WorldWideScience

Sample records for validated terms childhood

  1. Review of external validity reporting in childhood obesity prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesges, Lisa M; Dzewaltowski, David A; Glasgow, Russell E

    2008-03-01

    The translation and dissemination of prevention intervention evidence into practice is needed to address significant public health issues such as childhood obesity. Increased attention to and reporting of external validity information in research publications would allow for better understanding of generalizability issues relevant to successful translation. To demonstrate this potential, recent reports of childhood obesity prevention interventions were evaluated on the extent to which external validity dimensions were reported. Childhood obesity prevention studies that were controlled, long-term research trials published between 1980 and 2004 that reported a behavioral target of physical activity and/or healthy eating along with at least one anthropometric outcome were identified in 2005. Studies were summarized between 2005 and 2006 using review criteria developed by Green and Glasgow in 2006. Nineteen publications met selection criteria. In general, all studies lacked full reporting on potential generalizability and dissemination elements. Median reporting over all elements was 34.5%; the mode was 0% with a range of 0% to 100%. Most infrequent were reports of setting level selection criteria and representativeness, characteristics regarding intervention staff, implementation of intervention content, costs, and program sustainability. The evidence base for future prevention interventions can be improved by enhancing the reporting of contextual and generalizability elements central to translational research. Such efforts face practical hurdles but could provide additional explanation for variability in intervention outcomes, insights into successful adaptations of interventions, and help guide policy decisions.

  2. Long term results of childhood dysphonia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, Hanna; Sinkiewicz, Anna; Bielecka, Arleta; Owczarzak, Hanna; Mackiewicz-Milewska, Magdalena; Winiarski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long term results of treatment and rehabilitation of childhood dysphonia. This study included a group of adolescents (n=29) aged from 15 to 20 who were treated due to pediatric hyperfunctional dysphonia and soft vocal fold nodules during their pre-mutational period (i.e. between 5 and 12 years of age). The pre-mutational therapy was comprised of proper breathing pattern training, voice exercises and psychological counseling. Laryngostroboscopic examination and perceptual analysis of voice were performed in each patient before treatment and one to four years after mutation was complete. The laryngostroboscopic findings, i.e. symmetry, amplitude, mucosal wave and vocal fold closure, were graded with NAPZ scale, and the GRBAS scale was used for the perceptual voice analysis. Complete regression of the childhood dysphonia was observed in all male patients (n=14). Voice disorders regressed completely also in 8 out of 15 girls, but symptoms of dysphonia documented on perceptual scale persisted in the remaining seven patients. Complex voice therapy implemented in adolescence should be considered as either the treatment or preventive measure of persistent voice strain, especially in girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  4. Long-term Consequences of Childhood ADHD on Criminal Activities*

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Jason; Wolfe, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether childhood mental illness has long term consequences in terms of criminal behavior has been little studied, yet it could have major consequences for both the individual and society more generally. In this paper, we focus on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), one of the most prevalent mental conditions in school-age children, to examine the long-term effects of childhood mental illness on criminal activities, controlling for a rich set of individual, family...

  5. The Long-Term Effect of Childhood Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses variation among siblings to identify the effect of childhood poverty on long-term outcomes such as income, earnings, job type, employment, and having children. Childhood poverty is found to have large negative effects on labour market outcome and small effects on non-labour market outcomes. The marginal effect of one additional year of childhood poverty from the age of 13 to 15 is found to decrease the disposable income of the individual by 6.4% around the age of 30. The effec...

  6. Long-term Survival after Metastatic Childhood Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; Bybjerg Jensen, Mette; Krag, Christen

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanoma in children is very rare and accounts for only 1-3% of all melanomas. A congenital melanocytic nevus depending on the size of the lesion is one of the risk factors for developing childhood melanoma because of the possible malignant transformation. Childhood malignant...... of malign melanoma must be in mind when evaluating a pigmented lesion in a pediatric patient. We present a case of a patient born with a congenital nevus diagnosed with metastatic childhood malignant scalp melanoma at the age of 6 years. The patient underwent surgical ablation and reconstruction and has...... survived 26 years without recurrence, thus representing an uplifting case of long-term survival of childhood melanoma....

  7. Validation of a Comprehensive Early Childhood Allergy Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasyan, Anna; Babajanyan, Arman; Campbell, Dianne E; Nanan, Ralph

    2015-09-01

    Parental questionnaires to assess incidence of pediatric allergic disease have been validated for use in school-aged children. Currently, there is no validated questionnaire-based assessment of food allergy, atopic dermatitis (AD), and asthma for infants and young children. The Comprehensive Early Childhood Allergy Questionnaire was designed for detecting AD, asthma, and IgE-mediated food allergies in children aged 1-5 years. A nested case-control design was applied. Parents of 150 children attending pediatric outpatient clinics completed the questionnaire before being clinically assessed by a pediatrician for allergies. Sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the questionnaire were assessed. Seventy-seven children were diagnosed with one or more current allergic diseases. The questionnaire demonstrated high overall sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.86-0.98) with a specificity of 0.79 (95% CI 0.68-0.88). Questionnaire reproducibility was good with a kappa agreement rate for symptom-related questions of 0.45-0.90. Comprehensive Early Childhood Allergy Questionnaire accurately and reliably reflects the presence of allergies in children aged 1-5 years. Its use is warranted as a tool for determining prevalence of allergies in this pediatric age group. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinsey, B.H.; Hoddinott, J; Alderman, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects - instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long term panel data set. Representations of civil war and drought shocks are used to identify

  9. Childhood fitness reduces the long-term cardiometabolic risks associated with childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M D; Magnussen, C G; Rees, E; Dwyer, T; Venn, A J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether childhood cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates or modifies the long-term cardiometabolic risks associated with childhood obesity. The study consisted of a 20-year follow-up of 1792 adults who participated in the 1985 Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey when they were 7-15 years of age. Baseline measures included a 1.6-km run to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference to assess abdominal adiposity. At follow-up, participants attended study clinics where indicators of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids) were measured and cardiorespiratory fitness was reassessed using a submaximal graded exercise test. Both high waist circumference and low cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood were significant independent predictors of MetS in early adulthood. The mutually adjusted relative risk of adult MetS was 3.00 (95% confidence interval: 1.85-4.89) for children in the highest (vs lowest) third of waist circumference and 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.96) for children with high (vs low) cardiorespiratory fitness. No significant interaction between waist circumference and fitness was observed, with higher levels of childhood fitness associated with lower risks of adult MetS among those with either low or high childhood waist circumference values. Participants who had both high waist circumference and low cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood were 8.5 times more likely to have MetS in adulthood than those who had low waist circumference and high cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood. Regardless of childhood obesity status, participants with low childhood fitness who increased their relative fitness by adulthood had a substantially lower prevalence of MetS than those who remained low fit. Childhood waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness are both strongly associated with cardiometabolic health in later life. Higher levels of

  10. A Long-Term Outcome Study of Selective Mutism in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Wachter, Miriam; Laimbock, Karin; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Controlled study of the long-term outcome of selective mutism (SM) in childhood. Method: A sample of 33 young adults with SM in childhood and two age- and gender-matched comparison groups were studied. The latter comprised 26 young adults with anxiety disorders in childhood (ANX) and 30 young adults with no psychiatric disorders during…

  11. What Are the Long-Term Economic Costs of Psychological Problems during Childhood? Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has established evidence of a strong link between poor physical health during childhood (and even in utero) and health and economic outcomes much later in adulthood. But much less is known about the long-term economic consequences of psychological conditions experienced during childhood, although childhood psychological…

  12. Ovarian failure in long-term survivors of childhood malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillman, R.J.; Schinfeld, J.S.; Schiff, I.; Gelber, R.D.; Greenberger, J.; Larson, M.; Jaffe, N.; Li, F.P.

    1981-01-01

    The frequency and causes of ovarian failure among 182 long-term survivors of childhood cancer were examined. Twenty-two patients (12%) had ovarian failure. Ovarian failure was found in 17 of 25 patients (68%) who had both ovaries within abdominal radiotherapy fields, in five of 35 patients (14%) whose ovaries were at the edge of the treatment field, and in none of 122 patients with one or both ovaries outside of an abdominal treatment field. Covariate and multivariate analyses of tumor type, age at diagnosis, duration of follow-up, abdominal tumor surgery, abdominal radiotherapy, number of chemotherapeutic agents administered, and cumulative doses of several drugs revealed that the location of the ovaries relative to radiation treatment fields was the only risk factor for subsequent ovarian failure

  13. Validity of childhood adiposity classification in predicting adolescent overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Michael; Zarka, Salman; Bibi, Haim; Haviv, Jacob; Scharf, Shimon; Gdalevich, Michael

    2010-05-03

    Identification of children at risk for adolescent overweight can assist in targeting interventions. Uncertainty remains regarding the validity of current body mass index (BMI) reference values in predicting future risk on a population basis. This study aimed to assess the validity of current childhood adiposity classifications in predicting adolescent overweight and obesity among Israeli youth. Historical cohort study. School-based childhood health studies and adolescent physical examinations. A total of 3 163 subjects surveyed first at age 8-15 and again at age 17-19. Age, sex, height, weight and BMI. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and relative risk of childhood adiposity classification. Childhood overweight and obesity showed low sensitivity and high specificity for predicting adolescent overweight and obesity. Positive predictive values were low and varied by age and sex, but negative predictive values were consistently high in both sexes and all ages (range 0.85-0.99). After adjusting for age and sex, both childhood overweight and obesity substantially increased the risk of adolescent overweight (relative risk [RR] 7.03 and 7.20, respectively) and adolescent obesity (RR 24.34 and 28.41, respectively). Childhood overweight and obesity are strong risk factors for adolescent overweight and obesity among Israeli youth. Normal weight children were at very low risk for adolescent overweight. These findings suggest that population-based health promotion aimed at maintaining normal weight among children should be given preference over risk-guided approaches targeting weight reduction among obese children.

  14. Neuropsychological sequelae of childhood cancer in long-term survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, D.R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Pfefferbaum-Levine, B.; Jaffe, N.; Ried, H.; Maor, M.

    1985-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of various cancer treatments on neuropsychological functioning, 74 long-term survivors of childhood cancer were examined. A comprehensive battery of tests was administered to two CNS treatment groups (irradiated and nonirradiated leukemia and lymphoma patients) and a control group (solid tumor and Hodgkin disease patients receiving no CNS treatment). The CNS-irradiated group obtained lower scores than the other two groups, with significant differences in visual-motor and fine motor skills, spatial memory, and arithmetic achievement resulting in significant differences in IQ scores (VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ). The results are discussed in relation to: (1) the effects of CNS irradiation on cognitive development; (2) the specificity of these effects; and (3) the relationship of age at diagnosis to treatment effects. It is concluded that although there is a general lowering of scores after CNS irradiation, the effect is most pronounced for nonlanguage skills. Age at diagnosis was less important than the type of treatment, with CNS irradiation reducing performance regardless of when cancer was diagnosed. There were indications that children with any type of cancer diagnosed before age 5 years are more likely to have some cognitive difficulties

  15. The Long-Term Effect of Childhood Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    outcomes. The marginal effect of one additional year of childhood poverty from the age of 13 to 15 is found to decrease the disposable income of the individual by 6.4% around the age of 30. The effect size is found to have an inverse u-shape in the age of the child, peaking in the early teens...

  16. Reliability and validity of advanced theory-of-mind measures in middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Elizabeth O; Homer, Bruce D

    2017-09-01

    Although theory-of-mind (ToM) development is well documented for early childhood, there is increasing research investigating changes in ToM reasoning in middle childhood and adolescence. However, the psychometric properties of most advanced ToM measures for use with older children and adolescents have not been firmly established. We report on the reliability and validity of widely used, conventional measures of advanced ToM with this age group. Notable issues with both reliability and validity of several of the measures were evident in the findings. With regard to construct validity, results do not reveal a clear empirical commonality between tasks, and, after accounting for comprehension, developmental trends were evident in only one of the tasks investigated. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Second-order false belief tasks have acceptable internal consistency. The Eyes Test has poor internal consistency. Validity of advanced theory-of-mind tasks is often based on the ability to distinguish clinical from typical groups. What does this study add? This study examines internal consistency across six widely used advanced theory-of-mind tasks. It investigates validity of tasks based on comprehension of items by typically developing individuals. It further assesses construct validity, or commonality between tasks. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Exploration of life experiences of positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonjung

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore experiences of positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors, from their perspective. Fifteen long-term survivors of childhood cancer provided descriptions of their experiences. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and the analysis was based on Giorgi's phenomenological research method. The analysis of positive growth experienced by long-term childhood cancer survivors revealed three themes: self-directed life, normalcy in life, and inner maturity. Long-term survivors defined positive growth as a successful transition to a self-satisfactory life based on motivation acquired through their cancer experience and on subjective goal-setting, as well as becoming cancer-free and living a normal life within society. They seemed to have acquired optimistic, flexible, active attitudes toward life while demonstrating profound gratefulness and consideration of people around them, as well as prudent approaches to health. The findings of this study verified that long-term survivors of childhood cancer have grown positively due to their negative past experience. We expect these findings to contribute to the development of programs that promote positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliability and Validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Takakura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood, an instrument designed to measure a concept similar to “zest for living” in late childhood. A total of 1,888 elementary school students in the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades residing in urban and suburban areas as well as in remote islands of 3 prefectures (Okinawa, Kagoshima, and Nagasaki were surveyed. On the basis of our analysis, 24 items and seven factors were extracted. These factors are problem-solving/synthesis, relationship with friends, personal manners, decision-making and future planning, self-learning, collecting and using information, and leadership. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients were computed for each subscale and ranged from 0.71 to 0.87. Test-retest reliability coefficient values ranged from 0.68 to 0.79. To examine the construct validity of the scales, a goodness-of-fit model was determined by confirmatory factor analysis, and satisfactory values were found (GFI = 0.952, AGFI = 0.937, CFI = 0.966, RMSEA = 0.016. The validity of the goodness-of-fit model and the reliability of the scales indicate that the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood is an effective assessment tool.

  19. Childhood Craniopharyngioma with Hypothalamic Obesity - No Long-term Weight Reduction due to Rehabilitation Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterkenburg, A. S.; Hoffmann, A.; Gebhardt, U.; Waldeck, E.; Springer, S.; Mueller, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Severe obesity due to hypothalamic involvement has major impact on prognosis in long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma. The long-term effects of rehabilitation efforts on weight development and obesity in these patients are not analyzed up to now. Patients and Methods: 108

  20. Childhood Craniopharyngioma with Hypothalamic Obesity - No Long-term Weight Reduction due to Rehabilitation Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterkenburg, A. S.; Hoffmann, A.; Gebhardt, U.; Waldeck, E.; Springer, S.; Mueller, H. L.

    Background: Severe obesity due to hypothalamic involvement has major impact on prognosis in long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma. The long-term effects of rehabilitation efforts on weight development and obesity in these patients are not analyzed up to now. Patients and Methods: 108

  1. Long-term studies of the natural history of asthma in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    secondary prevention through the use of inhaled corticosteroids can effectively halt the long-term disease progression in childhood. In conclusion, the natural history of asthma and the associated airway changes is still poorly understood, and we have not managed to translate findings from long-term studies...

  2. Contributing to the ICNP®: validating the term cultural diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Geyer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aims of this study were to: • Propose a definition of the term cultural diversity; • Validate the term cultural diversity; and • Submit a term and definition for international utilisation to the International Council of Nurses (ICN for consideration for inclusion in the ICNP®. Background South Africa was one of four African countries (Botswana, South Africa. Swaziland, and Zimbabwe funded by the WK Kellogg Foundation to participate in the ICNP® project. South Africa had 2 research groups. One of the research groups identified the term cultural diversity to define. Method This was a qualitative study where a philosophical perspective was used to explore, explain and describe nursing practice. The combined method proposed by the International Council of Nurses (ICN was utilised to define and validate the term cultural diversity. Findings Validation and literature review provided sufficient support for the defined characteristics and the term was finally defined and submitted to ICN in November 2002 as: CULTURAL DIVERSITY is a type of CULTURE with the specific characteristics: co-existence of different groups, e.g. ethnic, religious, linguistic and other groups each with their own values and belief systems, traditions and different lifestyles. Conclusion The research group was informed in December 2003 of the ICNP® Evaluation Committee recommendation that the term cultural diversity will be included in the ICNP®.

  3. Predictive validity of childhood oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: implications for the DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Waldman, Irwin; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2010-11-01

    Data are presented from 3 studies of children and adolescents to evaluate the predictive validity of childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and the International Classification of Diseases, Version 10 (ICD-10; World Health Organization, 1992). The present analyses strongly support the predictive validity of these diagnoses by showing that they predict both future psychopathology and enduring functional impairment. Furthermore, the present findings generally support the hierarchical developmental hypothesis in DSM-IV that some children with ODD progress to childhood-onset CD, and some youth with CD progress to antisocial personality disorder (APD). Nonetheless, they reveal that CD does not always co-occur with ODD, particularly during adolescence. Importantly, the present findings suggest that ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for ODD, which treat CD symptoms as ODD symptoms when diagnostic criteria for CD are not met, identify more functionally impaired children than the more restrictive DSM-IV definition of ODD. Filling this "hole" in the DSM-IV criteria for ODD should be a priority for the DSM-V. In addition, the present findings suggest that although the psychopathic trait of interpersonal callousness in childhood independently predicts future APD, these findings do not confirm the hypothesis that callousness distinguishes a subset of children with CD with an elevated risk for APD. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Factorial validity of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire in Italian psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innamorati, Marco; Erbuto, Denise; Venturini, Paola; Fagioli, Francesca; Ricci, Federica; Lester, David; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio

    2016-11-30

    Early adverse experiences are associated with neurobiological changes and these may underlie the increased risk of psychopathology. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF) is the most commonly used instrument for assessing childhood maltreatment. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the factorial validity of an Italian version of the CTQ-SF in a sample of psychiatric inpatients by means of confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. The sample was composed of 471 psychiatric in-patients and out-patients (206 males and 265 females) aged 16-80 years (mean age=34.4 years [SD=16.3]) consecutively admitted to two psychiatric departments. All patients were administered the Italian version of the CTQ-SF. We tested five different factor models which lacked good fit, while the exploratory factor analysis supported the adequacy of a solution with three factors (Emotional Neglect/Abuse, Sexual Abuse, Physical Neglect/Abuse). The three factors had satisfactory internal consistency (ordinal Cronbach alphas >0.90). Our study supports results from previous research indicating the lack of structural invariance of the CTQ-SF in cross-cultural adaptations of the test, and the fact that, when measuring different types of childhood maltreatment, the difference between abuse and neglect may be not valid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Household Crowding During Childhood and Long-Term Education Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopoo, Leonard M; London, Andrew S

    2016-06-01

    Household crowding, or having more household members than rooms in one's residence, could potentially affect a child's educational attainment directly through a number of mechanisms. We use U.S. longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to derive new measures of childhood crowding and estimate negative associations between crowding during one's high school years and, respectively, high school graduation by age 19 and maximum education at age 25. These negative relationships persist in multivariate models in which we control for the influence of a variety of factors, including socioeconomic status and housing-cost burden. Given the importance of educational attainment for a range of midlife and later-life outcomes, this study suggests that household crowding during one's high school years is an engine of cumulative inequality over the life course.

  6. Assessing long-term QALYs gain from averting and reversing overweight and obesity in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techakehakij, Win

    2016-10-01

    Interventions to tackle childhood obesity have been devised in response to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. However, efficiency of these interventions remains a concern. Cost-utility analysis, representing health benefits in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), is a type of economic evaluation that has widely been recommended in assessing efficiency of health interventions. However, certain limitations in using QALYs remain specifically difficult in QALYs estimation. This study estimates the long-term QALYs gain from reversing childhood obesity in Thailand. An economic model was developed to estimate long-term QALYs of the youth aged 3-18 for the BMI status in childhood, which were categorized into three groups: normal weight, overweight, and obese. Long-term QALYs were estimated between ages 35 and 100, according to children's age, sex, and BMI status. Differences in QALYs between BMI status groups were calculated to represent the QALYs gain for youth from reversing obesity and overweight. The future outcomes were discounted at 3 % per annum in the base-case analysis; the discount rates of 0, 1.5, 3.5, and 5 % were also applied in the sensitivity analyses. QALYs gained from reversing childhood obesity increase with age, starting from 0.040 and 0.083 QALYs at age 3 to 0.590 and 0.553 QALYs at age 18 in boys and girls, respectively. Reversing overweight and obesity in girls produces more QALYs than in boys between ages 3 and 17. Efficiency is an important issue in allocating public healthcare resources to maximize social benefits. The results of this study facilitate long-term QALYs estimation with respect to BMI status in childhood, which could encourage more routine economic evaluation of child obesity interventions and maximize their health benefits.

  7. The Brief Early Childhood Screening Assessment: Preliminary Validity in Pediatric Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallucco, Elise M; Wysocki, Tim; James, Lauren; Kozikowski, Chelsea; Williams, Andre; Gleason, Mary M

    Brief, well-validated instruments are needed to facilitate screening for early childhood behavioral and emotional problems (BEPs). The objectives of this study were to empirically reduce the length of the Early Childhood Screening Assessment (ECSA) and to assess the validity and reliability of this shorter tool. Using caregiver ECSA responses for 2467 children aged 36 to 60 months seen in primary care, individual ECSA items were ranked on a scale ranging from "absolutely retain" to "absolutely delete." Items were deleted sequentially beginning with "absolutely delete" and going up the item prioritization list, resulting in 35 shorter versions of the ECSA. A separate primary care sample (n = 69) of mothers of children aged 18 to 60 months was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of each shorter ECSA version using psychiatric diagnosis on the Diagnostic Infant and Preschool Assessment as the gold standard. The version with the optimal balance of sensitivity, specificity, and length was selected as the Brief ECSA. Associations between Brief ECSA scores and other pertinent measures were evaluated to estimate reliability and validity. A 22-item measure reflected the best combination of brevity, sensitivity and specificity. A cutoff score of 9 or higher on the 22-item Brief ECSA demonstrated acceptable sensitivity (89%) and specificity (85%) for predicting a psychiatric diagnosis. Brief ECSA scores correlated significantly and in expected directions with scores on pertinent measures and with demographic variables. The results indicate that the Brief ECSA has sound psychometric properties for identifying young children with BEPs in primary care.

  8. Long-term effects of radiotherapy in childhood and adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.L.; Kroll, S.; Jaffe, N.; Serure, A.; Goepfert, H.

    1990-01-01

    The records of 50 selected pediatric patients who were treated and followed at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center were reviewed to study the late effects of nonsurgical treatment of cancer in children. There were 26 girls and 24 boys ranging in age between 2 months and 16 years. Patients with head and neck cancer received chemotherapy and radiotherapy for rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 27), retinoblastoma (n = 8), or nasopharynx cancer (n = 2). Median follow-up was 13 years. The most severe side effects were noted in the fields of radiation and included hypoplasia of the jaw, orbit, or hemi-face with varying degrees of atrophy of the overlying soft tissues. A wide range of endocrine, dental, and psychologic abnormalities was also documented. Since 1 in every 1,000 adults older than 20 years today is likely to be a survivor of childhood cancer, recommendations are made for this new class of patients whom the head and neck surgeon will be seeing in the future

  9. Reproductive status in adult male long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, K.; Claessens, J. J. M.; Knijnenburg, S. L.; van der Pal, H. J. H.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Caron, H. N.; Beerendonk, C. C. M.; Kremer, L. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the long-term effects of cancer therapies on reproductive status in adult male childhood cancer survivors, evaluated the treatment-related risk factors for hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and assessed the association between the FSH levels and the later need for assisted

  10. Reproductive status in adult male long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, K.; Claessens, J.J.M.; Knijnenburg, S.L.; Pal, H.J. van der; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Caron, H.N.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Kremer, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the long-term effects of cancer therapies on reproductive status in adult male childhood cancer survivors, evaluated the treatment-related risk factors for hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and assessed the association between the FSH levels and the later need for

  11. Assessing anger regulation in middle childhood: development and validation of a behavioral observation measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lara Rohlf

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An observational measure of anger regulation in middle childhood was developed that facilitated the in situ assessment of five maladaptive regulation strategies in response to an anger-eliciting task. 599 children aged 6-10 years (M = 8.12, SD = 0.92 participated in the study. Construct validity of the measure was examined through correlations with parent- and self-reports of anger regulation and anger reactivity. Criterion validity was established through links with teacher-rated aggression and social rejection measured by parent-, teacher-, and self-reports. The observational measure correlated significantly with parent- and self-reports of anger reactivity, whereas it was unrelated to parent- and self-reports of anger regulation. It also made a unique contribution to predicting aggression and social rejection.

  12. Long-term consequences of early childhood malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman,Harold; Hoddinott, John; Kinsey, Bill

    2003-01-01

    "This paper examines the impact of preschool malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects-instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long-term panel data set. Representations of civil war and drought 'shocks' are used to identify differences in preschool nutritional status across siblings. Improvements in height-for-age in preschoolers are associated with increased height as a young adult and number of grades of schooling completed....

  13. Validation of a French language version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronneau Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An English language oral health-related negative impact scale for 0–5 year old infants (the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale [ECOHIS] has recently been developed and validated. The overall aim of our study was to validate a French version of the ECOHIS. The objectives were to investigate the scale's: i internal consistency; ii test-retest reliability; iii convergent validity; and iv discriminant validity. Methods Data were collected from two separate samples. Firstly, from 398 parents of children aged 12 months, recruited to a community-based intervention study, and secondly from 94 parents of 0–5 year-old children attending a hospital dental clinic. In a sub-sample of 101 of the community-based group, the scale was distributed a second time two weeks after initial evaluation. Internal consistency was evaluated through generation of Cronbach's alpha, test-retest reliability through intra-class-correlation coefficients (ICC, convergent validity through comparing scale total scores with a global evaluation of oral health and discriminant validity through investigation of differences in total scale scores between the community- and clinic-based samples. Results Cronbach's alpha for both the child and family impact sections was 0.79, and for the whole scale was 0.82. The ICC was 0.95. Mean ECOHIS scores for parents rating their child's oral health as "relatively poor", "good" and "very good" were 10.8, 3.4 and 2.7 respectively. In the community- and clinic-based samples, the mean ECOHIS scores were 3.7 and 4.9 respectively. Conclusion These results suggest this French language version of the ECOHIS is valid.

  14. Validation of the Brazilian version of the childhood asthma control test (c-ACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Suelen G; Sarria, Edgar E; Roncada, Cristian; Stein, Renato T; Pitrez, Paulo M; Mattiello, Rita

    2016-04-01

    Children's perception of their symptoms has proved reliable and relevant to disease management and should be considered when assessing their asthma control. The aim of the study is to validate the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Childhood Asthma Control Test (c-ACT) in children aged 4-11 years. This is a cross-sectional study in children diagnosed with asthma undergoing treatment in a pediatric pulmonology outpatient clinic in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The translation and linguistic adaptation of the instrument were performed in accordance with international recommendations for questionnaire validation. A total of 105 participants were included, aged 4-11 years. all correlations between the total score and items on the questionnaire were significant and obtained values of r ≥ 0.3, and c-ACT means showed statistically significant differences between the GINA categories (P ACT scores than those of uncontrolled asthma group (controlled 22.0 ± 2.9 vs. uncontrolled 16.3 ± 5.3 P ACT scores than those of uncontrolled asthma group (partially controlled 20.0 ± 4.0 vs. uncontrolled 16.3 ± 5.3 P = 0.03). Correlations between the c-ACT total score and spirometry and nitric oxide were poor (r = 0.020; P = 0.866 and r = 0.035; P = 0.753, respectively). Reliability: the α-C coefficient for the c-ACT total score was 0.677 (95%CI 0.573-0763). Sensitivity to change had an effect size of 0.8 and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.598. No floor or ceiling effects were observed. The Brazilian version of the Childhood Asthma Control Test proved to be valid and reliable in children aged 4-11 years. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Development and validation of parenting measures for body image and eating patterns in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based parenting interventions are important in assisting parents to help their children develop healthy body image and eating patterns. To adequately assess the impact of parenting interventions, valid parent measures are required. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the validity and reliability of two new parent measures, the Parenting Intentions for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Parenting Intentions BEC) and the Knowledge Test for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Knowledge Test BEC). Participants were 27 professionals working in research or clinical treatment of body dissatisfaction or eating disorders, and 75 parents of children aged 2-6 years, who completed the measures via an online questionnaire. Seven scenarios were developed for the Parenting Intentions BEC to describe common experiences about the body and food that parents might need to respond to in front of their child. Parents ranked four behavioural intentions, derived from the current literature on parenting risk factors for body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating patterns in children. Two subscales were created, one representing positive behavioural intentions, the other negative behavioural intentions. After piloting a larger pool of items, 13 statements were used to construct the Knowledge Test BEC. These were designed to be factual statements about the influence of parent language, media, family meals, healthy eating, and self-esteem on child eating and body image. The validity of both measures was tested by comparing parent and professional scores, and reliability was assessed by comparing parent scores over two testing occasions. Compared with parents, professionals reported significantly higher scores on the Positive Intentions subscale and significantly lower on the Negative Intentions subscale of the Parenting Intentions BEC; confirming the discriminant validity of six out of the seven scenarios. Test-retest reliability was also confirmed as

  16. Medulloblastoma in childhood: long-term results of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, V.A.; Barnes, N.D.; Wheeler, T.K.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-one children under the age of 15 years with verified medulloblastoma were treated at Addenbrookes Hospital from 1940 to 1976. In addition to surgical treatment, all received high dose irradiation to the whole neuraxis. Nine were still alive in 1979, of whom eight were examined. All these patients showed some residual problems, but five were leading active lives and had only minor physical disability. There was evidence of disturbance in growth, with shortening of the spine in relation to the limbs, in all the children. The height centile was lower than expected from parental height in four and one was severely dwarfed. Growth hormone secretion in response to exercise was, however, normal in five of six patients tested. Three children also showed failure of growth of the jaw sufficiently severe to be a cosmetic problem. Frank mental retardation was present in three children. A raised resting TSH level was found in two children, one of whom had a multinodular goiter. Of the three children with severe problems, two had been treated when under two years of age. Long-term follow-up of children who survive medulloblastoma is clearly necessary and consideration should perhaps be given to revision of current treatment regimes in very young children

  17. The Malay version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (Malay-ECOHIS)--assessing validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Azlina N; Yusof, Zamros Y M; Esa, Rashidah

    2015-11-25

    The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is used to assess oral impacts on the quality of life of preschool aged children and their families. The objective of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the ECOHIS into Malay and assess its psychometric properties. The cross-cultural adaptation of ECOHIS into Malay comprised of translating the ECOHIS into the Malay language (Malay-ECOHIS) by experts followed by face validation of the Malay-ECOHIS by a group of mothers. The Malay-ECOHIS was back translated into English and this was compared with the original ECOHIS. Minor changes were made to the Malay-ECOHIS before it was finalised. The Malay-ECOHIS' psychometric properties were assessed in terms of construct, convergent and discriminant validity as well as internal and test-retest reliability based on two separate studies involving 127 parents of 4-6 year old preschool children followed by oral examinations of 860 preschool children from 25 kindergartens from two districts in Selangor state, Malaysia. Non-parametric statistics were used to assess the relationships between the Malay-ECOHIS and the subjective and clinical outcome measures. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.83 and the weighted Kappa was 0.95 (intraclass correlation = 0.94). The Malay-ECOHIS demonstrated significant associations with different subjective and normative measures, i.e. levels of oral health satisfaction, perceived oral health status, perceived oral health need, toothache experience, pattern of dental attendance, and caries status of preschool children. These significant associations supported its construct, convergent and discriminant validity as well as internal and test-retest reliability. This study showed that the Malay-ECOHIS is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the negative impacts of oral disorders/conditions on the quality of life of 4-6 year old preschool children and their families in Malaysia.

  18. Validation of questionnaire-reported hearing with medical records: A report from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Weiss

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is a potential late effect after childhood cancer. Questionnaires are often used to assess hearing in large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors and it is important to know if they can provide valid measures of hearing loss. We therefore assessed agreement and validity of questionnaire-reported hearing in childhood cancer survivors using medical records as reference.In this validation study, we studied 361 survivors of childhood cancer from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS who had been diagnosed after 1989 and had been exposed to ototoxic cancer treatment. Questionnaire-reported hearing was compared to the information in medical records. Hearing loss was defined as ≥ grade 1 according to the SIOP Boston Ototoxicity Scale. We assessed agreement and validity of questionnaire-reported hearing overall and stratified by questionnaire respondents (survivor or parent, sociodemographic characteristics, time between follow-up and questionnaire and severity of hearing loss.Questionnaire reports agreed with medical records in 85% of respondents (kappa 0.62, normal hearing was correctly assessed in 92% of those with normal hearing (n = 249, and hearing loss was correctly assessed in 69% of those with hearing loss (n = 112. Sensitivity of the questionnaires was 92%, 74%, and 39% for assessment of severe, moderate and mild bilateral hearing loss; and 50%, 33% and 10% for severe, moderate and mild unilateral hearing loss, respectively. Results did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents, and survivor- and parent-reports were equally valid.Questionnaires are a useful tool to assess hearing in large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors, but underestimate mild and unilateral hearing loss. Further research should investigate whether the addition of questions with higher sensitivity for mild degrees of hearing loss could improve the results.

  19. Validation of questionnaire-reported hearing with medical records: A report from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinemann, Katrin; Grotzer, Michael; Kompis, Martin; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Hearing loss is a potential late effect after childhood cancer. Questionnaires are often used to assess hearing in large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors and it is important to know if they can provide valid measures of hearing loss. We therefore assessed agreement and validity of questionnaire-reported hearing in childhood cancer survivors using medical records as reference. Procedure In this validation study, we studied 361 survivors of childhood cancer from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS) who had been diagnosed after 1989 and had been exposed to ototoxic cancer treatment. Questionnaire-reported hearing was compared to the information in medical records. Hearing loss was defined as ≥ grade 1 according to the SIOP Boston Ototoxicity Scale. We assessed agreement and validity of questionnaire-reported hearing overall and stratified by questionnaire respondents (survivor or parent), sociodemographic characteristics, time between follow-up and questionnaire and severity of hearing loss. Results Questionnaire reports agreed with medical records in 85% of respondents (kappa 0.62), normal hearing was correctly assessed in 92% of those with normal hearing (n = 249), and hearing loss was correctly assessed in 69% of those with hearing loss (n = 112). Sensitivity of the questionnaires was 92%, 74%, and 39% for assessment of severe, moderate and mild bilateral hearing loss; and 50%, 33% and 10% for severe, moderate and mild unilateral hearing loss, respectively. Results did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents, and survivor- and parent-reports were equally valid. Conclusions Questionnaires are a useful tool to assess hearing in large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors, but underestimate mild and unilateral hearing loss. Further research should investigate whether the addition of questions with higher sensitivity for mild degrees of hearing loss could improve the results. PMID:28333999

  20. Long-term studies of the natural history of asthma in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation of children with asthma and other wheezy disorders remains the main research challenge today, as it was when described 2 centuries ago. Early childhood wheezy disorders follow different temporal trajectories, probably representing different underlying mechanisms (endophenotypes...... secondary prevention through the use of inhaled corticosteroids can effectively halt the long-term disease progression in childhood. In conclusion, the natural history of asthma and the associated airway changes is still poorly understood, and we have not managed to translate findings from long-term studies......). Prospective identification of endophenotypes allowing accurate prediction of the clinical course is currently not possible. The variability of the clinical course remains an enigma and difficult to predict. Three of 4 school-aged children with asthma have outgrown disease by midadulthood. The risk...

  1. Validation of an early childhood caries risk assessment tool in a low-income Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio-Lumsden, Christie L; Wolf, Randi L; Contento, Isobel R; Basch, Charles E; Zybert, Patricia A; Koch, Pamela A; Edelstein, Burton L

    2016-03-01

    There is a recognized need for valid risk assessment tools for use by both dental and nondental personnel to identify young children at risk for, or with, precavitated stages of early childhood caries (i.e., early stage decalcifications or white spot lesions).The aim of this study is to establish concurrent criterion validity of "MySmileBuddy" (MSB), a novel technology-assisted ECC risk assessment and behavioral intervention tool against four measures of ECC activity: semi-quantitative assays of salivary mutans streptococci levels, visible quantity of dental plaque, visual evidence of enamel decalcifications, and cavitation status (none, ECC, severe ECC). One hundred eight children 2-6 years of age presenting to a pediatric dental clinic were recruited from a predominantly Spanish-speaking, low-income, urban population. All children received a comprehensive oral examination and saliva culture for assessment of ECC indicators. Their caregivers completed the iPad-based MSB assessment in its entirety (15-20 minutes). MSB calculated both diet and comprehensive ECC risk scores. Associations between all variables were determined using ordinal logistic regression. MSB diet risk scores were significantly positively associated with salivary mutans (P valid risk assessment tool for identifying children with early precursors of cavitations but does not add value in identifying children with extant lesions. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  2. The Long-Term Cognitive Consequences of Early Childhood Malnutrition: The Case of Famine in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel K. Ampaabeng; Chih Ming Tang

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of early childhood health in human capital accumulation. Using a unique data set from Ghana with comprehensive information on individual, family, community, school quality characteristics and a direct measure of intelligence together with test scores, we examine the long-term cognitive effects of the 1983 famine on survivors. We show that differences in intelligence test scores can be robustly explained by the differential impact of the famine in different parts of the cou...

  3. Validation of the quality of life in childhood epilepsy questionnaire in American epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaz, Mark; Lawson, John A; Cairns, David R; Duchowny, Michael S; Resnick, Trevor J; Dean, Patricia M; Bye, Ann M E

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt the Australian Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE) and determine its psychometric properties in a North American population. Participants were North American families with children diagnosed with epilepsy. Parents were asked to complete the American QOLCE (USQOLCE) and the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ). Seventy-one families completed the USQOLCE. The internal consistency reliability of the subscales was good. USQOLCE subscales correlated highly with theoretically similar subscales contained in the CHQ. Theoretically dissimilar subscales on the two instruments did not correlate as well. USQOLCE correlated significantly with a parental rating of seizure severity and an independent measure of degree of postoperative seizure control. This study demonstrated that the USQOLCE is suitable for a North American population with evidence of its reliability and validity including its sensitivity to seizure burden.

  4. Validation of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Short Forms for Use in Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jordan T; Carle, Adam C; Wootton, Janet; Liberio, Brianna; Lee, Jiha; Schanberg, Laura E; Ying, Jun; Morgan DeWitt, Esi; Brunner, Hermine I

    2017-01-01

    To validate the pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short forms (PROMIS-SFs) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a clinical setting. At 3 study visits, childhood-onset SLE patients completed the PROMIS-SFs (anger, anxiety, depressive symptoms, fatigue, physical function-mobility, physical function-upper extremity, pain interference, and peer relationships) using the PROMIS assessment center, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) legacy measures (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire, Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters [SMILEY], and visual analog scales [VAS] of pain and well-being). Physicians rated childhood-onset SLE activity on a VAS and completed the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000. Using a global rating scale of change (GRC) between study visits, physicians rated change of childhood-onset SLE activity (GRC-MD1: better/same/worse) and change of patient overall health (GRC-MD2: better/same/worse). Questionnaire scores were compared in support of validity and responsiveness to change (external standards: GRC-MD1, GRC-MD2). In this population-based cohort (n = 100) with a mean age of 15.8 years (range 10-20 years), the PROMIS-SFs were completed in less than 5 minutes in a clinical setting. The PROMIS-SF scores correlated at least moderately (Pearson's r ≥ 0.5) with those of legacy HRQoL measures, except for the SMILEY. Measures of childhood-onset SLE activity did not correlate with the PROMIS-SFs. Responsiveness to change of the PROMIS-SFs was supported by path, mixed-model, and correlation analyses. To assess HRQoL in childhood-onset SLE, the PROMIS-SFs demonstrated feasibility, internal consistency, construct validity, and responsiveness to change in a clinical setting. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Cardiac damage after treatment of childhood cancer: A long-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velensek, Veronika; Mazic, Uros; Krzisnik, Ciril; Demšar, Damjan; Jazbec, Janez; Jereb, Berta

    2008-01-01

    With improved childhood cancer cure rate, long term sequelae are becoming an important factor of quality of life. Signs of cardiovascular disease are frequently found in long term survivors of cancer. Cardiac damage may be related to irradiation and chemotherapy. We have evaluated simultaneous influence of a series of independent variables on the late cardiac damage in childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia and identified groups at the highest risk. 211 long-term survivors of different childhood cancers, at least five years after treatment were included in the study. The evaluation included history, physical examination, electrocardiograpy, exercise testing and echocardiograpy. For analysis of risk factors, beside univariate analysis, multivariate classification tree analysis statistical method was used. Patients treated latest, from 1989–98 are at highest risk for any injury to the heart (73%). Among those treated earlier are at the highest risk those with Hodgkin's disease treated with irradiation above 30 Gy and those treated for sarcoma. Among specific forms of injury, patients treated with radiation to the heart area are at highest risk of injury to the valves. Patients treated with large doses of anthracyclines or concomitantly with anthracyclines and alkylating agents are at highest risk of systolic function defect and enlarged heart chambers. Those treated with anthracyclines are at highest risk of diastolic function defect. The time period of the patient's treatment is emerged as an important risk factor for injury of the heart

  6. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: II. Validity Studies of the Pause Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this 2nd article in this supplement is to report validity support findings for the Pause Marker (PM), a proposed single-sign diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: PM scores and additional perceptual and acoustic measures were obtained from 296 participants in cohorts with idiopathic and…

  7. Childhood and adolescent obesity and long-term cognitive consequences during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Freire, Daniel; Knable, Lindsay; Zhao, Wei; Gong, Bing; Mazzola, Paolo; Ho, Lap; Levine, Samara; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance has reached an epidemic level. Obesity's immediate clinical impacts have been extensively studied; however, current clinical evidence underscores the long-term implications. The current study explored the impacts of brief childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance on cognitive function in later life. To mimic childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance, we exposed 9-week-old C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat diet for 15 weeks, after which the mice exhibited diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. We then put these mice back on a normal low-fat diet, after which the mice exhibited normal body weight and glucose tolerance. However, a spatial memory test in the forms of the Morris water maze (MWM) and contextual fear conditioning at 85 weeks of age showed that these mice had severe deficits in learning and long-term memory consolidation. Mechanistic investigations identified increased expression of histone deacetylases 5, accompanied by reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, in the brains 61 weeks after the mice had been off the high-fat diet. Electrophysiology studies showed that hippocampal slices isolated from these mice are more susceptible to synaptic impairments compared with slices isolated from the control mice. We demonstrated that a 15-week occurrence of obesity and insulin resistance during childhood/adolescence induces irreversible epigenetic modifications in the brain that persist following restoration of normal metabolic homeostasis, leading to brain synaptic dysfunction during aging. Our study provides experimental evidence that limited early-life exposure to obesity and insulin resistance may have long-term deleterious consequences in the brain, contributing to the onset/progression of cognitive dysfunction during aging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories.

  9. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume 1. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories. This document is Volume I of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation

  10. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories

  11. Validation of BN Reactor Plant Long-Term Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilensky, O.; Vasilyev, B.; Kaidalov, V.

    2013-01-01

    The BN RP operation life time is mainly determined by resource of non-replaceable equipment. The new standard (RD) “Procedure of strength analysis for main components of sodium cooled fast neutron reactor plants” was developed to validate structure strength in view of radiation effects and degradation of material properties within the time period up to 300000 hours and under irradiation, as well as development of postulated crack-like defects. Using this RD, the extension of operation life of BN-600 reactor non-replaceable components from 30 to 45 years, as well as strength and durability of the most loaded non-replaceable components of BN-800 RP under construction were validated for the specified 45-year operation life. Wider application of steel 16Cr-11Ni-3Mo refers to new decisions in BN-1200 RP design that allow increasing of operation life of the most loaded non-replaceable components up to 60 years. High-chromium steel 12Cr-Ni-Mo-V-Nb is a new material, which was proposed for SG design to increase the operation life up to 30 years. In addition, the austenitic steels 18Cr-9Ni and 16Cr-11Ni-3Mo are now under upgrading for future application of them in commercial BN-1200 RP. To provide additional long-term reliable and safe operation of BN-1200 RP equipment and pipelines, it is planned to develop and implement the lifetime operational monitoring system

  12. Long-Term Effects from Bacterial Meningitis in Childhood and Adolescence on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hannes; Patel, Mitesh; Ingason, Einar F.; Einarsson, Einar J.; Haraldsson, Ásgeir; Fransson, Per-Anders

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis in childhood is associated with cognitive deficiencies, sensorimotor impairments and motor dysfunction later in life. However, the long-term effects on postural control is largely unknown, e.g., whether meningitis subjects as adults fully can utilize visual information and adaptation to enhance stability. Thirty-six subjects (20 women, mean age 19.3 years) treated in childhood or adolescence for bacterial meningitis, and 25 controls (13 women, mean age 25.1 years) performed posturography with eyes open and closed under unperturbed and perturbed standing. The meningitis subjects were screened for subjective vertigo symptoms using a questionnaire, clinically tested with headshake and head thrust test, as well as their hearing was evaluated. Meningitis subjects were significantly more unstable than controls during unperturbed (p≤0.014) and perturbed standing, though while perturbed only with eyes open in anteroposterior direction (p = 0.034) whereas in lateral direction both with eyes open and closed (pMeningitis subjects had poorer adaption ability to balance perturbations especially with eyes open, and they frequently reported symptoms of unsteadiness (88% of the subjects) and dizziness (81%), which was found significantly correlated to objectively decreased stability. Out of the 36 subjects only 3 had unilateral hearing impairment. Hence, survivors of childhood bacterial meningitis may suffer long-term disorders affecting postural control, and would greatly benefit if these common late effects became generally known so treatments can be developed and applied. PMID:25405756

  13. Validation of a 20-year forecast of US childhood lead poisoning: Updated prospects for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, David E.; Nevin, Rick

    2006-01-01

    We forecast childhood lead poisoning and residential lead paint hazard prevalence for 1990-2010, based on a previously unvalidated model that combines national blood lead data with three different housing data sets. The housing data sets, which describe trends in housing demolition, rehabilitation, window replacement, and lead paint, are the American Housing Survey, the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, and the National Lead Paint Survey. Blood lead data are principally from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. New data now make it possible to validate the midpoint of the forecast time period. For the year 2000, the model predicted 23.3 million pre-1960 housing units with lead paint hazards, compared to an empirical HUD estimate of 20.6 million units. Further, the model predicted 498,000 children with elevated blood lead levels (EBL) in 2000, compared to a CDC empirical estimate of 434,000. The model predictions were well within 95% confidence intervals of empirical estimates for both residential lead paint hazard and blood lead outcome measures. The model shows that window replacement explains a large part of the dramatic reduction in lead poisoning that occurred from 1990 to 2000. Here, the construction of the model is described and updated through 2010 using new data. Further declines in childhood lead poisoning are achievable, but the goal of eliminating children's blood lead levels ≥10 μg/dL by 2010 is unlikely to be achieved without additional action. A window replacement policy will yield multiple benefits of lead poisoning prevention, increased home energy efficiency, decreased power plant emissions, improved housing affordability, and other previously unrecognized benefits. Finally, combining housing and health data could be applied to forecasting other housing-related diseases and injuries

  14. Morphometry of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus in long-term survivors of childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, L; Margerkurth, J; Althaus, J; You, S-J; Zanella, F E; Kieslich, M

    2011-11-01

    Chronic pituitary dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Our aim was to rule out any late morphometric changes of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus in survivors of TBI during childhood requiring intensive care. We assessed morphometric abnormalities of the sella region and hypothalamus in patients who sustained TBI during childhood. The patients showed no clinical hormonal dysfunction at the acute phase and pituitary hormone levels at the time of our study were within normal limits. From the 18 enrolled patients in the magnetic resonance study, five were removed due to morphological changes or anatomical variations. We studied the MRI of 13 male survivors (mean age 27 years, mean time after trauma 20 years) and compared them to 13 male control subjects who were matched in terms of age (mean age, 26 years), education and ethnicity. Analyses of the pituitary gland and sella on a midsagittal T2- and T1-weighted image were performed. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM), an unbiased MRI morphometric method to investigate hypothalamic region in this group of patients. There was only a trend towards a reduced pituitary gland width in the patient group compared to controls. However, no significant morphological and morphometric abnormality was seen and VBM showed no hypothalamic grey matter loss. In the absence of hormonal dysfunction, no persisting morphometric changes of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus were seen in survivors of childhood TBI requiring intensive care.

  15. Supplemental security income and social security disability insurance coverage among long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Anne C; Parsons, Helen M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Leisenring, Wendy; Donelan, Karen; Warner, Echo L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Park, Elyse R

    2015-06-01

    Supplemental security income (SSI) and social security disability insurance (DI) are federal programs that provide disability benefits. We report on SSI/DI enrollment in a random sample of adult, long-term survivors of childhood cancer (n = 698) vs a comparison group without cancer (n = 210) from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who completed a health insurance survey. A total of 13.5% and 10.0% of survivors had ever been enrolled on SSI or DI, respectively, compared with 2.6% and 5.4% of the comparison group. Cranial radiation doses of 25 Gy or more were associated with a higher risk of current SSI (relative risk [RR] = 3.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.05 to 7.56) and DI (RR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.65 to 8.06) enrollment. Survivors with severe/life-threatening conditions were more often enrolled on SSI (RR = 3.77, 95% CI = 2.04 to 6.96) and DI (RR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.45 to 5.14) compared with those with mild/moderate or no health conditions. Further research is needed on disability-related financial challenges after childhood cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Where we used to live: validating retrospective measures of childhood neighborhood context for life course epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osypuk, Theresa L; Kehm, Rebecca; Misra, Dawn P

    2015-01-01

    Early life exposures influence numerous social determinants of health, as distal causes or confounders of later health outcomes. Although a growing literature is documenting how early life socioeconomic position affects later life health, few epidemiologic studies have tested measures for operationalizing early life neighborhood context, or examined their effects on later life health. In the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments (LIFE) Study, a retrospective cohort study among Black women in Southfield, Michigan (71% response rate), we tested the validity and reliability of retrospectively-reported survey-based subjective measures of early life neighborhood context(N=693). We compared 3 subjective childhood neighborhood measures (disorder, informal social control, victimization), with 3 objective childhood neighborhood measures derived from 4 decades of historical census tract data 1970-2000, linked through geocoded residential histories (tract % poverty, tract % black, tract deprivation score derived from principal components analysis), as well as with 2 subjective neighborhood measures in adulthood. Our results documented that internal consistency reliability was high for the subjective childhood neighborhood scales (Cronbach's α =0.89, 0.93). Comparison of subjective with objective childhood neighborhood measures found moderate associations in hypothesized directions. Associations with objective variables were strongest for neighborhood disorder (rhos=.40), as opposed to with social control or victimization. Associations between subjective neighborhood context in childhood versus adulthood were moderate and stronger for residentially-stable populations. We lastly formally tested for, but found little evidence of, recall bias of the retrospective subjective reports of childhood context. These results provide evidence that retrospective reports of subjective neighborhood context may be a cost-effective, valid, and reliable method to operationalize early

  17. Where we used to live: validating retrospective measures of childhood neighborhood context for life course epidemiologic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa L Osypuk

    Full Text Available Early life exposures influence numerous social determinants of health, as distal causes or confounders of later health outcomes. Although a growing literature is documenting how early life socioeconomic position affects later life health, few epidemiologic studies have tested measures for operationalizing early life neighborhood context, or examined their effects on later life health. In the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments (LIFE Study, a retrospective cohort study among Black women in Southfield, Michigan (71% response rate, we tested the validity and reliability of retrospectively-reported survey-based subjective measures of early life neighborhood context(N=693. We compared 3 subjective childhood neighborhood measures (disorder, informal social control, victimization, with 3 objective childhood neighborhood measures derived from 4 decades of historical census tract data 1970-2000, linked through geocoded residential histories (tract % poverty, tract % black, tract deprivation score derived from principal components analysis, as well as with 2 subjective neighborhood measures in adulthood. Our results documented that internal consistency reliability was high for the subjective childhood neighborhood scales (Cronbach's α =0.89, 0.93. Comparison of subjective with objective childhood neighborhood measures found moderate associations in hypothesized directions. Associations with objective variables were strongest for neighborhood disorder (rhos=.40, as opposed to with social control or victimization. Associations between subjective neighborhood context in childhood versus adulthood were moderate and stronger for residentially-stable populations. We lastly formally tested for, but found little evidence of, recall bias of the retrospective subjective reports of childhood context. These results provide evidence that retrospective reports of subjective neighborhood context may be a cost-effective, valid, and reliable method to

  18. Ophthalmic evaluation of long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, R.G. Jr.; Chauvenet, A.R.; Smith, T.J.; Schwartz, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-four long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations to detect retinopathy or other ocular sequelae. Sixteen of the 34 patients received whole brain radiation (greater than or equal to 2400 rad). All 18 patients in the non-radiated group had normal eye examinations, while 4 of 16 in the radiated group had ocular abnormalities. None of the ocular abnormalities could be definitely attributed to radiation and all patients had normal visual acuity. No radiation retinopathy was found in either group

  19. Mandibular third molar development after mantle radiation in long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, J.P. Jr.; Hopkins, K.P.; Thompson, E.I.; Hustu, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    Sequential panoramic radiographs were assessed for mandibular third molar development in 47 long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease after treatment with 37 Gy mantle field radiation. To make a comparison, panoramic radiographs of 149 healthy, nonirradiated children were reviewed for the presence of mandibular third molars. In children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, bilateral agenesis of mandibular third molars was more frequent in patients who had been treated with mantle radiation than in nonirradiated patients. Unilateral agenesis, crown hypoplasia, and root growth impairment of mandibular third molars were also found. Similar, apparent, radiation-induced developmental anomalies were noted in maxillary third molars of the irradiated patients

  20. [Polish adaptation and validation of Health-Related Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiak, Krystyna A; Karzel, Katarzyna; Mathiak, Klaus; Ostaszewski, Paweł; Luba, Małgorzata; Wolańczyk, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent chronic disease in children, having a strong impact on a child's psychosocial functioning. Effective therapy must take into account the wide range of physical, psychological and social needs of patients. The importance of assessing patients' quality of life is becoming increasingly acknowledged. In addition to providing better health care, it may reveal how the disease and its psychosocial outcome interact. Quality of life in epilepsy can be assessed most reliably by disease-specific measures. Health-Related Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) is an English parental questionnaire for children aged between 4 and 18 years. It contains 87 questions that fall into five domains: physical function, emotional well-being, cognitive function, social function and behavioural function. The original scale has a well-grounded theoretical background and good psychometric properties. The aim of the study was to create a Polish version of QOLCE and evaluate its psychometric properties. Parents of 87 patients suffering from epilepsy were recruited in neurological clinics in the Warsaw area. Reliability was very high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.97). The construct validity was confirmed by the correlation between subscales of QOLCE and the Child Behaviour Checklist, as well as selected clinical measures of child's health (duration of disease: r=-0.22, p=0.02; duration of treatment: r=-0.20, p=0.04; number of hospitalizations: r=-0.24, p=0.02). All the psychometric properties were similar to those of the original scale. A Polish scale examining the quality of life was created that takes into account a wide range of psychosocial problems. We confirmed very high reliability and good validity, and thus we recommend the inventory for both research on and clinical diagnostics of Polish children with epilepsy.

  1. Validating a test to assess early childhood learners’ ability to perceive, express and appreciate emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Mestre Navas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Education, regardless of the school level, has an important mission in the goal of any educational project: socialising younger generations. However, it is also important to assess implemented programs by means of a valid, reliable measure of the progression of children’s’ cognitive and emotional development. Using a sample of 138 early childhood learners (aged from 3 to 6 this paper tested an instrument for assessing the ability to perceive, appreciate and express emotions (as defined by Mayer & Salovey’s model, 1997; 2007. Also, external criteria were developed by teachers on several issues related to children’s social and personal adaptation (school rules, achievement, impulsiveness, social acceptance of peers and hostility. Findings suggest that children from 3 to 6 years who obtain best scores in the perception and assessment of basic emotions are considered by their teachers to better adjust to school rules, to better control impulses, to achieve better academic performance and to be less problematic. It is also important to note that the study is at its initial stages and presents some limitations, as certain important variables such as personality and verbal ability are not controlled. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that children showed great enthusiasm in taking the test.

  2. Treatment-associated subsequent neoplasms among long-term survivors of childhood cancer: the experience of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, Leslie L.

    2009-01-01

    With improvements in survival among individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer there is an increasing recognition of the risk of long-term adverse effects of therapy. Second neoplasms represent one of the more serious late effects of treatment and are associated with a substantial level of morbidity and mortality. Survivors of childhood cancers, because of their potential longevity, are at particular risk for this adverse outcome. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a large cohort consisting of adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed and treated between 1970 and 1986. The CCSS has provided important data to quantify radiation-associated risk for subsequent cancers including neoplasms of the breast, thyroid and central nervous system. (orig.)

  3. Treatment-associated subsequent neoplasms among long-term survivors of childhood cancer: the experience of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, Leslie L. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2009-02-15

    With improvements in survival among individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer there is an increasing recognition of the risk of long-term adverse effects of therapy. Second neoplasms represent one of the more serious late effects of treatment and are associated with a substantial level of morbidity and mortality. Survivors of childhood cancers, because of their potential longevity, are at particular risk for this adverse outcome. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a large cohort consisting of adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed and treated between 1970 and 1986. The CCSS has provided important data to quantify radiation-associated risk for subsequent cancers including neoplasms of the breast, thyroid and central nervous system. (orig.)

  4. Academic skills in the long term after epilepsy surgery in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puka, Klajdi; Smith, Mary Lou

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the progression of academic skills in a cohort of patients who underwent, or were considered for, epilepsy surgery in childhood, four to eleven years before. The few existing studies that have evaluated cognitive function in the long term after surgery have examined intelligence and memory. Participants were 97 patients with childhood-onset intractable epilepsy; 61 had undergone resective epilepsy surgery. Participants completed standardized tests of reading, spelling, arithmetic, and intelligence at baseline and, on average, 7years after. Surgical patients were additionally assessed one year postsurgery. At baseline and long-term follow-up, 61% and 69% of patients, respectively, scored at least one standard deviation below normative data in at least one academic domain. Evaluation of change over time while controlling for IQ showed that arithmetic scores were lower at long-term follow-up in comparison with those at baseline among all patient groups, whereas reading and spelling scores remained unchanged. Few advantages were associated with seizure control. Multiple regression analyses found that older age at surgery, cessation of antiepileptic medications, improved IQ, and low baseline scores were independently associated with improvement in some academic domains among all patient groups. We found that arithmetic scores were lower at long-term follow-up, suggesting a lack of ongoing development or deterioration in skills. Reading and spelling scores remained stable suggesting that patients made gains in abilities at a rate expected for their increase in age; this finding contrasts with recent short-term outcome studies identifying significantly lower scores over time in these areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of the Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised: A Reflective Tool for Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help…

  6. Employment Situation of Parents of Long-Term Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzius Mader

    Full Text Available Taking care of children diagnosed with cancer affects parents' professional life. The impact in the long-term however, is not clear. We aimed to compare the employment situation of parents of long-term childhood cancer survivors with control parents of the general population, and to identify clinical and socio-demographic factors associated with parental employment.As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to parents of survivors aged 5-15 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis. Information on control parents of the general population came from the Swiss Health Survey (restricted to men and women with ≥1 child aged 5-15 years. Employment was categorized as not employed, part-time, and full-time employed. We used generalized ordered logistic regression to determine associations with clinical and socio-demographic factors. Clinical data was available from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry.We included 394 parent-couples of survivors and 3'341 control parents (1'731 mothers; 1'610 fathers. Mothers of survivors were more often not employed (29% versus 22%; ptrend = 0.007. However, no differences between mothers were found in multivariable analysis. Fathers of survivors were more often employed full-time (93% versus 87%; ptrend = 0.002, which remained significant in multivariable analysis. Among parents of survivors, mothers with tertiary education (OR = 2.40, CI:1.14-5.07 were more likely to be employed. Having a migration background (OR = 3.63, CI: 1.71-7.71 increased the likelihood of being full-time employed in mothers of survivors. Less likely to be employed were mothers of survivors diagnosed with lymphoma (OR = 0.31, CI:0.13-0.73 and >2 children (OR = 0.48, CI:0.30-0.75; and fathers of survivors who had had a relapse (OR = 0.13, CI:0.04-0.36.Employment situation of parents of long-term survivors reflected the more traditional parenting roles. Specific support for parents with low education

  7. Employment Situation of Parents of Long-Term Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Luzius; Rueegg, Corina S; Vetsch, Janine; Rischewski, Johannes; Ansari, Marc; Kuehni, Claudia E; Michel, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    Taking care of children diagnosed with cancer affects parents' professional life. The impact in the long-term however, is not clear. We aimed to compare the employment situation of parents of long-term childhood cancer survivors with control parents of the general population, and to identify clinical and socio-demographic factors associated with parental employment. As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to parents of survivors aged 5-15 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis. Information on control parents of the general population came from the Swiss Health Survey (restricted to men and women with ≥1 child aged 5-15 years). Employment was categorized as not employed, part-time, and full-time employed. We used generalized ordered logistic regression to determine associations with clinical and socio-demographic factors. Clinical data was available from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. We included 394 parent-couples of survivors and 3'341 control parents (1'731 mothers; 1'610 fathers). Mothers of survivors were more often not employed (29% versus 22%; ptrend = 0.007). However, no differences between mothers were found in multivariable analysis. Fathers of survivors were more often employed full-time (93% versus 87%; ptrend = 0.002), which remained significant in multivariable analysis. Among parents of survivors, mothers with tertiary education (OR = 2.40, CI:1.14-5.07) were more likely to be employed. Having a migration background (OR = 3.63, CI: 1.71-7.71) increased the likelihood of being full-time employed in mothers of survivors. Less likely to be employed were mothers of survivors diagnosed with lymphoma (OR = 0.31, CI:0.13-0.73) and >2 children (OR = 0.48, CI:0.30-0.75); and fathers of survivors who had had a relapse (OR = 0.13, CI:0.04-0.36). Employment situation of parents of long-term survivors reflected the more traditional parenting roles. Specific support for parents with low education, additional

  8. [Development and validation of a questionnaire on knowledge and personal hygiene habits in childhood (HICORIN®)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Martínez, Francisco José; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio Jesús; Gómez García, Carmen Isabel; Hernández-Susarte, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    To develop and validate a questionnaire on the integral assessment of the habits and knowledge in personal hygiene in children between 7 to 12 years old in the educational, social and health environment. Cross-sectional study for the validation of a questionnaire. One primary and secondary school and one children's home in the Region of Murcia, Spain. A total of 86 children were included (80 from a primary and secondary school; 6 from a children's home), as well as 7 experts. Content validation by experts; qualitative assessment; identify difficulties related to some questions, item response analysis, and test-retest reliability. After the literature search, 20 tools that included items related to child body hygiene were obtained. The researchers selected 34 items and drafted 48 additional ones. After content validity by the experts, the questionnaire (HICORIN®) was reduced to 63 items, and consisted of 7 dimensions of child personal hygiene (skin, hair, hands, oral, feet, ears, and intimate hygiene). After with the children some terms were adapted to improve their understanding. Only two items had non-response rates that exceeded 10%. The test-retest showed that 84.1% of the items had between very good and moderate reliability. HICORIN® is a reliable and valid instrument that integrally assesses the habits and knowledge in personal hygiene in children between 7-12 years old. It is applicable in educative and social and health environments and in children from different socioeconomic levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk of Symptomatic Stroke After Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Cohort Analysis

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    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van, E-mail: i.w.vandijk@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pal, Helena J.H. van der [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Os, Rob M. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roos, Yvo B.W.E.M. [Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sieswerda, Elske [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dalen, Elvira C. van; Ronckers, Cécile M. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, Huib N. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kremer, Leontien C.M. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Long-term childhood cancer survivors are at high risk of late adverse effects, including stroke. We aimed to determine the cumulative incidence of clinically validated symptomatic stroke (transient ischemic attack [TIA], cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH]) and to quantify dose-effect relationships for cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and supradiaphragmatic radiation therapy (SDRT). Methods and Materials: Our single-center study cohort included 1362 survivors of childhood cancer that were diagnosed between 1966 and 1996. Prescribed CRT and SDRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Multivariate Cox regression models were used to analyze the relationship between the EQD{sub 2} and stroke. Results: After a median latency time of 24.9 years and at a median age of 31.2 years, 28 survivors had experienced a first stroke: TIA (n=5), infarction (n=13), and ICH (n=10). At an attained age of 45 years, the estimated cumulative incidences, with death as competing risk, among survivors treated with CRT only, SDRT only, both CRT and SDRT, and neither CRT nor SDRT were, respectively, 10.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5%-17.0%), 5.4% (95% CI, 0%-17.0%), 12.5% (95% CI, 5.5%-18.9%), and 0.1% (95% CI, 0%-0.4%). Radiation at both locations significantly increased the risk of stroke in a dose-dependent manner (hazard ratios: HR{sub CRT} 1.02 Gy{sup −1}; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03, and HR{sub SDRT} 1.04 Gy{sup −1}; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05). Conclusions: Childhood cancer survivors treated with CRT, SDRT, or both have a high stroke risk. One in 8 survivors treated at both locations will have experienced a symptomatic stroke at an attained age of 45 years. Further research on the pathophysiologic processes involved in stroke in this specific group of patients is needed to enable the development of tailored secondary prevention strategies.

  10. Risk of Symptomatic Stroke After Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Cohort Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van; Pal, Helena J.H. van der; Os, Rob M. van; Roos, Yvo B.W.E.M.; Sieswerda, Elske; Dalen, Elvira C. van; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Oldenburger, Foppe; Leeuwen, Flora E. van; Caron, Huib N.; Koning, Caro C.E.; Kremer, Leontien C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Long-term childhood cancer survivors are at high risk of late adverse effects, including stroke. We aimed to determine the cumulative incidence of clinically validated symptomatic stroke (transient ischemic attack [TIA], cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH]) and to quantify dose-effect relationships for cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and supradiaphragmatic radiation therapy (SDRT). Methods and Materials: Our single-center study cohort included 1362 survivors of childhood cancer that were diagnosed between 1966 and 1996. Prescribed CRT and SDRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD_2). Multivariate Cox regression models were used to analyze the relationship between the EQD_2 and stroke. Results: After a median latency time of 24.9 years and at a median age of 31.2 years, 28 survivors had experienced a first stroke: TIA (n=5), infarction (n=13), and ICH (n=10). At an attained age of 45 years, the estimated cumulative incidences, with death as competing risk, among survivors treated with CRT only, SDRT only, both CRT and SDRT, and neither CRT nor SDRT were, respectively, 10.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5%-17.0%), 5.4% (95% CI, 0%-17.0%), 12.5% (95% CI, 5.5%-18.9%), and 0.1% (95% CI, 0%-0.4%). Radiation at both locations significantly increased the risk of stroke in a dose-dependent manner (hazard ratios: HR_C_R_T 1.02 Gy"−"1; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03, and HR_S_D_R_T 1.04 Gy"−"1; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05). Conclusions: Childhood cancer survivors treated with CRT, SDRT, or both have a high stroke risk. One in 8 survivors treated at both locations will have experienced a symptomatic stroke at an attained age of 45 years. Further research on the pathophysiologic processes involved in stroke in this specific group of patients is needed to enable the development of tailored secondary prevention strategies.

  11. Forced migration in childhood: Are there long-term health effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Saarela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the health of migrants have increased considerably in number in recent years, but little is still known about the long-term health effects associated with forced migration, and particularly for people who were forced to migrate as children. Data shortcomings together with the methodological challenges of studying migrant populations limit the ability to disentangle the roles of various factors that influence migrant health outcomes. Finland provides an unusual opportunity to study long-term health consequences associated with forced migration. During World War II, twelve per cent of the Finnish population was forced to leave the region nowadays referred to as Ceded Karelia. After the war, these Karelians could not return home because the area was relinquished to the Soviet Union. Using high quality, linked register-based data for the period 1988–2012, we investigate whether this forced migration had long-term health consequences for those who were forced to migrate as children. Comparison groups are non-displaced persons born on the adjacent side of the new border, and people born elsewhere in Finland. Health at ages 43–65 years is measured by receipt of sickness benefit, which is an indicator of short-term illness, and receipt of disability pension, which reflects long-term illness or permanent disability. All-cause and cause-specific mortality is analysed at ages 43–84 years. We find no support for the hypothesis that the traumatic event of being forced to migrate during childhood has long-term negative health consequences. The forced child migrants have lower odds for receipt of sickness benefit, and women also have lower odds for receipt of disability pension. The mortality results are largely driven by patterns specific for eastern-born populations of Finland. A likely reason behind the absence of negative health consequences is that these migrants seem to have integrated well into post-war Finnish society. Keywords

  12. The long-term effects of maternal depression: early childhood physical health as a pathway to offspring depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia; Najman, Jake

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional and retrospective studies have highlighted the long-term negative effects of maternal depression on offspring physical, social, and emotional development, but longitudinal research is needed to clarify the pathways by which maternal depression during pregnancy and early childhood affects offspring outcomes. The current study tested one developmental pathway by which maternal depression during pregnancy might negatively impact offspring mental health in young adulthood, via poor physical health in early childhood. The sample consisted of 815 Australian youth and their mothers who were followed for 20 years. Mothers reported on their own depressive symptoms during pregnancy and offspring early childhood. Youth completed interviews about health-related stress and social functioning at age 20 years, and completed a questionnaire about their own depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Path analysis indicated that prenatal maternal depressive symptoms predicted worse physical health during early childhood for offspring, and this effect was partially explained by ongoing maternal depression in early childhood. Offspring poor physical health during childhood predicted increased health-related stress and poor social functioning at age 20. Finally, increased health-related stress and poor social functioning predicted increased levels of depressive symptoms later in young adulthood. Maternal depression had a significant total indirect effect on youth depression via early childhood health and its psychosocial consequences. Poor physical health in early childhood and its effects on young adults' social functioning and levels of health related stress is one important pathway by which maternal depression has long-term consequences for offspring mental health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pulmonary function abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.; Fusner, J.E.; Fink, R.J.; Murphy, T.M.; Getson, P.R.; Vojtova, J.A.; Reaman, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary function testing (PFT) was performed on 29 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The patients, whose mean age was 11.7 years and whose mean age at diagnosis was 3.7 years, included 12 females and 17 males. Original diagnoses included 15 patients with leukemia and 14 individuals with solid tumors. Nine patients had received cyclophosphamide and 20 had received radiation therapy. Included in this latter group were five patients who had received radiation therapy to the thorax. Eight patients had acquired pneumonia during their treatment. Physical examination was normal in all the patients, and none had a history of acute or chronic pulmonary disease. PFT demonstrated an incidence of abnormalities in forced vital capacity (FVC) and/or total lung capacity (TLC) in 48% of the patients. Patients who were under 3 years of age at the time of diagnosis or who had received radiation to the thorax were more likely to demonstrate PFT abnormalities, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. The natural history of pulmonary function and subsequent respiratory disease in survivors of childhood cancer requires further definition

  14. Cognitive functioning in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia: A prospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubenstein, C.L.; Varni, J.W.; Katz, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Treatment-related cognitive impairments have been reported for survivors of childhood leukemia following prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) treatment with 2400 cGy craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy. The present study was designed to prospectively evaluate cognitive functioning of 24 children prior to CNS prophylaxis of 1800 cGy of craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal drugs, and at intervals of 1 and 4-5 years. At diagnosis, prior to CNS treatment, all 24 subjects performed in the average range of intelligence, as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scales. Subjects continued to perform in the average range with no significant declines at the 1-year follow-up. Significant declines in cognitive functioning, however, were found at the 4- to 5-year follow-up period, with five subjects (21%) performing in the low average or borderline levels of intelligence. Of the 19 subjects performing in the average range, five showed significant discrepancies between Verbal and Performance IQ scores. Nine subjects exhibited poor performance on a subtest cluster assessing perceptual and attentional processes. With regard to school experiences, 50% of the subjects had received some type of special education services. The findings indicate the need for annual evaluations of cognitive functioning in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia who received 1800 cGy craniospinal irradiation, to identify potential cognitive late effects of treatment requiring appropriate special education services

  15. Social Environmental Moderators of Long-term Functional Outcomes of Early Childhood Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Zhang, Nanhua; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to impairments in behavior and academic performance. However, the long-term effects of early childhood TBI on functioning across settings remain poorly understood. To examine the long-term functional outcomes of early childhood TBI relative to early childhood orthopedic injuries (OIs). We also examine the moderating role of the social environment as defined by parent report and observational measures of family functioning, parenting practices, and home environment. A prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study conducted at each child's home, school, and hospital, including 3 children's hospitals and 1 general hospital in the Midwest. Patients were enrolled in the initial study between January 2003 and October 2006. Follow-ups were completed between January 2010 and April 2015. Fifty-eight children who sustained a TBI (67% of original enrolled cohort) and 72 children who sustained an OI (61% of the original enrolled cohort) were prospectively followed up from shortly after injury (between the ages of 3 and 7 years at enrollment) to an average of 6.7 years after injury, with assessments occurring at multiple points. Long-term functional outcomes in everyday settings, as assessed through the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS). Of the 130 children included, the median age for those with OIs was 11.72 years and 11.97, 12.21, and 11.72 years for those with complicated mild, moderate, and severe TBIs, respectively. Children with moderate and severe TBI were rated as having more functional impairments in multiple domains than those with OIs (P authoritarian (mean CAFAS of 56.45, 41.80, 54.90, and 17.12 for severe TBI, moderate TBI, complicated mild TBI, and OI, respectively, with significant difference between severe TBI and OI [difference = 39.33; P parenting or with fewer home resources (mean CAFAS of 69.57, 47.45, 49.00, and 23.81 for severe TBI, moderate TBI, complicated mild TBI, and OI

  16. Childhood and persistent ADHD symptoms associated with educational failure and long-term occupational disability in adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Mats; Dahl, Alv A; Martinsen, Egil W; Klungsoyr, Ole; Faraone, Stephen V; Peleikis, Dawn E

    2014-06-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on adult ADHD functional outcomes. To address this issue dimensionally, ADHD symptoms in childhood and adulthood and their relation to educational deficits and work disability are studied in a clinical sample of adult patients with previously untreated ADHD. About 250 adults diagnosed systematically with ADHD according to DSM-IV were prospectively recruited. Primary outcomes were high school dropout and being out of the work last year. Childhood ADHD symptoms, sex differences, comorbidities of other mental disorders, and adult ADHD symptoms were examined by historical data, clinician interviews, and questionnaires. High levels of ADHD symptom severity in childhood were related to dropping out of high school [odds ratio (OR) = 3.0], as were higher numbers of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms in childhood. Significantly, more women than men were long-term work disabled (OR = 2.0). After adjusting for age and gender, persisting high levels of ADHD inattention symptoms in adulthood (OR = 2.5), number of comorbid disorders, and particularly anxiety disorders were significantly related to long-term work disability. Childhood hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and overall severity of childhood ADHD symptoms were associated with high school dropout rates; however, persisting ADHD inattention symptoms and comorbid mental disorders in adulthood were more correlated to occupational impairment. These findings underline proposals for studies on early recognition and interventions for ADHD and psychiatric comorbidity. They further suggest that inattentive symptoms be a focus of adult ADHD treatment and that workplace interventions be considered to prevent long-term work disability.

  17. The long-term cognitive consequences of early childhood malnutrition: the case of famine in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampaabeng, Samuel K; Tan, Chih Ming

    2013-12-01

    We examine the role of early childhood health in human capital accumulation. Using a unique data set from Ghana with comprehensive information on individual, family, community, school quality characteristics and a direct measure of intelligence together with test scores, we examine the long-term cognitive effects of the 1983 famine on survivors. We show that differences in intelligence test scores can be robustly explained by the differential impact of the famine in different parts of the country and the impacts are most severe for children under two years of age during the famine. We also account for model uncertainty by using Bayesian Model Averaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term socioeconomic consequences and health care costs of childhood and adolescent-onset epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Jakob; Ibsen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    . Income was lower from employment, which in part was compensated by social security, sick pay, disability pension and unemployment benefit, sick pay (public-funded), disability pension, and other public transfers. Predicted health care costs 30 years after epilepsy onset were significantly higher among......Objective: To estimate long-term socioeconomic consequences and health care costs of epilepsy with onset in childhood and adolescence. Methods: A historical prospective cohort study of Danish individuals with epilepsy, age up to 20 years at time of diagnosis between January 1981 and December 2012....... Information about marital status, parenthood, educational level, employment status, income, use of the health care system, and cost of medicine was obtained from nationwide administrative and health registers. Results: We identified 12,756 and 28,319 people with diagnosed with epilepsy, ages 0–5 and 6...

  19. Ewing's Sarcoma as a Second Malignancy in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Fabian; Grotzer, Michael A; Niggli, Felix; Zimmermann, Dieter; Rushing, Elisabeth; Bode-Lesniewska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Modern multimodal treatment has significantly increased survival for patients affected by hematologic malignancies, especially in childhood. Following remission, however, the risk of developing a further malignancy is an important issue. The long-term estimated risk of developing a sarcoma as a secondary malignancy is increased severalfold in comparison to the general population. Ewing's sarcoma family encompasses a group of highly aggressive, undifferentiated, intra- and extraosseous, mesenchymal tumors, caused by several types of translocations usually involving the EWSR1 gene. Translocation associated sarcomas, such as Ewing sarcoma, are only rarely encountered as therapy associated secondary tumors. We describe the clinical course and management of three patients from a single institution with Ewing's sarcoma that followed successfully treated lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The literature on secondary Ewing's sarcoma is summarized and possible pathogenic mechanisms are critically discussed.

  20. Effects of treatment on fertility in long-term survivors of childhood or adolescent cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.; Mulvihill, J.J.; Myers, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    In a retrospective cohort study of survivors of cancer and of controls, we estimated the risk of infertility after treatment for cancer during childhood or adolescence. We interviewed 2283 long-term survivors of childhood or adolescent cancer diagnosed in the period from 1945 through 1975, who were identified at five cancer centers in the United States. Requirements for admission to the study were diagnosis before the age of 20, survival for at least five years, and attainment of the age of 21. In addition, 3270 controls selected from among the survivors' siblings were interviewed. Cox regression analysis showed that cancer survivors who married and were presumed to be at risk of pregnancy were less likely than their sibling controls to have ever begun a pregnancy (relative fertility, 0.85; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.78 to 0.92). Radiation therapy directed below the diaphragm depressed fertility in both sexes by about 25 percent. Chemotherapy with alkylating agents, with or without radiation to sites below the diaphragm, was associated with a fertility deficit of about 60 percent in the men. Among the women, there was no apparent effect of alkylating-agent therapy administered alone (relative fertility, 1.02) and only a moderate fertility deficit when alkylating-agent therapy was combined with radiation below the diaphragm (relative fertility, 0.81). Relative fertility in the survivors varied considerably according to sex, site of cancer, and type of treatment; these factors should be taken into consideration in counseling survivors about the long-term consequences of disease

  1. Household income and risk-of-poverty of parents of long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Luzius; Roser, Katharina; Baenziger, Julia; Tinner, Eva Maria; Scheinemann, Katrin; Kuehni, Claudia Elisabeth; Michel, Gisela

    2017-08-01

    Taking care of children diagnosed with cancer affects parents' professional life and may place the family at risk-of-poverty. We aimed to (i) compare the household income and risk-of-poverty of parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) to parents of the general population, and (ii) identify sociodemographic and cancer-related factors associated with risk-of-poverty. As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to parents of CCS aged 5-15 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis. Information on parents of the general population came from the Swiss Household Panel (parents with ≥1 child aged 5-15 years). Risk-of-poverty was defined as having a monthly household income of poverty. We included parents of 383 CCS and 769 control parent households. Parent-couples of CCS had a lower household income (P trend poverty (30.4% vs. 19.3%, P = 0.001) compared to control parent-couples. Household income and risk-of-poverty of single parents of CCS was similar to control single parents. Parents of CCS were at higher risk-of-poverty if they had only standard education (OR mother = 3.77 [where OR is odds ratio], confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-8.82; OR father = 8.59, CI: 4.16-17.72) and were from the German language region (OR = 1.99, CI: 1.13-3.50). We found no cancer-related risk factors. Parents of long-term CCS reported lower household income and higher risk-of-poverty than control parents. Support strategies may be developed to mitigate parents' risk-of-poverty in the long term, particularly among parents with lower education. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Early childhood family intervention and long-term obesity prevention among high-risk minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Theise, Rachelle; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Wang, Jing; Petkova, Eva; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2012-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that family intervention to promote effective parenting in early childhood affects obesity in preadolescence. Participants were 186 minority youth at risk for behavior problems who enrolled in long-term follow-up studies after random assignment to family intervention or control condition at age 4. Follow-up Study 1 included 40 girls at familial risk for behavior problems; Follow-up Study 2 included 146 boys and girls at risk for behavior problems based on teacher ratings. Family intervention aimed to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems during early childhood; it did not focus on physical health. BMI and health behaviors were measured an average of 5 years after intervention in Study 1 and 3 years after intervention in Study 2. Youth randomized to intervention had significantly lower BMI at follow-up relative to controls (Study 1 P = .05; Study 2 P = .006). Clinical impact is evidenced by lower rates of obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) among intervention girls and boys relative to controls (Study 2: 24% vs 54%, P = .002). There were significant intervention-control group differences on physical and sedentary activity, blood pressure, and diet. Two long-term follow-up studies of randomized trials show that relative to controls, youth at risk for behavior problems who received family intervention at age 4 had lower BMI and improved health behaviors as they approached adolescence. Efforts to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems early in life may contribute to the reduction of obesity and health disparities.

  3. Forced migration in childhood: are there long-term health effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jan M; Elo, Irma T

    2016-12-01

    Studies on the health of migrants have increased considerably in number in recent years, but little is still known about the long-term health effects associated with forced migration, and particularly for people who were forced to migrate as children. Data shortcomings together with the methodological challenges of studying migrant populations limit the ability to disentangle the roles of various factors that influence migrant health outcomes. Finland provides an unusual opportunity to study long-term health consequences associated with forced migration. During World War II, twelve per cent of the Finnish population was forced to leave the region nowadays referred to as Ceded Karelia. After the war, these Karelians could not return home because the area was relinquished to the Soviet Union. Using high quality, linked register-based data for the period 1988-2012, we investigate whether this forced migration had long-term health consequences for those who were forced to migrate as children. Comparison groups are non-displaced persons born on the adjacent side of the new border, and people born elsewhere in Finland. Health at ages 43-65 years is measured by receipt of sickness benefit, which is an indicator of short-term illness, and receipt of disability pension, which reflects long-term illness or permanent disability. All-cause and cause-specific mortality is analysed at ages 43-84 years. We find no support for the hypothesis that the traumatic event of being forced to migrate during childhood has long-term negative health consequences. The forced child migrants have lower odds for receipt of sickness benefit, and women also have lower odds for receipt of disability pension. The mortality results are largely driven by patterns specific for eastern-born populations of Finland. A likely reason behind the absence of negative health consequences is that these migrants seem to have integrated well into post-war Finnish society.

  4. On the validity and robustness of the scale error phenomenon in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoache, Judy S; LoBue, Vanessa; Vanderborght, Mieke; Chiong, Cynthia

    2013-02-01

    Scale errors is a term referring to very young children's serious efforts to perform actions on miniature replica objects that are impossible due to great differences in the size of the child's body and the size of the target objects. We report three studies providing further documentation of scale errors and investigating the validity and robustness of the phenomenon. In the first, we establish that 2-year-olds' behavior in response to prompts to "pretend" with miniature replica objects differs dramatically from scale errors. The second and third studies address the robustness of the phenomenon and its relative imperviousness to attempts to influence the rate of scale errors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Obesity: a systematic review on parental involvement in long-term European childhood weight control interventions with a nutritional focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruk, Joke; Kortekaas, F.; Lucas, Cees; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, about 20% of children are overweight. Focus on parental responsibility is an effective method in weight control interventions in children. In this systematic review we describe the intensity of parental involvement and behaviour change aimed at parents in long-term European childhood

  6. REMISSION OF CHILDHOOD ASTHMA AFTER LONG-TERM TREATMENT WITH AN INHALED CORTICOSTEROID (BUDESONIDE) - CAN IT BE ACHIEVED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANESSENZANDVLIET, EE; HUGHES, MD; WAALKENS, HJ; DUIVERMAN, EJ; KERREBIJN, KF

    This study was undertaken in order to determine whether long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroid can induce a remission in childhood asthma, and to decide when stabilization of airway responsiveness occurred. We therefore carried out, an extended follow-up of 28-36 months in one of two groups

  7. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santen, Hanneke M; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights. The goal of this study was to examine BMI in a large cohort of long-term CCSs and relate this to the BMI at diagnosis, age, sex, tumor type, treatment, and endocrine defects. All patients treated for childhood cancer at the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and 1996 who had survived for at least 5 years were eligible for inclusion. For 893 CCSs with a mean follow-up of 14.9 years, the BMI at the late effects outpatient clinic was compared with the BMI for the general Dutch population. For girls, an increased prevalence of obesity was found. Risk factors for developing a high BMI at follow-up were a younger age and a high BMI at diagnosis and treatment with cranial radiotherapy. A significantly increased prevalence of severe underweight was found in all adult subgroups except for females aged 26 to 45 years. An association was found between a low BMI at diagnosis and a low BMI at follow-up. No treatment-related variables could be related to changes in BMI. The BMI at diagnosis is one of the most important predictors for the BMI at follow-up, and this suggests an important genetic or environmental cause. Adult CCSs are at high risk for developing severe underweight at follow-up. Future studies should focus on the causes and clinical consequences of underweight. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  8. Functional abdominal pain in childhood and long-term vulnerability to anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Grace D; Shirkey, Kezia C; Sherman, Amanda L; Beck, Joy E; Haman, Kirsten; Shears, Angela R; Horst, Sara N; Smith, Craig A; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S

    2013-09-01

    Cross-sectional studies link functional abdominal pain (FAP) to anxiety and depression in childhood, but no prospective study has evaluated psychiatric status in adulthood or its relation to pain persistence. Pediatric patients with FAP (n = 332) and control subjects (n = 147) were tracked prospectively and evaluated for psychiatric disorders and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) at follow-up in adolescence and young adulthood (mean age = 20.01 years). Participants were classified according to presence (FGID-POS) or absence (FGID-NEG) of FGIDs at follow-up. Lifetime and current risk of anxiety disorders was higher in FAP than controls (lifetime: 51% vs 20%; current: 30% vs 12%). Controlling for gender and age, the odds ratio was 4.9 (confidence interval = 2.83-7.43) for lifetime anxiety disorder and 3.57 (confidence interval = 2.00-6.36) for current anxiety disorder at follow-up for FAP versus controls. Lifetime risk of depressive disorder was significantly higher in FAP versus controls (40% vs. 16%); current risk did not differ. In most cases, initial onset of anxiety disorders was before pediatric FAP evaluation; onset of depressive disorders was subsequent to FAP evaluation. Within the FAP group, risk of current anxiety disorders at follow-up was significantly higher for FGID-POS versus FGID-NEG (40% vs 24%), and both were higher than controls (12%); current depressive disorders did not differ across FGID-POS, FGID-NEG, and controls. Patients with FAP carry long-term vulnerability to anxiety that begins in childhood and persists into late adolescence and early adulthood, even if abdominal pain resolves.

  9. Social Environmental Moderators of Long-term Functional Outcomes of Early Childhood Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L.; Zhang, Nanhua; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to impairments in behavior and academic performance. However, the long-term effects of early childhood TBI on functioning across settings remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE To examine the long-term functional outcomes of early childhood TBI relative to early childhood orthopedic injuries (OIs). We also examine the moderating role of the social environment as defined by parent report and observational measures of family functioning, parenting practices, and home environment. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study conducted at each child’s home, school, and hospital, including 3 children’s hospitals and 1 general hospital in the Midwest. Patients were enrolled in the initial study between January 2003 and October 2006. Follow-ups were completed between January 2010 and April 2015. Fifty-eight children who sustained a TBI (67%of original enrolled cohort) and 72 children who sustained an OI (61% of the original enrolled cohort) were prospectively followed up from shortly after injury (between the ages of 3 and 7 years at enrollment) to an average of 6.7 years after injury, with assessments occurring at multiple points. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Long-term functional outcomes in everyday settings, as assessed through the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS). RESULTS Of the 130 children included, the median age for those with OIs was 11.72 years and 11.97, 12.21, and 11.72 years for those with complicated mild, moderate, and severe TBIs, respectively. Children with moderate and severe TBI were rated as having more functional impairments in multiple domains than those with OIs (P authoritarian (mean CAFAS of 56.45, 41.80, 54.90, and 17.12 for severe TBI, moderate TBI, complicated mild TBI, and OI, respectively, with significant difference between severe TBI and OI [difference = 39.33; P < .001], moderate TBI and OI [difference = 24

  10. The application of knemometry to measure childhood short-term growth among the indigenous Shuar of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Samuel S; Snodgrass, J Josh; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2016-06-01

    Knemometry, the precise measurement of lower leg (LL) length, suggests that childhood short-term (e.g., weekly) growth is a dynamic, nonlinear process. However, owing to the large size and complexity of the traditional knemometer device, previous study of short-term growth among children has been restricted predominantly to clinical settings in industrialized Western nations. The aim of the present study is to address this limitation and promote broader understandings of global variation in childhood development by: (1) describing a custom-built portable knemometer and assessing its performance in the field; and (2) demonstrating the potential application of such a device by characterizing childhood short-term LL growth among the indigenous Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Mixed-longitudinal LL length data were collected weekly from 336 Shuar children age 5-12 years old using the custom portable knemometer (n = 1,145 total observations). Device performance and Shuar short-term LL growth were explored using linear mixed effects models and descriptive statistics. The portable knemometer performed well across a range of participant characteristics and possesses a low technical error of measurement of 0.18 mm. Shuar childhood LL growth averages 0.47 mm/week (SD = 0.75 mm/week), but exhibits large between- and within-individual variation. Knemometry can be reliably performed in the field, providing a means for evaluating childhood short-term growth among genetically and ecologically diverse populations. Preliminary findings suggest that Shuar weekly LL growth is comparable in mean magnitude but likely more variable than reported for healthy Western children. Future work will further explore these patterns. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:353-357, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Long-term survivors of childhood cancer report quality of life and health status in parity with a comparison group

    OpenAIRE

    Sundberg, K. K.; Doukkali, E. B.; Lampic, C.; Eriksson, L. E.; Arvidson, J.; Wettergren, L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a need for more knowledge about how survivors of childhood cancer perceive their lives and what influence current health status has on their quality of life. The purpose was to describe this among a group of long-term survivors and among a comparison group. \\ud \\ud Procedure: Telephone interviews were performed with a cohort of 246 long-term survivors and 296 randomly selected from the general population using the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-...

  12. Validating the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure in First and Third Grade Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Pakarinen, Eija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Kikas, Eve; Muotka, Joona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports on the psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM) in Finnish and Estonian first and third grade classrooms. The observation data were collected from 91 first grade teachers and 70 third grade teachers. Teachers' curriculum goals, teaching experience and the classroom size were…

  13. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: factor structure, measurement invariance, and validity across emotional disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.; Hickendorff, M.; van Hemert, A.M.; Bernstein, D.P.; Elzinga, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    To study the psychometric properties of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), we determined its dimensional structure, measurement invariance across presence of emotional disorders, the association of the CTQ-SF with an analogous interview-based measure (CTI) across presence of

  14. Validation of Measures of Biosocial Precursors to Borderline Personality Disorder: Childhood Emotional Vulnerability and Environmental Invalidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Shannon E.; Baer, Ruth A.

    2010-01-01

    Linehan's biosocial theory suggests that borderline personality disorder (BPD) results from a transaction of two childhood precursors: emotional vulnerability and an invalidating environment. Until recently, few empirical studies have explored relationships between these theoretical precursors and symptoms of the disorder. Psychometrically sound…

  15. Long-term socioeconomic consequences and health care costs of childhood and adolescent-onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Jakob; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2016-07-01

    To estimate long-term socioeconomic consequences and health care costs of epilepsy with onset in childhood and adolescence. A historical prospective cohort study of Danish individuals with epilepsy, age up to 20 years at time of diagnosis between January 1981 and December 2012. Information about marital status, parenthood, educational level, employment status, income, use of the health care system, and cost of medicine was obtained from nationwide administrative and health registers. We identified 12,756 and 28,319 people with diagnosed with epilepsy, ages 0-5 and 6-20 years at onset, respectively. Using follow-up data for a maximum of 30 years, 1,394 of those ages 0-5 years at onset were compared with 2,897 controls persons without epilepsy, and 10,195 of those ages 6-20 years at onset were compared with 20,678 controls without epilepsy. Compared with people without the epilepsy, those with epilepsy tended to have a lower level of education, to be less likely to be married, to be more likely to live alone, and to have higher divorce and unemployment rates, lower employment rates, and people with epilepsy were more likely to receive disability pension and social security. Income was lower from employment, which in part was compensated by social security, sick pay, disability pension and unemployment benefit, sick pay (public-funded), disability pension, and other public transfers. Predicted health care costs 30 years after epilepsy onset were significantly higher among persons with epilepsy onset at 0-5 and 6-20 years, including costs for outpatient and inpatient services (hospital services), emergency room use, primary health care sector (general practice), and use of medication. The long-term negative effects on all aspects of health care and social domains, including marital status, parental socioeconomic status, educational level, employment status, and use of welfare benefits compared with controls without epilepsy calls for increased awareness on

  16. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  17. Validation of the early childhood attitude toward women in science scale (ECWiSS): A pilot administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, Lynn M.

    The intention of this research was to measure attitudes of young children toward women scientists. A 27-item instrument, the Early Childhood Women in Science Scale (ECWiSS) was validated in a test case of the proposition that differential socialization predicts entry into the scientific talent pool. Estimates of internal consistency indicated that the scale is highly reliable. Known groups and correlates procedures, employed to determine the validity of the instrument, revealed that the scale is able to discriminate significant differences between groups and distinguishes three dimensions of attitude (role-specific self-concept, home-related sex-role conflict, and work-related sex-role conflict). Results of the analyses also confirmed the anticipated pattern of correlations with measures of another construct. The findings suggest the utility of the ECWiSS for measurement of early childhood attitudes in models of the ascriptive and/or meritocratic processes affecting recruitment to science and more generally in program and curriculum evaluation where attitude toward women in science is the construct of interest.

  18. Measuring the concept of impact of childhood disability on parents: validation of a multidimensional measurement in a cerebral palsy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard, Audrey; Michelsen, Susan I; Arnaud, Catherine; Lyons, Alan; Cans, Christine; Fauconnier, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    Living with a child with a disability can affect family life in various domains. Impacts on time, expenses, work, relationships within the family, social relationships and physical and psychological health can be observed. The Family Impact of Childhood Disability (FICD) is a specific instrument designed to assess this situation. Used in a cross-sectional survey, this questionnaire was extended to consider two missing aspects: impact on work and health (FICD+4). This paper addresses the psychometric qualities of the FICD in Europe among parents living with an adolescent with cerebral palsy. Expecting the FICD+4 could assess detailed impact dimensions, an exploratory analysis was conducted. We interviewed 242 families of 13- to 17-year-old adolescents with cerebral palsy living in Europe. Good psychometric properties were found in negative and positive FICD scales and in six underlying factors extracted from exploratory factor analysis on FICD+4. These results support the psychometric validity of the FICD in the assessment of the impact of disability in European families who live with an adolescent with cerebral palsy. They also highlight the multifaceted aspects of the impact of childhood disability on the family and suggest that the FICD+4 is a good tool for assessing specific negative impacts on time, finances, work, social relationships and positive impacts on parental feeling and family attitude. This scale needs further validation and could be helpful for research and clinical interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors: Identification of predictive factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Ehrenfels, Susanne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2003-01-01

    To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors.......To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors....

  20. Validation of an automated seizure detection algorithm for term neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Sean R.; Stevenson, Nathan J.; Low, Evonne; Marnane, William P.; Rennie, Janet M.; Temko, Andrey; Lightbody, Gordon; Boylan, Geraldine B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to validate the performance of a seizure detection algorithm (SDA) developed by our group, on previously unseen, prolonged, unedited EEG recordings from 70 babies from 2 centres. Methods EEGs of 70 babies (35 seizure, 35 non-seizure) were annotated for seizures by experts as the gold standard. The SDA was tested on the EEGs at a range of sensitivity settings. Annotations from the expert and SDA were compared using event and epoch based metrics. The effect of seizure duration on SDA performance was also analysed. Results Between sensitivity settings of 0.5 and 0.3, the algorithm achieved seizure detection rates of 52.6–75.0%, with false detection (FD) rates of 0.04–0.36 FD/h for event based analysis, which was deemed to be acceptable in a clinical environment. Time based comparison of expert and SDA annotations using Cohen’s Kappa Index revealed a best performing SDA threshold of 0.4 (Kappa 0.630). The SDA showed improved detection performance with longer seizures. Conclusion The SDA achieved promising performance and warrants further testing in a live clinical evaluation. Significance The SDA has the potential to improve seizure detection and provide a robust tool for comparing treatment regimens. PMID:26055336

  1. Could infarct location predict the long-term functional outcome in childhood arterial ischemic stroke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio López-Espejo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To explore the influence of infarct location on long-term functional outcome following a first-ever arterial ischemic stroke (AIS in non-neonate children. Method: The MRIs of 39 children with AIS (median age 5.38 years; 36% girls; mean follow-up time 5.87 years were prospectively evaluated. Infarct location was classified as the absence or presence of subcortical involvement. Functional outcome was measured using the modified Rankin scale (mRS for children after the follow-up assessment. We utilized multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for the outcome while adjusting for age, sex, infarct size and middle cerebral artery territory involvement (significance < 0.05. Results: Both infarcts ≥ 4% of total brain volume (OR 9.92; CI 1.76 – 55.9; p 0.009 and the presence of subcortical involvement (OR 8.36; CI 1.76 – 53.6; p 0.025 independently increased the risk of marked functional impairment (mRS 3 to 5. Conclusion: Infarct extension and location can help predict the extent of disability after childhood AIS.

  2. Long-term consequences of nutrition and growth in early childhood and possible preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Long-term hearing outcomes after recurrent acute otitis media during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakau, Mattias; Dagöö, Britta Rynnel; Hellström, Sten; Granath, Anna

    2017-12-01

    To survey long-term hearing outcomes and middle ear pathology in a 30-year follow-up in individuals with onset of recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM) before three years of age. 28 adults, aged 30.1-31.8 years, who originally - at the age of 12-32 months - participated in a study on rAOM between 1979 and 1983, were re-examined regarding self-reported ear problems, current tympanic membrane changes and audiology. Thirteen subjects had suffered from rAOM during early childhood and 15 subjects served as a control group. Recurrent acute otitis media subjects reported hearing problems comparable to those of the controls. Pure tone audiometry, at 125-8000 Hz, did not differ between groups. The rAOM group had a trend for impaired high-frequency (9000-14,000 Hz) threshold levels (9000-14,000 Hz); implying that their cochlear function seemed to have deteriorated. Adults, who suffered from recurrent acute otitis media as infants, did not show any clinically significant hearing loss for pure tone audiometry when compared to controls, but there was a trend for impaired results regarding extended high frequency audiometry (9-14 kHz). Children suffering from rAOM will be at low risk of developing hearing loss and severe middle ear disease.

  4. Late renal toxicity of treatment for childhood malignancy: risk factors, long-term outcomes, and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Roderick

    2018-02-01

    Chronic glomerular and tubular nephrotoxicity is reported in 20-50% and 20-25%, respectively, of children and adolescents treated with ifosfamide and 60-80% and 10-30%, respectively, of those given cisplatin. Up to 20% of children display evidence of chronic glomerular damage after unilateral nephrectomy for a renal tumour. Overall, childhood cancer survivors have a ninefold higher risk of developing renal failure compared with their siblings. Such chronic nephrotoxicity may have multiple causes, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy exposure to kidneys, renal surgery, supportive care drugs and tumour-related factors. These cause a wide range of chronic glomerular and tubular toxicities, often with potentially severe clinical sequelae. Many risk factors for developing nephrotoxicity, mostly patient and treatment related, have been described, but we remain unable to predict all episodes of renal damage. This implies that other factors may be involved, such as genetic polymorphisms influencing drug metabolism. Although our knowledge of the long-term outcomes of chronic nephrotoxicity is increasing, there is still much to learn, including how we can optimally predict or achieve early detection of nephrotoxicity. Greater understanding of the pathogenesis of nephrotoxicity is needed before its occurrence can be prevented.

  5. Factors associated with IQ scores in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, L.L.; Nesbit, M.E. Jr.; Sather, H.N.; Meadows, A.T.; Ortega, J.A.; Hammond, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    To identify factors which might be associated with intellectual function following treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 50 long-term survivors were studied using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. All patients were diagnosed between 1972 and 1974 and were treated on a single clinical trial protocol with identical induction and maintenance chemotherapy plus central nervous system prophylaxis that included cranial radiation. The mean full scale IQ score for the group was 95 (SEM 2.0), with mean verbal IQ of 94.4 and mean performance IQ of 96.9. Factors which were found to be closely associated with a lower IQ score included female sex (in both verbal IQ and full-scale IQ), longer duration of chemotherapy (in performance IQ), and younger age at the time of radiation (in both verbal IQ and full-scale IQ). The age at the time of radiation was found to be significantly correlated with discrepancy between verbal and performance IQ, with younger age being associated with verbal IQ scores higher than performance IQ scores. When analyses were performed within specific subgroups of patients defined by sex and age at the time of radiation, dose of cranial radiation, concomitant intrathecal methotrexate therapy, and duration of therapy were all found to be correlated with a lower level of intellectual function. These preliminary findings provide direction for future studies to help identify high-risk patients

  6. Educational late effects in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, V C; Meadows, A T; Bartel, N; Marrero, O

    1988-01-01

    Records of levels of school achievement in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia were obtained for 23 children who had received 2,400-rad cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate and standard chemotherapeutic agents 8 to 10 years previously. The children had been evaluated with standardized tests of intelligence at the time of diagnosis and periodically thereafter. Declines in IQ and cognitive dysfunctions have been previously described. School placements, educational histories, attendance records, learning strengths and weaknesses, social/emotional adjustments, and grade level achievements in reading and mathematics as measured by standardized achievement tests are reported here. Children achieved less than the expected levels in both reading and mathematics given both pretreatment and most recent IQ scores. Neither sex nor initial IQ were related to achievement scores. Children experienced difficulty with attention/concentration, memory, sequencing, and comprehension when performing school tasks. Individual children showed different degrees of dysfunction, but results of this study suggest that there are patterns of specific learning disabilities rather than global retardation. A small number of children achieved greater than expected levels, indicating that individualized instruction, tutoring, and parental support may reduce some learning deficits. Early educational intervention is recommended for similarly treated patients.

  7. Male reproductive function in long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, N.; Sullivan, M.P.; Ried, H.; Boren, H.; Marshall, R.; Meistrich, M.; Maor, M.; da Cunha, M.

    1988-01-01

    We evaluated reproductive function in 27 male long-term survivors of childhood cancer treated during the prepubertal and pubertal period. Sperm samples were obtained from 23 patients; four who refused to provide specimens indicated that they had fathered normal healthy children. Thirteen patients were 12 years old or younger at the time of diagnosis and initiation of therapy. Chemotherapy was calculated according to the cumulative amount of drug administered and correlated with the surface area. Sterility was associated with large doses of single alkylating agents or reduced doses administered with other agents in combination regimens. It was noted in boys treated in both the prepubertal and pubertal period. Sterility was also observed in patients who received testicular radiation alone or in combination with chemotherapy. However, it was not an inevitable consequence in all patients, despite treatment with similar or identical regimens. Fertility potential could not be predicted by clinical examination (testicular size) or gonadotrophin and testosterone values. The results were compared to published reports of treatment-induced sterility in adult males. Additional investigations are required to establish more accurate correlations of dosage with reproductive potential

  8. Long-Term Results of Cataract Surgery in Patients with Unilateral Childhood Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Güven Yılmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the long-term visual outcome and to determine the surgical complications after cataract surgery in patients with unilateral childhood cataract. Ma te ri al and Met hod: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 18 cases with unilateral childhood cataract who had undergone cataract surgery before the age of seven. Primary intraocular lens (IOL implantation was made in children who were older than 1 year of age. Secondary IOL implantation was made after 18 months in children who were operated before the age of 1 year and were left aphakic. Occlusion therapy was performed to all children for amblyopia postoperatively. Visual acuity and complications were evaluated in a mean follow-up period of 4.8 years. Re sults: The mean age of the 18 patients (9 female/9 male at the time of surgery was 43.6±33.7(1-84 months. Eleven (61% patients had cataract surgery after 1 year of age. Secondary IOL implantation was performed at mean 28th month in 4 of 7 aphakic patients (57% who had cataract surgery before one year of age. In 3 (43% aphakic patients, secondary IOL implantation could not be performed because of ocular pathologies such as microophthalmia. Final visual acuity was 0.5 or better in 7 eyes (39%, between 0.1 and 0.5 in 6 eyes (33%, and worse than 0.1 - in 5 eyes (28%. Of 5 eyes that had visual acuity worse than 0.1, 4 (80% had at least one additional ocular pathology such as microphthalmia, strabismus and nystagmus. Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was performed at mean 8th month in 7 of 8 (87% children whose posterior capsules were left intact at surgery. Dis cus si on: Favorable visual outcomes can be achieved with surgical intervention and complementary amblyopia treatment in children with unilateral cataract. Preoperative microphthalmia, nystagmus and strabismus are not entirely an obstacle to visual development, but they are important factors leading to low visual acuity. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 103-10

  9. A population-based study of childhood sexual contact in China: prevalence and long-term consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ye; Parish, William L; Laumann, Edward O

    2008-07-01

    This study provides national estimates of the prevalence of childhood sexual contact and its association with sexual well-being and psychological distress among adults in China. A national stratified probability sample of 1,519 women and 1,475 men aged 20-64 years in urban China completed a computer-administered survey in 1999-2000. The data from this survey on both adult-to-child and peer-to-peer sexual contact before age 14 were subjected to descriptive and multivariate analyses that were adjusted for both sampling weights and sampling design. The overall prevalence of reported childhood sexual contact was 4.2%, with prevalence higher among men (5.1%) than among women (3.3%) and higher among those aged 20-29 years (8.3%). Childhood sexual contact was associated with multiplex consequences, including hyper-sexuality (high levels of masturbation, thoughts about sex, varieties of sexual practices, partner turnover), adult sexual victimization (unwanted sex, unwanted sexual acts, sexual harassment), sexual difficulties (genitor-urinary symptoms, sexually transmitted infections, sexual dysfunctions), and psychological distress. Psychological distress was largely mediated by adult sexual victimization, sexual difficulties, and hyper-sexuality. Despite the relatively modest prevalence of childhood sexual contact among Chinese adults, the association with multiplex adult outcomes suggests that much as in the West early sexual contact is a significant issue. The findings underscore the importance of public education about childhood sexual contact and abuse in China. The findings suggest a need for public health campaigns that tackle the stigma associated with being abused and encourage victims to report abusive behavior to proper sources. The findings are also consistent with new efforts to alleviate the negative long-term impact of childhood sexual abuse.

  10. Long-term outcome and prognosis of dissociative disorder with onset in childhood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Thomas; Schneck-Seif, Stefanie; Weigand, Tobias; Schneider, Wolfgang; Ellgring, Heiner; Wewetzer, Christoph; Warnke, Andreas

    2008-07-23

    In the majority of cases short-term treatment outcome of juvenile dissociative disorder is rather favourable. In contrast, the long-term course seems to be less positive, but meaningful results are still fragmentary. The aim of this follow-up study is to bridge this gap to some extent describing the long-term outcome of juvenile dissociative disorder in a clinical sample. To our knowledge there is no comparable other long-term follow-up study which is based on a case definition according to actual classification systems using standardized interviews for individual assessment of the patients at the time of follow-up. The total study group was made up of all patients treated for dissociative disorder at our department for child and adolescent psychiatry between 1983 and 1992 (N = 62). Two of these former patients committed suicide during the follow-up period (3%). We got information on the clinical course of 27 former patients (44%). 17 out of these 27 former patients were female (63%). The mean age of onset of dissociative disorder was 11.7 years and the mean follow-up time was 12.4 years. Most of the patients were reassessed personally (n = 23) at a mean age of 24.8 years using structured interviews covering dissociative disorders, other Axis I disorders and personality disorders (Heidelberg Dissociation Inventory HDI; Expert System for Diagnosing Mental Disorders, DIA-X; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, SCID-II). Social adjustment was assessed by a semi-structured interview and by patient self report (Social Adjustment Scale - Self Report, SAS-SR). Psychosocial outcome variables were additionally assessed in 36 healthy controls (67% female, mean age = 22.9 years). At the time of follow-up investigation 82.6% of the patients met the criteria for some form of psychiatric disorder, while 26.1% were still suffering from dissociative disorder. A total of 56.5% presented with an Axis I disorder (especially anxiety, dissociative and somatoform disorders

  11. Factorial Validity and Invariance Assessment of a Short Version of the Recalled Childhood Gender Identity/Role Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Jaimie F

    2016-04-01

    Recalled childhood gender role/identity is a construct that is related to sexual orientation, abuse, and psychological health. The purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity of a short version of Zucker et al.'s (2006) "Recalled Childhood Gender Identity/Gender Role Questionnaire" using confirmatory factor analysis and to test the stability of the factor structure across groups (measurement invariance). Six items of the questionnaire were completed online by 1929 participants from a variety of gender identity and sexual orientation groups. Models of the six items loading onto one factor had poor fit for the data. Items were removed for having a large proportion of error variance. Among birth-assigned females, a five-item model had good fit for the data, but there was evidence for differences in scale's factor structure across gender identity, age, level of education, and country groups. Among birth-assigned males, the resulting four-item model did not account for all of the relationship between variables, and modeling for this resulted in a model that was almost saturated. This model also had evidence of measurement variance across gender identity and sexual orientation groups. The models had good reliability and factor score determinacy. These findings suggest that results of previous studies that have assessed recalled childhood gender role/identity may have been susceptible to construct bias due to measurement variance across these groups. Future studies should assess measurement invariance between groups they are comparing, and if it is not found the issue can be addressed by removing variant indicators and/or applying a partial invariance model.

  12. Obesity: a systematic review on parental involvement in long-term European childhood weight control interventions with a nutritional focus

    OpenAIRE

    Kruk, J J; Kortekaas, F; Lucas, C; Jager-Wittenaar, H

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, about 20% of children are overweight. Focus on parental responsibility is an effective method in weight control interventions in children. In this systematic review we describe the intensity of parental involvement and behaviour change aimed at parents in long-term European childhood weight control interventions. We include European Union studies targeting parents in order to improve children's weight status in multi-component (parental, behaviour change and nutrition) health promo...

  13. Strategy in short-term memory for pictures in childhood: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanefuji, Masafumi; Takada, Yui; Kimura, Naoko; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Kira, Ryutaro; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Hara, Toshiro

    2011-02-01

    In Baddeley's working memory model, verbalizable visual material such as pictures are recoded into a phonological form and then rehearsed, while auditory material is rehearsed directly. The recoding and rehearsal processes are mediated by articulatory control process in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). Developmentally, the phonological strategy for serially-presented visual material emerges around 7 years of age, while that for auditory material is consistently present by 4 years of age. However, the strategy change may actually be correlated with memory ability as this usually increases with age. To investigate the relationship between the strategy for pictures and memory ability, we monitored the left VLPFC activation in 5 to 11 year-old children during free recall of visually- or auditorily-presented familiar objects using event-related near-infrared spectroscopy. We hypothesized that the phonological strategy of rehearsal and recoding for visual material would provoke greater activation than only rehearsal for auditory material in the left VLPFC. Therefore, we presumed that the activation difference for visual material compared with auditory material in the left VLPFC may represent the tendency to use a phonological strategy. We found that the activation difference in the left VLPFC showed a significant positive correlation with memory ability but not with age, suggesting that children with high memory ability make more use of phonological strategy for pictures. The present study provides functional evidence that the strategy in short-term memory for pictures shifts gradually from non-phonological to phonological as memory ability increases in childhood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and Content Validation of the Transition Readiness Inventory Item Pool for Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lisa A; Hamilton, Jessica L; Brumley, Lauren D; Barakat, Lamia P; Deatrick, Janet A; Szalda, Dava E; Bevans, Katherine B; Tucker, Carole A; Daniel, Lauren C; Butler, Eliana; Kazak, Anne E; Hobbie, Wendy L; Ginsberg, Jill P; Psihogios, Alexandra M; Ver Hoeve, Elizabeth; Tuchman, Lisa K

    2017-10-01

    The development of the Transition Readiness Inventory (TRI) item pool for adolescent and young adult childhood cancer survivors is described, aiming to both advance transition research and provide an example of the application of NIH Patient Reported Outcomes Information System methods. Using rigorous measurement development methods including mixed methods, patient and parent versions of the TRI item pool were created based on the Social-ecological Model of Adolescent and young adult Readiness for Transition (SMART). Each stage informed development and refinement of the item pool. Content validity ratings and cognitive interviews resulted in 81 content valid items for the patient version and 85 items for the parent version. TRI represents the first multi-informant, rigorously developed transition readiness item pool that comprehensively measures the social-ecological components of transition readiness. Discussion includes clinical implications, the application of TRI and the methods to develop the item pool to other populations, and next steps for further validation and refinement. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Race and Sex Differences of Long-Term Blood Pressure Profiles From Childhood and Adult Hypertension: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shengxu; Zhang, Huijie; Xi, Bo; Shen, Hongbing; Fernandez, Camilo; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to characterize longitudinal blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood in black-white and sex groups and examine the association between childhood level-independent trajectories of BP and adult hypertension. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 2732 adults who had body mass index and BP measured 4 to 15 times from childhood (4-19 years) to adulthood (20-51 years). Model-estimated levels and linear slopes of BP and body mass index at childhood age points were calculated at 1-year intervals using the growth curve parameters and their first derivatives, respectively. Linear and nonlinear curve parameters differed significantly between race-sex groups; BP levels showed race and sex differences 15 years of age onward. Hypertensives had higher long-term BP levels than normotensives in race-sex groups. Although linear and nonlinear slope parameters of BP were race and sex specific, they differed consistently, significantly between hypertension and normotension groups. BP trajectories during young adulthood (20-35 years) were significantly greater in hypertensives than in normotensives; however, the trajectories during middle-aged adulthood (36-51 years) were significantly smaller in hypertensives than in normotensives. Level-independent linear slopes of systolic BP showed significantly negative associations (odds ratio=0.50≈0.76; P hypertension, adjusting for covariates. These associations were consistent across race-sex groups. These observations indicate that adult hypertension originates in childhood, with different longitudinal BP trajectory profiles during young and middle-aged adulthood in black-white and sex groups. Puberty is a crucial period for the development of hypertension in later life. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Planned Cesarean Delivery at Term and Adverse Outcomes in Childhood Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mairead; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Philip, Sam; Norman, Jane E.; McLernon, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Planned cesarean delivery comprises a significant proportion of births globally, with combined rates of planned and unscheduled cesarean delivery in a number of regions approaching 50%. Observational studies have shown that offspring born by cesarean delivery are at increased risk of ill health in childhood, but these studies have been unable to adjust for some key confounding variables. Additionally, risk of death beyond the neonatal period has not yet been reported for offspring born by planned cesarean delivery. Objective To investigate the relationship between planned cesarean delivery and offspring health problems or death in childhood. Design, Setting, and Participants Population-based data-linkage study of 321 287 term singleton first-born offspring born in Scotland, United Kingdom, between 1993 and 2007, with follow-up until February 2015. Exposures Offspring born by planned cesarean delivery in a first pregnancy were compared with offspring born by unscheduled cesarean delivery and with offspring delivered vaginally. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was asthma requiring hospital admission; secondary outcomes were salbutamol inhaler prescription at age 5 years, obesity at age 5 years, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, cancer, and death. Results Compared with offspring born by unscheduled cesarean delivery (n = 56 015 [17.4%]), those born by planned cesarean delivery (12 355 [3.8%]) were at no significantly different risk of asthma requiring hospital admission, salbutamol inhaler prescription at age 5 years, obesity at age 5 years, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, or death but were at increased risk of type 1 diabetes (0.66% vs 0.44%; difference, 0.22% [95% CI, 0.13%-0.31%]; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.35 [95% CI, 1.05-1.75]). In comparison with children born vaginally (n = 252 917 [78.7%]), offspring born by planned cesarean delivery were at increased risk of asthma requiring hospital admission (3.73% vs 3

  17. Concurrent Validity and Feasibility of Short Tests Currently Used to Measure Early Childhood Development in Large Scale Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rubio-Codina

    Full Text Available In low- and middle-income countries (LIMCs, measuring early childhood development (ECD with standard tests in large scale surveys and evaluations of interventions is difficult and expensive. Multi-dimensional screeners and single-domain tests ('short tests' are frequently used as alternatives. However, their validity in these circumstances is unknown. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and concurrent validity of three multi-dimensional screeners (Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3, Denver Developmental Screening Test (Denver-II, Battelle Developmental Inventory screener (BDI-2 and two single-domain tests (MacArthur-Bates Short-Forms (SFI and SFII, WHO Motor Milestones (WHO-Motor in 1,311 children 6-42 months in Bogota, Colombia. The scores were compared with those on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III, taken as the 'gold standard'. The Bayley-III was given at a center by psychologists; whereas the short tests were administered in the home by interviewers, as in a survey setting. Findings indicated good internal validity of all short tests except the ASQ-3. The BDI-2 took long to administer and was expensive, while the single-domain tests were quickest and cheapest and the Denver-II and ASQ-3 were intermediate. Concurrent validity of the multi-dimensional tests' cognitive, language, and fine motor scales with the corresponding Bayley-III scale was low below 19 months. However, it increased with age, becoming moderate-to-high over 30 months. In contrast, gross motor scales' concurrence was high under 19 months and then decreased. Of the single-domain tests, the WHO-Motor had high validity with gross motor under 16 months, and the SFI and SFII expressive scales showed moderate correlations with language under 30 months. Overall, the Denver-II was the most feasible and valid multi-dimensional test and the ASQ-3 performed poorly under 31 months. By domain, gross motor development had the highest concurrence

  18. Association of Anesthesia and Surgery During Childhood With Long-term Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Pia; Sandin, Rolf H; Pedersen, Nancy L; Bonamy, Anna-Karin; Eriksson, Lars I; Granath, Fredrik

    2017-01-02

    The results of preclinical studies suggest that anesthetic drugs administered to neonatal animals cause widespread neuronal apoptosis and later neurocognitive impairment. Adequately powered studies in the pediatric surgical population are scarce, and it is unclear whether such preclinical findings are relevant for the pediatric setting. To examine the association of anesthesia and surgery before age 4 years with long-term academic and cognitive performance indexed by school grades at age 16 years and IQ test scores at military conscription. This investigation was a cohort study among all children born in Sweden between January 1973 and December 1993. The dates of analysis were April 2013 to October 2015. Among all 2 174 073 Swedish children born between 1973 and 1993, we identified a primary study cohort of 33 514 children with 1 anesthesia and surgery exposure before age 4 years and no subsequent hospitalization and 159 619 matched unexposed control children. In addition, 3640 children with multiple surgical procedures before age 4 years were studied. Having at least 1 surgical procedure in the Swedish Patient Register before age 4 years. The mean school grades at age 16 years and IQ test scores at military conscription at age 18 years. The mean difference between the exposed cohort and unexposed cohort was estimated in a model that included sex, month of birth during the same year, gestational age at delivery, Apgar score at 5 minutes, maternal and paternal educational levels, annual taxable household income, cohabiting parents, and number of siblings. Among 33 514 exposed children (22 484 male and 11 030 female) and 159 619 unexposed children (105 812 male and 53 807 female) in the primary study cohort, 1 exposure before age 4 years was associated with a mean difference of 0.41% (95% CI, 0.12%-0.70%) lower school grades and 0.97% (95% CI, 0.15%-1.78%) lower IQ test scores. The magnitude of the difference was the same after multiple exposures

  19. Short-Term Second Language and Music Training Induces Lasting Functional Brain Changes in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Lee, Yunjo; Janus, Monika; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Immediate and lasting effects of music or second-language training were examined in early childhood using event-related potentials. Event-related potentials were recorded for French vowels and musical notes in a passive oddball paradigm in thirty-six 4- to 6-year-old children who received either French or music training. Following training, both…

  20. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, HM; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights.

  1. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Hanneke M.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Caron, Hubert N.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights. The goal of

  2. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and fatigue in long-term survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Bootsveld, Klaus; Gebhardt, Ursel; Daubenbuchel, Anna M. M.; Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Muller, Hermann L.

    Objective: Hypothalamic obesity in childhood craniopharyngioma (CP) patients carries a high risk for development of metabolic syndrome. In metabolic syndrome, the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is known. The aim of this study is to detect the risk for NAFLD in

  3. History before diagnosis in childhood craniopharyngioma : associations with initial presentation and long-term prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Boekhoff, Svenja; Gebhardt, Ursel; Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Daubenbuechel, Anna M. M.; Eveslage, Maria; Mueller, Hermann L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Childhood craniopharyngiomas (CP) are often diagnosed after a long duration of history (DOH). Tumor size, hypothalamic involvement (HI), and obesity are associated with reduced overall survival (OS) and functional capacity (FC). The effect of DOH and specific symptoms in history on

  4. Impact of childhood adversities on the short-term course of illness in psychotic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-08-30

    Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. How childhood circumstances moderate the long-term impact of divorce on father-child relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.

    2015-01-01

    Using retrospective survey data collected in the Netherlands in 2012, the author examined how childhood circumstances moderate the effect of an early parental divorce on relationships between fathers and adult children. Using adult children's reports about the frequency of contact and the quality of

  6. Medical assessment of adverse health outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, Maud M.; Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; van den Bos, Cor; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Heinen, Richard C.; Jaspers, Monique W. M.; Koning, Caro C. E.; Oldenburger, Foppe; Langeveld, Nelia E.; Hart, Augustinus A. M.; Bakker, Piet J. M.; Caron, Huib N.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Improved survival of children with cancer has been accompanied by multiple treatment-related complications. However, most studies in survivors of childhood cancer focused on only 1 late effect. OBJECTIVE: To assess the total burden of adverse health outcomes (clinical or subclinical

  7. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD. 2014 APA

  8. Development and validation of a childhood self-efficacy for functional constipation questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, N R; Hyman, P E; Karpinski, A; Rosenberg, A; Garguilo, D; Rein, L E; Amado-Feeley, A; Stoops, E; Herdes, R E; van Tilburg, M A L

    2018-03-01

    Children with functional constipation fear painful bowel movements leading to stool withholding behavior. Self-efficacy is the belief that an individual can accomplish a given goal. If children with constipation avoid defecation because they think that they are unable defecate comfortably, this low self-efficacy may prevent treatment success. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate a constipation specific self-efficacy scale. The self-efficacy for functional constipation questionnaire (SEFCQ) was developed by the authors and evaluated by 10 children and seven experts. Ninety-nine healthy children and 122 children with functional constipation completed the SEFCQ and three other questionnaires measuring related constructs. Minor changes were made in wording based on feedback from experts and children. Factor analysis showed two scales, a 7 item Action scale (Cronbach's α = 0.88) and a 7 item Emotion scale (Cronbach α = 0.86). The SEFCQ total scale correlated positively with general self-efficacy (r = .32, P self-efficacy questionnaire with good initial internal reliability, excellent face validity and adequate content validity. A low self-efficacy for defecation, may make the child resist their physical urge to defecate and hence, the need for further studies to assess its effect on treatment outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. For better or worse? Long-term outcome of critical illness in childhood : Long-term outcome of critical illness in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Zellem (Lennart)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The aim of this thesis was to investigate the long-term outcome of critically ill children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of the Erasmus MC – Sophia Children’s’ Hospital in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Our main focus was to investigate the

  10. Validation of traffic-related air pollution exposure estimates for long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roosbroeck, S.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes a series of studies that investigate the validity of using outdoor concentrations and/or traffic-related indicator exposure variables as a measure for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies on the long-term effect of traffic-related air pollution. A pilot study was

  11. Invited commentary: The long term impact of forced migration during childhood on adult health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Santavirta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Saarela and Elo (SSM-Population Health; Volume 2, December 2016, Pages 813–823 provide new evidence of early life forced displacement not being adversely associated with adult health. Their study highlights some of the challenges to identifying a causal effect of childhood exposure on adult health in the context of complex emergencies. Importantly, it opens up for future research that can address commonly recognized sources of bias and identify intervening pathways linking forced migration with adult health outcomes.

  12. Invited commentary: The long term impact of forced migration during childhood on adult health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavirta, Torsten

    2016-12-01

    Saarela and Elo (SSM-Population Health; Volume 2, December 2016, Pages 813-823) provide new evidence of early life forced displacement not being adversely associated with adult health. Their study highlights some of the challenges to identifying a causal effect of childhood exposure on adult health in the context of complex emergencies. Importantly, it opens up for future research that can address commonly recognized sources of bias and identify intervening pathways linking forced migration with adult health outcomes.

  13. Early neurologic complications and long-term sequelae of childhood bacterial meningitis in a limited-resource country (Kosovo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namani, Sadie A; Koci, Bulëza M; Milenković, Zvonko; Koci, Remzie; Qehaja-Buçaj, Emine; Ajazaj, Lindita; Mehmeti, Murat; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2013-02-01

    Since neurologic complications of childhood bacterial meningitis are encountered frequently despite antibiotic treatments, the purpose of this study was to analyze early neurologic complications and long-term sequelae of bacterial meningitis in children in a limited-resource country (Kosovo) This study uses a retrospective chart review of children treated for bacterial meningitis in two study periods: 277 treated during years 1997-2002 and 77 children treated during years 2009-2010. Of the 277 vs 77 children treated for bacterial meningitis, 60 (22%) vs 33 (43%) patients developed early neurologic complications, while there were 15 (5.4%) vs 2 (2.6%) deaths. The most frequent early neurologic complications were the following: subdural effusions (13 vs 29%), recurrent seizures (11 vs 8%), and hydrocephalus (3 vs 3%). The relative risk (95% confidence interval) for neurologic complications was the highest in infants (3.56 (2.17-5.92) vs 2.69 (1.62-4.59)) and in cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae 1.94 (1.09-3.18) vs Streptococcus pneumoniae 2.57(1.26-4.47). Long-term sequelae were observed in 10 vs 12% of children, predominantly in infants. The most frequent long-term sequelae were late seizures 9 vs 1%, neuropsychological impairment 1 vs 5%, and deafness 1 vs 3%. In both study periods, the most frequent early neurologic complications of childhood bacterial meningitis were subdural effusions. Long-term sequelae were observed in 10% of children, with late seizures, neuropsychological impairment, and deafness being the most common one. Age prior to 12 months was risk factor for both early neurologic complications and long-term sequelae of bacterial meningitis in children.

  14. Evaluation of validity of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines in identifying edema of nutritional causes among Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Habashy, Safinaz A; Mohamed, Maha H; Amin, Dina A; Marzouk, Diaa; Farid, Mohammed N

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) algorithm to detect edematous type of malnutrition in Egyptian infants and children ranging in age from 2 months to 5 years. This study was carried out by surveying 23 082 children aged between 2 months and 5 years visiting the pediatric outpatient clinic, Ain Shams University Hospital, over a period of 6 months. Thirty-eight patients with edema of both feet on their primary visit were enrolled in the study. Every child was assessed using the IMCI algorithm 'assess and classify' by the same physician, together with a systematic clinical evaluation with all relevant investigations. Twenty-two patients (57.9%) were proven to have nutritional etiology. 'Weight for age' sign had a sensitivity of 95.5%, a specificity of 56%, and a diagnostic accuracy of 78.95% in the identification of nutritional edema among all cases of bipedal edema. Combinations of IMCI symptoms 'pallor, visible severe wasting, fever, diarrhea', and 'weight for age' increased the sensitivity to 100%, but with a low specificity of 38% and a diagnostic accuracy of 73.68%. Bipedal edema and low weight for age as part of the IMCI algorithm can identify edema because of nutritional etiology with 100% sensitivity, but with 37% specificity. Revisions need to be made to the IMCI guidelines published in 2010 by the Egyptian Ministry of Health in the light of the new WHO guidelines of 2014.

  15. Long-Term Positive and Negative Psychological Late Effects for Parents of Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, Lisa; Cernvall, Martin; Grönqvist, Helena; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Ljungman, Gustaf; von Essen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Increasing survival rates in childhood cancer have yielded a growing population of parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). This systematic review compiles the literature on positive and negative long-term psychological late effects for parents of CCSs, reported at least five years after the child's diagnosis and/or two years after the end of the child's treatment. Systematic searches were made in the databases CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed. Fifteen studies, published between 1988 and 2010, from 12 projects were included. Thirteen studies used quantitative methodology, one quantitative and qualitative methodology, and one qualitative methodology. A total of 1045 parents participated in the reviewed studies. Mean scores were within normal ranges for general psychological distress, coping, and family functioning. However, a substantial subgroup reported a clinical level of general psychological distress, and 21–44% reported a severe level of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Worry, disease-related thoughts and feelings, marital strains, as well as posttraumatic growth was reported. Several factors were associated with the long-term late effects, such as parents' maladaptive coping during earlier stages of the childs disease trajectory and children's current poor adjustment. Quality assessments of reviewed studies and clinical implications of findings are discussed and recommendations for future research are presented. PMID:25058607

  16. Validation of MIMGO: a method to identify differentially expressed GO terms in a microarray dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Yoichi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously proposed an algorithm for the identification of GO terms that commonly annotate genes whose expression is upregulated or downregulated in some microarray data compared with in other microarray data. We call these “differentially expressed GO terms” and have named the algorithm “matrix-assisted identification method of differentially expressed GO terms” (MIMGO. MIMGO can also identify microarray data in which genes annotated with a differentially expressed GO term are upregulated or downregulated. However, MIMGO has not yet been validated on a real microarray dataset using all available GO terms. Findings We combined Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA with MIMGO to identify differentially expressed GO terms in a yeast cell cycle microarray dataset. GSEA followed by MIMGO (GSEA + MIMGO correctly identified (p Conclusions MIMGO is a reliable method to identify differentially expressed GO terms comprehensively.

  17. Long-term population-based divorce rates among adult survivors of childhood cancer in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobisher, Clare; Lancashire, Emma R; Winter, David L; Taylor, Aliki J; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2010-01-01

    Previously from the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) it was seen that adult survivors of childhood cancer were less likely to marry than the general population. The objectives of this study were to assess the number of childhood cancer survivors from the BCCSS who were currently divorced or separated, examine factors associated with marriage dissolution and compare survivor divorce rates to population rates. The BCCSS is a population-based cohort of 18,119 individuals diagnosed with cancer aged 0-14 years between 1940 and 1991, and survived at least 5 years. 14,539 were alive, aged 16 years or over and eligible to receive a questionnaire, which ascertained marital status. From 8,155 survivors, who were aged at least 20 years at questionnaire completion, the proportions currently divorced and divorced or separated were 13.5% and 18.1%, respectively. Only current age, educational attainment and age at marriage were associated with divorce, and for divorce and separation status only age at marriage (P divorced (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals (95% CI)): 0.94 (0.81-1.10)). However, the survivors overall (OR (95% CI): 0.82 (0.72-0.94)), and separately for those diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR (95% CI): 0.55 (0.34-0.89)) and leukaemia (OR (95% CI): 0.70 (0.52-0.95)), were less likely to be currently divorced or separated than the general population. It is reassuring that survivors do not experience more divorce than the general population, and that no cancer or treatment factors were shown to be associated with marriage dissolution. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Renal cell carcinoma in long-term survivors of advanced stage neuroblastoma in early childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleitz, Julie M.; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Kurzrock, Eric A.; Wyatt-Ashmead, Josephine; McGavran, Loris; Koyle, Martin; Odom, Lorrie F.; West, Daniel C.; Martin, Kenneth W.

    2003-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rare in children and comprises only 1-3% of all pediatric primary renal tumors. Recently, several case reports have described RCC developing in patients previously treated for advanced stage neuroblastoma (NB). Our experience with four patients treated for advanced stage NB during early childhood who developed RCC later in life are added to 14 others in the literature. These patients and our review of the literature suggest an association between RCC and NB that warrants further study. (orig.)

  19. Assessing educational outcomes in middle childhood: validation of the Teacher Academic Attainment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-06-01

    Assessing educational outcomes in high-risk populations is crucial for defining long-term outcomes. As standardized tests are costly and time-consuming, we assessed the use of the Teacher Academic Attainment Scale (TAAS) as an outcome measure. Three hundred and forty three children in mainstream schools aged 10 to 11 years (144 males, 199 females; 190 extremely preterm and 153 term; mean age 10 y 9 mo, SD 5.5 mo, range 9 y 8 mo-12 y 3 mo) were assessed using the reading and mathematics scales of the criterion standard Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, 2nd (UK) edition (WIAT-II). Class teachers completed the TAAS, a seven-item questionnaire for assessing academic attainment. The TAAS was also completed at 6 years of age for 266 children. Cronbach's alpha 0.95 indicated excellent internal consistency, and the correlation between TAAS scores at 6 and 11 years indicated good test-retest reliability (r=0.77, pscale studies. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  20. Home Environment as a Predictor of Long-Term Executive Functioning following Early Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durish, Christianne Laliberté; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry; Walz, Nicolay C; Wade, Shari L

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of the home environment to long-term executive functioning (EF) following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants (N=134) were drawn from a larger parent study of 3- to 6-year-old children hospitalized for severe TBI (n=16), complicated mild/moderate TBI (n=44), or orthopedic injury (OI; n=74), recruited prospectively at four tertiary care hospitals in the United States and followed for an average of 6.8 years post-injury. Quality of the home environment, caregiver psychological distress, and general family functioning were assessed shortly after injury (i.e., early home) and again at follow-up (i.e., late home). Participants completed several performance-based measures of EF at follow-up. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the early and late home environment measures as predictors of EF, both as main effects and as moderators of group differences. The early and late home environment were inconsistent predictors of long-term EF across groups. Group differences in EF were significant for only the TEA-Ch Walk/Don't Walk subtest, with poorer performance in the severe TBI group. However, several significant interactions suggested that the home environment moderated group differences in EF, particularly after complicated mild/moderate TBI. The home environment is not a consistent predictor of long-term EF in children with early TBI and OI, but may moderate the effects of TBI on EF. The findings suggest that interventions designed to improve the quality of stimulation in children's home environments might reduce the long-term effects of early childhood TBI on EF. (JINS, 2018, 24, 11-21).

  1. Long-term survivors of childhood cancer report quality of life and health status in parity with a comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Kay K; Doukkali, Eva; Lampic, Claudia; Eriksson, Lars E; Arvidson, Johan; Wettergren, Lena

    2010-08-01

    There is a need for more knowledge about how survivors of childhood cancer perceive their lives and what influence current health status has on their quality of life. The purpose was to describe this among a group of long-term survivors and among a comparison group. Telephone interviews were performed with a cohort of 246 long-term survivors and 296 randomly selected from the general population using the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting (SEIQoL-DW). The participants nominated the areas they considered to be most important in life and rated the current status of each area on a seven-point category scale. An overall individual index score was calculated as a measure of quality of life. Self-reported health status was assessed using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Long-term survivors rated their overall quality of life and self-reported health status almost in parity with the comparison group. In both groups, family life, relations to other people, work and career, interests and leisure activities were the areas most frequently reported to influence quality of life. The survivors only differed from the comparison group on one of eight SF-36 scales reflecting problems with daily activities owing to physical health. Health status was not shown to have a major impact on overall quality of life, indicating that health and quality of life should be evaluated distinctively as different constructs. This should be taken in consideration in clinical care of children with childhood cancer and long-term survivors. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. How Well Do We Understand the Long-Term Health Implications of Childhood Bullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate-Garza, Pablo Patricio; Biggs, Bridget K; Croarkin, Paul; Morath, Brooke; Leffler, Jarrod; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo; Tye, Susannah J

    Once dismissed as an innocuous experience of childhood, bullying is now recognized as having significant psychological effects, particularly with chronic exposure. Victims of bullying are at risk for a number of psychiatric disturbances, and growing evidence suggests that the pathophysiological effects of bullying, as with other forms of trauma and chronic stress, create additional health risks. We review the literature on the known sequelae of bullying, including psychiatric and physiological health effects, with a focus on implications for the victim. In addition, since it is now well established that early and chronic exposure to stress has a significant negative impact on health outcomes, we explore the implications of this research in relation to bullying and victimization in childhood. In particular, we examine how aspects of the stress response, via epigenetic, inflammatory, and metabolic mediators, have the capacity to compromise mental and physical health, and to increase the risk of disease. Research on the relevant mechanisms associated with bullying and on potential interventions to decrease morbidity is urgently needed.

  3. The first unprovoked, untreated seizure in childhood: a hospital based study of the accuracy of the diagnosis, rate of recurrence, and long term outcome after recurrence. Dutch study of epilepsy in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Stroink (Hans); O.F. Brouwer (Oebele); W.F.M. Arts (Willem Frans); A.T. Geerts (Ada); C.A. van Donselaar (Cees); A.C.B. Peters (Boudewijn)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of the diagnosis of a first unprovoked seizure in childhood, the recurrence rate within two years, the risk factors for recurrence, and the long term outcome two years after recurrence. METHODS: One hundred and fifty six

  4. The first unprovoked, untreated seizure in childhood: a hospital based study of the accuracy of the diagnosis, rate of recurrence, and long term outcome after recurrence. Dutch study of epilepsy in childhood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Stroink (Hans); O.F. Brouwer (Oebele); W.F.M. Arts (Willem Frans); A.T. Geerts (Ada); C.A. van Donselaar (Cees); A.C.B. Peters (Boudewijn)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractTo assess the accuracy of the diagnosis of a first unprovoked seizure in childhood, the recurrence rate within two years, the risk factors for recurrence, and the long term outcome two years after recurrence. METHODS: One hundred and fifty six children aged 1 month to 16 years after a

  5. Relational Aggression, Physical Aggression and Deception during Early Childhood: A Multimethod, Multi-Informant Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Ries, Emily E.; Stauffacher, Kirstin; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Mullins, Adam D.

    2008-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study examined relational and physical aggression and deceptive behavior among 120 preschool-aged children (M = 44.36 months old, SD = 11.07). Multiple informants and methods (i.e., observational, teacher reports) were used. Evidence for discriminant validity of the observations of aggression subtypes was found. For…

  6. The family environment predicts long-term academic achievement and classroom behavior following traumatic brain injury in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durber, Chelsea M; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2017-07-01

    This study examined how the family environment predicts long-term academic and behavioral functioning in school following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in early childhood. Using a concurrent cohort, prospective design, 15 children with severe TBI, 39 with moderate TBI, and 70 with orthopedic injury (OI) who were injured when they were 3-7 years of age were compared on tests of academic achievement and parent and teacher ratings of school performance and behavior on average 6.83 years postinjury. Soon after injury and at the longer term follow-up, families completed measures of parental psychological distress, family functioning, and quality of the home environment. Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined group differences in academic outcomes and their associations with measures of the early and later family environment. The severe TBI group, but not the moderate TBI group, performed worse than did the OI group on all achievement tests, parent ratings of academic performance, and teacher ratings of internalizing problems. Higher quality early and late home environments predicted stronger academic skills and better classroom behavior for children with both TBI and OI. The early family environment more consistently predicted academic achievement, whereas the later family environment more consistently predicted classroom functioning. The quality of the home environment predicted academic outcomes more strongly than did parental psychological distress or family functioning. TBI in early childhood has long-term consequences for academic achievement and school performance and behavior. Higher quality early and later home environments predict better school outcomes for both children with TBI and children with OI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Masculine norms, disclosure, and childhood adversities predict long-term mental distress among men with histories of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Scott D

    2014-02-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) can have a profound effect on the long-term mental health of boys/men. However, not all men with histories of CSA experience psychopathology. To improve prevention and intervention services, more research is needed to understand why some male survivors experience mental health problems and others do not. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to mental distress among a large, non-clinical sample of men with histories of CSA (N=487). Using a cross-sectional design with purposive sampling from three national survivor organizations, data were collected through an anonymous Internet-based survey. Multivariate analyses found that only one of the four CSA severity variables-use of physical force by the abuser-was related to mental distress. Additional factors that were related to mental distress included the number of other childhood adversities, years until disclosure, overall response to disclosure, and conformity to masculine norms. Overall, the final model predicted 36% of the variance in the number of mental health symptoms. Mental health practitioners should include masculine norms, disclosure history, and childhood adversities in assessments and intervention planning with male survivors. To more fully explicate risk factors for psychopathology in this population, future studies with probability samples of men that focus on mediational processes and use longitudinal designs are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Long-term social and psychiatric aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    The socio-demographics and psychiatric diagnoses in a clinical sample of women with a history of mainly intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are described. The women were referred to five psychiatric centres for incest group psychotherapy. Data were gathered using interviews and self......-administered questionnaires. Over a period of 2.5 years, 385 women with mean age of 33 years were referred with a history of CSA. Three hundred and forty of those had experienced intrafamilial CSA. The average age at first abuse was 6.8 years, and it lasted for a mean of 6 years. The women had been abused by a mean of 1.......5 perpetrators. A quarter of the women had been subjected to violence in connection with the sexual abuse. The likelihood of violence having occurred rose significantly if there was more than one perpetrator and/or if penetration had been part of the sexual abuse. Violence was less common if the perpetrator...

  9. Predicting Adverse Health Outcomes in Long-Term Survivors of a Childhood Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya S. Moskowitz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of children and young adults diagnosed with invasive cancer will survive five or more years beyond their cancer diagnosis. This population has an increased risk for serious illness- and treatment-related morbidity and premature mortality. A number of these adverse health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease and some second primary neoplasms, either have modifiable risk factors or can be successfully treated if detected early. Absolute risk models that project a personalized risk of developing a health outcome can be useful in patient counseling, in designing intervention studies, in forming prevention strategies, and in deciding upon surveillance programs. Here, we review existing absolute risk prediction models that are directly applicable to survivors of a childhood cancer, discuss the concepts and interpretation of absolute risk models, and examine ways in which these models can be used applied in clinical practice and public health.

  10. Measuring theory of mind across middle childhood: Reliability and validity of the Silent Films and Strange Stories tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Rory T; Hughes, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Recent years have seen a growth of research on the development of children's ability to reason about others' mental states (or "theory of mind") beyond the narrow confines of the preschool period. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a task battery composed of items from Happé's Strange Stories task and Devine and Hughes' Silent Film task. A sample of 460 ethnically and socially diverse children (211 boys) between 7 and 13years of age completed the task battery at two time points separated by 1month. The Strange Stories and Silent Film tasks were strongly correlated even when verbal ability and narrative comprehension were taken into account, and all items loaded onto a single theory-of-mind latent factor. The theory-of-mind latent factor provided reliable estimates of performance across a wide range of theory-of-mind ability and showed no evidence of differential item functioning across gender, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. The theory-of-mind latent factor also exhibited strong 1-month test-retest reliability, and this stability did not vary as a function of child characteristics. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the Strange Stories and Silent Film task battery as a measure of individual differences in theory of mind suitable for use across middle childhood. We consider the methodological and conceptual implications of these findings for research on theory of mind beyond the preschool years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Validity and reliability of the Early Childhood Caries Perceptions Scale (ECCPS) to assess health beliefs related to early childhood caries prevention among primary caregivers of children under 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn P; Shaw, Bret R; Tanasukarn, Chanuantong; Vatanasomboon, Paranee

    2012-09-01

    Primary caregivers' child oral health care beliefs and practices are major factors in the prevention of Early Childhood Caries (ECC). This study assessed the validity and reliability of a newly-developed scale--the Early Childhood Caries Perceptions Scale (ECCPS)--used to measure beliefs regarding ECC preventive practices among primary caregivers of young children. The ECCPS was developed based on the Health Belief Model. The construct validity and reliability of the ECCPS were examined among 254 low-socioeconomic status primary caregivers with children under five years old, recruifed from 4 Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Health Centers and a kindergarten school. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed a four-factor structure. The four factors were labeled as Perceived Susceptibility, Perceived Severity, Perceived Benefits and Perceived Barriers. Internal consistency measured by the Cronbach's coefficient alpha for those four factors were 0.897, 0.971, 0.975 and 0.789, respectively. The ECCPS demonstrated satisfactory levels of reliability and validity for assessing the health beliefs related to ECC prevention among low-socioeconomic primary caregivers.

  12. Long-term glucocorticoid concentrations as a risk factor for childhood obesity and adverse body-fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppe, G; van den Akker, E L T; de Rijke, Y B; Koper, J W; Jaddoe, V W; van Rossum, E F C

    2016-10-01

    Childhood obesity is an important risk factor for premature development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) at adulthood. There is need for understanding of the mechanisms underlying the MetS and obesity. Patients with Cushing's disease suffer from similar metabolic complications, leading to the hypothesis that inter-individual cortisol variation may contribute to the onset of obesity. In addition, glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-gene polymorphisms resulting in differential glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity, have been associated with an adverse metabolic profile. To study associations of GC levels in scalp hair, as a marker of long-term systemic GC concentrations, and genetically determined GC sensitivity with obesity and body-fat distribution in children. We performed a cross-sectional study of cortisol and cortisone concentrations over a 3-month period, measured by LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry) in hair of 3019 6-year-old children participating in the Generation R study. Genotyping of GR-gene polymorphisms was performed. Of all children, 4.3% was obese and 13.4% overweight. Cortisol was significantly associated with risk of obesity (odd ratio (OR): 9.4 (3.3-26.9)) and overweight (OR: 1.4 (1.0-2.0)). Cortisone was associated with risk of obesity (OR: 1.9 (1.0-3.5)). Cortisol and cortisone were significantly positively associated with body mass index, fat mass (FM) index and android/gynecoid FM ratio. GR polymorphisms were not associated with adiposity parameters. Long-term cortisol concentrations are strongly associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity and adverse body-fat distribution. Future research may reveal whether these are causal relations and may be a target for therapy.

  13. Long-Term Effect of Cranial Radiotherapy on Pituitary-Hypothalamus Area in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin, Cecilia; Erfurth, Eva Marie

    2016-09-01

    Survival rates of childhood cancer have improved markedly, and today more than 80 % of those diagnosed with a pediatric malignancy will become 5-year survivors. Nevertheless, survivors exposed to cranial radiotherapy (CRT) are at particularly high risk for long-term morbidity, such as endocrine insufficiencies, metabolic complications, and cardiovascular morbidity. Deficiencies of one or more anterior pituitary hormones have been described following therapeutic CRT for primary brain tumors, nasopharyngeal tumors, and following prophylactic CRT for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Studies have consistently shown a strong correlation between the total radiation dose and the development of pituitary deficits. Further, age at treatment and also time since treatment has strong implications on pituitary hormone deficiencies. There is evidence that the hypothalamus is more radiosensitive than the pituitary and is damaged by lower doses of CRT. With doses of CRT hypothalamus and this usually causes isolated GH deficiency (GHD). Higher doses (>50 Gy) may produce direct anterior pituitary damage, which contributes to multiple pituitary deficiencies. The large group of ALL survivors treated with CRT in the 70-80-ties has now reached adulthood, and these survivors were treated mainly with 24 Gy, and the vast majority of these patients suffer from GHD. Further, after long-term follow-up, insufficiencies in prolactin (PRL) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been reported and a proportion of these patients were also adrenocoticotrophic hormone (ACTH) deficient. CRT to the hypothalamus causes neuroendocrine dysfunction, which means that the choice of GH test is crucial for the diagnosis of GHD.

  14. Effects of a short-term parental education program on childhood atopic dermatitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futamura, Masaki; Masuko, Ikuyo; Hayashi, Keiichi; Ohya, Yukihiro; Ito, Komei

    2013-01-01

    Parental education is important in managing childhood atopic dermatitis (AD). We evaluated the long-term effects of a 2-day parental education program (PEP) on childhood AD. In an investigator-blinded, randomized controlled trial, 59 children age 6 months to 6 years with moderate to severe AD and their mothers were recruited in Japan. Participants were given a booklet about AD and received conventional treatment alone or in combination with a 2-day PEP comprising three lectures, three practical sessions, and a group discussion. The primary outcome was evaluation of eczema severity using SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in symptom scores, amount of corticosteroid used, parental quality of life as determined according to the Dermatitis Family Impact questionnaire, and change in parental anxiety regarding the use of corticosteroids in their children. Participants in the PEP group had a significantly lower SCORAD score than those in the control group at 6 months (mean difference 10.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3-17.7, p = 0.01) and objective SCORAD score (mean difference 7.1, 95% CI = 0.8-13.5, p = 0.03). The sleeplessness symptom score (mean difference 1.6, 95% CI = 0.0-3.1, p = 0.048) and corticosteroid anxiety score (p = 0.02) in the PEP group were significantly better than in the control group at 6 months. There was no significant difference between groups in the amount of corticosteroid used or quality of life. The PEP had positive long-term effects on eczema severity and parental anxiety about corticosteroid usage. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of childhood intracranial germinoma: long-term survival and late effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strojan, Primoz; Zadravec, Lorna Zaletel; Anzic, Jozica; Korenjak, Roman; Jereb, Berta

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the present report was to evaluate the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of childhood intracranial germinoma in view of long-term survival and functional outcome. Nine children with histologically verified intracranial germinomas treated in Slovenia between 1983 and 1995 were reviewed. The four boys and five girls were 8.8-16.9 years old (median, 11.3 years). Five tumors were suprasellar, three were in the pineal region, and one patient had bifocal disease. Two patients had disseminated tumor. All patients received radiotherapy: six to the tumor bed, one to the whole brain, and two to the whole central nervous axis (CNA). The doses to the tumor bed ranged from 30 to 46 Gy (median, 44 Gy) and to the CNA were 24 and 34.5 Gy. Five patients received neoadjuvant cyclophosphamide and three patients, all with beta-human chorionic gonadotropin secreting tumors, received neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Six patients are alive 12.8-21.8 years (median, 19 years) from diagnosis. The causes of death in three patients were disseminated disease, toxicity of salvage chemotherapy, and secondary etoposide-induced leukemia. All patients with suprasellar tumors presented with overt endocrinopathy. Results of psychological evaluation were subnormal in one out of five patients tested. Estimate of mental deterioration due to therapy ranged from 0% to 30% (median, 15%). Emotional disorder was registered in four patients and psycho-organic syndrome in three. Our results on long-term survival and functional outcome confirm the efficacy and relative safety of limited-field and reduced-dose radiotherapy for childhood intracranial germinoma when supplemented with chemotherapy. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Music Instruction on Intelligence and General Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of music instruction on general cognitive abilities. The review of more than 75 reports shows (1) the consistency in results pertaining to the short-term effects of music instruction on cognitive abilities and the lack of clear evidence on the long-term effects on intelligence; (2) the complex nature of…

  17. Long-term follow-up of brain tumors in childhood after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katahira, Masako; Kubo, Osami; Inoue, Norio; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Uchinuno, Hideaki; Nitta, Masae; Tajika, Yasuhiko; Sakairi, Mitsuhiko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    An increase in the survival rate of children with brain tumors has produced a new problem: the late impairment effects of radiotherapy on intelligence. We conducted a follow-up study of intelligence levels in a total of 23 children who had tumors with a relatively good prognosis, i.e., craniopharyngioma, germinoma, and cerebellar astrocytoma. The cases were aged 1-14 years, and the period of follow-up was 3-15 years. Intellectual development was categorized depending on the situation of school attendance, and was evaluated on a 5-point scale. As radiation to the posterior fossa doesn't cause a big problem on intelligence, the cases of cerebellar astrocytoma were excluded. Of the remaining cases, 45% (7/16) were intellectually retarded. They were less than 11 years of age at the time of radiation. Three of those with especially severe impairment were less than 5 years old at the time of radiation. We need to think about the influence of radiation on intelligence in childhood, although we can't exclude other factors influencing intelligence. (author).

  18. Acute and long-term cytogenetic effects of treatment in childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, M.M.; Miller, R.C.; Hill, R.B.; Nichols, W.W.; Meadows, A.T.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of chromosomal aberrations in banded karyotypes and of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) was determined in the lymphocytes of survivors of childhood cancer as 2 parameters which are pertinent in assessing the genetic damage induced by chemotherapy. The proportion of cells with chromosome breakage or structural rearrangement-type aberration was 1 cell in 67 in a control group of 8 untreated cancer patients and 2 parents of cancer patients, 1 cell in 8 in 12 patients currently on therapy, and 1 cell in 50 in 17 patients sampled 6 months to 35 years post-treatment. The range of mean SCE levels per cell was 4.5-6.5 in the untreated cancer patients, 4.0-9.6 in non-cancer controls, 3.3-33.7 in patients on therapy, and 4.6-9.7 in post-therapy survivors. Considerable variability was observed between individuals with both SCE and breakage assays but therapy-induced increases in SCEs were not necessarily correlated with increased levels of aberrations arising from chromosomal breakage. (orig.)

  19. Long-term follow-up of brain tumors in childhood after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katahira, Masako; Kubo, Osami; Inoue, Norio; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Uchinuno, Hideaki; Nitta, Masae; Tajika, Yasuhiko; Sakairi, Mitsuhiko

    1990-01-01

    An increase in the survival rate of children with brain tumors has produced a new problem: the late impairment effects of radiotherapy on intelligence. We conducted a follow-up study of intelligence levels in a total of 23 children who had tumors with a relatively good prognosis, i.e., craniopharyngioma, germinoma, and cerebellar astrocytoma. The cases were aged 1-14 years, and the period of follow-up was 3-15 years. Intellectual development was categorized depending on the situation of school attendance, and was evaluated on a 5-point scale. As radiation to the posterior fossa doesn't cause a big problem on intelligence, the cases of cerebellar astrocytoma were excluded. Of the remaining cases, 45% (7/16) were intellectually retarded. They were less than 11 years of age at the time of radiation. Three of those with especially severe impairment were less than 5 years old at the time of radiation. We need to think about the influence of radiation on intelligence in childhood, although we can't exclude other factors influencing intelligence. (author)

  20. Gonadal status in long-term male survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello, E; Felicetti, F; Castiglione, A; Nervo, A; Biasin, E; Ciccone, G; Fagioli, F; Corrias, A

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of gonadal dysfunction and the associated risk factors in a cohort of male childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Gonadal function was evaluated measuring FSH, LH, inhibin B and total testosterone levels. Patients with total testosterone 10 UI/l and inhibin B 2000). The adjusted risk of gonadal dysfunction was higher in patients treated with radiotherapy (OR = 8.72; 95 % CI 3.94-19.30) and in those exposed to both alkylating and platinum-derived agents (OR = 9.22; 95 % CI 2.17-39.23). Sarcomas were the cancer diagnosis associated with the higher risk of gonadal dysfunction (OR = 3.69; 95 % CI 1.11-12.22). An extremely high rate of gonadal dysfunction was detected in patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and/or total body irradiation. Gonadal dysfunction still remains a significant late effect of anticancer therapies; thus, it is mandatory to inform patients (and parents) about this risk, and semen cryopreservation should be offered to all boys who are able to produce semen.

  1. Impact of long-term burden of excessive adiposity and elevated blood pressure from childhood on adulthood left ventricular remodeling patterns: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chin-Chih; Sun, Dianjianyi; Cen, Ruiqi; Wang, Jian; Li, Shengxu; Fernandez-Alonso, Camilo; Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2014-10-14

    Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), but little is known regarding related impact of longitudinal measures of childhood adiposity and LV hemodynamic variables. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of cumulative long-term burden and trends of excessive adiposity and elevated blood pressure (BP) during childhood on adulthood LVH and LV geometric remodeling patterns. This longitudinal study consisted of 1,061 adults, age 24 to 46 years, who had been examined 4 or more times for body mass index (BMI) and BP starting in childhood, with a mean follow-up of 28.0 years. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as a measure of long-term burden (total AUC) and trends (incremental AUC) of BMI and BP from childhood to adulthood. Four LV geometric types were defined-normal, concentric remodeling (CR), eccentric hypertrophy (EH), and concentric hypertrophy (CH)-all on the basis of LV mass indexed for body height (m(2.7)) and relative wall thickness. Higher values of BMI and systolic and diastolic BP in childhood and adulthood, as well as total AUC and incremental AUC, were all significantly associated with higher LV mass index and LVH, adjusted for race, sex, and age. In addition, higher values of BMI and BP in childhood and adulthood, total AUC, and incremental AUC were significantly associated with EH and CH but not with CR. Importantly, all of these measures of BMI had a consistently and significantly greater influence on EH than did measures of BP. These findings indicate that the adverse influence of excessive adiposity and elevated BP levels on LVH begins in childhood. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term health and quality-of-life consequences of mass screening for childhood celiac disease: A 10-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, E.J. van; Schweizer, J.J.; Csizmadia, C.G.D.S.; Krom, Y.; Hylkema, H.B.; Geel, A.M. van; Koopman, H.M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Mearin, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Mass screening for celiac disease is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine whether detection of childhood celiac disease by mass screening improves long-term health status and health-related quality of life. METHODS.We conducted a prospective 10-year follow-up study

  3. A Comprehensive Plan for the Long-Term Calibration and Validation of Oceanic Biogeochemical Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; McClain, Charles R.; Mannino, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of this planning document is to establish a long-term capability and validating oceanic biogeochemical satellite data. It is a pragmatic solution to a practical problem based primarily o the lessons learned from prior satellite missions. All of the plan's elements are seen to be interdependent, so a horizontal organizational scheme is anticipated wherein the overall leadership comes from the NASA Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry (OBB) Program Manager and the entire enterprise is split into two components of equal sature: calibration and validation plus satellite data processing. The detailed elements of the activity are based on the basic tasks of the two main components plus the current objectives of the Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems Roadmap. The former is distinguished by an internal core set of responsibilities and the latter is facilitated through an external connecting-core ring of competed or contracted activities. The core elements for the calibration and validation component include a) publish protocols and performance metrics; b) verify uncertainty budgets; c) manage the development and evaluation of instrumentation; and d) coordinate international partnerships. The core elements for the satellite data processing component are e) process and reprocess multisensor data; f) acquire, distribute, and archive data products; and g) implement new data products. Both components have shared responsibilities for initializing and temporally monitoring satellite calibration. Connecting-core elements include (but are not restricted to) atmospheric correction and characterization, standards and traceability, instrument and analysis round robins, field campaigns and vicarious calibration sites, in situ database, bio-optical algorithm (and product) validation, satellite characterization and vicarious calibration, and image processing software. The plan also includes an accountability process, creating a Calibration and Validation Team (to help manage

  4. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in long-term survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Yoon Jung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Hypothalamic obesity in childhood-onset (CO- craniopharyngioma patients may predispose to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This study reviewed the characteristics of NAFLD associated with CO-craniopharyngioma. Methods This study retrospectively reviewed 75 patients who underwent surgery for craniopharyngioma while younger than 15 years of age between 2000 and 2016. Results Elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST or alanine aminotransferase (ALT above 40 IU/L was observed in 51 of the 75 (68% CO-craniopharyngioma patients. Imaging studies were performed in 32 patients with elevated liver enzymes. The estimated prevalence of NAFLD in CO-craniopharyngioma was 47%. NAFLD was detected in 22 patients (male 59%, 4.3±4.0 years after first surgery. The mean age at the time of the initial operation was 9.1±2.9 years. Six patients (27.3% were diagnosed within 1 year. Among the 19 patients with initial height and weight data, the body mass index (BMI z-score (BMI_Z at the time of diagnosis with NAFLD was 1.37±1.01 (range, -0.75 to 3.18, with 4 patients (18.2% being overweight and 9 (40.9% being obese. BMI_Z increased above BMI_Z at the time of the operation in 13 patients (68.4%. The increment in BMI_Z was 1.13 (range, 0.10–2.84. Seventeen patients did not receive growth hormone. An insulin-like growth factor-I level <3rd percentile was observed in 19 patients. Conclusions NAFLD is common in survivors of CO-craniopharyngioma and may develop earlier. If the ALT or AST is above 40 IU/L, a diagnostic work-up should be started.

  5. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in long-term survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, So Yoon; Lee, Yun Jeong; Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Young Ah; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung; Yang, Sei Won; Shin, Choong Ho

    2017-09-01

    Hypothalamic obesity in childhood-onset (CO-) craniopharyngioma patients may predispose to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study reviewed the characteristics of NAFLD associated with CO-craniopharyngioma. This study retrospectively reviewed 75 patients who underwent surgery for craniopharyngioma while younger than 15 years of age between 2000 and 2016. Elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) above 40 IU/L was observed in 51 of the 75 (68%) CO-craniopharyngioma patients. Imaging studies were performed in 32 patients with elevated liver enzymes. The estimated prevalence of NAFLD in CO-craniopharyngioma was 47%. NAFLD was detected in 22 patients (male 59%, 4.3±4.0 years after first surgery). The mean age at the time of the initial operation was 9.1±2.9 years. Six patients (27.3%) were diagnosed within 1 year. Among the 19 patients with initial height and weight data, the body mass index (BMI) z-score (BMI_Z) at the time of diagnosis with NAFLD was 1.37±1.01 (range, -0.75 to 3.18), with 4 patients (18.2%) being overweight and 9 (40.9%) being obese. BMI_Z increased above BMI_Z at the time of the operation in 13 patients (68.4%). The increment in BMI_Z was 1.13 (range, 0.10-2.84). Seventeen patients did not receive growth hormone. An insulin-like growth factor-I level <3rd percentile was observed in 19 patients. NAFLD is common in survivors of CO-craniopharyngioma and may develop earlier. If the ALT or AST is above 40 IU/L, a diagnostic work-up should be started.

  6. Long-term sequelae after chemotherapy and radiotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, G.E.P.

    1994-12-01

    Background: Effective forms of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in childhood now result in survival rates of more than 70%. With improving cure rates increasing interest has been focused on adverse late effects caused by chemotherapy and cranial irradiation. Methods: We investigated 40 survivors, 22 males and 18 females with an average age of 15.8 years (6.6 to 28.1), all treated at the Children's Hospital of Innsbruck, Austria, after a follow-up of 9.2 years (4.6 - 20) on average in continuous complete remission. Our evaluation included cardiac status, growth, endocrinological function and a wide variety of other clinical and laboratory investigations. To identify cardiac dysfunction due to anthracyclines we performed Dobutamine-Stress-Echocardiography (DSE) using a graded dosage regimen (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 μg/kg/min). We compared the DSE data with those obtained from 17 age-matched control subjects. Results: Conventional echocardiography revealed only 4 patients (11.4%) with abnormalities of left ventricular contractility (measured as left ventricular shortening fraction). In contrast DSE detected a 3-fold higher percentage of patients with cardiac dysfunction. There was no correlation between total cumulative anthracycline dose, age at time of diagnosis and length of follow-up with incidence of abnormalities. Primary hypothyroidism in 4 patients (10%) and a permanent linear growth retardation in 5 patients (12%, all of which had been irradiated) were the only endocrinological problems detected. No survivor showed hemato-immunological disturbances. Remarkably, transfusion- associated sequelae, liver or kidney dysfunction were not found. Conclusion: The high incidence of late cardiac effects requires continued monitoring of patients after ALL treatment. In this respect, DSE revealed to be a sensitive method. (author)

  7. Long-term effects of LCPUFA supplementation on childhood cognitive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E; Cheatham, Carol L; Shaddy, D Jill; Kerling, Elizabeth H; Thodosoff, Jocelynn M; Gustafson, Kathleen M; Brez, Caitlin

    2013-08-01

    The effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake on cognitive development is controversial. Most randomized trials have assessed cognition at 18 mo, although significant development of cognitive abilities (early executive function) emerge later. The objective was to evaluate cognition beyond 18 mo and longitudinal cognitive change from 18 mo to 6 y in children who were fed variable amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (0.32%, 0.64%, and 0.96% of total fatty acids) and arachidonic acid (ARA; 0.64%) compared with children who were not fed LCPUFA as infants. Eighty-one children (19 placebo, 62 LCPUFA) who participated in a double-blind, randomized trial of LCPUFA supplementation as infants were re-enrolled at 18 mo and tested every 6 mo until 6 y on age-appropriate standardized and specific cognitive tests. LCPUFA supplementation did not influence performance on standardized tests of language and performance at 18 mo; however, significant positive effects were observed from 3 to 5 y on rule-learning and inhibition tasks, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 5 y, and the Weschler Primary Preschool Scales of Intelligence at 6 y. Effects of LCPUFAs were not found on tasks of spatial memory, simple inhibition, or advanced problem solving. The data from this relatively small trial suggest that, although the effects of LCPUFAs may not always be evident on standardized developmental tasks at 18 mo, significant effects may emerge later on more specific or fine-grained tasks. The results imply that studies of nutrition and cognitive development should be powered to continue through early childhood. This parent trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00266825.

  8. Development, description and validation of a Tritium Environmental Release Model (TERM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Rebecca S; Parker, Geoffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Tritium is a radioisotope of hydrogen that exists naturally in the environment and may also be released through anthropogenic activities. It bonds readily with hydrogen and oxygen atoms to form tritiated water, which then cycles through the hydrosphere. This paper seeks to model the migration of tritiated species throughout the environment - including atmospheric, river and coastal systems - more comprehensively and more consistently across release scenarios than is currently in the literature. A review of the features and underlying conceptual models of some existing tritium release models was conducted, and an underlying aggregated conceptual process model defined, which is presented. The new model, dubbed 'Tritium Environmental Release Model' (TERM), was then tested against multiple validation sets from literature, including experimental data and reference tests for tritium models. TERM has been shown to be capable of providing reasonable results which are broadly comparable with atmospheric HTO release models from the literature, spanning both continuous and discrete release conditions. TERM also performed well when compared with atmospheric data. TERM is believed to be a useful tool for examining discrete and continuous atmospheric releases or combinations thereof. TERM also includes further capabilities (e.g. river and coastal release scenarios) that may be applicable to certain scenarios that atmospheric models alone may not handle well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Barriers and Facilitators of Transition from Pediatric to Adult Long-Term Follow-Up Care in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg-Yunger, Zahava R S; Klassen, Anne F; Amin, Leila; Granek, Leeat; D'Agostino, Norma M; Boydell, Katherine M; Greenberg, Mark; Barr, Ronald D; Nathan, Paul C

    2013-09-01

    Despite the risk for late effects in adult survivors of cancer in childhood or adolescence, many survivors fail to transition from pediatric to adult long-term follow-up (LTFU) care. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers and facilitators of transition from pediatric to adult LTFU care. In this qualitative study, 38 Canadian survivors of cancer in childhood or adolescence, currently aged 15-26 years, were interviewed using semi-structured, open-ended questions. Participants belonged to one of four groups: pre-transition (n=10), successful transition (n=11), failed to transition (n=7), and transitioned to an adult center but then dropped out of adult care (n=10). A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the interview data. This approach consisted of coding transcripts line by line to develop categories and using constant comparison to examine relationships within and across codes and categories. Interviewing continued until saturation was reached. Three interrelated themes were identified that affected the transition process: micro-level patient factors (e.g., due diligence, anxiety), meso-level support factors (e.g., family, friends), and macro-level system factors (e.g., appointments, communication, healthcare providers). Factors could act as facilitators to transition (e.g., family support), barriers to transition (e.g., difficulty booking appointments), or as both a barrier and a facilitator (e.g., anxiety). This study illustrates the interaction between multiple factors that facilitate and/or prevent transition from pediatric to adult LTFU cancer care. A number of recommendations are presented to address potential macro-level system barriers to successful transition.

  10. Accelerated Long-Term Forgetting Is Not Epilepsy Specific: Evidence from Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lah, Suncica; Black, Carly; Gascoigne, Michael B; Gott, Chloe; Epps, Adrienne; Parry, Louise

    2017-09-01

    Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is characterized by adequate recall after short, but not long delays. ALF is not detected by standardized neuropsychological memory tests. Currently, the prevailing conceptualization of ALF is of a temporal lobe seizure-related phenomenon. Nevertheless, Mayes and colleagues (2003) proposed that ALF may occur when any of the components of the brain network involved in long-term memory formation, or their interaction, is disrupted. This disruption does not have to be caused by temporal lobe seizures for ALF to occur. Here, we investigate this possibility in a group of school-age children who have sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI) (n = 28), as TBI typically disrupts the brain network that is important for long-term memory formation and recall. Healthy control children (n = 62) also participated. Contrary to the dominant conceptualization of ALF being a seizure-related phenomenon, children with TBI showed ALF. Sustaining a severe TBI and diffuse subcortical damage was related to ALF. Individually, 8 of the 13 children with severe TBI presented with ALF. ALF would remain undetected on standardized testing in six of these eight children. One child had the opposite pattern of dissociation, an impaired score on standardized testing, but an average long-term memory score. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to show ALF in patients with TBI, which has remained undiagnosed and untreated in this patient population. Our study also challenges the dominant hypothesis of ALF being a temporal lobe seizure-related phenomenon, and raises a possibility that short-term and long-term memory systems may be independent.

  11. The Development of Visual Short-Term Memory for Multifeature Items during Middle childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Kevin J.; Simpson, Andrew; Potts, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) research suggests that the adult capacity is limited to three or four multifeature object representations. Despite evidence supporting a developmental increase in capacity, it remains unclear what the unit of capacity is in children. The current study employed the change detection paradigm to investigate both the…

  12. The relation of breech presentation at term to epilepsy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2006-01-01

    with epilepsy until year 1996. For each case delivered in breech presentation (n = 290), the two subsequent deliveries of non-malformed, singleton infants delivered in breech presentation at term at the same hospital were selected as controls (n = 580). RESULTS: Breech presentation was a risk factor...

  13. Early Seizure Frequency and Aetiology Predict Long-Term Medical Outcome in Childhood-Onset Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice, it is important to predict as soon as possible after diagnosis and starting treatment, which children are destined to develop medically intractable seizures and be at risk of increased mortality. In this study, we determined factors predictive of long-term seizure and mortality outcome in a population-based cohort of 102…

  14. Fusiform dilatation of the internal carotid artery in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma: multicenter study on incidence and long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Lohle, Kristin; Reichel, Julia; Daubenbüchel, Anna M M; Sterkenburg, Anthe S; Müller, Hermann L

    2016-08-01

    Fusiform dilatations of the internal carotid artery (FDCA) represent a vascular complication following surgery for suprasellar tumors in children. Incidence rate and long-term prognosis of FDCA in terms of survival rates, vascular complications, and quality of survival are unknown for patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of 583 patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma, recruited from 2001 to 2015 in the German Childhood Craniopharyngioma Registry, were reviewed for FDCA. Risk factors for FDCA and long-term outcome after FDCA were analyzed. Fourteen of 583 patients (2.4 %) developed FDCA based on reference assessment of MRI. FDCA occurred ipsilateral to the surgical approach and was not related to degree of resection, hypothalamic involvement, or irradiation. The median time interval between first detection of FDCA and initial surgery was 0.79 years (range 0.01-5.56 years). During a median follow-up of 6.47 years (range 1.2-21.9 years) after first detection of FDCA, no bleeding or cerebrovascular events were observed in any patient. Irradiation was not related to FDCA. Survival rates and functional capacity were similar in patients with and without FDCA. Clinically the FDCA was unapparent in all cases and not treated. FDCA is a rare complication related to surgical treatment of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma without major impact on prognosis and clinical course of the disease. KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2000-NCT00258453; KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2007-NCT01272622.

  15. [Economic crisis, poverty and childhood. What are the expected short- and long-term effects for the "children of the crisis"? SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Manuel; García-Gómez, Pilar; Zunzunegui, María-Victoria

    2014-06-01

    The way a person will develop over the lifespan is largely determined by the first few years of life. A substantial share of the inequalities in health and socioeconomic status observed in adult life originate during childhood (and even while in utero). In this paper, we first review the literature on the impact of childhood conditions throughout the life cycle. We next discuss some of the social and biological mechanisms behind the transmission of the effects of poverty during the prenatal period, childhood, and adulthood. We then analyze several international experiences aimed at reducing intergenerational transmission of poverty. The article ends with some critical thoughts and policy recommendations to avoid the possible long-term effects of the current crisis on the health and socioeconomic status of the "children of the crisis" in Spain. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of Social Information Processing in early childhood: development and initial validation of the Schultz Test of Emotion Processing-Preliminary Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, David; Ambike, Archana; Logie, Sean Kevin; Bohner, Katherine E; Stapleton, Laura M; Vanderwalde, Holly; Min, Christopher B; Betkowski, Jennifer A

    2010-07-01

    Crick and Dodge's (Psychological Bulletin 115:74-101, 1994) social information processing model has proven very useful in guiding research focused on aggressive and peer-rejected children's social-cognitive functioning. Its application to early childhood, however, has been much more limited. The present study responds to this gap by developing and validating a video-based assessment tool appropriate for early childhood, the Schultz Test of Emotion Processing-Preliminary Version (STEP-P). One hundred twenty-five Head Start preschool children participated in the study. More socially competent children more frequently attributed sadness to the victims of provocation and labeled aggressive behaviors as both morally unacceptable and less likely to lead to positive outcomes. More socially competent girls labeled others' emotions more accurately. More disruptive children more frequently produced physically aggressive solutions to social provocations, and more disruptive boys less frequently interpreted social provocations as accidental. The STEP-P holds promise as an assessment tool that assesses knowledge structures related to the SIP model in early childhood.

  17. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures: A validation of interview data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria; Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Tettamanti, Giorgio; Klæboe, Lars; Kuehni, Claudia E; Tynes, Tore; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Lannering, Birgitta; Röösli, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight, length, maternal age), birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction, preterm delivery, birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking, working, dietary supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7-19 year olds. The multinational case-control study in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (participation rate=83.2%) eligible cases and 646 (71.1%) population-based controls. Interview data were complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain tumour risk. Agreement between interview and birth registry data ranged from moderate (Kappa=0.54; worked during pregnancy) to almost perfect (Kappa=0.98; birth weight). Neither anthropogenic factors nor birth characteristics were associated with childhood brain tumour risk. Maternal vitamin intake during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MeSH key terms for validation and annotation of gene expression clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechtsteiner, A. (Andreas); Rocha, L. M. (Luis Mateus)

    2004-01-01

    Integration of different sources of information is a great challenge for the analysis of gene expression data, and for the field of Functional Genomics in general. As the availability of numerical data from high-throughput methods increases, so does the need for technologies that assist in the validation and evaluation of the biological significance of results extracted from these data. In mRNA assaying with microarrays, for example, numerical analysis often attempts to identify clusters of co-expressed genes. The important task to find the biological significance of the results and validate them has so far mostly fallen to the biological expert who had to perform this task manually. One of the most promising avenues to develop automated and integrative technology for such tasks lies in the application of modern Information Retrieval (IR) and Knowledge Management (KM) algorithms to databases with biomedical publications and data. Examples of databases available for the field are bibliographic databases c ntaining scientific publications (e.g. MEDLINE/PUBMED), databases containing sequence data (e.g. GenBank) and databases of semantic annotations (e.g. the Gene Ontology Consortium and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)). We present here an approach that uses the MeSH terms and their concept hierarchies to validate and obtain functional information for gene expression clusters. The controlled and hierarchical MeSH vocabulary is used by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to index all the articles cited in MEDLINE. Such indexing with a controlled vocabulary eliminates some of the ambiguity due to polysemy (terms that have multiple meanings) and synonymy (multiple terms have similar meaning) that would be encountered if terms would be extracted directly from the articles due to differing article contexts or author preferences and background. Further, the hierarchical organization of the MeSH terms can illustrate the conceptuallfunctional relationships of genes

  19. Survival, hypothalamic obesity, and neuropsychological/psychosocial status after childhood-onset craniopharyngioma: newly reported long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkenburg, Anthe S; Hoffmann, Anika; Gebhardt, Ursel; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Daubenbüchel, Anna M M; Müller, Hermann L

    2015-07-01

    Quality of life (QoL) and long-term prognosis are frequently, and often severely, impaired in craniopharyngioma (CP) patients. Knowledge of risk factors for long-term outcome is important for optimization of treatment. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), body mass index (BMI), neuropsychological status (EORTCQLQ-C30, MFI-20), and psychosocial status were analyzed in 261 patients with childhood-onset CP diagnosed before 2000 and longitudinally observed in HIT-Endo. Twenty-year OS was lower (P = .006) in CP with hypothalamic involvement (HI) (n = 132; 0.84 ± 0.04) when compared with CP without HI (n = 82; 0.95 ± 0.04). OS was not related to degree of resection, sex, age at diagnosis, or year of diagnosis (before/after 1990). PFS (n = 168; 0.58 ± 0.05) was lower in younger patients (12 years of follow-up, patients with HI presented no further increase in BMI. QoL in CP patients with HI was impaired by obesity, physical fatigue, reduced motivation, dyspnea, diarrhea, and nonoptimal psychosocial development. OS and QoL are impaired by HI in long-term survivors of CP. HI is associated with severe obesity, which plateaus after 12 years. OS/PFS are not related to degree of resection, but gross-total resection should be avoided in cases of HI to prevent further hypothalamic damage, which exacerbates sequelae. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Short-Term Predictive Validity of Cluster Analytic and Dimensional Classification of Child Behavioral Adjustment in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangwon; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Baker, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    A constructive debate over the classification of child psychopathology can be stimulated by investigating the validity of different classification approaches. We examined and compared the short-term predictive validity of cluster analytic and dimensional classifications of child behavioral adjustment in school using the Behavior Assessment System…

  1. Measuring the Concept of Impact of Childhood Disability on Parents: Validation of a Multidimensional Measurement in a Cerebral Palsy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard, Audrey; Michelsen, Susan I.; Arnaud, Catherine; Lyons, Alan; Cans, Christine; Fauconnier, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Living with a child with a disability can affect family life in various domains. Impacts on time, expenses, work, relationships within the family, social relationships and physical and psychological health can be observed. The Family Impact of Childhood Disability (FICD) is a specific instrument designed to assess this situation. Used in a…

  2. Eating behavior, weight problems and eating disorders in 101 long-term survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Postma, Frank P.; Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Gebhardt, Ursel; Mueller, Hermann L.

    Background: As a result of hypothalamic involvement and/or treatment-related hypothalamic damage, up to 75% of childhood craniopharyngioma patients develop hypothalamic obesity. Methods: Eating behavior was analyzed in 101 survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, recruited from 1980 to 2001 in the

  3. Childhood optic chiasm gliomas: radiographic response following radiotherapy and long-term clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, May L.; Barnes, Patrick D.; Billett, Amy L.; Leong, Traci; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Scott, R. Michael; Tarbell, Nancy J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In children with chiasmal gliomas, radiation therapy can arrest progressive visual and neurologic impairment. We examined the radiographic response and clinical outcomes after irradiation. Methods and Materials: Forty-two children (median age at diagnosis, 6.6 years) with chiasmal gliomas were managed as follows: 11 asymptomatic patients with neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1) were observed only; 2 patients, less than 3 years old, underwent surgery and chemotherapy to delay irradiation; and 29 patients with progressive disease received radiation with or without prior surgery or chemotherapy. Time to radiographic response, long-term tumor control and late sequelae were reviewed for the 29 irradiated patients. Results: The probability of at least 50% radiographic response at 24 months after irradiation was 18.1% and increased to 38.2% by 48 months and 45.9% by 60 months. By actuarial analysis, the median time for such radiographic response was 62 months. For the 29 irradiated patients, the 10-year freedom from progression and overall survival rates were 100% and 89%, respectively (median follow-up for surviving patients, 108 months). Stabilization or improvement in vision occurred in 81% of 26 evaluable irradiated patients. Conclusions: Notable radiographic response may be observed years after irradiation. Radiation therapy provides excellent long-term tumor control and vision preservation or improvement in the majority of patients with progressive chiasmal gliomas

  4. The Validation of Macro and Micro Observations of Parent-Child Dynamics Using the Relationship Affect Coding System in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Mun, Chung Jung; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Kim, Hanjoe; Shaw, Daniel S; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N; Peterson, Jenene

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the validity of micro social observations and macro ratings of parent-child interaction in early to middle childhood. Seven hundred and thirty-one families representing multiple ethnic groups were recruited and screened as at risk in the context of Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) Nutritional Supplement service settings. Families were randomly assigned to the Family Checkup (FCU) intervention or the control condition at age 2 and videotaped in structured interactions in the home at ages 2, 3, 4, and 5. Parent-child interaction videotapes were micro-coded using the Relationship Affect Coding System (RACS) that captures the duration of two mutual dyadic states: positive engagement and coercion. Macro ratings of parenting skills were collected after coding the videotapes to assess parent use of positive behavior support and limit setting skills (or lack thereof). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the measurement model of macro ratings of limit setting and positive behavior support was not supported by the data, and thus, were excluded from further analyses. However, there was moderate stability in the families' micro social dynamics across early childhood and it showed significant improvements as a function of random assignment to the FCU. Moreover, parent-child dynamics were predictive of chronic behavior problems as rated by parents in middle childhood, but not emotional problems. We conclude with a discussion of the validity of the RACS and on methodological advantages of micro social coding over the statistical limitations of macro rating observations. Future directions are discussed for observation research in prevention science.

  5. Long-term effects of prenatal diagnostic x-rays on childhood physical and intellectual development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumei Hu; Jiaxiang Yao

    1994-01-01

    A long-term follow-up study has been conducted on the physical and intellectual development of 1026 children exposed in utero to diagnostic x-rays and of 1191 non-exposed controls in Beijing, Shanghai and Changchun. The fetal absorbed doses ranged from 11.75 to 42.70 mGy. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups in body height, weight and head circumference compared by standard deviations of individual measured parameters from local normal means. The mean score of an intelligence test in the exposed group was slightly lower than that in the control group with a statistically significant difference. However, the residual radiation effects on IQ were no longer significant on the Hotelling T 2 -test and Student's t-test when confounding factors were identified and taken into account by backward stepwise regression analyses. (author)

  6. Posterior cortex epilepsy surgery in childhood and adolescence: Predictors of long-term seizure outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramantani, Georgia; Stathi, Angeliki; Brandt, Armin; Strobl, Karl; Schubert-Bast, Susanne; Wiegand, Gert; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; van Velthoven, Vera; Zentner, Josef; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Bast, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the long-term seizure outcome of children and adolescents who were undergoing epilepsy surgery in the parietooccipital cortex and determine their predictive factors. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 50 consecutive patients aged 11.1 (mean) ± 5.1 (standard deviation) years at surgery. All patients but one had a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible lesion. Resections were parietal in 40%, occipital in 32%, and parietooccipital in 28% cases; 24% patients additionally underwent a resection of the posterior border of the temporal lobe. Etiology included focal cortical dysplasia in 44%, benign tumors (dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, ganglioglioma, angiocentric glioma, and pilocystic astrocytoma) in 32%, peri- or postnatal ischemic lesions in 16%, and tuberous sclerosis in 8% cases. At last follow-up (mean 8 years, range 1.5-18 years), 60% patients remained seizure-free (Engel class I): 30% had discontinued and 20% had reduced antiepileptic drugs. Most seizure recurrences (71%) occurred within the first 6 months, and only three patients presented with seizures ≥2 years after surgery. Independent predictors of seizure recurrence included left-sided as well as parietal epileptogenic zones and resections. Longer epilepsy duration to surgery was identified as the only modifiable independent predictor of seizure recurrence. Our study demonstrates that posterior cortex epilepsy surgery is highly effective in terms of lasting seizure control and antiepileptic drug cessation in selected pediatric candidates. Most importantly, our data supports the early consideration of surgical intervention in children and adolescents with refractory posterior cortex epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. Evaluation of essential trace elements in preterm and full term milk and childhood formulas by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Paola de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have emphasized the need of trace elements during infancy and their adequate availability in human milk. Deficiency of minor and trace elements can lead to various disorders in infants. During early childhood trace element requirements, are more critical due to faster growth rates. In this study, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in human colostrum samples from mothers of preterm and full-term newborns. Samples were collected by manual expression from the first to the fifth day after birth. After collection, human colostrum samples were frozen and freeze-dried for analyses. Few of the most commonly commercialized were also analyzed. The essential element concentrations were determined in 30 colostrum samples and 17 milk formula brands by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Multivariate analyses were applied and the results were separated in two clusters. However the separation was not related to the corresponding gestational age. Results of this study showed that the concentration levels of the essential element Ca, K and Na in the milk formula samples analyzed were in agreement with the printed information on the labels. All concentration levels were also within ANVISA and Codex Allimentarius recommended values and thus adequate for infant nutritional needs. (author)

  8. Radiation dose and long term risk of cardiac pathology following radiotherapy and anthracyclin for a childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guldner, Laurence; Haddy, Nadia; Pein, Francois; Diallo, Ibrahima; Shamsaldin, Akthar; Dahan, Michel; Lebidois, Jerome; Merlet, Pascal; Villain, Elisabeth; Sidi, Daniel; Sakiroglu, Olivia; Hartmann, Olivier; Leftakopoulos, Dimitri; Vathaire, Florent de

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the cardiac status in children 15 years (yrs) or more after a solid tumour treatment. Patients and Methods: Of the 447 patients, 229 were fully studied and 218 were not. The following cardiac evaluation was proposed to all the 447 consecutive patients: (1) cardiac Doppler US by one of two expert cardiologists; (2) cardiac rhythm and conduction abnormalities including 24-h holter ECG; (3) 131 I-mIBG myocardial scintigraphy; (4) serum brain natriuretic peptide levels at rest; (5) an exercise test with VO 2 max measurement. The radiation dose delivered to 7 points in the heart was estimated for all patients who had received radiotherapy. Results: Cardiac disorder was diagnosed in 89 evaluated patients (39%) including 24 heart failures and 65 other asymptomatic cardiac diseases. When adjusting on potential confounders, cardiac disorder and cardiac failure risks were respectively linear (ERR at 1 Gy: 26%) and linear-quadratic (ERR at 1 Gy: 19%) functions of the average radiation dose received to the heart. No interaction between cumulative dose of adriamycin and average radiation dose was evidenced for cardiac disorders, but the ERR/Gy of cardiac failure was higher for patients receiving less than 350 mg/m 2 of Adriamycin. Conclusion: Long term heart pathologies are probably one of the major iatrogenic risks encored by patients who survived a childhood cancer. This study strongly emphasizes the need to limit the heart irradiation during radiotherapy, particularly, for patients who also received or were susceptible to later received adriamycin

  9. Calibrating and validating a FE model for long-term behavior of RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Nikola D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the research carried out in finding an optimal finite element (FE model for calculating the long-term behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams. A multi-purpose finite element software DIANA was used. A benchmark test in the form of a simply supported beam loaded in four point bending was selected for model calibration. The result was the choice of 3-node beam elements, a multi-directional fixed crack model with constant stress cut-off, nonlinear tension softening and constant shear retention and a creep and shrinkage model according to CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. The model was then validated on 14 simply supported beams and 6 continuous beams. Good agreement was found with experimental results (within ±15%.

  10. Predictive Validity of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale for Short-Term Suicidal Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2017-01-01

    adolescents (90.6% females) who participated at follow-up (85.9%) out of the 99 (49.7%) baseline respondents. All adolescents were recruited from a specialized suicide-prevention clinic in Denmark. Through multivariate logistic regression analyses, we examined whether baseline suicidal behavior predicted......Using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), we examined the predictive and incremental predictive validity of past-month suicidal behavior and ideation for short-term suicidal behavior among adolescents at high risk of suicide. The study was conducted in 2014 on a sample of 85...... subsequent suicidal behavior (actual attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, including preparatory acts, aborted, interrupted and actual attempts; mean follow-up of 80.8 days, SD = 52.4). Furthermore, we examined whether suicidal ideation severity and intensity incrementally predicted suicidal behavior...

  11. Validation of short term recall of mobile phone use for the Interphone study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, M; Cardis, E; Armstrong, B K

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To validate short term recall of mobile phone use within Interphone, an international collaborative case control study of tumours of the brain, acoustic nerve, and salivary glands related to mobile telephone use. METHODS: Mobile phone use of 672 volunteers in 11 countries was recorded...... with moderate systematic error and substantial random error. This large random error can be expected to reduce the power of the Interphone study to detect an increase in risk of brain, acoustic nerve, and parotid gland tumours with increasing mobile phone use, if one exists....... by operators or through the use of software modified phones, and compared to use recalled six months later using the Interphone study questionnaire. Agreement between recalled and actual phone use was analysed using both categorical and continuous measures of number and duration of phone calls. RESULTS...

  12. Study of archaeological analogs for the validation of nuclear glass long-term behavior models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verney-Carron, A.

    2008-10-01

    Fractured archaeological glass blocks collected from a shipwreck discovered in the Mediterranean Sea near Embiez Island (Var) were investigated because of their morphological analogy with vitrified nuclear waste and of a known and stable environment. These glasses are fractured due to a fast cooling after they were melted (like nuclear glass) and have been altered for 1800 years in seawater. This work results in the development and the validation of a geochemical model able to simulate the alteration of a fractured archaeological glass block over 1800 years. The kinetics associated with the different mechanisms (interdiffusion and dissolution) and the thermodynamic parameters of the model were determined by leaching experiments. The model implemented in HYTEC software was used to simulate crack alteration over 1800 years. The consistency between simulated alteration thicknesses and measured data on glass blocks validate the capacity of the model to predict long-term alteration. This model is able to account for the results from the characterization of crack network and its state of alteration. The cracks in the border zone are the most altered due to a fast renewal of the leaching solution, whereas internal cracks are thin because of complex interactions between glass alteration and transport of elements in solution (influence of initial crack aperture and of the crack sealing). The lowest alteration thicknesses, as well as their variability, can be explained. The analog behavior of archaeological and nuclear glasses from leaching experiments makes possible the transposition of the model to nuclear glass in geological repository. (author)

  13. Temporal lobe surgery in childhood and neuroanatomical predictors of long-term declarative memory outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirrow, Caroline; Cross, J. Helen; Harrison, Sue; Cormack, Francesca; Harkness, William; Coleman, Rosie; Meierotto, Ellen; Gaiottino, Johanna; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-01-01

    The temporal lobes play a prominent role in declarative memory function, including episodic memory (memory for events) and semantic memory (memory for facts and concepts). Surgical resection for medication-resistant and well-localized temporal lobe epilepsy has good prognosis for seizure freedom, but is linked to memory difficulties in adults, especially when the removal is on the left side. Children may benefit most from surgery, because brain plasticity may facilitate post-surgical reorganization, and seizure cessation may promote cognitive development. However, the long-term impact of this intervention in children is not known. We examined memory function in 53 children (25 males, 28 females) who were evaluated for epilepsy surgery: 42 underwent unilateral temporal lobe resections (25 left, 17 right, mean age at surgery 13.8 years), 11 were treated only pharmacologically. Average follow-up was 9 years (range 5–15). Post-surgical change in visual and verbal episodic memory, and semantic memory at follow-up were examined. Pre- and post-surgical T1-weighted MRI brain scans were analysed to extract hippocampal and resection volumes, and evaluate post-surgical temporal lobe integrity. Language lateralization indices were derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging. There were no significant pre- to postoperative decrements in memory associated with surgery. In contrast, gains in verbal episodic memory were seen after right temporal lobe surgery, and visual episodic memory improved after left temporal lobe surgery, indicating a functional release in the unoperated temporal lobe after seizure reduction or cessation. Pre- to post-surgical change in memory function was not associated with any indices of brain structure derived from MRI. However, better verbal memory at follow-up was linked to greater post-surgical residual hippocampal volumes, most robustly in left surgical participants. Better semantic memory at follow-up was associated with smaller resection

  14. Risk-adapted, long-term management in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hermann L

    2017-04-01

    This report is a review of findings on the diagnosis, treatment, clinical course, follow-up, and prognosis of craniopharyngioma patients with special regard to clinical trials and long-term management. Literature search on Pubmed for paper published after 1994. Craniopharyngiomas are rare, embryonic malformations of the sellar/parasellar region with low histological grade. Clinical manifestations are related to increased intracranial pressure, visual impairment, and hypothalamic/pituitary deficiencies. If the tumor is favorably localized, therapy of choice is complete resection, with care taken to preserve hypothalamic and optic functions. In patients with unfavorable tumor location (i.e. involvement of hypothalamic areas), recommended therapy is limited hypothalamus-sparing surgical strategy followed by irradiation. Irradiation has proven effective in treatment of recurrences and progression. Surgical lesions and/or anatomical involvement of posterior hypothalamic areas can result in serious sequelae, mainly hypothalamic syndrome. It is crucial that craniopharyngioma be managed as a frequently chronic disease, providing ongoing care of pediatric and adult patients' by experienced multidisciplinary teams in the context of multicenter trials.

  15. Long-term Results of Ventral Penile Curvature Repair in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Dor; Sivan, Bezalel; Livne, Pinhas M; Nevo, Amihay; Ben-Meir, David

    2018-02-01

    To assess the postpubertal outcome of ventral penile curvature repaired in infancy in terms of recurrence and aesthetics. Postpubertal patients treated for hypospadias and ventral penile curvature in infancy at a tertiary medical center were invited to undergo assessment of the quality of the repair. Findings were compared between patients with a straight penis after skin release and patients who required dorsal plication. The cohort included 27 patients of mean age 16.5 years who were reported with straight penis after surgery. Postpubertal curvature was found in 6 of 14 patients (43%) successfully treated by skin release and 10 of 13 patients (77%) who underwent dorsal plication (P = .087). Significant curvature (≥30 degrees) was found in 1 of 14 patients in the skin-release group and 4 of 13 in the dorsal plication group (P = .16). Rates of redo urethroplasty were 2 of 14 (14%) and 5 of 10 (50%), respectively. Patient satisfaction with the appearance of the penis did not differ significantly. Ventral penile curvature repaired in infancy often recurs after puberty. The need for dorsal plication has a trend-level association with recurrence of penile curvature in puberty. It might also be related to the degree of postpubertal penile curvature and the need for redo urethroplasty. Procedure type does not affect patient satisfaction with the postpubertal appearance of the penis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term neurophysiologic impact of childhood sleep disordered breathing on neurocognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective. To determine the impact of sleep disordered breathing (SDB in children on neurocognitive function 5 years later.Design, Setting, and Participants. A subgroup of 43 children from the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea Study (TuCASA who had SDB (RDI > 6 events/hour at their initial exam (ages 6-11 years were matched on the basis of age (within 1 year, gender and ethnicity (Anglo/Hispanic to 43 children without SDB (Control, RDI < 4 events/hour. The Sustained Working Memory Task (SWMT which combines tests of working memory (1-Back Task, reaction time (Simple Reaction Time and attention (Multiplexing Task with concurrent electroencephalographic monitoring was administered approximately 5 years later.Results. There were no differences in performance on the working memory, reaction time and attention tests between the SDB and Control groups. However, the SDB group exhibited lower P300 evoked potential amplitudes during the Simple Reaction Time and Multiplexing Tasks. Additionally, peak alpha power during the Multiplexing Task was lower in the SDB Group with a similar trend in the Simple Reaction Time Task (p=0.08.Conclusions. SDB in children may cause subtle long-term changes in executive function that are not detectable with conventional neurocognitive testing and are only evident during neuroelectrophysiologic monitoring.

  17. Anthropometry in Long-Term Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Laura; Beaumont, Lesley; Cranston, Amy; Savoie, Stefanie; Nayiager, Trishana; Barr, Ronald

    2017-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is an inadequate measure of nutritional status in children and adolescents with cancer as it does not distinguish muscle from adipose tissue. However, arm anthropometry offers simple assessments of fat mass and lean body mass; especially valuable in low- and middle-income countries where the great majority of young people with cancer live and access to sophisticated expensive measures of body composition is markedly limited. The nutritional status of 75 long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was assessed by arm anthropometry, in addition to BMI, in a cross-sectional cohort study. Normal ranges for triceps skin fold thickness (TSFT, a surrogate for fat mass) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC, a surrogate for lean body mass) were between the 15th and 85th percentiles for age and sex. Overweight/obesity was classified as a TSFT >85th percentile and sarcopenia as an MUAC obesity was identified in 1/3 of subjects by a BMI >25 and by TSFT; and 20% of the subjects had a TSFT >95th percentile. Only two subjects were sarcopenic. None met the combined criteria for sarcopenic obesity. TSFT and MUAC/height indices did not add sensitivity to identification of sarcopenia or obesity. TSFT is a useful measure of overweight/obesity in this population, but MUAC does not identify a notable proportion with sarcopenia. Further resolution may be provided by more sophisticated measures of body composition.

  18. Long-Term Outcomes of Sacrococcygeal Germ Cell Tumors in Infancy and Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangsan Niramis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term outcomes of sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors (SC-GCTs over a 15-year period. Materials and Methods. A retrospective review was conducted of all pediatric patients treated for SC-GCTs at our hospital from 1998 to 2012. Results. Fifty-seven patients were treated for SC-GCTs with the most common in Altman’s classification type I. Age at surgery ranged from one day to 5.6 years. Tumor resection and coccygectomy were primarily performed in about 84% of the cases. Pathology revealed mature, immature, malignant sacrococcygeal teratomas (SCTs, and endodermal sinus tumors (ESTs in 41 (72%, 4 (77%, 6 (10.5%, and 6 (10.5%, respectively. Recurrence of discase occurred in 3 of 41 patients with mature teratomas (7.3%; 2 recurrences with mature teratomas and one recurrence with EST. Five of 6 malignant SCTs and 3 of 6 ESTs responded well to the treatment. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP level was elevated in both malignant teratomas and ESTs. No immediate patient death was noted in any of the 57 cases, but 4 patients with malignant tumors and distant metastasis succumbed at home within 2 years of the initial treatment. Conclusion. Benign SCTs have a significant recurrence rate of approximately 7%. Close follow-up with serial AFP level monitoring should be done for 5 years after initial tumor resection and coccygectomy. The survival rate for malignant SC-GCTs with distant metastasis was unfavorable in the present study.

  19. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, M A; Shield, J P H

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity continues to increase worldwide. Its presence is associated with significant adverse effects on health including an increased propensity to type II diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, and liver disease. In the vast majority of children, obesity is lifestyle-related, yet there is a dearth of evidence on how to best develop effective prevention and treatment strategies. This review outlines the importance of childhood and adolescent growth on long-term health, the definitions used to define obesity in children (along with up-to-date prevalence data), causes and consequences, and aspects of prevention and management.

  20. Verification of the reliability and validity of a Japanese version of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-J).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Eri; Ito, Mikiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo

    2015-11-01

    A Japanese version of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-J) was developed using international guidelines as a QOL scale for childhood epilepsy; its reliability and validity were examined, focusing on Japanese pediatric epilepsy patients applicability. A pilot test questionnaire survey was conducted; involving parents of pediatric epilepsy patients aged 4-15 undergoing outpatient treatment. 278 responses were obtained and analyzed. Internal consistency for the 16 QOLCE-J subscales, except for , was sufficient, and a high overall coefficient α was obtained. The intraclass correlation coefficient was also high, supporting the test-retest reliability of this version. Associations among the subscales, high correlations of r>0.7 were observed among , , and , representing cognitive and behavioral aspects, and among these and . In contrast, correlations among others were moderate or weaker. Furthermore, correlations of r>0.35 were observed among the subscales of the SDQ (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire) used as an external criterion and the QOLCE-J, confirming the criterion validity of the study version. Analysis of associations between the total QOLCE-J score and pathology of epilepsy, found significant correlation with age of onset and frequency of seizures, ADL, and antiepileptics side effects' symptoms. QOLCE has mostly been used in treatment resistant pediatric patients, the influence of interictal period presently observed, like antiepileptic side effects' symptoms; suggest usefulness for pediatric patients with seizures under control. The QOLCE-J with sufficient reliability and validity may be applicable as a QOL scale for Japanese children with epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Validation of a novel device to objectively measure adherence to long-term oxygen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Kai V Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Sun-Kai V Lin1, Daniel K Bogen1, Samuel T Kuna2,31Department of Bioengineering; 2Department of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Division, and Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, USA; 3Department of Medicine, Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USARationale: We have developed a novel oxygen adherence monitor that objectively measures patient use of long-term oxygen therapy. The monitor attaches to the oxygen source and detects whether or not the patient is wearing the nasal cannula.Objective: The study’s purpose was to validate the monitor’s performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during wakefulness and sleep.Methods: Ten adult males with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (mean ± SD FEV1 37.7 ± 14.9% of predicted on long-term continuous oxygen therapy were tested in a sleep laboratory over a 12–13 hour period that included an overnight polysomnogram.Measurements: The monitor’s measurements were obtained at 4-minute intervals and compared to actual oxygen use determined by review of time-synchronized video recordings.Main results: The monitor made 1504/1888 (79.7% correct detections (unprocessed data across all participants: 957/1,118 (85.6% correct detections during wakefulness and 546/770 (70.9% during sleep. All errors were false negatives, ie, the monitor failed to detect that the participant was actually wearing the cannula. Application of a majority-vote filter to the raw data improved overall detection accuracy to 84.9%.Conclusions: The results demonstrate the monitor’s ability to objectively measure whether or not men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are receiving their oxygen treatment. The ability to objectively measure oxygen delivery, rather than oxygen expended, may help improve the management of patients on long-term oxygen therapy.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary

  2. Validity of single term energy expression for ground state rotational band of even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Kumar, R.; Gupta, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: There are large numbers of empirical studies of gs band of even-even nuclei in various mass regions. The Bohr-Mottelson's energy expression is E(I) = AX + BX 2 +CX 3 +... where X = I(I+1). The anharmonic vibrator energy expression is: E(I) = al + bl 2 + cl 3 SF model with energy expression: E(I)= pX + qI + rXI... where the terms represents the rotational, vibrational and R-V interaction energy, respectively. The validity f the various energy expressions with two terms had been tested by Sharma for light, medium and heavy mass regions using R I s. R 4 plots (where, spin I=6, 8, 10, 12), which are parameter independent. It was also noted, that of the goodness of energy expression can be judged with the minimum input of energies (i.e. only 2 parameters) and predictability's of the model p to high spins. Recently, Gupta et. al proposed a single term energy expression (SSTE) which was applied for rare earth region. This proposed power law reflected the unity of rotation - vibration in a different way and was successful in explaining the structure of gs-band. It will be useful for test the single term energy expression for light and heavy mass region. The single term expression for energy of ground state band can be written as: E I =axI b , where the index b and the coefficient a are the constant for the band. The values of b+1 and a 1 are as follows: b 1 =log(R 1 )/log(I/2) and a 1 =E I /I b ... The following results were gained: 1) The sharp variation in the value of index b at given spin will be an indication of the change in the shape of the nucleus; 2) The value of E I /I b is fairly constant with spin below back-bending, which reflects the stability of shape with spin; 3) This proposed power law is successful in explaining the structure of gs-band of nuclei

  3. Childhood and persistent ADHD symptoms associated with educational failure and long-term occupational disability in adult ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksen, Mats; Dahl, Alv A.; Martinsen, Egil W.; Klungsoyr, Ole; Faraone, Stephen V.; Peleikis, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on adult ADHD functional outcomes. To address this issue dimensionally, ADHD symptoms in childhood and adulthood and their relation to educational deficits and work disability are studied in a clinical sample of adult patients with previously untreated ADHD. About 250 adults diagnosed systematically with ADHD according to DSM-IV were prospectively recruited. Primary outcomes were high sc...

  4. Memory deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors may primarily reflect general cognitive dysfunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the impact of potential predictors on memory performance in survivors of childhood brain tumors and to examine whether deficits in memory after radiotherapy (RT) should be considered part of a more global mental dysfunction.......To analyze the impact of potential predictors on memory performance in survivors of childhood brain tumors and to examine whether deficits in memory after radiotherapy (RT) should be considered part of a more global mental dysfunction....

  5. Assessing Empathy across Childhood and Adolescence: Validation of the Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EmQue-CA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandy Overgaauw; Sandy Overgaauw; Carolien Rieffe; Evelien Broekhof; Eveline A. Crone; Eveline A. Crone; Berna Güroğlu; Berna Güroğlu

    2017-01-01

    Empathy plays a crucial role in healthy social functioning and in maintaining positive social relationships. In this study, 1250 children and adolescents (10–15 year olds) completed the newly developed Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EmQue-CA) that was tested on reliability, construct validity, convergent validity, and concurrent validity. The EmQue-CA aims to assess empathy using the following scales: affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and intention to comfort. A Princ...

  6. Impact of sleep, fatigue, and systemic inflammation on neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Ting; Brinkman, Tara M; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Mzayek, Yasmin; Liu, Wei; Banerjee, Pia; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Srivastava, Deokumar; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Krull, Kevin R

    2017-09-01

    Long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at risk for neurocognitive impairment, which may be associated with fatigue, sleep problems, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. We examined these associations among survivors of childhood ALL treated with chemotherapy only. Survivors of childhood ALL (male, n = 35 and female, n = 35; mean age, 14.3 years [standard deviation, 4.7 years] and mean years from diagnosis, 7.4 years [standard deviation, 1.9 years]) completed neurocognitive testing, behavioral ratings, and reported sleep quality and fatigue symptoms 5 years after diagnosis. Serum was collected concurrently and assayed for interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein. General linear modeling was used to assess associations among biomarkers and functional outcomes, adjusting for age and stratified by sex. Survivors performed worse than population norms on executive function and processing speed and reported more behavioral problems (P fatigue was associated with poor executive function (r = 0.41; P = .02), processing speed (r = 0.56; P fatigue measures were observed. Neurocognitive function in female survivors of childhood ALL appears more susceptible to the effects of sleep disturbance and fatigue. Systemic inflammation may play a role in neurocognitive impairment and behavioral symptoms. Cancer 2017;123:3410-9. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. Long-Term Outcomes of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Diagnosed During Childhood: Results from a National Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peta M A; Nugent, Alan W; Daubeney, Piers E F; Lee, Katherine J; Sleeper, Lynn A; Schuster, Tibor; Turner, Christian; Davis, Andrew M; Semsarian, Chris; Colan, Steven D; Robertson, Terry; Ramsay, James; Justo, Robert; Sholler, Gary F; King, Ingrid; Weintraub, Robert G

    2018-02-28

    Background -Late survival and symptomatic status of children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have not been well defined. We examined long-term outcomes for pediatric HCM. Methods -The National Australian Childhood Cardiomyopathy Study is a longitudinal population-based cohort study of children (0-10 years) diagnosed with cardiomyopathy between 1987 and 1996. The primary study end-point was time to death or cardiac transplantation. Results -There were 80 patients with HCM with median age at diagnosis of 0.48 (Inter-quartile range [IQR] 0.1, 2.5) years. Freedom from death/transplantation (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 86 (77-92)% one year after presentation, 80 (69-87)% at 10 years and 78 (67-86)% at 20 years. From multivariable analyses, risk factors for death/transplantation included symmetric left ventricular hypertrophy at the time of diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] 4.20 95%CI 1.60, 11.05 p=0.004), Noonan syndrome (HR 2.88, 95%CI 1.02, 8.08, p=0.045), higher posterior wall thickness z-score (HR 1.45, 95%CI 1.22, 1.73, p<0.001) and lower fractional shortening z-score (HR 0.84, 95%CI 0.74, 0.95, p=0.005) during follow-up. Nineteen (23%) subjects underwent left ventricular myectomy. At median 15.7 years' follow-up, 27 (42%) of 63 survivors were treated with beta-blocker and 13 (21%) had an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Conclusions -The highest risk of death or transplantation for children with HCM is within one year post-diagnosis, with low attrition rates thereafter. Many subjects receive medical, surgical or device therapy.

  8. Falls in long-term care institutions for elderly people: protocol validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixinho, Cristina Rosa Soares Lavareda; Dixe, Maria Dos Anjos Coelho Rodrigues; Henriques, Maria Adriana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    To validate the content of a fall management risk protocol in long-term institutions for elderly people. Methodological, quanti-qualitative study using the Delphi technique. The tool, based on the literature, was sent electronically to obtain consensus among the 14 experts that meet the defined inclusion criteria. The 27 indicators of the protocol are organized in three dimensions: prepare for the institutionalization (IRA=.88); manage the risk of falls throughout the institutionalization (IRA=.9); and lead the communication and formation (IRA=1), with a CVI=.91. Two rounds were performed to get a consensus superior to 80% in every item. The values obtained in the reliability test (>0.8) show that the protocol can be used to meet the intended goal. The next step is the clinic validation of the protocol with residents of long-term care institutions for elderly people. Validar o conteúdo de um protocolo para a gestão do risco de queda em Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos. Estudo metodológico, de abordagem quantiqualitativa, utilizando a técnica de Delphi. O instrumento, construído com base na literatura, foi enviado por via electrónica, para obter consenso entre os 14 peritos que respeitam os critérios de inclusão definidos. Os 27 indicadores do protocolo estão organizados em três dimensões: Preparar a Institucionalização (IRA=,88); Gerir o Risco de Queda ao longo da Institucionalização (IRA=,9) e Liderar a comunicação e formação (IRA=1), com um CVI=,91. Foram efetuadas duas rodadas para se obter consenso superior a 80% em todos os itens. Os valores obtidos no teste de fidedignidade (>0,8) atestam que o protocolo pode ser utilizado para atingir o fim que se pretende. A próxima etapa é a validação clínica do protocolo com idosos residentes em Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos.

  9. Long-Term Prognostic Validity of Talent Selections: Comparing National and Regional Coaches, Laypersons and Novices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorer, Jörg; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Fischer, Lennart; Baker, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In most sports, the development of elite athletes is a long-term process of talent identification and support. Typically, talent selection systems administer a multi-faceted strategy including national coach observations and varying physical and psychological tests when deciding who is chosen for talent development. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the prognostic validity of talent selections by varying groups 10 years after they had been conducted. This study used a unique, multi-phased approach. Phase 1 involved players (n = 68) in 2001 completing a battery of general and sport-specific tests of handball ‘talent’ and performance. In Phase 2, national and regional coaches (n = 7) in 2001 who attended training camps identified the most talented players. In Phase 3, current novice and advanced handball players (n = 12 in each group) selected the most talented from short videos of matches played during the talent camp. Analyses compared predictions among all groups with a best model-fit derived from the motor tests. Results revealed little difference between regional and national coaches in the prediction of future performance and little difference in forecasting performance between novices and players. The best model-fit regression by the motor-tests outperformed all predictions. While several limitations are discussed, this study is a useful starting point for future investigations considering athlete selection decisions in talent identification in sport. PMID:28744238

  10. Long-Term Prognostic Validity of Talent Selections: Comparing National and Regional Coaches, Laypersons and Novices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schorer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In most sports, the development of elite athletes is a long-term process of talent identification and support. Typically, talent selection systems administer a multi-faceted strategy including national coach observations and varying physical and psychological tests when deciding who is chosen for talent development. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the prognostic validity of talent selections by varying groups 10 years after they had been conducted. This study used a unique, multi-phased approach. Phase 1 involved players (n = 68 in 2001 completing a battery of general and sport-specific tests of handball ‘talent’ and performance. In Phase 2, national and regional coaches (n = 7 in 2001 who attended training camps identified the most talented players. In Phase 3, current novice and advanced handball players (n = 12 in each group selected the most talented from short videos of matches played during the talent camp. Analyses compared predictions among all groups with a best model-fit derived from the motor tests. Results revealed little difference between regional and national coaches in the prediction of future performance and little difference in forecasting performance between novices and players. The best model-fit regression by the motor-tests outperformed all predictions. While several limitations are discussed, this study is a useful starting point for future investigations considering athlete selection decisions in talent identification in sport.

  11. Long-Term Prognostic Validity of Talent Selections: Comparing National and Regional Coaches, Laypersons and Novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorer, Jörg; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Fischer, Lennart; Baker, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In most sports, the development of elite athletes is a long-term process of talent identification and support. Typically, talent selection systems administer a multi-faceted strategy including national coach observations and varying physical and psychological tests when deciding who is chosen for talent development. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the prognostic validity of talent selections by varying groups 10 years after they had been conducted. This study used a unique, multi-phased approach. Phase 1 involved players ( n = 68) in 2001 completing a battery of general and sport-specific tests of handball 'talent' and performance. In Phase 2, national and regional coaches ( n = 7) in 2001 who attended training camps identified the most talented players. In Phase 3, current novice and advanced handball players ( n = 12 in each group) selected the most talented from short videos of matches played during the talent camp. Analyses compared predictions among all groups with a best model-fit derived from the motor tests. Results revealed little difference between regional and national coaches in the prediction of future performance and little difference in forecasting performance between novices and players. The best model-fit regression by the motor-tests outperformed all predictions. While several limitations are discussed, this study is a useful starting point for future investigations considering athlete selection decisions in talent identification in sport.

  12. Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-tensor MR imaging of the brain in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, L; Preibisch, C; Hattingen, E; Bartels, M; Lehrnbecher, T; Dewitz, R; Zanella, F; Good, C; Lanfermann, H; DuMesnil, R; Kieslich, M

    2008-11-01

    The aims of this study were to detect morphological changes in neuroanatomical components in adult survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) can be used to detect subtle structural changes in brain morphology and via analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA), diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) can non-invasively probe white matter (WM) integrity. We used VBM and DTI to examine 20 long-term survivors of ALL and 21 healthy matched controls. Ten ALL survivors received chemotherapy and irradiation; ten survivors received chemotherapy alone during childhood. Imaging was performed on a 3.0-T MRI. For VBM, group comparisons of segmented T1-weighted grey matter (GM) and WM images from controls and ALL survivors were performed separately for patients who received chemotherapy alone and who received chemotherapy and irradiation. For DTI, FA in WM was compared for the same groups. Survivors of childhood ALL who underwent cranial irradiation during childhood had smaller WM volumes and reduced GM concentration within the caudate nucleus and thalamus. The FA in WM was reduced in adult survivors of ALL but the effect was more severe after combined treatment with irradiation and chemotherapy. Our results indicate that DTI and VBM can reveal persistent long-term WM and caudate changes in children after ALL treatment, even without T2 changes in conventional imaging.

  13. Long-term impact of childhood malaria infection on school performance among school children in a malaria endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorasan, Nutchavadee; Pan-Ngum, Wirichada; Jittamala, Podjanee; Maneeboonyang, Wanchai; Rukmanee, Prasert; Lawpoolsri, Saranath

    2015-10-09

    Children represent a high-risk group for malaria worldwide. Among people in Thailand who have malaria during childhood, some may have multiple malaria attacks during their lifetime. Malaria may affect neurological cognition in children, resulting in short-term impairment of memory and language functions. However, little is known regarding the long-term effects of malaria infection on cognitive function. This study examines the long-term impact of malaria infection on school performance among school children living in a malaria-endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among school children aged 6-17 years in a primary-secondary school of a sub-district of Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. History of childhood malaria infection was obtained from the medical records of the sole malaria clinic in the area. School performance was assessed by using scores for the subjects Thai Language and Mathematics in 2014. Other variables, such as demographic characteristics, perinatal history, nutritional status, and emotional intelligence, were also documented. A total of 457 students were included, 135 (30 %) of whom had a history of uncomplicated malaria infection. About half of the malaria-infected children had suffered infection before the age of four years. The mean scores for both Mathematics and Thai Language decreased in relation to the increasing number of malaria attacks. Most students had their last malaria episode more than two years previously. The mean scores were not associated with duration since the last malaria attack. The association between malaria infection and school performance was not significant after adjusting for potential confounders, including gender, school absenteeism over a semester term, and emotional intelligence. This study characterizes the long-term consequences of uncomplicated malaria disease during childhood. School performance was not associated with a history of malaria infection, considering that

  14. Experiences with late effects-related care and preferences for long-term follow-up care among adult survivors of childhood lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Hanne C; Mellblom, Anneli V; Brekke, Mette; Finset, Arnstein; Fosså, Sophie D; Kiserud, Cecilie E; Ruud, Ellen; Loge, Jon H

    2017-08-01

    Given childhood cancer survivors' risk of treatment-induced late effects, long-term follow-up care is recommended. We explored experiences with late effects-related care and preferences for long-term follow-up care among adult survivors of childhood malignant lymphoma in Norway. We conducted five focus group interviews with 34 survivors (19 females; 21 Hodgkin/13 non-Hodgkin lymphoma survivors; mean age 39 years; mean time from diagnosis 26 years). Data was analyzed using principles of thematic analysis. Two main themes were identified: (1) the survivors' experiences with late effects-related care and (2) their preferences for long-term follow-up care. Most of the survivors were dissatisfied with their late effects-related care due to perceptions of poor coordination of healthcare needs in a fragmented system, combined with a perceived lack of knowledge of late effects among themselves and general practitioners (GPs). All survivors valued long-term follow-up care. Oncologists were the preferred care providers, but GPs were considered acceptable providers if they had sufficient knowledge of late effects and routine examinations, short waiting times, and improved GP-oncologist collaboration. Our results suggest that a shared care model of long-term follow-up care involving specialists, GPs, and the survivors themselves is likely to fulfill several of the currently unmet needs among adult survivors of childhood cancers. Improved patient education about late effects and follow-up care would aid self-management. The survivors' concerns regarding lack of sufficient knowledge of late effects among GPs suggest a need for improving access to, and dissemination of, information of late effects.

  15. Assessing Empathy across Childhood and Adolescence: Validation of the Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EmQue-CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Overgaauw

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Empathy plays a crucial role in healthy social functioning and in maintaining positive social relationships. In this study, 1250 children and adolescents (10–15 year olds completed the newly developed Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EmQue-CA that was tested on reliability, construct validity, convergent validity, and concurrent validity. The EmQue-CA aims to assess empathy using the following scales: affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and intention to comfort. A Principal Components Analysis, which was directly tested with a Confirmatory Factor Analysis, confirmed the proposed three-factor model resulting in 14 final items. Reliability analyses demonstrated high internal consistency of the scales. Furthermore, the scales showed high convergent validity, as they were positively correlated with related scales of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1983. With regard to concurrent validity, higher empathy was related to more attention to others’ emotions, higher friendship quality, less focus on own affective state, and lower levels of bullying behavior. Taken together, we show that the EmQue-CA is a reliable and valid instrument to measure empathy in typically developing children and adolescents aged 10 and older.

  16. Validation and clinical significance of the Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale for assessment of muscle function in the juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Adam M; Feldman, Brian M; Rennebohm, Robert M; Hicks, Jeanne E; Lindsley, Carol B; Perez, Maria D; Zemel, Lawrence S; Wallace, Carol A; Ballinger, Susan H; Passo, Murray H; Reed, Ann M; Summers, Ronald M; White, Patience H; Katona, Ildy M; Miller, Frederick W; Lachenbruch, Peter A; Rider, Lisa G

    2004-05-01

    To examine the measurement characteristics of the Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale (CMAS) in children with juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (juvenile IIM), and to obtain preliminary data on the clinical significance of CMAS scores. One hundred eight children with juvenile IIM were evaluated on 2 occasions, 7-9 months apart, using various measures of physical function, strength, and disease activity. Interrater reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of the CMAS were examined. The minimum clinically important difference (MID) and CMAS scores corresponding to various degrees of physical disability were estimated. The intraclass correlation coefficient for 26 patients assessed by 2 examiners was 0.89, indicating very good interrater reliability. The CMAS score correlated highly with the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (C-HAQ) score and with findings on manual muscle testing (MMT) (r(s) = -0.73 and 0.73, respectively) and moderately with physician-assessed global disease activity and skin activity, parent-assessed global disease severity, and muscle magnetic resonance imaging (r(s) = -0.44 to -0.61), thereby demonstrating good construct validity. The standardized response mean was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.53, 1.09) in patients with at least 0.8 cm improvement on a 10-cm visual analog scale for physician-assessed global disease activity, indicating strong responsiveness. In bivariate regression models predicting physician-assessed global disease activity, MMT remained significant in models containing the CMAS (P = 0.03) while the C-HAQ did not (P = 0.4). Estimates of the MID ranged from 1.5 to 3.0 points on a 0-52-point scale. CMAS scores corresponding to no, mild, mild-to-moderate, and moderate physical disability, respectively, were 48, 45, 39, and 30. The CMAS exhibits good reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness, and is therefore a valid instrument for the assessment of physical function, muscle strength, and

  17. Long-term inpatient disease burden in the Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS study: A cohort study of 21,297 childhood cancer survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie de Fine Licht

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for a wide range of late effects. However, no large population-based studies have included the whole range of somatic diagnoses including subgroup diagnoses and all main types of childhood cancers. Therefore, we aimed to provide the most detailed overview of the long-term risk of hospitalisation in survivors of childhood cancer.From the national cancer registers of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden, we identified 21,297 5-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed with cancer before the age of 20 years in the periods 1943-2008 in Denmark, 1971-2008 in Finland, 1955-2008 in Iceland, and 1958-2008 in Sweden. We randomly selected 152,231 population comparison individuals matched by age, sex, year, and country (or municipality in Sweden from the national population registers. Using a cohort design, study participants were followed in the national hospital registers in Denmark, 1977-2010; Finland, 1975-2012; Iceland, 1999-2008; and Sweden, 1968-2009. Disease-specific hospitalisation rates in survivors and comparison individuals were used to calculate survivors' standardised hospitalisation rate ratios (RRs, absolute excess risks (AERs, and standardised bed day ratios (SBDRs based on length of stay in hospital. We adjusted for sex, age, and year by indirect standardisation. During 336,554 person-years of follow-up (mean: 16 years; range: 0-42 years, childhood cancer survivors experienced 21,325 first hospitalisations for diseases in one or more of 120 disease categories (cancer recurrence not included, when 10,999 were expected, yielding an overall RR of 1.94 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.91-1.97. The AER was 3,068 (2,980-3,156 per 100,000 person-years, meaning that for each additional year of follow-up, an average of 3 of 100 survivors were hospitalised for a new excess disease beyond the background rates. Approximately 50% of the excess hospitalisations were for diseases of the nervous

  18. Validity of exploration for suitable vessels for replantation in the distal fingertip amputation in early childhood: replantation or composite graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Atsushi; Ishida, Kunihiro; Arashiro, Ken; Nishizeki, Osamu

    2013-09-01

    Composite grafting, grafting without microvascular anastomoses, has been widely performed for distal fingertip amputation in children with variable results, whereas successful replantation of these amputations using microsurgical technique has been reported. However, most of these reports included a wide age-range and a mix of different amputation levels. This study reviewed our cases of paediatric digital amputation, in order to verify the value of distal fingertip replantation over composite grafting, especially in early childhood. Seventeen young children (aged 3 years and 8 months on average), with single-digit fingertip amputations in Tamai zone I were reviewed from 1993-2008. Each amputation was subdivided into three types: distal, middle, and proximal. There were three distal, 13 middle, and one proximal type zone I amputations. All were crush or avulsion injuries. All three distal-type cases were reattached as primary composite grafts with one success. For middle-type cases, the survival rate of primary composite graft without exploration for possible vessels for anastomosis was 57%. On exploration, suitable vessels for anastomosis were found 50% of the time, in which all replantations were succeeded. The remaining cases were reattached as secondary composite grafts, with one success using the pocket method. Consequently, the success rate after exploration was 67%. The only one proximal-type amputation was failed in replantation. For the middle-type zone I amputation in early childhood, replantation has a high success rate if suitable vessels can be found. Therefore, exploration is recommended for amputations at this level with a view to replantation, irrespective of the mechanism of injury.

  19. A long-term validation of the modernised DC-ARC-OES solid-sample method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórián, K; Hassler, J; Förster, O

    2001-12-01

    The validation procedure based on ISO 17025 standard has been used to study and illustrate both the longterm stability of the calibration process of the DC-ARC solid sample spectrometric method and the main validation criteria of the method. In the calculation of the validation characteristics depending on the linearity(calibration), also the fulfilment of predetermining criteria such as normality and homoscedasticity was checked. In order to decide whether there are any trends in the time-variation of the analytical signal or not, also the Neumann test of trend was applied and evaluated. Finally, a comparison with similar validation data of the ETV-ICP-OES method was carried out.

  20. Validations of the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS Validação da versão brasileira do Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Martins-Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS. A total of 247 children aged 2 to 5 years and their parents/guardians participated in this study. A clinical oral examination was performed and the parents/guardians completed the ECOHIS questionnaire. Within a period of four-weeks, 20% of the participants repeated the ECOHIS questionnaire. Construct validity was determined using Spearman's rank correlation. Discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were also evaluated. The children were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (with dental caries and group 2 (caries-free. Children with caries showed higher mean ECOHIS scores than the caries-free children. The child impact section (p O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as propriedades psicométricas da versão brasileira do Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS. Duzentas e quarenta e sete crianças de 2 a 5 anos e seus pais/cuidadores foram convidados a participar. Foi realizado exame clínico bucal e os pais completaram o ECOHIS. Após quatro semanas, 20% dos participantes responderam ao ECOHIS pela segunda vez. A validade de construto foi determinada através da correlação de Spearman. A validade discriminante, consistência interna e confiabilidade teste-reteste foram avaliadas. As crianças foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo 1 (com cárie e grupo 2 (sem cárie. As crianças com cárie tinham maiores escores médios do ECOHIS do que as crianças sem cárie. Os domínios impacto na criança (p < 0,01, impacto na família (p < 0,01 e escores totais ECOHIS (p < 0,01 foram significativamente correlacionados com dentes cariados. Coeficientes alfa de Cronbach demonstraram consistência interna satisfatória. A versão brasileira do ECOHIS é apropriada para a avaliação da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal em crianças pré-escolares de pais cuja língua prim

  1. Can individual conditions during childhood mediate or moderate the long-term cognitive effects of poor economic environments at birth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritze, T.; Doblhammer, G.; van den Berg, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses revealed that the business cycle at the time of birth influences cognitive functioning at older ages, and that those individuals born during economic boom periods on average display better cognitive functioning later in life. The current study examines the impact of childhood

  2. Body issues, sexual satisfaction, and relationship status satisfaction in long-term childhood cancer survivors and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Fults, Marci; Olshefski, Randal S.; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    ObjectiveResearch on body image and sexual satisfaction after adult onset cancer has shown significant and lasting impairments regarding survivors' sexuality and romantic relationships. However, knowledge about these topics and their associations in adult survivors of childhood cancer is largely

  3. Vitamin D and bone minerals status in the long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Reisi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: ALL treatment is associated with the increase in prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in the childhood ALL survivors and since the low vitamin D level potentially increases the risk of low bone density, subsequent malignancies, and cardiovascular disease in the survivors, close follow-up of such patients are highly recommended to prevent the stated complications.

  4. Overcoming the Odds: Long-term psychosocial outcomes in survivors of meningococcal septic shock in childhood, and in their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C.A.C. Vermunt (Lindy)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSeptic shock, caused by Neisseria meningitidis with petechiae and/or purpura, also called Meningococcal Septic Shock (MSS), is the most serious form of meningococcal infection in early childhood. MSS is a life-threatening illness in mostly previously healthy children, with an unexpected

  5. Long-Term Immunogenicity of Hepatitis A Virus Vaccine in Alaska 17 Years After Initial Childhood Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczniak, Gregory A.; Bulkow, Lisa R.; Bruce, Michael G.; Zanis, Carolyn L.; Baum, Richard L.; Snowball, Mary M.; Byrd, Kathy K.; Sharapov, Umid M.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; McMahon, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination for all children at age 1 year and for high-risk adults. The vaccine is highly effective; however, protection duration is unknown. We report HAV antibody concentrations 17 years after childhood immunization, demonstrating that protective antibody levels remain and have stabilized over the past 7 years. PMID:23204169

  6. Childhood obesity case statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Paul W; Caskey, Paul; Heaton, Lisa E; Otsuka, Norman

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this publication is to raise awareness of the impact of childhood obesity on the musculoskeletal health of children and its potential long-term implications. Relevant articles dealing with musculoskeletal disorders either caused by or worsened by childhood obesity were reviewed through a Pub Med search. Efforts to recognize and combat the childhood obesity epidemic were also identified through Internet search engines. This case statement was then reviewed by the members of the pediatric specialty group of the US Bone and Joint Initiative, which represents an extensive number of organizations dealing with musculoskeletal health. Multiple musculoskeletal disorders are clearly caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. The review of the literature clearly demonstrates the increased frequency and severity of many childhood musculoskeletal disorders. Concerns about the long-term implications of these childhood onset disorders such as pain and degenerative changes into adulthood are clearly recognized by all the member organizations of the US Bone and Joint Initiative. It is imperative to recognize the long-term implications of musculoskeletal disorders caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. It is also important to recognize that the ability to exercise comfortably is a key factor to developing a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a healthy body weight. Efforts to develop reasonable and acceptable programs to increase physical activity by all facets of society should be supported. Further research into the long-term implications of childhood musculoskeletal disorders related to childhood obesity is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn; Twisk, Jos; Bultmann, Ute; Bjorner, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a prediction model for identifying employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), by using variables commonly measured in occupational health surveys. Materials and methods: Based on the literature, 15 predictor

  8. Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Long-term Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Clinical, Neurophysiological, Functional, and Patient-Reported Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Tejaswi; Farrar, Michelle Anne; Cohn, Richard J; Mizrahi, David; Carey, Kate; Johnston, Karen; Kiernan, Matthew C; Krishnan, Arun V; Park, Susanna B

    2018-05-14

    In light of the excellent long-term survival of childhood cancer patients, it is imperative to screen for factors affecting health, function, and quality of life in long-term survivors. To comprehensively assess chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in childhood cancer survivors to define disease burden and functional effect and to inform screening recommendations. In this cross-sectional observational study, cancer survivors who were treated with chemotherapy for extracranial malignancy before age 17 years were recruited consecutively between April 2015 and December 2016 from a single tertiary hospital-based comprehensive cancer survivorship clinic and compared with healthy age-matched controls. Investigators were blinded to the type of chemotherapy. A total of 169 patients met inclusion criteria, of whom 48 (28.4%) were unable to be contacted or declined participation. Chemotherapy agents known to be toxic to peripheral nerves. The clinical peripheral neurological assessment using the Total Neuropathy Score was compared between recipients of different neurotoxic chemotherapy agents and control participants and was correlated with neurophysiological, functional, and patient-reported outcome measures. Of the 121 childhood cancer survivors included in this study, 65 (53.7%) were male, and the cohort underwent neurotoxicity assessments at a median (range) age of 16 (7-47) years, a median (range) 8.5 (1.5-29) years after treatment completion. Vinca alkaloids and platinum compounds were the main neurotoxic agents. Clinical abnormalities consistent with peripheral neuropathy were common, seen in 54 of 107 participants (50.5%) treated with neurotoxic chemotherapy (mean Total Neuropathy Score increase, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-2.9; P neuropathy (mean amplitude reduction, 5.8 μV; 95% CI, 2.8-8.8; P Neuropathy Score. Cisplatin produced long-term neurotoxicity more frequently than vinca alkaloids. Clinical abnormalities attributable to peripheral neuropathy were common in

  9. Sexual Self-Schemas in the Real World: Investigating the Ecological Validity of Language-Based Markers of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M; Meston, Cindy M; Boyd, Ryan L

    2017-06-01

    This is the first study to examine language use and sexual self-schemas in natural language data extracted from posts to a large online forum. Recently, two studies applied advanced text analysis techniques to examine differences in language use and sexual self-schemas between women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse. The aim of the current study was to test the ecological validity of the differences in language use and sexual self-schema themes that emerged between these two groups of women in the laboratory. Archival natural language data were extracted from a social media website and analyzed using LIWC2015, a computerized text analysis program, and other word counting approaches. The differences in both language use and sexual self-schema themes that manifested in recent laboratory research were replicated and validated in the large online sample. To our knowledge, these results provide the first empirical examination of sexual cognitions as they occur in the real world. These results also suggest that natural language analysis of text extracted from social media sites may be a potentially viable precursor or alternative to laboratory measurement of sexual trauma phenomena, as well as clinical phenomena, more generally.

  10. Validity and Reliability of a Parental Self-Efficacy Instrument in the Healthy School Start Prevention Trial of Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Benjamin; Nyberg, Gisela; Sundblom, Elinor; Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Measures of parental self-efficacy (PSE) for healthy dietary or physical activity (PA) behaviors in children have been used in several studies; however, further psychometric validation of PSE for these behaviors is needed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new PSE instrument. Methods:…

  11. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution in Childhood-Adolescence and Lung Function in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrowski, A; Kliś, K; Żurawiecka, M; Dereń, K; Barszcz, M; Nowakowski, D; Wronka, I

    2018-02-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of air pollution in the dwelling place during childhood-adolescence on respiratory function in early adulthood. The study was conducted in 220 female and 160 male university undergraduates in the cities of Cracow and Wroclaw in Poland and consisted of spirometry to assess lung function. The subjects' exposure to pollution during childhood-adolescence was assessed from the data acquired by the Polish Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection. We found differences in all spirometry variables depending on benz[a]piren exposure, in FVC% and FEV 1 /%FVC depending on PM 2.5 content, and in FVC% depending on NO 2 content . Statistically significant differences in spirometry variables were also found in relation to the degree of urbanization of the place of living during the early life period in question. The higher the urbanization, the higher is FEV 1 % and FCV%, and the lower FEV 1 /%FVC. Additionally, undergraduates of Cracow University had worse lung function compared to those of Wroclaw University. In conclusion, air pollution in the dwelling place during childhood-adolescence has an impact on lung function in early adulthood, independently of the current exposure to pollutants.

  12. Prevalence of hypertension determined by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and body composition in long-term survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Elif; Col, Nilgun; Buyukcelik, Mithat; Balat, Ayse

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, survival rates of childhood cancers have significantly increased, and occurrence of long-term adverse late effects (eg, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, hypertension) has become increasingly important. Early diagnosis of obesity/hypertension in childhood is essential to avoid morbidity in the adulthood. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the blood pressure (BP) profile by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) method, and prevalence of hypertension, obesity, abdominal obesity among childhood cancer survivors. The study was carried out with 52 cancer survivors. The ABPM measurement was performed during 24 hours. The anthropometric measurements of patients were performed using standardized protocols. The body composition analysis was performed with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05. The mean age of patients was 12.84 ± 3.88 years. Time off therapy ranged 24-125 month. The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were 57.7% and 9.6%, respectively. There was no statistically significant relationship between diagnosis and BP status (p = 0.59). The prevalence of obesity, and abdominal obesity were 1.9% and 30.4%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between waist circumference (WC) and time off therapy (p = 0.046). The WC was found to be higher in patients who received cranial irradiation (p = 0.048). Weight/WC were higher in patients who used corticosteroids in the treatment (p = 0.019). Careful follow up of BP, weight and WC is necessary for long-term cancer survivors to prevent complications. Especially patients who receive cranial radiotherapy and use corticosteroid are at increased risk of abdominal obesity.

  13. Caregiver ratings of long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury: family functioning is important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowski, Brad G; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay C; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the relationship of family and parenting factors to long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that the magnitude of executive dysfunction and attention problems would be moderated by family and parenting factors. A multicenter, prospective cohort study that included an orthopedic injury (OI) reference group. Three tertiary academic children's hospital medical centers and one general medical center. Children, ages 3-7 years, hospitalized for OI, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. METHODS AND OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Parental ratings of family functioning and parenting styles were obtained 18 months after the injury occurred. The main outcome measurements, which were parental ratings of children's executive function and attention, were performed at least 24 months after the injury occurred (mean, 39 months; range, 25-63 months). Group comparisons were conducted with use of t-tests, χ(2) analysis, analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlations. Regression analysis was used to examine associations of the outcomes with family functioning and parenting styles and to test moderating effects of these factors on group differences. Participants with severe TBI demonstrated increased executive dysfunction and attention problems compared with those who sustained moderate TBI or OI. Lower levels of family dysfunction were associated with better executive function and attention across groups but did not moderate group differences. However, attention deficits after severe TBI were exacerbated under conditions of more permissive parenting relative to attention deficits after OIs. Executive function and attention problems persisted on a long-term basis (>24 months) after early childhood TBI, and positive global family functioning and nonpermissive parenting were associated with better outcomes. Better characterization of the optimal family environment for recovery from early childhood

  14. [Childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueca, M; Azcona, C; Oyárzabal, M

    2002-01-01

    Obesity during childhood and adolescence is an increasingly frequent cause for medical consultation. The increase in the prevalence of this disease, which has been considered as an epidemic by the World Health Organisation, is worrying. Obesity is a complex disease, whose aetiology still remains to be clarified due to the numerous factors involved: environmental, genetic, life style and behavioural, neuroendocrinological and metabolic. The persistence of childhood obesity until adulthood significantly increases the risk of suffering from diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Treatment of obesity is complicated and few patients regularly attend follow up examinations. A multidisciplinary team is required to carry out a suitable treatment, composed of paediatricians, dieticians, nurses, psychologists and psychiatrists. Successful treatment of obesity resides in reducing the calorie intake in relation to energy expenditure, and at the time providing instruction in appropriate eating habits and life styles that in the long term will promote the maintenance of the ideal weight.

  15. Use of natural and archaeological analogs to validate long - term behaviour of HLW glass in geological disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gin, S.; Verney-Carron, A.; Libourel, G.

    2008-01-01

    Some old basaltic and Roman glasses have been studied in order to validate the predictive models developed for assessing the long-term behaviour of nuclear glass in geological repository conditions. Leaching behaviour of basaltic glass altered in both laboratory and natural environment conditions allows to validate the key mechanisms that control glass dissolution kinetics and the order of magnitude of glass packages lifetime In a stable clayey formation (French reference concept for a geological disposal of high level waste). The study of Roman glass blocks (with the same geometry as nuclear glass package) altered during 1800 years in a marine environment gives new insight on the basic mechanisms involved in confined media (fractures and small cracks). Results show the importance of the coupling between transport of reactive species and chemical reactions. This study, still in progress, would allow to validate the modelling of such a complex system. (author)

  16. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: effects of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation to the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, N.; Toth, B.B.; Hoar, R.E.; Ried, H.L.; Sullivan, M.P.; McNeese, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-eight long-term survivors of childhood cancer were evaluated for dental and maxillofacial abnormalities. Forty-five patients had received maxillofacial radiation for lymphoma, leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, and miscellaneous tumors. Forty-three of the 45 patients and the remaining 23 who had not received maxillofacial radiation also received chemotherapy. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities were detected in 37 of the 45 (82%) radiated patients. Dental abnormalities comprised foreshortening and blunting of roots, incomplete calcification, premature closure of apices, delayed or arrested tooth development, and caries. Maxillofacial abnormalities comprised trismus, abnormal occlusal relationships, and facial deformities. The abnormalities were more severe in those patients who received radiation at an earlier age and at higher dosages. Possible chemotherapeutic effects in five of 23 patients who received treatment for tumors located outside the head and neck region comprised acquired amelogenesis imperfecta, microdontia of bicuspid teeth, and a tendency toward thinning of roots with an enlarged pulp chamber. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities should be recognized as a major consequence of maxillofacial radiation in long-term survivors of childhood cancer, and attempts to minimize or eliminate such sequelae should involve an effective interaction between radiation therapists, and medical and dental oncologists

  17. Predictive validity of common mental disorders screening questionnaire as a screening instrument in long term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Screening instruments for detection of common mental disorders have not been validity tested in long term sickness absence (LSA), which is the aim of this study for the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). METHODS: Of all 2,414 incident persons on continuous sick...... in Denmark there is not a legal requirement that sick-listed persons are certified as sick by a physician....

  18. Dose-Effect Relationships for Adverse Events After Cranial Radiation Therapy in Long-term Childhood Cancer Survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van; Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C.; Pal, Helena J.H. van der; Heinen, Richard C.; Leeuwen, Flora E. van; Oldenburger, Foppe; Os, Rob M. van; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Schouten–van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N.; Caron, Huib N.; Koning, Caro C.E.; Kremer, Leontien C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of clinical adverse events (AEs) and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT), with the aim of assessing dose-effect relationships. Methods and Materials: The retrospective study cohort consisted of 1362 Dutch childhood cancer survivors, of whom 285 were treated with CRT delivered as brain irradiation (BI), as part of craniospinal irradiation (CSI), and as total body irradiation (TBI). Individual CRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD 2 ). Survivors had received their diagnoses between 1966 and 1996 and survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. A complete inventory of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3.0 AEs was available from our hospital-based late-effect follow-up program. We used multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses to examine the EQD 2 in relation to the prevalence and severity of AEs, correcting for sex, age at diagnosis, follow-up time, and the treatment-related risk factors surgery and chemotherapy. Results: There was a high prevalence of AEs in the CRT group; over 80% of survivors had more than 1 AE, and almost half had at least 5 AEs, both representing significant increases in number of AEs compared with survivors not treated with CRT. Additionally, the proportion of severe, life-threatening, or disabling AEs was significantly higher in the CRT group. The most frequent AEs were alopecia and cognitive, endocrine, metabolic, and neurologic events. Using the EQD 2 , we found significant dose-effect relationships for these and other AEs. Conclusion: Our results confirm that CRT increases the prevalence and severity of AEs in childhood cancer survivors. Furthermore, analyzing dose-effect relationships with the cumulative EQD 2 instead of total physical dose connects the knowledge from radiation therapy and radiobiology with the clinical experience

  19. Dose-Effect Relationships for Adverse Events After Cranial Radiation Therapy in Long-term Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van, E-mail: i.w.vandijk@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pal, Helena J.H. van der [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heinen, Richard C. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe; Os, Rob M. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ronckers, Cécile M. [Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, Long-term Effects after Childhood Cancer, The Hague (Netherlands); Schouten–van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, Huib N. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kremer, Leontien C.M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of clinical adverse events (AEs) and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT), with the aim of assessing dose-effect relationships. Methods and Materials: The retrospective study cohort consisted of 1362 Dutch childhood cancer survivors, of whom 285 were treated with CRT delivered as brain irradiation (BI), as part of craniospinal irradiation (CSI), and as total body irradiation (TBI). Individual CRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Survivors had received their diagnoses between 1966 and 1996 and survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. A complete inventory of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3.0 AEs was available from our hospital-based late-effect follow-up program. We used multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses to examine the EQD{sub 2} in relation to the prevalence and severity of AEs, correcting for sex, age at diagnosis, follow-up time, and the treatment-related risk factors surgery and chemotherapy. Results: There was a high prevalence of AEs in the CRT group; over 80% of survivors had more than 1 AE, and almost half had at least 5 AEs, both representing significant increases in number of AEs compared with survivors not treated with CRT. Additionally, the proportion of severe, life-threatening, or disabling AEs was significantly higher in the CRT group. The most frequent AEs were alopecia and cognitive, endocrine, metabolic, and neurologic events. Using the EQD{sub 2}, we found significant dose-effect relationships for these and other AEs. Conclusion: Our results confirm that CRT increases the prevalence and severity of AEs in childhood cancer survivors. Furthermore, analyzing dose-effect relationships with the cumulative EQD{sub 2} instead of total physical dose connects the knowledge from radiation therapy and radiobiology with the clinical experience.

  20. Measuring coverage in MNCH: a prospective validation study in Pakistan and Bangladesh on measuring correct treatment of childhood pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabish Hazir

    Full Text Available Antibiotic treatment for pneumonia as measured by Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS is a key indicator for tracking progress in achieving Millennium Development Goal 4. Concerns about the validity of this indicator led us to perform an evaluation in urban and rural settings in Pakistan and Bangladesh.Caregivers of 950 children under 5 y with pneumonia and 980 with "no pneumonia" were identified in urban and rural settings and allocated for DHS/MICS questions 2 or 4 wk later. Study physicians assigned a diagnosis of pneumonia as reference standard; the predictive ability of DHS/MICS questions and additional measurement tools to identify pneumonia versus non-pneumonia cases was evaluated. Results at both sites showed suboptimal discriminative power, with no difference between 2- or 4-wk recall. Individual patterns of sensitivity and specificity varied substantially across study sites (sensitivity 66.9% and 45.5%, and specificity 68.8% and 69.5%, for DHS in Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. Prescribed antibiotics for pneumonia were correctly recalled by about two-thirds of caregivers using DHS questions, increasing to 72% and 82% in Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively, using a drug chart and detailed enquiry.Monitoring antibiotic treatment of pneumonia is essential for national and global programs. Current (DHS/MICS questions and proposed new (video and pneumonia score methods of identifying pneumonia based on maternal recall discriminate poorly between pneumonia and children with cough. Furthermore, these methods have a low yield to identify children who have true pneumonia. Reported antibiotic treatment rates among these children are therefore not a valid proxy indicator of pneumonia treatment rates. These results have important implications for program monitoring and suggest that data in its current format from DHS/MICS surveys should not be used for the purpose of monitoring antibiotic

  1. Male infertility in long-term survivors of pediatric cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski-Masker, K; Seidel, K D; Leisenring, W; Mertens, A C; Shnorhavorian, M; Ritenour, C W; Stovall, M; Green, D M; Sklar, C A; Armstrong, G T; Robison, L L; Meacham, L R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of male infertility and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors. Methods Within the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, 1622 survivors and 274 siblings completed the Male Health Questionnaire. The analysis was restricted to survivors (938/1622; 57.8%) and siblings (174/274; 63.5%) who tried to become pregnant. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the prevalence of self-reported infertility were calculated using generalized linear models for demographic variables and treatment-related factors to account for correlation among survivors and siblings of the same family. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Among those who provided self-report data, the prevalence of infertility was 46.0% in survivors versus 17.5% in siblings (RR=2.64, 95% CI 1.88-3.70, p infertility, 37% had reported at least one pregnancy with a female partner that resulted in a live birth. In a multivariable analysis, risk factors for infertility included an alkylating agent dose score (AAD) ≥ 3 (RR= 2.13, 95% CI 1.69-2.68 for AAD ≥ 3 versus AADinfertility father their own children suggesting episodes of both fertility and infertility. This and the novel association of infertility with bleomycin warrant further investigation. Implications for Cancer Survivors Though infertility is common, male survivors reporting infertility often father their own children. Bleomycin may pose some fertility risk. PMID:24711092

  2. Male infertility in long-term survivors of pediatric cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski-Masker, K; Seidel, K D; Leisenring, W; Mertens, A C; Shnorhavorian, M; Ritenour, C W; Stovall, M; Green, D M; Sklar, C A; Armstrong, G T; Robison, L L; Meacham, L R

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of male infertility and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors. Within the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, 1,622 survivors and 274 siblings completed the Male Health Questionnaire. The analysis was restricted to survivors (938/1,622; 57.8 %) and siblings (174/274; 63.5 %) who tried to become pregnant. Relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the prevalence of self-reported infertility were calculated using generalized linear models for demographic variables and treatment-related factors to account for correlation among survivors and siblings of the same family. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among those who provided self-report data, the prevalence of infertility was 46.0 % in survivors versus 17.5 % in siblings (RR = 2.64, 95 % CI 1.88-3.70, p infertility, 37 % had reported at least one pregnancy with a female partner that resulted in a live birth. In a multivariable analysis, risk factors for infertility included an alkylating agent dose (AAD) score ≥3 (RR = 2.13, 95 % CI 1.69-2.68 for AAD ≥3 versus AAD infertility father their own children, suggesting episodes of both fertility and infertility. This and the novel association of infertility with bleomycin warrant further investigation. Though infertility is common, male survivors reporting infertility often father their own children. Bleomycin may pose some fertility risk.

  3. Eating behavior, weight problems and eating disorders in 101 long-term survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Postma, Frank P; Sterkenburg, Anthe S; Gebhardt, Ursel; Müller, Hermann L

    2015-01-01

    As a result of hypothalamic involvement and/or treatment-related hypothalamic damage, up to 75% of childhood craniopharyngioma patients develop hypothalamic obesity. Eating behavior was analyzed in 101 survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, recruited from 1980 to 2001 in the HIT-Endo multicenter study, and in 85 body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls using the Inventory for Eating Behavior and Weight Problems (IEG) and the Inventory for Eating Disorders (ESI). Severely obese patients (BMI>8 SD; n=9) presented with pathological eating behavior, more weight problems, and eating disorders, as compared to obese (BMI 3-8 SD; n=44) and normal or overweight patients (BMICraniopharyngioma patients with different degrees of obesity showed similar or even less pathological findings as compared to BMI-matched normal controls. Severe obesity is associated with pathological eating behavior/disorders in craniopharyngioma patients. As these disorders are not disease-specific, risk factors for hypothalamic obesity should be the focus of further craniopharyngioma research.

  4. Measuring Coverage in MNCH: A Prospective Validation Study in Pakistan and Bangladesh on Measuring Correct Treatment of Childhood Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Arifeen, Shams; Khan, Amira M.; Huque, M. Hamidul; Kazmi, Narjis; Roy, Sushmita; Abbasi, Saleem; Rahman, Qazi Sadeq-ur; Theodoratou, Evropi; Khorshed, Mahmuda Shayema; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur; Bari, Sanwarul; Kaiser, M. Mahfuzul Islam; Saha, Samir K.; Ahmed, A. S. M. Nawshad Uddin; Rudan, Igor; Bryce, Jennifer; Qazi, Shamim Ahmad; Campbell, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibiotic treatment for pneumonia as measured by Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) is a key indicator for tracking progress in achieving Millennium Development Goal 4. Concerns about the validity of this indicator led us to perform an evaluation in urban and rural settings in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Methods and Findings Caregivers of 950 children under 5 y with pneumonia and 980 with “no pneumonia” were identified in urban and rural settings and allocated for DHS/MICS questions 2 or 4 wk later. Study physicians assigned a diagnosis of pneumonia as reference standard; the predictive ability of DHS/MICS questions and additional measurement tools to identify pneumonia versus non-pneumonia cases was evaluated. Results at both sites showed suboptimal discriminative power, with no difference between 2- or 4-wk recall. Individual patterns of sensitivity and specificity varied substantially across study sites (sensitivity 66.9% and 45.5%, and specificity 68.8% and 69.5%, for DHS in Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively). Prescribed antibiotics for pneumonia were correctly recalled by about two-thirds of caregivers using DHS questions, increasing to 72% and 82% in Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively, using a drug chart and detailed enquiry. Conclusions Monitoring antibiotic treatment of pneumonia is essential for national and global programs. Current (DHS/MICS questions) and proposed new (video and pneumonia score) methods of identifying pneumonia based on maternal recall discriminate poorly between pneumonia and children with cough. Furthermore, these methods have a low yield to identify children who have true pneumonia. Reported antibiotic treatment rates among these children are therefore not a valid proxy indicator of pneumonia treatment rates. These results have important implications for program monitoring and suggest that data in its current format from DHS/MICS surveys should not be used for the

  5. The family environment in early childhood has a long-term effect on self-esteem: A longitudinal study from birth to age 27 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich

    2018-04-01

    A better understanding is needed of the factors that shape the development of individual differences in self-esteem. Using a prospective longitudinal design, this research tested whether the family environment in early childhood predicts self-esteem in later developmental periods. Data came from a nationally representative U.S. sample of 8,711 participants, who reported on their self-esteem biannually from age 8 to 27 years. Moreover, during the participants' first 6 years of life, biannual assessments of their mothers provided information on the quality of the home environment (covering quality of parenting, cognitive stimulation, and physical home environment), quality of parental relationship, presence of father, maternal depression, and poverty status of the family. The analyses were conducted using nonlinear regression analyses of age-dependent correlation coefficients, which were controlled for the effects of child gender and ethnicity. The results suggested that the family environment in early childhood significantly predicted self-esteem as the children grew up. Although the effects became smaller with age, the effects were still present during young adulthood. The largest effects emerged for quality of home environment. Moreover, the results suggested that the effects of home environment, presence of father, and poverty are enduring, as indicated by a nonzero asymptote in the time course of effects from age 8 to 27 years. Finally, quality of home environment partially accounted for the effects of the other predictors. The findings suggest that the home environment is a key factor in early childhood that influences the long-term development of self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Prevention of childhood injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    road traffic crashes, drowning, burns, poisoning or falls), has become a major ... hugely on childhood health in terms of disability and, depending on their cause ... SA, children continue to be threatened by injuries of various kinds, although this ...

  7. Validating the shortened Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55) in a sample of children with drug-resistant epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Lauryn; Widjaja, Elysa; Smith, Mary Lou; Speechley, Kathy N; Ferro, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the newly developed shortened Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55) in a sample of children with drug-resistant epilepsy. Data came from 136 children enrolled in the Impact of Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery on Health-Related Quality of Life Study (PEPSQOL), a multicenter prospective cohort study. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the higher-order factor structure of the QOLCE-55. Convergent and divergent validity was assessed by correlating subscales of the KIDSCREEN-27 with the QOLCE-55. Measurement equivalence of the QOLCE-55 was evaluated using multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis of children with drug-resistant epilepsy from PEPSQOL versus children with new-onset epilepsy from HERQULES (Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study). The higher-order factor structure of the QOLCE-55 demonstrated adequate fit: Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.948; Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) = 0.946; Root Mean Square of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.060 (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.054-0.065); Weighted Root Mean Square Residuals (WRMR) = 1.247. Higher-order factor loadings were strong, ranging from λ = 0.74 to 0.81. Internal consistency reliability was excellent (α = 0.97, subscales α > 0.82). QOLCE-55 subscales demonstrated moderate to strong correlations with similar subscales of the KIDSCREEN-27 (ρ = 0.43-0.75) and weak to moderate correlations with dissimilar subscales (ρ = 0.25-0.42). The QOLCE-55 demonstrated partial measurement equivalence at the level of strict invariance - χ 2 (2,823) = 3,727.9, CFI = 0.961, TLI = 0.962, RMSEA = 0.049 (0.044, 0.053), WRMR = 1.834. The findings provide support for the factor structure of the QOLCE-55 and contribute to its robust psychometric profile as a reliable and valid measure. Researchers and health practitioners should consider the QOLCE-55 as a viable option for reducing respondent burden when assessing health-related quality of life

  8. Child symptoms, parent behaviors, and family strain in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I-Chan; Brinkman, Tara M; Mullins, Larry; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Krull, Kevin R

    2018-05-17

    How family environment and parental factors affect health status and symptoms in childhood cancer survivors is understudied. We examined the influence of family cohesion, parent distress, and overprotection on child symptom burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and family strain in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Parents of 213 children treated with chemotherapy-only completed a survey when survivors were at least five-years post-diagnosis. Family Environment Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory-18, Parent Protection Scale, PedsQL, and Impact on Family were used to assess family cohesion, parental distress, overprotection, child symptom burden and HRQOL, and family strain, respectively. Path analysis was conducted to quantify effects of family cohesion on family strain through parental distress, overprotection, child symptoms, and HRQOL. Lower family cohesion (β=0.06, 95% CI=0.01 to 0.13), higher parental distress (β=0.35, 95% CI=0.20 to 0.45), and overprotection (β=0.17, 95% CI=0.01 to 0.32) were associated with more child symptom burden. More symptom burden were associated with poorer child HRQOL (β=0.66, 95% CI=0.57 to 0.75), which in turn was associated with more family strain (β=0.11, 95% CI=0.01 to 0.22). Lower maternal education was associated with overprotection (β=-0.23, 95% CI=-0.33 to -0.12), more child symptoms (β=-0.30, 95% CI=-0.41 to -0.16), poorer child HRQOL (β=-0.36, 95% CI=-0.46 to -0.21), and more family strain (β=-0.15, 95% CI=-0.23 to -0.08). Family and parental factors contributed to health outcomes of childhood ALL survivors. Interventions to enhance family cohesion, decrease parental distress and overprotection, and ameliorate child symptoms may improve family functioning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: IV. the Pause Marker Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Three previous articles provided rationale, methods, and several forms of validity support for a diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), termed the pause marker (PM). Goals of the present article were to assess the validity and stability of the PM Index (PMI) to scale CAS severity. Method: PM scores and speech, prosody,…

  10. Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement in men with childhood-onset GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; De Boer, H; Kamp, O; Stuurman, L; Van der Veen, EA

    Short term GH replacement therapy has been shown to improve body composition and exercise capacity. It is not yet known whether GH replacement remains beneficial over the long term. We assessed the effects of long term GH replacement on body composition, bone mineral density, and cardiac function.

  11. n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Mothers, Preterm Infants, and Term Infants and Childhood Psychomotor and Visual Development: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulkin, Masha; Pimpin, Laura; Bellinger, David; Kranz, Sarah; Fawzi, Wafaie; Duggan, Christopher; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2018-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies link maternal seafood and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption with improved childhood cognitive development; trials show mixed results. We investigated effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on child cognitive and visual outcomes. We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed randomized controlled trials of n-3 PUFA supplementation in mothers or infants (age ≤2 y) and evaluated standardized measures of cognitive or visual development up to age 18 y. Of 6286 abstracts and 669 full-text articles, 38 trials with 53 intervention arms were included. Data were extracted independently in duplicate. Findings were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis across supplementation periods (maternal, preterm, term infant); we also explored subgroup analyses stratified by supplementation period. Heterogeneity was explored using I2, stratified analysis, and meta-regression. Cognitive development was assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant Development mental and psychomotor developmental indexes (MDI, PDI) and intelligence quotient (IQ); visual acuity was assessed by electrophysiological or behavioral measures. The 38 trials (mothers: n = 13; preterm infants: n = 7; term infants: n = 18) included 5541 participants. When we explored effects during different periods of supplementation, n-3 PUFA supplementation improved MDI in preterm infants (3.33; 95% CI: 0.72, 5.93), without statistically significant effects on PDI or IQ in different intervention period subgroups. Visual acuity [measured as the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR)] was improved by supplementation in preterm (-0.08 logMAR; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.01 logMAR) and term infants (-0.08 logMAR; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.05 logMAR), with a nonsignificant trend for maternal supplementation (-0.02 logMAR; 95% CI: -0.04, 0.00 logMAR). In main analyses pooling all supplementation periods, compared with placebo, n-3 PUFA supplementation improved MDI (n = 21 trials; 0.91; 95% CI

  12. Design and validation of a clinical-scale bioreactor for long-term isolated lung culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charest, Jonathan M; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Kitano, Kentaro; Yasuda, Atsushi; Gilpin, Sarah E; Mathisen, Douglas J; Ott, Harald C

    2015-06-01

    The primary treatment for end-stage lung disease is lung transplantation. However, donor organ shortage remains a major barrier for many patients. In recent years, techniques for maintaining lungs ex vivo for evaluation and short-term (advance to more complex interventions for lung repair and regeneration, the need for a long-term organ culture system becomes apparent. Herein we describe a novel clinical scale bioreactor capable of maintaining functional porcine and human lungs for at least 72 h in isolated lung culture (ILC). The fully automated, computer controlled, sterile, closed circuit system enables physiologic pulsatile perfusion and negative pressure ventilation, while gas exchange function, and metabolism can be evaluated. Creation of this stable, biomimetic long-term culture environment will enable advanced interventions in both donor lungs and engineered grafts of human scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term classroom functioning and its association with neuropsychological and academic performance following traumatic brain injury during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Schultz, Hanna; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2017-07-01

    The present study utilized ecobehavioral assessment to examine classroom functioning several years following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) or orthopedic injury (OI) and its association with injury factors, neuropsychological abilities, and academic performance. Participants included 39 children with moderate to severe TBI and 51 children with OI sustained between ages 3 and 7 years. At 7.2 (± 1.3) years post injury, ecobehavioral assessment was used to examine classroom functioning. Additional outcomes included neuropsychological tests, parent and teacher ratings of dysexecutive behavior, and teacher ratings of academic performance. Groups were compared on measures controlling for demographic characteristics, and associations among outcomes were examined using linear regression. Children with TBI showed lower academic engagement relative to children with OI, as well as more frequent individual teacher attention for children with more severe injuries. For children with TBI, difficulties in classroom functioning were associated with lower cognitive flexibility and higher parent and teacher ratings of dysexecutive behavior. Lower scores on a test of fluid reasoning and a greater frequency of individual teacher attention were also associated with lower academic performance in children with TBI. Difficulties in classroom functioning are evident several years after early childhood TBI and were associated with greater injury severity, neuropsychological weaknesses, and poorer academic performance. Children with impaired cognitive flexibility and fluid reasoning skills were at greatest risk for these difficulties and associated weaknesses in academic performance. Instructional interactions may be a potential target for intervention to promote academic progress in at-risk children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Biomaterials recycling: bioglasses obtained from reuse of hydroxyapatite (HA) bovine bone with term exceeded validity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.C.; Santos, S.C.; Braga, F.J.C.; Aparecida, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) is a reference bioceramic for bone replacement and regeneration medical practice, becoming one of the most produced and researched bone graft material. Since it is a material for biomedical application, the manufacture and storage of this bioceramic must comply with severe conservation criteria, and its validity date is the lawful major factor for disposal. Materials with the exceeded expiration date are usually discarded and incinerated, resulting in ash, environmental contamination and energy expenditure. This study evaluates the possibility of reuse of bovine HA collected after its validity date as raw material to obtain bioglass, aiming to natural resources saving and environmental emissions mitigation. 45S5 similar compositions were obtained by melting the materials at 1500 ° C, followed by rapid cooling and annealing thermal treatment (500 ° C for 2h), analytical grade chemical reagents were used to set the final composition. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and hydrolysis resistance techniques. The results of comparative chemical resistance (Hydrolytic) tests indicate the potential use of the materials developed for bone replacement applications. (author)

  15. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn; Twisk, Jos; Bültmann, Ute; Bjørner, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a prediction model for identifying employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), by using variables commonly measured in occupational health surveys. Based on the literature, 15 predictor variables were retrieved from the DAnish National working Environment Survey (DANES) and included in a model predicting incident LTSA (≥4 consecutive weeks) during 1-year follow-up in a sample of 4000 DANES participants. The 15-predictor model was reduced by backward stepwise statistical techniques and then validated in a sample of 2524 DANES participants, not included in the development sample. Identification of employees at increased LTSA risk was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis; the area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC) reflected discrimination between employees with and without LTSA during follow-up. The 15-predictor model was reduced to a 9-predictor model including age, gender, education, self-rated health, mental health, prior LTSA, work ability, emotional job demands, and recognition by the management. Discrimination by the 9-predictor model was significant (AUC = 0.68; 95% CI 0.61-0.76), but not practically useful. A prediction model based on occupational health survey variables identified employees with an increased LTSA risk, but should be further developed into a practically useful tool to predict the risk of LTSA in the general working population. Implications for rehabilitation Long-term sickness absence risk predictions would enable healthcare providers to refer high-risk employees to rehabilitation programs aimed at preventing or reducing work disability. A prediction model based on health survey variables discriminates between employees at high and low risk of long-term sickness absence, but discrimination was not practically useful. Health survey variables provide insufficient information to determine long-term sickness absence risk profiles. There is a need for

  16. Childhood psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexural involvement is common and guttate type is the characteristic presentation. Whether onset in childhood predicts a more severe form of psoriasis is a matter of controversy, it may cause significant morbidity particularly if it keeps relapsing. Most children have mild form of psoriasis which can be generally treated effectively with topical agents such as emollients, coal tar, corticosteroids, dithranol, calcipotriol etc. according to age and the sites affected. Narrow band UVB is the preferred form of phototherapy in children for moderate to severe disease or in patients not responding to topical therapy alone. Systemic therapies are reserved for more severe and extensive cases that cannot be controlled with topical treatment and/or phototherapy such as severe plaque type, unstable forms like erythrodermic and generalized pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. There are no controlled trials of systemic therapies in this age group, most experience being with retinoids and methotrexate with favorable results. Cyclosporine can be used as a short-term intermittent crisis management drug. There is an early promising experience with the use of biologics (etanercept and infliximab in childhood psoriasis. Systemic treatments as well as phototherapy have limited use in children due to cumulative dose effects of drugs, low acceptance, and risk of gonadal toxicity. More evidence-based data is needed about the effectiveness and long-term safety of topical

  17. Long Term Validity of Monetary Exchange Rate Model: Evidence from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Ahmet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was analyzed if there is a long term relationship among the nominal exchange rate and monetary fundamentals within the periods of 1998:1-2011:2 in Turkey. This relationship has been analysed by using structural VAR (SVAR model. Besides, Granger causality test and Dolado-Lütkepohl Granger causality test were used to determine if there were a causality relationship among the nominal exchange rate and monetary fundamentals. As a result of the SVAR model, the relationship among the series related to nominal exchange rate and money supply, GDP, interest rate in Turkey in long term were not determined and at the end of causality tests, causality relationship among the nominal exchange rate and monetary fundamentals were not determined.

  18. Validation of MIMGO: a method to identify differentially expressed GO terms in a microarray dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Yoichi; Sawada, Hiroki; Hirotani, Ken-ichi; Oshima, Masanobu; Satou, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We previously proposed an algorithm for the identification of GO terms that commonly annotate genes whose expression is upregulated or downregulated in some microarray data compared with in other microarray data. We call these “differentially expressed GO terms” and have named the algorithm “matrix-assisted identification method of differentially expressed GO terms” (MIMGO). MIMGO can also identify microarray data in which genes annotated with a differentially expressed GO...

  19. Categorisation of Colour Terms Using New Validation Tools: A Case Study and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Shabnam; Brindle, Jonathan A.; Matusiak, Barbara S.; Klöckner, Christian A.

    2018-01-01

    This article elaborates on the results of a field experiment conducted among speakers of the Chakali language, spoken in northern Ghana. In the original study, the Color-aid Corporation Chart was used to perform the focal task in which consultants were asked to point at a single colour tile on the chart. However, data from the focal task could not be analysed since the Color-aid tiles had not yet been converted into numerical values set forth by the Commission internationale de l’éclairage (CIE). In this study, the full set of 314 Color-aid tiles were measured for chromaticity and converted into the CIE values at the Daylight Laboratory of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. This article presents the conversion methodology and makes the results of the measurements, which are available in the Online Appendix. We argue that some visual-perception terms cannot be reliably ascribed to colour categories established by the Color-aid Corporation. This suggests that the ideophonic expressions in the dataset do not denote ‘colours’, as categorised in the Color-aid system, as it was impossible to average the consultants’ data into a CIE chromaticity diagram, illustrate the phenomena on the Natural Colour System (NCS) Circle and Triangle diagrams, and conduct a statistical analysis. One of the implications of this study is that a line between a visual-perception term and a colour term could be systematically established using a method with predefined categorical thresholds. PMID:29755718

  20. Categorisation of Colour Terms Using New Validation Tools: A Case Study and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Shabnam; Brindle, Jonathan A; Matusiak, Barbara S; Klöckner, Christian A

    2018-01-01

    This article elaborates on the results of a field experiment conducted among speakers of the Chakali language, spoken in northern Ghana. In the original study, the Color-aid Corporation Chart was used to perform the focal task in which consultants were asked to point at a single colour tile on the chart. However, data from the focal task could not be analysed since the Color-aid tiles had not yet been converted into numerical values set forth by the Commission internationale de l'éclairage (CIE). In this study, the full set of 314 Color-aid tiles were measured for chromaticity and converted into the CIE values at the Daylight Laboratory of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. This article presents the conversion methodology and makes the results of the measurements, which are available in the Online Appendix. We argue that some visual-perception terms cannot be reliably ascribed to colour categories established by the Color-aid Corporation. This suggests that the ideophonic expressions in the dataset do not denote 'colours', as categorised in the Color-aid system, as it was impossible to average the consultants' data into a CIE chromaticity diagram, illustrate the phenomena on the Natural Colour System (NCS) Circle and Triangle diagrams, and conduct a statistical analysis. One of the implications of this study is that a line between a visual-perception term and a colour term could be systematically established using a method with predefined categorical thresholds.

  1. Valvular Abnormalities Detected by Echocardiography in 5-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Helena J. van der; Dijk, Irma W. van; Geskus, Ronald B.; Kok, Wouter E.; Koolen, Marianne; Sieswerda, Elske; Oldenburger, Foppe; Koning, Caro C.; Leeuwen, Flora E. van; Caron, Huib N.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Dalen, Elvira C. van

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of valvular abnormalities after radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or treatment with anthracyclines and to identify associated risk factors in a large cohort of 5-year childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of all 626 eligible 5-year CCS diagnosed with childhood cancer in the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and 1996 and treated with radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or anthracyclines. We determined the presence of valvular abnormalities according to echocardiograms. Physical radiation dose was converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD 2 ). Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, we examined the associations between cancer treatment and valvular abnormalities. Results: We identified 225 mainly mild echocardiographic valvular abnormalities in 169 of 545 CCS (31%) with a cardiac assessment (median follow-up time, 14.9 years [range, 5.1-36.8 years]; median attained age 22.0 years [range, 7.0-49.7 years]). Twenty-four CCS (4.4%) had 31 moderate or higher-graded abnormalities. Most common abnormalities were tricuspid valve disorders (n=119; 21.8%) and mitral valve disorders (n=73; 13.4%). The risk of valvular abnormalities was associated with increasing radiation dose (using EQD 2 ) involving the heart region (odds ratio 1.33 per 10 Gy) and the presence of congenital heart disease (odds ratio 3.43). We found no statistically significant evidence that anthracyclines increase the risk. Conclusions: Almost one-third of CCS treated with potentially cardiotoxic therapy had 1 or more asymptomatic, mostly mild valvular abnormalities after a median follow-up of nearly 15 years. The most important risk factors are higher EQD 2 to the heart region and congenital heart disease. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to investigate the clinical course of asymptomatic valvular abnormalities in CCS

  2. Valvular Abnormalities Detected by Echocardiography in 5-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Helena J. van der, E-mail: h.j.vanderpal@amc.uva.nl [Department of Medical Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dijk, Irma W. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Geskus, Ronald B. [Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kok, Wouter E. [Department of Cardiology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koolen, Marianne; Sieswerda, Elske [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe; Koning, Caro C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, Huib N.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Dalen, Elvira C. van [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of valvular abnormalities after radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or treatment with anthracyclines and to identify associated risk factors in a large cohort of 5-year childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of all 626 eligible 5-year CCS diagnosed with childhood cancer in the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and 1996 and treated with radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or anthracyclines. We determined the presence of valvular abnormalities according to echocardiograms. Physical radiation dose was converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, we examined the associations between cancer treatment and valvular abnormalities. Results: We identified 225 mainly mild echocardiographic valvular abnormalities in 169 of 545 CCS (31%) with a cardiac assessment (median follow-up time, 14.9 years [range, 5.1-36.8 years]; median attained age 22.0 years [range, 7.0-49.7 years]). Twenty-four CCS (4.4%) had 31 moderate or higher-graded abnormalities. Most common abnormalities were tricuspid valve disorders (n=119; 21.8%) and mitral valve disorders (n=73; 13.4%). The risk of valvular abnormalities was associated with increasing radiation dose (using EQD{sub 2}) involving the heart region (odds ratio 1.33 per 10 Gy) and the presence of congenital heart disease (odds ratio 3.43). We found no statistically significant evidence that anthracyclines increase the risk. Conclusions: Almost one-third of CCS treated with potentially cardiotoxic therapy had 1 or more asymptomatic, mostly mild valvular abnormalities after a median follow-up of nearly 15 years. The most important risk factors are higher EQD{sub 2} to the heart region and congenital heart disease. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to investigate the clinical course of asymptomatic valvular abnormalities

  3. TDA's validity to study 18O collectivity in terms of collective pair model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuanyi; Vitturi, A.; Catara, F.; Sambataro, M.

    1991-01-01

    Conclusion proved that if the authors calculate 18 O collective spectra in terms of the Collective Pair Model, the authors can get the positive low laying levels of 18 O which are of the particle particle pair, independent on the excitation of hole within closed shell. 1 - low laying levels are of non-collective 3 particle 1 hole states. 1 - fourth level is of collective 3 particle 1 hole states. 3 - low laying levels are of collective 3 particle 1 hole states. 1 - , 3 - low laying levels agree very well with the experiment data. Hence the TDA is sufficient for the calculations of 1 - ,3 - collective low levels of 18 O

  4. The long-term significance of teacher-rated hyperactivity and reading ability in childhood: findings from two longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rob; Prior, Margot; Willams, Sheila; Smart, Diana; Sanson, Anne

    2002-11-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: first, to examine behavioural and academic outcomes of children with hyperactivity, using data from two longitudinal studies; and second, to examine comparable psychosocial outcomes for children with early reading difficulties. Measures of teacher-rated persistent hyperactivity, and reading ability obtained during early primary school were available for children from the Australian Temperament Project and the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Both samples were followed up to assess behavioural and academic outcomes during the adolescent and early adult years. Family background, antisocial behaviour and literacy were controlled in the first set of analyses to examine the influence of early hyperactivity. There were strong linear relationships between early hyperactivity and later adverse outcomes. Adjustment for other childhood variables suggested that early hyperactivity was associated with continuing school difficulties, problems with attention and poor reading in adolescence. Early reading difficulties, after controlling for early hyperactivity, predicted continuing reading problems in high school and leaving school with no qualifications. The findings suggest that there are dual pathways from early inattentive behaviours to later inattention and reading problems, and from early reading difficulties to substantial impairments in later academic outcomes.

  5. Relations between theory of mind and executive function in middle childhood: A short-term longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecce, Serena; Bianco, Federica; Devine, Rory T; Hughes, Claire

    2017-11-01

    Studies with preschool children have shown significant links between children's executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM), but few studies have examined these associations in primary school children. To address this gap, we designed a three-wave cross-lagged longitudinal study in which we followed a group of 113 children (61 boys) across three time points from age 9.5-10.5years (mean age at Time 1=112.3months, SD=4.18; mean age at Time 2=118.3months, SD=4.15; mean age at Time 3=124.7months, SD=4.06). At each time point, we measured EF (working memory and inhibitory control), ToM, and language. Our analyses showed (a) moderate rank-order stability of individual differences in both EF and ToM and (b) growth in ToM task performance across time. Cross-lagged longitudinal analyses revealed an asymmetric developmental relation between ToM and working memory. Early working memory predicted later ToM but not vice versa. Our results suggest a specific role for working memory in the ongoing development of ToM in middle childhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying Human Phenotype Terms by Combining Machine Learning and Validation Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Lobo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Named-Entity Recognition is commonly used to identify biological entities such as proteins, genes, and chemical compounds found in scientific articles. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO is an ontology that provides a standardized vocabulary for phenotypic abnormalities found in human diseases. This article presents the Identifying Human Phenotypes (IHP system, tuned to recognize HPO entities in unstructured text. IHP uses Stanford CoreNLP for text processing and applies Conditional Random Fields trained with a rich feature set, which includes linguistic, orthographic, morphologic, lexical, and context features created for the machine learning-based classifier. However, the main novelty of IHP is its validation step based on a set of carefully crafted manual rules, such as the negative connotation analysis, that combined with a dictionary can filter incorrectly identified entities, find missed entities, and combine adjacent entities. The performance of IHP was evaluated using the recently published HPO Gold Standardized Corpora (GSC, where the system Bio-LarK CR obtained the best F-measure of 0.56. IHP achieved an F-measure of 0.65 on the GSC. Due to inconsistencies found in the GSC, an extended version of the GSC was created, adding 881 entities and modifying 4 entities. IHP achieved an F-measure of 0.863 on the new GSC.

  7. Long-term monitoring of endangered Laysan ducks: Index validation and population estimates 1998–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen; Brinck, Kevin W.; Rehkemper, Cynthia; Hatfield, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring endangered wildlife is essential to assessing management or recovery objectives and learning about population status. We tested assumptions of a population index for endangered Laysan duck (or teal; Anas laysanensis) monitored using mark–resight methods on Laysan Island, Hawai’i. We marked 723 Laysan ducks between 1998 and 2009 and identified seasonal surveys through 2012 that met accuracy and precision criteria for estimating population abundance. Our results provide a 15-y time series of seasonal population estimates at Laysan Island. We found differences in detection among seasons and how observed counts related to population estimates. The highest counts and the strongest relationship between count and population estimates occurred in autumn (September–November). The best autumn surveys yielded population abundance estimates that ranged from 674 (95% CI = 619–730) in 2003 to 339 (95% CI = 265–413) in 2012. A population decline of 42% was observed between 2010 and 2012 after consecutive storms and Japan’s To¯hoku earthquake-generated tsunami in 2011. Our results show positive correlations between the seasonal maximum counts and population estimates from the same date, and support the use of standardized bimonthly counts of unmarked birds as a valid index to monitor trends among years within a season at Laysan Island.

  8. A Worldwide Collaboration to Harmonize Guidelines for the Long-Term Follow-Up of Childhood and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Report From the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Mulder, Renée L.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Bhatia, Smita; Landier, Wendy; Levitt, Gill; Constine, Louis S.; Wallace, W. Hamish; Caron, Huib N.; Armenian, Saro H.; Skinner, Roderick; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood and young adult cancer survivors should receive optimum care to reduce the consequences of late effects and improve quality of life. We can facilitate achieving this goal by international collaboration in guideline development. In 2010, the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer

  9. Long Term Validation of Land Surface Temperature Retrieved from MSG/SEVIRI with Continuous in-Situ Measurements in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank-M. Göttsche

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005, the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility (LSA SAF operationally retrieves Land Surface Temperature (LST for the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI on board Meteosat Second Generation (MSG. The high temporal resolution of the Meteosat satellites and their long term availability since 1977 make their data highly valuable for climate studies. In order to ensure that the LSA SAF LST product continuously meets its target accuracy of 2 °C, it is validated with in-situ measurements from four dedicated LST validation stations. Three stations are located in highly homogenous areas in Africa (semiarid bush, desert, and Kalahari semi-desert and typically provide thousands of monthly match-ups with LSA SAF LST, which are used to perform seasonally resolved validations. An uncertainty analysis performed for desert station Gobabeb yielded an estimate of total in-situ LST uncertainty of 0.8 ± 0.12 °C. Ignoring rainy seasons, the results for the period 2009–2014 show that LSA SAF LST consistently meets its target accuracy: the highest mean root-mean-square error (RMSE for LSA SAF LST over the African stations was 1.6 °C while mean absolute bias was 0.1 °C. Nighttime and daytime biases were up to 0.7 °C but had opposite signs: when evaluated together, these partially compensated each other.

  10. Development and content validation of a questionnaire to assess moral distress among social workers in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Sagit; Ayalon, Liat

    2018-03-01

    Despite the significance of ethical issues faced by social workers, research on moral distress among social workers has been extremely limited. The aim of the current study is to describe the development and content validation of a unique questionnaire to measure moral distress among social workers in long-term care facilities for older adults in Israel. The construction of the questionnaire was based on a secondary analysis of a qualitative study that addressed the moral dilemma of social workers in nursing homes in Israel. A content validation included review and evaluation by two experts, a cognitive interview with a nursing home social worker, and three focus groups of experts and the target population. The initial questionnaire consisted of 25 items. After the content validation process the questionnaire in its final version, consisted of 17 items and included two scales, measuring the frequency of morally loaded events and the intensity of distress that followed them. We believe that the questionnaire can contribute by broadening and deepening ethics discourse and research, with regard to social workers' obligation dilemmas and conflicts.

  11. Validation of a clinical screening instrument for tumour predisposition syndromes in patients with childhood cancer (TuPS) : Protocol for a prospective, observational, multicentre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Floor A M; Hopman, Saskia M J; De Borgie, Corianne A J M; Hammond, Peter; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Merks, Johannes H M; Aalfs, Cora M.; Anninga, Jakob K.; Berger, Lieke P V; Bleeker, Fonnet E.; De Bont, Eveline S J M; Dommering, Charlotte J.; Van Eijkelenburg, Natasha K A; Van Den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Jongmans, Marjolijn C J; Kors, Wijnanda A.; Letteboer, Tom G W; Loeffen, Jan L C M; Olderode-Berends, Maran J W; Wagner, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Recognising a tumour predisposition syndrome (TPS) in patients with childhood cancer is of significant clinical relevance, as it affects treatment, prognosis and facilitates genetic counselling. Previous studies revealed that only half of the known TPSs are recognised during standard

  12. Validation and clinical significance of the childhood myositis assessment scale for assessment of muscle function in the juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, AM; Feldman, BM; Rennebohm, RM; Hicks, JE; Lindsley, CB; Perez, MD; Zemel, LS; Wallace, CA; Ballinger, SH; Passo, MH; Reed, AM; Summers, RM; Katona, IM; Miller, FW; Lachenbruch, PA; Rider, LG; White, P.H.

    Objective. To examine the measurement characteristics of the Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale (CMAS) in children with juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (juvenile IIM), and to obtain preliminary data on the clinical significance of CMAS scores. Methods. One hundred eight children with

  13. Preschool speech intelligibility and vocabulary skills predict long-term speech and language outcomes following cochlear implantation in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Beer, Jessica; Henning, Shirley C; Colson, Bethany G; Pisoni, David B

    2014-07-01

    Speech and language measures during grade school predict adolescent speech-language outcomes in children who receive cochlear implants (CIs), but no research has examined whether speech and language functioning at even younger ages is predictive of long-term outcomes in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether early preschool measures of speech and language performance predict speech-language functioning in long-term users of CIs. Early measures of speech intelligibility and receptive vocabulary (obtained during preschool ages of 3-6 years) in a sample of 35 prelingually deaf, early-implanted children predicted speech perception, language, and verbal working memory skills up to 18 years later. Age of onset of deafness and age at implantation added additional variance to preschool speech intelligibility in predicting some long-term outcome scores, but the relationship between preschool speech-language skills and later speech-language outcomes was not significantly attenuated by the addition of these hearing history variables. These findings suggest that speech and language development during the preschool years is predictive of long-term speech and language functioning in early-implanted, prelingually deaf children. As a result, measures of speech-language functioning at preschool ages can be used to identify and adjust interventions for very young CI users who may be at long-term risk for suboptimal speech and language outcomes.

  14. Towards an integrative model of visual short-term memory maintenance: Evidence from the effects of attentional control, load, decay, and their interactions in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimi, Andria; Scerif, Gaia

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decades there has been a surge of research aiming to shed light on the nature of capacity limits to visual short-term memory (VSTM). However, an integrative account of this evidence is currently missing. We argue that investigating parameters constraining VSTM in childhood suggests a novel integrative model of VSTM maintenance, and that this in turn informs mechanisms of VSTM maintenance in adulthood. Over 3 experiments with 7-year-olds and young adults (total N=206), we provide evidence for multiple cognitive processes interacting to constrain VSTM performance. While age-related increases in storage capacity are undisputable, we replicate the finding that attentional processes control what information will be encoded and maintained in VSTM in the face of increased competition. Therefore, a central process to the current model is attentional refreshment, a mechanism that it is thought to reactivate and strengthen the signal of the visual representations. Critically, here we also show that attentional influences on VSTM are further constrained by additional factors, traditionally studied to the exclusion of each other, such as memory load and temporal decay. We propose that these processes work synergistically in an elegant manner to capture the adult-end state, whereas their less refined efficiency and modulations in childhood account for the smaller VSTM capacity that 7-year-olds demonstrate compared to older individuals. We conclude that going beyond the investigation of single cognitive mechanisms, to their interactions, holds the promise to understand both developing and fully developed maintenance in VSTM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Genotypes and Parenting Influence on Long-Term Executive Functioning After Moderate to Severe Early Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowski, Brad G; Treble-Barna, Amery; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Martin, Lisa J; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Wade, Shari L

    To examine catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 genotypes as moderators of the effects of parenting style on postinjury changes in parent behavior ratings of executive dysfunction following moderate to severe early childhood traumatic brain injury. Research was conducted in an outpatient setting. Participants included children admitted to hospital with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (n = 55) or orthopedic injuries (n = 70) between ages 3 and 7 years. Prospective cohort followed over 7 years postinjury. Parenting Practices Questionnaire and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning obtained at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months, and 3.5 and 6.8 years postinjury. DNA was collected from saliva samples, purified using the Oragene (DNA Genotek, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) OG-500 self-collection tubes, and analyzed using TaqMan (Applied Biosystems, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, Massachusetts) assay protocols to identify the COMT rs4680 polymorphism. Linear mixed models revealed a significant genotype × parenting style × time interaction (F = 5.72, P = .02), which suggested that the adverse effects of authoritarian parenting on postinjury development of executive functioning were buffered by the presence of the COMT AA genotype (lower enzyme activity, higher dopamine levels). There were no significant associations of executive functioning with the interaction between genotype and authoritative or permissive parenting ratings. The lower activity COMT rs4680 genotype may buffer the negative effect of authoritarian parenting on long-term executive functioning following injury in early childhood. The findings provide preliminary evidence for associations of parenting style with executive dysfunction in children and for a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as contributors to decreases in these problems after traumatic injuries in children. Further investigation is warranted to understand the interplay among genetic and

  16. Long-term persistence of immunity and B-cell memory following Haemophilus influenzae type B conjugate vaccination in early childhood and response to booster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrett, K P; John, T M; Jin, C; Kibwana, E; Yu, L-M; Curtis, N; Pollard, A J

    2014-04-01

    Protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a rapidly invading encapsulated bacteria, is dependent on maintenance of an adequate level of serum antibody through early childhood. In many countries, Hib vaccine booster doses have been implemented after infant immunization to sustain immunity. We investigated the long-term persistence of antibody and immunological memory in primary-school children following infant (with or without booster) Hib vaccination. Anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and the frequency of circulating Hib-specific memory B cells were measured before a booster of a Hib-serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) conjugate vaccine and again 1 week, 1 month, and 1 year after the booster in 250 healthy children aged 6-12 years in an open-label phase 4 clinical study. Six to 12 years following infant priming with 3 doses of Hib conjugate vaccine, anti-PRP IgG geometric mean concentrations were 3.11 µg/mL and 0.71 µg/mL and proportions with anti-PRP IgG ≥1.0 µg/mL were 79% and 43% in children who had or had not, respectively, received a fourth Hib conjugate vaccine dose (mean age, 3.9 years). Higher baseline and post-Hib-MenC booster responses (anti-PRP IgG and memory B cells) were found in younger children and in those who had received a fourth Hib dose. Sustained Hib conjugate vaccine-induced immunity in children is dependent on time since infant priming and receipt of a booster. Understanding the relationship between humoral and cellular immunity following immunization with conjugate vaccines may direct vaccine design and boosting strategies to sustain individual and population immunity against encapsulated bacteria in early childhood. Clinical Trials Registration ISRCTN728588998.

  17. Long-term impact of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes on social life, quality of life and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellerio, H; Guilmin-Crépon, S; Jacquin, P; Labéguerie, M; Lévy-Marchal, C; Alberti, C

    2015-12-01

    This study describes the socio-professional outcomes, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and sexuality of adults with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). The study participants (n=388), recruited from a nationwide registry (age: 28.5 ± 3.1 years; T1D duration: 17.0 ± 2.7 years), completed a questionnaire (198 items); the results were compared with the French general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and Z scores matched for age, gender and period with/without education levels and patterns of family life. Linear regression models also investigated correlates of SF-36 Physical (PCS) and Mental Composite Scores (MCS). Compared with the French general population, education levels of people with T1D were similar, with 68.6% having at least a high-school diploma or higher (SIR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.93; 1.20), as were also their patterns of family life. Unemployment was higher in T1D women (15.3%, SIR: 1.50, 1.00; 2.05), but not in T1D men (8.6%, SIR: 0.96, 0.51; 1.57). Social discrimination was more common (SIR: 5.64, 4.64; 6.62), and frequency of daily alcohol consumption was higher (SIR: men, 3.34, 2.38; 4.54; women, 6.53, 4.57; 12.99). PCS and MCS were decreased moderately (mean ± SD: 52.0 ± 7.5; mean Z score: -0.2, 95% CI: -0.3; -0.1) and substantially (mean ± SD: 42.1 ± 12.4; mean Z score: -0.7, -0.8; -0.6), respectively. Fatigue and abandoning sports were predictive of a lower HRQOL. Both men and women were more frequently dissatisfied with their sex life. Prevalence of sexual problems was higher in women (SIR for: dysorgasmia, 1.91, 1.21-2.88; decreased/loss of desire: 2.11, 1.35-3.08), but similar in men. Participants with T1D-related complications had preserved social outcomes, but altered HRQOL. Young adults with T1D have satisfactory social participation. However, their higher alcohol consumption, lower MCS and frequent dissatisfaction with sexuality suggest a heavy impact of the disease on morale, especially in women. Improving the

  18. Short-Term International Experience (STIE) and Students' Understanding of Quality Early Childhood Service Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Margaret; Nishida, Yukiyo

    2018-01-01

    Exposing pre-service teachers to international professional experiences through a short-term visiting programme serves to challenge their understandings of good quality practice through disturbing assumptions and expectations previously formed through experiences in their own country/culture. Much of the research in international study focuses on…

  19. Long-term results of NOPHO ALL-92 and ALL-2000 studies of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K; Forestier, E; Hellebostad, M

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of 2668 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated in two successive Nordic clinical trials (Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL-92 and ALL-2000) showed that 75% of all patients are cured by first-line therapy, and 83% are long-term survivors...

  20. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  1. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SUBSCRIBE Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Childhood Emergencies Keeping children healthy and safe is every ... and tools to prevent, recognize and address a childhood emergency is the first step in keeping your ...

  2. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Trandafir, Laura Mihaela; Ioniuc, Ileana; Miron, Ingrith

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  3. Long-term results of NOPHO ALL-92 and ALL-2000 studies of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K; Forestier, E; Hellebostad, M

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of 2668 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated in two successive Nordic clinical trials (Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL-92 and ALL-2000) showed that 75% of all patients are cured by first-line therapy, and 83% are long-term survivors....... Improvements in systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy have reduced the use of central nervous system (CNS) irradiation to...

  4. Validity of the RAI-MDS for ascertaining diabetes and comorbid conditions in long-term care facility residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lix, Lisa M; Yan, Lin; Blackburn, David; Hu, Nianping; Schneider-Lindner, Verena; Teare, Gary F

    2014-01-15

    This study assessed the validity of the Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Data Set (RAI-MDS) Version 2.0 for diagnoses of diabetes and comorbid conditions in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Hospital inpatient, outpatient physician billing, RAI-MDS, and population registry data for 1997 to 2011 from Saskatchewan, Canada were used to ascertain cases of diabetes and 12 comorbid conditions. Prevalence estimates were calculated for both RAI-MDS and administrative health data. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were calculated using population-based administrative health data as the validation data source. Cohen's κ was used to estimate agreement between the two data sources. 23,217 LTCF residents were in the diabetes case ascertainment cohort. Diabetes prevalence was 25.3% in administrative health data and 21.9% in RAI-MDS data. Overall sensitivity of a RAI-MDS diabetes diagnoses was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.80) and the PPV was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.92), when compared to administrative health data. Sensitivity of the RAI-MDS for ascertaining comorbid conditions ranged from 0.21 for osteoporosis to 0.92 for multiple sclerosis; specificity was high for most conditions. RAI-MDS clinical assessment data are sensitive to ascertain diabetes cases in LTCF populations when compared to administrative health data. For many comorbid conditions, RAI-MDS data have low validity when compared to administrative data. Risk-adjustment measures based on these comorbidities might not produce consistent results for RAI-MDS and administrative health data, which could affect the conclusions of studies about health outcomes and quality of care across facilities.

  5. Variation in Parasympathetic Dysregulation Moderates Short-term Memory Problems in Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Anthony R; Alarcón, Gabriela; Nigg, Joel T; Musser, Erica D

    2015-11-01

    Although attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with impairment in working memory and short-term memory, up to half of individual children with ADHD perform within a normative range. Heterogeneity in other ADHD-related mechanisms, which may compensate for or combine with cognitive weaknesses, is a likely explanation. One candidate is the robustness of parasympathetic regulation (as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA). Theory and data suggest that a common neural network is likely tied to both heart-rate regulation and certain cognitive functions (including aspects of working and short-term memory). Cardiac-derived indices of parasympathetic reactivity were collected during short-term memory (STM) storage and rehearsal tasks from 243 children (116 ADHD, 127 controls). ADHD was associated with lower STM performance, replicating previous work. In addition, RSA reactivity moderated the association between STM and ADHD - both as a category and a dimension - independent of comorbidity. Specifically, conditional effects revealed that high levels of withdrawal interacted with weakened STM but high levels of augmentation moderated a positive association predicting ADHD. Thus, variations in parasympathetic reactivity may help explain neuropsychological heterogeneity in ADHD.

  6. Cardiovascular diseases mortality following cancer during childhood: long term risk, role of chemotherapy and of radiation dose to heart and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenova, Markhaba; Guibout, Catherine; Oberlin, Odile; Doyon, Francoise; Moussannif, Abdedaid; Haddy, Nadia; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vathaire, Florent de; Pacquement, Helene; Hawkins, Mike; Winter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Background: A multi-centric French-UK cohort study was performed to evaluate the role of treatment in the long-term overall and cause-specific mortality among childhood cancer survivors. Methods: This study cohort included 4,120 patients treated for a solid tumours before the age of 17 between 1942-1986, in 8 centres in France and UK and who survived at least 5 years from diagnosis. Detailed clinical and therapeutic data were extracted for each patients from medical records. For 2868 of the 2868 patients who received radiotherapy, radiation doses were estimated using DOS E G software at 188 anatomical sites, including heart (7 sites) and lungs (10 sites). We obtained the death causes of 95 % of dead patients. Overall and cause-specific mortality standardized ratios (SMR), absolute excess risk (AER) of death were studied using Poisson regression. Results: 603 patients died during the follow-up, i.e. 8.5-fold (95 % CI: 7.7-9.1) more than that expected in the general population. A total of 32 patients died of cardiovascular diseases, i.e. 4.8-fold (95 % CI, 3.3 to 6.7) more than expected, 21 of which were cardiac diseases, i.e. 6.0-fold more (95% CI, 3.8 to 9.0). Overall, patients who had received radiotherapy had a 5.4-fold (95% CI, 1.5 to 32.1) higher risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease than those who had not. Mortality due to cardiac disease was related to the administration of alkylating agents and / or vinca alkaloids, and to that of anthracyclines. Each additional 100 mg of anthracyclines per m 2 of body surface area increased the mortality rate due to heart diseases by 92% (95% CI, 16% to 318%). Patients who had received between 5 to 14.9 Gy to the heart during radiotherapy had a 14.5-fold (95% CI, 2.0 to 291) higher risk of mortality from cardiac diseases than patients who had not received radiotherapy, this ratio being 32.6 (95% CI, 5.6 to 622) in those who had received more than 15 Gy. Conclusion: Childhood cancer survivors are at high

  7. Long-term impact of childhood disadvantage on late-life functional decline among older Japanese: Results from the JAGES prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Takeo; Tani, Yukako; Amemiya, Airi; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Nagamine, Yuiko; Kondo, Katsunori

    2017-09-11

    Increasing evidence suggests an impact of childhood disadvantage on late-life functional impairment in Western countries. However, the processes by which childhood disadvantage affects functional capacity are influenced by several factors unique to particular societies. We examined the impact of childhood disadvantage on functional decline among older Japanese, using a large-scale prospective cohort study. Data came from surveys conducted in 2010 and 2013 as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), a nationwide cohort study targeting community-dwelling people aged 65 years and over. Childhood disadvantage included subjective childhood socioeconomic status (SES), body height and educational level. The sample was stratified by age at baseline (65-69 y, 70-74 y, 75-79 y, and ≥ 80 y). A total of 11,601 respondents were analyzed. In the 65-69 y group, lower childhood SES was associated with functional decline, but this association was mediated by adult SES. In contrast, childhood SES was independently associated with functional decline in the older cohort. In the 75-79 y group, lower childhood SES was associated with functional decline. However, in the ≥ 80 y group, people with higher childhood SES were more likely to experience functional decline. Shorter height was associated with functional decline in the 70-74 y group. Higher education was related to functional decline in all age groups except the ≥ 80 y group. These findings suggest that childhood disadvantage affects functional decline, but its effect varies by age cohort. The mechanisms underlying the association between childhood disadvantage and functional decline may be influenced by social and historical context. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Explicating Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    How we choose to use a term depends on what we want to do with it. If "validity" is to be used to support a score interpretation, validation would require an analysis of the plausibility of that interpretation. If validity is to be used to support score uses, validation would require an analysis of the appropriateness of the proposed…

  9. Getting Started for Preparing Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers in Terms of Sustainable Food Consumption: The Current Situation at a Public University in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacam, Nur; Sahin, Elvan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the food consumption and nutrition perceptions of pre-service early childhood teachers using a mixed method research design. Data was gathered from 37 pre-service early childhood teachers through survey consisting of items in rating scale and open-ended questions. Descriptive analyses were conducted to report pre-service…

  10. Development of a tool dedicated to the evaluation of hydrogen term source for technological Wastes: assumptions, physical models, and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamouroux, C. [CEA Saclay, Nuclear Energy Division /DANS, Department of physico-chemistry, 91191 Gif sur yvette (France); Esnouf, S. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SIS2M/Radiolysis Laboratory , 91191 Gif sur yvette (France); Cochin, F. [Areva NC,recycling BU, DIRP/RDP tour Areva, 92084 Paris La Defense (France)

    2013-07-01

    In radioactive waste packages hydrogen is generated, in one hand, from the radiolysis of wastes (mainly organic materials) and, in the other hand, from the radiolysis of water content in the cement matrix. In order to assess hydrogen generation 2 tools based on operational models have been developed. One is dedicated to the determination of the hydrogen source term issues from the radiolysis of the wastes: the STORAGE tool (Simulation Tool Of Emission Radiolysis Gas), the other deals with the hydrogen source term gas, produced by radiolysis of the cement matrices (the Damar tool). The approach used by the STORAGE tool for assessing the production rate of radiolysis gases is divided into five steps: 1) Specification of the data packages, in particular, inventories and radiological materials defined for a package medium; 2) Determination of radiochemical yields for the different constituents and the laws of behavior associated, this determination of radiochemical yields is made from the PRELOG database in which radiochemical yields in different irradiation conditions have been compiled; 3) Definition of hypothesis concerning the composition and the distribution of contamination inside the package to allow assessment of the power absorbed by the constituents; 4) Sum-up of all the contributions; And finally, 5) validation calculations by comparison with a reduced sampling of packages. Comparisons with measured values confirm the conservative character of the methodology and give confidence in the safety margins for safety analysis report.

  11. Childhood sexual abuse: long-term effects on psychological and sexual functioning in a nonclinical and nonstudent sample of adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, E; Leitenberg, H; Cado, S; Tarran, M J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the experience of childhood sexual abuse is related to long-term psychological and sexual functioning in a nonclinical and nonstudent community sample of women. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,500 nurses and returned anonymously. Fifty-four women who had been sexually abused as children (age 15 or younger) responded. These subjects were then matched with 54 nonabused control subjects. Although there was no difference on a measure of self-esteem, the abused group reported more symptoms of distress on the Global Severity Index and on seven out of nine subscales of the Derogatis Brief Symptom Inventory. They also reported more disturbance on a scale which examined psychological symptoms that have been commonly reported in the literature to be particularly associated with sexual abuse. These differences between the abused and nonabused groups were evident even after controlling for differences in subjects' perceptions of parental emotional support. Unlike the results for psychological adjustment, however, the abused subjects did not differ from the control subjects on self-reported levels of sexual satisfaction or sexual dysfunction.

  12. Gonadal shielding to irradiation is effective in protecting testicular growth and function in long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation during childhood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, H; Yasuda, Y; Tomita, Y; Shinagawa, T; Shimizu, T; Morimoto, T; Hattori, K; Matsumoto, M; Inoue, H; Yabe, H; Yabe, M; Shinohara, O; Kato, S

    2007-04-01

    An increasing number of long-term surviving bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients have recovered from their primary disease but are at risk of developing failure of endocrine organs. We investigated 30 recipients who underwent allogeneic BMT during childhood or adolescence. Testicular growth and function were evaluated by serial measurement of testicular volume, basal luteinizing hormone (LH), basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels and by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) provocative test. Puberty started spontaneously in all patients. However, all except four patients had normal testosterone levels with elevated LH, indicating partial Leydig cell dysfunction. Standard deviation scores of testicular volume at last evaluation were statistically lower in those who had received irradiation without gonadal shield compared to those with (-2.04+/-0.45 vs -0.30+/-1.17, respectively, Pgonadal irradiation. Serial measurement of testicular volume showed a tendency of growth to stop at 10 ml in those without gonadal shield. Among the 30 patients, only one patient has fathered a child after reaching spontaneous puberty. These results suggest that gonadal shield is effective to protect testicular growth and function, although the attainment of fertility is difficult to achieve.

  13. Long-term impact of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence on morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J J; Kelly, J

    2011-07-01

    The last systematic review on the health consequences of child and adolescent obesity found little evidence on consequences for adult health. The present study aimed to summarize evidence on the long-term impact of child and adolescent obesity for premature mortality and physical morbidity in adulthood. Systematic review with evidence searched from January 2002 to June 2010. Studies were included if they contained a measure of overweight and/or obesity between birth and 18 years (exposure measure) and premature mortality and physical morbidity (outcome) in adulthood. Five eligible studies examined associations between overweight and/or obesity, and premature mortality: 4/5 found significantly increased risk of premature mortality with child and adolescent overweight or obesity. All 11 studies with cardiometabolic morbidity as outcomes reported that overweight and obesity were associated with significantly increased risk of later cardiometabolic morbidity (diabetes, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke) in adult life, with hazard ratios ranging from 1.1-5.1. Nine studies examined associations of child or adolescent overweight and obesity with other adult morbidity: studies of cancer morbidity were inconsistent; child and adolescent overweight and obesity were associated with significantly increased risk of later disability pension, asthma, and polycystic ovary syndrome symptoms. A relatively large and fairly consistent body of evidence now demonstrates that overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence have adverse consequences on premature mortality and physical morbidity in adulthood.

  14. Assessment of Social Information Processing in Early Childhood: Development and Initial Validation of the Schultz Test of Emotion Processing--Preliminary Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, David; Ambike, Archana; Logie, Sean Kevin; Bohner, Katherine E.; Stapleton, Laura M.; VanderWalde, Holly; Min, Christopher B.; Betkowski, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    Crick and Dodge's (Psychological Bulletin 115:74-101, 1994) social information processing model has proven very useful in guiding research focused on aggressive and peer-rejected children's social-cognitive functioning. Its application to early childhood, however, has been much more limited. The present study responds to this gap by developing and…

  15. Development and initial validation of the comprehensive early childhood parenting questionnaire (CECPAQ) for parents of 1-4 year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.R.W.; Dekoviç, M.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Baar, A.L. van

    2017-01-01

    Parenting is a multifaceted task and the way in which parents fulfill this task plays an important role in children's growth and development, especially in early childhood. Conceptualization and assessment of parenting behavior is elementary for research on child and family development and would

  16. Development and initial validation of the comprehensive early childhood parenting questionnaire (CECPAQ) for parents of 1–4 year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Dekovic, Maja; Bodden, Denise; van Baar, Anneloes

    2017-01-01

    Parenting is a multifaceted task and the way in which parents fulfill this task plays an important role in children’s growth and development, especially in early childhood. Conceptualization and assessment of parenting behavior is elementary for research on child and family development and would

  17. Family meal traditions. Comparing reported childhood food habits to current food habits among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term nutritional morbidity for congenital diaphragmatic hernia survivors: Failure to thrive extends well into childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliburton, Beth; Mouzaki, Marialena; Chiang, Monping; Scaini, Vikki; Marcon, Margaret; Moraes, Theo J; Chiu, Priscilla P

    2015-05-01

    Failure to thrive (FTT) is well documented among congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors ≤3years of age, but its etiology, severity, and persistence beyond this age require further elucidation. We conducted a single-center, retrospective study assessing anthropometrics, measured energy expenditure, and feeding tube (FT) use of 5-17 year olds in our multidisciplinary CDH clinic since January 2001. We stratified clinic visits based on age A: 5.0-6.9, B: 7.0-9.9, C: 10.0-14.9, and D: 15-17.9years. One hundred sixteen patients with 376 outpatient visits were reviewed. Anthropometric z-scores were below zero and did not vary across age cohorts. FTT and growth stunting each occurred in 14% of clinic visits. FTs inserted during infancy occurred in 25% of patients, and 60% remained by age 7years. In cohort A, those with FTs were lighter and shorter than those without (pFailure to thrive continues in long-term CDH survivors, FTs may not improve incidence of FTT. Increased energy expenditure may play a role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Long-Term Effects of Chemo Radiotherapy on Oral Health and Dental Development in Childhood Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Momenbeitollahi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in survival and local control measures in children with neoplasm in the head and neck region may lead to increased iatrogenic adverse effects of treatment. The aim of this study was to report a new case of the long-term effects of chemoradiotherapyon oral health and dental development in a patient treated for Hodgkin’s disease at an early age. In this case report, a 26-year-old female is presented, who at the age of 5 years receivedchemotherapy and radiotherapy for Hodgkin’s disease in the neck region. The patient consulted the Department of Oral Medicine because of dental changes and tooth loss despite adequate dental care and oral hygiene. Clinical examination revealed loose teethand inflamed gingiva of the mandible, x-ray showed premature root resorption, V-shaped and shortened roots and alveolar bone loss. After examination, the patient was referred for extracting the mandibular teeth and then wassent to the prosthetics department. Therefore,in order to decrease dental treatment sequelae in patients who have had cured malignant disease, these cases should have life-long dental care and follow-up.

  20. Long-term safety of growth hormone replacement therapy after childhood medulloblastoma and PNET: it is time to set aside old concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indini, Alice; Schiavello, Elisabetta; Biassoni, Veronica; Bergamaschi, Luca; Magni, Maria Chiara; Puma, Nadia; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Pallotti, Federica; Seregni, Ettore; Diletto, Barbara; Pecori, Emilia; Gandola, Lorenza; Poggi, Geraldina; Massimino, Maura

    2017-01-01

    To assess the long-term safety of administering growth hormone (GH) in patients with GH deficiency due to treatment for childhood medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). Data were retrospectively retrieved on children receiving GH supplementation, assessing their disease-free and overall survival outcomes and risk of secondary malignancies using Kaplan-Meier and Cox models. Overall 65 children were consecutively collected from May 1981 to April 2013. All patients had undergone craniospinal irradiation (total dose 18-39 Gy), and subsequently received GH for a median (interquartile range, IQR) of 81 (50.6-114.9) months. At a median (IQR) of 122.4 months (74.4-149.5) after the end of their adjuvant cancer treatment, two patients (3 %) experienced recurrent disease and 8 (12.3 %) developed secondary malignancies, all but one of them (an osteosarcoma) related to radiation exposure and occurring within the radiation fields. There was no apparent correlation between the administration of GH replacement therapy (or its duration) and primary tumor relapse or the onset of secondary malignancies [HR: 1.01 (95 % CI: 0.98, 1.03) for every additional 12 months of GH supplementation; p = 0.36). At univariate analysis, the large cell or anaplastic medulloblastoma subtype, metastases and myeloablative chemotherapy correlated with a higher risk of secondary malignancies (p < 0.1), but multivariate analysis failed to identify any factors independently associated with this risk. Our data supports once more the safety of long-term GH replacement therapy in children treated for medulloblastoma/PNET, previously reported in larger data sets. The neurooncology community now need to warrant large-scale meta-analyses or international prospective trials in order to consolidate our knowledge of factors other than GH, such as genetic predisposition, high-grade/metastatic disease, high-dose chemotherapy and era of treatment, in promoting the occurrence of

  1. Childhood cancer: Early warning signs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World-wide there are more than 200 000 new cases of childhood cancer per year and more than 70% of these occur in the developing world. In the First World more than 70% of these children will become long-term survivors. For some childhood cancers 5-year survival rates approach 95% . In England only 0.5% of all ...

  2. A Population-Based Study of Long-term Outcomes of Cryptogenic Focal Epilepsy in Childhood: Cryptogenic Epilepsy is NOT Probably Symptomatic Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirrell, Elaine C; Grossardt, Brandon R; So, Elson L; Nickels, Katherine C

    2011-01-01

    predict outcome in the cryptogenic group. Significance More than half of childhood non-idiopathic localization-related epilepsy is cryptogenic. This group has a significantly better long-term outcome than those with a symptomatic etiology, and should be distinguished from it. PMID:21320114

  3. Is screening for abnormal ECG patterns justified in long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors treated with anthracyclines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourier, M.S.; Mavinkurve-Groothuis, A.M.C.; Loonen, J.J.; Bokkerink, J.P.M.; Roeleveld, N.; Beer, G.; Bellersen, L.; Kapusta, L.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ECG and echocardiography are noninvasive screening tools to detect subclinical cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). Our aims were as follows: (1) assess the prevalence of abnormal ECG patterns, (2) determine the agreement between abnormal ECG patterns and

  4. Validation of systems biology derived molecular markers of renal donor organ status associated with long term allograft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perco, Paul; Heinzel, Andreas; Leierer, Johannes; Schneeberger, Stefan; Bösmüller, Claudia; Oberhuber, Rupert; Wagner, Silvia; Engler, Franziska; Mayer, Gert

    2018-05-03

    Donor organ quality affects long term outcome after renal transplantation. A variety of prognostic molecular markers is available, yet their validity often remains undetermined. A network-based molecular model reflecting donor kidney status based on transcriptomics data and molecular features reported in scientific literature to be associated with chronic allograft nephropathy was created. Significantly enriched biological processes were identified and representative markers were selected. An independent kidney pre-implantation transcriptomics dataset of 76 organs was used to predict estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values twelve months after transplantation using available clinical data and marker expression values. The best-performing regression model solely based on the clinical parameters donor age, donor gender, and recipient gender explained 17% of variance in post-transplant eGFR values. The five molecular markers EGF, CD2BP2, RALBP1, SF3B1, and DDX19B representing key molecular processes of the constructed renal donor organ status molecular model in addition to the clinical parameters significantly improved model performance (p-value = 0.0007) explaining around 33% of the variability of eGFR values twelve months after transplantation. Collectively, molecular markers reflecting donor organ status significantly add to prediction of post-transplant renal function when added to the clinical parameters donor age and gender.

  5. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures: A validation of interview data.

    OpenAIRE

    Vienneau Danielle; Infanger Denis; Feychting Maria; Schüz Joachim; Schmidt Lisbeth Samsø; Poulsen Aslak Harbo; Tettamanti Giorgio; Klæboe Lars; Kuehni Claudia E; Tynes Tore; Von der Weid Nicolas; Lannering Birgitta; Röösli Martin

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight length maternal age) birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction preterm delivery birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking working dietary supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7 19 year olds. The multinational case control study in Denmark Sweden Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (particip...

  6. Long-term outcomes of youth who manifested the CBCL-Pediatric Bipolar Disorder phenotype during childhood and/or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stephanie E; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Youngstrom, Eric; Ronsaville, Donna S; Martinez, Pedro E; Gold, Philip W; Hakak, Rashelle; Radke-Yarrow, Marian

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have identified a Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profile that characterizes children with severe aggression, inattention, and mood instability. This profile has been coined the CBCL-Pediatric Bipolar Disorder (PBD) phenotype, because it is commonly seen among children with bipolar disorder. However, mounting evidence suggests that the CBCL-PBD may be a better tool for identifying children with severe functional impairment and broad-ranging psychiatric comorbidities rather than bipolar disorder itself. No studies have followed individuals with the CBCL-PBD profile through adulthood, so its long-term implications remain unclear. The present authors examined diagnostic and functional trajectories of individuals with the CBCL-PBD profile from early childhood through young adulthood using data from a longitudinal high-risk study. Participants (n=101) are part of a 23-year study of youth at risk for major mood disorder who have completed diagnostic and functional assessments at regular intervals. Across development, participants with the CBCL-PBD phenotype exhibited marked psychosocial impairment, increased rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors and heightened risk for comorbid anxiety, bipolar disorder, cluster B personality disorders and ADHD in young adulthood, compared to participants without this presentation. However, diagnostic accuracy for any one particular disorder was found to be low. Children with the CBCL-PBD profile are at risk for ongoing, severe, psychiatric symptomatology including behavior and emotional comorbidities in general, and bipolar disorder, anxiety, ADHD, cluster B personality disorders in particular. However, the value of this profile may be in predicting ongoing comorbidity and impairment, rather than any one specific DSM-IV diagnosis.

  7. Association between childhood adversities and long-term suicidality among South Africans from the results of the South African Stress and Health study: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, Belinda; Govender, Ravi; Bishop, Melanie; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya

    2014-06-11

    Suicide and suicidal behaviours are significant public health problems and a leading cause of death worldwide and in South Africa. We examined the association between childhood adversities and suicidal behaviour over the life course. A national probability sample of 4351 South African adult participants (aged 18 years and older) in the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study was interviewed as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. Respondents provided sociodemographic and diagnostic information, as well as an account of suicide-related thoughts and behaviours. Suicidality or suicidal behaviour were defined as were defined as suicide attempts and suicidal ideation in the total sample, and suicide plans and attempts among ideators. Childhood adversities included physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental death, parental divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical illness and financial adversity. The association between suicidality and childhood adversities was examined using discrete-time survival models. More than a third of the respondents with suicidal behaviour experienced at least one childhood adversity, with physical abuse, parental death and parental divorce being the most prevalent adversities. Physical abuse, sexual abuse and parental divorce were identified as significant risk markers for lifetime suicide attempts, while physical abuse and parental divorce were significantly correlated with suicidal ideation. Two or more childhood adversities were associated with a twofold higher risk of lifetime suicide attempts. Sexual abuse (OR 9.3), parental divorce (OR 3.1) and childhood physical abuse (OR 2.2) had the strongest associations with lifetime suicide attempts. The effect of childhood adversities on suicidal tendencies varied over the life course. For example, sexual abuse was significantly associated with suicide attempts during childhood and teen years, but not during young and later adulthood. Childhood adversities

  8. Review of the status of validation of the computer codes used in the severe accident source term reassessment study (BMI-2104)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, T.S.

    1985-04-01

    The determination of severe accident source terms must, by necessity it seems, rely heavily on the use of complex computer codes. Source term acceptability, therefore, rests on the assessed validity of such codes. Consequently, one element of NRC's recent efforts to reassess LWR severe accident source terms is to provide a review of the status of validation of the computer codes used in the reassessment. The results of this review is the subject of this document. The separate review documents compiled in this report were used as a resource along with the results of the BMI-2104 study by BCL and the QUEST study by SNL to arrive at a more-or-less independent appraisal of the status of source term modeling at this time

  9. The long-term impact of childhood abuse on internalizing disorders among older adults: the moderating role of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Gayman, Mathew D; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen; Lloyd, Donald A; Medley, Amanda; Collins, Nicole; Corsentino, Elizabeth; Sawyer, Kathryn

    2010-05-01

    First, to determine if childhood experiences of abuse have an impact on internalizing disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders) among older adults. Second, we wish to determine if self-esteem plays a role in explaining the relationship between abuse and internalizing disorders. First, we conducted an analysis on a population sample of participants aged 50 years or older (mean age = 67 years; SD = 10.3) assessed at two time points, three years apart (Wave 1, N = 1460; Wave 2, N = 1090). We examined the relationship between reports of childhood abuse (physical, emotional, and sexual) and internalizing disorders. Second, we determined the role self-esteem played in explaining the relationship. We found that childhood experiences of abuse assessed at Wave 1 predicted the number of DSM-IV internalizing disorders occurring three years later. Demonstrating the specificity of self-esteem; we found self-esteem, but not emotional reliance, to moderate the relationship between abuse and internalizing disorders such that childhood abuse had more negative effects on those with low self-esteem compared to those with higher self-esteem. Contrary to prediction, self-esteem did not mediate the relationship between abuse and internalizing disorders. The negative effects of childhood abuse persist for many years, even into older adulthood. However, contrary to the findings in younger adults, self-esteem was not correlated with childhood abuse in older adults. Moreover, childhood abuse only had a negative effect on those who had low self-esteem. It may be through the process of lifespan development that some abused individuals come to separate out the effects of abuse from their self-concept.

  10. Construção e validação da Escala de Imprevisibilidade Familiar na Infância (EIFI Construction and validation of the Family Unpredictability Scale in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beatriz Carnielli Howat-Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de construir e validar uma medida psicológica denominada de Escala de Imprevisibilidade Familiar na Infância (EIFI para a população brasileira. Participaram 394 pessoas, sendo 158 adultos em conflito com a lei que já haviam passado pela prisão (média de idade=34,23 anos; DP=10,17, 122 estudantes universitários (M=19,26; DP=2,06 e 114 mulheres com idade superior a 40 anos e escolaridade a partir de ensino médio (M=51,19; DP=8,64. Foram conduzidos procedimentos de validade de conteúdo, face e construto. A análise fatorial gerou como produto um instrumento com estrutura de quatro dimensões (cuidado/apoio, recursos financeiros, alimentação e disciplina com índices de confiabilidade satisfatórios para todas elas. Concluímos que a EIFI foi validada para a população brasileira apresentando-se no cenário nacional como um instrumento para medida de imprevisibilidade familiar na infância.This study aimed to construct and validate a psychological measure called Family Unpredictability Scale in Childhood for the Brazilian population. The study included 394 people: 158 adults in conflict with the law that had already been in prison (M=34.23 years; SD=10.17, 122 college students (M=19.26; SD=2.06, and 114 women above 40 years old and, at least, high school schooling (M=51.19; SD=8.64. Procedures of content, face and construct validity were conducted. The factor analysis generated an instrument structured in four dimensions (care/support, financial resources, food and discipline with satisfactory reliability indexes for all of them. It was concluded that Family Unpredictability Scale in Childhood was validated to Brazilian population and that it can be used as an instrument to measure family unpredictability in childhood on the national scene.

  11. Long-term effects of cranial irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy in treatment of childhood leukemia: a MEG study of power spectrum and correlated cognitive dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Prophylaxis to prevent relapses in the central nervous system after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) used to consist of both intrathecal chemotherapy (CT) and cranial irradiation (CRT). CRT was mostly abolished in the eighties because of its neurotoxicity, and replaced with more intensive intrathecal CT. In this study, a group of survivors treated with CRT before 1983 and another group treated without CRT thereafter are investigated 20–25 years later, giving a much stronger perspective on long-term quality of life than previous studies. The outcomes will help to better understand these groups’ current needs and will aid in anticipating late effects of prophylactic CRT that is currently applied for other diseases. This study evaluates oscillatory neuronal activity in these long-term survivors. Power spectrum deviations are hypothesized to correlate with cognitive dysfunction. Methods Resting state eyes-closed magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were obtained from 14 ALL survivors treated with CT + CRT, 18 treated with CT alone and 35 controls. Relative spectral power was calculated in the δ, θ, α1, α2, β and γ frequency bands. The Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT) program was used to assess cognition in the executive functions domain. MEG data and ANT scores were correlated. Results In the CT + CRT group, relative θ power was slightly increased (p = 0.069) and α2 power was significantly decreased (p = 0.006). The CT + CRT group performed worse on various cognitive tests. A deficiency in visuomotor accuracy, especially of the right hand, could be clearly associated with the deviating regional θ and α2 powers (0.471 < r < 0.697). A significant association between decreased regional α2 power and less attentional fluctuations was found for CT + CRT patients as well as controls (0.078 < r < 0.666). Patients treated with CT alone displayed a power spectrum similar to controls, except

  12. Validation of PC-based Sound Card with Biopac for Digitalization of ECG Recording in Short-term HRV Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshkumar, K; Dilara, K; Maruthy, K N; Sundareswaren, L

    2016-07-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a simple and noninvasive technique capable of assessing autonomic nervous system modulation on heart rate (HR) in healthy as well as disease conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare (validate) the HRV using a temporal series of electrocardiograms (ECG) obtained by simple analog amplifier with PC-based sound card (audacity) and Biopac MP36 module. Based on the inclusion criteria, 120 healthy participants, including 72 males and 48 females, participated in the present study. Following standard protocol, 5-min ECG was recorded after 10 min of supine rest by Portable simple analog amplifier PC-based sound card as well as by Biopac module with surface electrodes in Leads II position simultaneously. All the ECG data was visually screened and was found to be free of ectopic beats and noise. RR intervals from both ECG recordings were analyzed separately in Kubios software. Short-term HRV indexes in both time and frequency domain were used. The unpaired Student's t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient test were used for the analysis using the R statistical software. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing the values analyzed by means of the two devices for HRV. Correlation analysis revealed perfect positive correlation (r = 0.99, P < 0.001) between the values in time and frequency domain obtained by the devices. On the basis of the results of the present study, we suggest that the calculation of HRV values in the time and frequency domains by RR series obtained from the PC-based sound card is probably as reliable as those obtained by the gold standard Biopac MP36.

  13. Validation of prognostic scores to predict short-term mortality in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Do Seon; Kim, Tae Yeob; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Hee Yeon; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Yoon, Eileen L; Kim, Chang Wook; Jung, Young Kul; Suk, Ki Tae; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Chang Hyeong; Kim, Tae Hun; Choe, Won Hyeok; Yim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Sung Eun; Baik, Soon Koo; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Hyoung Su; Kim, Sang Gyune; Yang, Jin Mo; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Choi, Eun Hee; Cho, Hyun Chin; Jeong, Soung Won; Kim, Moon Young

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment score (CLIF-SOFAs), CLIF consortium organ failure score (CLIF-C OFs), CLIF-C acute-on-chronic liver failure score (CLIF-C ACLFs), and CLIF-C acute decompensation score in Korean chronic liver disease patients with acute deterioration. Acute-on-chronic liver failure was defined by either the Asian Pacific Association for the study of the Liver ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) or CLIF-C criteria. The diagnostic performances for short-term mortality were compared by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Among a total of 1470 patients, 252 patients were diagnosed with ACLF according to the CLIF-C (197 patients) or AARC definition (95 patients). As the ACLF grades increased, the survival rates became significantly lower. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic of the CLIF-SOFAs, CLIF-C OFs, and CLIF-C ACLFs were significantly higher than those of the Child-Pugh, model for end-stage liver disease, and model for end-stage liver disease-Na scores in ACLF patients according to the CLIF-C definition (all P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in patients without ACLF or in patients with ACLF according to the AARC definition. The CLIF-SOFAs, CLIF-C OFs, and CLIF-C ACLFs had higher specificities with a fixed sensitivity than liver specific scores in ACLF patients according to the CLIF-C definition, but not in ACLF patients according to the AARC definition. The CLIF-SOFAs, CLIF-C OFs, and CLIF-C ACLFs are useful scoring systems that provide accurate information on prognosis in patients with ACLF according to the CLIF-C definition, but not the AARC definition. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Severe childhood malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J

    2017-01-01

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children malnutrition. Here, we use...... the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal...... nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide...

  15. The effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on longer-term maternal and early childhood outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodd, Jodie M.; Grivell, Rosalie M.; Louise, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) is to evaluate the effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on later maternal and early childhood outcomes at ages 3-5 years. Methods/design: We will build...... or is being undertaken. The primary maternal outcome is a diagnosis of maternal metabolic syndrome. The primary childhood outcome is BMI above 90%. We have identified 7 relevant trials, involving 5425 women who were overweight or obese during pregnancy, with approximately 3544 women and children with follow......-up assessments available for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Discussion: The proposed IPDMA provides an opportunity to evaluate the effect of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on later maternal and early childhood health outcomes, including risk of obesity...

  16. INDIAN CHILDHOOD AND OTHER CHILDHOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Zoia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show how children of the Indian community Terena, from North Mato Grosso, live, how they are educated, and what are the conceptions of childhood among the members of this community. Taking childhood in various contexts, we seek to analyze how this education process has been carried out.

  17. An interactive health communication application for supporting parents managing childhood long-term conditions: outcomes of a randomized controlled feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Veronica M; Knafl, Kathleen; Santacroce, Sheila; Campbell, Malcolm; Hall, Andrew G; Smith, Trish; Carolan, Ian

    2014-12-03

    Families living with chronic or long-term conditions such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), stages 3-5, face multiple challenges and respond to these challenges in various ways. Some families adapt well while others struggle, and family response to a condition is closely related to outcome. With families and professionals, we developed a novel condition-specific interactive health communication app to improve parents' management ability-the online parent information and support (OPIS) program. OPIS consists of a comprehensive mix of clinical caregiving and psychosocial information and support. The purpose of this study was to (1) assess feasibility of a future full-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) of OPIS in terms of recruitment and retention, data collection procedures, and psychometric performance of the study measures in the target population, and (2) investigate trends in change in outcome measures in a small-scale RCT in parents of children with CKD stages 3-5. Parents were recruited from a pediatric nephrology clinic and randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: usual support for home-based clinical caregiving (control) or usual support plus password-protected access to OPIS for 20 weeks (intervention). Both groups completed study measures at study entry and exit. We assessed feasibility descriptively in terms of recruitment and retention rates overall; assessed recruitment, retention, and uptake of the intervention between groups; and compared family condition management, empowerment to deliver care, and fathers' involvement between groups. We recruited 55 parents of 39 children (42% of eligible families). Of those, about three-quarters of intervention group parents (19/26, 73%) and control group parents (22/29, 76%) were retained through completion of 20-week data collection. The overall retention rate was 41/55 (75%). The 41 parents completing the trial were asked to respond to the same 10 questionnaire scales at both baseline and 20 weeks

  18. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Watchdog Ratings Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

  19. Comparison of long-term outcomes between children with aplastic anemia and refractory cytopenia of childhood who received immunosuppressive therapy with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Asahito; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Muramatsu, Hideki; Ito, Masafumi; Narita, Atsushi; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Tsuchida, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ito, Etsuro; Yabe, Hiromasa; Ohga, Shouichi; Ohara, Akira; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-11-01

    The 2008 World Health Organization classification proposed a new entity in childhood myelodysplastic syndrome, refractory cytopenia of childhood. However, it is unclear whether this morphological classification reflects clinical outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed bone marrow morphology in 186 children (median age 8 years; range 1-16 years) who were enrolled in the prospective study and received horse antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine between July 1999 and November 2008. The median follow-up period was 87 months (range 1-146 months). Out of 186 patients, 62 (33%) were classified with aplastic anemia, 94 (49%) with refractory cytopenia of childhood, and 34 (18%) with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia. Aplastic anemia patients received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor more frequently and for longer durations than other patients (Paplastic anemia, 4 patients with refractory cytopenia of childhood, and 3 patients with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia. Although the cumulative incidence of total clonal evolution at ten years was not significantly different among the 3 groups, the cumulative incidence of monosomy 7 development was significantly higher in aplastic anemia than in the other groups (P=0.02). Multivariate analysis revealed that only granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration duration of 40 days or more was a significant risk factor for monosomy 7 development (P=0.02). These findings suggest that even the introduction of a strict morphological distinction from hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome cannot eradicate clonal evolution in children with aplastic anemia. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  20. Obesity is underestimated using body mass index and waist-hip ratio in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blijdorp (Karin); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); R. Pieters (Rob); A.M. Boot (Annemieke); P.J.D. Delhanty (Patric); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Obesity, represented by high body mass index (BMI), is a major complication after treatment for childhood cancer. However, it has been shown that high total fat percentage and low lean body mass are more reliable predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In this study

  1. Surveillance of hepatic late adverse effects in a large cohort of long-term survivors of childhood cancer: prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Renée L.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Koot, Bart G. P.; Benninga, Marc A.; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L.; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Koning, Caro C. E.; Oldenburger, Foppe; Wilde, James C. H.; Taminiau, Jan A. J. M.; Caron, Huib N.; van Dalen, Elvira C.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are a growing group of young individuals with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of hepatic late adverse effects, defined as elevated liver enzymes, in a large cohort of CCS. The cohort consisted of all five-year CCS

  2. Long-term Consequences of Childhood Bullying in Adults who Stutter: Social Anxiety, Fear of Negative Evaluation, Self-esteem, and Satisfaction with Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Gordon W; Blood, Ingrid M

    2016-12-01

    Psychosocial disorders have been reported in adults who stutter, especially social anxiety disorder. Social anxiety has been linked to childhood victimization. It is possible that recalled childhood victimization could be linked to psychosocial problems reported in some adults who stutter. Participants were 36 adults who stutter and 36 adults who do not stutter (mean age=21.9 years). The Retrospective Bullying Questionnaire was completed for primary school, secondary school and university environments for physical, verbal, relational and cyber bullying. Participants were categorized into one of five groups (bully, victim, bully-victim, bystander and uninvolved) based ontheir responses. Participants completed four psychosocial scales: social interaction anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, self-esteem and satisfaction with life scales. The two groups differed with adults who stutter having higher social interaction anxiety, fear of negative evaluation and satisfaction with life. Analyses of variance revealed that victims had the highest scores among both groups on all four scales. Adults who recalled being victimized during childhood were more likely, regardless of whether they stutter or did not stutter, to have poorer psychosocial scale scores. These results show the lingering effects of childhood victimization, common in some children who stutter, may contribute to the reported psychosocial problems in adulthood. The need for early intervention for children who are bullied and future research with larger samples is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term effects of oxandrolone treatment in childhood on neurocognition, wellbeing and social-emotional functioning in young adults with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freriks, K.; Verhaak, C.M.; Sas, T.C.J.; Menke, L.A.; Wit, J.M.; Otten, B.J.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is the result of (partial) absence of one X-chromosome. Besides short stature, gonadal dysgenesis and other physical aspects, TS women have typical psychological features. Since psychological effects of androgen exposure in childhood probably are long-lasting, we explored

  4. Long-term effects of oxandrolone treatment in childhood on neurocognition, quality of life and social-emotional functioning in young adults with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freriks, K.; Verhaak, C.M.; Sas, T.C.; Menke, L.A.; Wit, J.M.; Otten, B.J.; Keizer-Schrama, S.M.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is the result of (partial) absence of one X-chromosome. Besides short stature, gonadal dysgenesis and other physical aspects, TS women have typical psychological features. Since psychological effects of androgen exposure in childhood probably are long-lasting, we explored

  5. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acute types. Symptoms include Infections Fever Loss of appetite Tiredness Easy bruising or bleeding Swollen lymph nodes Night sweats Shortness of breath Pain in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother ...

  6. Validation of nine years of MOPITT V5 NIR using MOZAIC/IAGOS measurements: biases and long-term stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. J. de Laat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Validation results from a comparison between Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT V5 Near InfraRed (NIR carbon monoxide (CO total column measurements and Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus in-service Aircraft (MOZAIC/In-Service Aircraft for a Global Observing System (IAGOS aircraft measurements are presented. A good agreement is found between MOPITT and MOZAIC/IAGOS measurements, consistent with results from earlier studies using different validation data and despite large variability in MOPITT CO total columns along the spatial footprint of the MOZAIC/IAGOS measurements. Validation results improve when taking the large spatial footprint of the MOZAIC/IAGOS data into account. No statistically significant drift was detected in the validation results over the period 2002–2010 at global, continental and local (airport scales. Furthermore, for those situations where MOZAIC/IAGOS measurements differed from the MOPITT a priori, the MOPITT measurements clearly outperformed the MOPITT a priori data, indicating that MOPITT NIR retrievals add value to the MOPITT a priori. Results from a high spatial resolution simulation of the chemistry-transport model MOCAGE (MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Echelle showed that the most likely explanation for the large MOPITT variability along the MOZAIC-IAGOS profile flight path is related to spatio-temporal CO variability, which should be kept in mind when using MOZAIC/IAGOS profile measurements for validating satellite nadir observations.

  7. Freud's Therapeutic Mistake with Jung's Disclosure of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Narrative Lessons in the Do's and Don'ts of Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasker, Janice

    1999-01-01

    Examines the life narratives of over 25 "victims" and "survivors" of sexual victimization, including that of Carl Jung, as revealed in his letters to Sigmund Freud. Looks at the devastating results of Freud's invalidating response. Discusses categories of successful therapeutic validation. (SR)

  8. The Study of Validity and Reliability of the Perceived Value Scale of Prospective Teachers in Terms of Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Engin; Budak, Yusuf; Demir, Cennet Gologlu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop "Perceived Value Scale in regard to Teaching Profession of Prospective Teachers." The validity and reliability analysis of the scale, developed for prospective elementary school teachers, was performed. In order to determine the values of the teaching profession, first of all, the related literature…

  9. Examining Evidence for External and Consequential Validity of the First Term General Chemistry Exam from the ACS Examinations Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Validity of educational research instruments and student assessments has appropriately become a growing interest in the chemistry education research community. Of particular concern is an attention to the consequences to students that result from the interpretation of assessment scores and whether those consequences are swayed by invalidity within…

  10. Malay Childhood, Temperament and Individuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Ellen

    This study of children in a Malay community assesses the cross-cultural validity of one conceptualization of temperament, identifies cultural differences in child rearing practices and beliefs, and explores parents' recognition of individual differences emerging in early childhood. The community studied consisted of three villages located about 20…

  11. Passive Badge Assessment for Long-Term, Low-level Air Monitoring on Submarines: Acrolein Badge Validation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Kimberly P; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L; Kidwell, David A

    2006-01-01

    .... Passive badge monitors for acrolein detection were tested. Long-term sampling efficiency was evaluated for a 28-day period by comparing the response of the passive badge to an active tube sampling method...

  12. Prediction of cognitive and motor development in preterm children using exhaustive feature selection and cross-validation of near-term white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadl, Kornél; Vassar, Rachel; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Yeom, Kristin W; Stevenson, David K; Rose, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Advanced neuroimaging and computational methods offer opportunities for more accurate prognosis. We hypothesized that near-term regional white matter (WM) microstructure, assessed on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), using exhaustive feature selection with cross-validation would predict neurodevelopment in preterm children. Near-term MRI and DTI obtained at 36.6 ± 1.8 weeks postmenstrual age in 66 very-low-birth-weight preterm neonates were assessed. 60/66 had follow-up neurodevelopmental evaluation with Bayley Scales of Infant-Toddler Development, 3rd-edition (BSID-III) at 18-22 months. Linear models with exhaustive feature selection and leave-one-out cross-validation computed based on DTI identified sets of three brain regions most predictive of cognitive and motor function; logistic regression models were computed to classify high-risk infants scoring one standard deviation below mean. Cognitive impairment was predicted (100% sensitivity, 100% specificity; AUC = 1) by near-term right middle-temporal gyrus MD, right cingulate-cingulum MD, left caudate MD. Motor impairment was predicted (90% sensitivity, 86% specificity; AUC = 0.912) by left precuneus FA, right superior occipital gyrus MD, right hippocampus FA. Cognitive score variance was explained (29.6%, cross-validated Rˆ2 = 0.296) by left posterior-limb-of-internal-capsule MD, Genu RD, right fusiform gyrus AD. Motor score variance was explained (31.7%, cross-validated Rˆ2 = 0.317) by left posterior-limb-of-internal-capsule MD, right parahippocampal gyrus AD, right middle-temporal gyrus AD. Search in large DTI feature space more accurately identified neonatal neuroimaging correlates of neurodevelopment.

  13. Prediction of concentration and model validation - key issues in assessment of long term safety for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.; Dverstorp, B.; Woerman, A.

    2008-01-01

    Post-closure safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories involve radioecological modelling for en,underground source term. In this paper we discuss critical aspects concerning process understanding and justification of simplified radioecological models used for such safety assessments. This study is part of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority's (SSI) work on reviewing the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's (SKB) most recent safety assessment, SR-Can. One of the most challenging tasks in assessments of environmental doses and risk from an underground repository is to estimate radionuclide activity concentrations in various geologic strata in the future. For example, little is known about transport pathways through the quaternary deposits to the discharge points in surface waters and other recipients in the biosphere. Traditionally simplified compartmental models are used in safety assessment to describe the fate of radio-nuclides in surface environment. The possibility to test such models against more detailed process models and site specific data is of key importance for confidence in the safety assessment. As part of SSI's review of SR-Can, alternative modelling approaches were developed to explore the importance of transport process descriptions in the assessment models. The modelling results were compared with the Landscape Dose Factors (LDFs) derived by SKB in SR-Can. LDFs is a new methodology adapted by SKB in SR-Can. The LDFs are defined in the units of Sv/y per Bq/y and express all the radiological information about individual epository sites and ecosystems as a single, radionuclide-specific, number that relates geosphere releases to radiological dose. Further, we suggest a method for validating model parameters using data from field tracer tests. In two companion papers we present the underlying model framework for pathway analyses and a newly developed numerical module within the numerical software Ecolego Toolbox. Transport models

  14. Prediction of long-term absence due to sickness in employees: development and validation of a multifactorial risk score in two cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaksinen, Jaakko; Jokela, Markus; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Koskenvuo, Markku; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2018-01-24

    Objectives This study aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model for long-term sickness absence. Methods Survey responses on work- and lifestyle-related questions from 65 775 public-sector employees were linked to sickness absence records to develop a prediction score for medically-certified sickness absence lasting >9 days and ≥90 days. The score was externally validated using data from an independent population-based cohort of 13 527 employees. For both sickness absence outcomes, a full model including 46 candidate predictors was reduced to a parsimonious model using least-absolute-shrinkage-and-selection-operator (LASSO) regression. Predictive performance of the model was evaluated using C-index and calibration plots. Results Variance explained in ≥90-day sickness absence by the full model was 12.5%. In the parsimonious model, the predictors included self-rated health (linear and quadratic term), depression, sex, age (linear and quadratic), socioeconomic position, previous sickness absences, number of chronic diseases, smoking, shift work, working night shift, and quadratic terms for body mass index and Jenkins sleep scale. The discriminative ability of the score was good (C-index 0.74 in internal and 0.73 in external validation). Calibration plots confirmed high correspondence between the predicted and observed risk. In >9-day sickness absence, the full model explained 15.2% of the variance explained, but the C-index of the parsimonious model was poor (<0.65). Conclusions Individuals' risk of a long-term sickness absence that lasts ≥90 days can be estimated using a brief risk score. The predictive performance of this score is comparable to those for established multifactorial risk algorithms for cardiovascular disease, such as the Framingham risk score.

  15. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelen, Corné; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn

    2018-01-01

    LTSA during follow-up. Results: The 15-predictor model was reduced to a 9-predictor model including age, gender, education, self-rated health, mental health, prior LTSA, work ability, emotional job demands, and recognition by the management. Discrimination by the 9-predictor model was significant (AUC...... population. Implications for rehabilitation Long-term sickness absence risk predictions would enable healthcare providers to refer high-risk employees to rehabilitation programs aimed at preventing or reducing work disability. A prediction model based on health survey variables discriminates between...... employees at high and low risk of long-term sickness absence, but discrimination was not practically useful. Health survey variables provide insufficient information to determine long-term sickness absence risk profiles. There is a need for new variables, based on the knowledge and experience...

  16. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  17. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  18. General inattentiveness is a long-term reliable trait independently predictive of psychological health: Danish validation studies of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Niclasen, Janni; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Petersen, Anders; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers

    2016-05-01

    The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts, but the long-term test-retest reliability of MAAS scores is virtually untested. It is unknown whether MAAS predicts psychological health after controlling for standardized socioeconomic status classifications. First, MAAS translated to Danish was validated psychometrically within a randomly invited healthy adult community sample (N = 490). Factor analysis confirmed that MAAS scores quantified a unifactorial construct of excellent composite reliability and consistent convergent validity. Structural equation modeling revealed that MAAS scores contributed independently to predicting psychological distress and mental health, after controlling for age, gender, income, socioeconomic occupational class, stressful life events, and social desirability (β = 0.32-.42, ps health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Validation of transcutaneous bilirubin nomogram for identifying neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in healthy Chinese term and late-preterm infants: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangbin Yu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to prospectively validate a previously constructed transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB nomogram for identifying severe hyperbilirubinemia in healthy Chinese term and late-preterm infants. METHODS: this was a multicenter study that included 9,174 healthy term and late-preterm infants in eight hospitals of China. TcB measurements were performed using a JM-103 bilirubinometer. TcB values were plotted on a previously developed TcB nomogram, to identify the predictive ability for subsequent significant hyperbilirubinemia. RESULTS: in the present study, 972 neonates (10.6% developed significant hyperbilirubinemia. The 40th percentile of the nomogram could identify all neonates who were at risk of significant hyperbilirubinemia, but with a low positive predictive value (PPV (18.9%. Of the 453 neonates above the 95th percentile, 275 subsequently developed significant hyperbilirubinemia, with a high PPV (60.7%, but with low sensitivity (28.3%. The 75th percentile was highly specific (81.9% and moderately sensitive (79.8%. The area under the curve (AUC for the TcB nomogram was 0.875. CONCLUSIONS: this study validated the previously developed TcB nomogram, which could be used to predict subsequent significant hyperbilirubinemia in healthy Chinese term and late-preterm infants. However, combining TcB nomogram and clinical risk factors could improve the predictive accuracy for severe hyperbilirubinemia, which was not assessed in the study. Further studies are necessary to confirm this combination.

  20. Long-Term Survival Prediction for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Validation of the ASCERT Model Compared With The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Timothy S; Schill, Matthew R; Greenberg, Jason W; Ruaengsri, Chawannuch; Schuessler, Richard B; Lawton, Jennifer S; Maniar, Hersh S; Pasque, Michael K; Moon, Marc R; Damiano, Ralph J; Melby, Spencer J

    2018-05-01

    The recently developed American College of Cardiology Foundation-Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Collaboration on the Comparative Effectiveness of Revascularization Strategy (ASCERT) Long-Term Survival Probability Calculator is a valuable addition to existing short-term risk-prediction tools for cardiac surgical procedures but has yet to be externally validated. Institutional data of 654 patients aged 65 years or older undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting between 2005 and 2010 were reviewed. Predicted survival probabilities were calculated using the ASCERT model. Survival data were collected using the Social Security Death Index and institutional medical records. Model calibration and discrimination were assessed for the overall sample and for risk-stratified subgroups based on (1) ASCERT 7-year survival probability and (2) the predicted risk of mortality (PROM) from the STS Short-Term Risk Calculator. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate additional perioperative variables contributing to death. Overall survival was 92.1% (569 of 597) at 1 year and 50.5% (164 of 325) at 7 years. Calibration assessment found no significant differences between predicted and actual survival curves for the overall sample or for the risk-stratified subgroups, whether stratified by predicted 7-year survival or by PROM. Discriminative performance was comparable between the ASCERT and PROM models for 7-year survival prediction (p validated for prediction of long-term survival after coronary artery bypass grafting in all risk groups. The widely used STS PROM performed comparably as a predictor of long-term survival. Both tools provide important information for preoperative decision making and patient counseling about potential outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dimensional assessment of schizotypal, psychotic, and other psychiatric traits in children and their parents: development and validation of the Childhood Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences on a representative US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W; Lusk, Laina G; Slane, Mylissa M; Michael, Andrew M; Myers, Scott M; Uljarević, Mirko; Mason, Oliver; Claridge, Gordon; Frazier, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Healthy functioning relies on a variety of perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral abilities that are distributed throughout the normal population. Variation in these traits define the wide range of neurodevelopmental (NDD) and neuropsychiatric (NPD) disorders. Here, we introduce a new measure for assessing these traits in typically developing children and children at risk for NDD and NPD from age 2 to 18 years. The Childhood Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (CO-LIFE) was created as a dimensional, parent-report measure of schizotypal and psychotic traits in the general population. Parents of 2,786 children also self-reported on an adapted version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE-US). The CO-LIFE resulted in continuous distributions for the total score and for each of three factor analytically-derived subscales. Item response theory (IRT) analyses indicated strong reliability across the score range for the O-LIFE-US and the CO-LIFE. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were high across all scales. Parent-child intraclass correlations were consistent with high heritability. The scales discriminated participants who reported a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis from those who reported no diagnosis. The O-LIFE-US and CO-LIFE scores correlated positively with the Social Responsiveness Scale 2 (SRS-2) indicating good convergent validity. Like the original O-LIFE, the O-LIFE-US and the CO-LIFE are valid and reliable tools that reflect the spectrum of psychiatric and schizotypal traits in the general population. Such scales are necessary for conducting family studies that aim to examine a range of psychological and behavioral traits in both children and adults and are well-suited for the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative of the NIMH. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Positive childhood experiences predict less psychopathology and stress in pregnant women with childhood adversity: A pilot study of the benevolent childhood experiences (BCEs) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela J; Rivera, Luisa M; Bernstein, Rosemary E; Harris, William W; Lieberman, Alicia F

    2018-04-01

    This pilot study examined the psychometric properties of the Benevolent Childhood Experiences (BCEs) scale, a new instrument designed to assess positive early life experiences in adults with histories of childhood maltreatment and other adversities. A counterpart to the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire, the BCEs was developed to be multiculturally-sensitive and applicable regardless of socioeconomic position, urban-rural background, or immigration status. Higher levels of BCEs were hypothesized to predict lower levels of psychopathology and stress beyond the effects of ACES in a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income pregnant women. BCEs were also expected to show adequate internal validity across racial/ethnic groups and test-retest stability from the prenatal to the postnatal period. Participants were 101 pregnant women (M=29.10years, SD=6.56, range=18-44; 37% Latina, 22% African-American, 20% White, 21% biracial/multiracial/other; 37% foreign-born, 26% Spanish-speaking) who completed the BCEs and ACEs scales; assessments of prenatal depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived stress, and exposure to stressful life events (SLEs) during pregnancy; and demographic information. Higher levels of BCEs predicted less PTSD symptoms and SLEs, above and beyond ACEs. The BCEs showed excellent test-retest reliability, and mean levels were comparable across racial/ethnic and Spanish-English groups of women. Person-oriented analyses also showed that higher levels of BCEs offset the effects of ACEs on prenatal stress and psychopathology. The BCEs scale indexes promising promotive factors associated with lower trauma-related symptomatology and stress exposure during pregnancy and illuminates how favorable childhood experiences may counteract long-term effects of childhood adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intensive gestational glycemic management and childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, L; Durksen, A; Rabbani, R; Zarychanski, R; Abou-Setta, A M; Duhamel, T A; McGavock, J M; Wicklow, B

    2017-07-01

    Hyperglycemia in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of offspring childhood obesity. Treatment reduces macrosomia; however, it is unclear if this effect translates into a reduced risk of childhood obesity. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intensive glycemic management in pregnancy in preventing childhood obesity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov up to February 2016 and conference abstracts from 2010 to 2015. Two reviewers independently identified randomized controlled trials evaluating intensive glycemic management interventions for hyperglycemia in pregnancy and included four of the 383 citations initially identified. Two reviewers independently extracted study data and evaluated internal validity of the studies using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool. Data were pooled using random-effects models. Statistical heterogeneity was quantified using the I 2 test. The primary outcome was age- and sex-adjusted childhood obesity. Secondary outcomes included childhood weight and waist circumference and maternal hypoglycemia during the trial (safety outcome). The four eligible trials (n=767 children) similarly used lifestyle and insulin to manage gestational hyperglycemia, but only two measured offspring obesity and waist circumference and could be pooled for these outcomes. We found no association between intensive gestational glucose management and childhood obesity at 7-10 years of age (relative risk 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.22; two trials; n=568 children). Waist circumference also did not differ between treatment and control arms (mean difference, -2.68 cm; 95% CI, -8.17 to 2.81 cm; two trials; n=568 children). Intensive gestational glycemic management is not associated with reduced childhood obesity in offspring, but randomized data is scarce. Long-term follow-up of trials should be prioritized and comprehensive

  4. Long term cause specific mortality among 34 489 five year survivors of childhood cancer in Great Britain: population based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Miranda M; Reulen, Raoul C; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Jenkinson, Helen C; Skinner, Rod; Frobisher, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether modern treatments for cancer are associated with a net increased or decreased risk of death from neoplastic and non-neoplastic causes among survivors of childhood cancer. Design Population based cohort study. Setting British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Participants Nationwide population based cohort of 34 489 five year survivors of childhood cancer with a diagnosis from 1940 to 2006 and followed up until 28 February 2014. Main outcome measures Cause specific standardised mortality ratios and absolute excess risks are reported. Multivariable Poisson regression models were utilised to evaluate the simultaneous effect of risk factors. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for heterogeneity or trend. Results Overall, 4475 deaths were observed, which was 9.1 (95% confidence interval 8.9 to 9.4) times that expected in the general population, corresponding to 64.2 (95% confidence interval 62.1 to 66.3) excess deaths per 10 000 person years. The number of excess deaths from all causes declined among those treated more recently; those treated during 1990-2006 experienced 30% of the excess number of deaths experienced by those treated before 1970. The corresponding percentages for the decline in excess deaths from recurrence or progression and non-neoplastic causes were 30% and 60%, respectively. Among survivors aged 50-59 years, 41% and 22% of excess deaths were attributable to subsequent primary neoplasms and circulatory conditions, respectively, whereas the corresponding percentages among those aged 60 years or more were 31% and 37%. Conclusions The net effects of changes in cancer treatments, and surveillance and management for late effects, over the period 1940 to 2006 was to reduce the excess number of deaths from both recurrence or progression and non-neoplastic causes among those treated more recently. Among survivors aged 60 years or more, the excess number of deaths from circulatory causes exceeds the excess number

  5. Obesity is underestimated using body mass index and waist-hip ratio in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blijdorp

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity, represented by high body mass index (BMI, is a major complication after treatment for childhood cancer. However, it has been shown that high total fat percentage and low lean body mass are more reliable predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In this study longitudinal changes of BMI and body composition, as well as the value of BMI and waist-hip ratio representing obesity, were evaluated in adult childhood cancer survivors. METHODS: Data from 410 survivors who had visited the late effects clinic twice were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 16 years (interquartile range 11-21 and time between visits was 3.2 years (2.9-3.6. BMI was measured and body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy; available twice in 182 survivors. Data were compared with healthy Dutch references and calculated as standard deviation scores (SDS. BMI, waist-hip ratio and total fat percentage were evaluated cross-sectionally in 422 survivors, in who at least one DXA scan was assessed. RESULTS: BMI was significantly higher in women, without significant change over time. In men BMI changed significantly with time (ΔSDS = 0.19, P<0.001. Percentage fat was significantly higher than references in all survivors, with the highest SDS after cranial radiotherapy (CRT (mean SDS 1.73 in men, 1.48 in women, P<0.001. Only in men, increase in total fat percentage was significantly higher than references (ΔSDS = 0.22, P<0.001. Using total fat percentage as the gold standard, 65% of female and 42% of male survivors were misclassified as non-obese using BMI. Misclassification of obesity using waist-hip ratio was 40% in women and 24% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Sixteen years after treatment for childhood cancer, the increase in BMI and total fat percentage was significantly greater than expected, especially after CRT. This is important as we could show that obesity was grossly underestimated using BMI and waist-hip ratio.

  6. Perceived parental rearing style in childhood: internal structure and concurrent validity on the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran--Child Version in clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penelo, Eva; Viladrich, Carme; Domènech, Josep M

    2010-01-01

    We provide the first validation data of the Spanish version of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran--Child Version (EMBU-C) in a clinical context. The EMBU-C is a 41-item self-report questionnaire that assesses perceived parental rearing style in children, comprising 4 subscales (rejection, emotional warmth, control attempts/overprotection, and favoring subjects). The test was administered to a clinical sample of 174 Spanish psychiatric outpatients aged 8 to 12. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed, analyzing the children's reports about their parents' rearing style. The results were almost equivalent for father's and mother's ratings. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded an acceptable fit to data of the 3-factor model when removing the items of the favoring subjects scale (root mean squared error of approximation .73), whereas control attempts scale showed lower values, as in previous studies. The influence of sex (of children and parents) on scale scores was inappreciable and children tended to perceive their parents as progressively less warm as they grew older. As predicted, the scores for rejection and emotional warmth were related to bad relationships with parents, absence of family support, harsh discipline, and lack of parental supervision. The Spanish version of EMBU-C can be used with psychometric guarantees to identify rearing style in psychiatric outpatients because evidences of quality in this setting match those obtained in community samples. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Validation of Long-Term Global Aerosol Climatology Project Optical Thickness Retrievals Using AERONET and MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor V.; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    validation procedure and cause us to caution against a direct extrapolation of the presented validation results to the entirety of the GACP dataset.

  8. Severity of mental illness as a result of multiple childhood adversities: US National Epidemiologic Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Emma; Adamson, Gary; Stringer, Maurice; Rosato, Michael; Leavey, Gerard

    2016-05-01

    To examine patterns of childhood adversity, their long-term consequences and the combined effect of different childhood adversity patterns as predictors of subsequent psychopathology. Secondary analysis of data from the US National Epidemiologic Survey on alcohol and related conditions. Using latent class analysis to identify childhood adversity profiles; and using multinomial logistic regression to validate and further explore these profiles with a range of associated demographic and household characteristics. Finally, confirmatory factor analysis substantiated initial latent class analysis findings by investigating a range of mental health diagnoses. Latent class analysis generated a three-class model of childhood adversity in which 60 % of participants were allocated to a low adversity class; 14 % to a global adversities class (reporting exposures for all the derived latent classes); and 26 % to a domestic emotional and physical abuse class (exposed to a range of childhood adversities). Confirmatory Factor analysis defined an internalising-externalising spectrum to represent lifetime reporting patterns of mental health disorders. Using logistic regression, both adversity groups showed specific gender and race/ethnicity differences, related family discord and increased psychopathology. We identified underlying patterns in the exposure to childhood adversity and associated mental health. These findings are informative in their description of the configuration of adversities, rather than focusing solely on the cumulative aspect of experience. Amelioration of longer-term negative consequences requires early identification of psychopathology risk factors that can inform protective and preventive interventions. This study highlights the utility of screening for childhood adversities when individuals present with symptoms of psychiatric disorders.

  9. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  10. Validity of food frequency questionnaire-based estimates of long-term long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Alice; Di Giuseppe, Daniela; Burgaz, Ann; Håkansson, Niclas; Cederholm, Tommy; Michaëlsson, Karl; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate how long-term dietary intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs), estimated by repeated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) over 15 years, is correlated with LCn-3 PUFAs in adipose tissue (AT). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained in 2003-2004 (AT-03) from 239 randomly selected women, aged 55-75 years, after completion of a 96-item FFQ (FFQ-03). All participants had previously returned an identical FFQ in 1997 (FFQ-97) and a 67-item version in 1987-1990 (FFQ-87). Pearson product-moment correlations were used to evaluate associations between intake of total and individual LCn-3 PUFAs as estimated by the three FFQ assessments and AT-03 content (% of total fatty acids). FFQ-estimated mean relative intake of LCn-3 PUFAs (% of total fat intake) increased between all three assessments (FFQ-87, 0.55 ± 0.34; FFQ-97, 0.74 ± 0.64; FFQ-03, 0.88 ± 0.56). Validity, in terms of Pearson correlations between FFQ-03 estimates and AT-03 content, was 0.41 (95% CI 0.30-0.51) for total LCn-3 PUFA and ranged from 0.29 to 0.48 for individual fatty acids; lower correlation was observed among participants with higher percentage body fat. With regard to long-term intake estimates, past dietary intake was also correlated with AT-03 content, with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.21-0.33 and 0.21-0.34 for FFQ-97 and FFQ-87, respectively. The correlations were improved by using average estimates from two or more FFQ assessments. Exclusion of fish oil supplement users (14%) did not alter the correlations. These data indicate reasonable validity of FFQ-based estimates of long-term (up to 15 years) LCn-3 PUFA intake, justifying their use in studies of diet-disease associations.

  11. Calibration and validation of models for short-term decomposition and N mineralization of plant residues in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ferreira do Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Insight of nutrient release patterns associated with the decomposition of plant residues is important for their effective use as a green manure in food production systems. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the ability of the Century, APSIM and NDICEA simulation models for predicting the decomposition and N mineralization of crop residues in the tropical Atlantic forest biome, Brazil. The simulation models were calibrated based on actual decomposition and N mineralization rates of three types of crop residues with different chemical and biochemical composition. The models were also validated for different pedo-climatic conditions and crop residues conditions. In general, the accuracy of decomposition and N mineralization improved after calibration. Overall RMSE values for the decomposition and N mineralization of the crop materials varied from 7.4 to 64.6% before models calibration compared to 3.7 to 16.3 % after calibration. Therefore, adequate calibration of the models is indispensable for use them under humid tropical conditions. The NDICEA model generally outperformed the other models. However, the decomposition and N mineralization was not very accurate during the first 30 days of incubation, especially for easily decomposable crop residues. An additional model variable may be required to capture initial microbiological growth as affected by the moisture dynamics of the residues, as is the case in surface residues decomposition models.

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Blood Pressure Trajectories From Childhood to Young Adulthood The Georgia Stress and Heart Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Shaoyong; Wang, Xiaoling; Pollock, Jennifer S.; Treiber, Frank A.; Xu, Xiaojing; Snieder, Harold; McCall, W. Vaughn; Stefanek, Michael; Harshfield, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Background-The purposes of this study were to assess the long-term effect of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood to young adulthood and to examine whether this relation is explained by childhood socioeconomic status (SES) or risk behaviors that are

  13. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000-2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States Childhood obesity is a ...

  14. Developing a Validated Long-Term Satellite-Based Albedo Record in the Central Alaska Range to Improve Regional Hydroclimate Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, K. J.; Godaire, T. P.; Burakowski, E. A.; Winski, D.; Campbell, S. W.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Q.; Hamilton, G. S.; Birkel, S. D.; Wake, C. P.; Osterberg, E. C.; Schaaf, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain glaciers around the world, particularly in Alaska, are experiencing significant surface mass loss from rapid climatic shifts and constitute a large proportion of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Surface albedo acts as a primary control on a glacier's mass balance, yet it is difficult to measure and quantify spatially and temporally in steep, mountainous settings. During our 2013 field campaign in Denali National Park to recover two surface to bedrock ice cores, we used an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) FieldSpec4 Standard Resolution spectroradiometer to measure incoming solar radiation, outgoing surface reflectance and optical grain size on the Kahiltna Glacier and at the Kahiltna Base Camp. A Campbell Scientific automatic weather station was installed on Mount Hunter (3900m) in June 2013, complementing a longer-term (2008-present) station installed at Kahiltna Base Camp (2100m). Use of our in situ data aids in the validation of surface albedo values derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat satellite imagery. Comparisons are made between ASD FieldSpec4 ground measurements and 500m MODIS imagery to assess the ability of MODIS to capture the variability of surface albedo across the glacier surface. The MODIS MCD43A3 BRDF/Albedo Product performs well at Kahiltna Base Camp (albedo (10-28% relative to ASD data) appear to occur along the Kahiltna Glacier due to the snow-free valley walls being captured in the 500m MODIS footprint. Incorporating Landsat imagery will strengthen our interpretations and has the potential to produce a long-term (1982-present) validated satellite albedo record for steep and mountainous terrain. Once validation is complete, we will compare the satellite-derived albedo record to the Denali ice core accumulation rate, aerosol records (i.e. volcanics and biomass burning), and glacier mass balance data. This research will ultimately contribute to an improved understanding of the

  15. Staff preparedness for providing palliative and end-of-life care in long-term care homes: Instrument development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Helen Yl; Chun, Gloria Km; Man, C W; Leung, Edward Mf

    2018-05-01

    Although much attention has been on integrating the palliative care approach into services of long-term care homes for older people living with frailty and progressive diseases, little is known about the staff preparedness for these new initiatives. The present study aimed to develop and test the psychometric properties of an instrument for measuring care home staff preparedness in providing palliative and end-of-life care. A 16-item instrument, covering perceived knowledge, skill and psychological readiness, was developed. A total of 247 staff members of different ranks from four care homes participated in the study. Exploratory factor analysis using the principal component analysis extraction method with varimax rotation was carried out for initial validation. Known group comparison was carried out to examine its discriminant validity. Reliability of the instrument was assessed based on test-retest reliability of a subsample of 20 participants and the Cronbach's alpha of the items. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the instrument yielded a three-factor solution, which cumulatively accounted for 68.5% of the total variance. Three subscales, namely, willingness, capability and resilience, showed high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. It also showed good discriminant validity between staff members of professional and non-professional groups. This is a brief, valid and reliable scale for measuring care home staff preparedness for providing palliative and end-of-life care. It can be used to identify their concerns and training needs in providing palliative and end-of-life care, and as an outcome measure to evaluate the effects of interventional studies for capacity building in this regard. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 745-749. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Long-term impact of changing childhood malnutrition on rotavirus diarrhoea: Two decades of adjusted association with climate and socio-demographic factors from urban Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumon Kumar Das

    Full Text Available There is strong association between childhood rotavirus, diarrhoea, climate factors and malnutrition. Conversely, a significant nutritional transition (reduced under-nutrition with a concurrent increasing trend of rotavirus infection in last decade was also observed among under 5 children, especially in developing countries including Bangladesh. Considering the pathophysiology of rotavirus, there might be an interaction of this nutrition transition which plays a pivotal role in increasing rotavirus infection in addition to climate and other man-made factors in urban areas such as Dhaka, Bangladesh.Relevant monthly data from 1993-2012 were extracted from the archive of the Diarrhoeal Disease Surveillance System of icddr, b and linked with data collected from the Dhaka station of the Bangladesh Meteorological Department (mean temperature, rainfall, sea level pressure and humidity. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average time series models were deployed to determine the association between the monthly proportion of rotavirus infection and underweight, stunting and wasting adjusting for climate, socio-demographic and sanitation factors.The proportion of rotavirus cases among all causes diarrhoea increased from 20% in 1993 to 43% in 2012 (Chi squared for trend p = 0.010. In contrast, underweight, stunting and wasting decreased from 59%-29% (p<0.001; 53%-21% (p<0.001 and 32%-22% (p<0.001 respectively over the same period. Mean ambient temperature increased from 25.76°C-26.62°C (p = 0.07; mean rainfall, sea level pressure and mean humidity decreased from 234.92-111.75 mm (p = 0.5, 1008.30-1006.61 mm of hg (p = 0.02 and 76.63%-70.26% (p<0.001, respectively. In the adjusted model, a decrease in monthly proportion of underweight [coef.: -0.189 (95% CI:-0.376, -0.003] and wasting [-0.265 (-0.455, -0.075] were significantly and inversely associated with rotavirus infection. However, an inverse but insignificant association was observed for

  17. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Share ...

  18. Quality of longer term mental health facilities in Europe: validation of the quality indicator for rehabilitative care against service users' views.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Killaspy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care (QuIRC is a staff rated, international toolkit that assesses care in longer term hospital and community based mental health facilities. The QuIRC was developed from review of the international literature, an international Delphi exercise with over 400 service users, practitioners, carers and advocates from ten European countries at different stages of deinstitutionalisation, and review of the care standards in these countries. It can be completed in under an hour by the facility manager and has robust content validity, acceptability and inter-rater reliability. In this study, we investigated the internal validity of the QuIRC. Our aim was to identify the QuIRC domains of care that independently predicted better service user experiences of care. METHOD: At least 20 units providing longer term care for adults with severe mental illness were recruited in each of ten European countries. Service users completed standardised measures of their experiences of care, quality of life, autonomy and the unit's therapeutic milieu. Unit managers completed the QuIRC. Multilevel modelling allowed analysis of associations between service user ratings as dependent variables with unit QuIRC domain ratings as independent variables. RESULTS: 1750/2495 (70% users and the managers of 213 units from across ten European countries participated. QuIRC ratings were positively associated with service users' autonomy and experiences of care. Associations between QuIRC ratings and service users' ratings of their quality of life and the unit's therapeutic milieu were explained by service user characteristics (age, diagnosis and functioning. A hypothetical 10% increase in QuIRC rating resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in autonomy. CONCLUSIONS: Ratings of the quality of longer term mental health facilities made by service managers were positively associated with service users' autonomy and experiences of care

  19. Validation of transcutaneous bilirubin nomogram for identifying neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in healthy Chinese term and late-preterm infants: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhangbin; Han, Shuping; Wu, Jinxia; Li, Mingxia; Wang, Huaiyan; Wang, Jimei; Liu, Jiebo; Pan, Xinnian; Yang, Jie; Chen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    to prospectively validate a previously constructed transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) nomogram for identifying severe hyperbilirubinemia in healthy Chinese term and late-preterm infants. this was a multicenter study that included 9,174 healthy term and late-preterm infants in eight hospitals of China. TcB measurements were performed using a JM-103 bilirubinometer. TcB values were plotted on a previously developed TcB nomogram, to identify the predictive ability for subsequent significant hyperbilirubinemia. in the present study, 972 neonates (10.6%) developed significant hyperbilirubinemia. The 40(th) percentile of the nomogram could identify all neonates who were at risk of significant hyperbilirubinemia, but with a low positive predictive value (PPV) (18.9%). Of the 453 neonates above the 95(th) percentile, 275 subsequently developed significant hyperbilirubinemia, with a high PPV (60.7%), but with low sensitivity (28.3%). The 75(th) percentile was highly specific (81.9%) and moderately sensitive (79.8%). The area under the curve (AUC) for the TcB nomogram was 0.875. this study validated the previously developed TcB nomogram, which could be used to predict subsequent significant hyperbilirubinemia in healthy Chinese term and late-preterm infants. However, combining TcB nomogram and clinical risk factors could improve the predictive accuracy for severe hyperbilirubinemia, which was not assessed in the study. Further studies are necessary to confirm this combination. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Quality of longer term mental health facilities in Europe: validation of the quality indicator for rehabilitative care against service users' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killaspy, Helen; White, Sarah; Wright, Christine; Taylor, Tatiana L; Turton, Penny; Kallert, Thomas; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kalisova, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Alexiev, Spiridon; Mezzina, Roberto; Ridente, Pina; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ploumpidis, Dimitris; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Cardoso, Graça; King, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care (QuIRC) is a staff rated, international toolkit that assesses care in longer term hospital and community based mental health facilities. The QuIRC was developed from review of the international literature, an international Delphi exercise with over 400 service users, practitioners, carers and advocates from ten European countries at different stages of deinstitutionalisation, and review of the care standards in these countries. It can be completed in under an hour by the facility manager and has robust content validity, acceptability and inter-rater reliability. In this study, we investigated the internal validity of the QuIRC. Our aim was to identify the QuIRC domains of care that independently predicted better service user experiences of care. At least 20 units providing longer term care for adults with severe mental illness were recruited in each of ten European countries. Service users completed standardised measures of their experiences of care, quality of life, autonomy and the unit's therapeutic milieu. Unit managers completed the QuIRC. Multilevel modelling allowed analysis of associations between service user ratings as dependent variables with unit QuIRC domain ratings as independent variables. 1750/2495 (70%) users and the managers of 213 units from across ten European countries participated. QuIRC ratings were positively associated with service users' autonomy and experiences of care. Associations between QuIRC ratings and service users' ratings of their quality of life and the unit's therapeutic milieu were explained by service user characteristics (age, diagnosis and functioning). A hypothetical 10% increase in QuIRC rating resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in autonomy. Ratings of the quality of longer term mental health facilities made by service managers were positively associated with service users' autonomy and experiences of care. Interventions that improve quality of care in these

  1. Fusiform dilatation of the internal carotid artery in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma : multicenter study on incidence and long-term outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Lohle, Kristin; Reichel, Julia; Daubenbuchel, Anna M. M.; Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Mueller, Hermann L.

    Fusiform dilatations of the internal carotid artery (FDCA) represent a vascular complication following surgery for suprasellar tumors in children. Incidence rate and long-term prognosis of FDCA in terms of survival rates, vascular complications, and quality of survival are unknown for patients with

  2. Long-term impact of changing childhood malnutrition on rotavirus diarrhoea: Two decades of adjusted association with climate and socio-demographic factors from urban Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Sarker, Mohammad Habibur Rahman; Das, Jui; Ahmed, Shawnawaz; Shahunja, K M; Nahar, Shamsun; Gibbons, Nora; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Rahman, Mustafizur; J Fuchs, George; Al Mamun, Abdullah; John Baker, Peter

    2017-01-01

    There is strong association between childhood rotavirus, diarrhoea, climate factors and malnutrition. Conversely, a significant nutritional transition (reduced under-nutrition) with a concurrent increasing trend of rotavirus infection in last decade was also observed among under 5 children, especially in developing countries including Bangladesh. Considering the pathophysiology of rotavirus, there might be an interaction of this nutrition transition which plays a pivotal role in increasing rotavirus infection in addition to climate and other man-made factors in urban areas such as Dhaka, Bangladesh. Relevant monthly data from 1993-2012 were extracted from the archive of the Diarrhoeal Disease Surveillance System of icddr, b and linked with data collected from the Dhaka station of the Bangladesh Meteorological Department (mean temperature, rainfall, sea level pressure and humidity). Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average time series models were deployed to determine the association between the monthly proportion of rotavirus infection and underweight, stunting and wasting adjusting for climate, socio-demographic and sanitation factors. The proportion of rotavirus cases among all causes diarrhoea increased from 20% in 1993 to 43% in 2012 (Chi squared for trend p = 0.010). In contrast, underweight, stunting and wasting decreased from 59%-29% (pchildhood malnutrition is significantly associated with increasing rotavirus diarrhoea among under-5 children. Thus mass vaccination in addition to interventions directed at man-made modifiable predictors for prevention and control is warranted.

  3. Correlation and comparative analysis of discriminative validity of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Izabella Barbosa; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Bönecker, Marcelo; Abanto, Jenny; Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-03-10

    The perceptions of parents and children regarding oral health are useful to oral public health and clinical practice in pediatric dentistry. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between the total and item scores of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) (parental version and child's self-reports) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Subsequently, the discriminative validity of these assessment tools regarding dental caries was compared. One hundred twenty-one children randomly selected in the city of Diamantina (Brazil) were submitted to oral examinations. Parents answered the ECOHIS and SOHO-5p (parental version) and children answered the SOHO-5c (child's self-reports). Statistical analysis involved the Mann-Whitney test as well as the calculation of Spearman's correlation coefficients. A significant correlation was found between the SOHO-5p and ECOHIS (r = 0.85), whereas no significant correlations were found between the SOHO-5c and SOHO-5p (r = 0.00) or between the SOHO-5c and ECOHIS (r = -0.41). Significant differences in the impact on quality of life were found between children with severe decay and no severe decay (caries free, with initial or established caries) both the ECOHIS and SOHO-5p (p ≤ 0.05), whereas no difference was found in SOHO-5c (p > 0.05). The ECOHIS and SOHO-5p were correlated with each other. The accounts of the children differed from their parents' reports and were not capable of discriminating dental caries in advanced stages of progression.

  4. Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Inarejos Clemente, E J

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children; it can appear in any part of the body. Its biological behavior varies widely, and despite the absence of specific clinical or radiological characteristics, rhabdomyosarcoma should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors in children. This review focuses primarily on the imaging findings and anatomical distribution of the histological subtypes of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and secondarily on the differential findings in histological studies. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Validity of pre and post-term birth rates based on the date of last menstrual period compared to early obstetric ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nilza Lima Medeiros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the last menstrual period (LMP estimate in determining pre and post-term birth rates, in a prenatal cohort from two Brazilian cities, São Luís and Ribeirão Preto. Pregnant women with a single fetus and less than 20 weeks' gestation by obstetric ultrasonography who received prenatal care in 2010 and 2011 were included. The LMP was obtained on two occasions (at 22-25 weeks gestation and after birth. The sensitivity of LMP obtained prenatally to estimate the preterm birth rate was 65.6% in São Luís and 78.7% in Ribeirão Preto and the positive predictive value was 57.3% in São Luís and 73.3% in Ribeirão Preto. LMP errors in identifying preterm birth were lower in the more developed city, Ribeirão Preto. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of LMP for the estimate of the post-term birth rate was very low and tended to overestimate it. LMP can be used with some errors to identify the preterm birth rate when obstetric ultrasonography is not available, but is not suitable for predicting post-term birth.

  6. Final Report on "Rising CO2 and Long-term Carbon Storage in Terrestrial Ecosystems: An Empirical Carbon Budget Validation"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Patrick Megonigal; Bert G. Drake

    2010-08-27

    The primary goal of this report is to report the results of Grant DE-FG02-97ER62458, which began in 1997 as Grant DOE-98-59-MP-4 funded through the TECO program. However, this project has a longer history because DOE also funded this study from its inception in 1985 through 1997. The original grant was focused on plant responses to elevated CO2 in an intact ecosystem, while the latter grant was focused on belowground responses. Here we summarize the major findings across the 25 years this study has operated, and note that the experiment will continue to run through 2020 with NSF support. The major conclusions of the study to date are: (1 Elevated CO2 stimulated plant productivity in the C3 plant community by ~30% during the 25 year study. The magnitude of the increase in productivity varied interannually and was sometime absent altogether. There is some evidence of down-regulation at the ecosystem level across the 25 year record that may be due to interactions with other factors such as sea-level rise or long-term changes in N supply; (2) Elevated CO2 stimulated C4 productivity by <10%, perhaps due to more efficient water use, but C3 plants at elevated CO2 did not displace C4 plants as predicted; (3) Increased primary production caused a general stimulation of microbial processes, but there were both increases and decreases in activity depending on the specific organisms considered. An increase in methanogenesis and methane emissions implies elevated CO2 may amplify radiative forcing in the case of wetland ecosystems; (4) Elevated CO2 stimulated soil carbon sequestration in the form of an increase in elevation. The increase in elevation is 50-100% of the increase in net ecosystem production caused by elevated CO2 (still under analysis). The increase in soil elevation suggests the elevated CO2 may have a positive outcome for the ability of coastal wetlands to persist despite accelerated sea level rise; (5) Crossing elevated CO2 with elevated N causes the elevated CO

  7. Long-Term Outcomes Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood and Adolescence: A Nationwide Swedish Cohort Study of a Wide Range of Medical and Social Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sariaslan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is the leading cause of disability and mortality in children and young adults worldwide. It remains unclear, however, how TBI in childhood and adolescence is associated with adult mortality, psychiatric morbidity, and social outcomes.In a Swedish birth cohort between 1973 and 1985 of 1,143,470 individuals, we identified all those who had sustained at least one TBI (n = 104,290 or 9.1% up to age 25 y and their unaffected siblings (n = 68,268 using patient registers. We subsequently assessed these individuals for the following outcomes using multiple national registries: disability pension, specialist diagnoses of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric inpatient hospitalisation, premature mortality (before age 41 y, low educational attainment (not having achieved secondary school qualifications, and receiving means-tested welfare benefits. We used logistic and Cox regression models to quantify the association between TBI and specified adverse outcomes on the individual level. We further estimated population attributable fractions (PAF for each outcome measure. We also compared differentially exposed siblings to account for unobserved genetic and environmental confounding. In addition to relative risk estimates, we examined absolute risks by calculating prevalence and Kaplan-Meier estimates. In complementary analyses, we tested whether the findings were moderated by injury severity, recurrence, and age at first injury (ages 0-4, 5-9, 6-10, 15-19, and 20-24 y. TBI exposure was associated with elevated risks of impaired adult functioning across all outcome measures. After a median follow-up period of 8 y from age 26 y, we found that TBI contributed to absolute risks of over 10% for specialist diagnoses of psychiatric disorders and low educational attainment, approximately 5% for disability pension, and 2% for premature mortality. The highest relative risks, adjusted for sex, birth year, and birth order, were found for

  8. Childhood immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Sandra; Schillaci, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine childhood immunization levels relative to the number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. DESIGN Retrospective comparative analysis of publicly available data on immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. SETTING Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Seven-year-old children, family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The association between immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. RESULTS We found correlations between immunization coverage levels and the relative number (ie, per 1000 Ontario residents) of family physicians (ρ = 0.60) and pediatricians (ρ = 0.70) and a lower correlation with the relative number of public health nurses (ρ = 0.40), although none of these correlations was significant. A comparison of temporal trends illustrated that variation in the relative number of family physicians and pediatricians in Ontario was associated with similar variation in immunization coverage levels. CONCLUSION Increasing the number of family physicians and pediatricians might help to boost access to immunizations and perhaps other components of cost-saving childhood preventive care. PMID:19910599

  9. Method validation and verification in liquid scintillation counting using the long-term uncertainty method (LTUM) on two decades of proficiency test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrezen, F.; Vasile, M.; Loots, H.; Bruggeman, M.

    2017-01-01

    Results from proficiency tests gathered over the past two decades by the laboratory for low level radioactivity measurements for liquid scintillation counting of 3 H (184 results) and 14 C (74 results) are used to verify the validated measurement methods used by the laboratory, in particular the estimated uncertainty budget of the method and its reproducibility and stability. A linear regression approach is used for the analysis of the results, described in the literature as the long term uncertainty in measurement method. The present study clearly indicates the advantages of using proficiency test results in identifying possible constant or proportional bias effects as well as the possibility to compare the laboratory performance with the performance of peer laboratories. (author)

  10. Predictive Validity of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale for Short-Term Suicidal Behavior: A Danish Study of Adolescents at a High Risk of Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Teasdale, Thomas William; Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Larsen, Kim Juul

    2017-07-03

    Using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), we examined the predictive and incremental predictive validity of past-month suicidal behavior and ideation for short-term suicidal behavior among adolescents at high risk of suicide. The study was conducted in 2014 on a sample of 85 adolescents (90.6% females) who participated at follow-up (85.9%) out of the 99 (49.7%) baseline respondents. All adolescents were recruited from a specialized suicide-prevention clinic in Denmark. Through multivariate logistic regression analyses, we examined whether baseline suicidal behavior predicted subsequent suicidal behavior (actual attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, including preparatory acts, aborted, interrupted and actual attempts; mean follow-up of 80.8 days, SD = 52.4). Furthermore, we examined whether suicidal ideation severity and intensity incrementally predicted suicidal behavior at follow-up over and above suicidal behavior at baseline. Actual suicide attempts at baseline strongly predicted suicide attempts at follow-up. Baseline suicidal ideation severity and intensity did not significantly predict future actual attempts over and above baseline attempts. The suicidal ideation intensity items deterrents and duration were significant predictors of subsequent actual attempts after adjustment for baseline suicide attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, respectively. Suicidal ideation severity and intensity, and the intensity items frequency, duration and deterrents, all significantly predicted any type of suicidal behavior at follow-up, also after adjusting for baseline suicidal behavior. The present study points to an incremental predictive validity of the C-SSRS suicidal ideation scales for short-term suicidal behavior of any type among high-risk adolescents.

  11. Validation of the Long-term Difficulties Inventory (LDI) and the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) as measures of stress in epidemiological population-based cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmalen, J G M; Bos, E H; de Jonge, P

    2012-12-01

    Stress questionnaires are included in many epidemiological cohort studies but the psychometric characteristics of these questionnaires are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to describe these characteristics for two short questionnaires measuring the lifetime and past year occurrence of stress: the List of Threatening Events (LTE) as a measure of acute stress and the Long-term Difficulties Inventory (LDI) as a measure of chronic stress. This study was performed in a general population cohort consisting of 588 females (53.7%) and 506 males (46.3%), with a mean age of 53.5 years (s.d.=11.3 years). Respondents completed the LTE and the LDI for the past year, and for the age categories of 0-12, 13-18, 19-39, 40-60, and >60 years. They also completed questionnaires on perceived stress, psychological distress (the General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12), anxiety and depression (the Symptom Checklist, SCL-8) and neuroticism (the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - Revised Short Scale, EPQ-RSS-N). Approximately 2 years later, 976 respondents (89%) completed these questionnaires for a second time. The stability of the retrospective reporting of long-term difficulties and life events was satisfactory: 0.7 for the lifetime LDI and 0.6 for the lifetime LTE scores. The construct validity of these lists is indicated by their positive associations with psychological distress, mental health problems and neuroticism. This study in a large population-based sample shows that the LDI and LTE have sufficient validity and stability to include them in major epidemiological cohort studies.

  12. Childhood Leukemia and Primary Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Singer, Amanda W.; Miller, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer, affecting 3,800 children per year in the United States. Its annual incidence has increased over the last decades, especially among Latinos. Although most children diagnosed with leukemia are now cured, many suffer long-term complications, and primary prevention efforts are urgently needed. The early onset of leukemia – usually before age five – and the presence at birth of “pre-leukemic” genetic signatures indicate that pre- and postnatal events are critical to the development of the disease. In contrast to most pediatric cancers, there is a growing body of literature – in the United States and internationally – that has implicated several environmental, infectious, and dietary risk factors in the etiology of childhood leukemia, mainly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common subtype. For example, exposures to pesticides, tobacco smoke, solvents, and traffic emissions have consistently demonstrated positive associations with the risk of developing childhood leukemia. In contrast, intake of vitamins and folate supplementation during the pre-conception period or pregnancy, breastfeeding, and exposure to routine childhood infections have been shown to reduce the risk of childhood leukemia. Some children may be especially vulnerable to these risk factors, as demonstrated by a disproportionate burden of childhood leukemia in the Latino population of California. The evidence supporting the associations between childhood leukemia and its risk factors – including pooled analyses from around the world and systematic reviews – is strong; however, the dissemination of this knowledge to clinicians has been limited. To protect children’s health, it is prudent to initiate programs designed to alter exposure to well-established leukemia risk factors rather than to suspend judgement until no uncertainty remains. Primary prevention programs for childhood leukemia would also result in the significant co

  13. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Case Story of Anna. I. Long-Term Effect of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Incest with a Treatment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nervous breakdown of a 22-year-old, young woman was caused by severe sexual abuse in childhood, which was repressed over many years. During therapy, the patient accumulated resources to start the painful integration of these old traumas. Using holistic existential therapy in accordance with the life mission theory and the holistic process theory of healing, she finally was able to confront her old traumas and heal her existence. She seemingly recovered completely (including regaining full emotional range through holistic existential therapy, individually and in a group. The therapy took 18 months and more than 100 hours of intensive therapy. In the beginning of the therapy, the issues were her physical and mental health; in the middle of the therapy, the central issue was her purpose of life and her love life; and at the conclusion of the therapy, the issue was gender and sexuality. The strategy was to build up her strength for several months, mobilizing hidden resources and motivation for living, before the old traumas could be confronted and integrated. The therapy was based on quality of life philosophy, on the life mission theory, the theory of ego, the theory of talent, the theory of the evil side of man, the theory of human character, and the holistic process theory of healing. The clinical procedures included conversation, philosophical training, group therapeutic tools, extended use of therapeutic touch, holistic pelvic examination, and acceptance through touch was used to integrate the early traumas bound to the pelvis and scar tissue in the sexual organs. She was processed according to 10 levels of the advanced toolbox for holistic medicine and the general plan for clinical holistic psychiatry. The emotional steps she went through are well described by the scale of existential responsibility. The case story of Anna is an example of how even the most severely ill patient can recover fully with the support of holistic medical

  14. Clinical holistic medicine: the case story of Anna. I. Long-term effect of childhood sexual abuse and incest with a treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-02-02

    The nervous breakdown of a 22-year-old, young woman was caused by severe sexual abuse in childhood, which was repressed over many years. During therapy, the patient accumulated resources to start the painful integration of these old traumas. Using holistic existential therapy in accordance with the life mission theory and the holistic process theory of healing, she finally was able to confront her old traumas and heal her existence. She seemingly recovered completely (including regaining full emotional range) through holistic existential therapy, individually and in a group. The therapy took 18 months and more than 100 hours of intensive therapy. In the beginning of the therapy, the issues were her physical and mental health; in the middle of the therapy, the central issue was her purpose of life and her love life; and at the conclusion of the therapy, the issue was gender and sexuality. The strategy was to build up her strength for several months, mobilizing hidden resources and motivation for living, before the old traumas could be confronted and integrated. The therapy was based on quality of life philosophy, on the life mission theory, the theory of ego, the theory of talent, the theory of the evil side of man, the theory of human character, and the holistic process theory of healing. The clinical procedures included conversation, philosophical training, group therapeutic tools, extended use of therapeutic touch, holistic pelvic examination, and acceptance through touch was used to integrate the early traumas bound to the pelvis and scar tissue in the sexual organs. She was processed according to 10 levels of the advanced toolbox for holistic medicine and the general plan for clinical holistic psychiatry. The emotional steps she went through are well described by the scale of existential responsibility. The case story of Anna is an example of how even the most severely ill patient can recover fully with the support of holistic medical treatment, making her feel

  15. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Case Story of Anna. I. Long-Term Effect of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Incest with a Treatment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-01-01

    The nervous breakdown of a 22-year-old, young woman was caused by severe sexual abuse in childhood, which was repressed over many years. During therapy, the patient accumulated resources to start the painful integration of these old traumas. Using holistic existential therapy in accordance with the life mission theory and the holistic process theory of healing, she finally was able to confront her old traumas and heal her existence. She seemingly recovered completely (including regaining full emotional range) through holistic existential therapy, individually and in a group. The therapy took 18 months and more than 100 hours of intensive therapy. In the beginning of the therapy, the issues were her physical and mental health; in the middle of the therapy, the central issue was her purpose of life and her love life; and at the conclusion of the therapy, the issue was gender and sexuality. The strategy was to build up her strength for several months, mobilizing hidden resources and motivation for living, before the old traumas could be confronted and integrated. The therapy was based on quality of life philosophy, on the life mission theory, the theory of ego, the theory of talent, the theory of the evil side of man, the theory of human character, and the holistic process theory of healing. The clinical procedures included conversation, philosophical training, group therapeutic tools, extended use of therapeutic touch, holistic pelvic examination, and acceptance through touch was used to integrate the early traumas bound to the pelvis and scar tissue in the sexual organs. She was processed according to 10 levels of the advanced toolbox for holistic medicine and the general plan for clinical holistic psychiatry. The emotional steps she went through are well described by the scale of existential responsibility. The case story of Anna is an example of how even the most severely ill patient can recover fully with the support of holistic medical treatment, making her feel

  16. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: 16 years follow up from a prospective registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Francesco; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Moretti, Claudio; Corrias, Andrea; Omedè, Pierluigi; Marra, Walter Grosso; Arvat, Emanuela; Fagioli, Franca; Brignardello, Enrico; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) have an increased risk of overweight and dyslipidaemia, but the distribution and the potential relationships between anticancer therapies and cardiovascular risk factors have been heterogeneously and not prospectively described. All consecutive CCSs with primary cancer diagnosed between 1973-2007 and subsequently referred to our outpatient clinic were enrolled. Hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol >200 and/or low density lipoprotein (LDL)>160 mg/dl) was the primary end point, hypertriglyceridaemia (triglycerides >200 mg/dl) and body mass index >30 kg/m(2) the secondary end points. Cox multivariate adjustments were performed to account for differences in cancer and treatments. A total of 340 patients were included (197 male, 143 female; mean age at last follow-up 24.1 ± 3.2). The most common diagnosis were haematological malignancies (n = 227) and brain tumours (n = 51). After a median follow-up of 16.1 years, hypercholesterolaemia was diagnosed in 67 CCSs (20%), hypertriglyceridaemia in 20 CCSs (6%) and obesity in 28 CCSs (8%). Total body irradiation and growth hormone deficiency increased the risk of both hypercholesterolaemia (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.7; confidence interval (CI) 1.2-4.4 and HR = 2.3; CI 1.1-4.9; all p < 0.05) and hypertriglyceridaemia (HR = 6.5; CI 1.4-31 and HR = 7.2; CI 1.1-43; all p < 0.05). The risk of hypercholesterolaemia was also higher in CCSs who underwent autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HR = 3.2; CI 1.7-5.9; p < 0.001) or platinum-based chemotherapy (HR = 2.7; CI 1.5-4.9; p < 0.001), whereas a previous diagnosis of brain tumour (HR = 10; CI 1.2-45; p < 0.05) and anthracyclines exposure (HR = 1.3; CI 1.2-26; p < 0.05) significantly predicted obesity. CCSs show a high and variable risk for developing dyslipidaemia and obesity, depending on cancer diagnosis and treatments. Therefore, they need accurate and tailored control of their cardiovascular risk profile. © The European Society

  17. Marketing Transnational Childhoods: The Bio Blurbs of Third Culture Novelists

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Schulz Sanfilippo

    2016-01-01

    Many contemporary novelists experienced high levels of transnational mobility during their childhood and were thus raised ‘among’ different countries and cultures. Predominantly the offspring of diplomats, business executives, missionaries, military personnel and academics, these writers have compelling backgrounds of transnational and transient childhoods. Third Culture Kid (TCK), coined by the sociologist Ruth Useem, is the term given to this childhood experience. Until 2010, the term TCK w...

  18. Harsh parenting and encouragement from parents during childhood: Long-term effects on well-being, mental health, and major illness

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhalaf, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines long-term, negative consequences of various behaviours characteristic of negative parenting styles, specifically verbal maltreatment (insulting children), physical maltreatment (beating or hitting children), and lack of encouragement. Psychological scales were employed to explore the relationship of each of these factors to mental and physical health in adults. As a part of this research, a new questionnaire, the Arabic Parenting Style Questionnaire (APSQ), was developed...

  19. Prevalence and diagnostic validity of motivational impairments and deficits in visuospatial short-term memory and working memory in ADHD subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; Van der Oord, Saskia; Huizenga, Hilde M; Wiers, Reinout W; Prins, Pier J M

    2015-05-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and reinforcement sensitivity are thought to give rise to symptoms in the combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) of ADHD. Children with ADHD are especially impaired on visuospatial WM, which is composed of short-term memory (STM) and a central executive. Although deficits in visuospatial WM and reinforcement sensitivity appear characteristic of children with ADHD on a group-level, the prevalence and diagnostic validity of these impairments is still largely unknown. Moreover, studies investigating this did not control for the interaction between motivational impairments and cognitive performance in children with ADHD, and did not differentiate between ADHD subtypes. Visuospatial WM and STM tasks were administered in a standard (feedback-only) and a high-reinforcement (feedback + 10 euros) condition, to 86 children with ADHD-C, 27 children with ADHD-I (restrictive subtype), and 62 typically developing controls (aged 8-12). Reinforcement sensitivity was indexed as the difference in performance between the reinforcement conditions. WM and STM impairments were most prevalent in ADHD-C. In ADHD-I, only WM impairments, not STM impairments, were more prevalent than in controls. Motivational impairments were not common (22% impaired) and equally prevalent in both subtypes. Memory and motivation were found to represent independent neuropsychological domains. Impairment on WM, STM, and/or motivation was associated with more inattention symptoms, medication-use, and lower IQ scores. Similar results were found for analyses of diagnostic validity. The majority of children with ADHD-C is impaired on visuospatial WM. In ADHD-I, STM impairments are not more common than in controls. Within both ADHD subtypes only a minority has an abnormal sensitivity to reinforcement.

  20. Combined dyslipidemia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W

    2015-01-01

    Combined dyslipidemia (CD) is now the predominant dyslipidemic pattern in childhood, characterized by moderate-to-severe elevation in triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), minimal elevation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and reduced HDL-C. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the CD pattern is represented at the lipid subpopulation level as an increase in small, dense LDL and in overall LDL particle number plus a reduction in total HDL-C and large HDL particles, a highly atherogenic pattern. In youth, CD occurs almost exclusively with obesity and is highly prevalent, seen in more than 40% of obese adolescents. CD in childhood predicts pathologic evidence of atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction in adolescence and young adulthood, and early clinical cardiovascular events in adult life. There is a tight connection between CD, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting an integrated pathophysiological response to excessive weight gain. Weight loss, changes in dietary composition, and increases in physical activity have all been shown to improve CD significantly in children and adolescents in short-term studies. Most importantly, even small amounts of weight loss are associated with significant decreases in triglyceride levels and increases in HDL-C levels with improvement in lipid subpopulations. Diet change focused on limitation of simple carbohydrate intake with specific elimination of all sugar-sweetened beverages is very effective. Evidence-based recommendations for initiating diet and activity change are provided. Rarely, drug therapy is needed, and the evidence for drug treatment of CD in childhood is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Social origin, schooling and individual change in intelligence during childhood influence long-term mortality: a 68-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Anton C J; Modin, Bitte E; De Stavola, Bianca L; Vågerö, Denny H

    2012-04-01

    Intelligence at a single time-point has been linked to health outcomes. An individual's IQ increases with longer schooling, but the validity of such increase is unclear. In this study, we assess the hypothesis that individual change in the performance on IQ tests between ages 10 and 20 years is associated with mortality later in life. The analyses are based on a cohort of Swedish boys born in 1928 (n = 610) for whom social background data were collected in 1937, IQ tests were carried out in 1938 and 1948 and own education and mortality were recorded up to 2006. Structural equation models were used to estimate the extent to which two latent intelligence scores, at ages 10 and 20 years, manifested by results on the IQ tests, are related to paternal and own education, and how all these variables are linked to all-cause mortality. Intelligence at the age of 20 years was associated with lower mortality in adulthood, after controlling for intelligence at the age of 10 years. The increases in intelligence partly mediated the link between longer schooling and lower mortality. Social background differences in adult intelligence (and consequently in mortality) were partly explained by the tendency for sons of more educated fathers to receive longer schooling, even when initial intelligence levels had been accounted for. The results are consistent with a causal link from change in intelligence to mortality, and further, that schooling-induced changes in IQ scores are true and bring about lasting changes in intelligence. In addition, if both these interpretations are correct, social differences in access to longer schooling have consequences for social differences in both adult intelligence and adult health.

  2. Body composition in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia diagnosed in childhood and adolescence: A focus on sarcopenic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Christopher J C; Beaumont, Lesley F; Farncombe, Troy H; Cranston, Amy N; Athale, Uma H; Yakemchuk, Valerie N; Webber, Colin E; Barr, Ronald D

    2018-03-15

    The late effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) include disordered body composition, especially obesity. Less attention has been focused on the loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and the combined morbidity of sarcopenic obesity. A cross-sectional study of body composition was undertaken via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 75 long-term survivors of ALL (more than 10 years after the diagnosis). Measures were obtained of the fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (equivalent to the lean body mass [LBM]), and whole-body bone mineral content. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) was measured with the Health Utilities Index. The sum of the FM, LBM, and whole-body bone mineral content matched the total body weight measured directly (r = 0.998). The appendicular lean mass (ALM) was derived from the LBM in all 4 limbs and accounted for approximately 75% of the SMM. According to the fat mass index (FMI; ie, FM/height 2 ), 12% of females and 18% of males were frankly obese by World Health Organization criteria. The median FMI z score was + 0.40, whereas the median z score for the appendicular lean mass index (ALMI; ie, ALM/height 2 ) was -0.40. Sarcopenic obesity, defined as a positive FMI z score with a negative ALMI z score, was present in 32 subjects (43%). There were statistically significant and clinically important differences in overall HRQL between subjects with and without sarcopenic obesity. Sarcopenic obesity is prevalent in long-term survivors of ALL, and this places them in double jeopardy from excess body fat and inadequate SMM (eg, a combination of metabolic and frailty syndromes). It is associated with an adverse impact on overall HRQL. Cancer 2018;124:1225-31. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  3. Validation of the long-term assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in rats using hair corticosterone as a biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorrano, Fabrizio; Carrasco, Javier; Pastor-Ciurana, Jordi; Belda, Xavier; Rami-Bastante, Alicia; Bacci, Maria Laura; Armario, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    The evaluation of chronic activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is critical for determining the impact of chronic stressful situations. However, current methods have important limitations. The potential use of hair glucocorticoids as a noninvasive retrospective biomarker of long-term HPA activity is gaining acceptance in humans and wild animals. However, there is no study examining hair corticosterone (HC) in laboratory animals. The present study validates a method for measuring HC in rats and demonstrates that it properly reflects chronic HPA activity. The HC concentration was similar in male and female rats, despite higher total plasma corticosterone levels in females, tentatively suggesting that it reflects free rather than total plasma corticosterone. Exposure of male rats to 2 different chronic stress protocols (chronic immobilization and chronic unpredictable stress) resulted in similarly higher HC levels compared to controls (1.8-fold). HC also increased after a mild chronic stressor (30 min daily restraint). Chronic administration of 2 different doses of a long-acting ACTH preparation dramatically increased HC (3.1- and 21.5-fold, respectively), demonstrating that a ceiling effect in HC accumulation is unlikely under other more natural conditions. Finally, adrenalectomy significantly reduced HC. In conclusion, HC measurement in rats appears appropriate to evaluate integrated chronic changes in circulating corticosterone. © FASEB.

  4. Severe childhood malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J; Kerac, Marko; Trehan, Indi; Briend, André

    2017-09-21

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children malnutrition. Here, we use the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide therapeutic end points. The early detection of severe wasting and kwashiorkor and outpatient therapy for these conditions using ready-to-use therapeutic foods form the cornerstone of modern therapy, and only a small percentage of children require inpatient care. However, the normalization of physiological and metabolic functions in children with malnutrition is challenging, and children remain at high risk of relapse and death. Further research is urgently needed to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe malnutrition, especially the mechanisms causing kwashiorkor, and to develop new interventions for prevention and treatment.

  5. The long-term effect of erythropoiesis stimulating agents given to preterm infants. A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study on neurometabolites in early childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparovic, Charles; Caprihan, Arvind; Yeo, Ronald A.; Phillips, John; Lowe, Jean R.; Ohls, Robin K.; Campbell, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are neuroprotective in cell and animal models of preterm birth. Prematurity has been shown to alter neurometabolite levels in children in studies using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). We hypothesized that ESA treatment in premature infants would tend to normalize neurometabolites by 4-6 years of age. Children in a longitudinal study of neurodevelopment underwent MRI and 1H-MRS at approximately 4 years and 6 years of age. Prematurely born children (500-1,250 g birth weight) received ESAs (erythropoietin or darbepoetin) or placebo during their neonatal hospitalization, and these groups were compared to healthy term controls. 1H-MRS spectra were obtained from the anterior cingulate (gray matter) and frontal lobe white matter, assessing combined N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (tNAA), myo-inositol, choline compounds (Cho), combined creatine and phosphocreatine, and combined glutamate and glutamine. No significant (P≤0.5) group differences were observed for any metabolite level. Significant age-related increases in white-matter tNAA and Cho were observed, as well as a trend for increased gray-matter tNAA. Neither prematurity nor neonatal ESA treatment was associated with differences in brain metabolite levels in the children of this study at a significance level of 0.05. These findings suggest that earlier differences that might have existed had normalized by 4-6 years of age or were too small to be statistically significant in the current sample. (orig.)

  6. Long-Term Speech and Language Outcomes in Prelingually Deaf Children, Adolescents and Young Adults Who Received Cochlear Implants in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Chad V.; Kronenberger, William G.; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated long-term speech and language outcomes in 51 prelingually deaf children, adolescents, and young adults who received cochlear implants (CIs) prior to 7 years of age and used their implants for at least 7 years. Average speech perception scores were similar to those found in prior research with other samples of experienced CI users. Mean language test scores were lower than norm-referenced scores from nationally representative normal-hearing, typically-developing samples, although a majority of the CI users scored within one standard deviation of the normative mean or higher on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (63%) and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition (69%). Speech perception scores were negatively associated with a meningitic etiology of hearing loss, older age at implantation, poorer pre-implant unaided pure tone average thresholds, lower family income, and the use of Total Communication. Users of CIs for 15 years or more were more likely to have these characteristics and were more likely to score lower on measures of speech perception compared to users of CIs for 14 years or less. The aggregation of these risk factors in the > 15 years of CI use subgroup accounts for their lower speech perception scores and may stem from more conservative CI candidacy criteria in use at the beginning of pediatric cochlear implantation. PMID:23988907

  7. After Childhood Cancer: a Qualitative Study of Family Physician, Parent/Guardian, and Survivor Information Needs and Perspectives on Long-Term Follow-up and Survivorship Care Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keats, Melanie R; Shea, Kelsey; Parker, Louise; Stewart, Samuel A; Flanders, Annette; Bernstein, Mark

    2018-03-19

    Despite support for the provision of a survivorship care plan (SCP) to every cancer survivor, there is a lack of understanding of the needs and preferences of key stakeholders. We examined perspectives of a novel personalized SCP for childhood cancer survivors (CCS), their family, and family physicians (FP). We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with a purposefully selected sample of CCS, parents/guardians, and FPs. Data included responses to stakeholder cancer care information needs, concerns with or gaps in communication, the perceived role of the FP in the long-term management of CCS care, utility of the SCP, preferred format, and suggestions for improvement. A deductive content analysis was conducted. Twenty-four participants including 8 CCS, 10 parents/guardians, and 6 FPs completed an interview. Four main and several sub-categories emerged. Core categories were coded as (1) informative reference, (2) coordination of follow-up, (3) barriers to follow-up care, and (4) suggestions for improvement and future implementation. The majority of participants preferred an electronic- or web-based format. Overall, the SCP was seen as an informative and concise resource. The SCP was thought to be a valuable tool to foster communication and empower CCSs to become more fully engaged in their own cancer-related health care. FPs viewed the SCP as a useful resource to facilitate and guide the long-term management of the CCS. In addition to the treatment summary, a comprehensive follow-up timeline, personalized lifestyle information, and details on how to access additional psychosocial support were highlighted as important components.

  8. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  9. Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... determine how a community is designed. Consequences of Obesity More Immediate Health Risks Obesity during childhood can ...

  10. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...

  11. Preschool hyperactivity is associated with long-term economic burden: evidence from a longitudinal health economic analysis of costs incurred across childhood, adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorozoglou, Maria; Smith, Elizabeth; Koerting, Johanna; Thompson, Margaret J; Sayal, Kapil; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2015-09-01

    Preschool hyperactivity is an early risk factor for adult mental health problems and criminality. Little is known about; (a) the patterns of long-term service costs associated with this behavioural marker in the general population and (b) the specific factors predicting hyperactivity-related costs. We undertook a prospective study investigating associations between preschool hyperactivity and average individual annual service costs up to late adolescent and young adulthood. One-hundred and seventy individuals rated as hyperactive by their parents and 88 nonhyperactive controls were identified from a community sample of 4,215 three years olds. Baseline information about behaviour/emotional problems and background characteristics were collected. At follow-up (when individuals were aged between 14 and 25 years) information was obtained on service use, and associated costs since the age of three. Based on this information we calculated the average cost per annum incurred by each individual. Compared to controls, preschoolers with hyperactivity had 17.6 times higher average costs per annum across domains (apart from nonmental health costs). These were £562 for each hyperactive individual compared with £30 for controls. Average annual costs decreased as a function of age, with higher costs incurred at younger ages. The effects of hyperactivity remained significant when other baseline factors were added to the model. Effects were fully mediated by later psychiatric morbidity. When the hyperactive group were examined separately, costs were consistently predicted by male gender and, for some cost codes, by conduct problems. Preventative approaches targeting early hyperactivity may be of value. Services should be targeted towards high-risk individuals with careful consideration given to the cost-to-benefit trade-off of early intervention strategies. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association

  12. The Importance of Music in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinowitz, Lili M.

    1998-01-01

    Surveys some of the research in music education that validates the inclusion of music for its own sake in models for early childhood learning. Focuses on topics that include, but are not limited to, child and vocal development, the importance of movement for children, and adult involvement in music education. (CMK)

  13. Fast hydrodynamic model for medium- and long-term dispersion in seawater in the English Channel and southern North Sea, qualitative and quantitative validation by radionuclide tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bois, P. Bailly; Dumas, F.

    The database for medium- and long-term model validation using 125Sb released by the La Hague reprocessing plant includes 1400 measurements performed between 1987 and 1994 in the English Channel and the North Sea and data for each release since 1982. Antimony-125 has a conservative behaviour in water masses over a period of several years. These data can be used qualitatively and quantitatively to compare the measured concentrations with the calculated ones and quantities of tracers. Tritium measurements are also available for model calibration. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been developed to allow repetitive long-term simulations. This model uses a database of residual tidal currents calculated using the Lagrangian barycentric method [Salomon, J.C., Guéguéniat, P., Orbi, A., Baron, Y., 1988. A Lagrangian model for long-term tidally induced transport and mixing. Verification by artificial radionuclide concentrations. In: Guary, J.C., Guéguéniat, P., Pentreath, R.J. (Eds.), Radionuclides: A Tool for Oceanography, Cherbourg 1-5 June, 1987. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, New York, pp. 384-394]. The area covered by the model includes the English Channel, the southern North Sea and the Irish Sea with a mesh size of 1 km. The main adjustment parameters of this model are the sources of wind data used and the calculation method for evaluating wind stress at the sea surface. With these parameters, the fluxes of radionuclides and water masses in the English Channel and the North Sea were balanced for the whole period of field measurements (1987-1994). The correlation factor between individual measurements in seawater and calculation results is 0.88 with an average error of ±54%, the error attributable to the measurement process being 15% on average. The mean flux through the Dover Strait is 126,000 m 3 s -1, close from the one obtained from previous studies [Salomon, J.C., Breton, M., Guéguéniat, P. 1993. Computed residual flow through the Dover

  14. Adulthood Personality Correlates of Childhood Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Carver

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed Anger/Aggression, Extrinsic focus, Agreeableness, and Engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower Agreeableness and to higher Anger/Aggression and Extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection.

  15. Japanese Guideline for Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Nishimuta

    2011-01-01

    JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline (GINA in that the former emphasizes long-term management of childhood asthma based on asthma severity and early diagnosis and intervention at <2 years and 2–5 years of age. However, a management method, including step-up or step-down of long-term management agents based on the status of asthma symptoms, is easy to understand and thus JAGL is suitable for routine medical treatment. JAGL also introduced treatment and management using a control test for children, recommending treatment and management aimed at complete control through avoiding exacerbation factors and appropriate use of antiinflammatory agents.

  16. Reliability, validity and cut-off value of the childhood autism spectrum test%儿童孤独症谱系测验量表的信度、效度及临界值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关智勇; 龚建华; 陈艳琳; 周首俊; 李丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the applicability of the childhood autism spectrum test (CAST) of children in Mainland China according to autism screening,in order to provide the effective reference for the identification and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders of children.Methods Two hundreds and fifty-two typical developing children,and 61 autistic children who were confirmed by psychological clinic of Child Healthcare Clinic,Shenzhen Luohu District Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital who were conformed with diagnosis standards of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition(DSM-5) by using CAST Chinese version were assessed,and the reliability and validity analysis were made on the CAST scale.The receiver operating characteristic curve was drew to determine the optimal threshold value,and the sensitivity,specificity and positive predictive value were calculated.Results CAST Chinese version had good reliability,Cronbach's α was 0.880.Split-half reliability coefficient r was 0.821,and the whole scale calibration reliability coefficient was 0.902.There was statistically significant difference between items and the total score(P<0.05).The consistency between the CAST ≥4 years old children and diagnosis standards of DSM-5 reached 0.884(P=0.000).The consistency 3-<4 years old children and diagnosis standards of DSM-5 reached 0.867 (P=0.000).Among the screening of the children who were ≥4 years old,the cut off was 15 scores that the sensitivity and specificity were best.With the children of 3-<4 years old,a designated cut-point should be 17 scores.Conclusions There are good reliability and validity of CAST,which can be used to mainland China,as well as to screen autistic children more than 3 years old.%目的 探讨儿童孤独症谱系测验(CAST)量表在中国大陆儿童孤独症筛查的适用性,为儿童孤独症谱系障碍的识别与诊断提供有效参考.方法 采用CAST量表对252例健康儿童及深圳市罗湖区妇幼

  17. Breastfeeding Reduces Childhood Obesity Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Collins, Candice; Ratliff, Melanie; Xie, Bin; Wang, Youfa

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of breastfeeding and its duration on the development of childhood obesity from 24 months through grade 6. U.S. longitudinal data collected from 1234 children were analyzed using logistic regression models and generalized estimating equation (GEE). Child height and weight were measured six times at ages of 24 months, 36 months, 54 months, grade 1, grade 3, and grade 6. During the early 1990s, prevalence of breastfeeding was low in the United States, 60% and 48% at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Nonsmoking, white, married mothers with both parents in the household, and with income above the poverty line, were more likely to breastfeed at 1 month of age of their babies. Obesity rate of the children increased with age from 24 months to grade 6. Logistic regression showed that breastfeeding at month 1 was associated with 53% (odds ratio [OR]: 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30-0.73) and 47% (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36-0.78) decreased risks for childhood obesity at grades 1 and 6, respectively. GEE analysis showed that breastfeeding at 1 month reduced risk for childhood obesity by 36% (95% CI: 0.47-0.88) from ages 24 months through grade 6. Regarding breastfeeding duration, more than 6 months (vs. never) was associated with a decreased risk for childhood obesity by 42% (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36-0.94). Breastfeeding at 1 month and more than 6 months reduced the risk of childhood obesity. Rate of breastfeeding was low in the United States in the 1990s, which may have had long-term implications on children.

  18. Prognostic indices in childhood heart failure | Omokhodion | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate the short term prognosis of childhood heart failure and highlight the factors that affect outcome among cases of heart failure admitted into the paediatric wards, University College Hospital, Ibadan. Background: Childhood heart failure remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing ...

  19. No excess fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.

    2003-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that many survivors of childhood cancer experience fatigue as a long-term effect of their treatment. To investigate this issue further, we assessed the level of fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. We compared the results with a group of young adults with no

  20. Experimental and numerical validation of the effective medium theory for the B-term band broadening in 1st and 2nd generation monolithic silica columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deridder, Sander; Vanmessen, Alison; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Desmet, Gert; Cabooter, Deirdre

    2014-07-18

    Effective medium theory (EMT) expressions for the B-term band broadening in monolithic silica columns are presented at the whole-column as well as at the mesoporous skeleton level. Given the bi-continuous nature of the monolithic medium, regular as well as inverse formulations of the EMT-expressions have been established. The established expressions were validated by applying them to a set of experimental effective diffusion (Deff)-data obtained via peak parking on a number of 1st and 2nd generation monolithic silica columns, as well as to a set of numerical diffusion simulations in a simplified monolithic column representation (tetrahedral skeleton model) with different external porosities and internal diffusion coefficients. The numerically simulated diffusion data can be very closely represented over a very broad range of zone retention factors (up to k″=80) using the established EMT-expressions, especially when using the inverse variant. The expressions also allow representing the experimentally measured effective diffusion data very closely. The measured Deff/Dmol-values were found to decrease significantly with increasing retention factor, in general going from about Deff/Dmol=0.55 to 0.65 at low k″ (k″≅1.5-3.8) to Deff/Dmol=0.25 at very high k″ (k″≅40-80). These values are significantly larger than observed in fully-porous and core-shell particles. The intra-skeleton diffusion coefficient (Dpz) was typically found to be of the order of Dpz/Dmol=0.4, compared to Dpz/Dmol=0.2-0.35 observed in most particle-based columns. These higher Dpz/Dmol values are the cause of the higher Deff/Dmol values observed. In addition, it also appears that the higher internal diffusion is linked to the higher porosity of the mesoporous skeleton that has a relatively open structure with relatively wide pores. The observed (weak) relation between Dpz/Dmol and the zone retention factor appears to be in good agreement with that predicted when applying the regular

  1. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René; Meije, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of

  2. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  3. Stages of Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Version Key Points Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system. There are two types of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. Epstein-Barr virus infection increases the risk of childhood Hodgkin ...

  4. Childhood family disruption and adult height: is there a mediating role of puberty?

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, P; Garcia, JR; Sear, R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Childhood family background is known to be associated with child growth and development, including the onset of puberty, but less is known about the influence of childhood family disruption on outcomes in later life. Given the associations between early family disruption and childhood development, we predicted that there may be long-term health-relevant consequences of childhood disruption. METHODOLOGY: Using data from a large U.S. interview sample (n=16,207), we te...

  5. Childhood Predictors and Adult Life Success of Adolescent Delinquency Abstainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, N; Farrington, D P; Ttofi, M M; Keijsers, L; Branje, S; Meeus, W

    2016-04-01

    While much is known about adolescent delinquency, considerably less attention has been given to adolescent delinquency abstention. Understanding how or why some adolescents manage to abstain from delinquency during adolescence is informative for understanding and preventing adolescent (minor) delinquency. Using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (N = 411 males) to compare abstainers, self-report delinquents and convicted delinquents we found five childhood factors (ages 8-10) that predicted adolescent abstention (ages 10-18). First, we find that adolescent abstainers possess characteristics opposite to those of convicted delinquents (namely, abstainers are high on honesty, conformity and family income). However, we also found that abstainers also share some childhood characteristics with convicted delinquents (namely, low popularity and low school achievement). A latent class analysis indicated that the mixed factors predicting abstention can be accounted for by two groups of abstainers: an adaptive group characterized by high honesty, and a maladaptive group characterized by low popularity and low school achievement. Further, validation of these two types of abstainers using data collected at age 48 suggested that adaptive abstainers outperform all other adolescents in general life success, whereas maladaptive abstainers only fare better than delinquent adolescents in terms of lower substance use and delinquency later in life.

  6. [Current Guidelines to Prevent Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüher, S; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Graf, C; Grünewald-Funk, D; Widhalm, K; Korsten-Reck, U; Markert, J; Güssfeld, C; Müller, M J; Moss, A; Wabitsch, M; Wiegand, S

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines for the prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence are presented. A literature search was performed in Medline via PubMed, and appropriate studies were analysed. Programs to prevent childhood obesity were to date mainly school-based. Effects were limited to date. Analyses tailored to different age groups show that prevention programs have the best effects in younger children (adolescence, school-based interventions were most effective when adolescents were directly addressed. To date, obesity prevention programs have mainly focused on behavior oriented prevention. Recommendations for condition oriented prevention have been suggested by the German Alliance of Non-communicable Diseases and include one hour of physical activity at school, promotion of healthy food choices by taxing unhealthy foods, mandatory quality standards for meals at kindergarten and schools as well as a ban on unhealthy food advertisement addressing children. Behavior oriented prevention programs showed hardly any or only limited effects in the long term. Certain risk groups for the development of obesity are not reached effectively by available programs. Due to the heterogeneity of available studies, universally valid conclusions cannot be drawn. The combination with condition oriented prevention, which has to counteract on an obesogenic environment, is crucial for sustainable success of future obesity prevention programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Air Traffic Management Technology Demostration Phase 1 (ATD) Interval Management for Near-Term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Sara R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The Interval Management for Near-term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in support of the NASA Airspace Systems Program's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). ATD-1 is intended to showcase an integrated set of technologies that provide an efficient arrival solution for managing aircraft using Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) surveillance, navigation, procedures, and automation for both airborne and ground-based systems. The goal of the IMNOVA experiment was to assess if procedures outlined by the ATD-1 Concept of Operations were acceptable to and feasible for use by flight crews in a voice communications environment when used with a minimum set of Flight Deck-based Interval Management (FIM) equipment and a prototype crew interface. To investigate an integrated arrival solution using ground-based air traffic control tools and aircraft Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) tools, the LaRC FIM system and the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering and Controller Managed Spacing tools developed at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) were integrated into LaRC's Air Traffic Operations Laboratory (ATOL). Data were collected from 10 crews of current 757/767 pilots asked to fly a high-fidelity, fixed-based simulator during scenarios conducted within an airspace environment modeled on the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Terminal Radar Approach Control area. The aircraft simulator was equipped with the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Area Routes (ASTAR) algorithm and a FIM crew interface consisting of electronic flight bags and ADS-B guidance displays. Researchers used "pseudo-pilot" stations to control 24 simulated aircraft that provided multiple air traffic flows into the DFW International Airport, and recently retired DFW air traffic controllers served as confederate Center, Feeder, Final

  8. The limited screening value of insulin-like growth factor-i as a marker for alterations in body composition in very long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdorp, Karin; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; Pieters, Rob; Boot, Annemieke; Sluimer, Johanna; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group. Procedure We

  9. The limited screening value of insulin-like growth factor-i as a marker for alterations in body composition in very long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blijdorp (Karin); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); R. Pieters (Rob); A.M. Boot (Annemieke); J.P. Sluimer (Johanna); A. van der Lelij (Allegonda); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group.

  10. Genetic analyses of the stability of executive functioning during childhood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, T.J.C.; Posthuma, D.; de Sonneville, L.M.J.; Stins, J.F.; Verhulst, F.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    Executive functioning is an umbrella term for several related cognitive functions like selective- and sustained attention, working memory, and inhibition. Little is known about the stability of executive functioning during childhood. In this study the longitudinal stability of executive functioning

  11. Johns Hopkins Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The long term goals of the Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment are to examine how exposures to environmental pollutants and allergens may relate to...

  12. Long-Term Impact of Valid Case Criterion on Capturing Population-Level Growth under Item Response Theory Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-17-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiling; Monfils, Lora

    2017-01-01

    Using simulated data, this study examined the impact of different levels of stringency of the valid case inclusion criterion on item response theory (IRT)-based true score equating over 5 years in the context of K-12 assessment when growth in student achievement is expected. Findings indicate that the use of the most stringent inclusion criterion…

  13. Financial Burden in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipp, Ryan D; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Fair, Douglas; Rabin, Julia; Hyland, Kelly A; Kuhlthau, Karen; Perez, Giselle K; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Nathan, Paul C; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Leisenring, Wendy M; Park, Elyse R

    2017-10-20

    Purpose Survivors of childhood cancer may experience financial burden as a result of health care costs, particularly because these patients often require long-term medical care. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of financial burden and identify associations between a higher percentage of income spent on out-of-pocket medical costs (≥ 10% of annual income) and issues related to financial burden (jeopardizing care or changing lifestyle) among survivors of childhood cancer and a sibling comparison group. Methods Between May 2011 and April 2012, we surveyed an age-stratified, random sample of survivors of childhood cancer and a sibling comparison group who were enrolled in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Participants reported their household income, out-of-pocket medical costs, and issues related to financial burden (questions were adapted from national surveys on financial burden). Logistic regression identified associations between participant characteristics, a higher percentage of income spent on out-of-pocket medical costs, and financial burden, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Among 580 survivors of childhood cancer and 173 siblings, survivors of childhood cancer were more likely to have out-of-pocket medical costs ≥ 10% of annual income (10.0% v 2.9%; P report spending a higher percentage of their income on out-of-pocket medical costs, which may influence their health-seeking behavior and potentially affect health outcomes. Our findings highlight the need to address financial burden in this population with long-term health care needs.

  14. The Economic Costs of Childhood Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Mark; Allin, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Childhood disabilities entail a range of immediate and long-term economic costs that have important implications for the well-being of the child, the family, and society but that are difficult to measure. In an extensive research review, Mark Stabile and Sara Allin examine evidence about three kinds of costs--direct, out-of-pocket costs incurred…

  15. Malignent diseases in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havers, W.

    1980-01-01

    As malignant diseases in childhood are rare, and only a small group of radiotherapists have been able to gain experience in this field, this chapter treats the particularities of childhood from this aspect. The side effects of radiotherapy are particularly important here for the growing and developing organism of the child. The most frequently occuring malignant diseases are treated individually. (MG) [de

  16. [Reliability and validity of warning signs checklist for screening psychological, behavioral and developmental problems of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X N; Zhang, Y; Feng, W W; Wang, H S; Cao, B; Zhang, B; Yang, Y F; Wang, H M; Zheng, Y; Jin, X M; Jia, M X; Zou, X B; Zhao, C X; Robert, J; Jing, Jin

    2017-06-02

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of warning signs checklist developed by the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China (NHFPC), so as to determine the screening effectiveness of warning signs on developmental problems of early childhood. Method: Stratified random sampling method was used to assess the reliability and validity of checklist of warning sign and 2 110 children 0 to 6 years of age(1 513 low-risk subjects and 597 high-risk subjects) were recruited from 11 provinces of China. The reliability evaluation for the warning signs included the test-retest reliability and interrater reliability. With the use of Age and Stage Questionnaire (ASQ) and Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale (GESELL) as the criterion scales, criterion validity was assessed by determining the correlation and consistency between the screening results of warning signs and the criterion scales. Result: In terms of the warning signs, the screening positive rates at different ages ranged from 10.8%(21/141) to 26.2%(51/137). The median (interquartile) testing time for each subject was 1(0.6) minute. Both the test-retest reliability and interrater reliability of warning signs reached 0.7 or above, indicating that the stability was good. In terms of validity assessment, there was remarkable consistency between ASQ and warning signs, with the Kappa value of 0.63. With the use of GESELL as criterion, it was determined that the sensitivity of warning signs in children with suspected developmental delay was 82.2%, and the specificity was 77.7%. The overall Youden index was 0.6. Conclusion: The reliability and validity of warning signs checklist for screening early childhood developmental problems have met the basic requirements of psychological screening scales, with the characteristics of short testing time and easy operation. Thus, this warning signs checklist can be used for screening psychological and behavioral problems of early childhood

  17. EULAR/PRINTO/PRES criteria for Henoch-Schönlein purpura, childhood polyarteritis nodosa, childhood Wegener granulomatosis and childhood Takayasu arteritis: Ankara 2008. Part II: Final classification criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozen, Seza; Pistorio, Angela; Iusan, Silvia M

    2010-01-01

    To validate the previously proposed classification criteria for Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP), childhood polyarteritis nodosa (c-PAN), c-Wegener granulomatosis (c-WG) and c-Takayasu arteritis (c-TA)....

  18. Asthma phenotypes in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Monica B; Covar, Ronina A

    2016-04-01

    This review describes the literature over the past 18 months that evaluated childhood asthma phenotypes, highlighting the key aspects of these studies, and comparing these studies to previous ones in this area. Recent studies on asthma phenotypes have identified new phenotypes on the basis of statistical analyses (using cluster analysis and latent class analysis methodology) and have evaluated the outcomes and associated risk factors of previously established early childhood asthma phenotypes that are based on asthma onset and patterns of wheezing illness. There have also been investigations focusing on immunologic, physiologic, and genetic correlates of various phenotypes, as well as identification of subphenotypes of severe childhood asthma. Childhood asthma remains a heterogeneous condition, and investigations into these various presentations, risk factors, and outcomes are important since they can offer therapeutic and prognostic relevance. Further investigation into the immunopathology and genetic basis underlying childhood phenotypes is important so therapy can be tailored accordingly.

  19. Prenatal exposure to diurnal temperature variation and early childhood pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ji; Lu, Chan; Deng, Qihong

    2017-04-01

    Childhood pneumonia is one of the leading single causes of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide, but its etiology still remains unclear. We investigate the association between childhood pneumonia and exposure to diurnal temperature variation (DTV) in different timing windows. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2,598 children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The lifetime prevalence of pneumonia was assessed by a questionnaire administered by the parents. Individual exposure to DTV during both prenatal and postnatal periods was estimated. Logic regression models was used to examine the association between childhood pneumonia and DTV exposure in terms of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Lifetime prevalence of childhood pneumonia in preschool children in Changsha was high up to 38.6%. We found that childhood pneumonia was significantly associated with prenatal DTV exposure, with adjusted OR (95%CI) =1.19 (1.02-1.38), particularly during the second trimester. However, childhood pneumonia not associated with postnatal DTV exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that boys are more susceptible to the pneumonia risk of diurnal temperature variation than girls. We further observed that the prevalence of childhood pneumonia was decreased in recent years as DTV shrinked. Early childhood pneumonia was associated with prenatal exposure to the diurnal temperature variation (DTV) during pregnancy, particularly in the second trimester, which suggests fetal origin of childhood pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood risk factors in Korean women with anorexia nervosa: two sets of case-control studies with retrospective comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Heo, Si Young; Kang, Heechan; Song, Ki Jun; Treasure, Janet

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) in Korean women. Two sets of case-control comparisons were conducted, in which 52 women with lifetime AN from Seoul, S. Korea, were compared with 108 Korean healthy controls and also with 42 women with lifetime AN from the UK in terms of their childhood risk factors. A questionnaire designed to conduct a retrospective assessment of the childhood risk factors was administered to all participants. The Korean AN women were more likely to report premorbid anxiety, perfectionism, and emotional undereating and were less likely to report having supportive figures in their childhood than the Korean healthy controls. There were no overall differences in the childhood risk factors between the Korean and British women with AN. Premorbid anxiety, perfectionism, less social support, and emotional undereating merit attention as risk factors in Korean AN. The current results are informative, but an epidemiologically robust prospective case-control study would be needed to validate these findings. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Nutritional interventions for survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jennifer E; Wakefield, Claire E; Cohn, Richard J

    2016-08-22

    Childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk of developing health conditions such as osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease than their peers. Health-promoting behaviour, such as consuming a healthy diet, could lessen the impact of these chronic issues, yet the prevalence rate of health-protecting behaviour amongst survivors of childhood cancer is similar to that of the general population. Targeted nutritional interventions may prevent or reduce the incidence of these chronic diseases. The primary aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of a range of nutritional interventions designed to improve the nutritional intake of childhood cancer survivors, as compared to a control group of childhood cancer survivors who did not receive the intervention. Secondary objectives were to assess metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, measures of weight and body fat distribution, behavioural change, changes in knowledge regarding disease risk and nutritional intake, participants' views of the intervention, measures of health status and quality of life, measures of harm associated with the process or outcomes of the intervention, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention We searched the electronic databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2013, Issue 3), MEDLINE/PubMed (from 1945 to April 2013), and Embase/Ovid (from 1980 to April 2013). We ran the search again in August 2015; we have not yet fully assessed these results, but we have identified one ongoing trial. We conducted additional searching of ongoing trial registers - the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number register and the National Institutes of Health register (both screened in the first half of 2013) - reference lists of relevant articles and reviews, and conference proceedings of the International Society for Paediatric Oncology and the International Conference on Long-Term Complications of Treatment of Children and Adolescents for Cancer (both 2008 to

  2. Childhood nutrition and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M

    2000-05-01

    One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the

  3. The limited screening value of insulin-like growth factor-I as a marker for alterations in body composition in very long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blijdorp, Karin; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; Pieters, Rob; Boot, Annemieke; Sluimer, Johanna; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian

    2012-10-01

    The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group. We analyzed retrospective data from 610 adult childhood cancer survivors, retrieved from the late effects clinic. Median age at diagnosis was 6 years (interquartile range 3-11) and follow-up time was 18 years (13-24). We assessed IGF-I standard deviation scores (SDS), anthropometrical measures, growth hormone stimulation tests in patients with clinical signs of GHD, and measures of body composition (assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry, Lunar Prodigy). In 58 cranially irradiated acute leukemia survivors (25 Gy (24-25)) and 56 locally irradiated brain tumor survivors (42 Gy (35-54)) we found significantly lower IGF-I SDS (P body mass index (P = 0.01), higher waist-hip ratio (WHR; P = 0.001), higher total fat percentage SDS (P body mass SDS (P body mass (r = 0.15, P = 0.01). In patients with low IGF-I levels, IGF-I did not significantly differ between subjects with and without GHD as determined by GH-stimulation testing (P = 0.39). This study shows that IGF-I has limited value as a marker for alterations in body composition in adult childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Follow-up in Childhood Functional Constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Line; Walsted, Anne-Mette; Rittig, Charlotte Siggaard

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Guidelines recommend close follow-up during treatment of childhood functional constipation. Only sparse evidence exists on how follow-up is best implemented. Our aim was to evaluate if follow-up by phone or self-management through web-based information improved treatment outcomes....... METHODS: In this randomized, controlled trial, conducted in secondary care, 235 children, aged 2-16 years, who fulfilled the Rome III criteria of childhood constipation, were assigned to one of three follow-up regimens: (I) control group (no scheduled contact), (II) phone group (2 scheduled phone contacts......: Improved self-management behavior caused by access to self-motivated web-based information induced faster short-term recovery during treatment of functional constipation. Patient empowerment rather than health care promoted follow-up might be a step towards more effective treatment for childhood...

  5. Late effects of childhood leukemia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright, Joy M; Raman, Sripriya; McClellan, Wendy S; August, Keith J

    2011-09-01

    As survival rates for children treated for childhood cancers become significantly better, the focus is increasingly on determining the late effects of treatments and the best ways to monitor for them and prevent their occurrence. This review focuses on recent literature discussing the late effects of treatment in patients treated for acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia during childhood. The late effects of therapy for childhood leukemia include secondary malignancy, cardiotoxicity, obesity, endocrine abnormalities, reproductive changes, neurocognitive deficits, and psychosocial effects. As clinicians have become more aware of the late effects of therapy, treatment regimens have been changed to decrease late effects, but patients still require long-term follow-up for their prevention and treatment.

  6. Reliability and validity of a survey to measure bowel function and quality of life in long-term rectal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Christopher S; Grant, Marcia; Herrinton, Lisa; Temple, Larissa K F; Hornbrook, Mark C; McMullen, Carmit K; Bulkley, Joanna E; Altschuler, Andrea; Krouse, Robert S

    2014-12-01

    Examination of reliability and validity of a specialized health-related quality of life questionnaire for rectal cancer (RC) survivors (≥5 years post-diagnosis). We mailed 1,063 Kaiser Permanente (KP) RC survivors (313 ostomy and 750 anastomosis) a questionnaire containing the Modified City of Hope Quality of Life-Ostomy (mCOH-QOL-O), SF-12v2, Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ), and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Bowel Function Index (BFI). We adapted certain BFI items for use by subjects with intestinal ostomies. We evaluated reliability for all instruments with inter-item correlations and Cronbach's alpha. We assessed construct validity only for the BFI in the ostomy group, because such use has not been reported. The overall response rate was 60.5 % (577 respondents/953 eligible). Compared with non-responders, participants were on average 2 years younger and more likely non-Hispanic white, resided in educationally non-deprived areas, and had KP membership through a group. The mCOH-QOL-O, SF-12, and FSSQ were found to be highly reliable for RC survivors. In the ostomy group, BFI Urgency/Soilage and Dietary subscales were found to be reliable, but Frequency was not. Factor analysis supported the construct of Urgency/Soilage and Dietary subscales in the ostomy group, although one item had a moderate correlation with all three factors. The BFI also demonstrated good concurrent validity with other instruments in the ostomy group. With possible exception of the BFI Frequency subscale in populations with ostomies, components of our survey can be used for the entire population of RC survivors, no matter whether they received anastomosis or ostomy.

  7. Childhood health: trends and consequences over the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Liam; Smith, James P

    2012-01-01

    This article first documents evidence on the changing prevalence of childhood physical and mental health problems, focusing on the development of childhood health conditions in the United States. Authors Liam Delaney and James Smith present evidence on the changing prevalence of childhood chronic conditions over time using recalled data as well as contemporaneous accounts of these childhood health problems. The raw data from both sources show sharp increases in the prevalence of most childhood physical health problems (such as asthma, allergies, respiratory problems, and migraines) over time. However, inferring trends is difficult because such data are also consistent with improved detection of childhood disease, and many of the causes of childhood disease have not worsened over time. Conclusions about rapidly rising rates of childhood physical health problems over time are premature at best, especially concerning the magnitude of trends. Documenting real changes in the prevalence of specific diseases is a high-priority research topic. In contrast, the evidence is much stronger that childhood mental health problems are becoming worse. The authors next present new evidence on the effects of early childhood physical and mental problems on health and economic status in adulthood. They find that both childhood physical and mental health problems contribute significantly to poorer adult health. However, they also find that childhood mental health problems have much larger impacts than do childhood physical health problems on four critical areas of socioeconomic status as an adult: education, weeks worked per year, individual earnings, and family income. Finally, the authors examine evidence regarding the efficacy of early mental health treatment for children in terms of promoting good health later on. Existing studies suggest that a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and medication appears to be effective in the treatment of both anxiety and depression in

  8. Extrapyramidal disorders in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, L.; Nardocci, N.; Balottin, U.; Lanzi, G.

    1987-01-01

    Movement disorders have become significantly interesting as a subject in the Neurosciences. The majority of the data, however, relate to the more specific problems of extrapyramidal disorders in adults. As a disease in childhood it still remains poorly systemized. This book is a collection of certain studies with reference to the most recent advances regarding the morphofunctional organization of the basal ganglia in relation to development. Moreover, the book attempts to systemize the extrapyramidal diseases typical of childhood or at the onset in childhood, focusing on diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. refs.; figs.; tabs

  9. Childhood Adversity, Religion, and Change in Adult Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Research indicates that childhood adversity is associated with poor mental health in adulthood. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the deleterious long-term effects of childhood adversity on adult mental health are reduced for individuals who are involved in religious practices. Using longitudinal data from a representative sample of American adults ( N = 1,635), I find that religious salience and spirituality buffer the noxious effects of childhood abuse on change in positive affect over time. By contrast, these stress-buffering properties of religion fail to emerge when negative affect serves as the outcome measure. These results underscore the importance of religion as a countervailing mechanism that blunts the negative impact of childhood abuse on adult mental health over time. I discuss the theoretical implications of these findings for views about religion, childhood adversity, and mental health.

  10. Prevalence and diagnostic validity of motivational impairments and deficits in visuospatial short-term memory and working memory in ADHD subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovis, S.; van der Oord, S.; Huizenga, H.M.; Wiers, R.W.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and reinforcement sensitivity are thought to give rise to symptoms in the combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) of ADHD. Children with ADHD are especially impaired on visuospatial WM, which is composed of short-term memory (STM) and a central executive.

  11. Validation of the effects of a single one second hypochlorite floral dip on Bortytis cinerea incidence following long-term shipment of cut roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.; Mensink, M.G.J.; Harkema, H.; Macnish, A.J.; Reid, M.S.; Jiang, C.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a pre-shipment hypochlorite treatment on botrytis incidence was evaluated in a large number of rose cultivars and under different long-term storage conditions. Application parameters, stability and sources of hypochlorite were investigated. Irrespective of the type of packaging and

  12. Quality of Longer Term Mental Health Facilities in Europe : Validation of the Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care against Service Users' Views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Killaspy, Helen; White, Sarah; Wright, Christine; Taylor, Tatiana L.; Turton, Penny; Kallert, Thomas; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A.; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kalisova, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Alexiev, Spiridon; Mezzina, Roberto; Ridente, Pina; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ploumpidis, Dimitris; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Cardoso, Graca; King, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care (QuIRC) is a staff rated, international toolkit that assesses care in longer term hospital and community based mental health facilities. The QuIRC was developed from review of the international literature, an international Delphi exercise

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) questionnaire: application in a sample of short-term survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Antonio; Trujillo-Martín, Maria del Mar; Rueda, Antonio; Pérez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Avis, Nancy E; Bilbao, Amaia

    2015-11-16

    The aim of this study was to validate the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) in short-term Spanish cancer survivor's patients. Patients with breast, colorectal or prostate cancer that had finished their initial cancer treatment 3 years before the beginning of this study completed QLACS, WHOQOL, Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, EORTC-QLQ-BR23 and EQ-5D. Cultural adaptation was made based on established guidelines. Reliability was evaluated using internal consistency and test-retest. Convergent validity was studied by mean of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Structural validity was determined by a second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis was used to assess the unidimensionality of the Generic and Cancer-specific scales. Cronbach's alpha were above 0.7 in all domains and summary scales. Test-retest coefficients were 0.88 for Generic and 0.82 for Cancer-specific summary scales. QLACS generic summary scale was correlated with other generic criterion measures, SF-36 MCS (r = - 0.74) and EQ-VAS (r = - 0.63). QLACS cancer-specific scale had lower values with the same constructs. CFA provided satisfactory fit indices in all cases. The RMSEA value was 0.061 and CFI and TLI values were 0.929 and 0.925, respectively. All factor loadings were higher than 0.40 and statistically significant (P validity and reliability of QLACS questionnaire to be used in short-term cancer survivors.

  14. Adrenarche and middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Benjamin C

    2011-09-01

    Middle childhood, the period from 6 to 12 years of age, is defined socially by increasing autonomy and emotional regulation, somatically by the development of anatomical structures for subsistence, and endocrinologically by adrenarche, the adrenal production of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Here I suggest that DHEA plays a key role in the coordinated development of the brain and body beginning with middle childhood, via energetic allocation. I argue that with adrenarche, increasing levels of circulating DHEA act to down-regulate the release of glucose into circulation and hence limit the supply of glucose which is needed by the brain for synaptogenesis. Furthermore, I suggest the antioxidant properties of DHEA may be important in maintaining synaptic plasticity throughout middle childhood within slow-developing areas of the cortex, including the insula, thamalus, and anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, DHEA may play a role in the development of body odor as a reliable social signal of behavioral changes associated with middle childhood.

  15. Childhood Traumatic Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Practices Treatments That Work Screening and Assessment Psychological First Aid and SPR Core Curriculum on Childhood Trauma Trauma- ... Measure Reviews All Measure Reviews Usage and Glossary Psychological First Aid and SPR About PFA About SPR NCTSN Resources ...

  16. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  17. Childhood vitiligo: Treatment paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrinder Jit Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.

  18. Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  19. Childhood Autism In Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Victor

    1978-01-01

    Mentally handicapped children were screened in 5 countries in Africa in order to explore the usefulness of Western criteria for the recognition of childhood autism in children from developing countries. (CM)

  20. The Relation between Childhood Spatial Activities and Spatial Abilities in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Randi A.; Voyer, Daniel; Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between childhood spatial activities and cognitive gender differences in adults through the validation of the Childhood Activities Questionnaire developed by Cherney and Voyer (2010). A sample of 403 (133 males, 270 females) undergraduates in Introductory Psychology courses at University of New Brunswick, NB,…

  1. External validation of the simple clinical score and the HOTEL score, two scores for predicting short-term mortality after admission to an acute medical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stræde, Mia; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Clinical scores can be of aid to predict early mortality after admission to a medical admission unit. A developed scoring system needs to be externally validated to minimise the risk of the discriminatory power and calibration to be falsely elevated. We performed the present study with the objective of validating the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the HOTEL score, two existing risk stratification systems that predict mortality for medical patients based solely on clinical information, but not only vital signs. Pre-planned prospective observational cohort study. Danish 460-bed regional teaching hospital. We included 3046 consecutive patients from 2 October 2008 until 19 February 2009. 26 (0.9%) died within one calendar day and 196 (6.4%) died within 30 days. We calculated SCS for 1080 patients. We found an AUROC of 0.960 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.932 to 0.988) for 24-hours mortality and 0.826 (95% CI, 0.774-0.879) for 30-day mortality, and goodness-of-fit test, χ(2) = 2.68 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.998 and χ(2) = 4.00, P = 0.947, respectively. We included 1470 patients when calculating the HOTEL score. Discriminatory power (AUROC) was 0.931 (95% CI, 0.901-0.962) for 24-hours mortality and goodness-of-fit test, χ(2) = 5.56 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.234. We find that both the SCS and HOTEL scores showed an excellent to outstanding ability in identifying patients at high risk of dying with good or acceptable precision.

  2. Hospital contact for mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, Jeanette; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are known to be at risk for long-term physical and mental effects. However, little is known about how cancers can affect mental health in the siblings of these patients. We aimed to assess the long-term risks of mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer...... and their siblings....

  3. Adverse childhood experiences: towards a clear conceptual meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmakis, Karen A; Chandler, Genevieve E

    2014-07-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of adverse childhood experiences. Adverse childhood experiences have been associated with negative physical and psychological health outcomes, but this phenomenon lacks the clear, consistent meaning necessary for use in nursing research, theory development and practice. Concept clarification. The literature search was not limited a priori by date and included publications with abstracts in English from PubMed, CINAHL, PsychINFO and Social Abstracts. The search retrieved 128 articles published from 1970-2013. The search term 'adverse childhood experiences' was used, with similar terms permitted. A snowball approach was used to expand the search to relevant literature. The articles were read and analysed following Norris's five steps for concept clarification to refine, elucidate and operationally define the concept and the context in which it occurred. Adverse childhood experiences were defined operationally as childhood events, varying in severity and often chronic, occurring in a child's family or social environment that cause harm or distress, thereby disrupting the child's physical or psychological health and development. This concept clarification should raise awareness and understanding of the diverse nature and shared characteristics of adverse childhood experiences that are believed to influence the health of individuals as they age. This clarified concept will help expand research on health consequences of adverse childhood experiences and interventions to improve health. We recommend promoting a model of primary care that pays attention to the social and familial influences on the health of individuals worldwide. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Long Term Validation of High Precision RTK Positioning Onboard a Ferry Vessel Using the MGBAS in the Research Port of Rostock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Ziebold

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to enable port operations, which require an accuracy of about 10cm, the German Aerospace Center (DLR operates the Maritime Ground Based Augmentation Service (MGBAS in the Research Port of Rostock. The MGBAS reference station provides GPS dual frequency code + phase correction data, which are continuously transmitted via an ultra-high frequency (UHF modem. Up to now the validation of the MGBAS was rather limited. Either a second shore based station was used as an artificial user, or measurement campaigns on a vessel with duration of a few hours have been conducted. In order to overcome this, we have installed three separate dual frequency antennas and receivers and a UHF modem on the Stena Line ferry vessel Mecklenburg-Vorpommern which is plying between Rostock and Trelleborg. This paper concentrates on the analysis of the highly accurate phase based positioning with a Real Time Kinematic (RTK algorithm, using correction data received by the UHF modem onboard the vessel. We analyzed the availability and accuracy of RTK fix solutions for several days, whenever the ferry vessel was inside the service area of the MGBAS.

  5. External Validation of the Simple Clinical Score and the HOTEL Score, Two Scores for Predicting Short-Term Mortality after Admission to an Acute Medical Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stræde, Mia; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    with the objective of validating the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the HOTEL score, two existing risk stratification systems that predict mortality for medical patients based solely on clinical information, but not only vital signs. METHODS: Pre-planned prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Danish 460.......932 to 0.988) for 24-hours mortality and 0.826 (95% CI, 0.774-0.879) for 30-day mortality, and goodness-of-fit test, χ2 = 2.68 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.998 and χ2 = 4.00, P = 0.947, respectively. We included 1470 patients when calculating the HOTEL score. Discriminatory power (AUROC) was 0.931 (95......% CI, 0.901-0.962) for 24-hours mortality and goodness-of-fit test, χ2 = 5.56 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.234. CONCLUSION: We find that both the SCS and HOTEL scores showed an excellent to outstanding ability in identifying patients at high risk of dying with good or acceptable precision....

  6. Development and validation of the aerosol transport module gamma-FP for evaluating radioactive fission product source terms in a VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Churl; Lim, Hong Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Predicting radioactive fission product (FP) behaviors in the reactor coolant system and the containment of a nuclear power plant (NPP) is one of the major concerns in the field of reactor safety, since the amount of radioactive FP released into the environment during the postulated accident sequences is one of the major regulatory issues. Radioactive FPs circulating in the primary coolant loop and released into the containment are basically in the form of gas or aerosol. In this study, a multi-component and multi-sectional analysis module for aerosol fission products has been developed based on the MAEROS model, and the aerosol transport model has been developed and verified against an analytic solution. The deposition of aerosol FPs to the surrounding structural surfaces is modeled with recent research achievements. The developed aerosol analysis model has been successfully validated against the STORM SR-11 experimental data, which is International Standard Problem No. 40. Future studies include the development of the resuspension, growth, and chemical reaction models of aerosol fission products.

  7. Numerical modelling of the long-term evolution of EDZ. Development of material models, implementation in finite-element codes, and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudewills, A.

    2005-11-01

    Construction of deep underground structures disturbs the initial stress field in the surrounding rock. This effect can generate microcracks and alter the hydromechanical properties of the rock salt around the excavations. For the long-term performance of an underground repository in rock salt, the evolution of the 'Excavation Disturbed Zone' (EDZ) and the hydromechanical behaviour of this zone represent important issues with respect to the integrity of the geological and technical barriers. Within the framework of the NF-PRO project, WP 4.4, attention focuses on the mathematical modelling of the development and evolution of the EDZ in the rock near a disposal drift due to its relevance on the integrity of the geological and technical barriers. To perform this task, finite-element codes containing a set of time- and temperature-dependent constitutive models have been improved. A new viscoplastic constitutive model for rock salt that can describe the damage of the rock has been implemented in the finite-element codes available. The model parameters were evaluated based on experimental results. Additionally, the long-term evolution of the EDZ around a gallery in a salt mine at about 700 m below the surface was analysed and the numerical results were compared with in-situ measurements. The calculated room closure, stress distribution and the increase of rock permeability in the EDZ were compared with in-situ data, thus providing confidence in the model used. (orig.)

  8. Validation of a short-term shoreline evolution model and coastal risk management implications. The case of the NW Portuguese coast (Ovar-Marinha Grande)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Luca; Giuseppina Persichillo, Maria; Disperati, Leonardo; Oliveira, Eduardo R.; de Fátima Lopes Alves, Maria; Boni, Giorgio; Pulvirenti, Luca; Phillips, Mike

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are fragile and dynamic environments where environmental, economic and social aspects are interconnected. While these areas are often highly urbanised, they are especially vulnerable to natural hazards (e.g. storms, floods, erosion, storm surges). Hence, high risk affects people and goods in several coastal zones throughout the world. The recent storms that hit the European coasts (Hercules, Christian and Stephanie, among others) showed the high vulnerability of these territories. Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) deals with the sustainable development of coastal zones by taking into account the different aspects that affect them, including risks adaptation and mitigation. Accurate mapping of shoreline position through time and models to predict shoreline evolution play a fundamental role for coastal zone risk management. In this context, spaceborne remote sensing is fundamental because it provides synoptic and multitemporal information that allow the extraction of shorelines' proxies. These are stable coastal features (e.g. the vegetation lines, the foredune toe, etc.) that can be mapped instead of the proper shoreline, which is an extremely dynamic boundary. The use of different proxies may provide different evolutionary patterns for the same study area; therefore it is important to assess which is the most suitable, given the environmental characteristics of a specific area. In Portugal, the coastal stretch between Ovar and Marinha Grande is one of the greatest national challenges in terms of integrated management of resources and risks. This area is characterised by intense erosive processes that largely exceed the shoreline's retreat predictions made in the first Coastal Zone Management Plan, developed in 2000. The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of a new model of shoreline evolution implemented in 2013 in order to check its robustness for short-term predictions. The method exploited the potentialities of the Landsat archive

  9. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  10. Use of BMI as marker of adiposity in a metabolic syndrome severity score: derivation and validation in predicting long-term disease outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Matthew J; Filipp, Stephanie L; Musani, Solomon K; Sims, Mario; DeBoer, Mark D

    2018-02-01

    Estimates of adiposity in evaluating the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have traditionally utilized measures of waist circumference (WC), whereas body mass index (BMI) is more commonly used clinically. Our objective was to determine if a MetS severity Z-score employing BMI as its measure of adiposity (MetS-Z-BMI) would perform similarly to a WC-based score (MetS-Z-WC) in predicting future disease. To formulate the MetS-Z-BMI, we performed confirmatory factor analysis on a sex- and race/ethnicity-specific basis on MetS-related data for 6870 adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 1999-2010. We then validated this score and compared it to MetS-Z-WC in assessing correlations with future coronary heart disease (CHD) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using Cox proportional hazard analysis of 13,094 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and Jackson Heart Study. Loading factors, which represent the relative contribution of each component to the latent MetS factor, were lower for BMI than for WC in formulating the two respective scores (MetS-Z-BMI and MetS-Z-WC). Nevertheless, MetS-Z-BMI and MetS-Z-WC exhibited similar hazard ratios (HR) toward future disease. For each one standard-deviation-unit increase in MetS-Z-BMI, HR for CHD was 1.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65, 1.88) and HR for T2DM was 3.39 (CI 3.16, 3.63) (both p BMI scores in their associations with future CHD and T2DM. A MetS severity Z-score utilizing BMI as its measure of adiposity operated similarly to a WC-based score in predicting future CHD and T2DM, suggesting overall similarity in MetS-based risk as estimated by both measures of adiposity. This indicates potential clinical usefulness of MetS-Z-BMI in assessing and following MetS-related risk over time. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Validation of the 2015 prostate cancer grade groups for predicting long-term oncologic outcomes in a shared equal-access health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Ariel A; Howard, Lauren E; Tay, Kae Jack; Tsivian, Efrat; Sze, Christina; Amling, Christopher L; Aronson, William J; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Kane, Christopher J; Terris, Martha K; Freedland, Stephen J; Polascik, Thomas J

    2017-11-01

    A 5-tier prognostic grade group (GG) system was enacted to simplify the risk stratification of patients with prostate cancer in which Gleason scores of ≤6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8, and 9 or 10 are considered GG 1 through 5, respectively. The authors investigated the utility of biopsy GG for predicting long-term oncologic outcomes after radical prostatectomy in an equal-access health system. Men who underwent prostatectomy at 1 of 6 Veterans Affairs hospitals in the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital database between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed. The prognostic ability of biopsy GG was examined using Cox models. Interactions between GG and race also were tested. In total, 2509 men were identified who had data available on biopsy Gleason scores, covariates, and follow-up. The cohort included men with GG 1 (909 patients; 36.2%), GG 2 (813 patients; 32.4%), GG 3 (398 patients; 15.9%), GG 4 (279 patients; 11.1%), and GG 5 (110 patients; 4.4%) prostate cancer. The cohort included 1002 African American men (41%). The median follow-up was 60 months (interquartile range, 33-90 months). Higher GG was associated with higher clinical stage, older age, more recent surgery, and surgical center (P prostate cancer, metastases, and prostate cancer-specific mortality (all P Cancer 2017;123:4122-4129. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. Validity and Usefulness of `Wearable Blood Pressure Sensing' for Detection of Inappropriate Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Katsuya; Kameyama, Yumi; Akishita, Masahiro; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Imai, Yasushi; Yahagi, Naoki; Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Yamada, Ichiro

    An increase in short-term blood pressure (BP) variability is a characteristic feature in the elderly. It makes the management of hemodynamics more difficult, because it is frequently seen disturbed baro-reflex function and increased arterial stiffness, leading to isolated systolic hypertension. Large BP variability aggravates hypertensive target organ damage and is an independent risk factor for the cardiovascular (CV) events in elderly hypertensive patients. Therefore, appropriate control in BP is indispensable to manage lifestyle-related diseases and to prevent subsequent CV events. In addition, accumulating recent reports show that excessive BP variability is also associated with a decline in cognitive function and fall in the elderly. In the clinical settings, we usually evaluate their health condition, mainly with single point BP measurement using cuff inflation. However, unfortunately we are not able to find the close changes in BP by the traditional way. Here, we can show our advantageous approach of continuous BP monitoring using newly developing device `wearable BP sensing' without a cuff stress in the elderly. The new device could reflect systolic BP and its detailed changes, in consistent with cuff-based BP measurement. Our new challenge suggests new possibility of its clinical application with high accuracy.

  13. Atopic endotype in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2016-01-01

    against 28 inhalant and food allergens was assessed at ½, 1½, 4, 6, and 13 years of age in 399 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort by using both skin prick test responses and specific IgE levels. Asthma and eczema were diagnosed longitudinally by strictly...... with asthma through early childhood (0-6 years) when analyzed as any sensitization (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.78-1.29; P ≥ .48). However, at 13 years of age, any sensitization was associated with asthma (OR range, 4.02-5.94; all P ...%), eczema (26%), asthma (14%), or healthy status (24%). Conclusion: We found very little interdependency between asthma, eczema, and allergic sensitization through childhood. The associations between those entities were strongly dependent on age, type of allergens, and method of testing for sensitization...

  14. Childhood Personality Types: Vulnerability and Adaptation over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Barbara; Rettew, David; Althoff, Robert R.; De Bolle, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Substantial evidence suggests that a Five-Factor Model personality assessment generates a valid description of childhood individual differences and relates to a range of psychological outcomes. Less is known, however, about naturally occurring profiles of personality and their links to psychopathology. The current study explores…

  15. Discovering the Culture of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…

  16. Childhood malnutrition and the intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Anne V; Dinh, Duy M; Ward, Honorine D

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition contributes to almost half of all deaths in children under the age of 5 y, particularly those who live in resource-constrained areas. Those who survive frequently suffer from long-term sequelae including growth failure and neurodevelopmental impairment. Malnutrition is part of a vicious cycle of impaired immunity, recurrent infections, and worsening malnutrition. Recently, alterations in the gut microbiome have also been strongly implicated in childhood malnutrition. It has been suggested that malnutrition may delay the normal development of the gut microbiota in early childhood or force it toward an altered composition that lacks the required functions for healthy growth and/or increases the risk for intestinal inflammation. This review addresses our current understanding of the beneficial contributions of gut microbiota to human nutrition (and conversely the potential role of changes in that community to malnutrition), the process of acquiring an intestinal microbiome, potential influences of malnutrition on the developing microbiota, and the evidence directly linking alterations in the intestinal microbiome to childhood malnutrition. We review recent studies on the association between alterations in the intestinal microbiome and early childhood malnutrition and discuss them in the context of implications for intervention or prevention of the devastation caused by malnutrition.

  17. Developmental trajectories of aggression from late childhood through adolescence: similarities and differences across gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongling; Drabick, Deborah A G; Chen, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous investigations of overt aggressive and antisocial trajectories have been undertaken, there is a dearth of literature examining gender differences and similarities in trajectory patterns and their correlates. To address these gaps, we investigated gender differences in the prevalence rates, predictive validity during transition to adulthood, childhood risk factors, and adolescent correlates of different trajectories of teacher-reported overt aggression (i.e., fights, argues, gets in trouble) among 220 participants (116 girls and 104 boys) evaluated annually from grade 4 to grade 12. Four patterns of trajectories were identified: low, increasing (i.e., adolescent-onset), decreasing (i.e., childhood-limited), and high (i.e., childhood-onset). A large proportion of youth, particularly girls, displayed low levels of aggression over time. A small proportion followed the childhood-onset trajectory. Across gender, the childhood-onset trajectory was associated with the highest rates of maladjustment during the transition to adulthood, the highest number of childhood risk factors, and multiple problems during adolescence. The adolescent-onset trajectory was associated with few childhood risk factors, but with high levels of independent status during adolescence. In contrast, the childhood-limited trajectory was associated with several childhood risk factors, but high levels of parental monitoring and school engagement during adolescence. Romantic involvement differentiated the adolescent-onset and childhood-limited trajectories among girls. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article...

  19. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  20. Diet quality in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der Laura A.; Nguyen, Anh N.; Schoufour, Josje D.; Geelen, Anouk; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Franco, Oscar H.; Voortman, Trudy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to evaluate diet quality of 8-year-old children in the Netherlands, to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of child diet quality, and to examine tracking of diet quality from early to mid-childhood. Methods: For 4733 children participating in a population-based

  1. The Teening of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymowitz, Kay S.

    2000-01-01

    The market and advertising media aimed at children has skyrocketed in recent years. Many new products targeting 8-12-year-olds appeal to their sense of teen fashion, image consciousness, and independence from adults. Describes the development of this market aimed at early adolescents and how it is changing childhood as Americans have known it. (SM)

  2. Narrative Processes across Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Matthew Keefe

    2011-01-01

    According to the narrative perspective on personality development, personality is constructed largely by interpreting and representing experience in story format (scripts) over the course of the lifespan. The focus of this paper is to describe briefly the narrative perspective on personality development during childhood and adolescence, to discuss…

  3. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  4. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  5. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  6. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological

  7. Childhood in Victorian Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, B.

    2017-01-01

    As the Victorian period began, literary depictions of childhood were influenced from two main directions. On the one hand, there was the figure of the idealized Romantic child, typically conceived as naturally innocent and close to God, most famously in Wordsworth’s poem “Ode: Intimations of

  8. Childhood microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah G Al Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.

  9. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  10. Recent life events and psychosis: The role of childhood adversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansueto, Giovanni; Faravelli, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    Life events are commonly reported to be related to psychosis. However, less attention has been given to the role that recent events play on psychosis, in relation to exposure to childhood adversity. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between recent events and psychosis, taking into account the role of early adversities. 78 psychotic patients and 156 controls were enrolled. Childhood adversity was evaluated using a validated semi-structured interview and the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Recent events were recorded using a semi-structured interview with a normative and contextual approach. The diagnosis of psychosis was made according to Jablenski's criteria. Chi-square, t-test, odds ratio, and binary logistic regression statistical analyses were performed. Psychotic patients reported an excess of recent events. The occurrence of more than one recent event increased the risk of psychosis; there was a cumulative effect between recent and childhood events on psychosis. Recent events were significantly related to psychosis, even in the absence of childhood adversity or when adjusted for it. Our findings suggested that the effect of recent events on psychosis may be amplified by previous exposure to early adversity. Recent events alone, could be also linked to psychosis independently of childhood adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood trauma is associated with maladaptive personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Hudson W; Pereira, Rebeca; Frozi, Julia; Bisol, Luísa W; Ottoni, Gustavo L; Lara, Diogo R

    2015-06-01

    The association between childhood trauma and personality traits has been poorly characterized and reported. Our aim was to evaluate whether distinct types of childhood abuse and neglect are associated with various personality dimensions using data from a large web-based survey. A total of 12,225 volunteers responded anonymously to the Internet versions of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) via our research website, but only 8,114 subjects (75.7% women, mean age 34.8±11.3yrs) who met the criteria for validity were included in the analysis. Childhood trauma was positively associated with harm avoidance and was negatively associated with self-directedness and, to a lesser extent, with cooperativeness. The associations were robust with emotional abuse and neglect but were non-significant or mild with physical trauma. Emotional neglect was associated with reduced reward dependence and persistence. All types of abuse, but not neglect, were associated with increased novelty seeking scores. Reporting of childhood trauma, especially of an emotional nature, was associated with maladaptive personality traits. Further investigation of the effects of different types of childhood trauma on psychological and neurobiological parameters is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Geophysical validation and long-term consistency between GOME-2/MetOp-A total ozone column and measurements from the sensors GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and OMI/Aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Koukouli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to assess the consistency of five years of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2/Metop-A [GOME-2] total ozone columns and the long-term total ozone satellite monitoring database already in existence through an extensive inter-comparison and validation exercise using as reference Brewer and Dobson ground-based measurements. The behaviour of the GOME-2 measurements is being weighed against that of GOME (1995–2011, Ozone Monitoring Experiment [OMI] (since 2004 and the Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY [SCIAMACHY] (since 2002 total ozone column products. Over the background truth of the ground-based measurements, the total ozone columns are inter-evaluated using a suite of established validation techniques; the GOME-2 time series follow the same patterns as those observed by the other satellite sensors. In particular, on average, GOME-2 data underestimate GOME data by about 0.80%, and underestimate SCIAMACHY data by 0.37% with no seasonal dependence of the differences between GOME-2, GOME and SCIAMACHY. The latter is expected since the three datasets are based on similar DOAS algorithms. This underestimation of GOME-2 is within the uncertainty of the reference data used in the comparisons. Compared to the OMI sensor, on average GOME-2 data underestimate OMI_DOAS (collection 3 data by 1.28%, without any significant seasonal dependence of the differences between them. The lack of seasonality might be expected since both the GOME data processor [GDP] 4.4 and OMI_DOAS are DOAS-type algorithms and both consider the variability of the stratospheric temperatures in their retrievals. Compared to the OMI_TOMS (collection 3 data, no bias was found. We hence conclude that the GOME-2 total ozone columns are well suitable to continue the long-term global total ozone record with the accuracy needed for climate monitoring studies.

  13. Early-onset childhood sarcoidosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai-San Wong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology and it most commonly affects young adults. Childhood sarcoidosis is relatively rare; older children usually present a picture similar to that of adults, with frequent hilar lymphadenopathy and pulmonary infiltration. Early-onset (<4 years of age childhood sarcoidosis is a unique disease and has a different presentation. It is characterized by arthritis, uveitis, and cutaneous involvement. The prognosis of early-onset childhood sarcoidosis varies in different studies due to the rarity of the disease. The treatment of choice in systemic involvement of childhood sarcoidosis is corticosteroids. Methotrexate can also be considered in the long-term treatment due to its safety, effectiveness, and steroid-sparing effect in children.

  14. Childhood obesity and type 2 diabetes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Pradeep A; Tandon, Nikhil

    2016-04-01

    India is witnessing an increase in the burden of childhood obesity, especially among the upper socioeconomic strata and in urban areas. Emerging literature suggests a link between childhood obesity and the diabetes epidemic in India. Asian-Indian children and adolescents are increasingly susceptible to a high percentage of body fat and abdominal adiposity. Further, they are exposed to an obesogenic environment, created by rapid urbanization and nutrition transition in India. Obese children have a higher risk of developing abnormalities that are recognized as precursors to diabetes, such as subclinical inflammation, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, which often track to adulthood. A review of the literature suggests the need for more longitudinal studies to improve understanding of the long-term consequences of childhood obesity in India. A life-course approach with a combination of population- and risk-based strategies is warranted, to prevent childhood obesity and curtail its consequences in adulthood.

  15. FACTAR validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.B.; Wadsworth, S.L.; Rock, R.C.; Sills, H.E.; Langman, V.J.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed strategy to validate fuel channel thermal mechanical behaviour codes for use of current power reactor safety analysis is presented. The strategy is derived from a validation process that has been recently adopted industry wide. Focus of the discussion is on the validation plan for a code, FACTAR, for application in assessing fuel channel integrity safety concerns during a large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). (author)

  16. Development and preliminary validation of a screen for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and preliminary validation of a screen for interpersonal childhood trauma experiences among school-going youth in Durban, South Africa. ... validity in the sense that all scales were significantly correlated with scores on clinical measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or complex PTSD.

  17. Childhood temperament predictors of adolescent physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Janssen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Many patterns of physical activity involvement are established early in life. To date, the role of easily identifiable early-life individual predictors of PA, such as childhood temperament, remains relatively unexplored. Here, we tested whether childhood temperamental activity level, high intensity pleasure, low intensity pleasure, and surgency predicted engagement in physical activity (PA patterns 11 years later in adolescence. Methods Data came from a longitudinal community study (N = 206 participants, 53% females, 70% Caucasian. Parents reported their children’s temperamental characteristics using the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ when children were 4 & 5 years old. Approximately 11 years later, adolescents completed self-reports of PA using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Ordered logistic regression, ordinary least squares linear regression, and Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were used to predict adolescent PA from childhood temperament. Race, socioeconomic status, and adolescent body mass index were used as covariates. Results Males with greater childhood temperamental activity level engaged in greater adolescent PA volume (B = .42, SE = .13 and a 1 SD difference in childhood temperamental activity level predicted 29.7% more strenuous adolescent PA per week. Males’ high intensity pleasure predicted higher adolescent PA volume (B = .28, SE = .12. Males’ surgency positively predicted more frequent PA activity (B = .47, SE = .23, OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.54 and PA volume (B = .31, SE = .12. No predictions from females’ childhood temperament to later PA engagement were identified. Conclusions Childhood temperament may influence the formation of later PA habits, particularly in males. Boys with high temperamental activity level, high intensity

  18. Commentary: Differentiated Measures of Temperament and Multiple Pathways to Childhood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbart, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    Provided is a commentary on articles written for a special section on temperament and childhood disorders. Temperament's contributions to the development of childhood disorders are considered both generally and specifically. Questions are raised about the use of terminology in the field, particularly the term difficult. Differentiation of outcomes…

  19. Aspirations and Actions: Early Childhood from Policy to Practice in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Aline-Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores early childhood experience in Scotland in terms of how readily the aspirations of policy convert to day-to-day practices. Ambitions to improve the lives of children and families have been high on the political agenda. Policy may be understood as a tool that aims to influence childhood experience in positive ways. If this is to…

  20. [Social participation after childhood craniopharyngioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivari-Philiponnet, C; Roumenoff, F; Schneider, M; Chantran, C; Picot, M; Berlier, P; Mottolese, C; Bernard, J-C; Vuillerot, C

    2016-12-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a rare, benign central nervous system tumor, which may be a source of multiple complications, from endocrinology to vision, neurology and neurocognitive functions. This morbidity can lead to reduced participation in life activities, as described in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The primary objective of this study was to measure participation in life activities in a population of children and young adults affected by childhood craniopharyngioma, using the LIFE-H questionnaire (Assessment of Life Habits), validated as a social participation measurement tool in various pediatric disabilities. We also describe complications in our population and examined the potential links between tumor characteristics, complications, and participation in life activities. This was a descriptive study, including all patients having presented childhood craniopharyngioma (before 18 years of age), followed in the Lyon region between 2007 and 2013. The main criterion was the LIFE-H results, completed by the patient or the carer. Of 21 patients included in the study, 14 completed the questionnaire, a mean 6.7 years after the diagnosis (SD: 3.9 years). The mean total LIFE-H score was 8.4 (SD: 1.03) for a normal score estimated at 10 in the general population. The lowest scores affected the nutrition, community life, and recreation dimensions. No patient had a normal score on all dimensions; 57% of the patients had more than three dimensions affected. The variability of the results between patients was lower for some dimensions with high means (fitness, personal care, communication, housing, mobility, responsibilities, and education) than in others (nutrition, interpersonal relationships, community life, employment, and recreation) with rather low means. All patients had an endocrinological deficit, 19% hypothalamic syndrome, 52% an impaired fulfillment feeling, 76% visual impairment, 14% neurologic impairment, and 91

  1. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    State, followed for 8 years (between the ages 9 and 17). Poverty- related stress was computed using the cumulative risk approach, assessing stressors across 9 domains, including environmental, psychosocial, and demographic factors. Allostatic load captured a range of physiological responses, including......Objective: The present study investigated the long-term impact of exposure to poverty-related stressors during childhood on allostatic load, an index of physiological dysregulation, and the potential mediating role of substance use. Method: Participants (n = 162) were rural children from New York...... cardiovascular, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal medullary system, and metabolic activity. Smoking and alcohol/drug use were tested as mediators of the hypothesized childhood risk-adolescent allostatic load relationship. Results: Cumulative risk exposure at age 9 predicted increases...

  2. Three-dimensional textural features of conventional MRI improve diagnostic classification of childhood brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetit, Ahmed E; Novak, Jan; Peet, Andrew C; Arvanitits, Theodoros N

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of three-dimensional texture analysis (3D TA) of conventional MR images for the classification of childhood brain tumours in a quantitative manner. The dataset comprised pre-contrast T1 - and T2-weighted MRI series obtained from 48 children diagnosed with brain tumours (medulloblastoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and ependymoma). 3D and 2D TA were carried out on the images using first-, second- and higher order statistical methods. Six supervised classification algorithms were trained with the most influential 3D and 2D textural features, and their performances in the classification of tumour types, using the two feature sets, were compared. Model validation was carried out using the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) approach, as well as stratified 10-fold cross-validation, in order to provide additional reassurance. McNemar's test was used to test the statistical significance of any improvements demonstrated by 3D-trained classifiers. Supervised learning models trained with 3D textural features showed improved classification performances to those trained with conventional 2D features. For instance, a neural network classifier showed 12% improvement in area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC) and 19% in overall classification accuracy. These improvements were statistically significant for four of the tested classifiers, as per McNemar's tests. This study shows that 3D textural features extracted from conventional T1 - and T2-weighted images can improve the diagnostic classification of childhood brain tumours. Long-term benefits of accurate, yet non-invasive, diagnostic aids include a reduction in surgical procedures, improvement in surgical and therapy planning, and support of discussions with patients' families. It remains necessary, however, to extend the analysis to a multicentre cohort in order to assess the scalability of the techniques used. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  4. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  5. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  6. Danish Childhood Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Wehner, Peder Skov

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The overall aim is to monitor the quality of childhood cancer care in Denmark; to register late effects of treatment; to analyze complications of permanent central venous catheters (CVCs); to study blood stream infections in children with cancer; and to study acute toxicity of high......-dose methotrexate infusions in children with leukemia. STUDY POPULATION: All children below 15 years of age at diagnosis living in Denmark diagnosed after January 1, 1985 according to the International Classification of Diseases 10, including diagnoses DC00-DD48. MAIN VARIABLES: Cancer type, extent of disease......, and outcome of antimicrobial chemotherapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Since 1985, 4,944 children below 15 years of age have been registered in the database. There has been no significant change in the incidence of childhood cancer in Denmark since 1985. The 5-year survival has increased significantly since 1985...

  7. Impact of bullying in childhood on adult health, wealth, crime, and social outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Copeland, William E; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E Jane

    2013-10-01

    Bullying is a serious problem for schools, parents, and public-policymakers alike. Bullying creates risks of health and social problems in childhood, but it is unclear if such risks extend into adulthood. A large cohort of children was assessed for bullying involvement in childhood and then followed up in young adulthood in an assessment of health, risky or illegal behavior, wealth, and social relationships. Victims of childhood bullying, including those that bullied others (bully-victims), were at increased risk of poor health, wealth, and social-relationship outcomes in adulthood even after we controlled for family hardship and childhood psychiatric disorders. In contrast, pure bullies were not at increased risk of poor outcomes in adulthood once other family and childhood risk factors were taken into account. Being bullied is not a harmless rite of passage but throws a long shadow over affected people's lives. Interventions in childhood are likely to reduce long-term health and social costs.

  8. Cultivating childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Greene-Martin, DeCleasha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...

  9. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  10. Stress and Obesity in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Felix-Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious health problem and prevalence increases dramatically around the world, including Sweden. The aim of the current thesis was to examine parents’ and children’s stress in relation to childhood obesity. Parenting stress, social support, parental worries, and serious life events, as well as children’s temperament, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, saliva cortisol, weight and height were measured to estimate stress and the relation between stress and childhood obesit...

  11. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK; Rajesh SAGAR

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  12. Childhood cataract: home to hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Muhit, MA

    2004-01-01

    Globally, there are 190,000 children who are blind from cataract.1 Cataract in children may be present at birth (congenital cataract) or may appear anytime during the first few years of life (developmental cataract). Childhood cataract is the most common treatable cause of childhood blindness, being responsible for 10-30% of all childhood blindness. A recent national study in Bangladesh showed that 1 in every 3 blind children is unnecessarily blind from congenital/developmental cataract.

  13. Prospective construction and validation of a prognostic score to identify patients who benefit from third-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer in terms of overall survival: the METAL3 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filleron, Thomas; Bonnetain, Franck; Mancini, Julien; Martinez, Alejandra; Roché, Henri; Dalenc, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is an incurable disease and represents a complex therapeutic challenge for oncologists. Despite the possibility of prescribing new agents such as tailored therapy, cytotoxic chemotherapy and hormone therapy remain the major treatments for MBC. Several lines of chemotherapy can be proposed for these patients, but beyond the second-line, evidence of effectiveness is lacking and such treatment has important associated toxicity affecting quality of life (QoL). Prospective data on third-line chemotherapy is very poor. There is no recent retrospective data and it mainly includes single-centre experiences. Moreover, prognostic parameters considered in these retrospective studies are limited to clinico-pathological factors. Previous reports don't evaluate prognostic impact of circulating tumour cells (CTC) and baseline QoL. METAL3 METAstatic Line 3 is a prospective, multicentric trial designed to prospectively construct a prognostic score (including selected clinico-pathological factors, CTC and baseline QoL) to identify patients who benefit from third-line chemotherapy for MBC in terms of overall survival (training cohort). Score will then be validated with another cohort (validation cohort). The aim of this paper is to review literature data on third-line chemotherapy for MBC and to describe in detail our prospective study. We hope that this prognostic score could be used by physicians to develop new therapeutic strategies when there will be limited benefit of third-line chemotherapy; this score will also help to improve patient information on their outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Personalizing the Approach to Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Childhood Asthma Share | Personalizing the approach to childhood asthma Published Online: March 24, 2104 Clinicians treating asthmatic ... classifying 1,041 asthmatics who participated in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) clinical trial that assessed long- ...

  15. Childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes: evidence from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Duncan

    2015-07-01

    Many South African children experience maltreatment, but we know little about the effects on long-term child development. Using the only representative dataset that includes a module on childhood maltreatment for a metropolitan city in South Africa, we explore the association between different measures of childhood maltreatment and two educational outcomes (numeracy test scores and dropout). Our study provides an estimate of the association between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes in a developing country where maltreatment is high. We control for potential confounders using a range of statistical techniques and add several robustness checks to evaluate the strength of our findings. Our results indicate that children who are maltreated suffer large adverse consequences in terms of their numeracy test scores and probability of dropout and that the estimated effects of maltreatment are larger and more consistent for the most severe type of maltreatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Family violence and aggressive and oppositional behavior in childhood: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Renata

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of the world literature about two important subjects: family violence and problems of aggressive behavior and oppositional defiant disorder in childhood. We opted for publications that had used the CBCL- Child Behavior Checklist for investigating behavior problems in children. This instrument is internationally recognized for its reliability and validity, considered an efficient tool for identifying behavior problems in children. Our findings showed that marital violence predominated in the studies as kind of familiar violence able to cause problems of aggressiveness and transgression in children. Another point discussed was the lack of consensus on the terms used in the articles to refer to such behavior problems. The review showed the need for in-depth studies into this subject, mainly in the sense of thinking about prevention and health promotion in childhood and adolescence. Aggressive behavior in children tends to remain and increase over time, a fact that points to the need for strategies for preventing these problems in the school, familiar and health environments.

  17. Family Environment and Childhood Obesity: A New Framework with Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the current article is to introduce a framework of the complexity of childhood obesity based on the family environment. A conceptual model that quantifies the relationships and interactions among parental socioeconomic status, family food security level, child’s food intake and certain aspects of parental feeding behaviour is presented using the structural equation modeling (SEM concept. Structural models are analysed in terms of the direct and indirect connections among latent and measurement variables that lead to the child weight indicator. To illustrate the accuracy, fit, reliability and validity of the introduced framework, real data collected from 630 families from Urumqi (Xinjiang, China were considered. The framework includes two categories of data comprising the normal body mass index (BMI range and obesity data. The comparison analysis between two models provides some evidence that in obesity modeling, obesity data must be extracted from the dataset and analysis must be done separately from the normal BMI range. This study may be helpful for researchers interested in childhood obesity modeling based on family environment.

  18. Is computerised CBT really helpful for adult depression?-A meta-analytic re-evaluation of CCBT for adult depression in terms of clinical implementation and methodological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Mirai; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Hashimoto, Sora; Sado, Mitsuhiro; Furukawa, Toshi A; McCrone, Paul

    2013-04-15

    effect at long follow-up and the function improvement were not significant, with significantly high drop-out. Considering the risk of bias, our meta-analysis implied that the clinical usefulness of current CCBT for adult depression may need to be re-considered downwards in terms of practical implementation and methodological validity.

  19. The use of the SF-36 questionnaire in adult survivors of childhood cancer: evaluation of data quality, score reliability, and scaling assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter David L

    2006-10-01

    scales. Conclusion The findings presented in this paper provide support for the validity and reliability of the SF-36 when used in long-term survivors of childhood cancer. These findings should encourage other researchers and health care practitioners to use the SF-36 when assessing health status in this population, although it should be recognised that ceiling effects can occur.

  20. Content validity and its estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghmale F

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measuring content validity of instruments are important. This type of validity can help to ensure construct validity and give confidence to the readers and researchers about instruments. content validity refers to the degree that the instrument covers the content that it is supposed to measure. For content validity two judgments are necessary: the measurable extent of each item for defining the traits and the set of items that represents all aspects of the traits. Purpose: To develop a content valid scale for assessing experience with computer usage. Methods: First a review of 2 volumes of International Journal of Nursing Studies, was conducted with onlyI article out of 13 which documented content validity did so by a 4-point content validity index (CV! and the judgment of 3 experts. Then a scale with 38 items was developed. The experts were asked to rate each item based on relevance, clarity, simplicity and ambiguity on the four-point scale. Content Validity Index (CVI for each item was determined. Result: Of 38 items, those with CVIover 0.75 remained and the rest were discarded reSulting to 25-item scale. Conclusion: Although documenting content validity of an instrument may seem expensive in terms of time and human resources, its importance warrants greater attention when a valid assessment instrument is to be developed. Keywords: Content Validity, Measuring Content Validity