly for multiple years. Our results indicate that vadose zone transport is highly complex, and the residence time of water collected in lysimeters was much longer than expected. While input precipitation water isotopes were highly variable over time, lysimeter water isotopes were surprisingly consistent, more closely resembling long-term precipitation isotope means rather than recent precipitation isotopic signatures. However, some particularly large precipitation events with unique isotopic signatures revealed high spatial variability in transport, with some lysimeters showing greater proportions of recent precipitation inputs than others. In one installation where we have groundwater wells and lysimeters at multiple depths, nitrate/nitrite concentrations decreased with depth. N concentrations

  11. Analysis of a hybrid renewable energy system on the Mures valley using Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragoş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth, and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. This paper deals with the modeling and analysis of a hybrid system based on renewable energy resources, located on the Mureş valley, using a dedicated software named HOMER. Different types and topologies of renewable resources for the energy supply are analyzed; a small consumer situated on the Mureş Valley is modeled based on a load curve. Finally, the energy flows between the renewable energy system and the local supplying network are analyzed.

  12. Rift Valley fever in a zone potentially occupied by Aedes vexans in Senegal: dynamics and risk mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Vignolles

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the interaction between the various variables associated with Rift Valley fever (RVF such as the mosquito vector, available hosts and rainfall distribution. To that end, the varying zones potentially occupied by mosquitoes (ZPOM, rainfall events and pond dynamics, and the associated exposure of hosts to the RVF virus by Aedes vexans, were analyzed in the Barkedji area of the Ferlo, Senegal, during the 2003 rainy season. Ponds were identified by remote sensing using a high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite image. Additional data on ponds and rainfall events from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission were combined with in-situ entomological and limnimetric measurements, and the localization of vulnerable ruminant hosts (data derived from QuickBird satellite. Since “Ae. vexans productive events” are dependent on the timing of rainfall for their embryogenesis (six days without rain are necessary to trigger hatching, the dynamic spatio-temporal distribution of Ae. vexans density was based on the total rainfall amount and pond dynamics. Detailed ZPOM mapping was obtained on a daily basis and combined with aggressiveness temporal profiles. Risks zones, i.e. zones where hazards and vulnerability are combined, are expressed by the percentages of parks where animals are potentially exposed to mosquito bites. This new approach, simply relying upon rainfall distribution evaluated from space, is meant to contribute to the implementation of a new, operational early warning system for RVF based on environmental risks linked to climatic and environmental conditions.

  13. 77 FR 31037 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Proposed Hyder Valley Solar Energy Project in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ...; AZA34425] Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Proposed Hyder Valley Solar Energy Project in... of up to 2 years. This is for the purpose of processing one solar energy right-of-way (ROW) application submitted by Pacific Solar Investments, LLC, to construct and operate the Hyder Valley Solar...

  14. Extension of the Cerro Prieto field and zones in the Mexicali Valley with geothermal possibilities in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca L, H.L.; de la Pena L, A.; Puente C, I.; Diaz C, E.

    1981-01-01

    This study concerns the possible extension of the Cerro Prieto field and identification of other zones in the Mexicali Valley with geothermal development potential by assessing the structural geologic conditions in relation to the regional tectonic framework and the integration of geologic and geophysical surveys carried out at Cerro Prieto. This study is based on data obtained from the wells drilled to date and the available geological and geophysical information. With this information, a geologic model of the field is developed as a general description of the geometry of what might be the geothermal reservoir of the Cerro Prieto field. In areas with geothermal potential within the Mexicali Valley, the location of irrigation wells with anomalous temperatures was taken as a point of departure for subsequent studies. Based on this initial information, gravity and magnetic surveys were made, followed by seismic reflection and refraction surveys and the drilling of 1200-m-deep multiple-use wells. Based on the results of the final integration of these studies with the geology of the region, it is suggested that the following areas should be explored further: east of Cerro Prieto, Tulecheck, Riito, Aeropuerto-Algodones, and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora.

  15. New Constraints on Late Pleistocene - Holocene Slip Rates and Seismic Behavior Along the Panamint Valley Fault Zone, Eastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, W.; Kirby, E.; McDonald, E.; Walker, J.; Gosse, J.

    2008-12-01

    Space-time patterns of seismic strain release along active fault systems can provide insight into the geodynamics of deforming lithosphere. Along the eastern California shear zone, fault systems south of the Garlock fault appear to have experienced an ongoing pulse of seismic activity over the past ca. 1 kyr (Rockwell et al., 2000). Recently, this cluster of seismicity has been implicated as both cause and consequence of the oft-cited discrepancy between geodetic velocities and geologic slip rates in this region (Dolan et al., 2007; Oskin et al., 2008). Whether other faults within the shear zone exhibit similar behavior remains uncertain. Here we report the preliminary results of new investigations of slip rates and seismic history along the Panamint Valley fault zone (PVFZ). The PVFZ is characterized by dextral, oblique-normal displacement along a moderately to shallowly-dipping range front fault. Previous workers (Zhang et al., 1990) identified a relatively recent surface rupture confined to a ~25 km segment of the southern fault zone and associated with dextral displacements of ~3 m. Our mapping reveals that youthful scarps ranging from 2-4 m in height are distributed along the central portion of the fault zone for at least 50 km. North of Ballarat, a releasing jog in the fault zone forms a 2-3 km long embayment. Displacement of debris-flow levees and channels along NE-striking faults that confirm that displacement is nearly dip-slip, consistent with an overall transport direction toward ~340°, and affording an opportunity to constrain fault displacement directly from the vertical offset of alluvial surfaces of varying age. At the mouth of Happy Canyon, the frontal fault strand displaces a fresh debris-flow by ~3-4 m; soil development atop the debris-flow surface is incipient to negligible. Radiocarbon ages from logs embedded in the flow matrix constrain the timing of the most recent event to younger than ~ 600 cal yr BP. Older alluvial surfaces, such as that

  16. Energy and environmental implications of carbon emission reduction targets: Case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Rajbhandari, Salony

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sectoral energy consumption pattern and emissions of CO 2 and local air pollutants in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It also discusses the evolution of energy service demands, structure of energy supply system and emissions from various sectors under the base case scenario during 2005-2050. A long term energy system planning model of the Kathmandu Valley based on the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) framework is used for the analyses. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the least cost options to achieve CO 2 emission reduction targets of 10%, 20% and 30% below the cumulative emission level in the base case and also discusses their implications for total cost, technology-mix, energy-mix and local pollutant emissions. The paper shows that a major switch in energy use pattern from oil and gas to electricity would be needed in the Valley to achieve the cumulative CO 2 emission reduction target of 30% (ER30). Further, the share of electricity in the cumulative energy consumption of the transport sector would increase from 12% in the base case to 24% in the ER30 case.

  17. Geologic map and cross sections of the Embudo Fault Zone in the Southern Taos Valley, Taos County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Paul W.; Kelson, Keith I.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Johnson, Peggy S.; Aby, Scott B.; Felix, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The southern Taos Valley encompasses the physiographic and geologic transition zone between the Picuris Mountains and the San Luis Basin of the Rio Grande rift. The Embudo fault zone is the rift transfer structure that has accommodated the kinematic disparities between the San Luis Basin and the Española Basin during Neogene rift extension. The eastern terminus of the transfer zone coincides with the intersection of four major fault zones (Embudo, Sangre de Cristo, Los Cordovas, and Picuris-Pecos), resulting in an area of extreme geologic and hydrogeologic complexities in both the basin-fill deposits and the bedrock. Although sections of the Embudo fault zone are locally exposed in the bedrock of the Picuris Mountains and in the late Cenozoic sedimentary units along the top of the Picuris piedmont, the full proportions of the fault zone have remained elusive due to a pervasive cover of Quaternary surficial deposits. We combined insights derived from the latest geologic mapping of the area with deep borehole data and high-resolution aeromagnetic and gravity models to develop a detailed stratigraphic/structural model of the rift basin in the southern Taos Valley area. The four fault systems in the study area overlap in various ways in time and space. Our geologic model states that the Picuris-Pecos fault system exists in the basement rocks (Picuris formation and older units) of the rift, where it is progressively down dropped and offset to the west by each Embudo fault strand between the Picuris Mountains and the Rio Pueblo de Taos. In this model, the Miranda graben exists in the subsurface as a series of offset basement blocks between the Ponce de Leon neighborhood and the Rio Pueblo de Taos. In the study area, the Embudo faults are pervasive structures between the Picuris Mountains and the Rio Pueblo de Taos, affecting all geologic units that are older than the Quaternary surficial deposits. The Los Cordovas faults are thought to represent the late Tertiary to

  18. Grand Valley State University Checks Out Energy Savings at New Mary Idema Pew Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-03-01

    Grand Valley State University (GVSU) partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build new, low-energy buildings that are at least 50% below Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  19. Towards a Detailed Seismic Structure of the Valley of Mexico's Xochimilco Lake Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabade, S.; Sanchez-Sanchez, J.; Ayala Hernandez, M.; Macias, M. A.; Aguilar Calderon, L. A.; Alcántara, L.; Almora Mata, D.; Castro Parra, G.; Delgado, R.; Leonardo Suárez, M.; Molina Avila, I.; Mora, A.; Perez-Yanez, C.; Ruiz, A. L.; Sandoval, H.; Torres Noguez, M.; Vazquez Larquet, R.; Velasco Miranda, J. M.; Aguirre, J.; Ramirez-Guzmán, L.

    2017-12-01

    Six centuries of gradual, intentional sediment filling in the Xochimilco Lake Zone have drastically reduced the size of the lake. The basin structure and the lake's clay limits and thickness are poorly constrained, and yet, essential to explain the city's anomalous ground motion. Therefore, we conducted an experiment to define the 3D velocity model of Mexico's capital; the CDMX-E3D. The initial phase involved the deployment of a moving set of 18-broadband stations with an interstation distance of 500m over a period of 19 weeks. We collected the data and analyzed the results for the Xochimilco Lake Zone using H/V Spectral Ratios (Nakamura, 1989), which provided an improved fundamental period map of the region. Results show that periods in the former lake zone have larger variability than values previously estimated. In order to obtain group velocity maps at different periods, we estimated Green's functions from ambient noise cross-correlations following standard methodologies to invert Rayleigh wave travel times (Bensen et al., 2007). Preliminary result show very low-velocity zones (100 m/s) and thick sediment layers in most of the former Xochimilco Lake area. This Project was funded by the Secretaria de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SECITI) of Mexico City. Project SECITI/073/2016.

  20. Latest Quaternary paleoseismology and evidence of distributed dextral shear along the Mohawk Valley fault zone, northern Walker Lane, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ryan D.; Briggs, Richard; Personius, Stephen; Crone, Anthony J.; Mahan, Shannon; Angster, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The dextral-slip Mohawk Valley fault zone (MVFZ) strikes northwestward along the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada in the northern Walker Lane. Geodetic block modeling indicates that the MVFZ may accommodate ~3 mm/yr of regional dextral strain, implying that it is the highest slip-rate strike-slip fault in the region; however, only limited geologic data are available to constrain the system’s slip rate and earthquake history. We mapped the MVFZ using airborne lidar data and field observations and identified a site near Sulphur Creek for paleoseismic investigation. At this site, oblique dextral-normal faulting on the steep valley margin has created a closed depression that floods annually during spring snowmelt to form an ephemeral pond. We excavated three fault-perpendicular trenches at the site and exposed pond sediment that interfingers with multiple colluvial packages eroded from the scarp that bounds the eastern side of the pond. We documented evidence for four surface-rupturing earthquakes on this strand of the MVFZ. OxCal modeling of radiocarbon and luminescence ages indicates that these earthquakes occurred at 14.0 ka, 12.8 ka, 5.7 ka, and 1.9 ka. The mean ~4 kyr recurrence interval is inconsistent with slip rates of ~3 mm/yr; these rates imply surface ruptures of more than 10 m per event, which is geologically implausible for the subdued geomorphic expression and 60 km length of the MVFZ. We propose that unidentified structures not yet incorporated into geodetic models may accommodate significant dextral shear across the northern Walker Lane, highlighting the role of distributed deformation in this region.

  1. An Isotopic view of water and nitrogen transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/MethodsGroundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nit...

  2. Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-08

    A REZ is a geographical area that enables the development of profitable, cost-effective, grid-connected renewable energy (RE). The REZ Transmission Planning Process is a proactive approach to plan, approve, and build transmission infrastructure connecting REZs to the power system which helps to increase the share of solar, wind and other RE resources in the power system while maintaining reliability and economics, and focuses on large-scale wind and solar resources that can be developed in sufficient quantities to warrant transmission system expansion and upgrades.

  3. GHG and black carbon emission inventories from Mezquital Valley: The main energy provider for Mexico Megacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montelongo-Reyes, M.M.; Otazo-Sánchez, E.M.; Romo-Gómez, C.; Gordillo-Martínez, A.J.; Galindo-Castillo, E.

    2015-09-15

    The greenhouse gases and black carbon emission inventory from IPCC key category Energy was accomplished for the Mezquital Valley, one of the most polluted regions in Mexico, as the Mexico City wastewater have been continuously used in agricultural irrigation for more than a hundred years. In addition, thermoelectric, refinery, cement and chemistry industries are concentrated in the southern part of the valley, near Mexico City. Several studies have reported air, soil, and water pollution data and its main sources for the region. Paradoxically, these sources contaminate the valley, but boosted its economic development. Nevertheless, no research has been done concerning GHG emissions, or climate change assessment. This paper reports inventories performed by the 1996 IPCC methodology for the baseline year 2005. Fuel consumption data were derived from priority sectors such as electricity generation, refineries, manufacturing & cement industries, transportation, and residential use. The total CO{sub 2} emission result was 13,894.9 Gg, which constituted three-quarters of Hidalgo statewide energy category. The principal CO{sub 2} sources were energy transformation (69%) and manufacturing (19%). Total black carbon emissions were estimated by a bottom-up method at 0.66 Gg. The principal contributor was on-road transportation (37%), followed by firewood residential consumption (26%) and cocked brick manufactures (22%). Non-CO{sub 2} gas emissions were also significant, particularly SO{sub 2} (255.9 Gg), which accounts for 80% of the whole Hidalgo State emissions. Results demonstrated the negative environmental impact on Mezquital Valley, caused by its role as a Megacity secondary fuel and electricity provider, as well as by the presence of several cement industries. - Highlights: • First GHG & black carbon inventory for Mezquital Valley: Mexico City energy supplier • Energy industries caused the largest CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions from residual fuel oil. • Diesel

  4. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 6 - Findings and recommendations. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    This report is the final report in a series of six reports detailing the findings from the Cowichan Valley Energy Mapping and Modelling project that was carried out from April of 2011 to March of 2012 by Ea Energy Analyses in conjunction with Geographic Resource Analysis and Science (GRAS). The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. The present report is the final report and presents a summary of the findings of project tasks 1-5 and provides a set of recommendations to the CVRD based on the work done and with an eye towards the next steps in the energy planning process of the CVRD. (LN)

  5. Variations of wave energy power in shoaling zone of Benin coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias A. Houekpoheha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, we observe at the population level, that the improvement in comfort is accompanied by an increase in the electrical energy required. The predicted exhaustion of fossil energy resources maintains some speculation. Their unequal geographical distribution justifies the energy dependence of Benin overlooked from outside. So it is urgent to explore the various sources of renewable energy available to Benin. In this work, using measurements made ​​by the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA-Benin as part of the extension of the port of Cotonou, with Boussinesq equations (Peregrine and Stokes waves dispersion relation, we characterized the variations of various swell parameters (height, wavelength, velocities in the shoaling zone on the study site and proceeded to estimate variations in wave energy power from deep waters to the bathymetric breaking point. Finally, the zone with high energy power (where the conversion of this energy into electrical energy would be profitable of these waves is highlighted on the site, the local water depth at the point of breaking waves is evaluated and results obtained allowed to justify the very energetic character take by these swells on this coast when they are close to the beach.

  6. Geothermal energy from deep sedimentary basins: The Valley of Mexico (Central Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Nils; Götz, Annette E.

    2015-04-01

    The geothermal potential of the Valley of Mexico has not been addressed in the past, although volcaniclastic settings in other parts of the world contain promising target reservoir formations. A first assessment of the geothermal potential of the Valley of Mexico is based on thermophysical data gained from outcrop analogues, covering all lithofacies types, and evaluation of groundwater temperature and heat flow values from literature. Furthermore, the volumetric approach of Muffler and Cataldi (1978) leads to a first estimation of ca. 4000 TWh (14.4 EJ) of power generation from Neogene volcanic rocks within the Valley of Mexico. Comparison with data from other sedimentary basins where deep geothermal reservoirs are identified shows the high potential of the Valley of Mexico for future geothermal reservoir utilization. The mainly low permeable lithotypes may be operated as stimulated systems, depending on the fracture porosity in the deeper subsurface. In some areas also auto-convective thermal water circulation might be expected and direct heat use without artificial stimulation becomes reasonable. Thermophysical properties of tuffs and siliciclastic rocks qualify them as promising target horizons (Lenhardt and Götz, 2015). The here presented data serve to identify exploration areas and are valuable attributes for reservoir modelling, contributing to (1) a reliable reservoir prognosis, (2) the decision of potential reservoir stimulation, and (3) the planning of long-term efficient reservoir utilization. References Lenhardt, N., Götz, A.E., 2015. Geothermal reservoir potential of volcaniclastic settings: The Valley of Mexico, Central Mexico. Renewable Energy. [in press] Muffler, P., Cataldi, R., 1978. Methods for regional assessment of geothermal resources. Geothermics, 7, 53-89.

  7. GHG and black carbon emission inventories from Mezquital Valley: The main energy provider for Mexico Megacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo-Reyes, M M; Otazo-Sánchez, E M; Romo-Gómez, C; Gordillo-Martínez, A J; Galindo-Castillo, E

    2015-09-15

    The greenhouse gases and black carbon emission inventory from IPCC key category Energy was accomplished for the Mezquital Valley, one of the most polluted regions in Mexico, as the Mexico City wastewater have been continuously used in agricultural irrigation for more than a hundred years. In addition, thermoelectric, refinery, cement and chemistry industries are concentrated in the southern part of the valley, near Mexico City. Several studies have reported air, soil, and water pollution data and its main sources for the region. Paradoxically, these sources contaminate the valley, but boosted its economic development. Nevertheless, no research has been done concerning GHG emissions, or climate change assessment. This paper reports inventories performed by the 1996 IPCC methodology for the baseline year 2005. Fuel consumption data were derived from priority sectors such as electricity generation, refineries, manufacturing & cement industries, transportation, and residential use. The total CO2 emission result was 13,894.9 Gg, which constituted three-quarters of Hidalgo statewide energy category. The principal CO2 sources were energy transformation (69%) and manufacturing (19%). Total black carbon emissions were estimated by a bottom-up method at 0.66 Gg. The principal contributor was on-road transportation (37%), followed by firewood residential consumption (26%) and cocked brick manufactures (22%). Non-CO2 gas emissions were also significant, particularly SO2 (255.9 Gg), which accounts for 80% of the whole Hidalgo State emissions. Results demonstrated the negative environmental impact on Mezquital Valley, caused by its role as a Megacity secondary fuel and electricity provider, as well as by the presence of several cement industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential effects of geothermal energy conversion on Imperial Valley ecosystems. [Seven workshop presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, J.H. (ed.)

    1976-12-17

    This workshop on potential effcts of geothermal energy conversion on the ecology of Imperial Valley brought together personnel of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and many collaborators under the sponsorship of the ERDA Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP). The LLL Integrated Assessment Team identified the electric power potential and its associated effluents, discharges, subsidence, water requirements, land use, and noise. The Working Groups addressed the ecological problems. Water resource management problems include forces on water use, irrigation methods and water use for crops, water production, and water allocation. Agricultural problems are the contamination of edible crops and the reclamation of soil. A strategy is discussed for predevelopment baseline data and for identification of source term tracers. Wildlife resources might be threatened by habitat destruction, powerline impacts, noise and disturbance effects, gas emissions, and secondary impacts such as population pressure. Aquatic ecosystems in both the Salton Sea and fresh waters have potential hazards of salinity and trace metal effects, as well as existing stresses; baseline and bioassay studies are discussed. Problems from air pollution resulting from geothermal resource development might occur, particularly to vegetation and pollinator insects. Conversion of injury data to predicted economic damage isneeded. Finally, Imperial Valley desert ecosystems might be threatened by destruction of habitat and the possible effects on community structure such as those resulting from brine spills.

  9. Solar energy demonstration zones in the Dalmatian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrastnik, B. [Energy Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Frankovic, B. [University of Rijeka (Croatia). Faculty of Engineering

    2001-11-01

    The energy consumption in the Dalmatian region was estimated for residential and public sector, tourism, commercial sector and industry. The national energy program for the use of solar energy, SUNEN, assessed solar energy potential in Croatia. Energy from fossil fuels and electricity consumption in the region, which is mostly used in households for preparing hot water and space heating, could be economically substituted by renewable energy. The situation is most promising for the islands of the Adriatic, where solar thermal collectors, PV modules and wind generators could substitute conventional energy sources in satisfying the present thermal and electric demand. The Dalmatian Islands, characterised by a small density of energy consumption, are proposed as unique candidates in Europe for renewable zones, which could demonstrate the full potential of the renewable energy option. As a practical demonstration, the island of Lastovo and the planned tourist village and yacht marina in the Bay of Jurjeva Luka are proposed as a first solar demonstration project on the islands. Technical, economic, legal and institutional barriers, as well as shortages of financing the project identification process produced hereto an adverse environment for solar applications in Croatia. This paper is an initiative for eliminating the barriers and intensify the solar energy use in Croatia providing the clean environment and activation of indigenous energy resources in the region. (author)

  10. Late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoseismology of an intraplate seismic zone in a large alluvial valley, the New Madrid seismic zone, Central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guccione, Margaret J.

    2005-10-01

    The New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) is an intraplate right-lateral strike-slip and thrust fault system contained mostly within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The most recent earthquake sequence in the zone occurred in 1811 1812 and had estimated moment magnitudes of 7 8 (e.g., [Johnston, A.C., 1996. Seismic moment assessment of stable continental earthquakes, Part 3: 1811 1812 New Madrid, 1886 Charleston, and 1755 Lisbon. Geophysical Journal International 126, 314 344; Johnston, A.C., Schweig III, E.S, 1996. The enigma of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811 1812. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences 24, 339 384; Hough, S.E., Armbruster, J.G., Seeber, L., Hough, J.F., 2000. On the modified Mercalli intensities and magnitudes of the New Madrid earthquakes. Journal of Geophysical Research 105 (B10), 23,839 23,864; Tuttle, M.P., 2001. The use of liquefaction features in paleoseismology: Lessons learned in the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States. Journal of Seismology 5, 361 380]). Four earlier prehistoric earthquakes or earthquake sequences have been dated A.D. 1450 ± 150, 900 ± 100, 300 ± 200, and 2350 B.C. ± 200 years using paleoliquefaction features, particularly those associated with native American artifacts, and in some cases surface deformation ([Craven, J. A. 1995. Paleoseismology study in the New Madrid seismic zone using geological and archeological features to constrain ages of liquefaction deposits. M.S thesis, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, U.S.A.; Tuttle, M.P., Lafferty III, R.H., Guccione, M.J., Schweig III, E.S., Lopinot, N., Cande, R., Dyer-Williams, K., Haynes, M., 1996. Use of archaeology to date liquefaction features and seismic events in the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States. Geoarchaeology 11, 451 480; Guccione, M.J., Mueller, K., Champion, J., Shepherd, S., Odhiambo, B., 2002b. Stream response to repeated co-seismic folding, Tiptonville dome, western Tennessee. Geomorphology 43(2002), 313 349; Tuttle, M

  11. Ocean Wave Energy Regimes of the Circumpolar Coastal Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean wave activity is a major enviromental forcing agent of the ice-rich sediments that comprise large sections of the arctic coastal margins. While it is instructive to possess information about the wind regimes in these regions, direct application to geomorphological and engineering needs requires knowledge of the resultant wave-energy regimes. Wave energy information has been calculated at the regional scale using adjusted reanalysis model windfield data. Calculations at this scale are not designed to account for local-scale coastline/bathymetric irregularities and variability. Results will be presented for the circumpolar zones specified by the Arctic Coastal Dynamics Project.

  12. Hydrothermal circulation, serpentinization, and degassing at a rift valley-fracture zone intersection: Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 15[degree]N, 45[degree]W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rona, P.A.; Nelson, T.A. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, FL (United States)); Bougault, H.; Charlou, J.L.; Needham, H.D. (Inst. Francais de Recherche pour I' Exploitation de la Mer, Centre de Brest (France)); Appriou, P. (Univ. of Western Brittany, Brest (France)); Trefry, J.H. (Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne (United States)); Eberhart, G.L.; Barone, A. (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States))

    1992-09-01

    A hydrothermal system characterized by high ratios of methane to both manganese and suspended particulate matter was detected in seawater sampled at the eastern intersection of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with the Fifteen-Twenty Fracture Zone. This finding contrasts with low ratios in black smoker-type hydrothermal systems that occur within spreading segments. Near-bottom water sampling coordinated with SeaBeam bathymetry and camera-temperature tows detected the highest concentrations of methane at fault zones in rocks with the appearance of altered ultramafic units in a large dome that forms part of the inside corner high at the intersection. The distinct chemical signatures of the two types of hydrothermal systems are inferred to be controlled by different circulation pathways related to reaction of seawater primarily with ultramafic rocks at intersections of spreading segments with fracture zones but with mafic rocks within spreading segments.

  13. An evaluation of energy potential by biogas, in Alcala County - Valley of Cauca (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Salcedo, Luis Octavio; Romo López, Liesely Karina

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increase in consumption of pork meat, pig accommodations have had to grow to meet this demand, and in turn increase organic waste becoming a big problem for the environment. The need to implement new alternatives to mitigate environmental impacts at the same time benefit the farms of this activity, using bio-digesters. The objective of this work is to evaluate the biogas potential of six farms in the Alcala County – Valley of Cauca (Colombia). The results for the total capacity of the farms show an interesting contribution to the energy component of the region, both in the production of biogas and in its energy equivalent. Various examples of energy use are made, including economic benefits. (author)

  14. Macroscopic-microscopic energy of rotating nuclei in the fusion-like deformation valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherghescu, R.A.; Royer, Guy

    2000-01-01

    The energy of rotating nuclei in the fusion-like deformation valley has been determined within a liquid drop model including the proximity energy, the two-center shell model and the Strutinsky method. The potential barriers of the 84 Zr, 132 Ce, 152 Dy and 192 Hg nuclei have been determined. A first minimum having a microscopic origin and lodging the normally deformed states disappears with increasing angular momenta. The microscopic and macroscopic energies contribute to generate a second minimum where superdeformed states may survive. It becomes progressively the lowest one at intermediate spins. At higher angular momenta, the minimum moves towards the foot of the external fission barrier leading to hyperdeformed quasi-molecular states. (author)

  15. Potential renewable energy resources of the Lerma Valley, Salta, Argentina for its strategic territorial planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte, S.; Viramonte, J.G. [Instituto GEONORTE, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Salta and CONICET, Avda. Bolivia 5150, Salta CP 4400 (Argentina); Nunez, V. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Ecodesarrollo (IRNED), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Salta, Avda. Bolivia 5150, Campo Castanares, Salta CP 4400 (Argentina); Franco, J. [Instituto Nacional de Energias No Convencionales (INENCO), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de Salta, CONICET, Avda. Bolivia 5150, Salta CP 4400 (Argentina)

    2009-08-15

    Renewable energy sources are considered as strategic opportunities to improve the population's quality of life, to promote the development of more efficient and equitable economic systems, and to favor environmental sustainability in the territorial planning of Lerma Valley (Salta, Argentina). The mapping in raster format (each pixel having a reference value) of the potential renewable energy sources (solar, wind, biomass, hydraulic, mixed) is essential to define ideal locations for different types of renewable applications, and to plan suitable strategies for its implementation. It is necessary considering environmental diversity and site conditions (topographic, natural resource, infrastructure and service availability, social and economical) of the intervention area. Different methodologies are used for mapping of potential energy resources. Solar radiation is spatialized through the application of statistical regressions between altitude, latitude, precise incident solar radiation records, and radiation data estimated with the Geosol V.2.0. trademark software. The Argentina Map program is used for the wind potential resource modeling. It requires as inputs: a Digital Elevation Model, a land use and cover map (to determine roughness), and measured and/or estimated wind speed and frequency data. The hydroelectric potential for microturbine applications is calculated from the topographic drop and the annual mean flow in cumulative models, through the application of the Idrisi Kilimanjaro trademark 's runoff tool; while the power densities are compared at the watershed. Biomass potential (at this exploratory stage), is interpreted from the available biomass type (land use and cover map), its energy application availability, and some quantitative indicators associated with the biomass types identified as priority. In conclusion, the renewable energy potential in Lerma Valley is very high and diverse, and its close connection with social

  16. Double system wave energy converter for the breaker zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavasi, Stefano; Negri; Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a particular type of wave energy converter, namely EDS (Energy Double System) is presented. It is a two-body point absorber composed by a heaving float and a surging paddle, mounted on the same structure and aligned along the wave propagation direction. The system is designed for working in the breaker zone, where waves close to breaking can generate a considerable surging force on the paddle. A scale EDS model has been built and tested in the wave flume of the Hydraulics Laboratory of the 'Politecnico' of Milan. The power absorbed by the system, varying its configuration, position and wave, has been measured, and interesting efficiencies have been found.

  17. Scotts Valley Energy Office and Human Capacity Building that will provide energy-efficiency services and develop sustainable renewable energy projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Temashio [Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians

    2013-06-28

    The primary goal of this project is to develop a Scotts Valley Energy Development Office (SVEDO). This office will further support the mission of the Tribe's existing leadership position as the DOE Tribal Multi-County Weatherization Energy Program (TMCWEP) in creating jobs and providing tribal homes and buildings with weatherization assistance to increase energy efficiency, occupant comfort and improved indoor air quality. This office will also spearhead efforts to move the Tribe towards its further strategic energy goals of implementing renewable energy systems through specific training, resource evaluation, feasibility planning, and implementation. Human capacity building and continuing operations are two key elements of the SVEDO objectives. Therefore, the project will 1) train and employ additional Tribal members in energy efficiency, conservation and renewable resource analyses and implementation; 2) purchase materials and equipment required to implement the strategic priorities as developed by the Scotts Valley Tribe which specifically include implementing energy conservation measures and alternative energy strategies to reduce energy costs for the Tribe and its members; and 3) obtain a dedicated office and storage space for ongoing SVEDO operations.

  18. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 2 - Energy consumption and density mapping. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. The second task in the overall project was the mapping of regional energy consumption density. Combined with the findings from task one, this enables comparison of energy consumption density per area unit with the renewable energy resource availability. In addition, it provides an energy baseline against which future energy planning activities can be evaluated. The mapping of the energy consumption density was divided into categories to correspond with local British Columbia Assessment Authority (BCAA) reporting. The residential sub-categories were comprised of single family detached dwellings, single family attached dwellings, apartments, and moveable dwellings. For commercial and industrial end-users the 14 sub-categories are also in line with BCAA as well as the on-going provincial TaNDM project of which the CVRD is a partner. The results of task two are documented in this report. (LN)

  19. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 5 - Energy density mapping projections. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. Task 5 focused on energy projection mapping to estimate and visualise the energy consumption density and GHG emissions under different scenarios. The scenarios from task 4 were built around the energy consumption density of the residential sector under future land use patterns and rely on different energy source combinations (the suite of pathways). In task 5 the energy usage under the different scenarios were fed back into GIS, thereby giving a visual representation of forecasted residential energy consumption per unit area. The methodology is identical to that used in task 2 where current usage was mapped, whereas the mapping in this task is for future forecasts. These results are documented in this report. In addition, GHG mapping under the various scenarios was also undertaken. (LN)

  20. The compositionally zoned eruption of 1912 in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, W.

    1983-01-01

    On June 6-8, 1912, ??? 15 km3 of magma erupted from the Novarupta caldera at the head of the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS), producing ??? 20 km3 of air-fall tephra and 11-15 km3 of ash-flow tuff within ??? 60 hours. Three discrete periods of ash-fall at Kodiak correlate, respectively, with Plinian tephra layers designated A, CD, and FG by Curtis (1968) in the VTTS. The ash-flow sequence overlapped with but outlasted pumice fall A, terminating within 20 hours of the initial outbreak and prior to pumice fall C. Layers E and H consist mostly of vitric dust that settled during lulls, and Layer B is the feather edge of the ash flow. The fall units filled and obscured the caldera, but arcuate and radial fissures outline a 6-km2 depression. The Novarupta lava dome and its ejecta ring were emplaced later within the depression. At Mt. Katmai, 10 km east of the 1912 vent, a 600-m-deep caldera of similar area also collapsed at about this time, probably owing to hydraulic connection with the venting magma system; but all known ejecta are thought to have erupted at Novarupta. Mingling of three distinctive magmas during the eruption produced an abundance of banded pumice, and mechanical mixing of chilled ejecta resulted in deposits with a wide range of bulk composition. Pumice in the initial fall unit (A) is 100% rhyolite, but fall units atop the ash flow are > 98% dacite; black andesitic scoria is common only in the ash flows and in near-vent air-fall tephra. Pumice counts show the first half of the ash-flow deposit to be 91-98% rhyolite, but progressive increases of dacite and andesite eventually reduced the rhyolitic component to 20 km to the lowermost VTTS, and deposited 1-8 m of debris there. Rhyolitic ejecta contain only 1-2% phenocrysts but andesite and dacite have 30-45%. Quartz is present and augite absent only in the rhyolite, but all ejecta contain plagioclase, orthopyroxene, titanomagnetite, ilmenite, apatite, and pyrrhotite; rare olivine occurs in the

  1. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 3 - Analysis of potentially applicable distributed energy opportunities. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. The third task built upon the findings of the previous two and undertook an analysis of potentially applicable distributed energy opportunities. These opportunities were analysed given a number of different parameters, which were decided upon in consultation with the CVRD. The primary output of this task was a series of cost figures for the various technologies, thus allowing comparison on a cents/kWh basis. All of the cost figures from this task have been entered into a tailor made Excel model. This 'technology cost' model is linked to the Excel scenario model utilised in task 4. As a result, as technology costs change, they can be updated accordingly and be reflected in the scenarios. Please note, that the technologies considered at present in the technology cost model are well-proven technologies, available in the market today, even though the output is being used for an analysis of development until 2050. Task 3 results are detailed in this report and both presents an initial screening for various local renewable energies, and provides the CVRD with the means of evaluating the costs and benefits of local energy productions versus

  2. Energy Zones Study: A Comprehensive Web-Based Mapping Tool to Identify and Analyze Clean Energy Zones in the Eastern Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritarov, Vladimir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kuiper, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hlava, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Orr, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rollins, Katherine [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunner, Donna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Green, Jr., Herman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makar, Jeffrey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ayers, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Holm, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Simunich, Kathy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McLamore, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shamsuddin, Shabbir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kavicky, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Portante, Edgar [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Conzelmann, Guenter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Molburg, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Clark, Corrie [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, Seth [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Darling, Seth [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Braun, Joseph [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gasper, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Richmond, Pamela [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Beardsley, Brett [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schlueter, Scott [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Augustine, Chad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Thomas R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gracia, Jose R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mays, Gary T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fernandez, Steven [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kodysh, Jeffrey [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Travis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report describes the work conducted in support of the Eastern Interconnection States’ Planning Council (EISPC) Energy Zones Study and the development of the Energy Zones Mapping Tool performed by a team of experts from three National Laboratories. The multi-laboratory effort was led by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  3. Implications of transportation policies on energy and environment in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhakal, Shobhakar

    2003-01-01

    This paper estimates and analyzes the historical and future trends of energy demand and environmental emissions from passenger transportation of the Kathmandu Valley covering CO 2 , CO, HC, NO x , SO 2 , total suspended particles (TSP) and lead (Pb). It uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System framework for constructing future scenarios up to year 2020 and analyzing their implications; these scenarios mainly deal with the traffic improvement measures, promotion of public transportation and electric vehicles. The results estimate over a four-fold increase in energy demand in 1988-2000. TSP increase of 4.5 times in this period is the major concern since high particulate concentration is already above World Health Organization guidelines. Under the non-intervention scenario, energy demand in 2020 is estimated to be 2.7 times that in the year 2000. Similarly, 2.5 times increase of TSP in 2020 from the year 2000 is estimated that would further increase the TSP concentrations. The scenario analyses suggest that increasing vehicle speed, promoting public transportation and promoting electric vehicles could reduce energy demand by 28%, 28% and 18%, respectively, while promoting a reasonably comfortable condition on overcrowded public transportation could increase energy demand by 10% from non-intervention scenario. For TSP, any future measures would not be enough unless the attention is not paid to in-use vehicle stock. A mix of all the policies mentioned above has potentials to cut down CO 2 emissions to over 60% from the non-intervention case in 2020

  4. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Ice Mass Variations and the Local Climatic Factors in the Riparian Zone of Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, P.; Ambinakudige, S.

    2016-12-01

    Californian icefields are natural basins of fresh water. They provide irrigation water to the farms in the central valley. We analyzed the ice mass loss rates, air temperature and land surface temperature (LST) in Sacramento and San Joaquin basins in California. The digital elevation models from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to calculate ice mass loss rate between the years 2002 and 2015. Additionally, Landsat TIR data were used to extract the land surface temperature. Data from local weather stations were analyzed to understand the spatiotemporal trends in air temperature. The results showed an overall mass recession of -0.8 ± 0.7 m w.e.a-1. We also noticed an about 60% loss in areal extent of the glaciers in the study basins between 2000 and 2015. Local climatic factors, along with the global climate patterns might have influenced the negative trends in the ice mass loss. Overall, there was an increase in the air temperature by 0.07± 0.02 °C in the central valley between 2000 and 2015. Furthermore, LST increased by 0.34 ± 0.4 °C and 0.55± 0.1 °C in the Sacramento and San Joaquin basins. Our preliminary results show the decrease in area and mass of ice mass in the basins, and changing agricultural practices in the valley.

  5. RE Data Explorer: Supporting Renewable Energy Zones to Enable Low Emission Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie

    2016-10-01

    This fact sheet overviews the benefits of using the RE Data Explorer tool to analyze and develop renewable energy zones. Renewable energy zones are developed through a transmission planning and approval process customized for renewable energy. RE Data Explorer analysis can feed into broader stakeholder discussions and allow stakeholders to easily visualize potential zones. Stakeholders can access pertinent data to inform transmission planning and enable investment.

  6. Chromium(VI) generation in vadose zone soils and alluvial sediments of the southwestern Sacramento Valley, California: A potential source of geogenic Cr(VI) to groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2011-01-01

    g kg -1 , representing a minute fraction of total Cr. Chromium(VI) content was typically below detection in surface soils (top 10 cm) where soil organic matter was high, and increased with increasing depth in the soil auger cores as organic matter decreased. Maximum concentrations of Cr(VI) were up to 3 times greater in the deeper drill core samples than the shallow auger cores. Although Cr(VI) in these vadose zone soils and sediments was only a very small fraction of the total solid phase Cr, they are a potentially important source for Cr(VI) to groundwater. Enhanced groundwater recharge through the vadose zone due to irrigation could carry Cr(VI) from the vadose zone to the groundwater and may be the mechanism responsible for the correlation observed between elevated Cr(VI) and NO 3 - concentrations in previously published data for valley groundwaters. Incubation of a valley subsoil showed a Cr(VI) production rate of 24 μg kg -1 a -1 suggesting that field Cr(VI) concentrations could be regenerated annually. Increased Cr(VI) production rates in H + -amended soil incubations indicate that soil acidification processes such as nitrification of ammonium in fertilizers could potentially increase the occurrence of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater. Thus, despite the natural origin of the Cr, Cr(VI) generation in the Sacramento Valley soils and sediments has the potential to be influenced by human activities.

  7. Chromium(VI) generation in vadose zone soils and alluvial sediments of the southwestern Sacramento Valley, California: A potential source of geogenic Cr(VI) to groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Christopher T., E-mail: cmills@usgs.gov [United States Geological Survey, Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Denver Federal Center, MS 964D, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ellefsen, Karl J. [United States Geological Survey, Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Denver Federal Center, MS 964D, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    from 0 to 42 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, representing a minute fraction of total Cr. Chromium(VI) content was typically below detection in surface soils (top 10 cm) where soil organic matter was high, and increased with increasing depth in the soil auger cores as organic matter decreased. Maximum concentrations of Cr(VI) were up to 3 times greater in the deeper drill core samples than the shallow auger cores. Although Cr(VI) in these vadose zone soils and sediments was only a very small fraction of the total solid phase Cr, they are a potentially important source for Cr(VI) to groundwater. Enhanced groundwater recharge through the vadose zone due to irrigation could carry Cr(VI) from the vadose zone to the groundwater and may be the mechanism responsible for the correlation observed between elevated Cr(VI) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations in previously published data for valley groundwaters. Incubation of a valley subsoil showed a Cr(VI) production rate of 24 {mu}g kg{sup -1} a{sup -1} suggesting that field Cr(VI) concentrations could be regenerated annually. Increased Cr(VI) production rates in H{sup +}-amended soil incubations indicate that soil acidification processes such as nitrification of ammonium in fertilizers could potentially increase the occurrence of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater. Thus, despite the natural origin of the Cr, Cr(VI) generation in the Sacramento Valley soils and sediments has the potential to be influenced by human activities.

  8. Late Cenozoic tephrochronology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and neotectonics of the Western Black Mountains Piedmont, Death Valley, California: Implications for the spatial and temporal evolution of the Death Valley fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Jeffrey Rayburn

    This study presents the first detailed tephrochronologic study of the central Death Valley area by correlation of a Nomlaki-like tuff (>3.35 Ma), tuffs of the Mesquite Spring family (3.1 -- 3.35 Ma), a tuff of the lower Glass Mountain family (1.86 -- 2.06 Ma), and tephra layers from the upper Glass Mountain family (0.8 -- 1.2 Ma), the Bishop ash bed (0.76 Ma), the Lava Creek B ash bed (~0.66 Ma), and the Dibekulewe ash bed (~0.51 Ma). Correlation of these tuffs and tephra layers provides the first reliable numeric-age stratigraphy for late Cenozoic alluvial fan and lacustrine deposits for Death Valley and resulted in the naming of the informal early to middle Pleistocene Mormon Ploint formation. Using the numeric-age stratigraphy, the Death Valley fault zone (DVFZ) is interpreted to have progressively stepped basinward since the late Pliocene at Mormon Point and Copper Canyon. The Mormon Point turtleback or low-angle normal fault is shown to have unequivocal late Quaternary slip at its present low angle dip. Tectonic geomorphic analysis indicates that the (DVFZ) is composed of five geomorphic segments with the most persistent segment boundaries being the en-echelon step at Mormon Point and the bedrock salient at Artists Drive. Subsequent geomorphic studies resulting from the numeric-age stratigraphy and structural relations include application of Gilberts field criteria to the benches at Mormon Point indicating that the upper bench is a lacustrine strandline and the remaining topographically-lower benches are fault scarps across the 160--185 ka lake abrasion platform. In addition, the first known application of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al exposure dating to a rock avalanche complex south of Badwater yielded an age of 29.5 +/- 1.9 ka for the younger avalanche. The 28 meter offset of the older avalanche may be interpreted as post-160--185 ka yielding a 0.1 mm/year slip rate, or post-29.5 +/- 1.9 ka yielding a maximum slip rate of 0.9 nun/year for the DVFZ. A consequence

  9. Energy Zones Study: A Comprehensive Web-Based Mapping Tool to Identify and Analyze Clean Energy Zones in the Eastern Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritarov, V.; Kuiper, J.; Hlava, K.; Orr, A.; Rollins, K.; Brunner, D.; Green, H.; Makar, J.; Ayers, A.; Holm, M.; Simunich, K.; Wang, J.; Augustine, C.; Heimiller, D.; Hurlbut, D. J.; Milbrandt, A.; Schneider, T. R.; et al.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the work conducted in support of the Eastern Interconnection States’ Planning Council (EISPC) Energy Zones Study and the development of the Energy Zones Mapping Tool performed by a team of experts from three National Laboratories. The multi-laboratory effort was led by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In June 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory published Funding Opportunity Announcement FOA-0000068, which invited applications for interconnection-level analysis and planning. In December 2009, the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) and the EISPC were selected as two award recipients for the Eastern Interconnection. Subsequently, in 2010, DOE issued Research Call RC-BM-2010 to DOE’s Federal Laboratories to provide research support and assistance to FOA-0000068 awardees on a variety of key subjects. Argonne was selected as the lead laboratory to provide support to EISPC in developing a methodology and a mapping tool for identifying potential clean energy zones in the Eastern Interconnection. In developing the EISPC Energy Zones Mapping Tool (EZ Mapping Tool), Argonne, NREL, and ORNL closely collaborated with the EISPC Energy Zones Work Group which coordinated the work on the Energy Zones Study. The main product of the Energy Zones Study is the EZ Mapping Tool, which is a web-based decision support system that allows users to locate areas with high suitability for clean power generation in the U.S. portion of the Eastern Interconnection. The mapping tool includes 9 clean (low- or no-carbon) energy resource categories and 29 types of clean energy technologies. The EZ Mapping Tool contains an extensive geographic information system database and allows the user to apply a flexible modeling approach for the identification and analysis of potential energy zones

  10. Comparison of energy fluxes at the land surface-atmosphere interface in an Alpine valley as simulated with different models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Grossi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a research project coupling meteorological and hydrological models in mountainous areas a distributed Snow-Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer model was developed and applied to simulate the energy fluxes at the land surface – atmosphere interface in an Alpine valley (Toce Valley - North Italy during selected flood events in the last decade. Energy fluxes simulated by the distributed energy transfer model were compared with those simulated by a limited area meteorological model for the event of June 1997 and the differences in the spatial and temporal distribution. The Snow/Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer model was also applied to simulate the energy fluxes at the land surface-atmosphere interface for a single cell, assumed to be representative of the Siberia site (Toce Valley, where a micro-meteorological station was installed and operated for 2.5 months in autumn 1999. The Siberia site is very close to the Nosere site, where a standard meteorological station was measuring precipitation, air temperature and humidity, global and net radiation and wind speed during the same special observing period. Data recorded by the standard meteorological station were used to force the energy transfer model and simulate the point energy fluxes at the Siberia site, while turbulent fluxes observed at the Siberia site were used to derive the latent heat flux from the energy balance equation. Finally, the hourly evapotranspiration flux computed by this procedure was compared to the evapotranspiration flux simulated by the energy transfer model. Keywords: energy exchange processes, land surface-atmosphere interactions, turbulent fluxes

  11. The Impact of Three-Dimensional Effects on the Simulation of Turbulence Kinetic Energy in a Major Alpine Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goger, Brigitta; Rotach, Mathias W.; Gohm, Alexander; Fuhrer, Oliver; Stiperski, Ivana; Holtslag, Albert A. M.

    2018-07-01

    The correct simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is crucial for reliable weather forecasts in truly complex terrain. However, common assumptions for model parametrizations are only valid for horizontally homogeneous and flat terrain. Here, we evaluate the turbulence parametrization of the numerical weather prediction model COSMO with a horizontal grid spacing of Δ x = 1.1 km for the Inn Valley, Austria. The long-term, high-resolution turbulence measurements of the i-Box measurement sites provide a useful data pool of the ABL structure in the valley and on slopes. We focus on days and nights when ABL processes dominate and a thermally-driven circulation is present. Simulations are performed for case studies with both a one-dimensional turbulence parametrization, which only considers the vertical turbulent exchange, and a hybrid turbulence parametrization, also including horizontal shear production and advection in the budget of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE). We find a general underestimation of TKE by the model with the one-dimensional turbulence parametrization. In the simulations with the hybrid turbulence parametrization, the modelled TKE has a more realistic structure, especially in situations when the TKE production is dominated by shear related to the afternoon up-valley flow, and during nights, when a stable ABL is present. The model performance also improves for stations on the slopes. An estimation of the horizontal shear production from the observation network suggests that three-dimensional effects are a relevant part of TKE production in the valley.

  12. Chromium(VI) generation in vadose zone soils and alluvial sediments of the southwestern Sacramento Valley, California: a potential source of geogenic Cr(VI) to groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater that exceed the World Health Organization’s maximum contaminant level for drinking water (50 μg L−1) occur in several locations globally. The major mechanism for mobilization of this Cr(VI) at these sites is the weathering of Cr(III) from ultramafic rocks and its subsequent oxidation on Mn oxides. This process may be occurring in the southern Sacramento Valley of California where Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater can approach or exceed 50 μg L−1. To characterize Cr geochemistry in the area, samples from several soil auger cores (approximately 4 m deep) and drill cores (approximately 25 m deep) were analyzed for total concentrations of 44 major, minor and trace elements, Cr associated with labile Mn and Fe oxides, and Cr(VI). Total concentrations of Cr in these samples ranged from 140 to 2220 mg per kg soil. Between 9 and 70 mg per kg soil was released by selective extractions that target Fe oxides, but essentially no Cr was associated with the abundant reactive Mn oxides (up to ~1000 mg hydroxylamine-reducible Mn per kg soil was present). Both borehole magnetic susceptibility surveys performed at some of the drill core sites and relative differences between Cr released in a 4-acid digestion versus total Cr (lithium metaborate fusion digestion) suggest that the majority of total Cr in the samples is present in refractory chromite minerals transported from ultramafic exposures in the Coast Range Mountains. Chromium(VI) in the samples studied ranged from 0 to 42 μg kg−1, representing a minute fraction of total Cr. Chromium(VI) content was typically below detection in surface soils (top 10 cm) where soil organic matter was high, and increased with increasing depth in the soil auger cores as organic matter decreased. Maximum concentrations of Cr(VI) were up to 3 times greater in the deeper drill core samples than the shallow auger cores. Although Cr(VI) in these vadose zone soils and sediments was only a

  13. Partitioning of radiation and energy balance components in an inhomogeneous desert valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, E.; Bingham, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation and energy balance components are required to validate global, regional, and local scale models representing surface heat flux relationships in the heterogeneous surfaces of the world's arid and desert regions. Research was conducted in north-eastern Nevada, U.S.A., in a Great Basin inhomogeneous semi-arid desert valley located at 40° 44′ N, 114° 26′ W, with an elevation of 1707 m above mean sea level, to study the daily, monthly, and annual mesoscale radiation and energy balance components. We established five radiation stations along with five Bowen ratio systems to measure the incoming (R si ) and outgoing (R so ) solar (shortwave) radiation, net (R n ) radiation, air temperatures and moisture at 1 and 2 m above-ground, the aggregated (soil + vegetation) surface temperature, soil heat flux at 8 cm (three locations at each station), soil temperatures at 2 and 6 cm above each soil flux plate, wind speed and direction at 10 m, and precipitation (if any) every 5 s averaged into 20 min throughout the valley during the 93–94 water year (beginning 1 October). Our study during the 93–94 water year showed that albedo (R so /R si ) ranged from 85% (snow-covered surface) to 10% (cloudy skies with wet surface) among stations. The water year total incoming solar radiation (averaged among stations) amounted to 6·33 × 10 3 MJ·m −2 and about 24% of that was reflected back to the atmosphere. The net longwave radiation (R ln = R lo − R li ) was about 32% of R si , where R lo and R li are the terrestrial (outgoing) and atmospheric (incoming) longwave radiation, respectively. The 93–94 water year average net radiation (R n ) among stations amounted to 2·68 × 10 3 MJ·m −2 (about 44% of R si ). Approximately 85·3% and 14·6% of R n were used for the processes of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat fluxes, respectively. The annual R n contribution to surface soil heat flux (G surf ) was almost 0·1%. Monthly and annual relationships among

  14. Understanding the behavior of carbon dioxide and surface energy fluxes in semiarid Salt Lake Valley, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Prathap

    This dissertation reports the findings from the Salt Lake Valley flux study. The Salt Lake Valley flux study was designed to improve our understanding of the complex land-atmosphere interactions in urban areas. The flux study used the eddy covariance technique to quantify carbon dioxide and surface energy budget in the semiarid Salt Lake Valley. Apart from quantifying fluxes, the study has also added new insight into the nature of turbulent scalar transport in urban areas and has addressed some of the complications in using Eddy Covariance technique in urban areas. As part of this experiment, eddy fluxes of CO2 and surface energy fluxes were measured at two sites, with distinct urban landforms; One site was located in a suburban neighborhood with substantial vegetative cover, prototypical of many residential neighborhoods in the valley. The other CO2 site was in a preurban surrounding that resembled the Salt Lake Valley before it was urbanized. The two sites were intentionally chosen to illustrate the impact of urbanization on CO 2 and surface energy flux cycles. Results indicate that the suburban site acted as a sink of CO2 during the midday period due to photosynthesis and acted as a source of CO2 during the evening and nighttime periods. The vegetative cover around the suburban site also had a significant impact on the surface energy fluxes. Contribution from latent heat flux was substantially high at the suburban site during the summer months compared to sensible heat. The turbulence investigation found that the general behavior of turbulence was very much influenced by local factors and the statistics did not always obey Monin-Obukhov Similarity parameters. This investigation also found that the scalar (co)spectra observed at the suburban site were characterized by multiple peaks and were different compared to (co)spectra reported over forest and crop canopies. The study also observed multiscale CO2 transport at the suburban site during the convective period

  15. Constraints on Shallow Crustal Structure across the San Andreas Fault Zone, Coachella Valley, Southern California: Results from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, A.; Persaud, P.; Bauer, K.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Hole, J. A.; Goldman, M.

    2015-12-01

    The strong influence of basin structure and crustal heterogeneities on seismic wave propagation suggests that these factors should be included in calculations of strong ground shaking. Knowledge of the shallow subsurface is thus essential for an accurate seismic hazard estimate for the densely populated Coachella Valley, the region north of the potential M7.8 rupture near the Salton Sea. Using SSIP data, we analyzed first arrivals from nine 65-911 kg explosive shots recorded along a profile in the Coachella Valley in order to evaluate the interpretation of our 2D tomographic results and give added details on the structural complexity of the shallow crust. The line extends 37 km from the Peninsular Ranges to the Little San Bernardino Mountains crossing the major strands of the San Andreas Fault Zone. We fit traveltime curves to our picks with forward modeling ray tracing, and determined 1D P-wave velocity models for traveltime arrivals east and west of each shot, and a 2D model for the line. We also inferred the geometry of near-vertical faults from the pre-stack line migration method of Bauer et al. (2013). In general, the 1D models east of individual shots have deeper basement contacts and lower apparent velocities, ~5 km/s at 4 km depth, whereas the models west of individual shots have shallower basement and velocities up to 6 km/s at 2 km depth. Mismatches in basement depths (assuming 5-6 km/s) between individual 1D models indicate a shallowly dipping basement, deepening eastward towards the Banning Fault and shoaling abruptly farther east. An east-dipping structure in the 2D model also gives a better fit than horizontal layers. Based on high velocity zones derived from traveltimes at 9-20 km from the western end of the line, we included an offset from ~2 km to 4 km depth near the middle of the line, which significantly improved the 2D model fit. If fault-related, this offset could represent the Garnet Hill Fault if it continues southward in the subsurface.

  16. A hybrid machine learning model to estimate nitrate contamination of production zone groundwater in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, K.; Nolan, B. T.; Faunt, C. C.; Bell, A.; Gronberg, J.; Traum, J.; Wheeler, D. C.; Rosecrans, C.; Belitz, K.; Eberts, S.; Harter, T.

    2016-12-01

    A hybrid, non-linear, machine learning statistical model was developed within a statistical learning framework to predict nitrate contamination of groundwater to depths of approximately 500 m below ground surface in the Central Valley, California. A database of 213 predictor variables representing well characteristics, historical and current field and county scale nitrogen mass balance, historical and current landuse, oxidation/reduction conditions, groundwater flow, climate, soil characteristics, depth to groundwater, and groundwater age were assigned to over 6,000 private supply and public supply wells measured previously for nitrate and located throughout the study area. The machine learning method, gradient boosting machine (GBM) was used to screen predictor variables and rank them in order of importance in relation to the groundwater nitrate measurements. The top five most important predictor variables included oxidation/reduction characteristics, historical field scale nitrogen mass balance, climate, and depth to 60 year old water. Twenty-two variables were selected for the final model and final model errors for log-transformed hold-out data were R squared of 0.45 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.124. Modeled mean groundwater age was tested separately for error improvement in the model and when included decreased model RMSE by 0.5% compared to the same model without age and by 0.20% compared to the model with all 213 variables. 1D and 2D partial plots were examined to determine how variables behave individually and interact in the model. Some variables behaved as expected: log nitrate decreased with increasing probability of anoxic conditions and depth to 60 year old water, generally decreased with increasing natural landuse surrounding wells and increasing mean groundwater age, generally increased with increased minimum depth to high water table and with increased base flow index value. Other variables exhibited much more erratic or noisy behavior in

  17. Energy exploration in the Australian arid zone: constraints and environmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R C

    1982-03-01

    The main constraints on energy exploration in the Australian arid zone are logistic, with limited additional constraints from Aboriginal reserves. The main consequence is increased access, with possible introduction of weeds and expansion of tourism and cattle grazing in consequence.

  18. Assessment of Spatial Variability of Heavy Metals in Metropolitan Zone of Toluca Valley, Mexico, Using the Biomonitoring Technique in Mosses and TXRF Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Zarazúa-Ortega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals using the epiphytic moss genera Fabronia ciliaris collected from six urban sites in the Metropolitan Zone of the Toluca Valley in Mexico. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Pb were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique. Results show that the average metal concentration decrease in the following order: Fe (8207 mg/Kg > Ca (7315 mg/Kg > K (3842 mg/Kg > Ti (387 mg/Kg > Mn, Zn (191 mg/Kg > Sr (71 mg/Kg > Pb (59 mg/Kg > Cu, V (32 mg/Kg > Cr (24 mg/Kg > Rb (13 mg/Kg > Ni (10 mg/Kg. Enrichment factors show a high enrichment for Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb which provides an evidence of anthropogenic impact in the industrial and urban areas, mainly due to the intense vehicular traffic and the fossil fuel combustion. Monitoring techniques in mosses have proved to be a powerful tool for determining the deposition of heavy metals coming from diverse point sources of pollution.

  19. Renewable Energy Zones: Delivering Clean Power to Meet Demand, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2016-05-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document describes the renewable energy zone concept that has emerged as a transmission planning tool to help scale up the penetration of solar, wind, and other resources on the power system.

  20. A Groundwater Model to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Brenda Solar Energy Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carr, Adrianne E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greer, Chris [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bowen, Esther E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal to support utility-scale solar energy development at the Brenda Solar Energy Zone (SEZ), as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program.

  1. A Groundwater Model to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Imperial East Solar Energy Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greer, Chris [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); O' Connor, Ben L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tompson, Andrew F.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal to support the utility-scale solar energy development at the Imperial East Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) solar energy program.

  2. Hydrogeologic data and water-quality data from a thick unsaturated zone at a proposed wastewater-treatment facility site, Yucca Valley, San Bernardino County, California, 2008-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, David; Clark, Dennis A.; Izbicki, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Hi-Desert Water District, in the community of Yucca Valley, California, is considering constructing a wastewater-treatment facility and using the reclaimed water to recharge the aquifer system through surface spreading. The Hi-Desert Water District is concerned with possible effects of this recharge on water quality in the underlying groundwater system; therefore, an unsaturated-zone monitoring site was constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to characterize the unsaturated zone, monitor a pilot-scale recharge test, and, ultimately, to monitor the flow of reclaimed water to the water table once the treatment facility is constructed.

  3. Impact of ecological diversity on genetic and phytochemical variation injuniperus excelsa from high elevation zones of quetta valley, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, S.; Barozai, M.Y.K.; Ahmed, A.; Tareen, R.B.

    2017-01-01

    Juniperusexcelsa (Cupressaceae) is an evergreen tree and the second most diverse group of the conifers distributed abundantly in high elevation zones of Balochistan. Genetic and phytochemical variations in three naturally occurring populations of J.excelsa were analysed. Genetic variability was assessed by different molecular markers (RAPD, ISSR and URP) with an objective to use genetic diversity as a key to conserve the taxon which is also known as living fossil as dominated in Mesozoic era. Genetic diversity was assessed by polymorphic bands to generate a dendrogram based on UPGMA. Using tested markers, 116 bands were amplified out of which 67 bands were polymorphic with an average value of 8.37 (57%) bands per primer. Based on data, a cluster dendrogram was prepared that exhibited the mean genetic similarity matrix as 0.57 and two major clusters diverge at 0.49. The genetic similarity coefficient among all accessions ranged from 0.35 to 0.90. In phytochemical analysis, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated and compared among all accessions. Ecological characteristics of the study sites were measured to check their impact on genetic and chemical variation. Soil properties were analyzed for Principal Component Analysis. Chemical variation of J. excelsa of three sites revealed by dissimilarity matrix exhibiting genetic distance based on TPC and Flavonoids. Cluster analysis represent two major groups. Mean concentration of TPC and flavonoids were 56+-9.15 and 150+-27.9 mg/g respectively. PCA of soil considered three factors had Eigen values >1 and explain cumulatively 4.60 %, 26.02% and 10.36 % of the variance. First factor was positively correlated with second and fifth, but negatively correlated with other factors. In conclusion, molecular marker profiling together with phytochemical variation of total phenolic and flavonoid content in all accessions of Juniperusexcelsa and impact of ecological diversity on Genetic and chemical variation can be used

  4. Effectiveness of the Solar Panels in the Castro Valley Unified School District Based on Projected Amount of Energy to be Produced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, J. R.; Palmer, T. C.; Siegel, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years Americans have warmed to the idea of installing solar panels to their homes and businesses. These panels help reduce the cost of receiving energy from power plants that lose a lot of energy in transportation. These power plants provide energy by burning gas or coal producing emissions that add to the growing problem of pollution and global warming. In 2010 the Castro Valley Unified School District decided to add solar panels to Canyon Middle School, Castro Valley High School, and Castro Valley Adult School. We researched whether the solar panels reached their projected amount of energy (74%) for the sites where the panels were placed. The solar panels at all three sites were found to exceed these projected amounts. The solar panels at each site produce a little over 74% for the each school.

  5. ON PREDICTING INFRAGRAVITY ENERGY IN THE SURF ZONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Holman, Robert A.; Edge, Billy L.

    1985-01-01

    Flow data were obtained in the surf zone across a barred profile during a storm. RMS cross-shore velocities due to waves in the intragravity band (wave periods greater than 20 s) had maxima in excess of 0. 5 m/s over the bar crest. For comparison to measured spectra, synthetic spectra of cross-shore flow were computed using measured nearshore profiles. The structure, in the infragravity band, of these synthetic spectra corresponded reasonably well with the structure of the measured spectra. Total variances of measured cross-shore flow within the infragravity band were nondimensionalized by dividing by total infragravity variances of synthetic spectra. These nondimensional variances were independent of distance offshore and increased with the square of the breaker height. Thus, cross-shore flow due to infragravity waves can be estimated with knowledge of the nearshore profile and incident wave conditions. Refs.

  6. Energies of the X- and L-valleys in In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As from electronic structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene-Diniz, Gabriel; Greer, J. C. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Fischetti, M. V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road RL10, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2016-02-07

    Several theoretical electronic structure methods are applied to study the relative energies of the minima of the X- and L-conduction-band satellite valleys of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As with x = 0.53. This III-V semiconductor is a contender as a replacement for silicon in high-performance n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors. The energy of the low-lying valleys relative to the conduction-band edge governs the population of channel carriers as the transistor is brought into inversion, hence determining current drive and switching properties at gate voltages above threshold. The calculations indicate that the position of the L- and X-valley minima are ∼1 eV and ∼1.2 eV, respectively, higher in energy with respect to the conduction-band minimum at the Γ-point.

  7. Mapping of zones potentially occupied by Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes, the main vectors of Rift Valley fever in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves M. Tourre

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A necessary condition for Rift Valley fever (RVF emergence is the presence of Aedes (Aedimorphus vexans and Culex (Culex poicilipes mosquitoes carrying the arbovirus and responsible for the infection. This paper presents a detailed mapping in the Sahelian region of Senegal of zones potentially occupied by these mosquitoes (ZPOMs whose population density is directly linked to ecozones in the vicinity of small ponds. The vectors habitats and breeding sites have been characterized through an integrated approach combining remote sensing technology, geographical information systems, geographical positioning systems and field observations for proper geo-referencing. From five SPOT-5 images (~10 m spatial resolution with appropriate channels, a meridional composite transect of 290 x 60 km was first constructed at the height of the summer monsoon. Subsequent ZPOMs covered major ecozones from north to south with different hydrological environments and different patterns pond distributions. It was found that an overall area of 12,817 ha ± 10% (about 0.8% of the transect is occupied by ponds with an average ZPOM 17 times larger than this (212,813 ha ± 10% or about 14% of the transect. By comparing the very humid year of 2003 with 2006 which had just below normal rainfall, the ZPOMs inter-annual variability was analyzed in a sandy-clayey ecozone with an important hydrofossil riverbed within the Ferlo region of Senegal. Very probably contributing to an increased abundance of vectors by the end of August 2003, it was shown that the aggregate pond area was already about 22 times larger than in August 2006, corresponding to an approximately five times larger total ZPOM. The results show the importance of pin-pointing small ponds (sizes down to 0.1 ha and their geographical distribution in order to assess animal exposure to the RVF vectors.

  8. High gene flow and genetic diversity in three economically important Zanthoxylum Spp. of Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of NE India using molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhi, K; Sarmah, D K; Deka, M; Bhau, B S

    2014-12-01

    The genetic diversity in Zanthoxylum species viz.  Zanthoxylum nitidum, Zanthoxylum oxyphyllum and Zanthoxylum rhesta collected from the Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam (NE India) was amplified using 13 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and 9 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. RAPD markers were able to detect 81.82% polymorphism whereas ISSR detected 98.02% polymorphism. The genetic similarities were analyzed from the dendrogram constructed by RAPD and ISSR fingerprinting methods which divided the 3 species of Zanthoxylum into 3 clear different clusters. The principle component analysis (PCA) was carried out to confirm the clustering pattern of RAPD and ISSR analysis. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the presence of significant variability between different Zanthoxylum species and within the species by both RAPD and ISSR markers. Z. nitidum was found to be sharing a high degree of variation with the other two Zanthoxylum species under study. The Nei's gene diversity (h), Shannon's information index (I), observed number of alleles (na) and effective number of alleles (ne) were also found to be higher in ISSR markers (0.3526, 0.5230, 1.9802 and 1.6145) than in RAPD markers (0.3144, 0.4610, 1.8182 and 1.5571). The values for total genotype diversity for among population (HT), within population diversity (Hs) and gene flow (Nm) were more in ISSR (0.3491, 0.2644 and 1.5610) than RAPD (0.3128, 0.2264 and 1.3087) but the mean coefficient of gene differentiation (GST) was more in RAPD (0.2764) than ISSR (0.2426). A comparison of this two finger printing methods was done by calculating MR, EMI and MI. The correlation coefficient between data matrices of RAPD and ISSR based on Mantel test was found to be significant (r = 0.65612).

  9. Dietary α-ketoglutarate supplementation improves hepatic and intestinal energy status and anti-oxidative capacity of Cherry Valley ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuangshuang; Duan, Rui; Wang, Lei; Hou, Yongqing; Tan, Linglin; Cheng, Qiang; Liao, Man; Ding, Binying

    2017-11-01

    α-Ketoglutarate (AKG) is an extensively used dietary supplement in human and animal nutrition. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of dietary AKG supplementation on the energy status and anti-oxidative capacity in liver and intestinal mucosa of Cherry Valley ducks. A total of 80 1-day-old ducks were randomly assigned into four groups, in which ducks were fed basal diets supplemented with 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% AKG, respectively. Graded doses of AKG supplementation linearly decreased the ratio of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the liver, but increased ATP content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) in a quadratic and linear manner, respectively (P ducks. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Preliminary estimating the contemporary sedimentation trend in dry valley bottoms of first-order catchments of different landscape zones of the Russian Plain using the 137Cs as a chronomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifullin, A.; Gusarov, A.; Gafurov, A.; Essuman-Quainoo, B.

    2018-01-01

    A general trend of erosion processes over the last 50-60 years can be estimated by dating sediments washed off from arable lands and accumulated in the first-order dry valleys bottoms. Three small (first-order) catchments were chosen as objects of the study. They are located, respectively, in the southern part of the taiga zone, the zone of temperate broad-leaf forests and the forest-steppe zone of the Russian Plain. To date the sediments accumulated in the bottoms the radioactive caesium-137 (137Cs) of global (since 1954) and Chernobyl origin (1986) had been used as a chronomarker. The average (for all the catchments) sedimentation rates during the global 137Cs fallout period (1963(1954)-1986) are at least 0.88-2.71 cm per year.For the period that has passed since the Chernobyl accident (1986-2015(2016)) the average rates were 0.15-1.07 cm per year. The greatest reduction in the sedimentation rates is observed in the subzone of the southern taiga, the lowest one is in the forest-steppe zone of the Russian Plain. The main reason for such significant reduction in the rates of sedimentation of the soil erosion products in the dry valley bottoms was a reduction of surface runoff within the catchments during a snowmelt period, as well as crop-rotation changes there.

  11. Mapping the Habitable Zone of Exoplanets with a 2D Energy Balance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Nicole Taylor; Dr. Lisa Kaltenegger, Dr. Ramses Ramirez

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, the habitable zone has been defined as the distance at which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. However, different complexity models (simplified and fast:1D, and complex and time-intense:3D) models derive different boundaries for the habitable zone. The goal of this project was to test a new intermediate complexity 2D Energy Balance model, add a new ice albedo feedback mechanism, and derive the habitable zone boundaries. After completing this first project, we also studied how other feedback mechanisms, such as the presence of clouds and the carbonate-silicate cycle, effected the location of the habitable zone boundaries using this 2D model. This project was completed as part of a 2017 summer REU program hosted by Cornell's Center for Astrophysics and Plantary Sciecne and in partnership with the Carl Sagan Institute.

  12. Analysis on energy-saving path of rural buildings in hot summer and cold winter zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingqiang; Li, Jinheng

    2018-02-01

    Since the reform and opening policy, the construction of rural area in China has become more and more important. The idea of establishing green villages needs to be accepted and recognized by the public. The hot summer and cold winter zone combines two contradictory weather conditions that is cold winter and hot summer. So the living conditions are limited. In response to this climate, residents extensively use electric heaters or air conditioning to adjust the indoor temperature, resulting in energy waste and environmental pollution. In order to improve the living conditions of residents, rural area energy conservation has been put on the agenda. Based on the present situation and energy consumption analysis of the rural buildings in the hot summer and cold winter zone, this article puts forward several energy saving paths from government, construction technology and so on

  13. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 1 - GIS mapping of potential renewable energy resources in the CVRD. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. The first task in the project was the production of a series of thematic GIS maps and associated databases of potential renewable energy resources in the CVRD. The renewable energy sources mapped were solar, wind, micro hydro, and biomass (residues and waste). Other sources were also discussed (e.g. geothermal heat) but not mapped due to lack of spatially explicit input data. The task 1 findings are detailed in this report. (LN)

  14. Analysis of wind energy generation possibilities with various rotor types at disadvantageous wind condition zones

    OpenAIRE

    Bieniek Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The paper describe possibilities of energy generation using various rotor types but especially with multi-blade wind engine operates in the areas with unfavourable wind condition. The paper presents also wind energy conversion estimation results presented based on proposed solution of multi-blade wind turbine of outer diameter of 4 m. Based on the wind distribution histogram from the disadvantage wind condition zones (city of Basel) and taking into account design and estimated operating index...

  15. Assessing the full costs of water, liquid waste, energy and solid waste infrastructure in the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.

    2001-01-01

    This document presents a newly drafted growth strategy developed by the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD) in British Columbia. It guides the sustainable growth, change and development of the region for the next 25 years and deals with air pollution, water quality, traffic congestion, affordable housing, employment, energy use, parks and green space. In particular, this case study develops a method to apply full cost accounting (FCA) to a growth strategy. FCA is the most appropriate way to approach a sustainable strategy because it considers economic, social and environmental issues. The study also includes the development of a software tool consisting of an ACCESS database and an ARCVIEW GIS file for compiling and analyzing detailed infrastructure profiles which can be used to assess the full costs of different growth scenarios. The following four issue categories of environmental and economic indicators of FVRD performance were addressed: solid waste, water and wastewater, energy, and infrastructure costs. Each issue category was then used to establish a set of 5 performance indicators that can be measured and assessed over time. These included solid waste, water consumption, wastewater, energy consumption and air emissions. The database and methodology developed for this project is suitable for other regions. The software can be viewed by contacting the Sheltair Group Resource Consultants Inc. in Vancouver

  16. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Phadke, Amol A.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2010-06-10

    The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33percent of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33percent RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65percent). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41percent). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19percent of the total delivered cost of renewable energy.

  17. 77 FR 34935 - Foreign-Trade Zone 161; Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; Siemens Energy, Inc., (Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket T-4-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 161; Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; Siemens Energy, Inc., (Wind Turbine Nacelles and Hubs); Notice of... temporary/interim manufacturing (T/IM) authority, on behalf of Siemens Energy, Inc., to manufacture wind...

  18. Exploration of resource and transmission expansion decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Andrew; Phadke, Amol; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33% of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33% RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65%). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41%). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19% of the total delivered cost of renewable energy. - Research highlights: → We describe a new tool to evaluate transmission expansion and renewable resource selection. → We examine a scenario where 33% of the energy in the Western Interconnection comes from renewables. → Wind energy provides the majority of new renewable energy. → For some loads, the decision to procure wind and the required transmission is insensitive to assumptions. → For other loads, assumptions can shift toward more solar, which also changes the needed transmission.

  19. Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning Process: A Guidebook for Practitioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    Achieving clean energy goals may require new investments in transmission, especially if planners anticipate economic growth and increased demand for electricity. The renewable energy zone (REZ) transmission planning process can help policymakers ensure their infrastructure investments achieve national goals in the most economical manner. Policymakers, planners, and system operators around the world have used variations of the REZ process to chart the expansion of their transmission networks and overcome the barriers of traditional transmission planning. This guidebook seeks to help power system planners, key decision makers, and stakeholders understand and use the REZ transmission planning process to integrate transmission expansion planning and renewable energy generation planning.

  20. Simulations of Ground-Water Flow and Particle Pathline Analysis in the Zone of Contribution of a Public-Supply Well in Modesto, Eastern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Phillips, Steven P.; Dalgish, Barbara A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Shallow ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley is affected by high nitrate and uranium concentrations and frequent detections of pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOC), as a result of ground-water development and intensive agricultural and urban land use. A single public-supply well was selected for intensive study to evaluate the dominant processes affecting the vulnerability of public-supply wells in the Modesto area. A network of 23 monitoring wells was installed, and water and sediment samples were collected within the approximate zone of contribution of the public-supply well, to support a detailed analysis of physical and chemical conditions and processes affecting the water chemistry in the well. A three-dimensional, steady-state local ground-water-flow and transport model was developed to evaluate the age of ground water reaching the well and to evaluate the vulnerability of the well to nonpoint source input of nitrate and uranium. Particle tracking was used to compute pathlines and advective travel times in the ground-water flow model. The simulated ages of particles reaching the public-supply well ranged from 9 to 30,000 years, with a median of 54 years. The age of the ground water contributed to the public-supply well increased with depth below the water table. Measured nitrate concentrations, derived primarily from agricultural fertilizer, were highest (17 milligrams per liter) in shallow ground water and decreased with depth to background concentrations of less than 2 milligrams per liter in the deepest wells. Because the movement of water is predominantly downward as a result of ground-water development, and because geochemical conditions are generally oxic, high nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water are expected to continue moving downward without significant attenuation. Simulated long-term nitrate concentrations indicate that concentrations have peaked and will decrease in the public-supply well during the next 100 years

  1. Analysis of wind energy generation possibilities with various rotor types at disadvantageous wind condition zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    The paper describe possibilities of energy generation using various rotor types but especially with multi-blade wind engine operates in the areas with unfavourable wind condition. The paper presents also wind energy conversion estimation results presented based on proposed solution of multi-blade wind turbine of outer diameter of 4 m. Based on the wind distribution histogram from the disadvantage wind condition zones (city of Basel) and taking into account design and estimated operating indexes of the considered wind engine rotor an annual energy generation was estimated. Also theoretical energy generation using various types of wind turbines operates at disadvantage wind conditions zones were estimated and compared. The conducted analysis shows that introduction of multi-blade wind rotor instead of the most popular 3- blades or vertical axis rotors results of about 5% better energy generation. Simultaneously there are energy production also at very disadvantages wind condition at wind speed lower then 4 m s-1. Based on considered construction of multi-blade wind engine the rise of rotor mounting height from 10 to 30 m results with more then 300 % better results in terms of electric energy generation.

  2. Analysis of wind energy generation possibilities with various rotor types at disadvantageous wind condition zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieniek Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describe possibilities of energy generation using various rotor types but especially with multi-blade wind engine operates in the areas with unfavourable wind condition. The paper presents also wind energy conversion estimation results presented based on proposed solution of multi-blade wind turbine of outer diameter of 4 m. Based on the wind distribution histogram from the disadvantage wind condition zones (city of Basel and taking into account design and estimated operating indexes of the considered wind engine rotor an annual energy generation was estimated. Also theoretical energy generation using various types of wind turbines operates at disadvantage wind conditions zones were estimated and compared. The conducted analysis shows that introduction of multi-blade wind rotor instead of the most popular 3- blades or vertical axis rotors results of about 5% better energy generation. Simultaneously there are energy production also at very disadvantages wind condition at wind speed lower then 4 ms-1. Based on considered construction of multi-blade wind engine the rise of rotor mounting height from 10 to 30 m results with more then 300 % better results in terms of electric energy generation.

  3. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Mandalay Homes — Pronghorn Ranch, Prescott Valley, AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    The builder has certified 20 homes to DOE Zero Energy Ready Home program and plans are underway for 50 more. Winner of a Production Builder prize in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards, the homes achieved a HERS score of 48 without photovoltaics (PV) or HERS 25 with 3.5 kW PV included.

  4. Exploring the Effect of Climate Perturbations on Water Availability for Renewable Energy Development in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, David M.

    Energy and water are connected through the water-use cycle (e.g. obtaining, transporting, and treating water) and thermoelectric energy generation, which converts heat to electricity via steam-driven turbines. As the United States implements more renewable energy technologies, quantifying the relationships between energy, water, and land-surface impacts of these implementations will provide policy makers the strengths and weaknesses of different renewable energy options. In this study, a MODFLOW model of the Indian Wells Valley (IWV), in California, was developed to capture the water, energy, and land-surface impacts of potential proposed 1) solar, 2) wind, and 3) biofuel implementations. The model was calibrated to pre-existing groundwater head data from 1985 to present to develop a baseline model before running two-year predictive scenarios for photovoltaic (PV), concentrating solar power (CSP), wind, and biofuel implementations. Additionally, the baseline model was perturbed by decreasing mountain front recharge values by 5%, 10%, and 15%, simulating potential future system perturbations under a changing climate. These potential future conditions were used to re-run each implementation scenario. Implementation scenarios were developed based on population, typical energy use per person, existing land-use and land-cover type within the IWV, and previously published values for water use, surface-area use, and energy-generation potential for each renewable fuel type. The results indicate that the quantity of water needed, localized drawdown from pumping water to meet implementation demands, and generation efficiency are strongly controlled by the fuel type, as well as the energy generating technology and thermoelectric technologies implemented. Specifically, PV and wind-turbine (WT) implementations required less than 1% of the estimated annual aquifer recharge, while technologies such as biofuels and CSP, which rely on thermoelectric generation, ranged from 3% to 20

  5. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 4 - Analysis of opportunity costs and issues related to regional energy resilience. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. Based on the outputs from the first three tasks, a suite of coherent pathways towards the overall target of 75% residential local energy consumption was created, and the costs and benefits for the region were calculated. This was undertaken via a scenario analysis which also highlighted the risks and robustness of the different options within the pathways. In addition to a direct economic comparison between the different pathways, more qualitative issues were described, including potential local employment, environmental benefits and disadvantages, etc. The main tool utilised in this analysis was a tailor made Excel energy model that includes mechanisms for analysing improvements in the CVRD energy system down to an area level, for example renewable energy in residential buildings, renewable energy generation, and the effects of energy efficiency improvements. For the industrial, commercial, and transport sectors, simple and generic forecasts and input possibilities were included in the model. The Excel 'technology cost' and 'energy' models are accompanied with a user manual so that planners within the CVRD can become well

  6. New organization scheme for the energy supply in the not interconnected zones of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Josue; Bayona Lugdy

    2001-01-01

    The paper shows a new scheme of solutions in the financial institutional environment and regulatory, in this sense it thinks about the creation from a support unit to the rural energy administration that takes charge of to identify energy solutions and the technical and organizational support of the service of a foundation that manage the obtained resources and a interconnected scheme to the current conditions of the NIZ. In Colombia the not interconnected zones NIZ corresponds those of the country that don't receive electric power service through the national interconnected system, and who interconnection is not economically feasible

  7. Database of Low-e Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Thomas D.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2014-09-04

    This is an update of a report that describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone.

  8. Stress fields and energy of disclination-type defects in zones of localized elastic distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Ivan I.; Tyumentsev, Alexander N.; Ditenberg, Ivan A.

    2016-11-01

    This paper studies theoretically the elastically deformed state and analyzes deformation mechanisms in nanocrystals in the zones of localized elastic distortions and related disclination-type defects, such as dipole, quadrupole and multipole of partial disclinations. Significant differences in the energies of quadrupole and multipole configurations in comparison with nanodipole are revealed. The mechanism of deformation localization in the field of elastic distortions is proposed, which is a quasi-periodic sequence of formation and relaxation of various disclination ensembles with a periodic change in the energy of the defect.

  9. Design Optimization of a Small-Scale Polygeneration Energy System in Different Climate Zones in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ghaem Sigarchian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Design and performance of polygeneration energy systems are highly influenced by several variables, including the climate zone, which can affect the load profile as well as the availability of renewable energy sources. To investigate the effects, in this study, the design of a polygeneration system for identical residential buildings that are located in three different climate zones in Iran has been investigated. To perform the study, a model has previously developed by the author is used. The performance of the polygeneration system in terms of energy, economy and environment were compared to each other. The results show significant energetic and environmental benefits of the implementation of polygeneration systems in Iran, especially in the building that is located in a hot climate, with a high cooling demand and a low heating demand. Optimal polygeneration system for an identical building has achieved a 27% carbon dioxide emission reduction in the cold climate, while this value is around 41% in the hot climate. However, when considering the price of electricity and gas in the current energy market in Iran, none of the systems are feasible and financial support mechanisms or other incentives are required to promote the application of decentralized polygeneration energy systems.

  10. 75 FR 62852 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Chevron Energy Solutions Lucerne Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ..., 22835 Calle San Juan de Los Lagos, Moreno Valley, California 92553 or via the Internet at http://www.blm..., parking area, and set-back area. A portion of Zircon Road will also be relocated. Pursuant to BLM's CDCA...

  11. Accelerating the development and diffusion of new energy technologies: Beyond the 'valley of death'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyant, John P.

    2011-01-01

    There are at least three motivations for government intervention in GHG mitigation: (1) inducing the private sector to reduce GHG emissions directly by setting a price on emissions, (2) increasing the amount of innovative activity in GHG mitigation technology development, and (3) educating the public regarding GHG-reducing investment opportunities, allowing consumers to make better private decisions. This paper discusses the pros and cons of policy instruments that might be used to respond to these motivations and makes recommendations for an appropriate mix of policy instruments over time given both economic and policital/instituional considerations. - Research Highlights: → Increases in pre-competitive energy R and D and energy efficiency technology diffusion policies in the US are highly desirable. → The cost of well designed programs in these areas can be low and the pay off very high. → Such policies make sense even if the GHG externality is internalized through a GHG tax or equivalent, but are even more desirable if they are not.

  12. Topology control of tactical wireless sensor networks using energy efficient zone routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Thulasiraman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The US Department of Defense (DoD routinely uses wireless sensor networks (WSNs for military tactical communications. Sensor node die-out has a significant impact on the topology of a tactical WSN. This is problematic for military applications where situational data is critical to tactical decision making. To increase the amount of time all sensor nodes remain active within the network and to control the network topology tactically, energy efficient routing mechanisms must be employed. In this paper, we aim to provide realistic insights on the practical advantages and disadvantages of using established routing techniques for tactical WSNs. We investigate the following established routing algorithms: direct routing, minimum transmission energy (MTE, Low Energy Adaptive Cluster Head routing (LEACH, and zone clustering. Based on the node die out statistics observed with these algorithms and the topological impact the node die outs have on the network, we develop a novel, energy efficient zone clustering algorithm called EZone. Via extensive simulations using MATLAB, we analyze the effectiveness of these algorithms on network performance for single and multiple gateway scenarios and show that the EZone algorithm tactically controls the topology of the network, thereby maintaining significant service area coverage when compared to the other routing algorithms.

  13. Assessment of solar and wind energy potentials for three free economic and industrial zones of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Kasra; Mostafaeipour, Ali; Sabzpooshani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the potential of renewable energy sources of solar and wind in three free economic and industrial zones of Chabahar, Kish and Salafchegan in Iran. Feasibility of harnessing solar energy was investigated by using key solar parameters like monthly mean global, beam and diffuse solar radiation as well as clearness index. It was found that all locations had great potentials for utilizing different solar energy systems. Additionally, the monthly, seasonal, semi-yearly and yearly optimum tilt angles of south-facing solar surfaces were determined. For all zones, adjusting the tilt angle twice a year or in other words, the semi-yearly tilt adjustment for two periods of warm (April–September) and cold (October–March) were highly recommended, since it offers almost the same level of annual solar energy gain (SEG) as those of monthly and seasonal adjustments. Weibull Distribution Function (WDF) was performed for analyzing the wind potentials at different heights. It was found that Chabahar was not suitable for wind energy development, but Kish and Salafchegan with yearly wind powers of 111.28 W/m 2 and 114.34 W/m 2 , respectively ranked in class 2 which are considered marginal for wind power development. Three different wind turbine models were proposed for Kish and Salafchegan. - Highlights: • Feasibility of solar and wind energy for three locations of Iran was investigated. • All locations were suitable for solar energy utilization. • The optimum tilt angles of solar surfaces were determined. • Chabahar was unsuitable, but Kish and Salafchegan were marginal for wind purpose

  14. The ecological-commerce (ECO-COM) zone concept for developing biomass energy from contaminated resources: A new demonstration zone for the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarn, D.W.; Iakoushev, A.; Grebenkov, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl Accident, about 17,000 km 2 of forested area in the Gomel Oblask of Belarus was contaminated with radioactive material. Remediation and productive utilization of these resources is proposed through the use of the forest biomass as a source of energy. The energy sector of Belarus requires rapid development of new sources of power generating capacity if projected needs are to be met. The current energy balance in the region of the Contaminated Territories shows a deficit of almost 600 MW which is currently being imported. The next five years will see a significant reduction of the energy production capacity of Belarus due to retirement of a large portion of existing facilities. The World Bank has stressed the importance of biomass energy development in Belarus to reduce reliance on imported sources of energy. This proposal addresses this need. A Non-Profit Corporation (NPC) is proposed to manage all identified resources in the contaminated territories in Belarus for use by a duty-free / tax-free Ecological - Commerce (ECO-COM) Zone. The ECO-COM Zone would produce energy, pulp, paper, and other products directly from radioactively contaminated materials. A board of internationally recognized specialists in radiological safety would insure that these products meet internationally acceptable safety norms. A primary benefit for Belarus would be the creation of significant electrical energy capacity as well as expanded pulp and paper production in addition to the removal of a large fraction of the total radioactive source-term from the contaminated land. A short list of projects is presented at the end of this report that meet basic infrastructural, economic, industrial, and energy savings activities permitting the rapid payback of investments. This list was compiled for ECO-COM and recommended by the Ministry of Energy Savings in the framework of the Energy Efficiency 2000 (EE 2000) Demonstration Zone program adopted for Belarus

  15. Technical Potential Assessment for the Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Process: A GIS-Based Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-05

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based energy resource and technical potential assessments identify areas capable of supporting high levels of renewable energy (RE) development as part of a Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning process. This document expands on the REZ Process to aid practitioners in conducting GIS-based RE resource and technical potential assessments. The REZ process is an approach to plan, approve, and build transmission infrastructure that connects REZs - geographic areas that have high-quality RE resources, suitable topography and land-use designations, and demonstrated developer interest - to the power system. The REZ process helps to increase the share of solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and other resources while also maintaining reliability and economics.

  16. "Fort Valley State University Cooperative Developmental Energy Program: Broadening the Participation of Underrepresented Minorities in the Geosciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbly, I.; Hodges, J.; Kar, A.; Rashidi, L.

    2015-12-01

    According to the American Geological Institute's Status of Recent Geoscience Graduates, 2014, underrepresented minorities (URMs) make up only 7%, 5%, and 2% of graduates at the BS/BA, MA/MS, and Ph.D levels, respectively. Recruiting academically-talented URMs to major in the geosciences instead of majoring in other fields such as medicine, law, business, or engineering is a major undertaking. Numerous factors may contribute as to why few URMs choose geoscience careers. To address the underrepresentation of URMs in the geosciences 1992, the Cooperative Developmental Energy Program (CDEP) of Fort Valley State University (FVSU) and the College of Geosciences at the University of Oklahoma (OU) implemented a 3 + 2 dual degree program specifically in geology and geophysics. Since 1992, FVSU-CDEP has added the University of Texas at Austin (2004), Pennsylvania State University (2005), University of Arkansas (2010), and the University of Nevada at Las Vegas (2015) as partners to offer degrees in geology and geophysics. The dual degree programs consist of students majoring in chemistry or mathematics at FVSU for the first three years and transferring to one of the above partnering universities for years four and five to major in geology or geophysics. Upon completion of the program, students receive a BS degree in chemistry or mathematics from FVSU and a BS degree in geology or geophysics from a partnering university. CDEP has been responsible for recruiting 33 URMs who have earned BS degrees in geology or geophysics. Females constitute 50% of the graduates which is higher than the national average. Also, 56% of these graduates have earned the MS degree and 6% have earned the Ph.D. Currently, 60% of these graduates are employed with oil and gas companies; 20% work for academia; 12% work for governmental agencies; 6 % are professionals with environmental firms; and 2% of the graduate's employment is unknown.

  17. Renewable Energy Zones for Balancing Siting Trade-offs in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, Grace C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-27

    India’s targets of 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022, and 40% generation capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030 will require a rapid and dramatic increase in solar and wind capacity deployment and overcoming its associated economic, siting, and power system challenges. The objective of this study was to spatially identify the amount and quality of wind and utility-scale solar resource potential in India, and the possible siting-related constraints and opportunities for development of renewable resources. Using the Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) methodological framework, we estimated several criteria valuable for the selection of sites for development for each identified potential "zone", such as the levelized cost of electricity, distance to nearest substation, capacity value (or the temporal matching of renewable energy generation to demand), and the type of land cover. We find that high quality resources are spatially heterogeneous across India, with most wind and solar resources concentrated in the southern and western states, and the northern state of Rajasthan. Assuming India's Central Electricity Regulatory Commission's norms, we find that the range of levelized costs of generation of wind and solar PV resources overlap, but concentrated solar power (CSP) resources can be approximately twice as expensive. Further, the levelized costs of generation vary much more across wind zones than those across solar zones because of greater heterogeneity in the quality of wind resources compared to that of solar resources. When considering transmission accessibility, we find that about half of all wind zones (47%) and two-thirds of all solar PV zones (66%) are more than 25 km from existing 220 kV and above substations, suggesting potential constraints in access to high voltage transmission infrastructure and opportunities for preemptive transmission planning to scale up RE development. Additionally and

  18. Feasibility study report for the Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery: a 14. 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel refinery utilizing geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The construction and operation of a 14,980,000 gallon per year fuel ethanol from grain refinery in the Imperial Valley of California is proposed. The Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery (refinery) will use hot geothermal fluid from geothermal resources at the East Mesa area as the source of process energy. In order to evaluate the economic viability of the proposed Project, exhaustive engineering, cost analysis, and financial studies have been undertaken. This report presents the results of feasibility studies undertaken in geothermal resource, engineering, marketing financing, management, environment, and permits and approvals. The conclusion of these studies is that the Project is economically viable. US Alcohol Fuels is proceeding with its plans to construct and operate the Refinery.

  19. CONSTRUCTIVE MODELLING FOR ZONE OF RECOVERY ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF DC TRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shynkarenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The article is aimed to develop the means and methods of forming a plurality of real and potential structural diagrams for zones of energy recovery and different locations of trains for further training neuro-fuzzy networks on the basis of expert solutions and also for the formation of good control. Methodology. Methodology of mathematical and algorithmic constructivism for modeling the structural diagrams of the electric supply system and modes of traction power consumption and the train’s locations in zones of energy recovery was applied. This approach involves the development of constructive-synthesizing structures (CSS with transformation by specialization, interpretation, specification and implementation. Development CSS provides an extensible definition media, relations and the signature of operations and constructive axiomatic. The most complex and essential part of the axioms is the set formed by the substitution rules defining the process of withdrawal of the corresponding structures. Findings. A specialized and specified CSS, which allows considering all the possibilities and features, that supply power traction systems with modern equipment, stations and trains location was designed. Its feature: the semantic content of the terminal alphabet images of electrical traction network and power consumers with relevant attributes. A special case of the formation of the structural diagram shows the possibilities CSS in relation to this problem. Originality. A new approach to solving the problem of rational use of energy recovery, which consists in application of the methods and means of artificial neural networks, expert systems, fuzzy logic and mathematical and algorithmic constructivism. This paper presents the methods of constructive simulation of a production-distribution of energy recovery zone structure in the system of the DC traction. Practical value. The tasks decision of the rational use of energy recovery can

  20. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Phadke, Amol; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-02-16

    Building transmission to reach renewable energy (RE) goals requires coordination among renewable developers, utilities and transmission owners, resource and transmission planners, state and federal regulators, and environmental organizations. The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this report we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33% of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Of the renewable resources in WREZ resource hubs, and under the assumptions described in this report, our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33% RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65%). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41%). Solar exceeds wind by a small margin only when solar thermal energy is assumed to experience cost reductions relative to all other technologies. Biomass, geothermal, and hydropower are found to represent a smaller portion of the selected resources, largely due to the limited resource quantity of these resources identified within the WREZ-identified hubs (16-23% combined). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Uncertainties and policies that impact bus-bar costs are the most important to evaluate carefully, but

  1. Energy Savings of Low-E Storm Windows and Panels across US Climate Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Thomas D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cort, Katherine A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report builds off of previous modeling work related to low-e storm windows used to create a "Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows." This work updates similar studies using new fuel costs and examining the separate contributions of reduced air leakage and reduced coefficients of overall heat transfer and solar heat gain. In this report we examine the energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates, excluding the impact from infiltration reductions, which tend to vary using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by climate zone.

  2. Energy use and economic analysis of strawberry production in Sanandaj zone of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy consumption and economic analysis for strawberry production. The data were collected from 60 farmers growing strawberry in the Sanandaj zone of Iran by using a face-to-face questionnaire in August-September 2009. The plowing operation at the study area was done by two methods; manually plow (P1 and machinery plow (P2. Also the irrigation operation was done by two methods; pumping irrigation (P and non pumping irrigation (NP. Univariate analysis of variance was used for finding the differences among the total energy used for production and profitability of this crop in the different methods at the 5% and 1% level. Total energy used in various farm operations during strawberry production was 53,605 MJ.ha-1. Total energy output was 17,338 MJ.ha-1, and the average annual yield of strawberry farms was 9,125 kg.ha-1. Energy efficiency was 0.32, and energy productivity calculated as 0.17 kg.MJ-1. This means a production of 0.17 kg per unit energy. The difference between total input energy in the different irrigation types (NP and P is significant at 1% level. There is not any significant difference between different plow types at the 5% level. The interaction of irrigation types and plow types is significant at 5% level. The profit-cost ratio, productivity, and net profit in the strawberry production are 1.2, 0.99, and 1,825 $.ha-1, respectively. The difference between net return in the different irrigation types (NP and P is significant at 5% level. The difference between net return in the different plow types (P1 and P2 is significant at 1% level.

  3. Evidence for acceleration of outer zone electrons to relativistic energies by whistler mode chorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Meredith

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We use plasma wave and electron data from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES to investigate the viability of a local stochastic electron acceleration mechanism to relativistic energies driven by gyroresonant interactions with whistler mode chorus. In particular, we examine the temporal evolution of the spectral response of the electrons and the waves during the 9 October 1990 geomagnetic storm. The observed hardening of the electron energy spectra over about 3 days in the recovery phase is coincident with prolonged substorm activity, as monitored by the AE index and enhanced levels of whistler mode chorus waves. The observed spectral hardening is observed to take place over a range of energies appropriate to the resonant energies associated with Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance, as supported by the construction of realistic resonance curves and resonant diffusion surfaces. Furthermore, we show that the observed spectral hardening is not consistent with energy-independent radial diffusion models. These results provide strong circumstantial evidence for a local stochastic acceleration mechanism, involving the energisation of a seed population of electrons with energies of the order of a few hundred keV to relativistic energies, driven by wave-particle interactions involving whistler mode chorus. The results suggest that this mechanism contributes to the reformation of the relativistic outer zone population during geomagnetic storms, and is most effective when the recovery phase is characterised by prolonged substorm activity. An additional significant result of this paper is that we demonstrate that the lower energy part of the storm-time electron distribution is in steady-state balance, in accordance with the Kennel and Petschek (1966 theory of limited stably-trapped particle fluxes.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms, energetic particles, trapped – Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  4. Application of heat-flow techniques to geothermal energy exploration, Leach Hot Springs area, Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sass, J.H.; Ziagos, J.P.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Munroe, R.J.; di Somma, D.E.; Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 82 holes ranging in depth from 18 to 400 meters were drilled for thermal and hydrologic studies in a 200 km/sup 2/ area of Grass Valley, Nevada, near Leach Hot Springs. Outside the immediate area of Leach Hot Springs, heat flow ranges from 1 to 6.5 hfu with a mean of 2.4 hfu (1 hfu = 10/sup -6/ cal cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ = 41.8 mWm/sup -2/). Within 2 km of the springs, conductive heat flow ranges between 1.6 and more than 70 hfu averaging 13.6 hfu. Besides the conspicuous thermal anomaly associated with the hot springs, two additional anomalies were identified. One is associated with faults bounding the western margin of the Tobin Range near Panther Canyon, and the other is near the middle of Grass Valley about 5 km SSW of Leach Hot Springs. The mid-valley anomaly appears to be caused by hydrothermal circulation in a bedrock horst beneath about 375 meters of impermeable valley sediments. If the convective and conductive heat discharge within 2 km of the Leach Hot Springs is averaged over the entire hydrologic system (including areas of recharge), the combined heat flux from this part of Grass Valley is about 3 hfu, consistent with the average regional conductive heat flow in the Battle Mountain High. The hydrothermal system can be interpreted as being in a stationary stable phase sustained by high regional heat flow, and no localized crustal heat sources (other than hydrothermal convection to depths of a few kilometers) need be invoked to explain the existence of Leach Hot Springs.

  5. Impact of aerosols on solar energy production - Scenarios from the Sahel Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Ina; Meilinger, Stefanie; Crewell, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    Solar energy is one option to serve the rising global energy demand with low environmental impact. Building an energy system with a considerable share of solar power requires long-term investment and a careful investigation of potential sites. Therefore, understanding the impacts from varying regionally and locally determined meteorological conditions on solar energy production will influence energy yield projections. Aerosols reduce global solar radiation due to absorption and scattering and therewith solar energy yields. Depending on aerosol size distribution they reduce the direct component of the solar radiation and modify the direction of the diffuse component compared to standard atmospheric conditions without aerosols. The aerosol size distribution and composition in the atmosphere is highly variable due to meteorological and land surface conditions. A quantitative assessment of aerosol effects on solar power yields and its relation to land use change is of particular interest for developing countries countries when analyzing the potential of local power production. This study aims to identify the effect of atmospheric aerosols in three different land use regimes, namely desert, urban/polluted and maritime on the tilted plane of photovoltaic energy modules. Here we focus on the Sahel zone, i.e. Niamey, Niger (13.5 N;2.1 E), located at the edge of the Sahara where also detailed measurements of the atmospheric state are available over the year 2006. Guided by observations a model chain is used to determine power yields. The atmospheric aerosol composition will be defined by using the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) library. Direct and diffuse radiation (up- and downward component) are then calculated by the radiative transfer model libRadtran which allows to calculate the diffuse component of the radiance from different azimuth and zenith angles. Then the diffuse radiance will be analytically transformed to an east, south and west facing

  6. Incentive mechanism design for the residential building energy efficiency improvement of heating zones in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Y.; Cai, W.G.; Wu, Y.; Ren, H.

    2009-01-01

    Starting with analyzing the investigation results by Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China in 2005, more than half of the 10,236 participants are willing to improve the residential building energy efficiency and accept an additional cost of less than 10% of the total cost, the authors illustrate that incenting actions are necessary to improve building energy efficiency and build a central government-local government-market model. As a result of the model analysis, to pursue good execution effects brought by the incentive policies, the executors are required to distinguish the differences of incentive objects' economic activities and strongly respect the incenting on the energy conservation performance. A case study on the incentive policies of existing residential building energy efficiency improvement in heating zones in North China is given as well. Finally, it is strongly recommended to give the first priority to performance-based incentives so that to reduce the lazy behaviors of the incented objects and ensure the targets to be achieved.

  7. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valley fever. These fungi are commonly found in soil in specific regions. The fungi's spores can be stirred into the air by ... species have a complex life cycle. In the soil, they grow as a mold with long filaments that break off into airborne ...

  8. Land-Sparing Opportunities for Solar Energy Development in Agricultural Landscapes: A Case Study of the Great Central Valley, CA, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, Madison K; Allen, Michael F; Hernandez, Rebecca R

    2017-12-19

    Land-cover change from energy development, including solar energy, presents trade-offs for land used for the production of food and the conservation of ecosystems. Solar energy plays a critical role in contributing to the alternative energy mix to mitigate climate change and meet policy milestones; however, the extent that solar energy development on nonconventional surfaces can mitigate land scarcity is understudied. Here, we evaluate the land sparing potential of solar energy development across four nonconventional land-cover types: the built environment, salt-affected land, contaminated land, and water reservoirs (as floatovoltaics), within the Great Central Valley (CV, CA), a globally significant agricultural region where land for food production, urban development, and conservation collide. Furthermore, we calculate the technical potential (TWh year -1 ) of these land sparing sites and test the degree to which projected electricity needs for the state of California can be met therein. In total, the CV encompasses 15% of CA, 8415 km 2 of which was identified as potentially land-sparing for solar energy development. These areas comprise a capacity-based energy potential of at least 17 348 TWh year -1 for photovoltaic (PV) and 2213 TWh year -1 for concentrating solar power (CSP). Accounting for technology efficiencies, this exceeds California's 2025 projected electricity demands up to 13 and 2 times for PV and CSP, respectively. Our study underscores the potential of strategic renewable energy siting to mitigate environmental trade-offs typically coupled with energy sprawl in agricultural landscapes.

  9. Root zone temperature control with thermal energy storage in phase change materials for soilless greenhouse applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyhan, Beyza; Paksoy, Halime; Daşgan, Yıldız

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PCM based passive root zone temperature control system was developed. • The system was tested with zucchinis and peppers in a greenhouse in Turkey. • Two different fatty acids and mixtures were determined as suitable PCMs. • The optimum temperature levels necessary for growth of vegetables were maintained. - Abstract: A new root zone temperature control system based on thermal energy storage in phase change materials (PCM) has been developed for soilless agriculture greenhouses. The aim was to obtain optimum growing temperatures around the roots of plants. The candidate PCMs were 40% oleic acid–60% decanoic acid mixture and oleic acid alone. Field experiments with these PCMs were carried out in November 2009 with Cucurbite Pepo and March 2010 with Capsicum annum plants. No additional heating system was used in the greenhouse during these periods. In the November 2009 tests with zucchini, 40% oleic acid + 60% capric acid mixture was the PCM and a temperature increase in the PCM container (versus the control container) was measured as 1.9 °C. In our March 2010 tests with peppers, both PCMs were tried and the PCM mixture was found to be more effective than using oleic acidalone. A maximum temperature difference achieved by the PCM mixture around the roots of peppers was 2.4 °C higher than that near the control plants

  10. Ecologically Safe Geothermal Energy Resources in Western Siberia near high-rise construction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Alexandr; Shiganova, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The development of geothermal energy in combination with other renewable energy sources (the sun, the wind) will help to solve the problem of heat supply and electrification in near high-rise construction zones of the country, especially in sparsely populated parts, where centralized energy and heat supply is economically unacceptable, and will improve the ecological situation. The aim of the research is to analyze the geothermal resources of the main aquifers in Western Siberia and to develop recommendations for further study and use of heat and power resources of this territory. The article gives retrospective of state research programs and potential use of hydrothermal resources of administrative units geographically entering the territory under consideration. It is noted that by now such programs have been curtailed for various reasons, although there are examples of their successful and effective use in various fields of industry and agriculture. According to the decision of the Supreme Ecological Council of the State Duma Committee of the Russian Federation adopted in 2014 on the beginning of the development of federal targeted programs for the use of heat power water as a source of electricity and heat supply, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation made proposals for further research and use of hydrothermal waters in Western Siberia. Implementation of the programs proposed by the authors, alongside with other positive aspects, will solve the problems of heat supply in remote territories and improve the environmental situation in the region.

  11. Year-round daylight saving time will save more energy in India than corresponding DST or time zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Dilip R.; SenGupta, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Many countries have experimented with daylight saving time (DST) to save energy and to align human activities more closely to the daily cycle of light and darkness. Using a novel methodology, we estimate the year-round energy savings to be obtained from advancing Indian Standard Time (IST), from the introduction of DST, and from dividing the country into two time zones. We find that the option of advancing IST consistently saves more energy than the corresponding DST option, which in turn saves more energy than the corresponding time zones option. This is because the energy benefits of advancing IST accrue for the entire year throughout the country, whereas the benefits of DST are confined to summer months and the benefits of two time zones are largely in the lower energy consuming eastern region. We recommend advancing IST by half-hour to being six hours ahead of UTC. This confers the advantages of DST and time zones without their disadvantages and is forecast to save more than 2 billion kWh of electricity every year during evening peaks that are difficult to supply. While these results are India-specific, similar exercises would be useful to many other countries. - Highlights: ► Advancing IST (YRDST) consistently saves more energy than the corresponding DST. ► DST consistently saves more energy than dividing India into two time zones. ► There are also many non-energy benefits of advancing IST. ► Results are for India; countries with DST may find it useful to consider YRDST.

  12. Quaternary volcanism near the Valley of Mexico: implications for subduction zone magmatism and the effects of crustal thickness variations on primitive magma compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul J.; Carmichael, Ian S. E.

    The Valley of Mexico and surrounding regions of Mexico and Morelos states in central Mexico contain more than 250 Quaternary eruptive vents in addition to the large, composite volcanoes of Popocatépetl, Iztaccíhuatl, and Nevado de Toluca. The eruptive vents include cinder and lava cones, shield volcanoes, and isolated andesitic and dacitic lava flows, and are most numerous in the Sierra Chichináutzin that forms the southern terminus of the Valley of Mexico. The Chichináutzin volcanic field (CVF) is part of the E-W-trending Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB), a subduction-related volcanic arc that extends across Mexico. The crustal thickness beneath the CVF ( 50km) is the greatest of any region in the MVB and one of the greatest found in any arc worldwide. Lavas and scoriae erupted from vents in the CVF include alkaline basalts and calc-alkaline basaltic andesites, andesites, and dacites. Both alkaline and calc-alkaline groups contain primitive varieties that have whole rock Mg#, MgO, and Ni contents, and liquidus olivine compositions (<=Fo90) that are close to those expected of partial melts from mantle peridotite. Primitive varieties also show a wide range of incompatible trace element abundances (e.g. Ba 210-1080ppm Ce 25-100ppm Zr 130-280ppm). Data for primitive calc-alkaline rocks from both the CVF and other regions of the MVB to the west are consistent with magma generation in an underlying mantle wedge that is depleted in Ti, Zr, and Nb and enriched in large ion lithophile (K, Ba, Rb) and light rare earth (La, Ce) elements. Extents of partial melting estimated from Ti and Zr data are lower for primitive calc-alkaline magmas in the CVF than for those from the regions of the MVB to the west where the crust is thinner. The distinctive major element compositions (low CaO and Al2O3, high SiO2) of the primitive calc-alkaline magmas in the CVF indicate a more refractory mantle source beneath this region of thick crust. In contrast, primitive alkaline magmas from the

  13. Identification of artificial groundwater recharging zone using a GIS-based fuzzy logic approach: a case study in a coal mine area of the Damodar Valley, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Lavy, Muriel; Amanzio, Gianpiero; De Maio, Marina; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Mahato, Mukesh Kumar

    2017-12-01

    The West Bokaro coalfield is a richest coal-mining belt in the Damodar Valley, India. The extensive mining of the area has resulted in disruption of the groundwater availability in terms of both quantity and quality. This has led to a drinking water crisis, especially during the pre-monsoon period in the West Bokaro coalfield area. The characterization of the hydrogeological system and the artificial recharging of the aquifers might help to better manage the problem of the groundwater-level depletion. For this purpose, seven important hydrogeological factors (water depth, slope, drainage, soil, infiltration, lithology, and landuse) have been considered to define the most suitable locations for artificial groundwater recharging in the mining area. Different thematic maps were prepared from existing maps and data sets, remote-sensing images, and field investigations for identification of the most suitable locations for artificial recharge. Thematic layers for these parameters were prepared, classified, weighted, and integrated into a geographic information system (GIS) environment by means of fuzzy logic. The results of the study indicate that about 29 and 31% of the area are very suitable and suitable for recharging purposes in the West Bokaro coalfield. However, the rest of the area is moderate to unsuitable for recharging due to the ongoing mining and related activities in the study area. The groundwater recharging map of the study area was validated with measured electrical conductivity (EC) values in the groundwater, and it indicated that validation can be accepted for the identification of groundwater recharging sites. These findings are providing useful information for the proper planning and sustainable management of the groundwater resources in the study area.

  14. Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in arid zone - Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.; Mishra, D.; Nahar, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    India has 31.71 Mha of hot arid areas, of which 61.8% is in Western Rajasthan, commonly known as the 'Thar Desert'. A detailed study of the energy use pattern in production agriculture for a representative village, Pemasar, district Bikaner of zone II (200 mm/yr ≤ annual rainfall < 300 mm/yr) has been conducted. Out of the total geographical area (945.7 ha) of the village, 693.6 ha is cultivable land. The main crops grown in the village are cluster bean, moth bean, groundnut, green gram (Kharif), wheat, mustard, gram, barley and rocket salad (Rabi). In general, Kharif crops are grown as rain fed crops, but due to low rainfall in the zone and the presence of the Indira Gandhi Canal, even Kharif crops are raised under irrigated conditions. However, the area covered under irrigation is meagre as the availability of canal water is very much limited and uncertain. Operation wise, the total energy consumed for rain fed Kharif crops is minimum (1187.6 MJ/ha) for moth bean and maximum (1261.9 MJ/ha) for cluster bean, while for irrigated crops, it is minimum (2847.3 MJ/ha) for moth bean, and maximum (12,809.6 MJ/ha) for groundnut. The average specific energy for cultivation of cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 11.7, 7.5, 7.7, 7.4 and 11.2 MJ/ha, respectively. Operation wise, the energy consumed for Rabi crops is minimum (3855.6 MJ/ha) for rocket salad followed by 4779.4 MJ/ha for mustard, 4845.2 MJ/ha for gram and maximum (7953.2 MJ/ha) for wheat. The average specific energy for cultivation of wheat, gram, mustard and rocket salad were 11.4, 16.5, 13.2 and 13.7 MJ/ha, respectively. The average values of estimated energy ratio for cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 2.1, 0.5, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.0, respectively. This suggests that the moth bean crop is more remunerating to the farmers in Kharif as compared to cluster bean

  15. Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in arid zone - Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, H. E-mail: hsingh11@rediffmail.com; Mishra, D.; Nahar, N.M

    2004-09-01

    India has 31.71 Mha of hot arid areas, of which 61.8% is in Western Rajasthan, commonly known as the 'Thar Desert'. A detailed study of the energy use pattern in production agriculture for a representative village, Pemasar, district Bikaner of zone II (200 mm/yr {<=} annual rainfall < 300 mm/yr) has been conducted. Out of the total geographical area (945.7 ha) of the village, 693.6 ha is cultivable land. The main crops grown in the village are cluster bean, moth bean, groundnut, green gram (Kharif), wheat, mustard, gram, barley and rocket salad (Rabi). In general, Kharif crops are grown as rain fed crops, but due to low rainfall in the zone and the presence of the Indira Gandhi Canal, even Kharif crops are raised under irrigated conditions. However, the area covered under irrigation is meagre as the availability of canal water is very much limited and uncertain. Operation wise, the total energy consumed for rain fed Kharif crops is minimum (1187.6 MJ/ha) for moth bean and maximum (1261.9 MJ/ha) for cluster bean, while for irrigated crops, it is minimum (2847.3 MJ/ha) for moth bean, and maximum (12,809.6 MJ/ha) for groundnut. The average specific energy for cultivation of cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 11.7, 7.5, 7.7, 7.4 and 11.2 MJ/ha, respectively. Operation wise, the energy consumed for Rabi crops is minimum (3855.6 MJ/ha) for rocket salad followed by 4779.4 MJ/ha for mustard, 4845.2 MJ/ha for gram and maximum (7953.2 MJ/ha) for wheat. The average specific energy for cultivation of wheat, gram, mustard and rocket salad were 11.4, 16.5, 13.2 and 13.7 MJ/ha, respectively. The average values of estimated energy ratio for cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 2.1, 0.5, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.0, respectively. This suggests that the moth bean crop is more remunerating to the farmers in Kharif as compared to

  16. Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Evaluation of Space and Water Heating in Urban Residential Buildings of the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Chen; Yongquan Wen; Nanyang Li

    2016-01-01

    With the urbanization process of the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) zone in China, the energy consumption of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone has increased rapidly. This study presents the energy efficiency and sustainability evaluation of various ways of space and water heating taking 10 typical cities in the HSCW zone as research cases. Two indicators, primary energy efficiency (PEE) and sustainability index based on exergy efficiency, are adopted t...

  17. The effects of climate change on heating energy consumption of office buildings in different climate zones in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanchao; Li, Mingcai; Cao, Jingfu; Li, Ji; Xiong, Mingming; Feng, Xiaomei; Ren, Guoyu

    2017-06-01

    Climate plays an important role in heating energy consumption owing to the direct relationship between space heating and changes in meteorological conditions. To quantify the impact, the Transient System Simulation Program software was used to simulate the heating loads of office buildings in Harbin, Tianjin, and Shanghai, representing three major climate zones (i.e., severe cold, cold, and hot summer and cold winter climate zones) in China during 1961-2010. Stepwise multiple linear regression was performed to determine the key climatic parameters influencing heating energy consumption. The results showed that dry bulb temperature (DBT) is the dominant climatic parameter affecting building heating loads in all three climate zones across China during the heating period at daily, monthly, and yearly scales (R 2 ≥ 0.86). With the continuous warming climate in winter over the past 50 years, heating loads decreased by 14.2, 7.2, and 7.1 W/m2 in Harbin, Tianjin, and Shanghai, respectively, indicating that the decreasing rate is more apparent in severe cold climate zone. When the DBT increases by 1 °C, the heating loads decrease by 253.1 W/m2 in Harbin, 177.2 W/m2 in Tianjin, and 126.4 W/m2 in Shanghai. These results suggest that the heating energy consumption can be well predicted by the regression models at different temporal scales in different climate conditions owing to the high determination coefficients. In addition, a greater decrease in heating energy consumption in northern severe cold and cold climate zones may efficiently promote the energy saving in these areas with high energy consumption for heating. Particularly, the likely future increase in temperatures should be considered in improving building energy efficiency.

  18. Potential impacts of climate change on the built environment: ASHRAE climate zones, building codes and national energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Kumar, Jitendra [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M. [ORNL

    2017-10-01

    Statement of the Problem: ASHRAE releases updates to 90.1 “Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings” every three years resulting in a 3.7%-17.3% increase in energy efficiency for buildings with each release. This is adopted by or informs building codes in nations across the globe, is the National Standard for the US, and individual states elect which release year of the standard they will enforce. These codes are built upon Standard 169 “Climatic Data for Building Design Standards,” the latest 2017 release of which defines climate zones based on 8, 118 weather stations throughout the world and data from the past 8-25 years. This data may not be indicative of the weather that new buildings built today, will see during their upcoming 30-120 year lifespan. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Using more modern, high-resolution datasets from climate satellites, IPCC climate models (PCM and HadGCM), high performance computing resources (Titan) and new capabilities for clustering and optimization the authors briefly analyzed different methods for redefining climate zones. Using bottom-up analysis of multiple meteorological variables which were the subject matter, experts selected as being important to energy consumption, rather than the heating/cooling degree days currently used. Findings: We analyzed the accuracy of redefined climate zones, compared to current climate zones and how the climate zones moved under different climate change scenarios, and quantified the accuracy of these methods on a local level, at a national scale for the US. Conclusion & Significance: There is likely to be a significant annual, national energy and cost (billions USD) savings that could be realized by adjusting climate zones to take into account anticipated trends or scenarios in regional weather patterns.

  19. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  20. The Dual Role of Vegetation as a Constraint on Mass and Energy Flux into the Critical Zone and as an Emergent Property of Geophysical Critical Zone Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P. D.; Swetnam, T. L.; Barnard, H. R.; Singha, K.; Harpold, A.; Litvak, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial patterns in vegetation long have been used to scale both landsurface-atmosphere exchanges of water and carbon as well as to infer subsurface structure. These pursuits typical proceed in isolation and rarely do inferences gained from one community propagate to related efforts in another. Perhaps more importantly, vegetation often is treated as an emergent property of landscape-climate interactions rather than an active modifier of both critical zone structure and energy fluxes. We posit that vegetation structure and activity are under utilized as a tool towards understanding landscape evolution and present examples that begin to disentangle the role of vegetation as both an emergent property and an active control on critical zone structure and function. As climate change, population growth, and land use changes threaten water resources worldwide, the need for the new insights vegetation can provide becomes not just a basic science priority, but a pressing applied science question with clear societal importance. This presentation will provide an overview of recent efforts to address the dual role of vegetation in both modifying and reflecting critical zone structure in the western North American forests. For example, interactions between topography and stand scale vegetation structure influence both solar radiation and turbulence altering landscape scale partitioning of evaporation vs transpiration with major impacts of surface water supply. Similarly, interactions between topographic shading, lateral redistribution of plant available water, and subsurface storage create a mosaic of drought resistance and resilience across complex terrain. These complex interactions between geophysical and vegetation components of critical zone structure result in predictable patterns in catchment scale hydrologic partitioning within individual watersheds while simultaneously suggesting testable hypotheses for why catchments under similar climate regimes respond so

  1. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai; Moody, Galan; Wu, Fengcheng; Dass, Chandriker Kavir; Xu, Lixiang; Chen, Chang Hsiao; Sun, Liuyang; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; MacDonald, Allan H.; Li, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge

  2. Mathematics in energy related research at the Tennessee Valley Authority, at Union Carbide's Oak Ridge Facilities, and at University of Tennessee College of Engineering. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barett, L.K.

    1979-05-01

    This report contains a description of the work performed under the Department of Energy Contract No. ER078-S-05-5944 to the University of Tennessee. The major objective of this contract was to survey and to classify a selection of the mathematics used in energy-related activities at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), at Union Carbide's Oak Ridge Facilities (UCORF), and at the University of Tennessee College of Engineering (UTCE). Eighty-seven projects were identified at these organizations in which mathematics plays a significant modeling or problem-solving role. Uniform abstracts of these projects are included in this report, as well as abstracts of twenty-seven presentations by TVA and UCORF personnel on the topic of mathematics in energy research, at the 1978 Fall SIAM meeting. Classifications of these one hundred and fourteen abstracts are given in terms of the energy area or function involved and in terms of the mathematical disciplines used in the activity. Only a selection of the mathematical activity at the TVA, UCORF, and UTCE involved in energy research was obtained due to time and budget constraints. However, it was possible to make some important observations and recommendations based upon these sample data, and these are included in the summary of this report

  3. Better building of valley fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1980-03-01

    Current US regulations for building valley fills or head of hollow fills to hold excess spoil resulting from contour mining are meeting with considerable opposition, particularly from operators in steep-slope areas. An alternative method has been submitted to the Office of Surface Mining by Virgina. Known as the zoned concept method, it has already been used successfully in building water-holding dams and coal refuse embankments on sloping terrain. The ways in which drainage and seepage are managed are described.

  4. Joint environmental assessment for Chevron USA, Inc. and Santa Fe Energy Resources, Inc.: Midway Valley 3D seismic project, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The proposed Midway Valley 3D Geophysical Exploration Project covers approximately 31,444 aces of private lands, 6,880 acres of Department of Energy (DOE) Lands within Naval Petroleum Reserve 2 (NPR2) and 3,840 acres of lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in western Kern County, California. This environmental assessment (EA) presents an overview of the affected environment within the project area using results of a literature review of biological field surveys previously conducted within or adjacent to a proposed 3D seismic project. The purpose is to provide background information to identify potential and known locations of sensitive wildlife and special status plant species within the proposed seismic project area. Biological field surveys, following agency approved survey protocols, will be conducted during October through November 1996 to acquire current resources data to provide avoidance as the project is being implemented in the field.

  5. Joint environmental assessment for Chevron USA, Inc. and Santa Fe Energy Resources, Inc.: Midway Valley 3D seismic project, Kern County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The proposed Midway Valley 3D Geophysical Exploration Project covers approximately 31,444 aces of private lands, 6,880 acres of Department of Energy (DOE) Lands within Naval Petroleum Reserve 2 (NPR2) and 3,840 acres of lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in western Kern County, California. This environmental assessment (EA) presents an overview of the affected environment within the project area using results of a literature review of biological field surveys previously conducted within or adjacent to a proposed 3D seismic project. The purpose is to provide background information to identify potential and known locations of sensitive wildlife and special status plant species within the proposed seismic project area. Biological field surveys, following agency approved survey protocols, will be conducted during October through November 1996 to acquire current resources data to provide avoidance as the project is being implemented in the field

  6. Ocean zoning for conservation, fisheries and marine renewable energy: assessing trade-offs and co-location opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Katherine L; Schoeman, David S; Klein, Carissa J

    2015-04-01

    Oceans, particularly coastal areas, are getting busier and within this increasingly human-dominated seascape, marine biodiversity continues to decline. Attempts to maintain and restore marine biodiversity are becoming more spatial, principally through the designation of marine protected areas (MPAs). MPAs compete for space with other uses, and the emergence of new industries, such as marine renewable energy generation, will increase competition for space. Decision makers require guidance on how to zone the ocean to conserve biodiversity, mitigate conflict and accommodate multiple uses. Here we used empirical data and freely available planning software to identified priority areas for multiple ocean zones, which incorporate goals for biodiversity conservation, two types of renewable energy, and three types of fishing. We developed an approached to evaluate trade-offs between industries and we investigated the impacts of co-locating some fishing activities within renewable energy sites. We observed non-linear trade-offs between industries. We also found that different subsectors within those industries experienced very different trade-off curves. Incorporating co-location resulted in significant reductions in cost to the fishing industry, including fisheries that were not co-located. Co-location also altered the optimal location of renewable energy zones with planning solutions. Our findings have broad implications for ocean zoning and marine spatial planning. In particular, they highlight the need to include industry subsectors when assessing trade-offs and they stress the importance of considering co-location opportunities from the outset. Our research reinforces the need for multi-industry ocean-zoning and demonstrates how it can be undertaken within the framework of strategic conservation planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using GIS to evaluate the impact of exclusion zones on the connection cost of wave energy to the electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prest, Robert; Daniell, Trevor; Ostendorf, Bertram

    2007-01-01

    An increase in the planning and environmental restrictions associated with wind energy has led to a growth in interest towards wave energy. However, as the connection cost of a wave energy development is a driving factor in the development's feasibility, existing wind farm cable-routing techniques used by renewable energy developers may not be satisfactory. A Geographical Information System (GIS) method is presented which optimises the cable route between a wave farm and the electricity network, while taking a range of exclusion zones, such as native vegetation, into account. The optimisation is presented for a South Australian study area, which subsequently showed that exclusion zones reduce the number of suitable locations for wave energy by almost 40%. The method presented also assesses the effect that each exclusion zone applied has upon the number of suitable locations within the study area. The analysis undertaken showed that National Parks and cliffs pose a significant limitation to the potential of a wave energy industry within South Australia. Allowing the transmission route to travel through a National Park, or traverse a cliff, resulted in an increase in the number of locations from which a connection could be made to the electricity grid for less than $10 million of 33% and 50%, respectively. Conservation Parks, Wilderness Areas and native vegetation also have an effect upon the number of suitable locations for wave energy within South Australia. The GIS methods developed may be of assistance to governments in setting appropriate marine renewable energy policy, and also in identifying existing policy which may require amending if the government wishes to pursue and support the development of wave energy

  8. Effects of tool speeds and corresponding torque/energy on stir zone formation during friction stir welding/processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, S; Chen, Z W

    2009-01-01

    The way processing parameters and the measurable thermomechanical responses relate to the individual and combined flows forming the different processed zones during friction stir welding/processing has been studied. Experimentally, a cast Al-7Si-0.3Mg alloy was used to provide readily identifiable processed zones. A series of friction stir experiments covering a wide range of tool forward and rotation speeds were conducted followed by the measurement of individual and combined stir areas. It has been found that the basic modes of material flow did not change but the relative volume of each flow depended on both forward and rotation speeds. The trends observed in the present data explain how pin rotation relates to the material transportation mechanism and the associated torque required. This data also explains how forward speed, not rotation speed, relates to specific energy and the volume of the total stir zone.

  9. A study of energy performance and audit of commercial mall in hot-summer/warm-winter climate zone in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhisheng, Li; Jiawen, Liao; Xiaoxia, Wang [School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006 (China); Lin, Yaolin [Building Energy Solutions and Technologies, Inc, San Jose Office, San Jose, CA 95134 (United States); Xuhong, Liu [School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510643 (China)

    2013-08-15

    The building energy performance improvement of large-scale public buildings is very important to release China's energy shortage pressure. The aim of the study is to find out the building energy saving potentials of large-scale public and commercial buildings by energy audit. In this paper, the energy consumption, energy performance, and audit were carried out for a typical commercial mall, the so-called largest mall in Asia, located in a hot-summer and warm-winter climate zone. The total annual energy consumption reaches 210.01 kWh/m{sup 2}, of which lighting energy consumption accounts for 30.03 kWh/m{sup 2} and the lift and elevator energy consumption accounts for 40.46 kWh/m{sup 2}. It is by far higher than that of the average building energy consumption in the same category. However, the annual heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) energy consumption is only 87.19 kWh/m{sup 2} even though they run 24/7. It proves that the energy performance of the HVAC system is good. Therefore, the building energy savings potential mainly relies on reducing the excessive usage of lighting, lifts, and elevators.

  10. 76 FR 18542 - Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Scoping Document 2 and Soliciting Scoping Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-002] Copper Valley.... Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association (Copper Valley) d. Name of Project: Allison Creek Project. e.... 791(a)-825(r). g. Applicant Contact: Robert A. Wilkinson, CEO, Copper Valley Electric Association, P.O...

  11. The sensitivity of the electron transport within bulk zinc-blende gallium nitride to variations in the crystal temperature, the doping concentration, and the non-parabolicity coefficient associated with the lowest energy conduction band valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqua, Poppy; O' Leary, Stephen K., E-mail: stephen.oleary@ubc.ca [School of Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Within the framework of a semi-classical three-valley Monte Carlo simulation approach, we analyze the steady-state and transient electron transport that occurs within bulk zinc-blende gallium nitride. In particular, we examine how the steady-state and transient electron transport that occurs within this material changes in response to variations in the crystal temperature, the doping concentration, and the non-parabolicity coefficient associated with the lowest energy conduction band valley. These results are then contrasted with those corresponding to a number of other compound semiconductors of interest.

  12. Report: future industrial solid waste management in pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ), Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarani, Babak; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Alavi; Mokhtarani, Nader; Khaledi, Hossein Jomeh

    2006-06-01

    The Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ) is located in the south of Iran, on the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf. This area was established in 1998 for the utilization of south Pars field oil and gas resources. This field is one of the largest gas resources in the world and contains about 6% of the total fossil fuels known. Petrochemical industries, gas refineries and downstream industries are being constructed in this area. At present there are three gas refineries in operation and five more gas refineries are under construction. In this study, different types of solid waste including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the environmental impact. In the first stage, the types and amounts of industrial waste in PSEEZ were evaluated by an inventory. The main types of industrial waste are oil products (fuel oil, light oil, lubricating oil), spent catalysts, adsorbents, resins, coke, wax and packaging materials. The waste management of PSEEZ is quite complex because of the different types of industry and the diversity of industrial residues. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. Recently a design has been prepared for a disposal site in PSEEZ for the industrial waste that cannot be reused or recycled. The total surface area of this disposal site where the industrial waste should be tipped for the next 20 years was estimated to be about 42 000 m2.

  13. Experimental evaluation of contour J integral and energy dissipated in the fracture process zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavřík, Daniel; Jandejsek, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 129, October (2014), s. 14-25 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0060; GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : experimental stress analysis * thin wall material * cohesive zone * J integral * fracture process zone Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 1.767, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013794414000988

  14. Catchment organisation, free energy dynamics and network control on critical zone water flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, E.; Ehret, U.; Kleidon, A.; Jackisch, C.; Scherer, U.; Blume, T.

    2012-04-01

    as that these flow structures organize and dominate flows of water, dissolved matter and sediments during rainfall driven conditions at various scales: - Surface connected vertical flow structures of anecic worm burrows or soil cracks organize and dominated vertical flows at the plot scale - this is usually referred to as preferential flow; - Rill networks at the soil surface organise and dominate hillslope scale overland flow response and sediment yields; - Subsurface pipe networks at the bedrock interface organize and dominate hillslope scale lateral subsurface water and tracer flows; - The river net organizes and dominates flows of water, dissolved matter and sediments to the catchment outlet and finally across continental gradients to the sea. Fundamental progress with respect to the parameterization of hydrological models, subscale flow networks and to understand the adaptation of hydro-geo ecosystems to change could be achieved by discovering principles that govern the organization of catchments flow networks in particular at least during steady state conditions. This insight has inspired various scientists to suggest principles for organization of ecosystems, landscapes and flow networks; as Bejans constructural law, Minimum Energy Expenditure , Maximum Entropy Production. In line with these studies we suggest that a thermodynamic/energetic treatment of the catchment is might be a key for understanding the underlying principles that govern organisation of flow and transport. Our approach is to employ a) physically based hydrological model that address at least all the relevant hydrological processes in the critical zone in a coupled way, behavioural representations of the observed organisation of flow structures and textural elements, that are consistent with observations in two well investigated research catchments and have been tested against distributed observations of soil moisture and catchment scale discharge; to simulate the full concert of hydrological

  15. Valley dependent transport in graphene L junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    We studied the valley dependent transport in graphene L junctions connecting an armchair lead and a zigzag lead. The junction can be used in valleytronic devices and circuits. Electrons injected from the armchair lead into the junction is not valley polarized, but they can become valley polarized in the zigzag lead. There are Fermi energies, where the current in the zigzag lead is highly valley polarized and the junction is an efficient generator of valley polarized current. The features of the valley polarized current depend sensitively on the widths of the two leads, as well as the number of dimers in the armchair lead, because this number has a sensitive effect on the band structure of the armchair lead. When an external potential is applied to the junction, the energy range with high valley polarization is enlarged enhancing its function as a generator of highly valley polarized current. The scaling behavior found in other graphene devices is also found in L junctions, which means that the results presented here can be extended to junctions with larger dimensions after appropriate scaling of the energy.

  16. The California Valley grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  17. Analysis of Global Solar Irradiance over Climatic Zones in Nigeria for Solar Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ayodotun Osinowo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite derived solar irradiance over 25 locations in the 5 climatic zones of Nigeria (tropical rainforest TRF, Guinea savannah GS, Sahel savannah SHS, Sudan savannah SUS, and Mangrove swamp forest MSF was analyzed. To justify its use, the satellite data was tested for goodness of agreement with ground measured solar radiation data using 26-year mean monthly and daily data over 16 locations in the 5 climatic zones. The well-known R2, RMSE, MBE, and MPE statistical tests were used and good agreement was found. The 25 locations were grouped into the 5 climatic zones. Frequency distribution of global solar irradiance was done for each of the climatic zones. This showed that 46.88%, and 40.6% of the number of days (9794 over TRF and MSF, respectively, had irradiation within the range of 15.01–20.01 MJ/m2/day. For the GS, SHS, and SUS, 46.19%, 55.84% and 58.53% of the days had total irradiation within the range of 20.01–25.01 MJ/m2/day, respectively. Generally, in all the climatic zones, coefficients of variation of solar radiation were high and mean values were low in July and August. Contour maps showed that high and low values of global solar irradiance and clearness index were observed in the Northern and Southern locations of Nigeria, respectively.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy efficiencies for soybeans and maize cultivated in different agronomic zones: A case study of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, E M; Cuchietti, A; Cabrol, D; González, A D

    2018-06-01

    Of all human activities, agriculture has one of the highest environmental impacts, particularly related to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, energy use and land use change. Soybean and maize are two of the most commercialized agricultural commodities worldwide. Argentina contributes significantly to this trade, being the third major producer of soybeans, the first exporter of soymeal and soybean oil, and the third exporter of maize. Despite the economic importance of these crops and the products derived, there are very few studies regarding GHG emissions, energy use and efficiencies associated to Argentinean soybean and maize production. Therefore, the aim of this work is to determine the carbon and energy footprint, as well as the carbon and energy efficiencies, of soybeans and maize produced in Argentina, by analyzing 18 agronomic zones covering an agricultural area of 1.53millionkm 2 . Our results show that, for both crops, the GHG and energy efficiencies at the Pampean region were significantly higher than those at the extra-Pampean region. The national average for production of soybeans in Argentina results in 6.06ton/ton CO 2 -eq emitted to the atmosphere, while 0.887ton of soybean were produced per GJ of energy used; and for maize 5.01ton/ton CO 2 -eq emitted to the atmosphere and 0.740ton of maize were produced per each GJ of energy used. We found that the large differences on yields, GHGs and energy efficiencies between agronomic regions for soybean and maize crop production are mainly driven by climate, particularly mean annual precipitation. This study contributes for the first time to understand the carbon and energy footprint of soybean and maize production throughout several agronomic zones in Argentina. The significant differences found in the productive efficiencies questions on the environmental viability of expanding the agricultural frontier to less suitable lands for crop production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Developing an Agro-Ecological Zoning Model for Tumbleweed (Salsola kali, as Energy Crop in Drylands of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falasca Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Salsola kali is considered extremely valuable as an energy crop worldwide because it adapts easily to environments with strong abiotic stresses (hydric, saline and alkaline and produces large amounts of biomass in drylands. This species is categorized as an important weed in Argentina. The aim of this work was to design an agro-ecological zoning model for tumbleweed in Argentina, employing a Geography Information System. Based on the bioclimatic requirements for the species and the climatic data for Argentina (1981–2010 period, an agro-climatic suitability map was drawn. This map was superimposed on the saline and alkaline soil maps delineated by the Food and Agriculture Organization for dry climates, generating the agro-ecological zoning on a scale of 1 : 500 000. This zoning revealed very suitable and suitable cultivation areas on halomorphic soils. The potential growing areas extend from N of the Salta province (approximately 22° S to the Santa Cruz province (50° S. The use of tumbleweed on halomorphic soils under semi-arid to arid conditions, for the dual purpose of forage use and source of lignocellulosic material for bioenergy, could improve agricultural productivity in these lands. Furthermore, it could also contribute to their environmental sustainability, since the species can be used to reclaim saline soils over the years. Based on international bibliography, the authors outlined an agro-ecological zoning model. This model may be applied to any part of the world, using the agro-ecological limits presented here.

  20. An Update of the Analytical Groundwater Modeling to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Afton Solar Energy Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greer, Christopher B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carr, Adrianne E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to update a one-dimensional analytical groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal in support of utility-scale solar energy development at the Afton Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program. This report describes the modeling for assessing the drawdown associated with SEZ groundwater pumping rates for a 20-year duration considering three categories of water demand (high, medium, and low) based on technology-specific considerations. The 2012 modeling effort published in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (Solar PEIS; BLM and DOE 2012) has been refined based on additional information described below in an expanded hydrogeologic discussion.

  1. Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-10

    Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.

  2. Oblique aggradation : A novel explanation for sinuosity of low-energy streams in peat-filled valley systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candel, Jasper H J; Makaske, Bart; Storms, J.E.A.; Wallinga, J.

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy streams in peatlands often have a high sinuosity. However, it is unknown how this sinuous planform formed, since lateral migration of the channel is hindered by relatively erosion-resistant banks. We present a conceptual model of Holocene morphodynamic evolution of a stream in a

  3. Oblique aggradation: a novel explanation for sinuosity of low-energy streams in peat-filled valley systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candel, J.H.J.; Makaske, A.; Storms, J.E.A.; Wallinga, J.

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy streams in peatlands often have a high sinuosity. However, it is unknown how this sinuous planform formed, since lateral migration of the channel is hindered by relatively erosion-resistant banks. We present a conceptual model of Holocene morphodynamic evolution of a stream in a

  4. Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Deployment Scenarios of the Western United States: Implications for Solar Energy Zones in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we use the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model to estimate utility-scale photovoltaic (UPV) deployment trends from present day through 2030. The analysis seeks to inform the U.S. Bureau of Land Management's (BLM's) planning activities related to UPV development on federal lands in Nevada as part of the Resource Management Plan (RMP) revision for the Las Vegas and Pahrump field offices. These planning activities include assessing the demand for new or expanded additional Solar Energy Zones (SEZ), per the process outlined in BLM's Western Solar Plan process.

  5. Impacts of Severe Weather, Climate Zone, and Energy Factors on Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Engineering Management Christopher L. Teke, Major, USAF Major...the science behind severe weather occurrences and climate zone. Chapter 3 further details the methodology used in the analysis and sets the stage... actuarial estimates and should be thought of as insurance premiums, and ought to remain a budgeted cost if a base stays open. In contrast, if a base is

  6. Large scale hydrogen production from wind energy in the Magallanes area for consumption in the central zone of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolezzi, J.M.; Garay, A.; Reveco, M.

    2010-01-01

    The energy proposal of this research suggests the use of places with abundant wind resources for the production of H 2 on a large scale to be transported and used in the central zone of Chile with the purpose of diversifying the country's energy matrix in order to decrease its dependence on fossil fuels, increase its autonomy, and cover the future increases in energy demand. This research showed that the load factor of the proposed wind park reaches a value of 54.5%, putting in evidence the excellent wind conditions of the zone. This implies that the cost of the electricity produced by the wind park located in the Chilean Patagonia would have a cost of 0.0213 US$ kWh -1 in the year 2030. The low prices of the electricity obtained from the park, thanks to the economy of scale and the huge wind potential, represent a very attractive scenario for the production of H 2 in the future. The study concludes that by the year 2030 the cost of the H 2 generated in Magallanes and transported to the port of Quinteros would be 18.36 US$ MBTU -1 , while by that time the cost of oil would be about 17.241 US$ MBTU -1 , a situation that places H 2 in a very competitive position as a fuel. (author)

  7. Determination of Metastable Zone Width, Induction Period and Interfacial Energy of a Ferroelectric Crystal - Potassium Ferrocyanide Trihydrate (KFCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kanagadurai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An order-disorder type potassium ferrocyanide trihydrate (KFCT is a coordination compound forming lemon- yellow monoclinic ferroelectric crystals with curie temperature 251 K. KFCT crystals have been grown by temperature lowering solution growth technique. Solubility of KFCT has been determined for various temperatures. Metastable zone width, induction period and interfacial energy were determined for the aqueous solution of KFCT. Bulk crystal of potassium ferrocyanide trihydrate was grown with the optimized growth parameters. The grown crystal possesses good optical transmission in the entire UV-Visible region

  8. A thermo economic analysis of a PV-hydrogen system feeding the energy requests of a residential building in an isolated valley of the Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarelli, M.; Macagno, S.

    2004-01-01

    The subject of this paper is an economic analysis of a model of a stand alone energy system based only on a renewable source (solar irradiance) integrated with a system for the production of hydrogen. The purpose of this system is to supply the complete electric and part of the heat requests of a small residential user in a remote area (an isolated building in a valley of the Alps in Italy) during a complete year of operation without integration of a traditional energy system based on fossil fuels. The system analysed is composed of a PV array integrated with an electrolyser, with a tank where the hydrogen is stored as compressed gas and with a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Such a system has no pollutant emissions and is environmentally friendly. A simulation program has been developed to design the system and to analyse the technical and economic performance during a complete year of operation. The economic analysis is developed using thermo economic analysis. This procedure joins some aspects of exergy analysis with some economic information, such as the fuel market costs and the investment and maintenance costs of the components of the energy plant. Using this methodology, it is possible to obtain some information on the economic behaviour of the plant and to analyse in depth the process of cost formation of all system flows, in particular those of the final products. The thermo economic analysis can be performed to evaluate the different economic behaviour of the system in different operating conditions (e.g. during daylight hours or in evening hours). In this paper, the analysis has been effected considering a representative day for each month of operation and two significant hours (1:00 p.m. and 8:00 p.m.) in order to consider two opposite situations (with and without solar irradiance) with high energy demands by the user. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis has been developed to calculate the variation of the cost of the final energy products (and of the

  9. Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, M.

    2013-08-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  10. Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Mike [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes – such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study’s results will be used to identify cost-effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  11. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Ma, Yanling; Zhang, Ying-Tao

    2011-09-28

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device.

  12. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Feng; Ma Yanling; Zhang Yingtao

    2011-01-01

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device. (paper)

  13. Observation of low energy particle precipitation at low altitude in the equatorial zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Precipitation of protons in the equatorial zone was investigated by the Phoenix-1 experiment on the S81-1 mission from May to November, 1982. The protons show a precipitation peak along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a FWHM of 13 deg. The index of equatorial pitch angle distribution is about 19. The peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, and the proton flux shows approximately a factor of 3 times increase in 1982 compared to that in 1969 due, possibly, to the stronger solar maximum conditions of 10.7-cm radiation in 1982.

  14. Law of coastal zones and marine renewable energies: a critical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordereaux, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Even before the development of offshore wind energy along the French coasts, marine renewable energies raise many problems of the environmental, industrial and economic, research and political levels. Legal issues are then strongly emerging and have a determining role to play before the deployment of these marine renewable energies. Thus, the author discusses the relationship and interaction between these energies and legal instruments: the French 'Loi Littoral' (Coastlines Act), some specific planning documents (PLUs or town planning local plans, SMVM or scheme for sea valorisation), and the regime of the maritime public domain. As a conclusion, the author wanders whether wind farms should be implanted further offshore

  15. Quasi-kinoform type multilayer zone plate with high diffraction efficiency for high-energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, S; Yasumoto, M; Kamijo, N; Uesugi, K; Takeuchi, A; Terada, Y; Suzuki, Y

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plate (FZP) with high diffraction efficiency leads to high performance X-ray microscopy with the reduction of the radiation damage to biological specimens. In order to attain high diffraction efficiency in high energy X-ray region, we have developed multilevel-type (6-step) multilayer FZPs with the diameter of 70 micron. The efficiencies of two FZPs were evaluated at the BL20XU beamline of SPring-8. For one FZP, the peak efficiency for the 1st-order diffraction of 51% has been obtained at 70 keV. The efficiencies higher than 40% have been achieved in the wide energy range of 70-90 keV. That for the 2nd-order diffraction of 46% has been obtained at 37.5 keV.

  16. Specifying residential retrofit packages for 30 % reductions in energy consumption in hot-humid climate zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgett, J.M.; Chini, A.R.; Oppenheim, P. [University of Florida, 573 Rinker Hall, Newell Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this research was to demonstrate the application of energy simulation as an effective tool for specifying cost-effective residential retrofit packages that will reduce energy consumption by 30 %. Single-family homes in the hot-humid climate type of the Southeastern USA were used to demonstrate the application. US census data from both state and federal studies were used to create 12 computer simulation homes representing the most common characteristics of single-family houses specific to this area. Well-recognized energy efficiency measures (EEMs) were simulated to determine their cumulative energy reduction potential. Detailed cost estimates were created for cost-to-benefit analysis. For each of the 12 simulated homes, 4 packages of EEMs were created. The four packages provided home owners options for reducing their energy by 30 % along with the estimated up-front cost and simple payback periods. The simple payback period was used to determine how cost-effective a measure was. The packages are specific to a geographic area to provide a higher degree of confidence in the projected cost and energy savings. The study provides a generic methodology to create a similar 30 % energy reduction packages for other locations and a detailed description of a case study to serve as an example. The study also highlights the value that computer simulation models can have to develop energy efficiency packages cost-effectively and specific to home owner's location and housing type.

  17. Natural heat storage in a brine-filled solar pond in the Tully Valley of central New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Brett; Kappel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The Tully Valley, located in southern Onondaga County, New York, has a long history of unusual natural hydrogeologic phenomena including mudboils (Kappel, 2009), landslides (Tamulonis and others, 2009; Pair and others, 2000), landsurface subsidence (Hackett and others, 2009; Kappel, 2009), and a brine-filled sinkhole or “Solar pond” (fig. 1), which is documented in this report. A solar pond is a pool of salty water (brine) which stores the sun’s energy in the form of heat. The saltwater naturally forms distinct layers with increasing density between transitional zones (haloclines) of rapidly changing specific conductance with depth. In a typical solar pond, the top layer has a low salt content and is often times referred to as the upper convective zone (Lu and others, 2002). The bottom layer is a concentrated brine that is either convective or temperature stratified dependent on the surrounding environment. Solar insolation is absorbed and stored in the lower, denser brine while the overlying halocline acts as an insulating layer and prevents heat from moving upwards from the lower zone (Lu and others, 2002). In the case of the Tully Valley solar pond, water within the pond can be over 90 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) in late summer and early fall. The purpose of this report is to summarize observations at the Tully Valley brine-filled sinkhole and provide supplemental climate data which might affect the pond salinity gradients insolation (solar energy).

  18. A Building Energy Efficiency Optimization Method by Evaluating the Effective Thermal Zones Occupancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cotana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Building energy efficiency is strongly linked to the operations and control systems, together with the integrated performance of passive and active systems. In new high quality buildings in particular, where these two latter aspects have been already implemented at the design stage, users’ perspective, obtained through post-occupancy assessment, has to be considered to reduce whole energy requirement during service life. This research presents an innovative and low-cost methodology to reduce buildings’ energy requirements through post-occupancy assessment and optimization of energy operations using effective users’ attitudes and requirements as feedback. As a meaningful example, the proposed method is applied to a multipurpose building located in New York City, NY, USA, where real occupancy conditions are assessed. The effectiveness of the method is tested through dynamic simulations using a numerical model of the case study, calibrated through real monitoring data collected on the building. Results show that, for the chosen case study, the method provides optimized building energy operations which allow a reduction of primary energy requirements for HVAC, lighting, room-electricity, and auxiliary supply by about 21%. This paper shows that the proposed strategy represents an effective way to reduce buildings’ energy waste, in particular in those complex and high-efficiency buildings that are not performing as well as expected during the concept-design-commissioning stage, in particular due to the lack of feedback after the building handover.

  19. A study of a zone approach to IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency] safeguards: The low-enriched-uranium zone of a light-water-reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.

    1986-06-01

    At present the IAEA designs its safeguards approach with regard to each type of nuclear facility so that the safeguards activities and effort are essentially the same for a given type and size of nuclear facility wherever it may be located. Conclusions regarding a state are derived by combining the conclusions regarding the effectiveness of safeguards for the individual facilities within a state. In this study it was convenient to define three zones in a state with a closed light-water-reactor nuclear fuel cycle. Each zone contains those facilities or parts thereof which use or process nuclear materials of the same safeguards significance: low-enriched uranium, radioactive spent fuel, or recovered plutonium. The possibility that each zone might be treated as an extended material balance area for safeguards purposes is under investigation. The approach includes defining the relevant features of the facilities in the three zones and listing the safeguards activities which are now practiced. This study has focussed on the fresh-fuel zone, the several facilities of which use or process low-enriched uranium. At one extreme, flows and inventories would be verified at each material balance area. At the other extreme, the flows into and out of the zone and the inventory of the whole zone would be verified. There are a number of possible safeguards approaches which fall between the two extremes. The intention is to develop a rational approach which will make it possible to compare the technical effectiveness and the inspection effort for the facility-oriented approach, for the approach involving the zone as a material balance area, and for some reasonable intermediate safeguards approaches

  20. A study of a zone approach to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) safeguards: The low-enriched-uranium zone of a light-water-reactor fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.

    1986-06-01

    At present the IAEA designs its safeguards approach with regard to each type of nuclear facility so that the safeguards activities and effort are essentially the same for a given type and size of nuclear facility wherever it may be located. Conclusions regarding a state are derived by combining the conclusions regarding the effectiveness of safeguards for the individual facilities within a state. In this study it was convenient to define three zones in a state with a closed light-water-reactor nuclear fuel cycle. Each zone contains those facilities or parts thereof which use or process nuclear materials of the same safeguards significance: low-enriched uranium, radioactive spent fuel, or recovered plutonium. The possibility that each zone might be treated as an extended material balance area for safeguards purposes is under investigation. The approach includes defining the relevant features of the facilities in the three zones and listing the safeguards activities which are now practiced. This study has focussed on the fresh-fuel zone, the several facilities of which use or process low-enriched uranium. At one extreme, flows and inventories would be verified at each material balance area. At the other extreme, the flows into and out of the zone and the inventory of the whole zone would be verified. There are a number of possible safeguards approaches which fall between the two extremes. The intention is to develop a rational approach which will make it possible to compare the technical effectiveness and the inspection effort for the facility-oriented approach, for the approach involving the zone as a material balance area, and for some reasonable intermediate safeguards approaches.

  1. Observation of low energy particle precipitation at low altitude in the equatorial zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Precipitation of protons (∼ 1 MeV) in the equatorial zone was investigated by the Phoenix-1 experiment on board the S81-1 mission from May-November, 1982. The protons show a precipitation peak along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 13 0 . The index of equatorial pitch angle distribution is q ∼ 19. The peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, and the proton flux shows approximately a factor of 3 times increase in 1982 compared to that in 1969 due, possibly, to the stronger (∼ 1.2 times) solar maximum conditions of 10.7 cm radiation in 1982. (author)

  2. Thermal energy and economic analysis of a PCM-enhanced household envelope considering different climate zones in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbouch, Yassine; Mimet, Abdelaziz; El Ganaoui, Mohammed; Ouhsaine, Lahoucine

    2018-07-01

    This study investigates the thermal energy potentials and economic feasibility of an air-conditioned family household-integrated phase change material (PCM) considering different climate zones in Morocco. A simulation-based optimisation was carried out in order to define the optimal design of a PCM-enhanced household envelope for thermal energy effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of predefined candidate solutions. The optimisation methodology is based on coupling Energyplus® as a dynamic simulation tool and GenOpt® as an optimisation tool. Considering the obtained optimum design strategies, a thermal energy and economic analysis are carried out to investigate PCMs' integration feasibility in the Moroccan constructions. The results show that the PCM-integrated household envelope allows minimising the cooling/heating thermal energy demand vs. a reference household without PCM. While for the cost-effectiveness optimisation, it has been deduced that the economic feasibility is stilling insufficient under the actual PCM market conditions. The optimal design parameters results are also analysed.

  3. Exciton Binding Energy of Monolayer WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bairen; Chen, Xi; Cui, Xiaodong

    2015-03-01

    The optical properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) feature prominent excitonic natures. Here we report an experimental approach to measuring the exciton binding energy of monolayer WS2 with linear differential transmission spectroscopy and two-photon photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (TP-PLE). TP-PLE measurements show the exciton binding energy of 0.71 +/- 0.01 eV around K valley in the Brillouin zone.

  4. Formate as an energy source for microbial metabolism in chemosynthetic zones of hydrothermal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windman, Todd; Zolotova, Natalya; Schwandner, Florian; Shock, Everett L

    2007-12-01

    Formate, a simple organic acid known to support chemotrophic hyperthermophiles, is found in hot springs of varying temperature and pH. However, it is not yet known how metabolic strategies that use formate could contribute to primary productivity in hydrothermal ecosystems. In an effort to provide a quantitative framework for assessing the role of formate metabolism, concentration data for dissolved formate and many other solutes in samples from Yellowstone hot springs were used, together with data for coexisting gas compositions, to evaluate the overall Gibbs energy for many reactions involving formate oxidation or reduction. The result is the first rigorous thermodynamic assessment of reactions involving formate oxidation to bicarbonate and reduction to methane coupled with various forms of iron, nitrogen, sulfur, hydrogen, and oxygen for hydrothermal ecosystems. We conclude that there are a limited number of reactions that can yield energy through formate reduction, in contrast to numerous formate oxidation reactions that can yield abundant energy for chemosynthetic microorganisms. Because the energy yields are so high, these results challenge the notion that hydrogen is the primary energy source of chemosynthetic microbes in hydrothermal ecosystems.

  5. An Embedded Sensor Network for Measuring Elevation Effects on Temperature, Humidity, and Evapotranspiration Within a Tropical Alpine Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, R. A.; Mark, B. G.

    2006-12-01

    Conditions of glacier recession in the seasonally dry tropical Peruvian Andes motivates research to better constrain the hydrological balance in alpine valleys. Studies suggest that glaciers in the tropical Andes are particularly sensitive to seasonal humidity flux due to the migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. However, there is an outstanding need to better measure and model the spatiotemporal variability of energy and water budgets within pro-glacial valleys. In this context, we introduce a novel embedded network of low- cost, discrete temperature and humidity microloggers and an automatic weather station installed in the Llanganuco valley of the Cordillera Blanca. This paper presents data recorded over a full annual cycle (2004- 2005) and reports on network design and results during the dry and wet seasons. The transect of sensors ranging from about 3500 to 4700 m reveal seasonally characteristic diurnal fluctuations in up-valley lapse rate. A process-based water balance model (Brook90) examines the influence of meteorological forcing on evapotranspiration (ET) rates in the valley. The model results suggest that cloud-free daylight conditions enhances ET during the wet season. ET was insignificant throughout the dry season. In addition, we report on the effects of elevation on ET.

  6. Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Evaluation of Space and Water Heating in Urban Residential Buildings of the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the urbanization process of the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW zone in China, the energy consumption of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone has increased rapidly. This study presents the energy efficiency and sustainability evaluation of various ways of space and water heating taking 10 typical cities in the HSCW zone as research cases. Two indicators, primary energy efficiency (PEE and sustainability index based on exergy efficiency, are adopted to perform the evaluation. Models for the energy and total exergy efficiencies of various space and water heating equipment/systems are developed. The evaluation results indicate that common uses of electricity for space and water heating are the most unsustainable ways of space and water heating. In terms of PEE and sustainability index, air-source heat pumps for space and water heating are suitable for the HSCW zone. The PEE and sustainability index of solar water heaters with auxiliary electric heaters are greatly influenced by local solar resources. Air-source heat pump assisted solar hot water systems are the most sustainable among all water heating equipment/systems investigated in this study. Our works suggest the key potential for improving the energy efficiency and the sustainability of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone.

  7. The seawater greenhouse: desalination and crop-production in arid zones based on renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P. A.; Paton, C.; Sablani, S. S.; Perret, J.; Goosen, M. F. A.; Walterbeek, Reinier R.

    2006-01-01

    population growth is threatening the avaliability of fresh water in many regions of the world. With agriculture accounting for approximately 70% of all water used, the water crisis is closely linked to food production and economic development. Conventional agriculture is very inefficient in its use of water with several hundred liters needed to produce just one kilogram of produce. Although seawater is abundant, conventional desalination consumes substantial energy, usually derived from fossil fuels. There is an urgent ned for affordable and sustainable means of p[roducing crops, without heavy reliance on water and energy resource. The seawater Greenhouse is a novel approach to solving this problem. It combines energy-efficient desalination with water-efficient cultivation. Pilot projects have been constructed in Tenerife, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. This paper describes the results from these projects and outlines the potential for opening the seawater Greenhouse from renewable energy sources. Different types of source are evaluated and compared with respect to cost and load matching. Conclusions are drawn about the viability of a stand-alone system for the production of water and crops.(Author)

  8. Valley polarization in bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauque, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of certain crystal lattices can contain multiple degenerate valleys for their charge carriers to occupy. The principal challenge in the development of valleytronics is to lift the valley degeneracy of charge carriers in a controlled way. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. According to our recent study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth, a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. As a consequence of a unique combination of high mobility and extreme mass anisotropy in bismuth, the effect is visible even at room temperature in a magnetic field of 1 T. Thus, a modest magnetic field can be used as a valley valve in bismuth. The results of our recent investigation of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in other semi-metals and doped semiconductors suggest that a rotating magnetic field can behave as a valley valve in a multi-valley system with sizeable mass anisotropy.

  9. 77 FR 42722 - Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Updated Environmental Analysis Preparation Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-002] Copper Valley...: Original License Application. b. Project No.: 13124-002. c. Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association (Copper Valley). d. Name of Project: Allison Creek Project. e. Location: On the south side of Port Valdez...

  10. 75 FR 22775 - Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Scoping Meeting and Soliciting Scoping Comments for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-000] Copper Valley....: 13124-000. c. Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association. d. Name of Project: Allison Lake Project. e.... 791(a)-825(r). g. Applicant Contact: Robert A. Wilkinson, CEO, Copper Valley Electric Association, P.O...

  11. Renewable Energy Zones for Balancing Siting Trade-offs in India

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, R; Wu, G; Phadke, A

    2017-01-01

    India’s targets of 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022, and 40% generation capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030 will require a rapid and dramatic increase in solar and wind capacity deployment and overcoming its associated economic, siting, and power system challenges. The objective of this study was to spatially identify the amount and quality of wind and utility-scale solar resource potential in India, and the possible siting-related constraints and opportunities for develo...

  12. Ecosystem-based management and refining governance of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone: A case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumin, Enid C.

    the successful governance of such projects, including any that may involve development of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone or beyond. Three supplemental files of coded data accompany this dissertation.

  13. Greening Turner Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed remedial activities undertaken in the Turner Valley. Remedial action in the valley must satisfy the financial concerns of engineers and investors as well as the environmental concerns of residents and regulators. Natural gas production in the Turner Valley began in 1914. The production practices were harmful and wasteful. Soil and water pollution was not considered a problem until recently. The impacts of cumulative effects and other pollution hazards are now being considered as part of many oil and gas environmental management programs. Companies know it is cheaper and safer to prevent pollutants from being released, and more efficient to clean them up quickly. Oil and gas companies are also committed to remediating historical problems. Several factors have simplified remediation plans in the Turner Valley. Area real estate values are now among the highest in Alberta. While the valley residents are generally friendly to the petroleum industry, strong communication with all stakeholders in the region is needed. 1 fig.

  14. Surface displacements and energy release rates for constant stress drop slip zones in joined elastic quarter spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael J.; Wen, Shengmin; Keer, Leon M.

    2000-08-01

    A three-dimensional quasi-static model of faulting in an elastic half-space with a horizontal change of material properties (i.e., joined elastic quarter spaces) is considered. A boundary element method is used with a stress drop slip zone approach so that the fault surface relative displacements as well as the free surface displacements are approximated in elements over their respective domains. Stress intensity factors and free surface displacements are calculated for a variety of cases to show the phenomenological behavior of faulting in such a medium. These calculations showed that the behavior could be distinguished from a uniform half-space. Slip in a stiffer material increases, while slip in a softer material decreases the energy release rate and the free surface displacements. Also, the 1989 Kalapana earthquake was located on the basis of a series of forward searches using this method and leveling data. The located depth is 8 km, which is the closer to the seismically inferred depth than that determined from other models. Finally, the energy release rate, which can be used as a fracture criterion for fracture at this depth, is calculated to be 11.1×106 J m-2.

  15. The use of solar energy - photovoltaic - in hydrogen production and arid zones like Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayigh, A. A. M.

    This paper deals with the use of photovoltaic technology for the production of hydrogen from water by electrolysis. First of all the amount of electricity needed for this process was assessed, then various types of solar cell systems to generate the electricity needed were discussed and the best system was established. Some of the investigations involved testing of solar cells with concentrators and with fixed tilt or tracking devices. Several small panels of solar cells were used in testing the effect of local dust and sand as well as the fixed tilt in the area of Riyadh. The cost of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity from a conventional grid was calculated. This cost was compared with the cost of production of hydrogen if a solar cell array was used. The paper outlines the continuous price increase of oil to produce electricity and the rapid decrease in price of solar cells. Both these advances will lead to a cheaper way of producing hydrogen by solar energy. In addition it is shown that technology is almost trouble free and requires very little know-how as far as operation is concerned.

  16. Advantage of the renewable energies in isolated zones; Aprovechamiento de las energias renovables en zonas aisladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Zazueta, Jose Antonio [Fideicomiso de Riesgo Compartido de la SAGARPA (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The present article has as objective to present the experiences obtained for more than ten years, in the development and implementation of actions that in the matter of renewable energy have been orchestrated in the Mexican field by the Secretariat of Agriculture, Animal Industry, Rural Development, Fishing, and Nutrition, trough the Shared Risk Trust Fund. The activities began in 1994; the most common applications realized are the water pumping for the drinking trough of cattle and the automation of the irrigation in small surfaces with fruit trees, vegetables, forages and the operation of greenhouses. [Spanish] El presente articulo tiene como objetivo presentar las experiencias obtenidas durante mas de diez anos, en el desarrollo e implementacion de acciones que en materia de energia renovable se han instrumentado en el campo mexicano por la the Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural Pesca y Alimentacion, a traves del Fideicomiso de Riesgo Compartido. Las actividades se iniciaron en 1994, las aplicaciones mas comunes realizadas son el bombeo de agua para el abrevadero de ganado y la tecnificacion del riego en pequenas superficies con frutales, hortalizas, forrajes y la operacion de invernaderos.

  17. Electrical valley filtering in transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Chou, Mei-Yin; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the feasibility of electrical valley filtering for holes in transition metal dichalcogenides. We look specifically into the scheme that utilizes a potential barrier to produce valley-dependent tunneling rates, and perform the study with both a k .p -based analytic method and a recursive Green's function-based numerical method. The study yields the transmission coefficient as a function of incident energy and transverse wave vector, for holes going through lateral quantum barriers oriented in either armchair or zigzag directions, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The main findings are the following: (1) The tunneling current valley polarization increases with increasing barrier width or height; (2) both the valley-orbit interaction and band structure warping contribute to valley-dependent tunneling, with the former contribution being manifest in structures with asymmetric potential barriers, and the latter being orientation dependent and reaching maximum for transmission in the armchair direction; and (3) for transmission ˜0.1 , a tunneling current valley polarization of the order of 10 % can be achieved.

  18. Valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in strain engineered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhi Ping; Yao, Jian-ming

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically predict the existence of tunneling valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in the normal/strain/normal graphene junctions, where a strained graphene is sandwiched by two normal graphene electrodes. By applying an electric bias a pure transverse valley Hall current with longitudinal charge current is generated. If the system is driven by a temperature bias, a valley Nernst effect is observed, where a pure transverse valley current without charge current propagates. Furthermore, the transverse valley current can be modulated by the Fermi energy and crystallographic orientation. When the magnetic field is further considered, we obtain a fully valley-polarized current. It is expected these features may be helpful in the design of the controllable valleytronic devices.

  19. Crimea and the quest for energy and military hegemony in the Black Sea region: governance gap in a contested geostrategic zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.

    2015-01-01

    Russia’s annexation of Crimea and its destabilization of Eastern Ukraine have radically altered the European security order, with the Black Sea region becoming an acutely contested geostrategic zone. Russia’s strategic interests in the Black Sea region, especially in terms of energy and military

  20. The seasonal cycle and interannual variability of surface energy balance and melt in the ablation zone of the west Greenland ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.; Smeets, C.J.P.P.; van de Wal, R.S.W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the surface energy balance (SEB) in the ablation zone of the west Greenland ice sheet, using seven years (September 2003–August 2010) of hourly observations from three automatic weather stations (AWS). The AWS are situated along the 67◦ N

  1. Laboratory and numerical experiments on water and energy fluxes during freezing and thawing in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländer, Hartmut; Montasir Islam, Md.; Šimunek, Jirka

    2017-04-01

    Frozen soil has a major effect in many hydrologic processes, and its effects are difficult to predict. A prime example is flood forecasting during spring snowmelt within the Canadian Prairies. One key driver for the extent of flooding is the antecedent soil moisture and the possibility for water to infiltrate into frozen soils. Therefore, these situations are crucial for accurate flood prediction during every spring. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the water flow and heat transport within HYDRUS-1D version 4.16 and with Hansson's model, which is a detailed freezing/thawing module (Hansson et al., 2004), to predict the impact of frozen and partly frozen soil on infiltration. We developed a standardized data set of water flow and heat transport into (partial) frozen soil by laboratory experiments using fine sand. Temperature, soil moisture, and percolated water were observed at different freezing conditions as well as at thawing conditions. Significant variation in soil moisture was found between the top and the bottom of the soil column at the starting of the thawing period. However, with increasing temperature, the lower depth of the soil column showed higher moisture as the soil became enriched with moisture due to the release of heat by soil particles during the thawing cycle. We applied vadose zone modeling using the results from the laboratory experiments. The simulated water content by HYDRUS-1D 4.16 showed large errors compared to the observed data showing by negative Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency. Hansson's model was not able to predict soil water fluxes due to its unstable behavior (Šimunek et al., 2016). The soil temperature profile simulated using HYDRUS-1D 4.16 was not able to predict the release of latent heat during the phase change of water that was visible in Hansson's model. Hansson's model includes the energy gain/loss due to the phase change in the amount of latent energy stored in the modified heat transport equation. However, in

  2. Energy position of bistable defect (CiCs)0 in 'B' configuration in a forbidden zone of n-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgolenko, A.P.; Litovchenko, P.G.; Varentsov, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Float-zone and phosphorus-doped n-Si samples after irradiation by fast-pile neutrons and subsequent annealing at room temperature were investigated. The calculation of effective concentration of carriers after irradiation was carried out in the framework of Gossick's model taking into account the recharges of defects both in conducting matrix of n-Si and in the space-charge region of defect clusters. The distribution function of electrons on the acceptor level of bistable defect (C i C s ) 0 when the concentration of this defect is the function of the Fermi level in conducting matrix of n-Si is determined. The concentration of bistable interstitial-carbon-substitutional-carbon pair and its energy level at (E c - 0,123 eV) in forbidden band of silicon were calculated. On the observable level of stable configuration C i C s (A - )-defects at (E c - 0,147 eV) the theoretical change of carriers concentration in the conduction band simulated by the recharges (C i C s ) 0 was imposed. The concentration of these (C i C s ) 0 -defects has been changed in the process of their recharges. It is shown that in n-Si with high carbon and oxygen concentration after affiliating of oxygen atoms to bistable defect (C i C s ) 0 in a forbidden band of n-Si the stable defects not only in 'A' but also in 'B' configurations are formed with energy levels at (E c - 0,13 eV) and (E c - 0,09 eV)

  3. The carbon stable isotope biogeochemistry of streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, W.B.; Leslie, D.L.; Harmon, R.S.; Neumann, K.; Welch, K.A.; Bisson, K.M.; McKnight, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► δ 13 C-DIC reported from McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, streams. ► Stream water δ 13 C PDB values range −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, largely inorganic in character. ► Atmospheric exchange is the dominant control on δ 13 C-DIC. - Abstract: The McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica is the largest ice-free region on the continent. This study reports the first C stable isotope measurements for dissolved inorganic C present in ephemeral streams in four dry valleys that flow for four to twelve weeks during the austral summer. One of these valleys, Taylor Valley, has been the focus of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research (MCM-LTER) program since 1993. Within Taylor Valley, numerous ephemeral streams deliver water to three perennially ice-covered, closed-basin lakes: Lake Fryxell, Lake Hoare, and Lake Bonney. The Onyx River in the Wright Valley, the longest river in Antarctica, flows for 40 km from the Wright Lower Glacier and Lake Brownworth at the foot of the glacier to Lake Vanda. Streamflow in the McMurdo Dry Valley streams is produced primarily from glacial melt, as there is no overland flow. However, hyporheic zone exchange can be a major hydrogeochemical process in these streams. Depending on landscape position, these streams vary in gradient, channel substrate, biomass abundance, and hyporheic zone extent. This study sampled streams from Taylor, Wright, Garwood, and Miers Valleys and conducted diurnal sampling of two streams of different character in Taylor Valley. In addition, transect sampling was undertaken of the Onyx River in Wright Valley. The δ 13 C PDB values from these streams span a range of greater than 14‰, from −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, with the majority of samples falling between −3‰ and +2‰, suggesting that the C stable isotope composition of dissolved C in McMurdo Dry Valley streams is largely inorganic in character. Because there are no vascular plants on this landscape and no groundwater input to these

  4. Role of Shape and Numbers of Ridges and Valleys in the Insulating Effects of Topography on the Rayleigh Wave Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, J. P.; Kumar, Neeraj; Chauhan, Ranu

    2018-03-01

    This research work is inspired by the recently accepted concept that high frequency Rayleigh waves are generated in the epicentral zone of shallow earthquakes. Such high frequency Rayleigh waves with large amplitude may develop much of spatial variability in ground motion which in turn may cause unexpected damage to long-span structures like bridges, underground pipelines, dams, etc., in the hilly regions. Further, it has been reported that topography acts as an insulator for the Rayleigh waves (Ma et al. BSSA 97:2066-2079, 2007). The above mentioned scientific developments stimulated to quantify the role of shape and number of ridges and valleys falling in the path of Rayleigh wave in the insulating effect of topography on the Rayleigh waves. The simulated results reveals very large amplification of the horizontal component of Rayleigh wave near the top of a triangular ridge which may cause intensive landslides under favorable condition. The computed snapshots of the wave-field of Rayleigh wave reveals that the interaction of Rayleigh wave with the topography causes reflection, splitting, and diffraction of Rayleigh wave in the form of body waves which in turn provides the insulating capacity to the topography. Insulating effects of single valley is more than that of single ridge. Further this effect was more in case of elliptical ridge/valley than triangular ridge/valley. The insulating effect of topography was proportional to the frequency of Rayleigh wave and the number of ridges and valleys in the string. The obtained level of insulation effects of topography on the Rayleigh wave (energy of Rayleigh wave reduced to less than 4% after crossing a topography of span 4.5 km) calls for the consideration of role of hills and valleys in seismic hazard prediction, particularly in case of shallow earthquakes.

  5. The mass-retrofitting of an energy efficient-low carbon zone: Baselining the urban regeneration strategy, vision, masterplan and redevelopment scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deakin, Mark; Campbell, Fiona; Reid, Alasdair

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a recent attempt to reduce energy consumption and the associated levels of carbon emissions by way of and through what has been termed: “an active and integrated institutional arrangement”. That is, by the integration of a mass retrofit proposal into an urban regeneration strategy, with the vision, master-plan, programme of renewal and redevelopment scheme which is capable of transforming into an energy efficient, low carbon zone. As a case study on how institutions can plan for low energy efficient redevelopments and the possibility of low carbon zones, the paper highlights the current state of the art on mass retrofits within the residential property sector and draws particular attention to the type of baseline assessments needed to legitimate, not only the strategic value of such arrangements, but their practical worth as measures capable of meeting emission targets set under the 2008 UK Climate Bill.

  6. Refraction and reflection seismic investigations for geological energy-storage site characterization: Dalby (Tornquist Zone), southwest Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Bergman, Bo; Andersson, Benjamin; Sturk, Robert; Johansson, Mattis

    2017-04-01

    Three high-resolution, 5 m shot and receiver spacing using 141-172 receivers, refraction and reflection seismic profiles for the planning of a major underground energy-storage site near the town of Dalby-Lund within the Scania Tornquist suture zone in southwest of Sweden were acquired during August 2015. The site is situated ca. 1 km north of the RFZ (Romeleåsen fault and flexure zone) with a complex geologic and tectonic history. Near vertical dikes are observed from several quarries in the area crosscutting granitic-gneissic-amphibiotic rocks and form clear magnetic lineaments. These dikes likely have also acted as surfaces on which further faulting have occurred. Although a major high-speed and traffic road runs in the middle of the study area, the seismic data show excellent quality particularly for the data along two profiles (profiles 2 and 3) perpendicular to the road, and slightly noisy, due to high wind, for the data along a profile (profile 4) parallel to the road. A bobcat-mounted drop hammer (500 kg) was used to generate the seismic signal. To provide continuity from one side of the road to another, 51 wireless recorders connected to 10 Hz geophones and operating in an autonomous mode were used. GPS times of the source impacts were used to extract the data from the wireless recorders and then merged with the data from the cabled recorders (also 10 Hz geophones). Three shot records per source position were generated and vertically stacked to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. First arrivals are clear in most shot gathers allowing them to be used for traditional refraction seismic data analysis and also for more advanced traveltime tomography. The velocity models obtained through traveltime tomography clearly depict bedrock surface and its undulations and in many places show good correlation with the boreholes recently drilled in the area. At places where bedrock is intersected at greater depths than usual, for example 25 m at one place, depression

  7. Geomorphological hazards in Swat valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to describe, interpret and analyze, in depth, the varied geomorphological hazards and their impacts prevailing in the swat valley locate in the northern hilly and mountainous regions of Pakistan. The hills and mountains re zones of high geomorphological activity with rapid rates of weathering, active tectonic activities, abundant precipitation, rapid runoff and heavy sediment transport. Due to the varied topography, lithology, steep slope, erodible soil, heavy winter snowfall and intensive rainfall in the spring and summer seasons, several kinds of geomorphological hazards, such as geomorphic gravitational hazards, Fluvial hazards, Glacial hazards, Geo tectonic hazards, are occurring frequently in swat valley. Amongst them, geomorphic gravitational hazards, such as rock fall rock slide, debris slide mud flow avalanches, are major hazards in mountains and hills while fluvial hazards and sedimentation are mainly confined to the alluvial plain and lowlands of the valley. The Getechtonic hazards, on the other hand, have wide spread distribution in the valley the magnitude and occurrence of each king of hazard is thus, varied according to intensity of process and physical geographic environment. This paper discusses the type distribution and damage due to the various geomorphological hazards and their reduction treatments. The study would to be of particular importance and interest to both natural and social scientists, as well as planner, environmentalists and decision-makers for successful developmental interventions in the region. (author)

  8. The influence of the fault zone width on land surface vibrations after the high-energy tremor in the "Rydułtowy-Anna" hard coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecka, Elżbieta; Szwarkowski, Dariusz

    2018-04-01

    In the article, a numerical analysis of the impact of the width of the fault zone on land surface tremors on the area of the "Rydułtowy - Anna" hard coal mine was performed. The analysis covered the dynamic impact of the actual seismic wave after the high-energy tremor of 7 June 2013. Vibrations on the land surface are a measure of the mining damage risk. It is particularly the horizontal components of land vibrations that are dangerous to buildings which is reflected in the Mining Scales of Intensity (GSI) of vibrations. The run of a seismic wave in the rock mass from the hypocenter to the area's surface depends on the lithology of the area and the presence of fault zones. The rock mass network cut by faults of various widths influences the amplitude of tremor reaching the area's surface. The analysis of the impact of the width of the fault zone was done for three alternatives.

  9. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  10. Localization of calcium in the cyanobiont and gonidial zone of Cycas revoluta Thunb. by microelectrodes, chlorotetracycline, electron spectroscopic imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caiola, M.G.; Canini, A.; Brandizzi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Ionic calcium concentration was measured in the gonidial zone of fresh coralloid roots by means of calcium microelectrodes. It was 10 -6 M in the apical segments of coralloid roots and increased to 10 -5 M in the gonidial zones of median and basal segments. Loosely membrane-bound calcium was evidenced by using chloro-tetracycline (CTC) or ethylene glycol-bis-(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and CTC, in cell walls of columnar cells of Cycas and in the cytoplasm of cyanobiont. Sub-cellular localization of calcium was obtained by electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analyses applied at transmission electron microscopy on thin, unstained sections of gonidial zone of coralloid roots. By means of these techniques, bound-calcium was detected inside the mucilage of apical and median segments whereas, in the basal segments, it was completely absent. In the heterocysts of apical segments of coralloid, calcium was localized on the envelope, cell walls, thylakoids and cyanophycin granules. In the gonidial zone of the basal segments, dead or degenerating heterocysts completely lacked calcium. Therefore, the high ionic calcium amounts detected in the gonidial zone of median and basal segments could represent a minor calcium uptake by the cells or release by lysed ones. The decreases in nitrogenase activity recorded in the median and basal segments of the coralloid roots paralleled the decrease in calcium amount in heterocyst envelope. (authors)

  11. Influence of inhomogeneous surface heat capacity on the estimation of radiative response coefficients in a two-zone energy balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungmin; Choi, Yong-Sang

    2018-04-01

    Observationally constrained values of the global radiative response coefficient are pivotal to assess the reliability of modeled climate feedbacks. A widely used approach is to measure transient global radiative imbalance related to surface temperature changes. However, in this approach, a potential error in the estimate of radiative response coefficients may arise from surface inhomogeneity in the climate system. We examined this issue theoretically using a simple two-zone energy balance model. Here, we dealt with the potential error by subtracting the prescribed radiative response coefficient from those calculated within the two-zone framework. Each zone was characterized by the different magnitude of the radiative response coefficient and the surface heat capacity, and the dynamical heat transport in the atmosphere between the zones was parameterized as a linear function of the temperature difference between the zones. Then, the model system was forced by randomly generated monthly varying forcing mimicking time-varying forcing like an observation. The repeated simulations showed that inhomogeneous surface heat capacity causes considerable miscalculation (down to -1.4 W m-2 K-1 equivalent to 31.3% of the prescribed value) in the global radiative response coefficient. Also, the dynamical heat transport reduced this miscalculation driven by inhomogeneity of surface heat capacity. Therefore, the estimation of radiative response coefficients using the surface temperature-radiation relation is appropriate for homogeneous surface areas least affected by the exterior.

  12. Characterizing Excavation Damaged Zone and Stability of Pressurized Lined Rock Caverns for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jeong, Ju-Hwan; Choi, Byung-Hee; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Song, Won-Kyong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) on the geomechanical performance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. We conducted a detailed characterization of the EDZ in rock caverns that have been excavated for a Korean pilot test program on CAES in (concrete) lined rock caverns at shallow depth. The EDZ was characterized by measurements of P- and S-wave velocities and permeability across the EDZ and into undisturbed host rock. Moreover, we constructed an in situ concrete lining model and conducted permeability measurements in boreholes penetrating the concrete, through the EDZ and into the undisturbed host rock. Using the site-specific conditions and the results of the EDZ characterization, we carried out a model simulation to investigate the influence of the EDZ on the CAES performance, in particular related to geomechanical responses and stability. We used a modeling approach including coupled thermodynamic multiphase flow and geomechanics, which was proven to be useful in previous generic CAES studies. Our modeling results showed that the potential for inducing tensile fractures and air leakage through the concrete lining could be substantially reduced if the EDZ around the cavern could be minimized. Moreover, the results showed that the most favorable design for reducing the potential for tensile failure in the lining would be a relatively compliant concrete lining with a tight inner seal, and a relatively stiff (uncompliant) host rock with a minimized EDZ. Because EDZ compliance depends on its compressibility (or modulus) and thickness, care should be taken during drill and blast operations to minimize the damage to the cavern walls.

  13. Upper Neogene stratigraphy and tectonics of Death Valley — a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, J. R.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Machette, M. N.; Klinger, R. E.

    2005-12-01

    New tephrochronologic, soil-stratigraphic and radiometric-dating studies over the last 10 years have generated a robust numerical stratigraphy for Upper Neogene sedimentary deposits throughout Death Valley. Critical to this improved stratigraphy are correlated or radiometrically-dated tephra beds and tuffs that range in age from > 3.58 Ma to Mormon Point. This new geochronology also establishes maximum and minimum ages for Quaternary alluvial fans and Lake Manly deposits. Facies associated with the tephra beds show that ˜3.3 Ma the Furnace Creek basin was a northwest-southeast-trending lake flanked by alluvial fans. This paleolake extended from the Furnace Creek to Ubehebe. Based on the new stratigraphy, the Death Valley fault system can be divided into four main fault zones: the dextral, Quaternary-age Northern Death Valley fault zone; the dextral, pre-Quaternary Furnace Creek fault zone; the oblique-normal Black Mountains fault zone; and the dextral Southern Death Valley fault zone. Post - 3.3 Ma geometric, structural, and kinematic changes in the Black Mountains and Towne Pass fault zones led to the break up of Furnace Creek basin and uplift of the Copper Canyon and Nova basins. Internal kinematics of northern Death Valley are interpreted as either rotation of blocks or normal slip along the northeast-southwest-trending Towne Pass and Tin Mountain fault zones within the Eastern California shear zone.

  14. Problem zone and pioneer region. The Baltic region between controversies of energy policy and cooperative projects; Problemzone und Vorreiterregion. Der Ostseeraum im Spannungsfeld energiepolitischer Kontroversen und Kooperationsvorhaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Kai-Olaf

    2010-10-15

    This publication describes how for the EU states bordering on the Baltic coast energy policy and energy economy have become crucial fields of bilateral and regional cooperation. On the one side this is attributable to the controversial Nord Stream Pipeline, growing concerns over the security of supply, vulnerabilities in energy policy - be they real or imagined - and to competing energy economic interests. On the other side, what has drawn numerous players' attention to the greater Baltic region as an attractive area in terms of energy policy are the prospects for multilateral cooperation projects and associated hopes for greater regional solidarity in issues of energy policy. In this sense the Baltic region is not only an energy political problem zone but also a potential pioneer region, namely when it comes to energy economic and energy political integration within the EU. This ambivalence should continue to characterise the region for the foreseeable future. The extent to which energy economic integration will in future prevail over particular national interests of energy and security policy will greatly depend on the initiatives which the EU Baltic states succeed in launching cooperatively at EU level.

  15. Hydrological Modelling the Middle Magdalena Valley (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, M. C.; Duque, N.; Arboleda, P.; Guadagnini, A.; Riva, M.; Donado-Garzon, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological distributed modeling is key point for a comprehensive assessment of the feedback between the dynamics of the hydrological cycle, climate conditions and land use. Such modeling results are markedly relevant in the fields of water resources management, natural hazards and oil and gas industry. Here, we employ TopModel (TOPography based hydrological MODEL) for the hydrological modeling of an area in the Middle Magdalena Valley (MMV), a tropical basin located in Colombia. This study is located over the intertropical convergence zone and is characterized by special meteorological conditions, with fast water fluxes over the year. It has been subject to significant land use changes, as a result of intense economical activities, i.e., and agriculture, energy and oil & gas production. The model employees a record of 12 years of daily precipitation and evapotranspiration data as inputs. Streamflow data monitored across the same time frame are used for model calibration. The latter is performed by considering data from 2000 to 2008. Model validation then relies on observations from 2009 to 2012. The robustness of our analyses is based on the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (values of this metric being 0.62 and 0.53, respectively for model calibration and validation). Our results reveal high water storage capacity in the soil, and a marked subsurface runoff, consistent with the characteristics of the soil types in the regions. A significant influence on runoff response of the basin to topographical factors represented in the model is evidenced. Our calibrated model provides relevant indications about recharge in the region, which is important to quantify the interaction between surface water and groundwater, specially during the dry season, which is more relevant in climate-change and climate-variability scenarios.

  16. Stratigraphy and uranium deposits, Lisbon Valley district, San Juan County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium occurrences are scattered throughout southeastern Utah in the lower sandstones of the Triassic Chinle Formation. The Lisbon Valley district, however, is the only area with uranium deposits of substantial size. The stratigraphy of the Lisbon Valley district was investigated to determine the nature of the relationship between the mineralized areas and the lower Chinle sandstones. The geochemistry of the Lisbon Valley uranium deposits indicates a possible district-wide zoning. Interpretation of the elemental zoning associated with individual ore bodies suggests that humates overtaken by a geochemical oxidation-reduction interface may have led to formation of the uranium deposits. Refs

  17. 78 FR 935 - Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-003] Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the... 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.'s...

  18. 78 FR 71599 - Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-005] Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the... 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.'s...

  19. 78 FR 38711 - Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-003] Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the... 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.'s...

  20. The relationship between Anopheles gambiae density and rice cultivation in the savannah zone and forest zone of Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Dossou-Yovo, Joel; Akodo, Elena; van de Giesen, Nick; Teuscher, Thomas M

    2003-05-01

    In 13 villages in the savannah zone and 21 villages in the forest zone of Côte d'Ivoire, the biting density of the principal malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, was studied as a function of rice cultivation in the inland valleys in a 2-km radius around each village. In the savannah villages, during the main season cropping period, surface water on rice-cultivated and to a lesser extent on uncultivated inland valleys seems to contribute strongly to the A. gambiae population density. For the off-season cropping period (which starts after the first light rains in the savannah zone), correlations were weaker. Breeding sites other than in inland valleys may play an important role in the savannah zone. In the forest zone, however, the A. gambiae population density was strongly correlated with the surface water availability (SWA) in the rice-cultivated inland valleys, whereas the correlation with the SWA in other (uncultivated) inland valleys was weak. The requirement of sunlit breeding sites for A. gambiae might explain this difference between zones. In the forest zone, only inland valleys cleared for rice cultivation meet this requirement, whereas all other inland valleys are covered with dense vegetation. In the savannah zone, however, most undergrowth is burnt during the dry season, which permits sunlight to reach puddles resulting from the first rains.

  1. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  2. Electromagnetic Energy Released in the Subduction (Benioff) Zone in Weeks Previous to Earthquake Occurrence in Central Peru and the Estimation of Earthquake Magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heraud, J. A.; Centa, V. A.; Bleier, T.

    2017-12-01

    During the past four years, magnetometers deployed in the Peruvian coast have been providing evidence that the ULF pulses received are indeed generated at the subduction or Benioff zone and are connected with the occurrence of earthquakes within a few kilometers of the source of such pulses. This evidence was presented at the AGU 2015 Fall meeting, showing the results of triangulation of pulses from two magnetometers located in the central area of Peru, using data collected during a two-year period. Additional work has been done and the method has now been expanded to provide the instantaneous energy released at the stress areas on the Benioff zone during the precursory stage, before an earthquake occurs. Collected data from several events and in other parts of the country will be shown in a sequential animated form that illustrates the way energy is released in the ULF part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The process has been extended in time and geographical places. Only pulses associated with the occurrence of earthquakes are taken into account in an area which is highly associated with subduction-zone seismic events and several pulse parameters have been used to estimate a function relating the magnitude of the earthquake with the value of a function generated with those parameters. The results shown, including the animated data video, constitute additional work towards the estimation of the magnitude of an earthquake about to occur, based on electromagnetic pulses that originated at the subduction zone. The method is providing clearer evidence that electromagnetic precursors in effect conveys physical and useful information prior to the advent of a seismic event

  3. Valley-selective optical Stark effect probed by Kerr rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMountain, Trevor; Bergeron, Hadallia; Balla, Itamar; Stanev, Teodor K.; Hersam, Mark C.; Stern, Nathaniel P.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to monitor and control distinct states is at the heart of emerging quantum technologies. The valley pseudospin in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers is a promising degree of freedom for such control, with the optical Stark effect allowing for valley-selective manipulation of energy levels in WS2 and WSe2 using ultrafast optical pulses. Despite these advances, understanding of valley-sensitive optical Stark shifts in TMDCs has been limited by reflectance-based detection methods where the signal is small and prone to background effects. More sensitive polarization-based spectroscopy is required to better probe ultrafast Stark shifts for all-optical manipulation of valley energy levels. Here, we show time-resolved Kerr rotation to be a more sensitive probe of the valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer TMDCs. Compared to the established time-resolved reflectance methods, Kerr rotation is less sensitive to background effects. Kerr rotation provides a fivefold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the Stark effect optical signal and a more precise estimate of the energy shift. This increased sensitivity allows for observation of an optical Stark shift in monolayer MoS2 that exhibits both valley and energy selectivity, demonstrating the promise of this method for investigating this effect in other layered materials and heterostructures.

  4. The Role of Source Material in Basin Sedimentation, as Illustrated within Eureka Valley, Death Valley National Park, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, M. J.; Yin, A.; Rhodes, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Steep landscapes are known to provide sediment to sink regions, but often petrological factors can dominate basin sedimentation. Within Eureka Valley, in northwestern Death Valley National Park, normal faulting has exposed a steep cliff face on the western margin of the Last Chance range with four kilometers of vertical relief from the valley floor and an angle of repose of nearly 38 degrees. The cliff face is composed of Cambrian limestone and dolomite, including the Bonanza King, Carrara and Wood Canyon formations. Interacting with local normal faulting, these units preferentially break off the cliff face in coherent blocks, which result in landslide deposits rather than as finer grained material found within the basin. The valley is well known for a large sand dune, which derives its sediment from distal sources to the north, instead of from the adjacent Last Chance Range cliff face. During the Holocene, sediment is sourced primary from the northerly Willow Wash and Cucomungo canyon, a relatively small drainage (less than 80 km2) within the Sylvan Mountains. Within this drainage, the Jurassic quartz monzonite of Beer Creek is heavily fractured due to motion of the Fish Valley Lake - Death Valley fault zone. Thus, the quartz monzonite is more easily eroded than the well-consolidated limestone and dolomite that forms the Last Change Range cliff face. As well, the resultant eroded material is smaller grained, and thus more easily transported than the limestone. Consequently, this work highlights an excellent example of the strong influence that source material can have on basin sedimentation.

  5. Valley Hall effect in disordered monolayer MoS2 from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Souza, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    ("unfolding") the Berry curvature from the folded Brillouin zone of the disordered supercell onto the normal Brillouin zone of the pristine crystal, and then averaging over several realizations of disorder. We use this scheme to study from first principles the effect of sulfur vacancies on the valley Hall...

  6. Unconventional energy resources in a crowded subsurface: Reducing uncertainty and developing a separation zone concept for resource estimation and deep 3D subsurface planning using legacy mining data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Alison A

    2017-12-01

    Over significant areas of the UK and western Europe, anthropogenic alteration of the subsurface by mining of coal has occurred beneath highly populated areas which are now considering a multiplicity of 'low carbon' unconventional energy resources including shale gas and oil, coal bed methane, geothermal energy and energy storage. To enable decision making on the 3D planning, licensing and extraction of these resources requires reduced uncertainty around complex geology and hydrogeological and geomechanical processes. An exemplar from the Carboniferous of central Scotland, UK, illustrates how, in areas lacking hydrocarbon well production data and 3D seismic surveys, legacy coal mine plans and associated boreholes provide valuable data that can be used to reduce the uncertainty around geometry and faulting of subsurface energy resources. However, legacy coal mines also limit unconventional resource volumes since mines and associated shafts alter the stress and hydrogeochemical state of the subsurface, commonly forming pathways to the surface. To reduce the risk of subsurface connections between energy resources, an example of an adapted methodology is described for shale gas/oil resource estimation to include a vertical separation or 'stand-off' zone between the deepest mine workings, to ensure the hydraulic fracturing required for shale resource production would not intersect legacy coal mines. Whilst the size of such separation zones requires further work, developing the concept of 3D spatial separation and planning is key to utilising the crowded subsurface energy system, whilst mitigating against resource sterilisation and environmental impacts, and could play a role in positively informing public and policy debate. Copyright © 2017 British Geological Survey, a component institute of NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley

  8. The browse value of the Eastern Cape valley bushveld. | A.J. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding value of the Eastern Cape Valley Bushveld in terms of crude protein, digestible dry matter, digestible energy and metabolic energy, as selected by oesophageal fistulated Boer- and Angora goats was determined. Results show that the Valley Bushveld maintains a high feed value throughout the year. The high ...

  9. 76 FR 78628 - Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Application and Applicant-Prepared EA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-003] Copper Valley... Application: Major License. b. Project No.: P-13124-003. c. Date filed: August 30, 2011. d. Applicant: Copper.... 791 (a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Robert A. Wilkinson, CEO, Copper Valley Electric Association...

  10. Techno-economic and environmental analysis of a thermal treatment technology for the generation of electrical energy by municipal solid waste from the zone of Los Santos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza Campos, Kevin; Monge Leiva, Matias

    2014-01-01

    A technical, economic and environmental assessment is realized of a thermal treatment technology. The energetic valorization from municipal solid waste and electric power generation in the zone of Los Santos, Costa Rica, are made by the multicriteria hierarchical analysis methodology. The national and cantonal situation is examined in the integral management of municipal solid waste (GIRS), with emphasis on the cantons from the zone of Los Santos. A comparative analysis is developed among some cantons of Costa Rica that have had GIRS studies, and the zone of Los Santos to know the fraction of municipal solid waste that can be valued energetically and calorific power that present. The similarity in the characterization, composition and physico-chemical properties is determined in the study of residues between the cantons analyzed and the zone of Los Santos. The legislation relating the waste processing is analyzed, according Law 8839 for integral management of waste and laws similar to the implementation of a power generation plant. An analysis is developed for the environmental compliance of thermal treatment technologies, including aspects for control of contaminants. The main technologies of energy valorization from waste are investigated and some real cases of Latin America and the world are exposed. A thermal treatment technology of municipal solid waste is selected through a decision-making methodology to evaluate technical, environmental and economic aspects. Operation requirements and functioning of the devices that conform a power generation plant are described by municipal solid waste of the technology selected. The economic viability of the selected proposal has determined by an economic analysis, to extend on the most influential aspects developing alternative scenarios. The diagnosis of the situation of solid waste in the zone of Los Santos has specified that the cardboard, paper and plastics have been the most adequate for the thermal utilization

  11. Seminar on the news energy utilization in rural area of April 3 to March 24 , 1980 in Reo, Upper Volta[Energie renouvelable ; Zone rurale ; Gaz biologique ; Energie solaire ; Sechoir solaire]; Seminaire sur l'utilisation des energies nouvelles en zone rurale du 24 mars au3 avril 1980 a Reo, Haute Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-04-15

    volume of transport much more reduced. Mastering these new technologies will help fight efficiently against desertification, and fruits and vegetables rotting. [French] L'acces a l'energie par toutes les populations reste une des preoccupations du Gouvernement de Haute Volta (Burkina Faso). C'est ainsi que sous l'egide de la Communaute Economique de l Afrique de l'Ouest (CEAO), de l'Agence Canadienne de Developpement International et du Mouvement Scout, un seminaire sur l'utilisation des energies renouvelables en zone rurale y a ete organise. Il s'agit pour les participants venus de plusieurs pays, d'apprendre a mettre en pratique, l'utilisation des energies nouvelles telles la cuisiniere a feu ferme, le gaz biologique, le chauffe- eau solaire et le sechoir solaire. L'adoption de ces nouvelles sources d'energie par les populations permettrait de pallier les problemes de desertification lies au deboisement intensif dans le pays. Tous les participants a cette rencontre sont donc sensibilises pour qu'ils apportent leur contribution et celle des populations de leurs terroirs respectifs pour une meilleure conservation des ressources naturelles disponibles. Cela passe aussi par la construction de cuisinieres a feu ferme qui permettent d'avoir deux sources d'energie. Ce type de foyer est d'une construction facile et utilisable seulement trois jours apres. Il permet d'eviter la perte d'energie qui caracterisait le foyer traditionnel (pres de 95% de perte d'energie) ; ce qui revient a consommer moins de bois tout en assurant un rendement de l'ordre de 60 a 70%. Il s'est agi pour les participants aux travaux de s'initier a l'installation de gaz suivant des modeles chinois et indien . Ils ont donc ete inities a la realisation des technologies de production de gaz biologique a travers la maitrise du schema de principe du procede de fermentation discontinue. De meme, ils ont acquis le savoir- faire sur les techniques de mise en place du chauffe- eau solaire par insolateur et du

  12. Impact Analysis of Window-Wall Ratio on Heating and Cooling Energy Consumption of Residential Buildings in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoxia Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the optimal window-wall ratio and the proper glazing type in different air conditioning system operation modes of residential buildings for each orientation in three typical cities in hot summer and cold winter zone: Chongqing, Shanghai, and Wuhan simulation models were built and analyzed using Designer’s Simulation Toolkit (DeST. The study analyzed the variation of annual heating energy demand, annual cooling energy demand, and the annual total energy consumption in different conditions, including different orientations, patterns of utilization of air conditioning system, window-wall ratio, and types of windows. The results show that the total energy consumption increased when the window-wall ratio is also increased. It appears more obvious when the window orientation is east or west. Furthermore, in terms of energy efficiency, low-emissivity (Low-E glass performs better than hollow glass. From this study, it can be concluded that the influence and sensitivity of window-wall ratio on the total energy consumption are related to the operation mode of air conditioning system, the orientation of outside window, and the glazing types of window. The influence of the factors can be regarded as reference mode for the window-wall ratio when designing residential buildings.

  13. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai

    2016-02-29

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge or spin. Interest in valleytronics has been revived in recent years following the discovery of atomically thin materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the valley coherence time—a crucial quantity for valley pseudospin manipulation—is difficult to directly probe. In this work, we use two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect valley coherence of excitons (Coulomb-bound electron–hole pairs) in monolayer WSe2 (refs ,). The imposed valley coherence persists for approximately one hundred femtoseconds. We propose that the electron–hole exchange interaction provides an important decoherence mechanism in addition to exciton population recombination. This work provides critical insight into the requirements and strategies for optical manipulation of the valley pseudospin for future valleytronics applications.

  14. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National Park, Inyo... an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan, Death Valley... analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death Valley [[Page 33238...

  15. Database of Low-E Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones (Task ET-WIN-PNNL-FY13-01_5.3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Culp, Thomas D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced in support of the Emerging Technologies Low-e Storm Windows Task 5.3: Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone. Both sets of calculation results will be made publicly available through the Building America Solution Center.

  16. Impending sources of energy to replace fire wood in semi arid climatic zones: A case study in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihret Dananto Ulsido

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study paper shows an alternative source of energy that can decrease the extensive use of fire wood in Ethiopia. The country’s entire rural area and significant part of urban population is completely dependent on fire wood as a source of energy. This practice takes its own toll, the forest is on the verge of being wiped out and as a result a clear change of climate and loss of natural biodiversity resources is visible. Fire wood is not the only source of energy available in the country. In this paper, based on their low cost, construction material availability and the required unskilled labor it is shown that biogas and solar energy are potentially feasible source of energy to replace firewood for cooking.

  17. Rift Valley Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Amy

    2017-06-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe veterinary disease of livestock that also causes moderate to severe illness in people. The life cycle of RVF is complex and involves mosquitoes, livestock, people, and the environment. RVF virus is transmitted from either mosquitoes or farm animals to humans, but is generally not transmitted from person to person. People can develop different diseases after infection, including febrile illness, ocular disease, hemorrhagic fever, or encephalitis. There is a significant risk for emergence of RVF into new locations, which would affect human health and livestock industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Giant valley drifts in uniaxially strained monolayer MoS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwingenschloegl, Udo; Zhang, Qingyun; Cheng, Yingchun; Gan, Li-Yong [PSE Division, KAUST, Thuwal 23955 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-07-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we study the electronic structure of monolayer MoS{sub 2} under uniaxial strain. We show that the energy valleys drift far off the corners of the Brillouin zone (K points), about 12 times the amount observed in graphene. Therefore, it is essential to take this effect into consideration for a correct identification of the band gap. The system remains a direct band gap semiconductor up to 4% uniaxial strain, while the size of the band gap decreases from 1.73 to 1.54 eV. We also demonstrate that the splitting of the valence bands due to inversion symmetry breaking and spin-orbit coupling is not sensitive to strain.

  19. Giant valley drifts in uniaxially strained monolayer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun

    2013-12-30

    Using first-principles calculations, we study the electronic structure of monolayer MoS2 under uniaxial strain. We show that the energy valleys drift far off the corners of the Brillouin zone (K points), about 12 times the amount observed in graphene. Therefore, it is essential to take this effect into consideration for a correct identification of the band gap. The system remains a direct band gap semiconductor up to 4% uniaxial strain, while the size of the band gap decreases from 1.73 to 1.54 eV. We also demonstrate that the splitting of the valence bands due to inversion symmetry breaking and spin-orbit coupling is not sensitive to strain.

  20. Offshore wind energy development in the exclusive economic zone. Legal and policy supports and impediments in Germany and the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portman, Michelle E.; Duff, John A.; Koeppel, Johann; Reisert, Jessica; Higgins, Megan E.

    2009-01-01

    The development of renewable energy as a major component of efforts to combat climate change serves as the impetus for the location of energy production facilities in coastal ocean space. Yet, while many coastal nations see offshore renewable energy development as an important way forward, the speed and manner in which these efforts take shape vary dramatically. This paper assesses the role of coastal nations' domestic legal and policy frameworks in the siting of offshore renewable energy facilities in areas under federal jurisdiction. It focuses on two nations - Germany and the United States. Both have articulated their interest in renewable offshore energy, but while Germany has approved many offshore sites, recent US proposals have for the most part stalled. Based on a review of legal and policy documents, laws and regulations, academic literature, and interviews, this research identifies and compares factors that figure most prominently for the development of offshore renewable energy policies. Comparisons are organized under four categories: the regulatory framework, the public's role in siting, targeted economic mechanisms, and indirect mechanisms. The paper concludes with observations about prominent supports and impediments and suggestions for further research. (author)

  1. Multiyear Plan for Validation of EnergyPlus Multi-Zone HVAC System Modeling using ORNL's Flexible Research Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bhandari, Mahabir S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This document describes the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) multiyear experimental plan for validation and uncertainty characterization of whole-building energy simulation for a multi-zone research facility using a traditional rooftop unit (RTU) as a baseline heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The project’s overarching objective is to increase the accuracy of energy simulation tools by enabling empirical validation of key inputs and algorithms. Doing so is required to inform the design of increasingly integrated building systems and to enable accountability for performance gaps between design and operation of a building. The project will produce documented data sets that can be used to validate key functionality in different energy simulation tools and to identify errors and inadequate assumptions in simulation engines so that developers can correct them. ASHRAE Standard 140, Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs (ASHRAE 2004), currently consists primarily of tests to compare different simulation programs with one another. This project will generate sets of measured data to enable empirical validation, incorporate these test data sets in an extended version of Standard 140, and apply these tests to the Department of Energy’s (DOE) EnergyPlus software (EnergyPlus 2016) to initiate the correction of any significant deficiencies. The fitness-for-purpose of the key algorithms in EnergyPlus will be established and demonstrated, and vendors of other simulation programs will be able to demonstrate the validity of their products. The data set will be equally applicable to validation of other simulation engines as well.

  2. The geology and mineral deposits of Tantalite Valley, Warmbad district, South West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Backstroem, J.W.

    1976-04-01

    The Tantalite Valley Complex, a poorly mineralised (Cu and Ni sulphides) body of roughly concentric peridotite-gabbroid intrusions was emplaced along a major zone of dislocation (the Tantallite Valley Lineament) into a metasedimentary sequence of migmatites and gneisses which, together with the complex, have experienced a complex metamorphic and tectonic history. A number of large mineralised pegmatites (producers of minerals of Nb, Ta, Bi, Li and Be over the past two decades), was intruded about 1000 Ma ago [af

  3. Aburra Valley: Quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, Michel

    2008-01-01

    These paper intents a brief description of the evolution that characterised natural risk prevention in the area surrounding the city of Medellin, Colombia, called the Aburra Valley. Both the lithological and structural composition of the Valle and its topographic and climatic conditions contribute to the abundance of destructive natural phenomena as earthquakes, slope movements, flash floods and, in a lower proportion, to floods. The population increase, which reaches now 3.5 millions inhabitants and the frequent occupation of sites exposed to natural hazards have resulted in numerous disasters. At present two entities called SIMPAD and DAPARD work on risk prevention, on city and department scale respectively. The amount of knowledge about physical environment is considered to be insufficient, together with regulations which should direct land use in accordance to restrictions related to natural hazards. Several seminars on this topic have already been carried out and the organisers of the present one, destined to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Villatina disaster, should make the decision to meet each two years. Furthermore, the creation of a permanent commission dedicated to study past events, to foster information broadcasting and to seek a better knowledge of the Aburra Valley, should be considered

  4. Assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three geopolitical zones in Nigeria: implications for renewable/sustainable rural electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested.

  5. Assessments of Wind-Energy Potential in Selected Sites from Three Geopolitical Zones in Nigeria: Implications for Renewable/Sustainable Rural Electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested. PMID:25879063

  6. Ecosystem-service tradeoffs associated with switching from annual to perennial energy crops in riparian zones of the US Midwest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Meehan

    Full Text Available Integration of energy crops into agricultural landscapes could promote sustainability if they are placed in ways that foster multiple ecosystem services and mitigate ecosystem disservices from existing crops. We conducted a modeling study to investigate how replacing annual energy crops with perennial energy crops along Wisconsin waterways could affect a variety of provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. We found that a switch from continuous corn production to perennial-grass production decreased annual income provisioning by 75%, although it increased annual energy provisioning by 33%, decreased annual phosphorous loading to surface water by 29%, increased below-ground carbon sequestration by 30%, decreased annual nitrous oxide emissions by 84%, increased an index of pollinator abundance by an average of 11%, and increased an index of biocontrol potential by an average of 6%. We expressed the tradeoffs between income provisioning and other ecosystem services as benefit-cost ratios. Benefit-cost ratios averaged 12.06 GJ of additional net energy, 0.84 kg of avoided phosphorus pollution, 18.97 Mg of sequestered carbon, and 1.99 kg of avoided nitrous oxide emissions for every $1,000 reduction in income. These ratios varied spatially, from 2- to 70-fold depending on the ecosystem service. Benefit-cost ratios for different ecosystem services were generally correlated within watersheds, suggesting the presence of hotspots--watersheds where increases in multiple ecosystem services would come at lower-than-average opportunity costs. When assessing the monetary value of ecosystem services relative to existing conservation programs and environmental markets, the overall value of enhanced services associated with adoption of perennial energy crops was far lower than the opportunity cost. However, when we monitized services using estimates for the social costs of pollution, the value of enhanced services far exceeded the opportunity cost. This

  7. Investigation of Energy Use Pattern and Emission Discharge in Nigeria: A Case Study of South West Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Abimbola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electricity demand has increased with population growth, industrialization and civilization. Most householders are barely conscious of the conservative measures for available limited supply, while the environmental impact has rarely been taken into cognizance by consumers. The study examines end-users attitude to energy consumption in Nigeria based on four scenarios. Gaseous emissions data obtained from prepaid and post-paid metering systems usage in low-income and high-income housing types were analyzed. Results obtained indicate strong relationship between energy use and emissions with significantly different emission generation. About 38% and 23% reduction in global warming and acidification potential is achieved by a switch to prepaid meters for both income earners. Post-paid low-income earners utilized the highest energy (59.8kW/hr while the prepaid high-income earners had the minimum (31.1kW/hr. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from both earners followed similar trend. Prepaid metering system usage improves energy consumption, thereby offsetting global warming and acidification impacts.

  8. Mitigation potential of greenhouse gas emission and implications on fuel consumption due to clean energy vehicles as public passenger transport in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal: A case study of trolley buses in Ring Road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Shreekar; Ale, Bhakta Bahadur; Amatya, Vishwa Bhusan

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates the consequences in fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission due to the possible intervention of the electric run trolley buses in the existing public transport system in a particular road up to the year 2025 in Kathmandu Valley. It projects the scenarios on the basis that the passenger travel demand is the function of population and income. Basically, it uses the Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning System software to develop Business as Usual scenario and the five alternative scenarios. The alternative scenarios are 100% replacement of vehicles catering to mass-transit in the concerned routes, 50% replacement, 25% replacement, stopping future growth of other vehicles catering to mass-transit in the concerned routes and 25% replacement in the first year, and combination scenarios. The results estimate that the passenger travel demand will increase by three folds from the year 2003 to the year 2025. It projects the three-fold increase of the existing vehicle activity by the year 2025 in Business as Usual scenario. The fuel consumption will increase by 2.4 times compared to the year 2003. It estimates the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission as 8.5 thousands tons in year 2003 which will increase by more than 3 times in year 2025. It estimates that 174.3 thousands t CO 2 e can be avoided in combination scenario. The paper concludes that the intervention of clean energy transport in the existing public transport can have a significant positive impact on the GHG emission and current fuel consumption

  9. Modeling and Zoning Solar Energy Received at the Earth's Surface in Arid and Semiarid Regions of Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam gholamnia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Solar radiation (Rs energy received at the Earth's surface is measured usingclimatological variables in horizontal surface and is widely used in various fields. Domination of hot and dry climates especially in the central regions of Iran results from decreasing cloudiness and precipitation and increasing sunshine hours, which shows the high potential of solar energy in Iran. There is a reasonable climatic field and solar radiation in most of regions and seasons which have provided an essential and suitable field to use and extend new and pure energy. Materials and Methods: One of the common methods to estimate the solar energy received by the earthis usingtemperature variables in any place . An empirical model is proposed to estimate the solar energy as a function of other climatic variables (maximum temperature recorded in 50 climatological, conventional stations; this model is helpful inextending the climatological solar-energy estimation in the study area. The mean values of both measured and estimated solar energy wereobjectively mapped to fill the observation gaps and reduce the noise associated with inhomogeneous statistics and estimation errors. This analysis and the solar irradiation estimation method wereapplied to 50 different climatologicalstations in Iran for monthly data during1980–2005. The main aim of this study wasto map and estimate the solar energy received in four provinces of Yazd, Esfahan, Kerman and Khorasan-e-Jonoubi.The data used in this analysis and its processing, as well as the formulation of an empirical model to estimate the climatological incident of solar energy as a function of other climatic variables, which is complemented with an objective mapping to obtain continuous solar-energy maps. Therefore, firstly the Rswasestimated using a valid model for 50 meteorological stations in which the amounts of solar radiation weren't recorded for arid and semi-arid areas in Iran. Then, the appropriate method

  10. Alumina+Silica+/-Germanium Alteration in Smectite-Bearing Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater Rim, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Van Bommel, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Schroeder, C.; Yen, A. S.; Fox, V. K.; Farrand, W. H.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring Mars for 12+ years, and is presently investigating the geology of a western rim segment of 22 kilometers diameter, Noachian- aged Endeavour crater. The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer has determined the compositions of a pre-impact lithology, the Matijevic fm., and polymict impact breccias ejected from the crater, the Shoemaker fm. Opportunity is now investigating a region named Marathon Valley that cuts southwest-northeast through the central portion of the rim segment and provides a window into the lower stratigraphic record. (Geographic names used here are informal.) At the head of Marathon Valley, referred to here as Upper Marathon Valley, is a shallow, ovoid depression approximately 25×35 millimeters in size, named Spirit of Saint Louis. Layering inside Spirit of Saint Louis appears continuous with the Upper Marathon Valley rocks outside, indicating they are coeval. Spirit of Saint Louis is partly bounded by approximately 10-20 centimeters wide zone containing reddish altered rocks (red zone). Red zones also form prominent curvilinear features in Marathon Valley. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectra provide evidence for a really extensive Fe-Mg smectite in the Marathon Valley region, indicating distinct styles of aqueous alteration. The CRISM detections of smectites are based on metal-OH absorptions at approximately 2.3 and 2.4 micron that are at least two times the background noise level.

  11. Surface energy balance in the ablation zone of Langfjordjøkelen, an arctic, maritime glacier in northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, Rianne H.; Andreassen, Liss M.; Oerlemans, Johannes; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2014-01-01

    Glaciers in northern and southern Norway are subject to different daily and seasonal cycles of incoming solar radiation, which is presumably reflected in the importance of net solar radiation in their surface energy balance. We present a 3 year continuous record from an automatic weather station in

  12. Quaternary tectonics and basin history of Pahrump and Stewart Valleys, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffard, J.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Pahrump fault system is an active fault system located in Pahrump and Stewart Valleys, Nevada and California, in the southern part of the Basin and Range Province. This system is 50 km long by 30 km wide and is comprised of three fault zones: the right-lateral East Nopah fault zone, the right-oblique Pahrump Valley fault zone, and the normal West Spring Mountains fault zone. All three zones have geomorphic evidence for late Quaternary activity. Analysis of active fault patterns and seismic reflection lines suggests that the Pahrump basin has had a two-stage genesis, an early history associated with a period of low angle detachment faulting probably active 10-15 Ma, and a more recent history related to the present dextral shear system, probably active post-4 Ma

  13. Energy performance of solar-assisted liquid desiccant air-conditioning system for commercial building in main climate zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Ronghui; Lu, Lin; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of solar liquid desiccant AC system in four climate regions was conducted. • System performance was determined by relationship of sensible and latent cooling load. • For humid area, saving amount is large by handling latent load with solar energy. • For dry area, electricity saving rate is considerable due to the high COP of chillers. • For buildings with mild SHR, the system performance was not as good as others. - Abstract: Liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) system, which consists of a liquid desiccant ventilation system for dehumidification and an air-handling unit for cooling, has become a promising alternative for conventional technology. To evaluate its feasibility and applicability, the simulation of solar-assisted LDAC (SLDAC) in commercial buildings in five cities of four main climate regions were conducted, including Singapore in Tropical, Houston and Beijing in Temperate, Boulder in Arid and Los Angeles in Mediterranean. Results showed that the system’s performance was seriously affected by the ratios of building’s sensible and latent cooling load. For buildings located in humid areas with low sensible-total heat ratio (SHR), the electricity energy reduction of SLDAC was high, about 450 MW h in Houston and Singapore, which accounted for 40% of the total energy consumption in cooling seasons. The cost payback period was as short as approximately 7 years. The main reason is that the energy required for handling the moisture could be saved by liquid desiccant dehumidification, and the regeneration heat could be covered by solar collectors. For buildings in dry climate with high SHR, the total cooling load was low, but up to 45% electricity of AC system could be saved in Boulder because the chiller COP could be significantly improved during more than 70% operation time. The cost payback period was around 22 years, which was acceptable. However, for the buildings with mild SHR, such as those in Beijing and Los

  14. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  15. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Gulick, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains

  16. Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, J.

    2014-12-04

    The valley pseudospin is a degree of freedom that emerges in atomically thin two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2). The capability to manipulate it, in analogy to the control of spin in spintronics, can open up exciting opportunities. Here, we demonstrate that an ultrafast and ultrahigh valley pseudo-magnetic field can be generated by using circularly polarized femtosecond pulses to selectively control the valley degree of freedom in monolayer MX2. Using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy, we observed a pure and valley-selective optical Stark effect in WSe2 monolayers from the nonresonant pump, resulting in an energy splitting of more than 10 milli-electron volts between the K and K′ valley exciton transitions. Our study opens up the possibility to coherently manipulate the valley polarization for quantum information applications.

  17. Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, J.; Hong, X.; Jin, C.; Shi, S.-F.; Chang, C.-Y. S.; Chiu, Ming-Hui; Li, Lain-Jong; Wang, F.

    2014-01-01

    The valley pseudospin is a degree of freedom that emerges in atomically thin two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2). The capability to manipulate it, in analogy to the control of spin in spintronics, can open up exciting opportunities. Here, we demonstrate that an ultrafast and ultrahigh valley pseudo-magnetic field can be generated by using circularly polarized femtosecond pulses to selectively control the valley degree of freedom in monolayer MX2. Using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy, we observed a pure and valley-selective optical Stark effect in WSe2 monolayers from the nonresonant pump, resulting in an energy splitting of more than 10 milli-electron volts between the K and K′ valley exciton transitions. Our study opens up the possibility to coherently manipulate the valley polarization for quantum information applications.

  18. Landform Evolution of the Zanskar Valley, Ladakh Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, P.; Kumar, A.; Sharma, P.; Sundriyal, Y.; Srivastava, P.

    2017-12-01

    Zanskar River flow from south-west to north-east, perpendicularly through Higher Himalayan crystalline sequences, Tethyan sedimentary sequences, and Indus Molasses; and finally merge with the Indus River at Nimu. Geologically, the Indus valley is bounded by Ladakh Batholith in the north and highly folded and thrusted Zanskar mountain ranges in the south. Sedimentary sequences of Zanskar ranges are largely of continental origin, which were uplifted and deformed via several north verging thrusts, where Zanskar counter thrust, Choksti and Indus-Bazgo thrusts are important thrust zone, and there is atleast 36 km of crustal shortening in the Zanskar section which continued from middle Miocene to the late Pleistocene. This shortening is accommodated mainly by north or north-east directed Zanskar backthrusts. Two major tributaries of Zanskar: Tsrapchu and Doda, flow in the headwaters, along the strike of South Tibetan Detachment System (STDs), an east-west trending regional fault. The present study incorporate field sedimentology, geomorphology and chronology of landform associated with Zanskar valley. In the upper Zanskar, alluvial fan, valley fill and strath terraces configured the major landforms with paleo-lake deposits­­­ in the area between the fans. The lower catchment, at the confluence of Zanskar and Indus rivers, exhibit mainly valley fill terraces and strath terraces. Chronology suggests diachronous aggradation in the upper and lower Zanskar catchments. In the upper Zanskar large scale valley aggradation took place with simultaneously fan progradation and flooding events from 45-15 ka. Luminescence chronology of the lower Zanskar indicates aggradation from 145-55 ka and 18-12 ka. The two aggradation basins are separated by a deep V-shaped gorge which is approximately 60 km long. The longitudinal profile of the Zanskar River shows several local convexities marking knick point zone, which suggests tectonically controlled topography.

  19. Survey of trapped low energy electrons near the inner boundary of the inner radiation zone from the OSO-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neighbors, J.E.; Clark, G.W.

    1974-01-01

    Data from the MIT x-ray experiment on the OSO-7 satellite were used to delineate the regions in B-L and geographic spaces where trapped radiation was encountered. The results pertain specifically to electrons with energies in a range of 10 keV centered on 55 keV which were encountered in an orbit between altitudes of 330 and 570 km and latitudes of +-33.3 0 . A typical pitch angle distribution is fitted by a Gaussian with a FWHM of 28 degrees. (U.S.)

  20. Generation of valley-polarized electron beam in bilayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Changsoo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to produce valley-polarized electron beams using a bilayer graphene npn junction. By analyzing the transmission properties of electrons through the junction with zigzag interface in the presence of trigonal warping, we observe that there exist a range of incident energies and barrier heights in which transmitted electrons are well polarized and collimated. From this observation and by performing numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that valley-dependent electronic currents with nearly perfect polarization can be generated. We also show that the peak-to-peak separation angle between the polarized currents is tunable either by incident energy or by barrier height each of which is controlled by using top and back gate voltages. The results can be used for constructing an electron beam splitter to produce valley-polarized currents

  1. Generation of valley-polarized electron beam in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changsoo

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method to produce valley-polarized electron beams using a bilayer graphene npn junction. By analyzing the transmission properties of electrons through the junction with zigzag interface in the presence of trigonal warping, we observe that there exist a range of incident energies and barrier heights in which transmitted electrons are well polarized and collimated. From this observation and by performing numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that valley-dependent electronic currents with nearly perfect polarization can be generated. We also show that the peak-to-peak separation angle between the polarized currents is tunable either by incident energy or by barrier height each of which is controlled by using top and back gate voltages. The results can be used for constructing an electron beam splitter to produce valley-polarized currents.

  2. Simulation of net infiltration and potential recharge using a distributed-parameter watershed model of the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the development and application of the distributed-parameter watershed model, INFILv3, for estimating the temporal and spatial distribution of net infiltration and potential recharge in the Death Valley region, Nevada and California. The estimates of net infiltration quantify the downward drainage of water across the lower boundary of the root zone and are used to indicate potential recharge under variable climate conditions and drainage basin characteristics. Spatial variability in recharge in the Death Valley region likely is high owing to large differences in precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, bedrock permeability, soil thickness, vegetation characteristics, and contributions to recharge along active stream channels. The quantity and spatial distribution of recharge representing the effects of variable climatic conditions and drainage basin characteristics on recharge are needed to reduce uncertainty in modeling ground-water flow. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, developed a regional saturated-zone ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system to help evaluate the current hydrogeologic system and the potential effects of natural or human-induced changes. Although previous estimates of recharge have been made for most areas of the Death Valley region, including the area defined by the boundary of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, the uncertainty of these estimates is high, and the spatial and temporal variability of the recharge in these basins has not been quantified. To estimate the magnitude and distribution of potential recharge in response to variable climate and spatially varying drainage basin characteristics, the INFILv3 model uses a daily water-balance model of the root zone with a primarily deterministic representation of the processes controlling net infiltration and potential recharge. The daily water balance includes precipitation

  3. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, W. de.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  4. Renewable Energy Zones for Balancing Siting Trade-offs in India: Multi-Criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE)

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Wu, Grace C.; Phadke, Amol

    2017-01-01

    India’s targets of 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022, and 40% generation capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030 will require a rapid and dramatic increase in solar and wind capacity deployment and overcoming its associated economic, siting, and power system challenges. The objective of this study was to spatially identify the amount and quality of wind and utility-scale solar resource potential in India, and the possible siting-related constraints and opportunities for devel...

  5. Heat Damage Zones Created by Different Energy Sources Used in the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Pig Liver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Chi Fai; Chan, Alexander Chak Lam; Pun, Chung Ting; Ho, Lap Yin; Chan, Steve Wai-Hee; Au, Wing Hang

    2015-06-01

    There are different types of transurethral prostatic surgeries and the complication profiles are different. This study aims to compare the heat damage zones (HDZ) created by five different technologies in a pig liver model. Monopolar resection, bipolar resection, electrovaporization, and Greenlight™ lasers of 120 and 180 W were used to remove fresh pig liver tissue in a simulated model. Each procedure was repeated in five specimens. Two blocks were selected from each specimen to measure the three deepest HDZ. The mean of HDZ was 295, 234, 192, 673, and 567 μm, respectively, for monopolar resection, bipolar resection, electrovaporization, Greenlight laser 120 W, and Greenlight laser 180 W, respectively. The Greenlight laser produced one to three times deeper HDZ than the other energy sources (p=0.000). Both 120 and 180 W Greenlight lasers produced deeper HDZ than the other energy sources. Urologists need to be aware of HDZ that cause tissue damage outside the operative field.

  6. The Silicon Valley Eco System. High-energetic in many ways; Het Silicon Valley Eco Systeem: hoogenergetisch in vele opzichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, J.

    2012-04-15

    The highly commended Silicon Valley Eco System is bubbling with energy with regard to the subjects that are focused upon, including sustainable energy, or the widely available expertise that is needed for the developments, good ideas, capital and optimism, fed by frequent examples of extraordinarily successful companies. The sheer endlessness of network opportunities joins all these elements frequently. This article addresses several noteworthy interactions in the field of sustainable energy over the last period. [Dutch] Het veel geroemde Silicon Valley eco systeem bruist van energie in de vorm van de onderwerpen waar men zich op richt, waaronder duurzame energie, of de ruim aanwezige expertise die nodig is voor de ontwikkelingen, goede ideeen, kapitaal, en optimisme, gevoed door regelmatige voorbeelden van buitensporig succesvolle bedrijven. De schier oneindige netwerkmogelijkheden brengen al deze elementen met grote regelmaat bij elkaar. In dit artikel volgen enkele vermeldenswaardige interacties op het vlak van duurzame energie uit de afgelopen periode.

  7. 75 FR 1052 - Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC; TGP Dixie Development Company, LLC; New York Canyon, LLC; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-29-000] Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC; TGP Dixie Development Company, LLC; New York Canyon, LLC; Notice of Filing December 30, 2009. Take notice that on December 24, 2009, Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC, TGP Dixie Development Company, LLC...

  8. A Feasibility Study of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies to Improve the electrical System on the Duck Valley Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman Atkins, Shoshone-Paiute; Mark Hannifan, New West Technologies

    2005-06-30

    A range of sustainable energy options were assessed for feasibility in addressing chronic electric grid reliability problems at Duck Valley IR. Wind power and building energy efficiency were determined to have the most merit, with the Duck Valley Tribes now well positioned to pursue large scale wind power development for on- and off-reservation sales.

  9. 78 FR 61984 - Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Application To Amend License and Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-005] Copper Valley...: Amendment to License. b. Project No: 13124-005. c. Date Filed: September 27, 2013. d. Applicant: Copper..., Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc., P.O. Box 45, Mile 187 Glenn Highway, Glennallen, AK 99588, (907...

  10. Radiation balance in a deep Colorado valley: ASCOT 84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Fritschen, L.J.; Simpson, J.R.; Orgill, M.M.

    1984-12-01

    Five surface energy budget stations were installed at four sites in a deep, narrow valley in western Colorado as part of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) Study. Radiation balance data are presented from these stations for the clear day September 29, 1984. 3 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  11. Electrical control of the anomalous valley Hall effect in antiferrovalley bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Yi; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2017-08-01

    In analogy to all-electric spintronics, all-electric valleytronics, i.e., valley manipulation via electric means, becomes an exciting new frontier as it may bring revolutions in the field of data storage with ultra-high speed and ultra-low power consumption. The existence of the anomalous valley Hall effect in ferrovalley materials demonstrates the possibility of electrical detection for valley polarization. However, in previously proposed valley-polarized monolayers, the anomalous valley Hall effect is controlled by external magnetic fields. Here, through elaborate structural design, we propose the antiferrovally bilayer as an ideal candidate for realizing all-electric valleytronic devices. Using the minimal k.p model, we show that the energy degeneracy between valley indexes in such system can be lifted by electric approaches. Subsequently, the anomalous valley Hall effect strongly depends on the electric field as well. Taking the bilayer VSe2 as an example, all-electric tuning and detecting of anomalous valley Hall effect is confirmed by density-functional theory calculations, indicating that the valley information in such antiferrovalley bilayer can be reversed by an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the system and easily probed through the sign of the Hall voltage.

  12. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  13. Cost-Efficient and Sustainable Deployment of Renewable Energy Sources towards the 20% Target by 2020, and beyond. D2.6. Synthesis Report on Possible Valleys of Opportunity for Cooperation Mechanisms in Europe, Based on Wind, Biomass and Solar Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Longa, F. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    This document concludes the work carried out within Work Package 2 of the RES4Less project with a synthesis of the main results. The aim of WP2 is to identify so called Valleys of Opportunity (VoO) for an enhanced deployment of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) across Europe, based on cooperation among Member States (MS). The general expectation is that Valleys of Opportunity will be located in areas where RES resources are more abundant. Specifically, Northern countries could exploit their large wind potential, especially within the North Sea basin. Eastern countries could benefit from the presence of large and to some extent untapped biomass resources. Southern countries could take advantage of the fact that the amount of daily sun-hours is relatively large, making the deployment of Solar-based technologies economically attractive. In order to establish a preliminary set of candidate VoOs that look attractive from an economical perspective, a methodology has been developed to systematically analyze RES surpluses in EU, characterize them in terms of costs and technology composition, and determine which member states could be interested in exploiting them. The analysis has been applied to the renewable electricity (RES-E) sector using ECN model RESolve-E and its satellite model RES4Less. The results of the modelling exercise provide a starting point towards the identification of realizable VoOs. The subsequent steps in the analysis are: (a) Elaborate on the model outcomes focusing on a specific technology and a specific region; (b) Conduct a reality check on the model outcomes against known actual plans and expected developments, and eventually complement any shortcomings by drawing information from additional sources; (c) Narrow down candidate VoOs to more realistic VoOs by considering practical barriers, constraints and restrictions that are not address by the model but are very likely to come into play; (d) Identify an interesting case study to bring forward for an

  14. West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-11-01

    The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Impacts of Geomorphic Disturbances on Plant Colonization in Ebba Valley, Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stawska Monika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming observed nowadays causes an increase in geomorphic activity in polar regions. Within the areas influenced by cold climatic conditions, relief dynamics and vegetation development are the main landscape shaping processes. The study is limited to the Ebba Valley (78°43’N; 16°37’E in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard, where geomorphologic observations and vegetation sampling were conducted in 2007. The valley was divided into three zones differentiated by dominating geomorphic activity and stability of deposits. The settlement and the evolution of plant cover have been documented there. The main factors that control well developed vegetation cover within raised marine terraces are frost heave and solifluction. In deeper parts of the valley, aeolian processes dominate and high differentiation of microsite conditions causes high variability in plant coverage. The area close to the Ebba glacier marginal zone is characterized by initial stages of plant colonisation where disturbance to vegetation is mainly caused by hydrological processes.

  16. Late quaternary faulting along the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system, California and Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogan, G.E.; Kellogg, K.S.; Terhune, C.L.; Slemmons, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system, in California and Nevada, has a variety of impressive late Quaternary neotectonic features that record a long history of recurrent earthquake-induced faulting. Although no neotectonic features of unequivocal historical age are known, paleoseismic features from multiple late Quaternary events of surface faulting are well developed throughout the length of the system. Comparison of scarp heights to amount of horizontal offset of stream channels and the relationships of both scarps and channels to the ages of different geomorphic surfaces demonstrate that Quaternary faulting along the northwest-trending Furnace Creek fault zone is predominantly right lateral, whereas that along the north-trending Death Valley fault zone is predominantly normal. These observations are compatible with tectonic models of Death Valley as a northwest- trending pull-apart basin

  17. Venusian channels and valleys - Distribution and volcanological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Goro; Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Parker, Timothy J.

    1993-01-01

    An updated map is presented which shows the distribution of more than 200 channels and valleys on Venus. A large number of channels are concentrated in equatorial regions characterized by highlands, rift and fracture zones, an associated volcanic features. Many channels associated with flow deposits are similar to typical terrestrial lava drainage channels. They are associated with a wide range of volcanic edifices. More than half of the sinuous rilles are associated with coronae, coronalike features, or arachnoids. Corona volcanism driven by mantle plume events may explain this association. Many valley network are observed in highlands and in association with coronae, coronalike features, or arachnoids. This indicates that highlands and coronae provided fractures and flow-viscosity lavas, both of which seem to be required for network formation by lava sapping processes. Canali-type channels have a unique distribution limited to some plains regions.

  18. CRYOGENESIS AND GEODYNAMICS OF ICING VALLEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to local groundwater seeping and freezing in layers that accumulate over each other and create large ice clusters on the ground surface, specific conditions of energy and mass transfer are created in the atmosphere–soil–lithosphere system. In winter, the vertical temperature distribution curve is significantly deformed due to heat emission from the water layer above the ice cover during its freezing, and a thermocline is thus formed. Deformation of the temperature curve is gradually decreasing in size downward the profile and decays at the interface of frozen and thaw rocks. Values and numbers of temperature deviations from a 'normal' value depend on heat reserves of aufeis water and the number of water seeps/discharges at a given location. The production of the thermocline alters freezing conditions for underlying ground layers and changes the mechanism of ice saturation, thus leading to formation of two-layer ice-ground complexes (IGC. IGCs are drastically different from cryogenic formations in the neighbouring sections of the river valley. Based on genetic characteristics and the ratios of components in the surface and subsurface layers, seven types of aufeis IGCs are distinguished: massive-segregation, cement-basal, layered-segregation, basal-segregation, vacuum-filtration, pressure-injection, and fissure-vein. Annual processes of surface and subsurface icing and ice ablation are accompanied by highly hazardous geodynamic phenomena, such as winter flooding, layered water freezing, soil heaving/pingo, thermokarst and thermal erosion. Combined, these processes lead to rapid and often incidental reconfigurations of the surface and subsurface runoff channels, abrupt uplifting and subsiding of the ground surface, decompaction and 'shaking-up' of seasonally freezing/thawing rocks, thereby producing exceptionally unfavourable conditions for construction and operation of engineering structures.Formation and development of river networks are

  19. 基于主成分-聚类分析法的建筑节能气候区划%Further climatic zoning of building energy efficiency based on principal component analysis and cluster analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧玲; 付祥钊

    2012-01-01

    Taking HDD18, CDD26, average temperature of the coldest month, average temperature of the hottest month, solar radiation in winter, solar radiation in summer, humidity ratio in winter and humidity ratio in summer as division indexes based on the analysis of climate indexes impacting the building cooling and heating energy consumptions, applies the principal component analysis and cluster analysis to building energy efficiency climatic zoning of the 270 cities in China, which are divided into the severe-cold dry heat high-solar-radiation zone, severe-cold cool high-solar-radiation zone, severe-cold summer free zone, cold slight-hot zone, temperate-hot-humid zone, temperate-cool zone and raw hot-wet zone. Describes the main climatic characteristics and geographic distribution of the seven climate zones, and clarifies the key point of building energy efficiency and the appropriate technical strategies respectively.%通过分析影响建筑冷热耗量的气候指标,提出了以采暖度日数HDD18、空调度日数CDD26、最冷月平均温度、最热月平均温度、冬季太阳辐射热量、夏季太阳辐射热量、冬季含湿量和夏季含湿量8个气候指标作为建筑节能气候区划指标,采用主成分分析与聚类分析相结合的区划方法对我国270个城市进行了建筑节能气候区划,划分为严寒干热高辐区、严寒凉爽高辐区、严寒无夏区、寒冷微热区、温和炎热湿润区、温和凉爽区和阴冷湿热区,介绍了这7个气候区的主要气候特征和主要的地理范围,明确了各区的建筑节能重点和适宜的技术策略.

  20. Deep groundwater and potential subsurface habitats beneath an Antarctic dry valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikucki, J. A.; Auken, E.; Tulaczyk, S.

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of groundwater in Antarctica, particularly in the ice-free regions and along the coastal margins is poorly understood. Here we use an airborne transient electromagnetic (AEM) sensor to produce extensive imagery of resistivity beneath Taylor Valley. Regional-scale zones of low subsu...

  1. The unexpected beneficial effect of the L-valley population on the electron mobility of GaAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, E. G.; Ruiz, F. G.; Godoy, A.; Tienda-Luna, I. M.; Gámiz, F.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the L-valley population on the transport properties of GaAs cylindrical nanowires (NWs) is analyzed by numerically calculating the electron mobility under the momentum relaxation time approximation. In spite of its low contribution to the electron mobility (even for high electron populations in small NWs), it is demonstrated to have a beneficial effect, since it significantly favours the Γ-valley mobility by screening the higher Γ-valley energy subbands

  2. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.; Sherwood, P.B.

    1983-07-01

    The commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 to 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source was assessed. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (IGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstocks for the production of ethanol.

  3. Electron spin resonance and spin-valley physics in a silicon double quantum dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaojie; Ruskov, Rusko; Xiao, Ming; Tahan, Charles; Jiang, HongWen

    2014-05-14

    Silicon quantum dots are a leading approach for solid-state quantum bits. However, developing this technology is complicated by the multi-valley nature of silicon. Here we observe transport of individual electrons in a silicon CMOS-based double quantum dot under electron spin resonance. An anticrossing of the driven dot energy levels is observed when the Zeeman and valley splittings coincide. A detected anticrossing splitting of 60 MHz is interpreted as a direct measure of spin and valley mixing, facilitated by spin-orbit interaction in the presence of non-ideal interfaces. A lower bound of spin dephasing time of 63 ns is extracted. We also describe a possible experimental evidence of an unconventional spin-valley blockade, despite the assumption of non-ideal interfaces. This understanding of silicon spin-valley physics should enable better control and read-out techniques for the spin qubits in an all CMOS silicon approach.

  4. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Sherwood, P.B.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 and 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstock for the production of ethanol.

  5. Asymmetric valley-resolved beam splitting and incident modes in slanted graphene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S. H.; Chu, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    Electron injection into a graphene sheet through a slanted armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) is investigated. An incident mode, or subband, in the AGNR is valley-unpolarized. Our attention is on the valley-resolved nature of the injected electron beams and its connection to the incident mode. It is known for a normal injection that an incident mode will split symmetrically into two valley-resolved beams of equal intensity. We show, in contrast, that slanted injections result in asymmetric valley-resolved beam splitting. The most asymmetric beam splitting cases, when one of the valley-resolved beams has basically disappeared, are found and the condition derived. This is shown not due to trigonal warping because it holds even in the low incident energy regime, as long as collimation allows. These most asymmetric beam splitting cases occur at energies within an energy interval near and include the subband edge of an incident mode. The physical picture is best illustrated by a projection of the slanted AGNR subband states onto that of the 2D graphene sheet. It follows that the disappearing of a valley-resolved beam coincides with the situation that the group velocities of the projected states in the corresponding valley are in backward directions

  6. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  7. Recent findings relating to firefighter safety zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret Butler; Russ Parsons; William Mell

    2015-01-01

    Designation of safety zones is a primary duty of all wildland firefighters. Unfortunately, information regarding what constitutes an adequate safety zone is inadequately defined. Measurements of energy release from wildland fires have been used to develop an empirically based safety zone guideline. The basis for this work is described here.

  8. Quantitative rock-fall hazard and risk assessment for Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, G. M.; Luco, N.; Collins, B. D.; Harp, E.; Reichenbach, P.; Frankel, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    Rock falls are a considerable hazard in Yosemite Valley, California with more than 835 rock falls and other slope movements documented since 1857. Thus, rock falls pose potentially significant risk to the nearly four million annual visitors to Yosemite National Park. Building on earlier hazard assessment work by the U.S. Geological Survey, we performed a quantitative rock-fall hazard and risk assessment for Yosemite Valley. This work was aided by several new data sets, including precise Geographic Information System (GIS) maps of rock-fall deposits, airborne and terrestrial LiDAR-based point cloud data and digital elevation models, and numerical ages of talus deposits. Using Global Position Systems (GPS), we mapped the positions of over 500 boulders on the valley floor and measured their distance relative to the mapped base of talus. Statistical analyses of these data yielded an initial hazard zone that is based on the 90th percentile distance of rock-fall boulders beyond the talus edge. This distance was subsequently scaled (either inward or outward from the 90th percentile line) based on rock-fall frequency information derived from a combination of cosmogenic beryllium-10 exposure dating of boulders beyond the edge of the talus, and computer model simulations of rock-fall runout. The scaled distances provide the basis for a new hazard zone on the floor of Yosemite Valley. Once this zone was delineated, we assembled visitor, employee, and resident use data for each structure within the hazard zone to quantitatively assess risk exposure. Our results identify areas within the new hazard zone that may warrant more detailed study, for example rock-fall susceptibility, which can be assessed through examination of high-resolution photographs, structural measurements on the cliffs, and empirical calculations derived from LiDAR point cloud data. This hazard and risk information is used to inform placement of existing and potential future infrastructure in Yosemite Valley.

  9. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  10. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among workers involved in collection, transportation and recycling of wastes in the Pars Special Economic Energy Zone, Bushehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MoradAli Fouladvand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are of one most important problems in developing countries and job is one of the most important factors determining the rate of intestinal parasitic infections. Persons who deal with waste elimination and recycling, due to close contact with infectious sources are more likely to be infected than others. Because of industrialization, population density and immigrants residing in Assaluyeh region , and due to the lack of history of a study for intestinal parasitic infection, the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections among workers in the collection, transportation and recycling of wastes in the Pars Special Economic Energy Zone was evaluated. Material and methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, demographic questionaire was completed for each person, Stool samples were taken and sample containers were transferred to parasitology research laboratory of university. Samples were examined for intestinal parasites by preparing direct smear (wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software and Chi square test. Results: The results showed that 37.3% of samples were infected at least with one intestinal parasite, 10.7% of samples were infected with more than one parasite. Giardia lamblia (6% and Entamoeba coli (13/4%, showed the highest infection rate among all parasite species. Prevalence rate of intestinal parasites in worker from Nakhl-e- Taghi municipality was higher than other region of the study area. Conclusion : Job type and duration of contact with infectious source play important roles in determining rate of intestinal parasitic infection. Workers involved in collection, transportation and recycling of wastes are more at risk of intestinal parasitic infections than others. Therfore, providing personal protective equipments and health education in this group can play an important role in community

  11. Update on the status of the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greeves, J.T.; Camper, L.W.; Orlando, D.A.; Glenn, C.J.; Buckley, J.T.; Giardina, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    From 1966 to 1972, under an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) license, Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) reprocessed 640 metric tons of spent fuel at its West Valley, New York, facility-, the only commercial spent fuel reprocessing plant in the U.S. The facility shut down in 1972, for modifications to increase its seismic stability and to expand its capacity. In 1976, without restarting the operation, NFS withdrew from the reprocessing business and returned control of the facilities to the site owner, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The reprocessing activities resulted in about 2.3 million liters (600,000 gallons) of liquid high-level waste (HLW) stored below ground in tanks, other radioactive wastes, and residual radioactive contamination. The West Valley site was licensed by AEC, and then the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), until 1981, when the license was suspended to execute the 1980 West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Act. The WVDP Act outlines the responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NRC, and NYSERDA at the site, including the NRC's responsibility to develop decommissioning criteria for the site. The Commission published the final policy statement on decommissioning criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site after considering comments from interested stakeholders. In that regard, the Commission prescribed the License Termination Rule (LTR) criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site, reflecting the fact that the applicable decommissioning goal for the entire NRC-licensed site is compliance with the requirements of the LTR. This paper will describe the history of the site, provide an update of the status of the decommissioning of the site and an overview of the technical and policy issues facing Federal and State regulators and other stakeholders as they strive to complete the remediation of the site. (author)

  12. 76 FR 44880 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port Ohio Valley Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... potential terrorist acts and would enhance public and maritime safety and security. DATES: Comments and... coast of Yemen and the prior attack on the USS COLE demonstrate the maritime terrorism threat. These attacks manifest a continuing threat to U.S. maritime assets as described in the President's finding in...

  13. 77 FR 4900 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port Ohio Valley Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... at The Brown Hotel, 335 West Broadway, Louisville, KY 40202, telephone 502-583-1234. You may submit... 1 p.m. to 4 p.m., at The Brown Hotel, 335 West Broadway, Louisville, KY 40202, telephone (502) 583...

  14. Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn Quantum Cascade Lasers Based on L-Valley Intersubband Transitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soret, R. A; Sun, G; Cheng, H; Menendez, J; Khurgin, J

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose a Ge/Ge0.76Si0.19Sn0.05 quantum cascade laser using intersubband transitions at L valleys of the conduction band which has a clean offset of 150 meV situated below other energy valleys Gamma and X...

  15. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  16. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Corning area, Steuben County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Belli, J.L.; Allen, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of 11 map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together, the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southeastern Steuben County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, aquifer thickness, potentiometric-surface elevations, and land use. The valley-fill deposits consist of alluvial silt, sand, and gravel, glacial-outwash (sand and gravel), till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities, whereas the till and silt deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions prevail in unconfined sand and gravel along the valley margin. Artesian conditions are found locally in sand and gravel confined under silt and clay in the middle of the valley. Recharge occurs nearly everywhere on the valley floor, but principally along the margin of the valley, where highly permeable land surface conditions exist, and runoff from the hillsides is concentrated. The use of land overlying the aquifer is a mixture of residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial uses. (USGS)

  17. Agreement between the Kingdom of Cambodia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Kingdom of Cambodia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty. The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 November 1999, signed in Vienna on 17 December 1999, and entered into force on the same date

  18. Role of seismogenic processes in fault-rock development: An example from Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, Terry L.; Serpa, Laura F.; Keener, Charles

    1993-03-01

    Fault rocks developed along the Mormon Point turtleback of southern Death Valley suggest that a jog in the oblique-slip Death Valley fault zone served as an ancient seismic barrier, where dominantly strike-slip ruptures were terminated at a dilatant jog. Dramatic spatial variations in fault-rock thickness and type within the bend are interpreted as the products of: (1) fault "overshoot," in which planar ruptures bypass the intersection of the two faults composing the bend and slice into the underlying footwall; and (2) implosion brecciation, in which coseismic ruptures arrested at a releasing bend in the fault lead to catastrophic collapse brecciation, fluid influx, and mineralization.

  19. Geophysical Surveys of the Hydrologic Basin Underlying Yosemite Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, E. L.; Shaw, K. A.; Carey, C.; Dunn, M. E.; Whitman, S.; Bourdeau, J.; Eckert, E.; Louie, J. N.; Stock, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    UNR students in an Applied Geophysics course conducted geophysical investigations in Yosemite Valley during the months of March and August 2017. The goal of the study is to understand better the depth to bedrock, the geometry of the bedrock basin, and the properties of stratigraphy- below the valley floor. Gutenberg and others published the only prior geophysical investigation in 1956, to constrain the depth to bedrock. We employed gravity, resistivity, and refraction microtremor(ReMi) methods to investigate the interface between valley fill and bedrock, as well as shallow contrasts. Resistivity and ReMi arrays along three north-south transects investigated the top 50-60m of the basin fill. Gravity results constrained by shallow measurements suggest a maximum depth of 1000 m to bedrock. ReMi and resistivity techniques identified shallow contrasts in shear velocity and electrical resistivity that yielded information about the location of the unconfined water table, the thickness of the soil zone, and spatial variation in shallow sediment composition. The upper several meters of sediment commonly showed shear velocities below 200 m/s, while biomass-rich areas and sandy river banks could be below 150 m/s. Vs30 values consistently increased towards the edge of the basin. The general pattern for resistivity profiles was a zone of relatively high resistivity, >100 ohm-m, in the top 4 meters, followed by one or more layers with decreased resistivity. According to gravity measurements, assuming either -0.5 g/cc or -0.7 g/cc density contrast between bedrock and basin sediments, a maximum depth to bedrock is found south of El Capitan at respectively, 1145 ± 215 m or 818 ± 150 m. Longitudinal basin geometry coincides with the basin depth geometry discussed by Gutenberg in 1956. Their results describe a "double camel" shape where the deepest points are near El Capitan and the Ahwahnee Hotel and is shallowest near Yosemite Falls, in a wider part of the valley. An August Deep

  20. Source Water Assessment for the Las Vegas Valley Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, S. P.; Piechota, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    The 1996 amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 created the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) with an objective to evaluate potential sources of contamination to drinking water intakes. The development of a Source Water Assessment Plan for Las Vegas Valley surface water runoff into Lake Mead is important since it will guide future work on source water protection of the main source of water. The first step was the identification of the watershed boundary and source water protection area. Two protection zones were delineated. Zone A extends 500 ft around water bodies, and Zone B extends 3000 ft from the boundaries of Zone A. These Zones extend upstream to the limits of dry weather flows in the storm channels within the Las Vegas Valley. After the protection areas were identified, the potential sources of contamination in the protection area were inventoried. Field work was conducted to identify possible sources of contamination. A GIS coverage obtained from local data sources was used to identify the septic tank locations. Finally, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits were obtained from the State of Nevada, and included in the inventory. After the inventory was completed, a level of risk was assigned to each potential contaminating activity (PCA). The contaminants of concern were grouped into five categories: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), synthetic organic compounds (SOCs), inorganic compounds (IOCs), microbiological, and radionuclides. The vulnerability of the water intake to each of the PCAs was assigned based on these five categories, and also on three other factors: the physical barrier effectiveness, the risk potential, and the time of travel. The vulnerability analysis shows that the PCAs with the highest vulnerability rating include septic systems, golf courses/parks, storm channels, gas stations, auto repair shops, construction, and the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Based on the current water quality

  1. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references

  2. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references. (MCW)

  3. Structural Evolution of the East Sierra Valley System (Owens Valley and Vicinity, California: A Geologic and Geophysical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Blakely

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS, which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm, which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3–3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  4. Structural evolution of the east Sierra Valley system (Owens Valley and vicinity), California: a geologic and geophysical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Blakely, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS), which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm), which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3-3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  5. Rock-fall potential in the Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Morrissey, M.M.; Iovine, Giulio; Godt, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    We used two methods of estimating rock-fall potential in the Yosemite Valley, California based on (1) physical evidence of previous rock-fall travel, in which the potential extends to the base of the talus, and (2) theoretical potential energy considerations, in which the potential can extend beyond the base of the talus, herein referred to as the rock-fall shadow. Rock falls in the valley commonly range in size from individual boulders of less than 1 m3 to moderate-sized falls with volumes of about 100,000 m3. Larger rock falls exceeding 100,000 m3, referred to as rock avalanches, are considered to be much less likely to occur based on the relatively few prehistoric rock-fall avalanche deposits in the Yosemite Valley. Because the valley has steep walls and is relatively narrow, there are no areas that are absolutely safe from large rock avalanches. The map shows areas of rock-fall potential, but does not predict when or how frequently a rock fall will occur. Consequently, neither the hazard in terms of probability of a rock fall at any specific location, nor the risk to people or facilities to such events can be assessed from this map.

  6. Installation of a Hydrologic Characterization Network for Vadose Zone Monitoring of a Single-Shell Tank Farm at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.; Ritter, Jason C.; Sisson, James B.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sydnor, Harold A.

    2001-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in collaboration with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Duratek Federal Services, deployed a suite of vadose-zone instruments at the B Tank Farm in the 200 E Area of the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington, during the last quarter of FY 2001. The purpose of the deployment was to obtain in situ hydrologic characterization data within the vadose zone of a high-level-waste tank farm. Eight sensor nests, ranging in depth from 67 m (220 ft) below ground surface (bgs) to 0.9 m (3 ft) bgs were placed in contact with vadose-zone sediments inside a recently drilled, uncased, borehole (C3360) located adjacent to Tank B-110. The sensor sets are part of the Vadose Zone Monitoring System and include advanced tensiometers, heat dissipation units, frequency domain reflectometers, thermal probes, and vadose zone solution samplers. Within the top meter of the surface, a water flux meter was deployed to estimate net infiltration from meteoric water (rain and snowmelt) sources. In addition, a rain gage was located within the tank farm to document on-site precipitation events. All sensor units, with the exception of the solution samplers, were connected to a solar-powered data logger located within the tank farm. Data collected from these sensors are currently being accessed by modem and cell phone and will be analyzed as part of the DOE RL31SS31 project during the coming year (FY 2001)

  7. Valley polarization due to trigonal warping on tunneling electrons in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Jr, J M; Peeters, F M; Costa Filho, R N; Farias, G A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of trigonal warping on the transmission of electrons tunneling through potential barriers in graphene is investigated. We present calculations of the transmission coefficient for single and double barriers as a function of energy, incidence angle and barrier heights. The results show remarkable valley-dependent directional effects for barriers oriented parallel to the armchair or parallel to the zigzag direction. These results indicate that electrostatic gates can be used as valley filters in graphene-based devices.

  8. Temperature and Precipitation trends in Kashmir valley, North Western Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Mifta Ul; Rasool, Rehana; Ahmed, Pervez; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change has emerged as an important issue ever to confront mankind. This concern emerges from the fact that our day-to-day activities are leading to impacts on the Earth's atmosphere that has the potential to significantly alter the planet's shield and radiation balance. Developing countries particularly whose income is particularly derived from agricultural activities are at the forefront of bearing repercussions due to changing climate. The present study is an effort to analyze the changing trends of precipitation and temperature variables in Kashmir valley along different elevation zones in the north western part of India. As the Kashmir valley has a rich repository of glaciers with its annual share of precipitation, slight change in the temperature and precipitation regime has far reaching environmental and economic consequences. The results from Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) data of the period 1980-2014 reveals that the annual mean temperature of Kashmir valley has increased significantly. Accelerated warming has been observed during 1980-2014, with intense warming in the recent years (2001-2014). During the period 1980-2014, steeper increase, in annual mean maximum temperature than annual mean minimum temperature, has been observed. In addition, mean maximum temperature in plain regions has shown higher rate of increase when compared with mountainous areas. In case of mean minimum temperature, mountainous regions have shown higher rate of increase. Analysis of precipitation data for the same period shows a decreasing trend with mountainous regions having the highest rate of decrease which can be quite hazardous for the fragile mountain environment of the Kashmir valley housing a large number of glaciers.

  9. Photo-medical valley. 'Photo medical research center'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Shunichi; Daido, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Toshiki

    2008-01-01

    To develop a much more compact cancer diagnosis and therapeutic instrument using high intensity laser technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has successfully proposed this novel effort to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) program as the creation of a 'photo-medical industrial valley' base in 2007 fiscal year. In this report, a new laser techniques to drive controlled ion beams is described. It is very important approach to realize a laser-driven ion accelerator. (author)

  10. Eradicating tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)

  11. Study of the evolution of the seismic cycle of stress and strain associated to the El Salvador Fault Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Staller Vázquez, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    • Central America: – Regional studies in Central America (Seismic Hazard). – El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ). – Aguacaliente‐Navarro Fault Zone (ANFZ), Central Valley of Costa Rica. – Haiti (seismic hazard) • Spain: – Regional‐Nacional studies of seismic hazards (applications to building codes, eurocode, emergency plans, etc.) – Betic range zone, south of Spain. – Ibero‐Maghrebi region (collision zone)

  12. Spirit's West Valley Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007. After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image. This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away. This view combines separate images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers to produce an approximately true-color panorama.

  13. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  14. Characteristic of selected frequency luminescence for paleo-debris flow deposits in Jiangjia valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhaowen; Wei Mingjian; Pan Baolin; Liu Chao; Li Dongxu

    2008-01-01

    Eight paleo-debris flow samples from Nideping, Duozhao, Dawazi valley, and Jiangjia valley in Yunnan Province were tested with BG2003 luminescence spectrograph. The characteristic spectra of the selected frequency luminescence of paleo-debris flow deposits from the different locations were obtained. Excited at 488 nm, the wavelengths of emission photons from all samples are 300, 310, 320, 400 and 460 nm. With green excitation (532 nm), the wavelengths of emission photons from all samples are 300, 310, 320 and 460 nm. Then it is determined that the luminescence spectrographs of Nideping are almost same in different time, however, they are different in Dawazi valley and Duozhao. Taking Nideping for example, excited at green, the debris flow substances from the upper, middle, or lower zone of this platform. Response to increasing irradiation dose at 310, 320, and 460 nm, we can define the wavelengths used for dating. (authors)

  15. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  16. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi 2 , closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area

  17. Hydrologic connectivity in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica: System function and changes over two decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bernzott, E. D.; McKnight, D. M.; Jaros, C.; Lyons, W.

    2013-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica is one of the coldest (average annual air temperature of -18°C) and driest (ecological connections in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Intermittent glacial meltwater streams connect glaciers to closed basin lakes and compose the most prominent hydrologic nexus in the valleys. This study uses of 20+ years of stream temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), and discharge data to enhance our quantitative understanding of the temporal dynamics of hydrologic connections along the glacier-stream-lake continuum. Annually, streamflow occurs for a relatively brief 10-12 week period of the austral summer. Longer streams are more prone to intermittent dry periods during the flow season, making for a harsher ecological environment than shorter streams. Diurnal streamflow variation occurs primarily as a result of changing solar postion relative to the source-glacier surfaces. Therfore, different streams predictably experience high flows and low flows at different times of the day. Electrical conductivity also exhibits diel variations, but the nature of EC-discharge relationships differs among streams throughout the valley. Longer streams have higher EC values and lower discharges than shorter streams, suggesting that hyporheic zones act as a significant solute source and hydrologic reservoir along longer streams. Water temperatures are consistently warmer in longer streams, relative to shorter streams, likely due to prolonged exposure to incident radiation with longer surface water residence times. Inter-annually, several shorter streams in the region show significant increases in Q10, Q30, Q50, Q70, Q90, and/or Q100 flows across the 20+ year record, indicating a long-term non-stationarity in hydrologic system dynamics. The tight coupling between surface waters and the glacier surface energy balance bring forth remarkably consistent hydrologic patterns on the daily and annual timescales, providing a model system for understanding fundamental

  18. Small martian valleys: Pristine and degraded morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Partridge, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The equatorial heavily cratered uplands of Mars are dissected by two classes of small valleys that are intimately associated in compound networks. Pristine valleys with steep valley walls preferentially occupy downstream portions of compound basins. Degraded valleys with eroded walls are laterally more extensive and have higher drainage densities than pristine valleys. Morphometric and crater-counting studies indicate that relatively dense drainage networks were emplaced on Mars during the heavy bombardment about 4.0 b.y. ago. Over a period of approximately 10 8 years, these networks were degraded and subsequently invaded by headwardly extending pristine valleys. The pristine valleys locally reactivated the compound networks, probably through sapping processes dependent upon high water tables. Fluvial activity in the heavily cratered uplands generally ceased approximately 3.8--3.9 b.y. ago, coincident with the rapid decline in cratering rates. The relict compound valleys on Mars are morphometrically distinct from most terrestrial drainage systems. The differences might be caused by a Martian valley formation episode characterized by hyperaridity, by inadequate time for network growth, by very permeable rock types, or by a combination of factors

  19. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  20. Subsurface and petroleum geology of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley ("Silicon Valley"), California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Lillis, Paul G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Hostettler, Frances D.; McDougall, Kristin A.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2002-01-01

    Gravity anomalies, historical records of exploratory oil wells and oil seeps, new organic-geochemical results, and new stratigraphic and structural data indicate the presence of a concealed, oil-bearing sedimentary basin beneath a highly urbanized part of the Santa Clara Valley, Calif. A conspicuous isostatic-gravity low that extends about 35 km from Palo Alto southeastward to near Los Gatos reflects an asymmetric, northwest-trending sedimentary basin comprising low-density strata, principally of Miocene age, that rest on higher-density rocks of Mesozoic and Paleogene(?) age. Both gravity and well data show that the low-density rocks thin gradually to the northeast over a distance of about 10 km. The thickest (approx 4 km thick) accumulation of low-density material occurs along the basin's steep southwestern margin, which may be controlled by buried, northeast-dipping normal faults that were active during the Miocene. Movement along these hypothetical normal faults may been contemporaneous (approx 17–14 Ma) with sedimentation and local dacitic and basaltic volcanism, possibly in response to crustal extension related to passage of the northwestward-migrating Mendocino triple junction. During the Pliocene and Quaternary, the normal faults and Miocene strata were overridden by Mesozoic rocks, including the Franciscan Complex, along northeastward-vergent reverse and thrust faults of the Berrocal, Shannon, and Monte Vista Fault zones. Movement along these fault zones was accompanied by folding and tilting of strata as young as Quaternary and by uplift of the modern Santa Cruz Mountains; the fault zones remain seismically active. We attribute the Pliocene and Quaternary reverse and thrust faulting, folding, and uplift to compression caused by local San Andreas Fault tectonics and regional transpression along the Pacific-North American Plate boundary. Near the southwestern margin of the Santa Clara Valley, as many as 20 exploratory oil wells were drilled between 1891

  1. Intelligent electric vehicle charging: Rethinking the valley-fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Keenan; Temple, William G.; Zhang, K. Max

    This study proposes an intelligent PEV charging scheme that significantly reduces power system cost while maintaining reliability compared to the widely discussed valley-fill method of aggregated charging in the early morning. This study considers optimal PEV integration into the New York Independent System Operator's (NYISO) day-ahead and real-time wholesale energy markets for 21 days in June, July, and August of 2006, a record-setting summer for peak load. NYISO market and load data is used to develop a statistical Locational Marginal Price (LMP) and wholesale energy cost model. This model considers the high cost of ramping generators at peak-load and the traditional cost of steady-state operation, resulting in a framework with two competing cost objectives. Results show that intelligent charging assigns roughly 80% of PEV load to valley hours to take advantage of low steady-state cost, while placing the remaining 20% equally at shoulder and peak hours to reduce ramping cost. Compared to unregulated PEV charging, intelligent charging reduces system cost by 5-16%; a 4-9% improvement over the flat valley-fill approach. Moreover, a Charge Flexibility Constraint (CFC), independent of market modeling, is constructed from a vehicle-at-home profile and the mixture of Level 1 and Level 2 charging infrastructure. The CFC is found to severely restrict the ability to charge vehicles during the morning load valley. This study further shows that adding more Level 2 chargers without regulating PEV charging will significantly increase wholesale energy cost. Utilizing the proposed intelligent PEV charging method, there is a noticeable reduction in system cost if the penetration of Level 2 chargers is increased from 70/30 to 50/50 (Level 1/Level 2). However, the system benefit is drastically diminished for higher penetrations of Level 2 chargers.

  2. Rock-fall Hazard In The Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.; Wieczorek, G. F.

    Rock slides and rock falls are the most frequent slope movements in Yosemite Na- tional Park, California. In historical time (1851-2001), more than 400 rock falls and rock slides have been documented in the valley, and some of them have been mapped in detail. We present the preliminary results of an attempt to assess rockfall hazard in the Yosemite Valley using STONE, a 3-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. The software computes 3-dimensional rock-fall trajectories starting from a digital terrain model (DTM), the location of rock-fall release points (source areas), and maps of the dynamic rolling coefficient and of the coefficients of normal and tan- gential energy restitution. For each DTM cell the software also calculates the number of rock falls passing through the cell, the maximum rock-fall velocity and the maxi- mum flying height. For the Yosemite Valley, a DTM with a ground resolution of 10 x 10 m was prepared using topographic contour lines from USGS 1:24,000-scale maps. Rock-fall release points were identified as DTM cells having a slope steeper than 60 degrees, an assumption based on the location of historical rock falls. Maps of the nor- mal and tangential energy restitution coefficients and of the rolling friction coefficient were produced from a surficial geologic map. The availability of historical rock falls mapped in detail allowed us to check the computer program performance and to cali- brate the model parameters. Visual and statistical comparison of the model results with the mapped rock falls confirmed the accuracy of the model. The model results are also compared with a geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazard based on potential energy referred to as a "shadow angle" approach, recently completed for the Yosemite Valley.

  3. A landscape scale valley confinement algorithm: Delineating unconfined valley bottoms for geomorphic, aquatic, and riparian applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Nagel; John M. Buffington; Sharon L. Parkes; Seth Wenger; Jaime R. Goode

    2014-01-01

    Valley confinement is an important landscape characteristic linked to aquatic habitat, riparian diversity, and geomorphic processes. This report describes a GIS program called the Valley Confinement Algorithm (VCA), which identifies unconfined valleys in montane landscapes. The algorithm uses nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) at 10-30 m resolution to...

  4. Ground ice and hydrothermal ground motions on aufeis plots of river valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized groundwater outflow and layered freezing of them in forms of large ice clusters on the surface creates specific conditions for energy and mass exchange in the «atmosphere–soil–lithosphere» system. In winter, the soil temperature profile is essentially deformed due to heat emission by the aufeis layer of water at its freezing that forms a specific thermocline layer. Deformation of the temperature profile, gradually decreasing, moves down the cross-section and disappearing at the interface between frozen and thawed rocks. Magnitude and number of the temperature deviations from a «normal» state depends on the heat storage of the aufeis-forming waters and on the number of outflows at a given point. The thermocline formation changes conditions of freezing for underlying ground layers together with mechanism of ice saturation of them, and that results in formation of two-layer ice-ground complexes (IGC which differ drastically from cryogenic features in adjacent parts of the valley. Analysis of genetic characteristics and relation of components of the surface and subsurface layers allowed identification of seven types of the aufeis IGC: massive-segregation, cement-basal, layered-segregation, basal-segregation, vacuum-filtration, pressureinjection, and fissure-vein. Yearly formation and destruction of aufeises and subsurface ices is accompanied by a sequence of particularly hazardous geodynamical phenomena, among which the most important are winter flooding of territories, layered freezing of water, ground heaving, thermokarst, and thermoerosion. Combination of these processes may cause a rapid (often unexpected reconfiguration of channels of both surface and subsurface runoff, abrupt uplifts and subsidences of the surface, and decompaction and «shaking-up» of seasonally thawing and seasonally freezing rocks, which may create exceptionally unfavorable conditions for construction and operation of engineering structures. Aufeis plots

  5. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  6. The understanding of the formation of valleys and its implication on site characterization: Moredalen and Pukedalen, south-eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, Sven A.; Waenstedt, Stefan; Straeng, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    In south-eastern Sweden, there are a number of over-deepened narrow valleys, more than 20 m deep, formed in Precambrian bedrock located above the highest post-glacial shoreline. Canyon-like valleys, called 'kursu' or kursu valleys, are generally interpreted to be formed by glaciofluvial erosion. An example of such a valley is Moredalen, a canyon in the Fennoscandian Shield, which has an implication on site selection for radioactive waste disposal. There are also more open over-deepened valleys along which sub-glacial flow has occurred, e.g. Pukedalen. The main part of this paper discusses a combined geological and geophysical investigation of Moredalen, with the aim to investigate possible reasons for the formation of such an unusual feature formed in acid vulcanite and foliated tonalitic to granodioritic rocks. Moredalen is a marked, approximately 7 km long, E-W striking valley that cuts through a plateau (c. 140 m a.s.l.), and an elevated block of the sub-Cambrian peneplain. Glaciofluvial sediments can be found up-streams where the canyon widens to the west. Just east of the valley is a larger delta deposited at the highest post-glacial shoreline (c. 105 m a.s.l). Further east of, and in line with the Moredalen valley there is an esker. Rock debris in the valley is angular. Pukedalen is a northwest-southeast trending valley incised in massive granite. The valley is in its northern parts relatively open and becomes narrow in its south-eastern part having partly a vertical south-western wall. Rock surfaces are smooth along the valley and rock debris in the valley consists generally of rounded blocks. In line with Pukedalen, on both sides at great distances though, there are eskers. Geomorphological features of this kind indicate certain characteristics of the bedrock that need to be considered during safety analysis of repositories for nuclear waste. The distinct weakness zones along which the kursu-valleys are formed create prominent transport paths for

  7. The understanding of the formation of valleys and its implication on site characterization: Moredalen and Pukedalen, south-eastern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiren, Sven A.; Waenstedt, Stefan; Straeng, Thomas (GEOSIGMA AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    In south-eastern Sweden, there are a number of over-deepened narrow valleys, more than 20 m deep, formed in Precambrian bedrock located above the highest post-glacial shoreline. Canyon-like valleys, called 'kursu' or kursu valleys, are generally interpreted to be formed by glaciofluvial erosion. An example of such a valley is Moredalen, a canyon in the Fennoscandian Shield, which has an implication on site selection for radioactive waste disposal. There are also more open over-deepened valleys along which sub-glacial flow has occurred, e.g. Pukedalen. The main part of this paper discusses a combined geological and geophysical investigation of Moredalen, with the aim to investigate possible reasons for the formation of such an unusual feature formed in acid vulcanite and foliated tonalitic to granodioritic rocks. Moredalen is a marked, approximately 7 km long, E-W striking valley that cuts through a plateau (c. 140 m a.s.l.), and an elevated block of the sub-Cambrian peneplain. Glaciofluvial sediments can be found up-streams where the canyon widens to the west. Just east of the valley is a larger delta deposited at the highest post-glacial shoreline (c. 105 m a.s.l). Further east of, and in line with the Moredalen valley there is an esker. Rock debris in the valley is angular. Pukedalen is a northwest-southeast trending valley incised in massive granite. The valley is in its northern parts relatively open and becomes narrow in its south-eastern part having partly a vertical south-western wall. Rock surfaces are smooth along the valley and rock debris in the valley consists generally of rounded blocks. In line with Pukedalen, on both sides at great distances though, there are eskers. Geomorphological features of this kind indicate certain characteristics of the bedrock that need to be considered during safety analysis of repositories for nuclear waste. The distinct weakness zones along which the kursu-valleys are formed create prominent transport paths for

  8. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued

  9. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  10. The Pocatello Valley, Idaho, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. M.; Langer, C.J.; Bucknam, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A Richter magnitude 6.3 earthquake occurred at 8:31 p.m mountain daylight time on March 27, 1975, near the Utah-Idaho border in Pocatello Valley. The epicenter of the main shock was located at 42.094° N, 112.478° W, and had a focal depth of 5.5 km. This earthquake was the largest in the continental United States since the destructive San Fernando earthquake of February 1971. The main shock was preceded by a magnitude 4.5 foreshock on March 26. 

  11. Radwaste challenge at Beaver Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Duquesne Light Company met the problem of accumulating low-level radioactive waste at its Beaver Valley nuclear plant with an aggressive program to reduce the quantity of contaminated material and demonstrate that the plant was improving its radiological protection. There was also an economic incentive to reduce low-level wastes. The imaginative campaign involved workers in the reduction effort through training and the adoption of practical approaches to reducing the amount of material exposed to radiation that include sorting trash by radiation level and a compacting system. 4 figures

  12. The Owens Valley Millimeter Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padin, S.; Scott, S.L.; Woody, D.P.; Scoville, N.Z.; Seling, T.V.

    1991-01-01

    The telescopes and signal processing systems of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are considered, and improvements in the sensitivity and stability of the instrument are characterized. The instrument can be applied to map sources in the 85 to 115 GHz and 218 to 265 GHz bands with a resolution of about 1 arcsec in the higher frequency band. The operation of the array is fully automated. The current scientific programs for the array encompass high-resolution imaging of protoplanetary/protostellar disk structures, observations of molecular cloud complexes associated with spiral structure in nearby galaxies, and observations of molecular structures in the nuclei of spiral and luminous IRAS galaxies. 9 refs

  13. Interaction Induced Quantum Valley Hall Effect in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Marino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We use pseudo-quantum electrodynamics in order to describe the full electromagnetic interaction of the p electrons in graphene in a consistent 2D formulation. We first consider the effect of this interaction in the vacuum polarization tensor or, equivalently, in the current correlator. This allows us to obtain the T→0 conductivity after a smooth zero-frequency limit is taken in Kubo’s formula. Thereby, we obtain the usual expression for the minimal conductivity plus corrections due to the interaction that bring it closer to the experimental value. We then predict the onset of an interaction-driven spontaneous quantum valley Hall effect below an activation temperature of the order of 2 K. The transverse (Hall valley conductivity is evaluated exactly and shown to coincide with the one in the usual quantum Hall effect. Finally, by considering the effects of pseudo-quantum electrodynamics, we show that the electron self-energy is such that a set of P- and T-symmetric gapped electron energy eigenstates are dynamically generated, in association with the quantum valley Hall effect.

  14. Resistivity structure and geochemistry of the Jigokudani Valley hydrothermal system, Mt. Tateyama, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kaori; Kanda, Wataru; Tanbo, Toshiya; Ohba, Takeshi; Ogawa, Yasuo; Takakura, Shinichi; Nogami, Kenji; Ushioda, Masashi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Saito, Zenshiro; Matsunaga, Yasuo

    2016-10-01

    This study clarifies the hydrothermal system of Jigokudani Valley near Mt. Tateyama volcano in Japan by using a combination of audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT) survey and hot-spring water analysis in order to assess the potential of future phreatic eruptions in the area. Repeated phreatic eruptions in the area about 40,000 years ago produced the current valley morphology, which is now an active solfatara field dotted with hot springs and fumaroles indicative of a well-developed hydrothermal system. The three-dimensional (3D) resistivity structure of the hydrothermal system was modeled by using the results of an AMT survey conducted at 25 locations across the valley in 2013-2014. The model suggests the presence of a near-surface highly conductive layer of falling largely on a mixing line between magmatic fluids and local meteoric water (LMW). The geochemical analysis suggests that the hydrothermal system includes a two-phase zone of vapor-liquid. A comparison of the resistivity structure and the geochemically inferred structure suggests that a hydrothermal reservoir is present at a depth of approximately 500 m, from which hot-spring water differentiates into the three observed types. The two-phase zone appears to be located immediately beneath the cap rock structure. These findings suggest that the hydrothermal system of Jigokudani Valley exhibits a number of factors that could trigger a future phreatic eruption.

  15. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  16. Structural organization of process zones in upland watersheds of central Nevada and its influence on basin connectivity, dynamics, and wet meadow complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry R. Miller; Mark L. Lord; Lionel F. Villarroel; Dru Germanoski; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2012-01-01

    The drainage network within upland watersheds in central Nevada can be subdivided into distinct zones each dominated by a unique set of processes on the basis of valley form, the geological materials that comprise the valley floor, and the presence or absence of surficial channels. On hillslopes, the type and structure (frequency, length, and spatial arrangement) of...

  17. The cadastre of waste heat in the Upper Rhine Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomaei, G.; Kinzelbach, W.

    1980-04-01

    The cadastre of waste heat provides the distribution in space and time of anthropogeneous waste heat emissions on a 2 x 2 km 2 grid. In the case of the Upper Rhine Valley it serves as a basis for the numerical evaluations of climatic changes caused by man. Such a cadastre also allows to analyse the distribution of pollutant emissions and the heat or energy supply, respectively, of the region. In a close approximation the distribution of waste heat is equal to the distribution of energy consumption. As there are generally difficulties in obtaining data about the consumption of the types of energy on the grid level, methods were developed which allow to determine the local energy consumption by using the relevant structural data. The methods used for the Federal Republic of Germany and neighbouring countries and the results for the Upper Rhine Valley, obtained by these methods, are presented. The cadastre of waste heat is based on data of the year 1973 which was a time of great energy consumption. Only in 1978 this energy consumption was exceeded. To be able to estimate the change in the influence of the anthropogeneous waste heat during the next 20 years, the cadastre was extrapolated until the year 2000. (orig.) [de

  18. Anthropogenic influence on forest landscape in the Khumbu valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingua, Emanuele; Garbarino, Matteo; Urbinati, Carlo; Carrer, Marco

    2013-04-01

    High altitude Himalayan regions are geo-dynamically very active and very sensitive to natural and anthropogenic disturbances due to their steep slopes, variations of precipitations with elevation and short growing periods. Nonetheless, even in this remote region human pressure is often the most important factor affecting forest landscape. In the last decades the firewood demand has increased each year between September to December. The increase in the number of tourists, mountaineering, guides, porters, carpenters, lodges lead to a peak in the use of fuelwood. In order to understand anthropogenic impacts on forest, resources landscape and stand scale dynamics were analyzed in the Sagarmatha National Park (SNP) and its Buffer Zone in the Khumbu Valley (Nepal, Eastern Himalaya). Biological and historical data sources were employed, and a multi-scale approach was adopted to capture the influence of human activities on the distribution of tree species and forest structure. Stand structure and a range of environmental variables were sampled in 197 20x20 m square plots, and land use and anthropogenic variables were derived in a GIS environment (thematic maps and IKONOS, Landsat and Terra ASTER satellite images). We used multivariate statistical analyses to relate forest structure, anthropogenic influences, land uses, and topography. Fuel wood is the prime source of energy for cooking (1480-1880 Kg/person/year) and Quercus semecarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Pinus wallichiana, among the others, are the most exploited species. Due to lack of sufficient energy sources deforestation is becoming a problem in the area. This might be a major threat causing soil erosion, landslides and other natural hazards. Among the 25 species of trees that were found in the Buffer Zone Community Forests of SNP, Pinus wallichiana, Lyonia ovalifolia, Quercus semecarpifolia and Rhododendron arboreum are the dominant species. The total stand density ranged from 228 to 379 tree/ha and the

  19. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Jamestown area, Chautauqua County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.R.; Stelz, W.G.; Belli, J.L.; Allen, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the sixth in a series of 11 map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together, the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southeastern Chautauqua County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, aquifer thickness, potentiometric-surface elevations and land use. The valley-fill deposits consist of alluvial silt and sand, glacial-outwash (sand and gravel), ice-contact sand and gravel, till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities whereas the till, silt and clay deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions prevail in u nconfined sand and gravel beds along the valley margin. Artesian conditions prevail in confined sand and gravel buried under silt and clay in the middle of the valley. Recharge occurs mainly along the margin of the valley, where the land surface is highly permeable and runoff from the hillsides is concentrated. The use of land overlying the aquifer is predominantly agricultural and residential with lesser amounts of commercial and industrial uses. (USGS)

  20. Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 2. Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Results of a preliminary study are presented of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the Nuclear Fuel Services Incorporated site at West Valley, New York. At this time there are approximately 600,000 gallons of high level neutralized Purex waste, including both the supernate (liquid) and sludge, and a further 12,000 gallons of acidic Thorex waste stored in tanks at the West Valley facilities. This study assesses the possibility of combining these wastes in a suitable grout mixture and then injecting them into deep shale formations beneath the West Valley site as a means of permanent disposal. The preliminary feasibility assessment results indicated that at the 850 to 1,250 feet horizons, horizontal fracturing and injection could be effectively achieved. However, a detailed safety analysis is required to establish the acceptability of the degree of isolation. The principal concerns regarding isolation are due to existing and possible future water supply developments within the area and the local effects of the buried valley. In addition, possible future natural gas developments are of concern. The definition of an exclusion zone may be appropriate to avoid problems with these developments. The buried valley may require the injections to be limited to the lower horizon depending on the results of further investigations

  1. Spatio-temporal changes in river bank mass failures in the Lockyer Valley, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chris; Croke, Jacky; Grove, James; Khanal, Giri

    2013-06-01

    Wet-flow river bank failure processes are poorly understood relative to the more commonly studied processes of fluvial entrainment and gravity-induced mass failures. Using high resolution topographic data (LiDAR) and near coincident aerial photography, this study documents the downstream distribution of river bank mass failures which occurred as a result of a catastrophic flood in the Lockyer Valley in January 2011. In addition, this distribution is compared with wet flow mass failure features from previous large floods. The downstream analysis of these two temporal data sets indicated that they occur across a range of river lengths, catchment areas, bank heights and angles and do not appear to be scale-dependent or spatially restricted to certain downstream zones. The downstream trends of each bank failure distribution show limited spatial overlap with only 17% of wet flows common to both distributions. The modification of these features during the catastrophic flood of January 2011 also indicated that such features tend to form at some 'optimum' shape and show limited evidence of subsequent enlargement even when flow and energy conditions within the banks and channel were high. Elevation changes indicate that such features show evidence for infilling during subsequent floods. The preservation of these features in the landscape for a period of at least 150 years suggests that the seepage processes dominant in their initial formation appear to have limited role in their continuing enlargement over time. No evidence of gully extension or headwall retreat is evident. It is estimated that at least 12 inundation events would be required to fill these failures based on the average net elevation change recorded for the 2011 event. Existing conceptual models of downstream bank erosion process zones may need to consider a wider array of mass failure processes to accommodate for wet flow failures.

  2. Sustainable agricultural development in inland valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The inland valley in Africa are common landscapes that have favorable conditions for agricultural production. Compared to the surrounding uplands they are characterized by a relatively high and secure water availability and high soil fertility levels. Inland valleys thus have a high agricultural

  3. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Cherie J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Air traffic energy efficiency differs from place to place: analysis of historical trends by geographical zones using a macro-level methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheze, Benoit; Gastineau, Pascal; Chevallier, Julien

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses energy efficiency coefficients and their evolution in the air transport sector. The proposed 'macro-level' methodology allows obtaining energy efficiency coefficients and their growth rates (corresponding to the evolution of energy gains) from 1983 to 2006 for eight distinct geographical regions and at the world level. During the whole period, energy efficiency improvements have been equal to 2.88% per year at the world level, with strong differences between regions. Moreover, our results indicate that domestic air travels are less energy efficient (i.e. more carbon intensive) than international air travels. This result applies in all regions. (authors)

  5. Modeling of Dust Levels Associated with Potential Utility-Scale Solar Development in the San Luis Valley-Taos Plateau Study Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y. -S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kotamarthi, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hartmann, H. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patton, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The San Luis Valley (SLV)–Taos Plateau study area in south-central Colorado and north-central New Mexico is a large alpine valley surrounded by mountains with an area of approximately 6,263,000 acres (25,345 km2) (Figure ES.1-1). This area receives ample sunshine throughout the year, making it an ideal location for solar energy generation, and there are currently five photovoltaic facilities operating on private lands in the SLV, ranging in capacity from 1 to 30 megawatt (MW). In 2012 the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) launched its Solar Energy Program, which included the identification of four solar energy zones (SEZs) in the SLV totaling 16,308 acres (66 km2), as well as over 50,000 (202 km2) acres of other BLM-administered lands potentially available for application for solar development. The SEZ areas, named Antonito Southeast, De Tilla Gulch, Fourmile East, and Los Mogotes East, were defined by the BLM as areas well-suited for utility-scale (i.e., larger than 20 MW) production of solar energy where solar energy development would be prioritized (BLM 2012). Nonetheless, it was recognized that solar development in the SEZs would result in some unavoidable adverse impacts, and so the BLM initiated a solar regional mitigation strategy (SRMS) study for three of the SEZs (BLM and Argonne 2016). The SRMS is designed to identify residual impacts of solar development in the SEZs (that is, those that cannot be avoided or minimized onsite), identify those residual impacts that warrant compensatory mitigation when considering the regional status and trends of the resources, identify appropriate regional compensatory mitigation locations and actions to address those residual impacts, and recommend appropriate fees to implement those compensatory mitigation measures.

  6. Sediment Thickness and a WEST-EAST Geologic Cross Section in the Caracas Valley

    OpenAIRE

    KANTAK, PETER; SCHMITZ, MICHAEL; AUDEMARD, FRANCK

    2005-01-01

    Caracas is located at the Caribbean - South America plate boundary zone, with an associated strike slip fault system, which accommodates the relative movement of both plates and is responsible for the seismic hazard in the region. The damage pattern of the 1967 Caracas earthquake emphasized the existence of important site effects due to the sedimentary basin fill of the Caracas valley. A revised map of the sedimentary thickness was developed during this study, based on drill holes (mostly fro...

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site's tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  9. Environment, safety and health, management and organization compliance assessment, West Valley Demonstration Program, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    An Environment, Safety and Health ''Tiger Team'' Assessment was conducted at the West Valley Demonstration Project. The Tiger Team was chartered to conduct an onsite, independent assessment of WVDP's environment, safety and health (ES ampersand H) programs to assure compliance with applicable Federal and State laws, regulations, and standards, and Department of Energy Orders. The objective is to provide to the Secretary of Energy the following information: current ES ampersand H compliance status of each facility; specific noncompliance items; ''root causes'' for noncompliance items; evaluation of the adequacy of ES ampersand H organization and resources (DOE and contractor) and needed modifications; and where warranted, recommendations for addressing identified problem areas

  10. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Many-body effects in valleytronics: direct measurement of valley lifetimes in single-layer MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Cong; Barrette, Andrew; Yu, Yifei; Semenov, Yuriy G; Kim, Ki Wook; Cao, Linyou; Gundogdu, Kenan

    2014-01-08

    Single layer MoS2 is an ideal material for the emerging field of "valleytronics" in which charge carrier momentum can be finely controlled by optical excitation. This system is also known to exhibit strong many-body interactions as observed by tightly bound excitons and trions. Here we report direct measurements of valley relaxation dynamics in single layer MoS2, by using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. Our results show that strong Coulomb interactions significantly impact valley population dynamics. Initial excitation by circularly polarized light creates electron-hole pairs within the K-valley. These excitons coherently couple to dark intervalley excitonic states, which facilitate fast electron valley depolarization. Hole valley relaxation is delayed up to about 10 ps due to nondegeneracy of the valence band spin states. Intervalley biexciton formation reveals the hole valley relaxation dynamics. We observe that biexcitons form with more than an order of magnitude larger binding energy compared to conventional semiconductors. These measurements provide significant insight into valley specific processes in 2D semiconductors. Hence they could be used to suggest routes to design semiconducting materials that enable control of valley polarization.

  12. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  13. Assessment of geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California. Volume 1. Environment, health, and socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D. (ed.)

    1980-07-01

    Utilization of the Imperial Valley's geothermal resources to support energy production could be hindered if environmental impacts prove to be unacceptable or if geothermal operations are incompatible with agriculture. To address these concerns, an integrated environmental and socioeconomic assessment of energy production in the valley was prepared. The most important impacts examined in the assessment involved air quality changes resulting from emissions of hydrogen sulfide, and increases in the salinity of the Salton Sea resulting from the use of agricultural waste waters for power plant cooling. The socioeconomics consequences of future geothermal development will generally be beneficial. (MHR)

  14. Effects of Groundwater Development on Uranium: Central Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, B.C.; Fram, M.S.; Belitz, K.; Burow, K.R.; Landon, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium (U) concentrations in groundwater in several parts of the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, have exceeded federal and state drinking water standards during the last 20 years. The San Joaquin Valley is located within the Central Valley of California and is one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world. Increased irrigation and pumping associated with agricultural and urban development during the last 100 years have changed the chemistry and magnitude of groundwater recharge, and increased the rate of downward groundwater movement. Strong correlations between U and bicarbonate suggest that U is leached from shallow sediments by high bicarbonate water, consistent with findings of previous work in Modesto, California. Summer irrigation of crops in agricultural areas and, to lesser extent, of landscape plants and grasses in urban areas, has increased Pco2 concentrations in the soil zone and caused higher temperature and salinity of groundwater recharge. Coupled with groundwater pumping, this process, as evidenced by increasing bicarbonate concentrations in groundwater over the last 100 years, has caused shallow, young groundwater with high U concentrations to migrate to deeper parts of the groundwater system that are tapped by public-supply wells. Continued downward migration of U-affected groundwater and expansion of urban centers into agricultural areas will likely be associated with increased U concentrations in public-supply wells. The results from this study illustrate the potential long-term effects of groundwater development and irrigation-supported agriculture on water quality in arid and semiarid regions around the world. Journal compilation ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  15. Hidden Valley Search at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Verducci, M

    2011-01-01

    A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in neutral and weakly-coupled particles that decay to multi hadrons or multi leptons with macroscopic decay lengths. These particles with decay paths that can be comparable with ATLAS detector dimensions represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS detector. We will present a set of signature driven triggers for the ATLAS detector that target such displaced decays and evaluate their performances for some benchmark models and describe analysis strategies and limits on the production of such long-lived particles. A first estimation of the Hidden Valley trigger rates has been evaluated with 6 pb-1 of data collected at ATLAS during the data taking of 2010.

  16. Radiation protection zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Radiation being not visible, the zoning of an area containing radioactive sources is important in terms of safety. Concerning radiation protection, 2 work zones are defined by regulations: the monitored zone and the controlled zone. The ministerial order of 15 may 2006 settles the frontier between the 2 zones in terms of radiation dose rates, the rules for access and the safety standards in both zones. Radioprotection rules and the name of the person responsible for radiation protection must be displayed. The frontier between the 2 zones must be materialized and marked with adequate equipment (specific danger signs and tapes). Both zones are submitted to selective entrance, the access for the controlled zone is limited because of the radiation risk and of the necessity of confining radioactive contamination while the limitation of the access to the monitored zone is due to radiation risk only. (A.C.)

  17. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppenjan, S.; Martinez, M.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE's Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a ''chirped'' FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site

  18. Analysis of stability and adaptability of QPM hybrids of maize growing in different Colombian agroecological zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ever Andrés vargas Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is maize´s biggest contribution for humans and animals. Scientist have been trying to increase its protein level since 1896, it wasn´t until the 60´s when the opaque gene O2 was discovered. In its recessive state, the gene causes the quality of the maize protein to increase, due to the growth of the Globulin protein and the reduction of Zein protein. Known as Quality Protein Maize (QPM, they can double the essential amino acids Lysine and Tryptophan´s percentages when compared with normal maize endosperm. In a commercial scenario, there is a need for high yielding genotypes adapted to different environments; it is also desirable to have a better protein quality. In the present study, 9 yellow endosperm QPM hybrids, developed by FENALCE from CIMMYT´s germoplasm and a normal commercial endosperm check were tested in 6 agro ecological zones: Wet Caribbean, Dry Caribbean, Orinoco, Valley of the Cauca River, Valley of the Magdalena River and the Coffee Growing Zone. A randomized complete block design was used in 17 environments and four repetitions. Variables concerning the plant and yield components were measured, but for this study the grain yield was the only taken. Additionally samples were taken to assess the content of Tryptophan. The stability and adaptability analysis was made using the Eberhart and Russell, Lin and Binns and AMMI models. The QPM hybrid that stood out for all the environments was QPM 303 and QPM 305 for unfavorable environments. Both retain their biochemical characteristics of protein quality and are stable in the evaluated environments according to the statistical models that were used.

  19. Territorial approach to increased energy consumption of water extraction from depletion of a highlands Mexican aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Esteller, María Vicenta; Díaz-Delgado, Carlos

    2013-10-15

    This work proposes a method to estimate increased energy consumption of pumping caused by a drawdown of groundwater level and the equivalent energy consumption of the motor-pump system in an aquifer under intensive exploitation. This method has been applied to the Valley of Toluca aquifer, located in the Mexican highlands, whose intensive exploitation is reflected in a decline in the groundwater level of between 0.10 and 1.6 m/year. Results provide a summary of energy consumption and a map of energy consumption isopleths showing the areas that are most susceptible to increases in energy consumption due to pumping. The proposed method can be used to estimate the effect of the intensive exploitation of the Valley of Toluca aquifer on the energy consumption of groundwater extraction. Finding reveals that, for the year 2006, groundwater extraction in the urban zone required 2.39 times more energy than the conditions observed 38 years earlier. In monetary terms, this reflects an increase of USD$ 3 million annually, according to 2005 energy production costs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mineralogy of Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Implications for Pedogenic Processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. E.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Tamppari, L, K.; Smith, P. H.; Zent, A. P.; Archer, P. D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADVs) located in the Transantarctic Mountains are the coldest and driest locations on Earth. The mean annual air temperature is -20 C or less and the ADVs receive 100mm or less of precipitation annually in the form of snow. The cold and dry climate in the ADVs is one of the best terrestrial analogs for the climatic conditions on Mars [2]. The soils in the ADVs have been categorized into three soil moisture zones: subxerous, xerous and ultraxerous. The subxerous zone is a coastal region in which soils have ice-cemented permafrost relatively close to the surface. Moisture is available in relatively large amounts and soil temperatures are above freezing throughout the soil profile (above ice permafrost) in summer months. The xerous zone, the most widespread of the three zones, is an inland region with a climate midway between the subxerous and ultraxerous. The soils from this zone have dry permafrost at moderate depths (30-75cm) but have sufficient water in the upper soil horizons to allow leaching of soluble materials. The ultraxerous zone is a high elevation zone, where both temperature and precipitation amounts are very low resulting in dry permafrost throughout the soil profile. The three moisture regime regions are similar to the three microclimatic zones (coastal thaw, inland mixed, stable upland) defined by Marchant and Head.

  1. Aerial photographic interpretation of lineaments and faults in late Cenozoic deposits in the eastern parts of the Saline Valley 1:100, 000 quadrangle, Nevada and California, and the Darwin Hills 1:100, 000 quadrangle, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reheis, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Faults and fault-related lineaments in Quaternary and late Tertiary deposits in the southern part of the Walker Lane are potentially active and form patterns that are anomalous compared to those in most other areas of the Great Basin. Two maps at a scale of 1:100,000 summarize information about lineaments and faults in the area around and southwest of the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system based on extensive aerial-photo interpretation, limited field interpretation, limited field investigations, and published geologic maps. There are three major fault zones and two principal faults in the Saline Valley and Darwin Hills 1:100,000 quadrangles. (1) The Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system and (2) the Hunter Mountain fault zone are northwest-trending right-lateral strike-slip fault zones. (3) The Panamint Valley fault zone and associated Towne Pass and Emigrant faults are north-trending normal faults. The intersection of the Hunter Mountain and Panamint Valley fault zones is marked by a large complex of faults and lineaments on the floor of Panamint Valley. Additional major faults include (4) the north-northwest-trending Ash Hill fault on the west side of Panamint Valley, and (5) the north-trending range-front Tin Mountain fault on the west side of the northern Cottonwood Mountains. The most active faults at present include those along the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system, the Tin Mountain fault, the northwest and southeast ends of the Hunter Mountain fault zone, the Ash Hill fault, and the fault bounding the west side of the Panamint Range south of Hall Canyon. Several large Quaternary landslides on the west sides of the Cottonwood Mountains and the Panamint Range apparently reflect slope instability due chiefly to rapid uplift of these ranges. 16 refs

  2. Community Response to Concentrating Solar Power in the San Luis Valley: October 9, 2008 - March 31, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B. C.; Hunter, L. M.; Kirkland, T. M.; Tierney, K. J.

    2010-06-01

    This report is about the social acceptance of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) plants in the San Luis Valley, approximately 200 miles southwest of Denver, Colorado. The research focused on social factors that may facilitate and impede the adoption and implementation of CSP. During the winter of 2008-2009, interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 25 CSP-related stakeholders inside and outside the Valley. Interviews focused on the perceived advantages and disadvantages of siting a hypothetical 100-MW CSP facility in the Valley, the level of community support and opposition to CSP development, and related issues, such as transmission. State policy recommendations based on the findings include developing education programs for Valley residents, integrating Valley decision makers into an energy-water-land group, providing training for Valley decision makers, offering workforce training, evaluating models of taxation, and forming landholder energy associations. In addition, the SLV could become a laboratory for new approaches to CSP facility and transmission siting decision-making. The author recommends that outside stakeholders address community concerns and engage Valley residents in CSP decisions. Engaging the residents in CSP and transmission decisions, the author says, should take parallel significance with the investment in solar technology.

  3. Factors controlling sedimentation in the Toruń-Eberswalde ice-marginal valley during the Pomeranian phase of the Weichselian glaciation: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarska-Jamroży Małgorzata

    2015-03-01

    grains, and palaeohydrological calculations. Additionally, a statistical analysis was used. The specific depositional conditions of distribution of sediments in ice-marginal valley allow to distinguish new environment of ice-marginal valley braided river. The spectrum of depositional conditions in the Toruń-Eberswalde ice-marginal valley and their specific palaeohydraulic parameters allow to distinguish three coexisting zones in the ice-marginal valley braided-river system: (1 deep gravel-bed braided channel zone with extensive scours, (2 deep sand-bed braided channel zone with transverse bars, and (3 marginal sand-bed and gravel-bed braided channel zone with diamicton and breccia deposition, which were characterised in detail. Some of the results have been published previously, which is why they are discussed in the present paper within the context of new data

  4. Postcrystalline deformation of the Pelona Schist bordering Leona Valley, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, James George

    1978-01-01

    Detailed structural investigations in part of the Leona Valley segment of the San Andreas fault zone, 5-16 km west of Palm dale, focused on the postcrystalline deformation of the block of Mesozoic(?) Pelona Schist underlying Portal and Ritter Ridges. The early fabric of the schist is modified and in places obliterated by cataclasis along shear zones near the San Andreas fault and the Hitchbrook fault, a major west-striking branch of the San Andreas fault system. Anastomosing shear foliations, fabric elements of the postcrystalline deformation, intersect at small angles to one another and are generally vertical or steeply dipping to the north-northeast; they are subparallel to the Hitchbrook fault. Many of these shear foliations are nearly parallel to the compositional layering and schistosity, which commonly dip at moderately steep angles to the northwest. Folds in the shear foliation, commonly intrafolial, generally plunge at moderately steep angles to the north-northeast or are nearly vertical. Other folds, various in form, have axes parallel to the intersections of the early schistosity and the shear foliations and plunge in many other directions. Faults, roughly similar in orientation to the shear foliations, have orientations subparallel to large-scale structures and structural features in the Leona Valley area and in southern California: the San Andreas fault zone in Leona Valley, the Hitchbrook fault, the Garlock fault zone, steep northward-striking faults, the San Andreas fault zone north and south of the Transverse Ranges, and the generally northwest-dipping early compositional layering of the schist. Slickensides on some of the minor faults indicate that the latest movements on the steep faults are predominantly strike slip with indications of less common episodes of predominantly dip slip. The low-angle faults have oblique slip with a large dip component.

  5. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Ramapo and Mahwah rivers area, Rockland County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard Bridge; Cadwell, D.H.; Stelz, W.G.; Belli, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the eighth in a series of 11 map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together, the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southeastern Rockland County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, aquifer thickness, water-table elevations, well yields, and land use. The valley-fill deposits consists of alluvial silt and sand, glacial outwash (sand and gravel), ice-contact sand and gravel, till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities, whereas the till, silt, and clay deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions prevail in unconfined sand and gravel along the Ramapo River valley and much of the Mahwah River valley. Artesian conditions prevail in confined sand and gravel buried under silt and clay and till in parts of the Mahway valley. The aquifer is recharged throughout, where the land surface is most permeable and is greatest along the margin of the valley, where runoff from the hillsides is concentrated. The use of land overlying the aquifer is predominantly commercial, agricultural and residential, with lesser industrial uses. (USGS)

  6. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  7. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.A.

    1991-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  9. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.

  10. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  11. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  12. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  13. Highlighting High Performance: Blackstone Valley Regional Vocational Technical High School; Upton, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-10-01

    This brochure describes the key high-performance building features of the Blackstone Valley High School. The brochure was paid for by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative as part of their Green Schools Initiative. High-performance features described are daylighting and energy-efficient lighting, indoor air quality, solar energy, building envelope, heating and cooling systems, and water conservation. Energy cost savings are also discussed.

  14. WHIPJET progress on piping restraint elimination at Beaver Valley - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, W.L.; Szy Slow Ski, J.J.; Goldstein, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    Fracture mechanics technology has advanced to the point that an engineering approach using the concept of leak-before-break in lieu of postulating double-ended pipe rupture is now possible. An approach based upon this fracture mechanics technology, termed WHIPJET, is currently being applied to Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 for Duquesne Light Company. The WHIPJET philosophy is simple, conservative, and provides defense-in-depth arguments for high energy piping throughout the balance-of-plant. Progress being made in applying WHIPJET to several lines is presented

  15. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  16. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  17. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  18. Integrated geomorphologic and GIS analysis for the assessment of erosion zones and its relationship with hazardous zones in the Zacatecas and Guadalupe quadrangles, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Alcázar, F. d. J.; Escobedo-Arellano, B.; Castillo-Félix, B.; Carrillo-Castillo, C.; García-Sandoval, P.; Gurrola-Menchaca, L. L.; Núñez-Peña, E. P.; Esparza-Martínez, A.; Bluhm-Gutiérrez, J.; Guijarro-Rodríguez, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    The morphology of the Zacatecas and Guadalupe quadrangles is composed to the West by a NNE-SSW fault bounded range and to the East a valley cut by minor hills. The most important and fast growing cities in the state are located in that range. However, in urban development plans variables such as the geology and geomorphologic processes, as well as the land cover characteristics, are poorly taken into consideration. Due to the landscape modification the erosion agents, mainly water, removes loose materials that are either natural or artificial. The effects on the buildings and roads are fractures, slope instability, and rock falling. In this study we present a model that considers the detailed geologic mapping, the geomorphology, land use, vegetation, and the digital slope model scale 1:50 000. The geomorphologic parameters considered were: relief energy, dissection density, general dissection density, and maximum dissection depth. The location and internal characteristics of mapped talus deposits were the basis to define the erosion criteria. High erosion zones are located in slopes over 20° where the talus deposits initiate due to the relative abundance of loose debris. Medium erosion areas are located in slopes over 10° that downslope has progressive accumulation of sediments. While the low erosion zones are located in slopes ranging from 5° to 20° with almost flat lying beds. These parameters were analyzed in ArcGIS together with the digital slope model, detailed geology mapping, the land use cover, and the soil information. The results where verified in the range where the city has been growing in recent years. The soils all over the range are lithosols which are only 10 to 15 cm thick; while the vegetation is composed mainly of bushes and nopals. Even though both, vegetation and soil are not modified, the erosion effects in them are very slow regardless of their location. The faults located in high erosion zones facilitate rock falling mainly during the

  19. Preliminary estimates of spatially distributed net infiltration and recharge for the Death Valley region, Nevada-California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional ground-water flow model has been developed to evaluate the Death Valley regional flow system, which includes ground water beneath the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of spatially distributed net infiltration and recharge are needed to define upper boundary conditions. This study presents a preliminary application of a conceptual and numerical model of net infiltration. The model was developed in studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located in the approximate center of the Death Valley ground-water flow system. The conceptual model describes the effects of precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, and redistribution of water in the shallow unsaturated zone on predicted rates of net infiltration; precipitation and soil depth are the two most significant variables. The conceptual model was tested using a preliminary numerical model based on energy- and water-balance calculations. Daily precipitation for 1980 through 1995, averaging 202 millimeters per year over the 39,556 square kilometers area of the ground-water flow model, was input to the numerical model to simulate net infiltration ranging from zero for a soil thickness greater than 6 meters to over 350 millimeters per year for thin soils at high elevations in the Spring Mountains overlying permeable bedrock. Estimated average net infiltration over the entire ground-water flow model domain is 7.8 millimeters per year. To evaluate the application of the net-infiltration model developed on a local scale at Yucca Mountain, to net-infiltration estimates representing the magnitude and distribution of recharge on a regional scale, the net-infiltration results were compared with recharge estimates obtained using empirical methods. Comparison of model results with previous estimates of basinwide recharge suggests that the net-infiltration estimates obtained using this model may overestimate recharge because of uncertainty in modeled precipitation, bedrock permeability, and soil properties for

  20. Floristic diversity and distribution pattern of plant communities along altitudinal gradient in Sangla Valley, Northwest Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Rana, J C; Devi, Usha; Randhawa, S S; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Himalayas are globally important biodiversity hotspots and are facing rapid loss in floristic diversity and changing pattern of vegetation due to various biotic and abiotic factors. This has necessitated the qualitative and quantitative assessment of vegetation here. The present study was conducted in Sangla Valley of northwest Himalaya aiming to assess the structure of vegetation and its trend in the valley along the altitudinal gradient. In the forest and alpine zones of the valley, 15 communities were recorded. Study revealed 320 species belonging to 199 genera and 75 families. Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Apiaceae, and Ranunculaceae were dominant. Among genera, Artemisia followed by Polygonum, Saussurea, Berberis, and Thalictrum were dominant. Tree and shrub's density ranged from 205 to 600 and from 105 to 1030 individual per hectare, respectively, whereas herbs ranged from 22.08 to 78.95 individual/m(2). Nearly 182 species were native to the Himalaya. Maximum altitudinal distribution of few selected climate sensitive species was found to be highest in northeast and north aspects. This study gives an insight into the floristic diversity and community structure of the fragile Sangla Valley which was hitherto not available.

  1. Energy and environment: an intergovernmental perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenan, B.R. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    The Ohio River Valley Assembly was convened for round table discussions of the development of the energy resources of the valley and the environmental impacts. The participation was limited to government officials and participants included representatives from local, state, and federal governments and from several regional organizations with particular responsibilities in the Ohio River Valley. The background papers, comments by legislators, speeches, and the final report of the Assembly are compiled. (JSR)

  2. Cold fusion valleys for the synthesis of Z=118 isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherghescu, R.

    2005-01-01

    Cold fusion reactions are investigated with the goal to synthesize Z=118 isotopes with neutron numbers N=162, 168, 172, 176. Potential energy surfaces are calculated as the result of dynamic minimization with independent deformations of the target and projectile, small semi-axis of the projectile and distance between centers as degrees of freedom. An advanced binary macroscopic-microscopic method is used to obtain the deformation energy and the Werner-Wheeler approximation yield the mass tensor. Charge asymmetry is varied for the same mass asymmetry channel which belongs to a given energy valley. The highest penetrability values are obtained for cold fusion channels with Sn, Te and Xe isotopes as projectiles

  3. Engineered valley-orbit splittings in quantum-confined nanostructures in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, R.; Verduijn, J.; Kharche, N.; Lansbergen, G.P.; Klimeck, G.; Hollenberg, L.C.L.; Rogge, S.

    2011-01-01

    An important challenge in silicon quantum electronics in the few electron regime is the potentially small energy gap between the ground and excited orbital states in 3D quantum confined nanostructures due to the multiple valley degeneracies of the conduction band present in silicon. Understanding

  4. Valley method versus instanton-induced effective lagrangian up to (E/Espha)8/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balitsky, I.; Schaefer, A.

    1993-01-01

    We compare the two most popular approaches to the problem of instanton-anti-instanton interaction at high energies - the valley method and the effective lagrangian approach - and use them to calculate the next-to-next-to-leading term in the expansion of the 'holy grail' function determining the cross section with baryon number violation in the standard model. (orig.)

  5. Barriers to Coverage of Transborder Environmental Issues in the Ferghana Valley of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three former Soviet republics occupy Central Asia's Ferghana Valley, a region of serious transborder environmental problems, especially ones that involve water and energy. Most news organizations in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan provide little in-depth coverage of these issues. Journalists in one country usually do not seek news sources…

  6. Irradiation damage 'displacement zone'; Dommages sous irradiation zone de deplacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genthon, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    It is well known that a charged particle (ion, primary atom, etc...) moving in a solid slows down and can cause a cascade of displacements of the atoms in the solid. A study is made here of the extent to which the cascade is made up, or not, of independent collisions, as a function of the energy of the initial charged particle. When the distance between the collisions is small, these latter are no longer independent; the cascade, which then has to be considered as a whole, perturbs and locates, in the irradiated solid , a zone which has been named a 'displacement zone'. It is shown that the proportion of displacement zones increases with increasing atom size (high atomic number Z), with decreasing atomic distance D in the substance considered and with decreasing energy of the ion undergoing the slowing down process (although always remaining above a few hundred eV). The proportions obtained are higher than those corresponding to the calculations of J. A. Brinkman [3]. An interatomic potential required for this work has also been determined. (author) [French] On sait qu'une particule chargee (ions, atomes primaires, etc...) en mouvement dans un solide se ralentit, avec eventuellement deplacement en cascade d'atomes du solide. On etudie ici dans quelle proportion, en fonction de l'energie de la particule chargee initiale, la cascade est constituee, ou non, de 'chocs independants'. Lorsque la distance entre chocs est petite, ceux-ci ne sont plus independants; la cascade, qui doit alors etre consideree dans son ensemble, perturbe et definit dans le solide irradie, une zone qu'on a appele zone de deplacements. On montre que la proportion de zones de deplacements est d'autant plus grande que les atomes sont gros (nombre atomique Z grand), que la distance interatomique D est petite dans le corps considere, et que l'energie de l'ion en ralentissement est petite (tout en restant superieure a quelques centaines d'eV). Les proportions obtenues sont superieures a celles qui

  7. Total suspended particles (TSP) and breathable particles (PM10) in Aburra Valley, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldarriaga Molina, Julio Cesar; Echeverri Londono, Carlos Alberto; Molina Perez Francisco Jose

    2004-01-01

    In the Aburra's valley, nor-western region of Colombia, inhabited by 3 million people, crossed by 400,000 vehicles; with the presence of establishments of industrial sectors: textile, foods and metal-mechanical; The concentrations of total suspended particles (PST) and breathable particles (PM 1 0) were evaluated, during the period: December of 2000 to June of 2001. The determinations of PST and PM 1 0 were performed in ten stations, distributed of north to the south, covering urban and rural zones with the municipalities of: Girardota, Bello, Medellin, Itagui, Sabaneta and Caldas. When analyzing relation PM 1 0/PST, was that the best statistical correlations are located in the zones center and the south of the valley. In addition the increasing tendency in relation PM 1 0/PST was observed, from 0.527 for the rural station Girardota (North), to 0.813 in the urban station Caldas (South). This gradient in relation PM 1 0/PST apparently this related to the wind regime that predominates in the Valley of Aburra with direction the north-south, which causes that the fine particles migrate of north to the south, increasing relation PM 1 0/PST in the same direction

  8. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  9. Full-Wave Ambient Noise Tomography of the Long Valley Volcanic Region (California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, A. F.; Shelly, D. R.; Dawson, P. B.; Hill, D. P.; Shen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In the late 1970s, and throughout the 1990s, Long Valley Caldera (California) experienced intense periods of unrest characterized by uplift of the resurgent dome, earthquake swarms, and CO2 emissions around Mammoth Mountain. While modeling of the uplift and gravity changes support the possibility of new magmatic intrusions beneath the caldera, geologic interpretations conclude that the magmatic system underlying the caldera is moribund. Geophysical studies yield diverse versions of a sizable but poorly resolved low-velocity zone at depth (> 6km), yet whether this zone is indicative of a significant volume of crystal mush, smaller isolated pockets of partial melt, or magmatic fluids, is inconclusive. The nature of this low-velocity zone, and the state of volcano's magmatic system, carry important implications for the significance of resurgent-dome inflation and the nature of associated hazards. To better characterize this low-velocity zone we present preliminary results from a 3D full-waveform ambient-noise seismic tomography model derived from the past 25 years of vertical component broadband and short-period seismic data. This new study uses fully numerical solutions of the wave equation to account for the complex wave propagation in a heterogeneous, 3D earth model, including wave interaction with topography. The method ensures that wave propagation is modeled accurately in 3D, enabling the full use of seismic records. By using empirical Green's functions, derived from ambient noise and modeled as Rayleigh surface waves, we are able to extend model resolution to depths beyond the limits of previous local earthquake studies. The model encompasses not only the Long Valley Caldera, but the entire Long Valley Volcanic Region, including Mammoth Mountain and the Mono Crater/Inyo Domes volcanic chain.

  10. Mapping the depth to ice-cemented ground in the high elevation Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, M.; McKay, C. P.; Heldmann, J. L.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D. T.; Jackson, A.; Lacelle, D.; Paulsen, G.; Pollard, W. H.; Zacny, K.

    2011-12-01

    The high elevation Dry Valleys of Antarctica provide a unique location for the study of permafrost distribution and stability. In particular, the extremely arid and cold conditions preclude the presence of liquid water, and the exchange of water between the ice-cemented ground and the atmosphere is through vapour transport (diffusion). In addition, the low atmospheric humidity results in the desiccation of the subsurface, forming a dry permafrost layer (i.e., cryotic soils which are dry and not ice-cemented). Weather data suggests that subsurface ice is unstable under current climatic conditions. Yet we do find ice-cemented ground in these valleys. This contradiction provides insight into energy balance modeling, vapour transport, and additional climate effects which stabilize subsurface ice. To study the driving factors in the stability and distribution of ice-cemented ground, we have extensively mapped the depth to ice-cemented ground in University Valley (1730 m; 77°S 51.8', 160°E 43'), and three neighbouring valleys in the Beacon Valley area. We measured the depth to ice-cemented ground at 15-40 locations per valley by digging soil pits and drilling until ice was reached; for each location 3-5 measurements within a ~1 m2 area were averaged (see figure). This high-resolution mapping of the depth to ice-cemented ground provides new insight on the distribution and stability of subsurface ice, and shows significant variability in the depth to ground ice within each valley. We are combining data from mapping the depth to ice-cemented ground with year-round, in situ measurements of the atmospheric and subsurface conditions, such as temperature, humidity, wind, and light, to model the local stability of ice-cemented ground. We are using this dataset to examine the effects of slopes, shading, and soil properties, as well as the suggested importance of snow recurrence, to better understand diffusion-controlled subsurface ice stability.

  11. Fracture Patterns within the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, K.; White, T.; Perron, J.; Chattopadhyay, P. B.; Duffy, C.

    2012-12-01

    Rock fractures are known to exist within the deep Critical Zone and are expected to influence groundwater flow, but there are limited data on their orientation and spatial arrangement and no general framework for systematically predicting their effects. Here, we explore fracture patterns within the Susquehanna-Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, and consider how they may be influenced by weathering, rock structure, and stress via field observations of variable fracture orientation within the site, with implications for the spatial variability of structural control on hydrologic processes. Based on field observations from 16-m deep boreholes and surface outcrop, we suggest that the appropriate structural model for the watershed is steeply dipping strata with meter- to decimeter-scale folds superimposed, including a superimposed fold at the mouth of the watershed that creates a short fold limb with gently dipping strata. These settings would produce an anisotropy in the hydraulic conductivity and perhaps also flow, especially within the context of the imposed stress field. Recently conducted 2-D numerical stress modeling indicates that the proxy for shear fracture declines more rapidly with depth beneath valleys than beneath ridgelines, which may produce or enhance the spatial variability in permeability. Even if topographic stresses do not cause new fractures, they could activate and cause displacement on old fractures, making the rocks easier to erode and increasing the permeability, and potentially driving a positive feedback that enhances the growth of valley relief. Calculated stress fields are consistent with field observations, which show a rapid decline in fracture abundance with increasing depth below the valley floor, and predict a more gradual trend beneath ridgetops, leading to a more consistent (and lower) hydraulic conductivity with depth on the ridgetops when compared to the valley, where values are higher but more variable with depth. Hydraulic

  12. 75 FR 17692 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75 -- Phoenix, Arizona, Application for Reorganization under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ...'' in the context of the Board's standard 2,000-acre activation limit for a general-purpose zone project... terminal at the Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, Phoenix; Site 2 (18 acres) CC&F South Valley..., 4747 West Buckeye Road, Phoenix; Site 4 (18 acres) - Santa Fe Business Park, 47th Avenue and Campbell...

  13. Effect of lighting conditions of coastal zone of Knyaginya lake on composition of macrophyte biohydrocenoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Baranovsky

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In articlе the stuffs of researches of influence of a mode of illuminating intensity of coastal zone of a different exposition flood-land of lake Knyaginya (valley Samara on composition of highest aqueous green and macrozoobentos macrophytes biogeocenose are submitted.

  14. Geotechnical environmental aspects of geothermal power generation at Herber, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-01

    The feasibility of constructing a 25-50 MWe geothermal power plant using low salinity hydrothermal fluid as the energy source was assessed. Here, the geotechnical aspects of geothermal power generation and their relationship to environmental impacts in the Imperial Valley of California were investigated. Geology, geophysics, hydrogeology, seismicity and subsidence are discussed in terms of the availability of data, state-of-the-art analytical techniques, historical and technical background and interpretation of current data. Estimates of the impact of these geotechnical factors on the environment in the Imperial Valley, if geothermal development proceeds, are discussed.

  15. Spin filling of valley-orbit states in a silicon quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, W H; Yang, C H; Zwanenburg, F A; Dzurak, A S, E-mail: wee.lim@unsw.edu.au [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2011-08-19

    We report the demonstration of a low-disorder silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (Si MOS) quantum dot containing a tunable number of electrons from zero to N = 27. The observed evolution of addition energies with parallel magnetic field reveals the spin filling of electrons into valley-orbit states. We find a splitting of 0.10 meV between the ground and first excited states, consistent with theory and placing a lower bound on the valley splitting. Our results provide optimism for the realisation in the near future of spin qubits based on silicon quantum dots.

  16. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  17. Porosity development in the Copper Ridge Dolomite and Maynardville Limestone, Bear Creek Valley and Chestnut Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstrand, P.M.; Menefee, L.S.; Dreier, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    Matrix porosity data from deep core obtained in Bear Creek Valley indicate that porosities in the Maynardville Limestone are lithology and depth dependent. Matrix porosities are greater in the Cooper Ridge Dolomite than in the Maynardville Limestone, yet there is no apparent correlation with depth. Two interrelated diagenetic processes are the major controlling factors on porosity development in the Copper Ridge Dolomite and Maynardville Limestone; dissolution of evaporate minerals and dedolomitization. Both of these diagenetic processes produce matrix porosities between 2.1 and 1.3% in the Copper Ridge Dolomite and upper part of the Maynardville Limestone (Zone 6) to depths of approximately 600 ft bgs. Mean matrix porosities in Zones 5 through 2 of the Maynardville Limestone range from 0.8 to 0.5%. A large number of cavities have been intersected during drilling activities in nearly all zones of the Maynardville Limestone in Bear Creek Valley. Therefore, any maynardville Limestone zone within approximately 200 ft of the ground surface is likely to contain cavities that allow significant and rapid flow of groundwater. Zone 6 could be an important stratigraphic unit in the Maynardville Limestone for groundwater flow and contaminant transport because of the abundance of vuggy and moldic porosities. There are large variations in the thickness and lithology in the lower part of the Maynardville (Zones 2, 3, and 4 in the Burial Grounds region). The direction and velocity of strike-parallel groundwater flow may be altered in this area within the lower Maynardville Limestone

  18. Microbial ecology of extreme environments: Antarctic dry valley yeasts and growth in substrate limited habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishniac, H. S.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple stresses temperature, moisture, and for chemoheterotrophs, sources of carbon and energy of the Dry Valley Antarctica soils allow at best depauperate communities, low in species diversity and population density. The nature of community structure, the operation of biogeochemical cycles, the evolution and mechanisms of adaptation to this habitat are of interest in informing speculations upon life on other planets as well as in modeling the limits of gene life. Yeasts of the Cryptococcus vishniacil complex (Basidiobiastomycetes) are investigated, as the only known indigenes of the most hostile, lichen free, parts of the Dry Valleys. Methods were developed for isolating these yeasts (methods which do not exclude the recovery of other microbiota). The definition of the complex was refined and the importance of nitrogen sources was established as well as substrate competition in fitness to the Dry Valley habitats.

  19. On the fine structure of medium energy electron fluxes in the auroral zone and related effects in the ionospheric D-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on measurements of trapped and precipitated electrons of energy >30 keV and >100 keV observed by polar orbiting environmental satellites during overpasses of the imaging riometer at Kilpisjärvi, Finland. The satellites are in sun-synchronous orbits of about 850 km altitude, recording the electron fluxes at 2-s time resolution. The riometer measures the radiowave absorption at 38.2 MHz, showing the spatial pattern within a 240 km field of view. The analysis has focussed on two areas. Having found a close correlation between the radiowave absorption and the medium-energy electron fluxes during satellite overpasses, empirical relationships are derived, enabling one quantity to be predicted from the other for three sectors of local time. It is shown that small-scale variations observed during a pass are essentially spatial rather than temporal. Other properties, such as the spectra and the relation between precipitated and trapped components, are also considered in the light of the theory of pitch angle scattering by VLF waves. It is found that the properties and behaviour depend strongly on the time of day. In the noon sector, the precipitated and trapped fluxes are highly correlated through a square law relationship.

  20. Predicting the valley physics of silicon quantum dots directly from a device layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John King; Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Bacewski, Andrew D.; Nielsen, Erik; Montaño, Inès; Rudolph, Martin; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Muller, Richard P.

    Qubits made from electrostatically-defined quantum dots in Si-based systems are excellent candidates for quantum information processing applications. However, the multi-valley structure of silicon's band structure provides additional challenges for the few-electron physics critical to qubit manipulation. Here, we present a theory for valley physics that is predictive, in that we take as input the real physical device geometry and experimental voltage operation schedule, and with minimal approximation compute the resulting valley physics. We present both effective mass theory and atomistic tight-binding calculations for two distinct metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) quantum dot systems, directly comparing them to experimental measurements of the valley splitting. We conclude by assessing these detailed simulations' utility for engineering desired valley physics in future devices. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Sandia National Laboratories Truman Fellowship Program, which is funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program.

  1. Direct measurement of discrete valley and orbital quantum numbers in bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B M; Li, J I A; Zibrov, A A; Wang, L; Taniguchi, T; Watanabe, K; Hone, J; Dean, C R; Zaletel, M; Ashoori, R C; Young, A F

    2017-10-16

    The high magnetic field electronic structure of bilayer graphene is enhanced by the spin, valley isospin, and an accidental orbital degeneracy, leading to a complex phase diagram of broken symmetry states. Here, we present a technique for measuring the layer-resolved charge density, from which we directly determine the valley and orbital polarization within the zero energy Landau level. Layer polarization evolves in discrete steps across 32 electric field-tuned phase transitions between states of different valley, spin, and orbital order, including previously unobserved orbitally polarized states stabilized by skew interlayer hopping. We fit our data to a model that captures both single-particle and interaction-induced anisotropies, providing a complete picture of this correlated electron system. The resulting roadmap to symmetry breaking paves the way for deterministic engineering of fractional quantum Hall states, while our layer-resolved technique is readily extendable to other two-dimensional materials where layer polarization maps to the valley or spin quantum numbers.The phase diagram of bilayer graphene at high magnetic fields has been an outstanding question, with orders possibly between multiple internal quantum degrees of freedom. Here, Hunt et al. report the measurement of the valley and orbital order, allowing them to directly reconstruct the phase diagram.

  2. Analysis of Mining-induced Valley Closure Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Mitra, R.; Oh, J.; Hebblewhite, B.

    2016-05-01

    Valley closure movements have been observed for decades in Australia and overseas when underground mining occurred beneath or in close proximity to valleys and other forms of irregular topographies. Valley closure is defined as the inward movements of the valley sides towards the valley centreline. Due to the complexity of the local geology and the interplay between several geological, topographical and mining factors, the underlying mechanisms that actually cause this behaviour are not completely understood. A comprehensive programme of numerical modelling investigations has been carried out to further evaluate and quantify the influence of a number of these mining and geological factors and their inter-relationships. The factors investigated in this paper include longwall positional factors, horizontal stress, panel width, depth of cover and geological structures around the valley. It is found that mining in a series passing beneath the valley dramatically increases valley closure, and mining parallel to valley induces much more closure than other mining orientations. The redistribution of horizontal stress and influence of mining activity have also been recognised as important factors promoting valley closure, and the effect of geological structure around the valley is found to be relatively small. This paper provides further insight into both the valley closure mechanisms and how these mechanisms should be considered in valley closure prediction models.

  3. A temporal stable isotopic (d18O, dD, d-excess) comparison in glacier meltwater streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we describe the importance of hyporheic dynamics within Andersen Creek and Von Guerard Stream, Taylor Valley, Antarctica, from the 2010-11 melt season using natural tracers. Water collection started at flow onset and continued, with weekly hyporheic zone sampling. The water d18O and d...

  4. Interpretation of shallow crustal structure of the Imperial Valley, California, from seismic reflection profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severson, L.K.

    1987-05-01

    Eight seismic reflection profiles (285 km total length) from the Imperial Valley, California, were provided to CALCRUST for reprocessing and interpretation. Two profiles were located along the western margin of the valley, five profiles were situated along the eastern margin and one traversed the deepest portion of the basin. These data reveal that the central basin contains a wedge of highly faulted sediments that thins to the east. Most of the faulting is strike-slip but there is evidence for block rotations on the scale of 5 to 10 kilometers within the Brawley Seismic Zone. These lines provide insight into the nature of the east and west edges of the Imperial Valley. The basement at the northwestern margin of the valley, to the north of the Superstition Hills, has been normal-faulted and blocks of basement material have ''calved'' into the trough. A blanket of sediments has been deposited on this margin. To the south of the Superstition Hills and Superstition Mountain, the top of the basement is a detachment surface that dips gently into the basin. This margin is also covered by a thick sequence sediments. The basement of the eastern margin consists of metamorphic rocks of the upper plate of the Chocolate Mountain Thrust system underlain by the Orocopia Schist. These rocks dip to the southeast and extend westward to the Sand Hills Fault but do not appear to cross it. Thus, the Sand Hills Fault is interpreted to be the southern extension of the San Andreas Fault. North of the Sand Hills Fault the East Highline Canal seismicity lineament is associated with a strike-slip fault and is probably linked to the Sand Hills Fault. Six geothermal areas crossed by these lines, in agreement with previous studies of geothermal reservoirs, are associated with ''faded'' zones, Bouguer gravity and heat flow maxima, and with higher seismic velocities than surrounding terranes.

  5. Origin of microbial life hypothesis: a gel cytoplasm lacking a bilayer membrane, with infrared radiation producing exclusion zone (EZ) water, hydrogen as an energy source and thermosynthesis for bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, J T; Pollack, G H

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that pre-biotic bacterial cell(s) and the first cells capable of growth/division did not require a cytoplasmic membrane. A gel-like microscopic structure less than a cubic micrometer may have had a dual role as both an ancient pre-cytoplasm and a boundary layer to the higher-entropy external environment. The gel pre-cytoplasm exposed to radiant energy, especially in the infrared (IR) region of the EM spectrum resulted in the production of an exclusion zone (EZ) with a charge differential (-100 to -200 mV) and boundary that may have been a possible location for the latter organization of the first cytoplasmic membrane. Pre-biotic cells and then-living cells may have used hydrogen as the universal energy source, and thermosynthesis in their bioenergetic processes. These components will be discussed as to how they are interconnected, and their hypothesized roles in the origin of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  7. A new Proposal to Mexico Valley Zonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Estrella, H. C.; Yussim, S.; Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of the Michoacan earthquake (19th September, 1985, Mw 8.1) in Mexico City caused a significant change in the political, social and scientific history, as it was considered the worst seismic disaster ever lived in Mexico. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to understand and determine the parameters that caused the special features registered. One of these efforts had began on 1960 with the work by Marsal and Masari, who published the Mexico Valley seismological and geotechnical zonification (1969), based on gravimetric and shallow borehole data. In this work, we present a revision of the studies that proposed the zonification, a description of the valley geology, and basing on it we propose a new zonification for Mexico Valley.

  8. Nitrate Contamination of Deep Aquifers in the Salinas Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J. E.; Esser, B. K.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Holtz, M.; Roberts, S. K.; Singleton, M. J.; Visser, A.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Belitz, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Salinas Valley, known as 'the salad bowl of the world', has been an agricultural center for more than 100 years. Irrigated row crops such as lettuce and strawberries dominate both land use and water use. Groundwater is the exclusive supply for both irrigation and drinking water. Some irrigation wells and most public water supply wells in the Salinas Valley are constructed to draw water from deep portions of the aquifer system, where contamination by nitrate is less likely than in the shallow portions of the aquifer system. However, a number of wells with top perforations greater than 75 m deep, screened below confining or semi-confining units, have nitrate concentrations greater than the Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL) of 45 mg/L as NO3-. This study uses nitrate concentrations from several hundred irrigation, drinking water, and monitoring wells (Monterey County Water Resources Agency, 1997), along with tritium-helium groundwater ages acquired at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through the State of California Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program (reported in Kulongoski et al., 2007 and in Moran et al., in press), to identify nitrate 'hot spots' in the deep aquifer and to examine possible modes of nitrate transport to the deep aquifer. In addition, observed apparent groundwater ages are compared with the results of transport simulations that use particle tracking and a stochastic-geostatistical framework to incorporate aquifer heterogeneity to determine the distribution of travel times from the water table to each well (Fogg et al., 1999). The combined evidence from nitrate, tritium, tritiogenic 3He, and radiogenic 4He concentrations, reveals complex recharge and flow to the capture zone of the deep drinking water wells. Widespread groundwater pumping for irrigation accelerates vertical groundwater flow such that high nitrate groundwater reaches some deep drinking water wells. Deeper portions of the wells often draw in water that recharged

  9. Geologic summary of the Owens Valley drilling project, Owens and Rose Valleys, Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, D.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Owens Valley Drilling Project consists of eight drill holes located in southwest Inyo County, California, having an aggregate depth of 19,205 feet (5853 m). Project holes penetrated the Coso Formation of upper Pliocene or early Pleistocene age and the Owens Lake sand and lakebed units of the same age. The project objective was to improve the reliability of uranium-potential-resource estimates assigned to the Coso Formation in the Owens Valley region. Uranium-potential-resource estimates for this area in $100 per pound U 3 O 8 forward-cost-category material have been estimatd to be 16,954 tons (15,384 metric tons). This estimate is based partly on project drilling results. Within the Owens Valley project area, the Coso Formation was encountered only in the Rose Valley region, and for this reason Rose Valley is considered to be the only portion of the project area favorable for economically sized uranium deposits. The sequence of sediments contained in the Owens Valley basin is considered to be largely equivalent but lithologically dissimilar to the Coso Formation of Haiwee Ridge and Rose Valley. The most important factor in the concentration of significant amounts of uranium in the rock units investigated appears to be the availability of reducing agents. Significant amounts of reductants (pyrite) were found in the Coso Formation. No organic debris was noted. Many small, disconnected uranium occurrences, 100 to 500 ppM U 3 O 8 , were encountered in several of the holes

  10. Reviews and syntheses: on the roles trees play in building and plumbing the critical zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Brantley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Trees, the most successful biological power plants on earth, build and plumb the critical zone (CZ in ways that we do not yet understand. To encourage exploration of the character and implications of interactions between trees and soil in the CZ, we propose nine hypotheses that can be tested at diverse settings. The hypotheses are roughly divided into those about the architecture (building and those about the water (plumbing in the CZ, but the two functions are intertwined. Depending upon one's disciplinary background, many of the nine hypotheses listed below may appear obviously true or obviously false. (1 Tree roots can only physically penetrate and biogeochemically comminute the immobile substrate underlying mobile soil where that underlying substrate is fractured or pre-weathered. (2 In settings where the thickness of weathered material, H, is large, trees primarily shape the CZ through biogeochemical reactions within the rooting zone. (3 In forested uplands, the thickness of mobile soil, h, can evolve toward a steady state because of feedbacks related to root disruption and tree throw. (4 In settings where h ≪ H and the rates of uplift and erosion are low, the uptake of phosphorus into trees is buffered by the fine-grained fraction of the soil, and the ultimate source of this phosphorus is dust. (5 In settings of limited water availability, trees maintain the highest length density of functional roots at depths where water can be extracted over most of the growing season with the least amount of energy expenditure. (6 Trees grow the majority of their roots in the zone where the most growth-limiting resource is abundant, but they also grow roots at other depths to forage for other resources and to hydraulically redistribute those resources to depths where they can be taken up more efficiently. (7 Trees rely on matrix water in the unsaturated zone that at times may have an isotopic composition distinct from the gravity

  11. Reviews and syntheses: on the roles trees play in building and plumbing the critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Susan L.; Eissenstat, David M.; Marshall, Jill A.; Godsey, Sarah E.; Balogh-Brunstad, Zsuzsanna; Karwan, Diana L.; Papuga, Shirley A.; Roering, Joshua; Dawson, Todd E.; Evaristo, Jaivime; Chadwick, Oliver; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Weathers, Kathleen C.

    2017-11-01

    Trees, the most successful biological power plants on earth, build and plumb the critical zone (CZ) in ways that we do not yet understand. To encourage exploration of the character and implications of interactions between trees and soil in the CZ, we propose nine hypotheses that can be tested at diverse settings. The hypotheses are roughly divided into those about the architecture (building) and those about the water (plumbing) in the CZ, but the two functions are intertwined. Depending upon one's disciplinary background, many of the nine hypotheses listed below may appear obviously true or obviously false. (1) Tree roots can only physically penetrate and biogeochemically comminute the immobile substrate underlying mobile soil where that underlying substrate is fractured or pre-weathered. (2) In settings where the thickness of weathered material, H, is large, trees primarily shape the CZ through biogeochemical reactions within the rooting zone. (3) In forested uplands, the thickness of mobile soil, h, can evolve toward a steady state because of feedbacks related to root disruption and tree throw. (4) In settings where h ≪ H and the rates of uplift and erosion are low, the uptake of phosphorus into trees is buffered by the fine-grained fraction of the soil, and the ultimate source of this phosphorus is dust. (5) In settings of limited water availability, trees maintain the highest length density of functional roots at depths where water can be extracted over most of the growing season with the least amount of energy expenditure. (6) Trees grow the majority of their roots in the zone where the most growth-limiting resource is abundant, but they also grow roots at other depths to forage for other resources and to hydraulically redistribute those resources to depths where they can be taken up more efficiently. (7) Trees rely on matrix water in the unsaturated zone that at times may have an isotopic composition distinct from the gravity-drained water that transits

  12. 77 FR 71189 - AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-442-000] AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of AES Beaver...

  13. 77 FR 12579 - Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Extension of Time for Filing of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-003] Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Extension of Time for Filing of Comments, Final Terms and Conditions, Recommendations, and Prescriptions As stated in a letter dated January 27, 2012, in this proceeding by the...

  14. Methodology for the electric energy distribution systems planning of small and rural zones of Comision Federal de Electricidad; Metodologia para la planeacion de sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica de zonas pequenas y rurales de Comision Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Gomez, Miguel Armando

    2008-12-15

    The 13 Distribution Divisions in which Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has administratively and technically structured the electric energy distribution in the attended territory it has to take care of, are also constituted by a total of 120 of Distribution Zones, classified according to the product of their number of clients, by their volume of annual sales, in medium and low tension, as zones type I, II and III. Examples of zones type III are the Guadalajara Zone and the Metropolitan Zone North Monterrey, East and West (metropolis), type II are predominantly urban zones such as Queretaro and Tepic, and type I is predominantly rural such as the Zapotlan Zones and Los Altos, in the state of Jalisco. Because of the cost and number of facilities that are authorized for their construction in the Distribution Rural Zones (Type I), one must be assured that these works are really the necessary ones to satisfy the demand of power within the quality commitments and with the best economy in the time. Otherwise, a great possibility exists of constructing expensive facilities and that little will help to solve the distribution system problems. Although annually reviews and updates are made of the Budget of Investments of Operation (PIO), and the Work Program of Investment of Electric Sector (POISE), the case that has occurred sometimes is that facilities are constructed where all the passages of the Planning Process were not applied or that the analysis was not sufficient, being very probable that some or several of the following types of errors have been committed: a) The allocation of the processes to facilities that are not necessary in the short term. b) Constructing a non-useful work or of little usefulness causes that facilities with greater yield are not constructed. c) The priority of works is not the most adequate. d) Not to have a long term vision so that the facilities that are constructed in the short term are useful in the long term plan. e) Some facilities

  15. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  16. Urban air quality of kathmandu valley "Kingdom of Nepal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. K.

    The oval shaped tectonic basin of Kathmandu valley, occupying about 656 sq.km is situated in the middle sector of Himalayan range. There are three districts in the valley, i.e. Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Out of the three, the most populated is Kathmandu city (the capital of Kingdom of Nepal) which has a population of 668,00 in an area of approximately 50 km 2. The energy consumption of the city population is about 1/3 of the total import to Nepal of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, furnace oil and cooking gas. This has resulted heavy pollution of air in the city leading to bronchitis, and throat and chest diseases. Vehicles have increased several fold in recent months and there are 100,000 in number on the road and they have 900 km of road, out of which only 25% is metalled. Most of the two and three wheelers are polluting the air by emission of gases as well as dust particulate. SO 2 has been found to go as high as 202 μg cm -3 and NO 2 to 126 μg cm -3 particularly in winter months when a thick layer of fog covers the valley up to 10 am in the morning. All the gases are mixed within the limited air below the fog and the ground. This creates the problem. Furthermore, municipal waste of 500 m 3 a day and also liquid waste dumped directly into the Bagmati river at the rate of 500,000 ℓ d -1 makes the city ugly and filthy. Unless pollution of air, water and lard are controlled in time, Nepal will lose much of its foreign exchange earnings from the tourist industry. It is found that tourist arrivals have considerably reduced in recent years and most of hotels occupancy is 50-60% in peak time. Nepal is trying to introduce a legal framework for pollution control but it will take time to become effective.

  17. An overview of the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.; Boswell, M.B.; De Boer, T.K.; Duckworth, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    This session is titled ''DOE Special Waste Management Projects.'' West Valley and TMI are indeed special projects, in that they represent today's problems. They may well have been the two most visible symbols as to how nuclear wastes can poison the entire civilian nuclear power program. Each in its own way has been perceived as a major threat to the environment and to public health and safety; in both cases this threat has been perceived to be grossly more severe than it has been in fact. It is the Department of Energy' intent that both of these problems be made to disappear. This paper serves to introduce a series of paper describing the status of the West Valley Project. In the West Valley case substantial progress is being made and we believe we are well on the way toward transforming what has been a skeleton along the road to progress into positive and unmistakable evidence that high-level nuclear wastes such as those resulting from reprocessing can be managed, understood, and prepared for disposal by a straightforward adaptation and application of existing technologies. Further, we now have evidence that the costs of doing this are not exorbitant. Subsequent papers will describe waste characterization; the plans and designs for solidification; and the ancillary and supporting programs for handling effluents and wastes, for D and D to utilize existing facilities, and environmental support. In this paper we describe the history of this plant and the wastes being used in the demonstration; the legislation and intent of the Project; the accomplishments to date; and the projected schedule and costs

  18. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  19. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning, E-mail: maning@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Shengli, E-mail: zhangsl@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Daqing, E-mail: liudq@cczu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-06

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm “valleytronics” applications. - Highlights: • We explore the mechanical strain effects on the valley magnetotransport in graphene. • We analytically derive the dc collisional and Hall conductivities under strain. • The strain removes the valley degeneracy in Landau levels. • The strain causes a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. • The strain leads to the well separated valley Hall and Shubnikov–de Haas effects.

  20. The Health Valley: Global Entrepreneurial Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    In the space of a decade, the Lake Geneva region has become the Health Valley, a world-class laboratory for discovering and developing healthcare of the future. Through visionary individuals and thanks to exceptional infrastructure this region has become one of the most dynamic in the field of innovation, including leading scientific research and exceptional actors for the commercialization of academic innovation to industrial applications that will improve the lives of patients and their families. Here follows the chronicle of a spectacular expansion into the Health Valley.

  1. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.

  2. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  3. Plutonium Particle Migration in the Shallow Vadose Zone: The Nevada Test Site as an Analog Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. R.; Smith, D. K.

    2004-12-01

    The upper meter of the vadose zone in desert environments is the horizon where wastes have been released and human exposure is determined through dermal, inhalation, and food uptake pathways. This region is also characterized by numerous coupled processes that determine contaminant transport, including precipitation infiltration, evapotranspiration, daily and annual temperature cycling, dust resuspension, animal burrowing, and geochemical weathering reactions. While there is considerable interest in colloidal transport of minerals, pathogenic organisms, and contaminants in the vadose zone, there are limited field sites where the actual occurrence of contaminant migration can be quantified over the appropriate spatial and temporal scales of interest. At the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site, there have been numerous releases of radionuclides since the 1950's that have become field-scale tracer tests. One series of tests was the four safety shots conducted in an alluvial valley of Area 11 in the 1950's. These experiments tested the ability of nuclear materials to survive chemical explosions without initiating fission reactions. Four above-ground tests were conducted and they released plutonium and uranium on the desert valley floor with only one of the tests undergoing some fission. Shortly after the tests, the sites were surveyed for radionuclide distribution on the land surface using aerial surveys and with depth. Additional studies were conducted in the 1970's to better understand the fate of plutonium in the desert that included studies of depth distribution and dust resuspension. More recently, plutonium particle distribution in the soil profile was detected using autoradiography. The results to date demonstrate the vertical migration of plutonium particles to depths in excess of 30 cm in this arid vadose zone. While plutonium migration at the Nevada Test Site has been and continues to be a concern, these field experiments have become analog sites for the

  4. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  5. The Supergalactic Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Habitability in the local universe is examined. Constrained by metal abundance and exposure to sterilizing events, life as we know it requires significantly long periods of stable environmental conditions. Planets within galaxies undergoing major mergers, active AGN, starburst episodes, and merging black holes pose serious threats to long-term habitability. Importantly, the development of several layers of protection from high-energy particles such as a thick atmosphere, a strong planetary magnetic field, an astrosphere, and a galactic magnetic field is of great benefit. Factors such as star type and activity, planet type and composition, the location of a planet within its host galaxy, and even the location within a supercluster of galaxies can affect the potential habitability of planets. We discuss the concept of the Supergalactic Habitable Zone introduced by Mason and Biermann in terms of habitability in the local universe and find that galaxies near the center of the Virgo cluster, for example, have a much lower probability for the development of life as we know it as compared to locations in the Milky Way.

  6. Emergency planning zone reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the process used by a large industrial Department of Energy (DOE) site to communicate changing hazards to its stakeholders and install the confidence necessary to implement the resulting emergency planning changes. Over the last decade as the sites missions have shifted from full-scale production to a greater emphasis on environmental restoration and waste management, the off-site threat from its operations has substantially decreased. The challenge was to clearly communicate the reduced hazards, install confidence in the technical analysis that documented the hazard reduction, and obtain stakeholder buy-in on the path forward to change the emergency management program. The most significant change to the emergency management program was the proposed reduction of the sites Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). As the EPZ is defined as an area for which planning is needed to protect the public in the event of an accident, the process became politically challenging. An overview of how the site initially approached this problem and then learned to more substantially involve the state and local emergency preparedness agencies and the local Citizens Advisory Board will be presented. (author)

  7. Hydrodynamic modelling of extreme flood events in the Kashmir valley in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Manoj; Parvaze, Sabah

    2017-04-01

    Floods are one of the most predominant, costly and deadly hazards of all natural vulnerabilities. Every year, floods exert a heavy toll on human life and property in many parts of the world. The prediction of river stages and discharge during flood extremes plays a vital role in planning structural and non-structural measures of flood management. The predictions are also valuable to prepare the flood inundation maps and river floodplain zoning. In the Kashmir Valley, floods occur mainly and very often in the Jhelum Basin mostly due to extreme precipitation events and rugged mountainous topography of the basin. These floods cause extreme damage to life and property in the valley from time to time. Excessive rainfall, particularly in higher sub-catchments causes the snow to melt resulting in excessive runoff downhill to the streams causing floods in the Kashmir Valley where Srinagar city is located. However, very few hydrological studies have been undertaken for the Jhelum Basin mainly due to non-availability of hydrological data due to very complex mountainous terrain. Therefore, the present study has been conducted to model the extreme flood events in the Jhelum Basin in Kashmir Valley. An integrated NAM and MIKE 11 HD model has been setup for Jhelum basin up to Ram Munshi Bagh gauging site and then four most extreme historical flood events in the time series has been analyzed separately including the most recent and most extreme flood event of 2014. In September 2014, the Kashmir Valley witnessed the most severe flood in the past 60 years due to catastrophic rainfall from 1st to 6th September wherein the valley received unprecedented rainfall of more than 650 mm in just 3 days breaking record of many decades. The MIKE 11 HD and NAM model has been calibrated using 21 years (1985-2005) data and validated using 9 years (2006-2014) data. The efficiency indices of the model for calibration and validation period is 0.749 and 0.792 respectively. The model simulated

  8. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley...

  9. An example of Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014) have been best explained by the geometry .... flows through narrow valley confined by the steep valley slopes. ... valley (figure 3b) which opens up around Srina- ... Method. 4.1 Drainage basin and stream network. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) helps in extracting ... was processed to fill the pits or sinks, and to obtain.

  10. Middle Pleistocene infill of Hinkley Valley by Mojave River sediment and associated lake sediment: Depositional architecture and deformation by strike-slip faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Haddon, Elizabeth; Langenheim, Victoria; Cyr, Andrew J.; Wan, Elmira; Walkup, Laura; Starratt, Scott W.

    2018-01-01

    avulsed through the valley, rather than continuing toward Lake Manix, during the late Pleistocene. Two dextral strike-slip fault zones, the Lockhart and the Mt. General, fold and displace the distinctive stratigraphic units, as well as surficial late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits. The sedimentary architecture and the two fault zones provide a framework for evaluating groundwater flow in Hinkley Valley.

  11. Irrigation channels of the Upper Rhone valley (Switzerland). Geomorphological analysis of a cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    are accentuated by high insulation and evaporation. Finally, foehn events are quite common. In a climatic point of view, the area can be divided in three main zones: (1) Upstream of Brig, the climate is characterised by cold and wet conditions, and irrigation is not necessary; (2) between Brig and Martigny, the rain shadow effect is responsible of irrigation needs in the lower altitudes, whereas at high altitudes rainfall is sufficient for plant growing without irrigation; (3) downstream of Martigny, the climate is wetter and irrigation is not necessary. In a palaeoclimatic point of view, the Rhone River catchment was characterised by numerous glaciations during the Quaternary. Quaternary glaciers have shaped the valleys (U-shaped valleys, hanged valleys) and the postglacial hydrographical network had to adapt to the glacial valleys (presence of numerous waterfalls, hanged valleys, postglacial gorges, alluvial fans). By crossing climatic and structural contexts, three groups of geomorphological contexts of irrigation channels can be highlighted: (1) In the tributary valleys situated South of the Rhone valley (Penninic Alps) the irrigation channels are simply dug in the valley slopes; several of them are affected by landslides typical of metamorphic rocks of Penninic Alps; (2) In the short tributary valleys of the crystalline Aar Massif - in the valleys North to the city of Visp -, the geomorphological context is characterised by steep slopes both in the tributary valleys and in the south-facing slopes dominating the Rhone River valley. In this area, water channels are cut into the rocks and in some parts they are built in wood pipes hanged along the rock walls; (3) In the tributary valleys of the Helvetic domain - North of the Rhone River between Leuk and Sion - the geological context highly influences the building techniques: due to geological dipping towards Southeast, the tributary valley are dissymmetric: in the dip slopes channels are simply cut in the soil

  12. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, R.F. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project was established by Public Law 96-368, the {open_quotes}West Valley Demonstration Project Act, {close_quotes} on October 1, l980. Under this act, Congress directed the Department of Energy to carry out a high level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate solidification techniques which can be used for preparing high level radioactive waste for disposal. In addition to developing this technology, the West Valley Demonstration Project Act directs the Department of Energy to: (1) develop containers suitable for permanent disposal of the high level waste; (2) transport the solidified high level waste to a Federal repository; (3) dispose of low level and transuranic waste produced under the project; and (4) decontaminate and decommission the facilities and materials associated with project activities and the storage tanks originally used to store the liquid high level radioactive waste. The process of vitrification will be used to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes into borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems which are used in the vitrification process.

  13. Device-Level Models Using Multi-Valley Effective Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczewski, Andrew D.; Frees, Adam; Gamble, John King; Gao, Xujiao; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Mitchell, John A.; Montaño, Inès; Muller, Richard P.; Nielsen, Erik

    2015-03-01

    Continued progress in quantum electronics depends critically on the availability of robust device-level modeling tools that capture a wide range of physics and effective mass theory (EMT) is one means of building such models. Recent developments in multi-valley EMT show quantitative agreement with more detailed atomistic tight-binding calculations of phosphorus donors in silicon (Gamble, et. al., arXiv:1408.3159). Leveraging existing PDE solvers, we are developing a framework in which this multi-valley EMT is coupled to an integrated device-level description of several experimentally active qubit technologies. Device-level simulations of quantum operations will be discussed, as well as the extraction of process matrices at this level of theory. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Sandia National Laboratories Truman Fellowship Program, which is funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Technical safety appraisal of the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This report presents the results of one in a series of Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) being conducted of DOE nuclear operations by the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health Office of Safety Appraisals TSAs are one of the ititiatives announced by the Secretary of Energy on September 18, 1985, to enhance the DOE environment, safety and health program. This report presents the results of a TSA of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The appraisal was conducted by a team of exerts assembled by the DOE Office of Safety Appraisal and was conducted during onsite visits of June 26-30 and July 10-21, 1989. West Valley, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, New York is the location of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility operated in the United States. Nuclear Fuels Services, Inc. (NFS) operated the plant from 1966 to 1972 and processed about 640 metric tons of spent reactor fuel. The reprocessing operation generated about 560,000 gallons of high-level radioactive waste, which was transferred into underground tanks for storage. In 1972 NFS closed the plant and subsequently decided not to reopen it

  15. A pilgrimage through superheavy valley

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gap p, average neutron pairing gap n, two-nucleon separation energy S2q and shell .... study has appeared as a powerful tool to study the shapes and collective properties of nuclei ... and identify the magic proton and neutron numbers in the superheavy region. ... pairing gap indicates the close shell structure of the nucleus.

  16. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  17. Rift Valley Fever, Mayotte, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, François; Collet, Louis; D’Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    After the 2006–2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

  18. SADF EARLYIRON AGE EXCAVATIONS IN THETUGELA VALLEY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of the high flanking ridges of the Tugela. Valley. The high ... fire. Police intervention and the Bhengu superior- ity in numbers brought an end to the fights just prior to the ..... The tail and three legs of the reptile are miss- ing . . ~C£.'.':.-:".

  19. Antelope Valley Community College District Education Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmyer, Joe

    An analysis is provided of a proposal to the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges by the Antelope Valley Community College District (AVCCD) to develop an education center in Palmdale to accommodate rapid growth. First, pros and cons are discussed for the following major options: (1) increase utilization and/or expand the…

  20. Ecological Researches in the Yagnob Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razykov, Z.A.; Yunusov, M.M.; Bezzubov, N.I.; Murtazaev, Kh.; Fajzullaev, B.G.

    2002-01-01

    The article dwells on the resents of the estimation of the ecology surroundings of the Yagnob Valley. The researches included appraisal of radiation background, determination of the amount of heavy and radioactive elements in soil, bottom sedimentations, ashes in plants, water in rivers and wells. Designing on the premise of the researches implemented the ecology surrounding are estimated as propitious man's habitation. (Authors)

  1. 27 CFR 9.174 - Yadkin Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Yadkin Valley...-Salem, N.C.; VA; Tenn. (1953, Limited Revision 1962), and, (2) Charlotte, North Carolina; South Carolina... North Carolina within Wilkes, Surry, Yadkin and portions of Stokes, Forsyth, Davidson, and Davie...

  2. 27 CFR 9.41 - Lancaster Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lancaster Valley. 9.41 Section 9.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... through the town of Gap and along Mine Ridge to the 76°07′30″ west longitude line in Paradise Township. (9...

  3. College in Paradise! (Paradise Valley Shopping Mall).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolland, Lucile B.

    Rio Salado Community College (RSCC), a non-campus college within the Maricopa Community College District, offers hundreds of day, late afternoon, and evening classes at locations throughout the county. The Paradise Valley community had always participated heavily in the evening classes offered by RSCC at local high schools. In fall 1982, an effort…

  4. Temperature profiles from Salt Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. H.; Lachenbruch, A. H.; Smith, E. P.

    Temperature profiles were obtained in the nine drilled wells as part of a thermal study of the Salt Valley anticline, Paradox Basin, Utha. Thermal conductivities were also measured on 10 samples judged to be representative of the rocks encountered in the deepest hole. The temperature profiles and thermal conductivities are presented, together with preliminary interpretive remarks and suggestions for additional work.

  5. Poultry Slaughter facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a slaughterhouse, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of

  6. Business plan Hatchery Facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a hatchery, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of the

  7. Eco-Hydrological Modelling of Stream Valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole

    a flow reduction in the order of 20 % in a natural spring, whereas no effect could be measured in neither short nor deep piezometers in the river valley 50 m from the spring. Problems of measuring effects of pumping are partly caused by disturbances from natural water level fluctuations. In this aspect...

  8. Research and application of AMT method in Happiness valley district in Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiang; Zhang Ruliang; Yao Shancong; Fan Honghai; Wang Shengyun

    2013-01-01

    There are great challenges and difficulties in uranium geology work because of large area grass covered land and few outcrops in Happiness valley district in Namibia. To overcome the problems above, AMT method is undertaken to carry out profile investigation. After finding out electric parameters, different lithologic interfaces were divided, two fracture zones and one anticline structure were, this works laid the ground for the exploration of uranium deposit in Namibia and shew that AMT method is an effective one in finding underground structures. (authors)

  9. Monitoring of the Syrian rift valley using radon measurement technique in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.; Al-Ali, M.A.; Al-Hilall, M.

    1999-07-01

    Radon concentrations in groundwater were measured from six monitoring stations that were distributed along the Syrian rift valley, with time intervals of one month over a span of more than six years from 1992 to 1998. This set of data was integrated and statistically handled in order to be used as a significant base for estimating the range of natural radon background variations in groundwater along the concerned zone. The results reveal that only few anomalous radon values were recorded during the given time-window, which might be caused by tectonic disturbances or otherwise in the study region. (author)

  10. Results of environmental monitoring in the Kinta Valley and Cameron Highland areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoste, V.

    1994-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity of the Kinta Valley and the Cameron Highlands show relative high values of gamma and alpha radiation. Both types of radiation are strongly related to meteorological conditions. In the Kinta Valley the average environmental values for Ra-222 are I 00 Bq/m sup 3 air. The monitoring chart shows a sinus shaped curve of the Radon 222 daughter concentration (EER = energy equivalent radon concentration). The concentration levels differ by I 0 times from a low in the late afternoon (around 18:00) and a high with the sunrise in the early morning (around 7:00). In the Kinta Valley and at the Pangkor island the observed interval is 24-hours. In the Kinta Valley three different surveys each of one week length showed, that the daily fluctuations exists over the whole year and doe not depend on rainy or dry seasons.. In the Cameron Highlands the outdoor radioactivity varies much faster than in the valley. There wash-out and building up periods during and between rain falls control external gamma and alpha concentration. Immediately after wash-out local gamma values can rise to 10 μSv/hour near the ground. It is concluded that the radioactivity concentration in the air is controlled by the building up time of the Rn 222 (around two hours) and the Rn 220 progeny (around 12 hours). An equilibrium factor of around 0.2 to 0.3 shows that full equilibrium is never reached in the air system. The calculation of the yearly external exposure is only possible with the knowledge of the local monitored concentration curve. A first calculation of the external dose rate for the persons living in the Kinta Valley was made. The calculations suggest dose rates between 5 and 15 mSv per year. High effective doses rates are expected film inhalation of indoor Radon progeny concentrations and from ingestion of contaminated food. (author)

  11. Work zone safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  12. Fault zone hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.

  13. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, Amarisa; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Bocono Fault Zone, Western Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, C. (I.V.I.C., Caracas (Venezuela)); Estevez, R. (Universidad de los Andes, Merida (Venezuela)); Henneberg, H.G. (Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela))

    1993-02-01

    The Bocono Fault Zone, the western part of the Bocono Moron-El Pilar Fault System of the southern Caribbean plate boundary, consists of aligned valleys, linear depressions, pull-apart basins and other morphological features, which extend for about 500 km in a N45[degrees]E direction, between the Tachira depression (Venezuela-Colombia border) and the Caribbean Sea. It crosses obliquely the Cordillera de Merida and cuts across the Caribbean Mountains, two different geologic provinces of Late Tertiary-Quaternary and Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary age, respectively. Therefore, the maximum age that can be assigned to the Bocono Fault Zone is Late Tertiary (probably Pliocene). A total maximum right-lateral offset rate of 3.3 mm/a. The age of the sedimentary fill o[approximately] the La Gonzalez pull-apart basin suggests that the 7-9 km right-lateral offset necessary to produce it took place in Middle to Late Pleistocene time. The majority of seismic events are well aligned with the main fault trace; minor events are distributed in a belt several kilometers wide. Focal depth is typically 15 km and focal mechanisms indicate an average east-west compression across the zone. Return periods of 135-460 a (Richter M = 8), 45-70 a (M = 7), and 7-15 a (M = 6) have been calculated. Geodetic studies of several sites along the zone indicate compressive and right-lateral components; at Mucubaji the rate of right-lateral displacement observed is about 1 mm every 5 months (15 a of measurements).

  15. The use of antigen ELISA to monitor the effectiveness of a tsetse control campaign in the upper Didessa valley, Western Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewelde, N; Kebede, A; Tsegaye, A [National Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Investigation and Control Centre (NTTICC), Bedelle (Ethiopia)

    1997-02-01

    Blood and serum samples were collected from a tsetse free zone in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The samples were collected to determine the specificity and establish percentage positivity cut-off points of the antigen ELISA. Blood samples collected from these areas were negative for trypanosomosis using Standard Trypanosome Detection Methods (STDM). Ag-ELISA, in contrast, detected circulating trypanosomal antigens in 7.6% of the serum samples collected. Similarly, samples were collected from a tsetse infested zone in the upper Didessa valley, western Ethiopia, to assess the sensitivity of the Ag-ELISA. STDM detected trypanosomal infections in the range of 15.8 and 16.7% of blood samples from this zone. On the other hand, Ag-ELISA, indicated the presence of circulating trypanosomal antigens in 38.6% of serum samples tested. Moreover, Ag-ELISA was used to monitor the effectiveness of a tsetse control campaign in the upper Didessa valley. There were great differences in the prevalence rates of trypanosomosis, as revealed by the STDM and Ag-ELISA, between the tsetse controlled and tsetse infested zones of the upper Didessa valley. Generally, the Ag-ELISA revealed the presence of circulating trypanosomal antigens in only 43.7% of patent infections. Nevertheless, the test detected 318 more cases which were not diagnosed by any one of the STDM used. More interestingly, Ag-ELISA indicated the widespread presence of T. brucei in the cattle sampled in all zones. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs.

  16. The use of antigen ELISA to monitor the effectiveness of a tsetse control campaign in the upper Didessa valley, Western Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewelde, N.; Kebede, A.; Tsegaye, A.

    1997-01-01

    Blood and serum samples were collected from a tsetse free zone in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The samples were collected to determine the specificity and establish percentage positivity cut-off points of the antigen ELISA. Blood samples collected from these areas were negative for trypanosomosis using Standard Trypanosome Detection Methods (STDM). Ag-ELISA, in contrast, detected circulating trypanosomal antigens in 7.6% of the serum samples collected. Similarly, samples were collected from a tsetse infested zone in the upper Didessa valley, western Ethiopia, to assess the sensitivity of the Ag-ELISA. STDM detected trypanosomal infections in the range of 15.8 and 16.7% of blood samples from this zone. On the other hand, Ag-ELISA, indicated the presence of circulating trypanosomal antigens in 38.6% of serum samples tested. Moreover, Ag-ELISA was used to monitor the effectiveness of a tsetse control campaign in the upper Didessa valley. There were great differences in the prevalence rates of trypanosomosis, as revealed by the STDM and Ag-ELISA, between the tsetse controlled and tsetse infested zones of the upper Didessa valley. Generally, the Ag-ELISA revealed the presence of circulating trypanosomal antigens in only 43.7% of patent infections. Nevertheless, the test detected 318 more cases which were not diagnosed by any one of the STDM used. More interestingly, Ag-ELISA indicated the widespread presence of T. brucei in the cattle sampled in all zones. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs

  17. Biopetrology of coals from Krishnavaram area, Chintalapudi sub-basin, Godavari valley coalfields, Andhra Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarate, O.S. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2001-07-01

    Critical analysis of the constitution and rank of the sub-surface coal deposits from Krishnavaram area in the Chintalapudi sub-basin of Godavari valley coalfield is presented. Three coal/shale zones viz. A, B and C (in the ascending order) are encountered from Barakar Formation and lower Kamthi Member of the Lower Gondwana sequence. Zone C mostly contains shaly beds interbedded with thin coal bands (mostly shaly coal), and as such has no economic significance. Zone B is dominated by the vitric and mixed type of coal which has attained high volatile bituminous B and C ranks. The lowermost Zone A is characterised by mixed and fusic coal types with high volatile bituminous C rank. Both the zones A and B contain good quality coal and bear high economic potential. Cold and humid climate with alternating dry and oxidising spells have been interpreted from the constitution of coal. Moreover, the accumulation of thick pile of sediments rich in organic matter is attributed to the sinking of the basin floor due to the activation of faults. Later tectonic events either caused extinction or drastically reduced the number of the floral elements and formed thick shaly horizons interrupting the continuity of the coal facies.

  18. Generation of sound zones in 2.5 dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Olsen, Martin; Møller, Martin

    2011-01-01

    in a certain direction within a certain region of a room and at the same time suppress sound in another region. The method is examined through simulations and experiments. For comparison a simpler method based on the idea of maximising the ratio of the potential acoustic energy in an ensonified zone......Amethod for generating sound zones with different acoustic properties in a room is presented. The method is an extension of the two-dimensional multi-zone sound field synthesis technique recently developed by Wu and Abhayapala; the goal is, for example, to generate a plane wave that propagates...... to the potential acoustic energy in a quiet zone is also examined....

  19. Terrestrial Cosmogenic-Nuclide Dating of Alluvial Fans in Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, Michael N.; Slate, Janet L.; Phillips, Fred M.

    2008-01-01

    Panamint Valley and over Wingate Wash. A remnant of ancient lake shoreline deposits that once extended across the Hanaupah Canyon fan constrains the timing and extent of the last deep cycle of Pleistocene Lake Manly. The lacustrine delta complex yields a 36Cl depth-profile date of 130 ka, which is consistent with deposition during a highstand of Lake Manly at the end of MIS 6. These deposits are presently at an altitude of about 30 meters above sea level (asl), which relates to a lake with a maximum depth of about 115 meters. Remnants of shoreline deposits at higher elevations on the southern margin of the Hanaupah Canyon fan complex are cut across older alluvium (unit Qao) and may be related to an MIS 6 highstand of at least 67 meters asl or, more likely, an older (MIS 8 or earlier) highstand that is poorly preserved and still undated in the valley. As part of our work on the west-side fans, we also dated an older phase of alluvial-fan deposits from the Trail Canyon fan complex, which is north of Hanaupah Canyon. A 36Cl depth-profile age of 170 ka suggests alluvial deposition of unit Qaio (older phase of Qao) took place prior to the MIS 6 highstand of Lake Manly. Knowing the absolute ages (or range in ages) of the intermediate-age (Qai) surfaces in Death Valley allows us to estimate the following rates of geologic processes: (1) a lateral slip rate of 5 millimeters per year for the northern Death Valley fault zone; (2) uplift of 50 meters in roughly the past 80,000 years for parts of the Mustard Canyon hills in east-central Death Valley; and (3) an estimated 10-40 m of dip-slip thrust movement on the Echo Canyon fault in Furnace Creek Canyon.

  20. Reactivation of a cryptobiotic stream ecosystem in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: A long-term geomorphological experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Diane M.; Tate, C.M.; Andrews, E.D.; Niyogi, D.K.; Cozzetto, K.; Welch, K.; Lyons, W.B.; Capone, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica contain many glacial meltwater streams that flow for 6 to 12??weeks during the austral summer and link the glaciers to the lakes on the valley floors. Dry valley streams gain solutes longitudinally through weathering reactions and microbial processes occurring in the hyporheic zone. Some streams have thriving cyanobacterial mats. In streams with regular summer flow, the mats are freeze-dried through the winter and begin photosynthesizing with the onset of flow. To evaluate the longer term persistence of cyanobacterial mats, we diverted flow to an abandoned channel, which had not received substantial flow for approximately two decades. Monitoring of specific conductance showed that for the first 3??years after the diversion, the solute concentrations were greater in the reactivated channel than in most other dry valley streams. We observed that cyanobacterial mats became abundant in the reactivated channel within a week, indicating that the mats had been preserved in a cryptobiotic state in the channel. Over the next several years, these mats had high rates of productivity and nitrogen fixation compared to mats from other streams. Experiments in which mats from the reactivated channel and another stream were incubated in water from both of the streams indicated that the greater solute concentrations in the reactivated channel stimulated net primary productivity of mats from both streams. These stream-scale experimental results indicate that the cryptobiotic preservation of cyanobacterial mats in abandoned channels in the dry valleys allows for rapid response of these stream ecosystems to climatic and geomorphological change, similar to other arid zone stream ecosystems. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemistry and Mineralogy of Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. E.; Golden, D. C.; Graff, T. G.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Tamppari, L, K.; Smith, P. H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) comprise the largest ice-free region of Antarctica. Precipitation almost always occurs as snow, relative humidity is frequently low, and mean annual temperatures are about -20 C. The ADV soils have previously been categorized into three soil moisture regimes: subxerous, xerous and ultraxerous, based on elevation and climate influences. The subxerous regime is predominately a coastal zone soil, and has the highest average temperature and precipitation, while the ultraxerous regime occurs at high elevation (>1000 m) and have very low temperature and precipitation. The amounts and types of salts present in the soils vary between regions. The nature, origin and significance of salts in the ADV have been previously investigated. Substantial work has focused on soil formation in the ADVs, however, little work has focused on the mineralogy of secondary alteration phases. The dominant weathering process in the ADV region is physical weathering, however, chemical weathering has been well documented. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemistry and mineralogy, including the alteration mineralogy, of soils from two sites, a subxerous soil in Taylor Valley, and an ultraxerous soil in University Valley. The style of aqueous alteration in the ADVs may have implications for pedogenic processes on Mars.

  2. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  3. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  4. Year 2000 estimated population dose for the Tennessee Valley region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.F.; Strauch, S.; Siegel, G.R.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive study has recently been completed of the potential regional radiological dose in the Tennessee and Cumberland river basins in the year 2000, resulting from the operation of nuclear facilities. This study, sponsored jointly by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration and the Tennessee Valley Authority, was performed by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory (ATDL). This study considered the operation in the year 2000 of 33,000 MWe of nuclear capacity within the study area, and of 110,000 MWe in adjacent areas, together with supporting nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing facilities. Air and water transport models used and methods for calculating nuclide concentrations on the ground are discussed

  5. West Valley Demonstration Project annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    By the end of the fiscal year, the West Valley Demonstration Project had processed 757,000 litres of liquid high-level waste, removing most of the radioactive constituents by ion exchange. The radioactive ion exchange material is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation, along with sludge still in the tank, into borosilicate glass. The decontaminated salt solution was solidified into a cement low-level waste form which has been reviewed and endorsed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Five tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. A Notice of Intent was published to prepare a joint federal/state Environmental Impact Statement. Design of the Vitrification Facility, a major milestone, was completed and construction of the facility enclosure has begun. A Department of Energy Tiger Team and Technical Safety Appraisal of the Project found no undue risks to worker or public health and safety or the environment

  6. Hydrothermal fault zone mapping using seismic and electrical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onacha, Stephen Alumasa

    This dissertation presents a new method of using earthquakes and resistivity data to characterize permeable hydrothermal reservoirs. The method is applied to field examples from Casa Diablo in the Long Valley Caldera, California; Mt. Longonot, Kenya; and Krafla, Iceland. The new method has significant practical value in the exploration and production of geothermal energy. The method uses P- and S-wave velocity, S-wave polarization and splitting magnitude, resistivity and magnetotelluric (MT) strike directions to determine fracture-porosity and orientation. The conceptual model used to characterize the buried, fluid-circulating fault zones in hydrothermal systems is based on geological and fracture models. The method has been tested with field earthquake and resistivity data; core samples; temperature measurements; and, for the case of Krafla, with a drilled well. The use of resistivity and microearthquake measurements is based on theoretical formulation of shared porosity, anisotropy and polarization. The relation of resistivity and a double porosity-operator is solved using a basis function. The porosity-operator is used to generate a correlation function between P-wave velocity and resistivity. This correlation is then used to generate P-wave velocity from 2-D resistivity models. The resistivity models are generated from magnetotelluric (MT) by using the Non-Linear Conjugate Gradient (NLCG) inversion method. The seismic and electrical measurements used come from portable, multi station microearthquake (MEQ) monitoring networks and multi-profile, MT and transient electromagnetic (TEM) observation campaigns. The main conclusions in this dissertation are listed below: (1) Strong evidence exists for correlation between MT strike direction and anisotropy and MEQ S-wave splitting at sites close to fluid-filled fracture zones. (2) A porosity operator generated from a double porosity model has been used to generate valid P-wave velocity models from resistivity data. This

  7. Microscopic Identification of Prokaryotes in Modern and Ancient Halite, Saline Valley and Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Brian A.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.

    2009-06-01

    Primary fluid inclusions in halite crystallized in Saline Valley, California, in 1980, 2004-2005, and 2007, contain rod- and coccoid-shaped microparticles the same size and morphology as archaea and bacteria living in modern brines. Primary fluid inclusions from a well-dated (0-100,000 years), 90 m long salt core from Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California, also contain microparticles, here interpreted as halophilic and halotolerant prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are distinguished from crystals on the basis of morphology, optical properties (birefringence), and uniformity of size. Electron micrographs of microparticles from filtered modern brine (Saline Valley), dissolved modern halite crystals (Saline Valley), and dissolved ancient halite crystals (Death Valley) support in situ microscopic observations that prokaryotes are present in fluid inclusions in ancient halite. In the Death Valley salt core, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions occur almost exclusively in halite precipitated in perennial saline lakes 10,000 to 35,000 years ago. This suggests that trapping and preservation of prokaryotes in fluid inclusions is influenced by the surface environment in which the halite originally precipitated. In all cases, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions in halite from the Death Valley salt core are miniaturized (<1 μm diameter cocci, <2.5 μm long, very rare rod shapes), which supports interpretations that the prokaryotes are indigenous to the halite and starvation survival may be the normal response of some prokaryotes to entrapment in fluid inclusions for millennia. These results reinforce the view that fluid inclusions in halite and possibly other evaporites are important repositories of microbial life and should be carefully examined in the search for ancient microorganisms on Earth, Mars, and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  8. Biostratigraphy of the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in the Sirwan Valley (Sulaimani Region, Kurdistan, NE Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbazheri, Khalid Mahmood; Ghafor, Imad Mahmood; Muhammed, Qahtan Ahmad

    2009-10-01

    The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary sequence, which crops out in the studied area is located within the High Folded Zone, in the Sirwan Valley, northeastern Iraq. These units mainly consist of flysch and flysch-type successions of thick clastic beds of Tanjero/Kolosh Formations. A detailed lithostratigraphic study is achieved on the outcropping uppermost part of the Upper Cretaceous successions (upper part of Tanjero Formation) and the lowermost part of the Kolosh Formation. On the basis of the identified planktonic foraminiferal assemblages, five biozones are recorded from the uppermost part of Tanjero Formation and four biozones from the lower part of the Kolosh Formation (Lower Paleocene) in the Sirwan section. The biostratigraphic correlations based on planktonic foraminiferal zonations showed a comparison between the biostratigraphic zones established in this study and other equivalents of the commonly used planktonic zonal scheme around the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in and outside Iraq.

  9. Tectonics of ridge-transform intersections at the Kane fracture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karson, J. A.; Dick, H. J. B.

    1983-03-01

    The Kane Transform offsets spreading-center segments of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge by about 150 km at 24° N latitude. In terms of its first-order morphological, geological, and geophysical characteristics it appears to be typical of long-offset (>100 km), slow-slipping (2 cm yr-1) ridge-ridge transform faults. High-resolution geological observations were made from deep-towed ANGUS photographs and the manned submersible ALVIN at the ridge-transform intersections and indicate similar relationships in these two regions. These data indicate that over a distance of about 20 km as the spreading axes approach the fracture zone, the two flanks of each ridge axis behave in very different ways. Along the flanks that intersect the active transform zone the rift valley floor deepens and the surface expression of volcanism becomes increasingly narrow and eventually absent at the intersection where only a sediment-covered ‘nodal basin’ exists. The adjacent median valley walls have structural trends that are oblique to both the ridge and the transform and have as much as 4 km of relief. These are tectonically active regions that have only a thin (young volcanics passes laterally into median valley walls with a simple block-faulted character where only volcanic rocks have been found. Along strike toward the fracture zone, the youngest volcanics form linear constructional volcanic ridges that transect the entire width of the fracture zone valley. These volcanics are continuous with the older-looking, slightly faulted volcanic terrain that floors the non-transform fracture zone valleys. These observations document the asymmetric nature of seafloor spreading near ridge-transform intersections. An important implication is that the crust and lithosphere across different portions of the fracture zone will have different geological characteristics. Across the active transform zone two lithosphere plate edges formed at ridge-transform corners are faulted against one another. In the non

  10. A Mackenzie Valley Pipeline -- Getting the challenge into perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournoyea, N. J. [Iuvialuit Regional Corporation, Yellowknife, NT (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Another perspective on a Mackenzie Valley pipeline is given by a former Premier and Minister of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources of the NWT. The author views a Mackenzie Valley Pipeline that would carry both American and Canadian natural gas down the Valley as the one that would offer Canada the largest return in terms of employment, income and fiscal benefits. It is her view that if the Alaska Highway pipeline were to be developed first, it would be much more difficult to link up Canadian gas later, and the loss of the estimated 70 Tcf of Canadian gas reserves would be catastrophic not only to resource owners, but to the public interest at large, since without this Canadian gas, other fuel sources would have to be used to meet the demand for energy, thereby increasing the production of carbon dioxide and added risk of accelerating global warming. This, of course, is in addition to the lost opportunity available to the Inuvialuit and other northern aboriginal people to set a course of economic development that would enable aboriginal people of the north to become full and equal participants in the northern and Canadian economies. It is an opportunity that can be realized only if all stakeholders meet the challenges and take their respective responsibilities seriously. This means action by the federal government to support and encourage the development of Canadian frontier gas, to put in place a fair and workable regulatory process, to help aboriginal people achieve a durable and fair share in the benefits of development, to ensure the protection of the environment and realize the goals of sustainable development. Industry and aboriginal leaders too, must show leadership by forging a genuine and effective partnership, and all stakeholders must cooperate to make Canadian frontier gas and pipeline development an example to the world of what sustainable development should and could be. Industry must also keep a perspective on the regulatory hurdles, on the

  11. Monitoring of the Syrian rift valley using radon technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hilal, M.; Al-Ali, A.; Jubeli, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Groundwater radon data were recorded once every two months from six monitoring sites of the Syrian rift valley during the year 1996. Radon samples were measured from deep artesian wells and from continuously-flowing springs that are distributed along this most active seismic zone in Syria. The available data were integrated with previously measured groundwater radon data from the same stations in order to estimate the range of normal radon fluctuations in the region. The estimation of such range may enable the separation between usual groundwater radon variations from other outliers which may indicate possible tectonic activities or earthquake hazards in the study area. Periodical radon measurements based on two months intervals and long distance between sampling stations does not enable us to trust with high level of confidence the connection between radon values and any possible earth dynamics. Therefore, shorter measuring time with closer monitoring sites are highly recommended to achieve the optimum advantage of such application. (Author). 8 Figs., 2 Tabs., 10 Refs

  12. Hypogene caves of the central Appalachian Shenandoah Valley in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Orndorff, Wil

    2017-01-01

    Several caves in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia show evidence for early hypogenic conduit development with later-enhanced solution under partly confined phreatic conditions guided by geologic structures. Many (but not all) of these caves have been subsequently invaded by surface waters as a result of erosion and exhumation. Those not so affected are relict phreatic caves, bearing no relation to modern drainage patterns. Field and petrographic evidence shows that carbonate rocks hosting certain relict phreatic caves were dolomitized and/or silicified by early hydrothermal fluid migration in zones that served to locally enhance rock porosity, thus providing preferential pathways for later solution by groundwater flow, and making the surrounding bedrock more resistant to surficial weathering to result in caves that reside within isolated hills on the land surface. Features suggesting that deep phreatic processes dominated the development of these relict caves include (1) cave passage morphologies indicative of ascending fluids, (2) cave plans of irregular pattern, reflecting early maze or anastomosing development, (3) a general lack of cave breakdown and cave streams or cave stream deposits, and (4) calcite wall and pool coatings within isolated caves intersecting the local water table, and within unroofed caves at topographic locations elevated well above the local base level. Episodes of deep karstification were likely separated by long periods of geologic time, encompassing multiple phases of sedimentary fill and excavation within caves, and reflect a complex history of deep fluid migration that set the stage for later shallow speleogenesis that continues today.

  13. Geostatistical estimates of future recharge for the Death Valley region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Spatially distributed estimates of regional ground water recharge rates under both current and potential future climates are needed to evaluate a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located within the Death Valley ground-water region (DVGWR). Determining the spatial distribution of recharge is important for regional saturated-zone ground-water flow models. In the southern Nevada region, the Maxey-Eakin method has been used for estimating recharge based on average annual precipitation. Although this method does not directly account for a variety of location-specific factors which control recharge (such as bedrock permeability, soil cover, and net radiation), precipitation is the primary factor that controls in the region. Estimates of recharge obtained by using the Maxey-Eakin method are comparable to estimates of recharge obtained by using chloride balance studies. The authors consider the Maxey-Eakin approach as a relatively simple method of obtaining preliminary estimates of recharge on a regional scale

  14. VT Data - Zoning 20120709, Huntington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning district data for the Town of Huntington, Vermont. For details regarding each zoning district refer to the current zoning regulations on town of Huntington's...

  15. Measurement of Exciton Binding Energy of Monolayer WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhu, Bairen; Cui, Xiaodong

    Excitonic effects are prominent in monolayer crystal of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) because of spatial confinement and reduced Coulomb screening. Here we use linear differential transmission spectroscopy and two-photon photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (TP-PLE) to measure the exciton binding energy of monolayer WS2. Peaks for excitonic absorptions of the direct gap located at K valley of the Brillouin zone and transitions from multiple points near Γ point of the Brillouin zone, as well as trion side band are shown in the linear absorption spectra of WS2. But there is no gap between distinct excitons and the continuum of the interband transitions. Strong electron-phonon scattering, overlap of excitons around Γ point and the transfer of the oscillator strength from interband continuum to exciton states make it difficult to resolve the electronic interband transition edge even down to 10K. The gap between excited states of the band-edge exciton and the single-particle band is probed by TP-PLE measurements. And the energy difference between 1s exciton and the single-particle gap gives the exciton binding energy of monolayer WS2 to be about 0.71eV. The work is supported by Area of excellency (AoE/P-04/08), CRF of Hong Kong Research Grant Council (HKU9/CRF/13G) and SRT on New Materials of The University of Hong Kong.

  16. New fission valley for 258Fm and nuclei beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results on the fission properties of nuclei close to 264 Fm show sudden and large changes with a change of only one or two neutrons or protons. The nucleus 258 Fm, for instance, undergoes symmetric fission with a half-life of about 0.4 ms and a kinetic energy peaked at about 235 MeV whereas 256 Fm undergoes asymmetric fission with a half-life of about 3 h and a kinetic energy peaked at about 200 MeV. Qualitatively, these sudden changes hve been postulated to be due to the emergence of fragment shells in symmetric fission products close to 132 Sn. A quantitative calculation that shows where high-kinetic-energy symmetric fission occurs and why it is associated with a sudden and large decrease in fission half-lives. The study is based on calculations of potential-energy surfaces in the macroscopic-microscopic model and a semi-empirical model for the nuclear inertia. The implications of the new fission valley on the stability of the heaviest elements is discussed. 33 refs., 12 figs

  17. Potential effects of drought on carrying capacity for wintering waterfowl in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Mark J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Wolder, Mike A.; Isola, Craig R.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Skalos, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    We used the bioenergetics model TRUEMET to evaluate potential effects of California's recent drought on food supplies for waterfowl wintering in the Central Valley under a range of habitat and waterfowl population scenarios. In nondrought years in the current Central Valley landscape, food supplies are projected to be adequate for waterfowl from fall through early spring (except late March) even if waterfowl populations reach North American Waterfowl Management Plan goals. However, in all drought scenarios that we evaluated, food supplies were projected to be exhausted for ducks by mid- to late winter and by late winter or early spring for geese. For ducks, these results were strongly related to projected declines in winter-flooded rice fields that provide 45% of all the food energy available to ducks in the Central Valley in nondrought water years. Delayed flooding of some managed wetlands may help alleviate food shortages by providing wetland food resources better timed with waterfowl migration and abundance patterns in the Central Valley, as well as reducing the amount of water needed to manage these habitats. However, future research is needed to evaluate the impacts of delayed flooding on waterfowl hunting, and whether California's existing water delivery system would make delayed flooding feasible. Securing adequate water supplies for waterfowl and other wetland-dependent birds is among the greatest challenges facing resource managers in coming years, especially in the increasingly arid western United States.

  18. West Valley high-level nuclear waste glass development: a statistically designed mixture study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chick, L.A.; Bowen, W.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Wald, J.W.; Bunnell, L.R.; Strachan, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    The first full-scale conversion of high-level commercial nuclear wastes to glass in the United States will be conducted at West Valley, New York, by West Valley Nuclear Services Company, Inc. (WVNS), for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting WVNS in the design of the glass-making process and the chemical formulation of the glass. This report describes the statistically designed study performed by PNL to develop the glass composition recommended for use at West Valley. The recommended glass contains 28 wt% waste, as limited by process requirements. The waste loading and the silica content (45 wt%) are similar to those in previously developed waste glasses; however, the new formulation contains more calcium and less boron. A series of tests verified that the increased calcium results in improved chemical durability and does not adversely affect the other modeled properties. The optimization study assessed the effects of seven oxide components on glass properties. Over 100 melts combining the seven components into a wide variety of statistically chosen compositions were tested. Viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal expansion, crystallinity, and chemical durability were measured and empirically modeled as a function of the glass composition. The mathematical models were then used to predict the optimum formulation. This glass was tested and adjusted to arrive at the final composition recommended for use at West Valley. 56 references, 49 figures, 18 tables.

  19. Epitaxial Single-Layer MoS2 on GaN with Enhanced Valley Helicity

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yi

    2017-12-19

    Engineering the substrate of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides can couple the quasiparticle interaction between the 2D material and substrate, providing an additional route to realize conceptual quantum phenomena and novel device functionalities, such as realization of a 12-time increased valley spitting in single-layer WSe2 through the interfacial magnetic exchange field from a ferromagnetic EuS substrate, and band-to-band tunnel field-effect transistors with a subthreshold swing below 60 mV dec−1 at room temperature based on bilayer n-MoS2 and heavily doped p-germanium, etc. Here, it is demonstrated that epitaxially grown single-layer MoS2 on a lattice-matched GaN substrate, possessing a type-I band alignment, exhibits strong substrate-induced interactions. The phonons in GaN quickly dissipate the energy of photogenerated carriers through electron–phonon interaction, resulting in a short exciton lifetime in the MoS2/GaN heterostructure. This interaction enables an enhanced valley helicity at room temperature (0.33 ± 0.05) observed in both steady-state and time-resolved circularly polarized photoluminescence measurements. The findings highlight the importance of substrate engineering for modulating the intrinsic valley carriers in ultrathin 2D materials and potentially open new paths for valleytronics and valley-optoelectronic device applications.

  20. Epitaxial Single-Layer MoS2 on GaN with Enhanced Valley Helicity

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yi; Xiao, Jun; Li, Jingzhen; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Kun; Fu, Lei; Li, Pan; Song, Zhigang; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yilun; Zhao, Mervin; Lu, Jing; Tang, Ning; Ran, Guangzhao; Zhang, Xiang; Ye, Yu; Dai, Lun

    2017-01-01

    Engineering the substrate of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides can couple the quasiparticle interaction between the 2D material and substrate, providing an additional route to realize conceptual quantum phenomena and novel device functionalities, such as realization of a 12-time increased valley spitting in single-layer WSe2 through the interfacial magnetic exchange field from a ferromagnetic EuS substrate, and band-to-band tunnel field-effect transistors with a subthreshold swing below 60 mV dec−1 at room temperature based on bilayer n-MoS2 and heavily doped p-germanium, etc. Here, it is demonstrated that epitaxially grown single-layer MoS2 on a lattice-matched GaN substrate, possessing a type-I band alignment, exhibits strong substrate-induced interactions. The phonons in GaN quickly dissipate the energy of photogenerated carriers through electron–phonon interaction, resulting in a short exciton lifetime in the MoS2/GaN heterostructure. This interaction enables an enhanced valley helicity at room temperature (0.33 ± 0.05) observed in both steady-state and time-resolved circularly polarized photoluminescence measurements. The findings highlight the importance of substrate engineering for modulating the intrinsic valley carriers in ultrathin 2D materials and potentially open new paths for valleytronics and valley-optoelectronic device applications.

  1. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  2. Speeds in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  3. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  4. Valley Topological Phases in Bilayer Sonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Deng, Weiyin; Huang, Xueqin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Shuqi; Liu, Zhengyou

    2018-03-01

    Recently, the topological physics in artificial crystals for classical waves has become an emerging research area. In this Letter, we propose a unique bilayer design of sonic crystals that are constructed by two layers of coupled hexagonal array of triangular scatterers. Assisted by the additional layer degree of freedom, a rich topological phase diagram is achieved by simply rotating scatterers in both layers. Under a unified theoretical framework, two kinds of valley-projected topological acoustic insulators are distinguished analytically, i.e., the layer-mixed and layer-polarized topological valley Hall phases, respectively. The theory is evidently confirmed by our numerical and experimental observations of the nontrivial edge states that propagate along the interfaces separating different topological phases. Various applications such as sound communications in integrated devices can be anticipated by the intriguing acoustic edge states enriched by the layer information.

  5. Zeolite Formation and Weathering Processes in Dry Valleys of Antartica: Martian Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Socki, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Terrestrial weathering processes in cold-desert climates such as the Dry Valleys of Antarctica may provide an excellent analog to chemical weathering and diagenesis of soils on Mars. Detailed studies of soil development and the chemical and mineralogical alterations occurring within soil columns in Wright Valley, Antarctica show incredible complexity in the upper meter of soil. Previous workers noted the ice-free Dry Valleys are the best terrestrial approximations to contemporary Mars. Images returned from the Pathfinder and Spirit landers show similarities to surfaces observed within the Dry Valleys. Similarities to Mars that exist in these valleys are: mean temperatures always below freezing (-20 C), no rainfall, sparse snowfall-rapidly removed by sublimation, desiccating winds, diurnal freeze-thaw cycles (even during daylight hours), low humidity, oxidative environment, relatively high solar radiation and low magnetic fields . The Dry Valley soils contain irregular distributions and low abundances of soil microorganisms that are somewhat unusual on Earth. Physical processes-such as sand abrasion-are dominant mechanisms of rock weathering in Antarctica. However, chemical weathering is also an important process even in such extreme climates. For example, ionic migration occurs even in frozen soils along liquid films on individual soil particles. It has also been shown that water with liquid-like properties is present in soils at temperatures on the order of approx.-80 C and it has been observed that the percentage of oxidized iron increases with increasing soil age and enrichments in oxidized iron occurs toward the surface. The presence of evaporates is evident and appear similar to "evaporite sites" within the Pathfinder and Spirit sites. Evaporites indicate ionic migration and chemical activity even in the permanently frozen zone. The presence of evaporates indicates that chemical weathering of rocks and possibly soils has been active. Authogenic zeolites have

  6. Wetland survey of the X-10 Bethel Valley and Melton Valley groundwater operable units at Oak Ridge National Labortory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel, B.A.

    1996-03-01

    Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands, (May 24, 1977) requires that federal agencies avoid, to the extent possible, adverse impacts associated with the destruction and modification of wetlands and that they avoid direct and indirect support of wetlands development when there is a practicable alternative. In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Regulations for Compliance with Floodplains and Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements (Subpart B, 10 CFR 1022.11), surveys for wetland presence or absence were conducted in both the Melton Valley and the Bethel Valley Groundwater Operable Units (GWOU) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) from October 1994 through September 1995. As required by the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act of 1992, wetlands were identified using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual (Army Corps of Engineers, 1987). Wetlands were identified during field surveys that examined and documented vegetation, soils, and hydrologic evidence. Most of the wetland boundary locations and wetland sizes are approximate. Boundaries of wetlands in Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 and on the former proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source in the upper Melton Branch watershed were located by civil survey during previous wetland surveys; thus, the boundary locations and areal sizes in these areas are accurate. The wetlands were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin et al. (1979) for wetland and deepwater habitats of the United States. A total of 215 individual wetland areas ranging in size from 0.002 ha to 9.97 ha were identified in the Bethel Valley and Melton Valley GWOUs. The wetlands are classified as palustrine forested broad-leaved deciduous (PFO1), palustrine scrub-shrub broad-leaved deciduous (PSS1), and palustrine persistent emergent (PEM1)

  7. Geology and geomorphology of Bear Lake Valley and upper Bear River, Utah and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.; Laabs, B.J.C.; Kaufman, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    levels have decreased from as high as 1830 m to 1806 m above sea level since the early Pleistocene due to episodic downcutting by the Bear River. The oldest exposed lacustrine sediments in Bear Lake Valley are probably of Pliocene age. Several high-lake phases during the early and middle Pleistocene were separated by episodes of fluvial incision. Threshold incision was not constant, however, because lake highstands of as much as 8 m above bedrock threshold level resulted from aggradation and possibly landsliding at least twice during the late-middle and late Pleistocene. Abandoned stream channels within the low-lying, fault-bounded region between Bear Lake and the modern Bear River show that Bear River progressively shifted northward during the Holocene. Several factors including faulting, location of the fluvial fan, and channel migration across the fluvial fan probably interacted to produce these changes in channel position. Late Quaternary slip rates on the east Bear Lake fault zone are estimated by using the water-level history of Bear Lake, assuming little or no displacement on dated deposits on the west side of the valley. Uplifted lacustrine deposits representing Pliocene to middle Pleistocene highstands of Bear Lake on the footwall block of the east Bear Lake fault zone provide dramatic evidence of long-term slip. Slip rates during the late Pleistocene increased from north to south along the east Bear Lake fault zone, consistent with the tectonic geomorphology. In addition, slip rates on the southern section of the fault zone have apparently decreased over the past 50 k.y. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  8. The Gabbs Valley, Nevada, geothermal prospect: Exploring for a potential blind geothermal resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J.; Bell, J. W.; Calvin, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Gabbs Valley prospect in west-central Nevada is a potential blind geothermal resource system. Possible structural controls on this system were investigated using high-resolution LiDAR, low sun-angle aerial (LSA) photography, exploratory fault trenching and a shallow temperature survey. Active Holocene faults have previously been identified at 37 geothermal systems with indication of temperatures greater than 100° C in the western Nevada region. Active fault controls in Gabbs Valley include both Holocene and historical structures. Two historical earthquakes occurring in 1932 and 1954 have overlapping surface rupture patterns in Gabbs Valley. Three active fault systems identified through LSA and LiDAR mapping have characteristics of Basin and Range normal faulting and Walker Lane oblique dextral faulting. The East Monte Cristo Mountains fault zone is an 8.5 km long continuous NNE striking, discrete fault with roughly 0.5 m right-normal historic motion and 3 m vertical Quaternary separation. The Phillips Wash fault zone is an 8.2 km long distributed fault system striking NE to N, with Quaternary fault scarps of 1-3 m vertical separation and a 500 m wide graben adjacent to the Cobble Cuesta anticline. This fault displays ponded drainages, an offset terrace riser and right stepping en echelon fault patterns suggestive of left lateral offset, and fault trenching exposed non-matching stratigraphy typical of a significant component of lateral offset. The unnamed faults of Gabbs Valley are a 10.6 km long system of normal faults striking NNE and Quaternary scarps are up to 4 m high. These normal faults largely do not have historic surface rupture, but a small segment of 1932 rupture has been identified. A shallow (2 m deep) temperature survey of 80 points covering roughly 65 square kilometers was completed. Data were collected over approximately 2 months, and continual base station temperature measurements were used to seasonally correct temperature measurements. A 2

  9. P-T-t-d History of the Lahul Valley, NW Indian Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieblas, A.; Leech, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Lahul Valley of NW India is located between the Zanskar Shear zone to the northwest and the Sangla detachment to the southeast. This region contains three east-trending, laterally-continuous tectonostratigraphic units separated by two major fault zones. To the south, low-grade metasediments of the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) are separated from high-grade crystalline rocks of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) by the north dipping Main Central Thrust (MCT). The northern extent of the GHS is separated from overlying low-grade sedimentary rocks of the Tethyan Himalayan Sequence (THS) along the north dipping South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS). There is controversy over the location and type of shear motion for the STDS in the ~50 km strip running through Lahul Valley where the STD is interpreted as a discrete fault, a dextral shear zone, and is unidentified in some areas along the trend of the STDS. This study focuses on understanding the pressure-temperature-time-deformation (P-T-t-d) evolution of THS and GHS rocks in Lahul Valley to better understand regional Cenozoic deformation and the location and role of the STDS in the extrusion of the GHS. Deformed granitics, migmatites, and leucogranites from the GHS contain a dominant mineralogy of Qz + Kfs + Pl + Bt + Ms ± Grt ± Ky ± St. Schists and phyllites from the THS contain a dominant mineralogy of Qz + Kfs + Pl + Bt + Ms ± Grt. Isochemical phase equilibria diagrams (pseudosections) are calculated in Perple_X using whole-rock chemistry data with solution models based on these mineral assemblages. Ti-in-quartz thermometry and the Fe-Mg exchange thermometry from garnet-biotite pairs used with mineral growth relationships constrain conditions during deformation and to establish P-T paths. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircon constrains peak metamorphic conditions and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of micas provide the cooling history along the valley and across the STDS. This multi-component approach to understand

  10. Ward Valley transfer stalled by Babbitt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt announced on November 24 that he would not authorize the land transfer for the proposed low-level waste disposal site at Ward Valley, California, until a legal challenge to the facility's license and environmental impact statement is resolved. Even if the matter is resolved quickly, there exists the possibility that yet another hearing will be held on the project, even though state courts in California have stated flatly that no such hearings are required

  11. Ward Valley transfer stalled by Babbitt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt announced on November 24 that he would not authorize the land transfer for the proposed low-level waste disposal site at Ward Valley, California, until a legal challenge to the facility's license and environmental impact statement is resolved. Even if the matter is resolved quickly, there exists the possibility that yet another hearing will be held on the project, even though state courts in California have stated flatly that no such hearings are required.

  12. Ground water in Dale Valley, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.

    1979-01-01

    Dale Valley is a broad valley segment, enlarged by glacial erosion, at the headwaters of Little Tonawanda Creek near Warsaw , New York. A thin, shallow alluvial aquifer immediately underlies the valley floor but is little used. A deeper gravel aquifer, buried beneath many feet of lake deposits, is tapped by several industrial wells. A finite-difference digital model treated the deep aquifer as two-dimensional with recharge and discharge through a confining layer. It was calibrated by simulating (1) natural conditions, (2) an 18-day aquifer test, and (3) 91 days of well-field operation. Streamflow records and model simulations suggest that in moderately wet years such as 1974, a demand of 750 gallons per minute could be met by withdrawal from the creek and from the aquifer without excessive drawdown at production wells or existing domestic wells. With reasonable but unverified model adjustments to simulate an unusually dry year, the model predicts that a demand of 600 gallons per minute could be met from the same sources. Water high in chloride has migrated from bedrock into parts of the deep aquifer. Industrial pumpage, faults in the bedrock, and the natural flow system may be responsible. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Inventory of the Alpine Flora of Haramosh and Bagrote Valleys (Karakoram Range) District Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S. W.; Abbas, Q.; Khatoon, S.; Raza, G.; Hussain, A.

    2016-01-01

    Inventorying of plant biodiversity of Haramosh and Bugrote valleys (District Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan) was done for fourteen years from 2001- 2014. The fourteen years inventorying revealed a rich plant biodiversity consisting of 232 species belonging to 106 genera and 34 families of flowering plants. The Alpine zone had 18 genera with 4 or more species; Pedicularis with 10 species was the largest genus of this zone, followed by Potentilla and Carex (each with 9 species) and Draba (8 species). Genera containing 9 or 10 species occurred only in Alpine zone. In the Alpine zone, 15 of the larger families were represented by 189 species, forming 81.46 percent of the Alpine flora. Although the highest number of species belonging to these larger families was present in the subalpine zone, but in terms of percentage their contribution was the highest in the Alpine flora. Percentage-wise the contribution of these families gradually increased from Desert zone to Alpine zone, because of their particular distribution patterns. Although the total number of species was the highest in the Subalpine zone, but in the species specific to any one zone, the Alpine zone had the highest number, that is, 96 of the total 232 species of Alpine zone were exclusively found in this zone only. Out of these 96 species specific to the Alpine zone, 53 belonged to such 22 genera that were exclusively found in the Alpine zone only. The Alpine zone was characterized by herbs and low shrubs, with Potentilla species as the dominants. A clear trend of migration of certain species both from lower to higher latitudes and altitudes was observed. The species richness index of Alpine zone however showed increasing trend probably due to species migrations towards the alpine zone. The major threats to the plant biodiversity were recognized as the deforestation and habitat loss due to over-exploitation of species, over-grazing by livestock, and climate changes due to global warming, which were

  14. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Ackermann, Hans D.; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.

    1976-01-01

    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  15. Distribution of pesticides and PCBs in sediments of agricultural drains in the Culiacan Valley, Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de la Parra, Luz María; Cervantes-Mojica, L Juleny; González-Valdivia, Carolina; Martínez-Cordero, Francisco J; Aguilar-Zárate, Gabriela; Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel

    2012-10-01

    Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Sinaloa, Mexico. The Culiacan Valley is an extensive agricultural region characterized by a variety of crops with high-yield productions. In this study, concentrations of organochlorine (OCPs) and organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments of the agricultural drainage system of Culiacan Valley. Overall, 32 compounds were detected, with concentrations widely ranging from 0.03 to 1 294 ng g(-1) dry weight. OCP concentrations (15) ranged from 0.1 to 20.19 ng g(-1) dw. OP concentrations (8) ranged from 0.03 to 1294 ng g(-1) dw, and diazinon was the compound with the highest concentration. PCB concentrations were also determined and varied from 0.05 to 3.29 ng g(-1) dw. Other compounds detected included permethrin, triadimefon, and fipronil. The central zone registered the higher concentrations and the greatest number of compounds, which could be related to the occurrence of horticultural fields in this zone. According to sediment quality guidelines, the compounds exceeding the probable effect level were γ-HCH, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE, while the pesticides above the maximum permissible concentration were endosulfan, azinphos methyl, diazinon, dichlorvos, and permethrin. Although Sinaloa is an important agricultural crop producer in northwest Mexico, there are not many studies dealing with pesticide distribution in agricultural areas.

  16. Analysis of exploratory wells in the Cerro Prieto Field and the Mexicali Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobo R., J.M.; Bermejo M., F.J.

    1982-08-10

    Agricultural development in the Mexicali Valley and in the high cost of electric power required to operate the irrigation wells in the Valley prompted the Mexican government to investigate the possibility of taking advantage of thermal manifestations in the area located 28 km southeast of the city of Mexicali to generate electric power and thereby partially decrease the flight of foreign exchange. In 1958, a geologic study of the southern and southeastern zone of Mexicali was conducted to identify the possibilities of tapping geothermal resources. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge of the geologic conditions in this area and, if possible, to establish the location of exploratory and production wells and, on the basis of the results of the former, examine the geologic history in order to gain knowledge and understanding of the structural control of the steam. On the basis of this study, it was recommended that 3 exploratory wells should be drilled in order to locate weak zones that would easily allow for steam flow.

  17. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  18. Analyzing the role of Bavan Valley in Mamasani as tourists attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Firoozi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry plays an important role on developing economy especially in regions where there are different historical, landscape and other natural attractions. Bavan Valley located in Nur Abad Mamasani city in Iran is one of the well-known places among tourists. The region has outstanding natural landscapes, moderate weather especially in spring and summer, low distance from the major road locating between different local regions such as Fars, Bushehr, Khuzestan, and Kohkiluye Boyer Ahmad Province. These regions provide appropriate accessibility for the citizens of highly populated cities of this province and it plays essential role of a major attractive pole in southern part of the country. The primary objective of this research is to recognize the present barriers for attracting tourists and to analyze the tourists’ satisfactions associated with the facilities and tourist services. The statistical population of this research includes all the tourists of Bavan Valley in which 381 individuals were chosen as the sample of this research, using Cochran's formula. The results indicate that there is a significant relationship between the absence of advertisement about Bavan Valley and the number of tourists in this zone (P<0.05. The findings also show that there is a significant relationship between lack of infrastructural equipments and un-development in tourism industry (P<0.05. Moreover, the findings of SWOT analysis indicates that 9 internal strength versus 10 internal weaknesses and 7 external chance versus 8 external threat were recognized and analyzed with regard to ecotourism in this zone. Thus, generally 16 strength and chances as the advantages and 18 weaknesses and threats as the obstacles about the Bavan Valley’s tourism were recognized in order to develop tourism.

  19. Origin, Extent, and Thickness of Quaternary Geologic Units in the Willamette Valley, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jim E.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Wozniak, Karl C.; Polette, Danial J.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    major tributaries. 3) Between 15,000 and 12,700 years ago, dozens of floods from Glacial Lake Missoula flowed up the Willamette Valley from the Columbia River, depositing up to 35 m of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. 4) Subsequent to 12,000 years ago, Willamette River sediment and flow regimes changed significantly: the Pleistocene braided river systems that had formed vast plains of sand and gravel evolved to incised and meandering rivers that are constructing today's fine-grained floodplains and gravelly channel deposits. Sub-surface channel facies of this unit are loose and unconsolidated and are highly permeable zones of subst