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Sample records for vaginal por micoplasmas

  1. Micoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum y bacterias aeróbicas en el semen de hombres que consultan por infertilidad Micoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and aerobic bacteria present in the semen from men attending infertility service

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    Bertha Victoria Rodríguez Pendás

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las infecciones en el semen humano pueden alterar la calidad espermática, y vincularse con problemas de infertilidad masculina. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de infecciones por Micoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum y bacterias aeróbicas en el semen de hombres que consultan por infertilidad, e identificar si existe relación entre las infecciones encontradas y las alteraciones en las variables de calidad del semen. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, para evaluar muestras de semen de 140 hombres, con edades entre 20 y 45 años, provenientes de las consultas de infertilidad del Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología. Se realizó un espermograma completo, que incluyó leucocitospermia, siguiendo los lineamientos de la OMS, para determinar las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas del semen. Las muestras de semen fueron cultivadas en agar sangre y agar chocolate a 37° C en atmósfera de CO2 para investigar bacterias aeróbicas, y se utilizó un juego de reactivos (Mycoplasma System Plus que permite realizar el cultivo, la identificación, el conteo semicuantitativo y el antibiograma de micoplasmas/ureaplasma urogenitales. Se tuvo en cuenta los aspectos éticos, y los resultados obtenidos se analizaron mediante cálculo de por cientos y la aplicación de la prueba de chi cuadrado. Resultados: de las 140 muestras de semen evaluadas, 58 (41,4 % mostraron la presencia de infecciones, de ellas 37 correspondieron a Ureaplasma urealyticum (25,7 %, 2 a Micoplasma hominis (1,4 % y 19 a bacterias aeróbicas (13,8 %. Al comparar las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas del semen con los sujetos infectados y no infectados, no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en ninguna de las variables de calidad espermática evaluadas. Conclusiones: la frecuencia total de infecciones, en la muestra estudiada, fue relativamente alta, pero no asociada a alteraciones en las variables seminales

  2. Identificação de micoplasmas pela inibição de crescimento de amostras isoladas de culturas celulares

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    Timenetsky Jorge

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available As culturas celulares devem ser continuamente monitoradas quanto à presença de micoplasmas, pois, embora às vezes eles passem despercebidos, podem causar alterações cromossômicas, interferir na replicação viral, na produção de anticorpos e interferon. A Organização Internacional em Micoplasmologia (IOM recomenda o isolamento e a identificação de micoplasmas, visando detectar as prováveis origens da infecção e melhorar a qualidade das culturas. Assim, foram analisadas pela inibição de crescimento, 37 amostras pertencentes a 27 linhagens celulares contaminadas por micoplasmas. Em nenhuma amostra foi observada a ocorrência de duas espécies. Foram identificados 18 (48,65% Mycoplasma arginini, 15 (40,55% Acholeplasma laidlawii, dois (5,40% Mycoplasma orale, sendo que duas amostras (5,40% não foram identificadas. Considerando as espécies caracterizadas na pesquisa, os autores sugerem: a a adoção do teste de isolamento de micoplasmas em caráter de rotina; b o aprimoramento das técnicas de assepsia e desinfecção; c a eliminação da pipetagem bucal; d a utilização de soros e de outros componentes de meios de cultura de qualidade certificada; e o questionamento da presença de micoplasmas quando linhagens celulares são permutadas pelas instituições; f a avaliação cautelosa de resultados obtidos quando se utilizam culturas infectadas por esse microrganismo.

  3. Histerectomia Vaginal Assistida por Laparoscopia em Pacientes com Necessidade de Anexectomia Laparoscopically Assisted Vaginal Histerectomy in Patients Requiring Adnexectomy

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    Francisco José Cândido dos Reis

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar as vantagens da laparoscopia como instrumento para conversão de histerectomias abdominais em vaginais em pacientes com indicação de anexectomia concomitante, considerando-se a segurança e os custos hospitalares adicionais relativos ao procedimento. Pacientes e Métodos: estudo de caso controle envolvendo 9 pacientes submetidas à Histerectomia Vaginal Assistida por Laparoscopia (HVAL e 18 pacientes-controle submetidas à Histerectomia Abdominal (HA, associadas à anexectomia. Foram avaliadas as características pré-operatórias e os resultados do procedimento. Os grupos HVAL e HA são semelhantes quanto à idade, paridade, cesáreas anteriores, cirurgias prévias e IMC. Resultados: o grupo HVAL apresentou tempo cirúrgico médio de 163,9 minutos e o grupo HA de 142,8 minutos. Não ocorreram complicações pós-operatórias no grupo HVAL, ao passo que no grupo HA houve 2 casos de deiscência de sutura e 1 caso de hérnia incisional. A mediana do tempo de internação foi de 1 dia no grupo HVAL e 2 dias no grupo HA; a mediana do período de convalescença por sua vez foi de 2 e 4 semanas respectivamente. No grupo HVAL, 55,6% das pacientes necessitaram de medicação analgésica no pós-operatório, o que ocorreu em 100% das pacientes do grupo HA. Conclusões: a HVAL mostrou-se vantajosa em relação à HA em termos de melhor recuperação e menor incidência de complicações no pós-operatório. O procedimento é factível com segurança em um Hospital Universitário, não implicando tampouco em custos adicionais com equipamentos ou instrumental.Purpose: to evaluate the advantages of the laparoscopic approach for conversion of abdominal hysterectomies in vaginal hysterectomies in patients with indication of concomitant adnexectomy, being considered the safety and the additional costs of the procedure. Patients and Methods: cases: 9 patients submitted to Laparoscopically Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy (LAVH associated with

  4. Ovariohisterectomia por videocirurgia (via NOTES vaginal híbrida, celiotomia ou miniceliotomia em cadelas

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    Fernando Wiecheteck de Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A ovariohisterectomia (OH eletiva em cadelas é o procedimento mais realizado na cirurgia de pequenos animais. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados três grupos de sete animais (GI, GII e GIII, submetidos a três técnicas de OH eletiva: por celiotomia ("técnica convencional", por miniceliotomia ("técnica do gancho de Snook", via cirurgia endoscópica transluminal por orifícios naturais (NOTES híbrida. Na comparação, foram considerados o tempo de cirurgia, as complicações e dificuldades técnicas trans e pós-operatórias, a avaliação de dor pós-operatória, a quantidade (g de sangramento cirúrgico estimado, além da determinação de determinados parâmetros vitais, como: frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória (ƒ, temperatura retal, pressão arterial (média invasiva (PAI e a pressão venosa central (PVC. A OH via NOTES vaginal híbrida foi a técnica que apresentou menor escore de desconforto pós-operatório, menor sangramento cirúrgico, porém com maior tempo cirúrgico, comparado com as modalidade convencional e por miniceliotomia.

  5. The effect of Mycoplasma and mycoplasma removal agent on the hydrolase activity in fibroblasts of patients with lysosomal diseases Efecto de Mycoplasma y del agente de eliminación de micoplasmas en la actividad de las hidrolasas en fibroblastos de pacientes con enfermedades lisosomales

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    F. T. S. Souza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of mycoplasma contamination on acid hydrolase activity and the action of the mycoplasma removal agent (MRA, in cultures of human fibroblasts from individuals with lysosomal diseases. For this purpose, we measured the activity of the b-galactosidase, arylsulphatase B (ASB, hexosaminidase A and a-glucosidase enzymes. The activity of the above mentioned enzymes in fibroblasts contaminated by mycoplasma was measured before and after the addition of the MRA. The results were then compared to the enzymatic activity in contamination-free cultures. Only the ASB enzyme showed significant alteration in activity both in the presence of mycoplasma and MRA. The remaining enzymes did not suffer significant interference by the presence of the two agents. Of the four enzymes tested, three did not suffer significant alterations by the presence of the mycoplasma nor from the MRA. However, the activity measured in the ASB enzyme increased significantly in the presence of mycoplasma and MRA and could lead to a doubtful diagnosis. Therefore, we suggest that contamination should be prevented by using aseptic techniques as well as the MRA in those fibroblast cultures that cannot be discarded.Este estudio fue diseñado para evaluar el efecto de la contaminación por micoplasmas sobre la actividad de hidrolasas ácidas y la acción del agente de eliminación de micoplasmas (MRA en cultivos de fibroblastos humanos de pacientes con enfermedades lisosomales. Se midió la actividad de la b-galactosidasa, arilsulfatasa B (ASB, hexosaminidasa A y a-glucosidasa en estos cultivos. La actividad de estas enzimas en los fibroblastos contaminados por micoplasmas se midió antes y después de la adición de MRA. Los resultados se compararon con los obtenidos en cultivos libres de contaminación. Sólo la enzima ASB demostró alteración significativa en la actividad, tanto en presencia de micoplasmas como con la adición de MRA. Las

  6. Identificação de micoplasmas pela inibição de crescimento de amostras isoladas de culturas celulares Identification of mycoplasma samples isolated from cell cultures by the growth inhibition test

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    Jorge Timenetsky

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available As culturas celulares devem ser continuamente monitoradas quanto à presença de micoplasmas, pois, embora às vezes eles passem despercebidos, podem causar alterações cromossômicas, interferir na replicação viral, na produção de anticorpos e interferon. A Organização Internacional em Micoplasmologia (IOM recomenda o isolamento e a identificação de micoplasmas, visando detectar as prováveis origens da infecção e melhorar a qualidade das culturas. Assim, foram analisadas pela inibição de crescimento, 37 amostras pertencentes a 27 linhagens celulares contaminadas por micoplasmas. Em nenhuma amostra foi observada a ocorrência de duas espécies. Foram identificados 18 (48,65% Mycoplasma arginini, 15 (40,55% Acholeplasma laidlawii, dois (5,40% Mycoplasma orale, sendo que duas amostras (5,40% não foram identificadas. Considerando as espécies caracterizadas na pesquisa, os autores sugerem: a a adoção do teste de isolamento de micoplasmas em caráter de rotina; b o aprimoramento das técnicas de assepsia e desinfecção; c a eliminação da pipetagem bucal; d a utilização de soros e de outros componentes de meios de cultura de qualidade certificada; e o questionamento da presença de micoplasmas quando linhagens celulares são permutadas pelas instituições; f a avaliação cautelosa de resultados obtidos quando se utilizam culturas infectadas por esse microrganismo.Cell cultures must be continuously screened for the presence of mycoplasma because, although these microorganisms sometimes pass unoticed, they may cause chromosomic alterations and interfere with viral replication, antibody and interferon production etc. The International Organization for Mycoplasmology (IOM recommends the isolation and identification of mycoplasma with a view to the detection of the origin of the infection and the improvement of the quality of the cultures. In this paper, 37 samples belonging to 27 cell lines contaminated with mycoplasma were

  7. EFECTO DE LA RECOLONIZACIÓN VAGINAL POR LACTOBACILLUS SP. PROBIÓTICO POTENCIAL EN MUJERES CON VAGINOSIS BACTERIANA

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    HURTADO ESCAMILO, STEVE TONY

    2015-01-01

    The vaginal microflora of healthy women is dominated by Lactobacillus species, which prevent the growth and invasion of pathogenic bacteria and their decrease is associated with increased incidence of vaginal infections. Objective: To evaluate the effect of vaginal re-colonization by a potential probiotic Lactobacillus strain, Lactobacillus sp. BMP9, in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Methods: Women categorized by Nugent criteria: 16 with bacterial vaginosis (Nugent: 7-10 points) ...

  8. Micoplasma como contaminante de culturas celulares mantidas em laboratórios de instituições particulares e oficiais Mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures maintained in laboratories of private, government and college institutions

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    Cosue Miyaki

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo sobre a incidência de contaminação por micoplasma em 29 tipos de linhagens celulares pertencentes a sete laboratórios de instituições particulares, oficiais e de ensino superior. Utilizando o método de cultivo direto e oito passagens seriadas em meios específicos, líquido e sólido, verificou-se que, do total de 106 amostras, 48 apresentaram-se contaminadas por micoplasma (45,28%, o que constitui elevado índice de contaminação. O fato indica que testes periódicos para a determinação da presença de micoplasma nas culturas em utilização é recomendável e que as culturas contaminadas devem ser eliminadas para evitar a disseminação do microrganismo. Outras medidas preventivas devem ser adotadas, como a eliminação da pipetagem bucal, execução de técnicas assépticas mais estritas no manuseio das células, controle dos soros de origem animal, da tripsina e de outros componentes dos meios de cultura utilizados em cultura celular. O estudo mostrou que, ao invés das oito passagens seriadas propostas inicialmente, cinco foram suficientes para a detecção dos micoplasmas, o que representa economia de tempo e de materiais de custo elevado, reduzindo de 848 para 530 o número de passagens e a duração do teste, de oito para cinco semanas.Mycoplasma is one of the most serious contaminants of cell cultures. Its detection is very important in virology, as well as its eradication. The aim of this study was to verify the incidence of mycoplasma in cell lines maintained in seven laboratories of private, government and college institutions of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, for the purposes of research, production of reagents for diagnosis and production of biologicals for human and animal use. Of the 29 cell lines, eight were derived from human tissues and 21 from other animal species (dog, rabbit, mouse, hamster, monkey, pig, chicken and ox. Using the direct method with specific liquid and solid media for

  9. Evaluación de la irritabilidad vaginal causada por supositorios vaginales formulados a partir de aceite de teobroma ozonizado - Evaluation of vaginal irritability caused by formulated vaginal suppositories with ozonized theobroma oil

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    Maritza F. Díaz; Rosa I Meneau; Piña, Yoenia C.; Garcia,Gastón.

    2009-01-01

    ResumenEl aceite de teobroma ozonizado presenta actividad antifungicidacontra la Candida albicans. Se realizó un estudio para determinar laposible irritabilidad vaginal de supositorios vaginales OZONOL®,formulados a partir de diferentes porcientos de aceite de teobromaozonizado. Los ensayos se realizaron en conejos albinos hembrassiguiendo las técnicas descritas en los procedimientos normalizadosde trabajo establecidos en el Centro de Investigaciones yEvaluaciones Biológicas de la Universidad...

  10. Vaginal cysts

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    ... of tissue. It can be filled with air, fluid, pus, or other material. A vaginal cyst occurs on or under the vaginal lining. ... There are several types of vaginal cysts. Vaginal inclusion cysts ... may collect fluid and develop into a vaginal wall cyst later ...

  11. Vaginal Yeast Infections

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    ... Yeast Infections Print A A A en español Infecciones vaginales por hongos What Are Vaginal Yeast Infections? ... keep the amount in a person's body under control. But yeast in the vagina can sometimes "overgrow" ...

  12. Vaginal Atrophy

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    ... urinary signs and symptoms: Vaginal dryness Vaginal burning Vaginal discharge Genital itching Burning with urination Urgency with urination More urinary tract infections Urinary incontinence Light bleeding after intercourse Discomfort with ...

  13. Efetividade de duas diferentes doses de misoprostol por via vaginal para preparo cervical e indução do parto Effectiveness of two different doses of vaginal misoprostol for cervical ripening and labor induction

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    Ricardo Porto Tedesco

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a efetividade e segurança do misoprostol, em duas diferentes dosagens (12,5 e 25 mig, administradas por via vaginal, para preparo cervical e indução do parto em gestações de termo com indicação de antecipação do parto. MÉTODO: estudo piloto de ensaio clínico controlado aleatorizado unicego, incluindo 40 gestantes tratadas com uma das duas diferentes doses de misoprostol. A variável independente foi a dose de misoprostol e as principais variáveis dependentes foram tipo de parto, tempo entre o início da indução e o parto, complicações perinatais e efeitos maternos adversos. As principais variáveis de controle foram idade materna, idade gestacional, escolaridade, paridade, cor e estado do colo uterino no início da indução. Na análise dos dados foram utilizados os testes t de Student, chi2, exato de Fisher, Wilcoxon, Kolmogorov-Smirnof e análise de sobrevivência. RESULTADOS: os grupos utilizando 12,5 e 25 mig mostraram-se similiares e não apresentaram diferenças significativas no tempo de início de atividade uterina (20,9 ± 20,4 e 16,6 ± 9,8 h respectivamente, tempo entre o início da atividade uterina até o parto (7,8 ± 3,4 e 6,9 ± 5,0 h, parto vaginal (65 e 80% e efeitos indesejados maternos e perinatais (índice de Apgar e síndrome de hiperestimulação uterina similares. CONCLUSÃO: a maior proporção de partos vaginais e menor tempo para o parto com a dose de 25 mig, embora não significativas, não permitem recomendar a utilização de doses de 12,5 mig como mais vantajosa para o preparo cervical e indução do parto.PURPOSE: to compare the effectiveness and safety of two different doses of misoprostol (12.5 mug and 25 mug administered vaginally for cervical ripening and labor induction in term pregnancies with an indication for interruption. METHODS: this was a pilot randomized controlled single blinded trial, including 40 pregnant women treated with one of the two different doses of

  14. Microscopia electrônica de microrganismos do tipo micoplasma nos tecidos de milho afetado pelo enfezamento e nos órgãos da cigarrinha vectora portadora Electron microscopy of mycoplasma-like organisms in corn stunt - Infected plant tissues and in the organs of the leafhopper vector

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    E. W. Kitajima

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Exames electrono-microscópicos de tecido foliar ou radicular de milho (Zea maysL. afetado pelo enfezamento do milho, tanto a forma vermelha como a pálida, e de órgãos da cigarrinha vectora, Dalbulus maidisDe L. & W., portadora, demonstraram a ocorrência de corpúsculos pleomórficos, do tipo micoplasma, consistentemente associados a essa anomalia. Não se notou diferença na morfologia entre os microrganismos do tipo micoplasma associados às duas formas do enfezamento da planta nem tampouco entre estes e os presentes no inseto vector. Verificou-se também que na planta esses corpúsculos do tipo micoplasma ocorriam somente nos vasos crivados, e que no inseto eles se achavam presentes em diversos tipos de tecidos de diferentes órgãos - tubo digestivo, músculo, túbulos de Malphigi, epiderme, gânglio nervoso, glândula salivar, tecido adiposo. Nas células do inseto, os corpúsculos ocorriam dispersos no citoplasma ou em cavidades limitadas por membrana.Corn stunt in São Paulo State is usually of minor importance during normal summer crops but might induce significant losses if corn is planted late in the season. It is transmitted by leaf - hopper Dalbulus maidisDe L. & W. and two different forms of this disease have been recognized the chlorotic, similar to the Rio Grande type of the U.S., and the red, resembling the Mesa Central type of Mexico. Electron microscopic examination of tissues from both affected plants or leafhopper reared on diseased plants, demonstrated the presence of pleomorphic, mycoplasma-like bodies, consistently associated with the corn stunt, which probably represent the causal agent the latter. No significant difference could be observed in the morphology of these mycoplasma-like bodies associated with the two disease types or with the insect vector. In the affected plants, these corpuscles were only found in the sieve tubes; in the insect body they were detected in several types of tissues of different organs

  15. Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  16. Vaginal evisceration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Y.C.; Lindenauer, S.M. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA) Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)

    1981-08-01

    A patient with vaginal evisceration due to prior radiation treatment of cervical carcinoma is presented, together with a review to reported cases. The salient features, predisposing causes and management of this unusual problem are discussed.

  17. Vaginal cancer

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    Hacker NF. Vulvar and vaginal cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40. Jhingran ...

  18. Metronidazole Vaginal

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    Metronidazole is used to treat vaginal infections such as bacterial vaginosis (an infection caused from too much of certain bacteria in the vagina). Metronidazole is in a class of medications called nitroimidazole ...

  19. Vaginal reconstruction

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    Lesavoy, M.A.

    1985-05-01

    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients.

  20. Desenvolvimento e validação de método analítico para nistatina creme vaginal por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Development and validation of an analytical method for Nystatin vaginal cream by high performance liquid chromatography

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    Zênia Maria Maciel Lavra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A nistatina é um antibiótico poliênico, com características fungistáticas e fungicidas, que age desestruturando a membrana celular de fungos e leveduras. O creme vaginal de nistatina é usado para o tratamento da candidíase vaginal. Até recentemente, os compêndios oficiais preconizavam o ensaio microbiológico para doseamento deste antibiótico, método este considerado inviável na rotina de centros de controle de qualidade, devido ao tempo excessivo para liberação dos resultados. Visando obter um método alternativo para o doseamento do creme vaginal de nistatina, procurou-se desenvolver e validar um método cromatográfico (CLAE. O método desenvolvido utilizou como fase estacionária uma coluna de fase reversa, C18, 3,9 x 150 mm, 4 mm, à temperatura de 30 ºC. A fase móvel foi constituída por tampão fosfato de sódio 0,25 mM e EDTA 0,025 mM, pH 6,00, metanol e acetonitrila (40:30:30, vazão de 1,0 mL/minuto e comprimento de onda 305 nm. O método validado revelou-se exato, preciso, robusto, linear e específico, além de rápido e prático, podendo ser utilizado para o doseamento analítico de creme vaginal de nistatina.Nystatin is a polyenic antibiotic with fungistatic and fungicide characteristics that acts by de-structuring the cellular membrane of fungi and yeast. The nystatin vaginal cream is used for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. Until recently, the official compendia professed the microbiological trial for dosing this antibiotic, method considered as non-feasible in the routine of quality control centers due to the excessive time for release of results. Aiming at obtaining an alternative method for dosing nystatin vaginal cream, a chromatographic method (HPLC was developed and validated. The method developed used a reversible phase column of C18, 3.9 x 150 mm, 4 mm, at 30 ºC. The mobile phase was made up of a 0.25 mM sodium phosphate buffer and 0.025 mM EDTA, pH 6.00, methanol and acetonitrile (40:30:30, rate of

  1. Vaginal sponge and spermicides

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    ... counter; Contraceptives - over the counter; Family planning - vaginal sponge; Contraception - vaginal sponge ... Spermicides and vaginal sponges do not work as well at preventing pregnancy as some other forms of birth control. However, using a spermicide ...

  2. Vaginitis test - wet mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wet prep - vaginitis; Vaginosis - wet mount; Trichomoniasis - wet mount; Vaginal candida - wet mount ... a rash, painful intercourse, or odor after intercourse. Trichomoniasis , a sexually transmitted disease. Vaginal yeast infection .

  3. NACIMIENTO POR PARTO VAGINAL DESPUES DE UNA CESAREA. PRUEBA DE TRABAJO DE PARTO VERSUS CESAREA ELECTIVA A REPETICION: ROTURA UTERINA, UNA COMPLICACION POSIBLE

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci A,Paolo; Perucca P,Ernesto; Altamirano A.,Roberto

    2003-01-01

    El parto vaginal después de una cesárea tiene un éxito superior al 70%. Bajo ciertas condiciones, es considerado seguro, y con una baja probabilidad de complicaciones. Sin embargo, cuando estas ocurren, pueden resultar catastróficas para el feto y la madre. Una de las más temidas es la rotura uterina, que puede ocurrir en menos del 1%. A través de una serie de preguntas y respuestas pretendemos revisar algunas de las principales inquietudes sobre el tema

  4. Avaliação do implante de pericárdio homólogo no recobrimento de anel vaginal de equino por laparoscopia

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    Julio David Spagnolo

    2010-01-01

    As hérnias inguino-escrotais afetam principalmente equinos machos, sendo caracterizadas como diretas ou indiretas e congênitas ou adquiridas. O emprego da laparoscopia para o fechamento do anel vaginal permite a fixação de implantes e retalhos peritoneais para recobrir a entrada do canal inguinal. As membranas biológicas empregadas como enxerto tecidual apresentam vantagens como baixo custo, fácil armazenamento, pouca reação tecidual, boa incorporação, elasticidade e resistência. Este estudo ...

  5. Identificação por PCR e sensibilidade a antifúngicos de isolados clínicos vaginais de Candida sp Identification by PCR and antifungal susceptibility of vaginal clinical Candida sp isolates

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    Izabel Almeida Alves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A candidíase vaginal é uma condição que afeta um grande número de mulheres em idade fértil. Candida albicans é a espécie mais frequentemente isolada de secreção vaginal, entretanto, outras espécies mais resistentes às drogas antifúngicas podem ser isoladas de amostras clínicas vaginais. MÉTODOS: Foram identificadas as espécies de 30 isolados vaginais de Candida sp por PCR utilizando o primer universal ITS4 e primers espécie-específicos para C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis e C. krusei. A sensibilidade destes isolados frente à anfotericina B, fluconazol e voriconazol foi determinada pelo método de macrodiluição M27-A2 do CLSI. RESULTADOS: Através dos ensaios de PCR, 28 isolados foram caracterizados como C. albicans e 2 isolados apresentaram amplificação para os primers específicos de C. albicans e C. glabrata. A concentração inibitória mínima para anfotericina B variou de 0,03µg/mL a 0,25µg/mL, para o fluconazol de 0,125µg/mL a 16µg/mL e para o voriconazol de 0,03µg/mL a 0,25µg/mL. CONCLUSÕES: A identificação de Candida ao nível de espécie através de ensaios de PCR deve ser relevante para o gerenciamento clínico destas infecções.INTRODUCTION: Vaginal candidiasis is a condition that affects innumerous fertile women. Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated species from vaginal discharge; however, other different species that are more resistant to antifungal drugs can be identified in vaginal clinical samples. METHODS: The species of 30 vaginal Candida isolates was identified by PCR using the universal ITS4 primer and species-specific primers for C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The sensitivity pattern to amphotericin B, fluconazole and voriconazole was assessed using the CLSI M27-A2 macrodilution method. RESULTS: The PCR assay revealed 28 C. albicans and 2 samples showed amplification for C. albicans and C. glabrata primers. The minimum inhibitory

  6. Prevalência da colonização vaginal e anorretal por estreptococo do grupo B em gestantes do terceiro trimestre Prevalence of vaginal and anorectal colonization by group B streptococcus in pregnant women in the last three months of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Beraldo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: estudar a prevalência da colonização por estreptococo do grupo B em gestantes do terceiro trimestre, atendidas em um hospital regional, e avaliar a associação da colonização com as variáveis maternas demográficas e clínicas. MÉTODOS: no período de 8 de outubro de 2002 a 26 de março de 2003, foi realizado um estudo transversal (de prevalência com 309 gestantes no terceiro trimestre. Amostras de secreção vaginal e anorretal foram coletadas e testadas para identificação presuntiva do estreptococo do grupo B. Foram incluídas as gestantes com gestação maior ou igual a 36 semanas datadas por ultra-sonografia e excluídas as que se recusaram a participar, as em uso de antibioticoterapia e as que haviam sido submetidas a exame ginecológico pelo período mínimo de 24 horas antes da coleta. As gestantes foram caracterizadas por variáveis demográficas (raça, idade, grau de escolaridade, renda familiar e número de gestações e clínicas (idade gestacional, ocorrência de infecção urinária durante a gestação atual, ruptura prematura de membranas e tempo de bolsa rota, febre materna intraparto, corioamnionite, líquido amniótico com mecônio, via de parto utilizada, febre materna pós-parto e endometrite. RESULTADOS: das gestantes, 46 estavam colonizadas pelo estreptococo do grupo B, sendo que 26 (56,5% tiveram a cultura vaginal positiva, 8 (17,4% a cultura anorretal positiva e 12 (26,5% tiveram tanto a cultura vaginal como a retal positivas. Nenhuma das variáveis analisadas neste estudo foi estatisticamente significativa quanto à colonização pelo estreptococo do grupo B. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise bivariada pelo teste do chi2 e teste exato de Fisher quando apropriado. CONCLUSÃO: a taxa de prevalência da colonização vaginal e anorretal pelo estreptococo do grupo B em gestantes no terceiro trimestre, foi de 14,9%. Não houve associação entre fatores de risco (primigestação, idade

  7. Mielite Transversa Associada a Infecção por Mycoplasma Pneumoniae: Caso Clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Paulo; Teixeira, Fernanda; Oliveira, Maria José; Temudo, Teresa; Costa, Gomes da

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae é um agente infeccioso frequentemente implicado em infecções respiratórias em crianças e adolescentes.Complicações não respiratórias podem ocorrer, nomeadamente mucocutâneas, cardíacas, articulares, hematológicas e neurológicas, entre as quais a mielite transversa. Esta é uma entidade relativamente rara em idade pediátrica, embora potencialmente grave. Apesar da sua patogenia ser desconhecida, tem sido associada a infecção (nomeadamente vírica ou por micoplasma), lupus e...

  8. Paediatric vaginal discharge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal discharge in the prepubertal patient is a common symptom, and can be a source of distress for the caregiver and con- cern for the healthcare worker. Several factors predispose these patients to the development of recurrent vaginal discharge. Unless noticed by the caregiver, this problem can persist for long periods ...

  9. Management of Vaginal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, S B L; Agrawal, Gaurav; Mittal, Megha; Mishra, Priyanshi

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare gynecologic cancer with very little documentation. Literature search to have useful information for the management of vaginal cancer and share. We have searched the PUBMED database, Google search engine and other database. A total of 26 references were taken into account. Once spread from primary other cancers or vulva is ruled out, vaginal cancer is designated to be primary in origin. It was revealed that majority of vaginal cancers reported are squamous cell carcinomas. The most common risk factors implicated are Human Papiloma Virus, age. Most common presenting symptoms were abnormal vaginal bleeding,. Diagnosis requires pathological confirmation. Management depends on staging work-up. Vaginal cancer is staged by FIGO system of staging and TNM staging. There are many prognostic factors influencing the choice of treatment. Lymph node metastasis is one of the important prognostic factors, others to mention are histology, size, age. In a recent SEER analysis of over 2000 patients, the 5 year disease specific survival was 84% for stage 1, 75% for stage II and 57% for advanced tumors. Early carcinomas are generally treated with either surgery or radiation therapy. Advanced cancers are treated with radiation therapy with simultaneous administration of combined chemotherapy. Preventive strategies include safe sex and HPV vaccination. Primary vaginal cancer is a rare entity, if there is no history of cancer cervix or vulva in past or absence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma or vulvar carcinoma within 5 years is usually considered as primary vaginal cancer. Though early stage vaginal cancers have better outcome treated with surgery or radiotherapy or surgery followed by radiotherapy, radiotherapy alone is preferred mode of treatment in vaginal cancers.

  10. Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign. The campaign helps women get the facts about gynecologic cancer, providing important “inside knowledge” about their bodies and health. What are vaginal and vulvar cancers? Cancer is ...

  11. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have you: Learn pelvic floor muscle exercises ( Kegel exercises ) Use estrogen cream in your vagina Try ... repair; Urinary incontinence - vaginal wall repair Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  12. Vaginal birth - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/presentations/100198.htm Vaginal birth - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  13. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inflammation or infection of the cervix (cervicitis) or uterus (endometritis) Injury or disease of the vaginal opening (caused by intercourse, trauma, infection, polyp, genital warts , ulcer, or varicose veins) ...

  14. Yeast Infection (Vaginal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal discharge with a cottage cheese appearance Complicated yeast infection You might have a complicated yeast infection ... have an uncomplicated or a complicated infection. Uncomplicated yeast infection For mild to moderate symptoms and infrequent ...

  15. MANAGEMENT OF VAGINAL DISCHARGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Northern Branch. He has conducted numerous clinical trials and has a research interest in infectious diseases with special emphasis on sexually transmitted infections. He is a recipi- ent of the NRFs grant for research in sexually transmitted diseases and is also the principal investigator for a phase III vaginal microbicide.

  16. Vaginal rejuvenation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara G

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Giussy Barbara,1 Federica Facchin,2 Laura Buggio,3 Daniela Alberico,3 Maria Pina Frattaruolo,3 Alessandra Kustermann1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Service for Sexual and Domestic Violence (SVSeD, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 2Faculty of Psychology, Catholic University of Milan, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Milan, Italy Abstract: Female genital cosmetic surgery includes several procedures aimed at reaching better female genital appearance and/or improved sexual functioning. Among these procedures, vaginal rejuvenation is considered as one of the most controversial genital cosmetic surgical interventions and involves a range of surgical procedures performed by gynecologists or plastic surgeons to decrease the average diameter of the vagina, mainly for sexual reasons. In this narrative review, vaginal rejuvenation outcomes are examined in order to clarify the current scenario of the different vaginal rejuvenation techniques, as well as their effectiveness and associated complications. Psychological and ethical issues linked to these procedures are also addressed. Keywords: vaginal rejuvenation, female genital cosmetic surgery, vaginoplasty 

  17. [Prevalence of 7 microorganisms in abnormal vaginal secretions (vaginitis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupas, A; Wyss, R; Anner, R

    1985-10-19

    Seven microorganisms (N. gonorrhoeae, C. albicans, T. vaginalis, G. vaginalis, M. hominis, U. urealyticum and Streptococcus of group B) have been assayed in genital samplings of 164 asymptomatic women (control group) and of 374 women suffering from abnormal vaginal secretions (vaginitis group). All these bacteria except group B Streptococci were isolated in the vaginitis group more frequently than in the control group (p less than 0.01). The proportion of negative cultures for all tested bacteria was 39% in the control group and 6.4% in the vaginitis group (p less than 0.01). This shows an association of these bacteria with 70% of the patients of the vaginitis group and with only 26% of the women of the control group (p less than 0.01). It is to be noted that the pH values are higher in the group of women with vaginitis than in the control group (p less than 0.01). Comparison of the microbial flora during "specific" an "non-specific" vaginitis indicates that G. vaginalis is isolated more frequently in patients with non-specific vaginitis than among those with specific vaginitis (p less than 0.01). Likewise, M. hominis is isolated more frequently in groups of women with either non-specific vaginitis or T. vaginalis vaginitis, than in groups of patients with a C. albicans vaginitis (p less than 0,01). The results of this study indicate that there is a causal relationship between vaginitis and the presence of T. vaginalis. C. albicans, G. vaginalis, M. hominis or N. gonorrhoeae, either as a single or a mixed infection, and that there is a relationship between increased pH values and abnormal vaginal secretions.

  18. Angioembolisation in vaginal vascular malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava D

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal arteriovenous malformations are rare entities and their most common presentation is vaginal haemorrhage. This case report describes a 22-year-old woman who presented at 20 weeks of gestation with slow growing soft and tender swelling at anterior vaginal wall. Diagnosis was confirmed as vaginal vascular malformation on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The mass did not subside after delivery and patient developed dyspareunia. It was successfully treated by angioembolisation using polyvinyl alcohol particles. Angioembolisation being safe and effective should be the treatment of first choice for symptomatic vaginal vascular malformation.

  19. Pyomyositis after vaginal delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gaughan, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Pyomyositis is a purulent infection of skeletal muscle that arises from haematogenous spread, usually with abscess formation. It can develop after a transient bacteraemia of any cause. This type of infection has never been reported before in the literature after vaginal delivery. A 34-year-old woman had progressive severe pain in the left buttock and thigh and weakness in the left lower limb day 1 post spontaneous vaginal delivery. MRI showed severe oedema of the left gluteus, iliacus, piriformis and adductor muscles of the left thigh and a small fluid collection at the left hip joint. She was diagnosed with pyomyositis. She had fever of 37.9°C immediately postpartum and her risk factors for bacteraemia were a mild IV cannula-associated cellulitis and labour itself. She required prolonged treatment with antibiotics before significant clinical improvement was noted.

  20. Vaginal vault prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzoma, Azubuike; Farag, K A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Vaginal vault prolapse is a common complication following vaginal hysterectomy with negative impact on women's quality of life due to associated urinary, anorectal and sexual dysfunction. A clear understanding of the supporting mechanism for the uterus and vagina is important in making the right choice of corrective procedure. Management should be individualised, taking into consideration the surgeon's experience, patients age, comorbidities, previous surgery and sex life. Result. Preexisting pelvic floor defect prior to hysterectomy is the single most important risk factor for vault prolapse. Various surgical techniques have been advanced at hysterectomy to prevent vault prolapse. Studies have shown the McCall's culdoplasty under direct visualisation to be superior. Vault prolapse repair rely on either the use of patient's tissue or synthetic materials and can be carried out abdominally or vaginally. Sacrospinous fixation and abdominal sacrocolpopexy are the commonly performed procedures, with literature in favour of abdominal sacrocolpopexy over sacrospinous fixation due to its reported higher success rate of about 90%. Other less commonly performed procedures include uterosacral ligament suspension and illiococcygeal fixation, both of which are equally effective, with the former having a high risk of ureteric injury. Colpoclesis will play a greater role in the future as the aging population increases. Mesh procedures are gaining in popularity, and preliminary data from vaginal mesh procedures is encouraging. Laparoscopic techniques require a high level of skill and experience. There are many controversies on the mechanism of prolapse and management techniques, which we have tried to address in this article. Conclusion. As the aging population increases, the incidence of prolapse will also rise, older techniques using native tissue will continue, while new techniques using the mesh needs to be studied further. The later may well be the way forward

  1. Vaginitis: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Vulvovaginitis - overview (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Vaginitis updates by ... Vaginitis test - wet mount Vulvovaginitis - overview Related Health Topics Trichomoniasis Vaginal Diseases Yeast Infections Other Languages Find ...

  2. Histerectomía vaginal en pacientes sin prolapso uterino Vaginal hysterectomy in patients with uterus prolapse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miguel Emilio García Rodríguez; Ramón Ezequiel Romero Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    ... de la investigación fue determinar la eficacia y factibilidad de la histerectomía vaginal por la técnica de Heaney, practicada en pacientes sin prolapso uterino, incluso en presencia de los factores antes mencionados. MÉTODOS. Se realizó...

  3. Vaginal Vault Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azubuike Uzoma

    2009-01-01

    Vault prolapse repair rely on either the use of patient's tissue or synthetic materials and can be carried out abdominally or vaginally. Sacrospinous fixation and abdominal sacrocolpopexy are the commonly performed procedures, with literature in favour of abdominal sacrocolpopexy over sacrospinous fixation due to its reported higher success rate of about 90%. Other less commonly performed procedures include uterosacral ligament suspension and illiococcygeal fixation, both of which are equally effective, with the former having a high risk of ureteric injury. Colpoclesis will play a greater role in the future as the aging population increases. Mesh procedures are gaining in popularity, and preliminary data from vaginal mesh procedures is encouraging. Laparoscopic techniques require a high level of skill and experience. There are many controversies on the mechanism of prolapse and management techniques, which we have tried to address in this article. Conclusion. As the aging population increases, the incidence of prolapse will also rise, older techniques using native tissue will continue, while new techniques using the mesh needs to be studied further. The later may well be the way forward in future.

  4. Vaginal haemangioendothelioma: an unusual tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Vaginal tumours are uncommon and this is a particularly rare case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma in a 38-year-old woman. Initial presentation consisted of symptoms similar to uterovaginal prolapse with "something coming down". Examination under anaesthesia demonstrated a necrotic anterior vaginal wall tumour. Histology of the lesion revealed a haemangioendothelioma which had some features of haemangiopericytoma. While the natural history of vaginal haemangioendothelioma is uncertain, as a group, they have a propensity for local recurrence. To our knowledge this is the third reported case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma. Management of this tumour is challenging given the paucity of literature on this tumour. There is a need to add rare tumours to our "knowledge bank" to guide management of these unusual tumours.

  5. Vaginal pressure during daily activities before and after vaginal repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, L; Hulbaek, M; Brostrøm, S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to measure vaginal pressure during various daily activities in patients before and after vaginal surgery for pelvic organ prolapse, searching data for evidence-based activity guidelines. Vaginal pressure (VP) was studied in 23 patients during activities such as rest...... was not related to the type of vaginal repair. The results imply that post-operative counselling should concentrate more on treating chronic cough and constipation than restrictions of moderate physical activities.......The objective of the study was to measure vaginal pressure during various daily activities in patients before and after vaginal surgery for pelvic organ prolapse, searching data for evidence-based activity guidelines. Vaginal pressure (VP) was studied in 23 patients during activities such as rest...... and lifting 2 and 5 kg. Lifting in the walking position created a slightly higher VP compared to other lifting techniques, which did not differ. The VP did not increase when lifting 5 kg compared to 2 kg. Mean VP during coughing and Valsalva were significantly lower 1-5 days after the operation. VP...

  6. Vaginal microbicides: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Abdel-Aleem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that more than 340 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections occur every year throughout the world in men and women age (15–49years. Women bear an increasing burden of the epidemic as both caregivers for the ill and because of their heightened risk of infection due to biological, economic and social vulnerabilities. There is an urgent need for new prevention strategies that women can use themselves and initiate. A vaginal microbicide defined as substances intended to reduce or prevent transmission of HIV and/or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs when applied topically to genital mucosal surfaces, provides a woman-controlled method applied before sex that could kill, neutralize, or block HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.

  7. Vaginoscopic resection of vaginal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Joseph; Al Chami, Ali; Abu Musa, Antoine; Nassar, Anwar H; Kurdi, Ahmed Toufic; Ghulmiyyah, Labib

    2012-12-01

    We report the resection of a vaginal septum while preserving the virginity of a 12-year-old girl with Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome (HWWS) having a didelphys uterus, obstructed hemivagina, and an ipsilateral renal agenesis with follow-up at 18 months. Successful resection of the vaginal septum with conservation of the hymenal ring and complete drainage of both the hematocolpos and the hematometra were achieved. Cyclic dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain were completely resolved on follow-up visits at 4, 6, and 18 months. Office hysteroscopy performed during the last follow-up visit revealed a patent vaginal vault without evidence of adenosis or recurrence of the vaginal septum. Vaginoscopy is a safe, convenient, and efficient diagnostic and therapeutic modality that can be used in the management of patients with an obstructed hemivagina. It maintains the patient's virginity and it is useful in patients with a restrictive vaginal opening or narrow vaginal canal. Furthermore, the hysteroscopic excision of the vaginal septum offers minimal risk of recurrence of the septal defect.

  8. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor will have you try bladder retraining, Kegel exercises, medicines, or other options. If you tried ... vaginal sling; Transobturator sling; Midurethral sling Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  9. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Female reproductive anatomy Causes of vaginal itching Uterus References Davis AJ, Katz VL. Pediatric and adolescent gynecology: gynecologic examination, infections, trauma, pelvic mass, precocious puberty. In: Lentz GM, Lobo ...

  11. Predictors of the vaginal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, E R; Piper, J M; Shain, R N; Perdue, S T; Peairs, W

    2001-04-01

    Our purpose was to define influences on the patterns of the vaginal microflora. We enrolled 617 African American and Mexican American women in a 1-year longitudinal study of sexual behaviors and the vaginal microflora on the basis of the presence of gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, trichomoniasis, or syphilis at the initial visit. The patients were assigned randomly to a behavioral intervention or standard counseling regarding sexually transmitted disease. We reevaluated 508 (82%) and 549 (89%) women at 6 and 12 months, respectively. A comprehensive survey of lower genital tract organisms was conducted at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Behavioral and microbiologic associations were screened by bivariate analysis. All variables associated with an organism at P 3 times a week, and cunnilingus, fellatio, and anal intercourse at the last sexual encounter. M hominis (but not Ureaplasma urealyticum ), Gardnerella vaginalis, and Lactobacillus species were associated with bacterial vaginosis. Lactobacillus species appeared to protect against bacterial vaginosis and infection with G vaginalis. Sexually transmitted diseases (caused by M hominis, N gonorrhoeae, C trachomatis, and T vaginalis ) were associated with each other. In contrast, hormonal status, vaginal blood, and foreign bodies had little effect. The presence of other microorganisms and race have a more consistent association with the presence or absence of a cervical-vaginal organism than sexual behavior, hormonal status, vaginal devices, or the presence of abnormal vaginal bleeding.

  12. Vaginal estrogens for the treatment of dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychman, Michael L

    2011-03-01

    Vaginal atrophy, which is associated with vaginal itching, burning, dryness, irritation, and pain, is estimated to affect up to 40% of postmenopausal women. Estrogens play a key role in maintaining vaginal health; women with low serum estradiol are more likely to experience vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and reduced sexual activity compared with women who have higher estradiol levels. The purpose of this review is to assess the prevalence and impact of dyspareunia, a symptom of vaginal atrophy, on the health of postmenopausal women and to evaluate treatment options using vaginal estrogens (U.S. Food and Drug Administration [FDA] approved). Relevant published literature was identified by searching Index Medicus using the PubMed online database. The search terms dyspareunia, vaginal estrogen, vaginal hormone therapy, vaginal atrophy, and atrophic vaginitis were the focus of the literature review. Current treatment guidelines for vaginal atrophy recommend the use of minimally absorbed local vaginal estrogens, along with non-hormonal lubricants or moisturizers, coupled with maintenance of sexual activity. Vaginal estrogen therapy has been shown to provide improvement in the signs and symptoms of vaginal or vulvar atrophy. Vaginal tablets, rings, and creams are indicated for the treatment of vaginal atrophy, and the FDA has recently approved a low-dose regimen of conjugated estrogens cream to treat moderate-to-severe postmenopausal dyspareunia. The use of low-dose vaginal estrogens has been shown to be effective in treating symptoms of vaginal atrophy without causing significant proliferation of the endometrial lining, and no significant differences have been seen among vaginal preparations in terms of endometrial safety. Women should be informed of the potential benefits and risks of the treatment options available, and with the help of their healthcare provider, choose an intervention that is most suitable to their individual needs and circumstances. © 2010

  13. Anterior vaginal compartment surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    To review the safety and efficacy of anterior vaginal compartment pelvic organ prolapse surgery. Every 4 years and as part of the Fifth International Collaboration on Incontinence we reviewed the English-language scientific literature after searching PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, published up to January 2012. Publications were classified as level 1 evidence (randomised controlled trials [RCT] or systematic reviews), level 2 (poor quality RCT, prospective cohort studies), level 3 (case series or retrospective studies) and level 4 case reports. The highest level of evidence was utilised by the committee to make evidence-based recommendations based upon the Oxford grading system. A grade A recommendation usually depends on consistent level 1 evidence. A grade B recommendation usually depends on consistent level 2 and/or 3 studies, or "majority evidence" from RCTs. A grade C recommendation usually depends on level studies or "majority evidence" from level 2/3 studies or Delphi processed expert opinion. A grade D "no recommendation possible" would be used where the evidence is inadequate or conflicting and when expert opinion is delivered without a formal analytical process, such as by Delphi. Absorbable mesh augmentation of anterior compartment native tissue repair improves the anatomical outcome compared with native tissue repair alone with no increased complication rate in meta-analysis of 2 RCTS (grade B). Biological grafts in meta-analysis have improved anatomical outcomes with no change in subjective outcomes compared with native tissue repairs (grade B). There is conflicting level 1 evidence to support porcine dermis and a single RCT to support small intestine submucosa as graft agents in anterior compartment prolapse surgery (grade B). Consistent level 1 data support a superior anatomical outcome for polypropylene mesh compared with a biological graft in the anterior compartment. Mesh exposure rate was

  14. EFICACIA PROFILACTICA DE LA ASOCIACION CEFAZOLINA-TINIDAZOL EN PACIENTES SOMETIDAS A HISTERECTOMIA VAGINAL

    OpenAIRE

    Cubillos G,Andrés; Bennett R.,Carlos; Franck K.,Christian; Bravo O,Erasmo; Prado G,Julián; Cordero H,Gladys

    2003-01-01

    Evaluar un esquema antibiótico profiláctico, eficaz y seguro que disminuya la incidencia de morbilidad infecciosa postoperatoria en histerectomía vaginal. Doscientos cincuenta pacientes son randomizadas prospectivamente en 2 grupos. Cumplen criterios 228: El grupo 1 (116) recibió Tinidazol (2 g, oral) + Miconazol-tinidazol (100-150 mg, vaginal). El grupo 2 (112) recibió placebo por vía oral y vaginal. Se usó cefazolina endovenosa preoperatoria en ambos grupos. La eficacia se midió clínicament...

  15. Contraceptive vaginal rings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brache, Vivian; Faundes, Anibal

    2010-11-01

    Development efforts on contraceptive vaginal rings were initiated over 40 years ago based on two principles: the capacity of the vaginal epithelium to absorb steroids and the capacity of elastomers to release these hormones at a nearly constant rate. Numerous models of contraceptive vaginal rings (CVRs) have been studied, but only two have reached the market: NuvaRing, a combined ring that releases etonogestrel (ENG) and ethinylestradiol (EE), and Progering, a progesterone-releasing ring for use in lactating women. The main advantages of CVRs are their effectiveness (similar to or slightly better than the pill), ease of use without the need of remembering a daily routine, user's ability to control initiation and discontinuation, nearly constant release rate allowing for lower doses, greater bioavailability and good cycle control with the combined ring. The main disadvantages are related to the mode of delivery; CVRs may cause vaginal discharge and complaints, ring expulsion is not uncommon, the ring may be felt during coitus and vaginal insertion may be unpleasant for some women. The studies reviewed in this article provide evidence that CVRs are safe, effective and highly acceptable to women. There is no doubt that CVRs offer a new, effective contraceptive option to women, expanding their available choices of hormonal contraception. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Multipurpose treatment of vaginal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, A; Masseva, A; Shopova, E; Georgiev, S

    2012-01-01

    Untreated bacterial vaginosis is related with many complications for non-pregnant women in reproductive age, most common from them are vaginal discharge and postoperative infections. The aim of our investigation was to compare the effectiveness of two therapeutic regimes which consist in Macmiror/Macmiror Complex alone and in combination with Feminella Vagi C for treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and/or mycotic infection. 117 non-pregnant women with symptoms of vaginal infection were prospectively enrolled into two groups according their treatment. First group consist 66 women treated with Macmiror tablets and vaginal capsules followed with local application of Feminella Vagi C, the second group consist 54 women treated with Macmiror tablets and vaginal capsules only. The impact of treatment on clinical symptoms was observed at the end of medication and 20 days after it. Microbiological testing was repeated 20 days after treatment. Over than 80% (78.6 divided by 86.7%) of the cases with vaginal infection (BV and mycotic one) were successfully treated with Macmiror/Macmiror Complex. Supplement treatment with Feminella Vagi C lead to higher percentage of clinically recovery (86.7% vs 84.6%), better microbiological cleaning (86.7% vs 82.1%) and longer effect of treatment. Used medication showed higher efficacy against BV than to fungal infection. According obtained results we may conclude that bacterial vaginosis was better treated with multipurpose treatment (Nifuratel, Nistatin and vit. C) than with Macmiror alone.

  17. Developmental Origin of Vaginal Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    The developmental origin of vaginal epithelium has been controversial for nearly a century, with speculation that vaginal epithelium originates from the Müllerian duct, Wolffian duct, and/or urogenital sinus. None of these possibilities has been definitively proven or disproven by direct scientific data. To define precisely the origin of vaginal epithelium, epithelial cells of the Müllerian duct, Wolffian duct, or urogenital sinus were fluorescently labeled in mouse embryos by crossing tdTomato-EGFP dual-reporter transgenic mice with transgenic mouse lines that express Cre recombinase in each type of epithelium. In embryos and newborn mice, the vagina consisted of fused Müllerian ducts plus the sinus vagina of urogenital sinus origin. However, the proportion of the sinus vagina was significantly reduced as the Müllerian vagina grew caudally. By postpartum day 7, the Müllerian vagina extended to the caudal end of the body, whereas the sinus vagina remained only at the junction between the vagina and perineal skin. As the vagina opened in puberty, urogenital sinus epithelium was detected only in the vulva, but not in the vagina. Additionally, from embryo to adult stages, residual Wolffian duct epithelium was present in the dorsolateral stromal wall of the vagina, but not within vaginal or vulvar epithelium. In conclusion, adult mouse vaginal epithelium is derived solely from Müllerian duct epithelium. PMID:20638775

  18. Prolapso vaginal e uterino em ovelhas Uterine and vaginal prolapse in ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Bianchi R. Alves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou realizar um estudo retrospectivo sobre os prolapsos vaginal e uterino em ovelhas atendidas no Serviço de Clínica de Bovinos e Pequenos Ruminantes (CBPR da FMVZ/USP no período compreendido entre 2000 a 2010, no qual, foram atendidas 56 ovinos com problemas inerentes ao sistema reprodutivo, dessas, 25 apresentaram prolapso vaginal ou uterino (44,6%. O prolapso vaginal total foi o de maior frequência (72%. As ovelhas acometidas, em sua maioria, possuíam idade superior a quatro anos (64%, eram sem raça definida (44% ou da raça Ile de France (40%. As manifestações clínicas observadas durante a maioria dos atendimentos foram: taquipnéia, taquicardia, mucosas oculares avermelhadas indicando estado de toxemia, decúbito esternal ou lateral, apatia e anorexia. O tratamento instituído para todos os casos foi a limpeza, desinfecção e reintrodução do órgão prolapsado. A sutura de Bühner foi feita em 84% dos casos e a histeropexia em um caso (4%. A evolução foi satisfatória em 80% dos casos atendidos, nos demais casos (20% observou-se óbito da fêmea acometida. Do total de óbitos, os prolapsos vaginais foram responsáveis por 60% (3/5 e os prolapsos uterinos por 40% (2/5. A etiologia dos prolapsos não foi definida nos casos atendidos, sendo esses associados com o período pós-parto em sua maioria (56%, provavelmente associados com quadros de hipocalcemia, altas concentrações séricas de estrógeno e hipertonia uterina. Além disso, a predisposição genética não pode ser descartada.This study aimed to conduct a retrospective study on vaginal and uterine prolapse in sheep seen at the Clinic and Surgery on Cattle and Small Ruminants (CBPR at University of São Paulo, from 2000 to 2010. During this period, 56 sheep were treated with problems of the reproductive system. Of these, 25 ewes had vaginal or uterine prolapse (44.6%. The total vaginal prolapse was the most frequently (72%. The majority of

  19. Citología Vaginal

    OpenAIRE

    Arrunategui, Ana María; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2001-01-01

    ¿Qué es una neoplasia?/ ¿Qué grupo de mujeres tiene un mayor riesgo de desarrollar cáncer del cuello de la matriz?/ ¿Cuáles son los síntomas más frecuentes del cáncer del cuello de la matriz?/ Anatomía de los órganos genitales femeninos/¿Cómo se realiza la prueba de la citología vaginal?/¿Cómo se interpretan los resultados de la citología vaginal?/ ¿Toda citología anormal es cáncer?/ ¿Qué otras utilidades tiene la citología vaginal?/ ¿Desde qué edad, hasta que edad y con qué frecuencia debe t...

  20. Prolapso vaginal e uterino em ovelhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Bianchi R. Alves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou realizar um estudo retrospectivo sobre os prolapsos vaginal e uterino em ovelhas atendidas no Serviço de Clínica de Bovinos e Pequenos Ruminantes (CBPR da FMVZ/USP no período compreendido entre 2000 a 2010, no qual, foram atendidas 56 ovinos com problemas inerentes ao sistema reprodutivo, dessas, 25 apresentaram prolapso vaginal ou uterino (44,6%. O prolapso vaginal total foi o de maior frequência (72%. As ovelhas acometidas, em sua maioria, possuíam idade superior a quatro anos (64%, eram sem raça definida (44% ou da raça Ile de France (40%. As manifestações clínicas observadas durante a maioria dos atendimentos foram: taquipnéia, taquicardia, mucosas oculares avermelhadas indicando estado de toxemia, decúbito esternal ou lateral, apatia e anorexia. O tratamento instituído para todos os casos foi a limpeza, desinfecção e reintrodução do órgão prolapsado. A sutura de Bühner foi feita em 84% dos casos e a histeropexia em um caso (4%. A evolução foi satisfatória em 80% dos casos atendidos, nos demais casos (20% observou-se óbito da fêmea acometida. Do total de óbitos, os prolapsos vaginais foram responsáveis por 60% (3/5 e os prolapsos uterinos por 40% (2/5. A etiologia dos prolapsos não foi definida nos casos atendidos, sendo esses associados com o período pós-parto em sua maioria (56%, provavelmente associados com quadros de hipocalcemia, altas concentrações séricas de estrógeno e hipertonia uterina. Além disso, a predisposição genética não pode ser descartada.

  1. Vaginal Bleeding: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bleeding in pregnancy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Vaginal Bleeding updates ... late pregnancy Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy Related Health Topics Menstruation Disclaimers MedlinePlus links to health information from ...

  2. Vaginitis: current microbiologic and clinical concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L V; Embil, J A

    1986-02-15

    Infectious vaginitis occurs when the normal vaginal flora is disrupted; it may arise when saprophytes overwhelm the host immune response, when pathogenic organisms are introduced into the vagina or when changes in substrate allow an imbalance of microorganisms to develop. Examples of these types of vaginitis include the presence of chronic fungal infection in women with an inadequate cellular immune response to the yeast, the introduction of trichomonads into vaginal epithelium that has a sufficient supply of glycogen, and the alteration in bacterial flora, normally dominated by Lactobacillus spp., and its metabolites that is characteristic of "nonspecific vaginitis". The authors review microbiologic and clinical aspects of the fungal, protozoal and bacterial infections, including the interactions of bacteria thought to produce nonspecific vaginitis, that are now recognized as causing vaginitis. Other causes of vaginitis are also discussed.

  3. Effects of vaginal prolapse surgery and ageing on vaginal vascularization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Ageing affects pelvic floor anatomy and function, resulting in several disorders like pelvic organ prolapse (POP), lower urinary tract symptoms and vaginal atrophy (VA). In this thesis we searched for methods to link the function of pelvic organs to physiological changes. The effects of POP and

  4. Importancia del estudio del balance del contenido vaginal (BACOVA en el control preventivo de las trabajadoras sexuales Importance of studying the balance of vaginal content (BAVACO in the preventive control of sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Bologno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar a un grupo de 229 trabajadoras sexuales de Comodoro Rivadavia (Chubut, atendidas en centros públicos de salud de dicha ciudad, mediante la aplicación del método conocido como balance del contenido vaginal (BACOVA. Este método comprende el estudio morfológico de la microbiota vaginal, como así también de la reacción infamatoria. Incluye el análisis del contenido vaginal en fresco y por tinciones de Gram y de Giemsa, de modo de integrar la exploración de todo el panorama biológico. El 35,37 % de estas mujeres presentó microbiota normal (MN; el 15,72 %, microbiota intermedia (MI; el 23,14 %, vaginosis bacteriana (VB y el 10,48 %, vaginitis microbiana inespecífca (VMI. Los casos de vaginitis por levaduras y por Trichomonas vaginalis comprendieron el 8,30 % y 6,99 % de las mujeres, respectivamente. Se observó el desplazamiento de la MN hacia una MI, que se correspondió con el predominio de bacterias corineformes. Por otra parte, no se reconoció un marcado desequilibrio del contenido vaginal ante la colonización e infección por levaduras o por T. vaginalis: el 48 % de los casos de estas vaginitis convencionales no presentaron reacción infamatoria vaginal (RIV. El 24,89 % de los casos de MN presentaron una signifcativa RIV, y en más del 50 % de las mujeres se diagnosticaron disfunciones vaginales en ausencia de sintomatología. Estos resultados se podrían asociar a un incremento del riesgo gineco-obstétrico, lo que afecta la salud sexual y reproductiva de la población estudiada.The aim of this work was to study the vaginal microenvironment in sex workers from Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut. For that purpose, BAVACO procedures were applied. A total of 229 female sex workers attended public health centers. Vaginal secretions were analyzed by Gram and Giemsa stains. The following results were obtained: normal microbiota 35.37 %, intermediate microbiota 15.72 %, bacterial vaginosis 23

  5. Vaginitis: current microbiologic and clinical concepts.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, L V; Embil, J A

    1986-01-01

    Infectious vaginitis occurs when the normal vaginal flora is disrupted; it may arise when saprophytes overwhelm the host immune response, when pathogenic organisms are introduced into the vagina or when changes in substrate allow an imbalance of microorganisms to develop. Examples of these types of vaginitis include the presence of chronic fungal infection in women with an inadequate cellular immune response to the yeast, the introduction of trichomonads into vaginal epithelium that has a suf...

  6. Characterisation of the vaginal microflora of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactobacilli predominate normal vaginal microflora and are important in maintenance of vaginal health. The current study set out to identify and compare culture isolates of vaginal microflora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) women at different phases during menstrual cycle ...

  7. Decreased beta-carotene levels in exfoliated vaginal epithelial cells in women with vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, M S; Palan, P R; Basu, J; Anyaegbunam, A; Romney, S L

    1994-10-01

    Women are more susceptible to vaginal candidiasis when the host immune response is suppressed. The antioxidant nutrient beta-carotene is postulated to possess immunoenhancing properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate beta-carotene concentrations in exfoliated vaginal epithelial (EVE) cells in women with vaginal candidiasis. Beta-carotene levels in EVE cells, collected by a saline lavage technique from 22 women with vaginal candidiasis and 20 normal controls, were analyzed. The diagnosis of vaginal candidiasis was established by the presence of pruritus, white cheesy vaginal discharge, and a positive potassium hydroxide preparation. Beta-carotene levels were assayed using high pressure liquid chromatography. Vaginal cell concentrations of beta-carotene were significantly decreased in women with vaginal candidiasis (P < 0.001). Decreased beta-carotene levels, and possibly other antioxidants, may alter the local immune response resulting in disturbances in the vaginal flora, overgrowth of candida, and the development of vaginal candidiasis.

  8. Vaginal leiomyoma: MRI features with pathologic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avantika Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of vaginal leiomyoma presenting as prolapsed vaginal mass in a 45 years old woman. The leiomyoma was found to arise from the right lateral vaginal fornix with a vascular stalk. MRI showed homogenous hypointense signals on T1W1 and iso to hyperintense signals on T2W1 images with moderate heterogenous enhancement on post contrast images. It was enucleated via vaginal route and the histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of vaginal leiomyoma.

  9. Vaginal pressure during daily activities before and after vaginal repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, L; Hulbaek, M; Brostrøm, S

    2007-01-01

    , pelvic floor contraction (PFC), coughing, Valsalva, rising from sitting to standing and lifting 2 and 5 kg with four different lifting techniques. VP was measured before, 1-5 days and 4-6 weeks after vaginal repair. Mean VP was four to five times higher during coughing and Valsalva compared to PFC...... and lifting 2 and 5 kg. Lifting in the walking position created a slightly higher VP compared to other lifting techniques, which did not differ. The VP did not increase when lifting 5 kg compared to 2 kg. Mean VP during coughing and Valsalva were significantly lower 1-5 days after the operation. VP...... was not related to the type of vaginal repair. The results imply that post-operative counselling should concentrate more on treating chronic cough and constipation than restrictions of moderate physical activities....

  10. Novos conhecimentos sobre a flora bacteriana vaginal Vaginal bacterial flora: up to date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Moreno Linhares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão foi apresentar os novos conhecimentos sobre o ecossistema vaginal, enfatizando os métodos não cultiváveis de identificação microbiana (amplificação de genes, as várias espécies de Lactobacillus que podem compor a flora vaginal e a interação desta com os mecanismos locais de imunidade inata e adquirida, dependentes dos constituintes genéticos. Foram pesquisados no Medline (Pubmed os artigos relacionados ao tema publicados entre 1997 e 2009, selecionando-se apenas os considerados relevantes. A utilização de técnicas não cultiváveis (técnicas de amplificação de genes tem possibilitado o melhor conhecimento sobre a composição do ecossistema vaginal. Na maioria das mulheres no menacme predominam na vagina uma ou mais espécies de Lactobacillus: L. crispatus, . L. inners e L gasseri. Entretanto, em outras mulheres aparentemente saudáveis pode haver deficiência ou mesmo ausência de Lactobacillus, que são substituídos por outras bactérias produtoras de ácido lático: espécies de Atopobium, Megasphaera e/ou Leptotrichia. A infecção e/ou a proliferação de bactérias patogênicas na vagina são suprimidas pela produção de ácido lático, por produtos gerados pelas bactérias e pela atividade local das imunidades inata e adquirida. As células epiteliais vaginais produzem diversos componentes com atividade antimicrobiana. Tais células ainda possuem receptores de membrana ("Toll-like receptors" que reconhecem padrões moleculares associados aos patógenos. O reconhecimento leva à produção de citocinas proinflamatórias e à estimulação da imunidade antigenoespecífica. A produção de anticorpos IgG e IgA também pode ser iniciada na endocérvice e na vagina em resposta à infecção. Conclui-se que a composição da flora vaginal e os mecanismos de imunidade representam importantes mecanismos de defesa. Os critérios de "flora normal" e "flora anormal" devem ser revistos; os polimorfismos

  11. Lactobacillus for Vaginal Microflora Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Saduakhasova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the significant progress made in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, there is still a high rate of vaginal dysbiosis in Kazakh women. The use of antibiotics in the treatment of vaginal dysbiosis contributes to the elimination of pathogens as well as microflora, which can lead to a decrease in local immunity and more favorable conditions for infection spread. The most physiologically safe and promising method for the restoration of vaginal biocenosis is the use of probiotics administered by a vaginal route.Methods. We have allocated 64 of cultures of Lactobacillus from the vaginal epithelium of healthy women of reproductive age and women with diagnosed bacterial vaginosis (BV. Identification of cultures was performed by PCR analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA.  Evaluation of biological significance was determined by the following criteria: high antagonistic activity against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella ozaenae, and Staphylococcus aureus; and production of hydrogen peroxide, resistance to antibiotics, adhesive activity. We studied the symbiotic relationship of selected biologically active of cultures to each other and received options for consortiums with  properties of  probiotics through co-cultivation.Results. Results of genotyping  showed that the isolated lactobacilli belong to the seven species: L. fermentum, L. salivarius, L. gasseri, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, L. plantarum, and L. delbrueskii. L. fermentum, L. salivarius, L. gasseri, and L. jensenii occur in women with suspected BV. The highest percentage of occurrence in the vagina of healthy women was L. fermentum (28%. Most strains of lactobacilli possess high inhibitory activity for all test-strains, except Candida albicans (37.5%. 56% of studied cultures revealed high adhesion to human erythrocytes. All lactobacillus strains were resistant to metronidazole, 80% to kanamycin, 57%  to vancomycin, and

  12. Concurrent chemoradiation for vaginal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Miyamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is not known whether the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy improves outcomes in primary vaginal cancer. Here, we review clinical outcomes in patients with primary vaginal cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT. METHODS: Seventy-one patients with primary vaginal cancer treated with definitive RT with or without concurrent chemotherapy at a single institution were identified and their records reviewed. A total of 51 patients were treated with RT alone; 20 patients were treated with CRT. Recurrences were analyzed. Overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 18-92 years and the median follow-up time among survivors was 3.0 years. Kaplan-Meier estimates for OS and DFS differed significantly between the RT and CRT groups (3-yr OS = 56% vs. 79%, log-rank p = 0.037; 3-yr DFS = 43% vs. 73%, log-rank p = 0.011. Twenty-three patients (45% in the RT group had a relapse at any site compared to 3 (15% in the CRT group (p = 0.027. With regard to the sites of first relapse, 10 patients (14% had local only, 4 (6% had local and regional, 9 (13% had regional only, 1 (1% had regional and distant, and 2 (3% had distant only relapse. On univariate analysis, the use of concurrent chemotherapy, FIGO stage, tumor size, and date of diagnosis were significant predictors of DFS. On multivariate analysis, the use of concurrent chemotherapy remained a significant predictor of DFS (hazard ratio 0.31 (95% CI, 0.10-0.97; p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal cancer results in poor outcomes. Adequate radiation dose is essential to ensure curative management. Concurrent chemotherapy should be considered for vaginal cancer patients.

  13. Vaginal delivery of breech presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaska, Andrew; Menticoglou, Savas; Gagnon, Robert

    2009-06-01

    To review the physiology of breech birth; to discern the risks and benefits of a trial of labour versus planned Caesarean section; and to recommend to obstetricians, family physicians, midwives, obstetrical nurses, anaesthesiologists, pediatricians, and other health care providers selection criteria, intrapartum management parameters, and delivery techniques for a trial of vaginal breech birth. Trial of labour in an appropriate setting or delivery by pre-emptive Caesarean section for women with a singleton breech fetus at term. Reduced perinatal mortality, short-term neonatal morbidity, long-term infant morbidity, and short- and long-term maternal morbidity and mortality. Medline was searched for randomized trials, prospective cohort studies, and selected retrospective cohort studies comparing planned Caesarean section with a planned trial of labour; selected epidemiological studies comparing delivery by Caesarean section with vaginal breech delivery; and studies comparing long-term outcomes in breech infants born vaginally or by Caesarean section. Additional articles were identified through bibliography tracing up to June 1, 2008. The evidence collected was reviewed by the Maternal Fetal Medicine Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) and quantified using the criteria and classifications of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. This guideline was compared with the 2006 American College of Obstetrician's Committee Opinion on the mode of term singleton breech delivery and with the 2006 Royal College of Obstetrician and Gynaecologists Green Top Guideline: The Management of Breech Presentation. The document was reviewed by Canadian and International clinicians with particular expertise in breech vaginal delivery. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Vaginal breech birth can be associated with a higher risk of perinatal mortality and short-term neonatal morbidity than

  14. Use of vaginal estrogen in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaidi, Amani; Goukasian, Irina; Lidegaard, Oejvind

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We know little about the use of vaginal estrogen in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. We aimed to assess the prevalence of vaginal estrogen use in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed as a nationwide cross-sectional study of all Danish women aged 40-79 years......, living in Denmark during the period 2007-2013. The Danish Prescription Register delivered data permitting us to assess the prevalence, age and regional geographical belonging of women purchasing prescribed vaginal estradiol. The number of women using over-the-counter vaginal estriol products...... was estimated from sale statistics from the same register. RESULTS: In 2013, 10.2% of all Danish women between 40 and 79 years of age used vaginal estradiol. The prevalence of women using this type of vaginal estrogen increased from 8.5% in year 2007 to 10.2% in 2013. The use peaked at 16.5% in women aged 60...

  15. Complete Utero Vaginal Prolapse in a Woman with Prolapsed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vault. Vaginal myomectomy, followed by interval vaginal hysterectomy, and pelvic floor repair a week later resulted in a satisfactory outcome. Keywords: Fibroid, Interval vaginal hysterectomy, Utero‑vaginal prolapse, Vaginal myomectomy. Access this article online. Quick Response Code: Website: www.amhsr.org. DOI: *****.

  16. Clinical approach to canine vaginitisAbordagem clínica da vaginite canina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Mello Martins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vaginitis is a rare disease in adult female dogs. However, knowledge regarding this illness is important because, if secondary to reproductive tract anomalies that go uncorrected, it can cause ascending uterine infections and, consequently, subfertility or even infertility. Usually, these infections are caused by Enterobacter or microorganisms from the urogenital inferior system, such as Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pasteurella, etc. In some cases, vaginitis may be caused by primary infections with Brucella canis, which is zoonotic, or by canine herpesvirus; both of these agents have the potential to cause reproductive failure. The disease can occur in any age, breed or ovarian condition and can be identified by vaginal cytology, vaginoscopy and culture of vaginal secretions. The most common clinical signs are erythema of the vaginal mucous, vaginal discharge, pollakiuria, licking of the vulva and attraction of male dogs, independent of the phase of the estrous cycle. This disease is generally self-limiting, and the treatment, when necessary, consists of antibiotic therapy, vaginal cleaning with antiseptic and, eventually, surgical correction of predisposing abnormalities. A vaginite é uma afecção rara em cadelas adultas. É uma causa importante de subfertilidade ou infertilidade, quando secundária à anomalias do trato reprodutivo. Normalmente, são causadas por enterobactérias ou pela microbiota do sistema urogenital inferior, tais como Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pasteurella, entre outras. Em alguns casos, pode ser primária como infecções por Brucella canis, a qual é uma zoonose ou herpesvírus canino, importante causa de falhas reprodutivas. A afecção acomete fêmeas de qualquer idade, raça ou condição ovariana. Os sinais clínicos envolvem mucosa vaginal hiperêmica, corrimento vulvar, polaqui

  17. Histerectomia vaginal: o laparoscópico é necessário? Vaginal hysterectomy: is the laparoscope necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octacílio Figueiredo Netto

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: a laparoscopia pode auxiliar na conversão de uma histerectomia abdominal em vaginal quando esta última está contra-indicada, não devendo substituir a histerectomia vaginal simples quando esta é viável. Este estudo tem por objetivo discutir o papel da laparoscopia na histerectomia vaginal. Métodos: de fevereiro de 1995 a setembro de 1998, 400 pacientes foram consideradas candidatas à histerectomia vaginal. Foram excluídas as pacientes portadoras de prolapso uterino, tumor anexial associado e útero fixo ao toque bimanual. Os procedimentos foram realizados com a técnica de Heaney utilizando métodos de redução do volume uterino no caso de úteros miomatosos. Resultados: A média de idade e paridade foi de 46,9 anos e 3,2 partos, respectivamente. Vinte e nove pacientes (7,2% eram nulíparas e 104 (26,0% não tinham antecedente de parto vaginal. Trezentas e três pacientes (75,7% apresentavam cirurgia pélvica prévia, sendo a cesárea a mais freqüente (48,7%. A principal indicação cirúrgica foi miomatose uterina (61,2%, e o volume uterino médio foi de 239,9 cm³ (30-1228 cm³. A histerectomia vaginal foi realizada com sucesso em 396 pacientes (99,0%, sendo que 73 cirurgias (18,2% foram realizadas por residentes. O tempo cirúrgico médio foi de 45 min. A laparoscopia diagnóstica/cirúrgica foi realizada em 16 pacientes (4,0%. As complicações intra-operatórias incluíram 6 lesões vesicais (1,5% e uma lesão retal (0,2%. Quatro procedimentos (1,0% foram efetivados pela via abdominal. Ocorreram complicações pós-operatórias em 24 pacientes (6,0%. Duzentas e oitenta e uma pacientes (70,2% receberam alta hospitalar 24 h após a cirurgia. Conclusões: O laparoscópio não parece ser necessário nos casos em que o útero é móvel e não existe tumor anexial associado. Em última análise, o principal papel do laparoscópio parece ser o de permitir que o ginecologista se dê conta de que histerectomia vaginal simples

  18. Dynamic Clinical Measurements of Voluntary Vaginal Contractions and Autonomic Vaginal Reflexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, Paul M. A.; Spoelstra, Symen K.; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C. M.

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionThe vaginal canal is an active and responsive canal. It has pressure variations along its length and shows reflex activity. At present, the prevailing idea is that the vaginal canal does not have a sphincter mechanism. It is hypothesized that an active vaginal muscular mechanism exists

  19. More frequent vaginal orgasm is associated with experiencing greater excitement from deep vaginal stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Klapilova, Katerina; Krejčová, Lucie

    2013-07-01

    Research indicated that: (i) vaginal orgasm (induced by penile-vaginal intercourse [PVI] without concurrent clitoral masturbation) consistency (vaginal orgasm consistency [VOC]; percentage of PVI occasions resulting in vaginal orgasm) is associated with mental attention to vaginal sensations during PVI, preference for a longer penis, and indices of psychological and physiological functioning, and (ii) clitoral, distal vaginal, and deep vaginal/cervical stimulation project via different peripheral nerves to different brain regions. The aim of this study is to examine the association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from deep vaginal stimulation (compared with middle and shallow vaginal stimulation and clitoral stimulation), and (ii) whether vaginal stimulation was present during the woman's first masturbation. A sample of 75 Czech women (aged 18-36), provided details of recent VOC, site of genital stimulation during first masturbation, and their recent sexual arousability from the four genital sites. The association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from the four genital sites and (ii) involvement of vaginal stimulation in first-ever masturbation. VOC was associated with greater sexual arousability from deep vaginal stimulation but not with sexual arousability from other genital sites. VOC was also associated with women's first masturbation incorporating (or being exclusively) vaginal stimulation. The findings suggest (i) stimulating the vagina during early life masturbation might indicate individual readiness for developing greater vaginal responsiveness, leading to adult greater VOC, and (ii) current sensitivity of deep vaginal and cervical regions is associated with VOC, which might be due to some combination of different neurophysiological projections of the deep regions and their greater responsiveness to penile stimulation. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. AVALIAÇÃO E CLASSIFICAÇÃO DA ESTENOSE VAGINAL PÓS-BRAQUITERAPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Martins da Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Revisión narrativa que identificó en los métodos de producción científicos utilizados para la evaluación y clasificación de las estenosis vaginal en mujeres después de braquiterapia vaginal . La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo en julio de 2013 en las publicaciones de la SciELO, Medline y PubMed , sin límite de tiempo, y estudios citados dos revisiones científicas que abordan el tema investigado aquí. El protocolo de búsqueda incluyó la descripción del método para la evaluación y clasificación de la estenosis vaginal. Análisis comparativo de los resultados mostró que existen diferencias entre los métodos utilizados por diferentes investigadores. Teniendo en cuenta este resultado, este estudio propone constituyentes para hacer un instrumento de evaluación para ser utilizado por las enfermeras. La estandarización de la técnica le ayudará en la detección precoz de la estenosis vaginal y atención a la mujer después de la braquiterapia vaginal.

  1. Vaginitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vagina as a cream or gel. What is trichomoniasis? Trichomoniasis is a condition caused by the microscopic ... transmitted infections (STIs) . What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis? Signs of trichomoniasis may include a yellow-gray ...

  2. VULVO-VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS ASSOCIATED WITH ACITRETIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STURKENBOOM, MCJM; MIDDELBEEK, A; VANDENBERG, LTWD; VANDENBERG, PB; STRICKER, BHC; WESSELING, H

    The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis among the users of acitretin. The incidence rate ratio of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis was estimated in a cohort of acitretin users by using prescription sequence analysis. Study subjects were 196 women between 15 and 45 years

  3. Value of bacterial culture of vaginal swabs in diagnosis of vaginal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadić Dane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Vaginal and cervical swab culture is still very common procedure in our country’s everyday practice whereas simple and rapid diagnostic methods have been very rarely used. The aim of this study was to show that the employment of simple and rapid diagnostic tools [vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy (VFWMM, vaginal pH and potassium hydroxide (KOH test] offers better assessment of vaginal environment than standard microbiologic culture commonly used in Serbia. Methods. This prospective study included 505 asymptomatic pregnant women undergoing VFWMM, test with 10% KOH, determination of vaginal pH and standard culture of cervicovaginal swabs. Combining findings from the procedures was used to make diagnoses of bacterial vaginosis (BV and vaginitis. In addition, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN was determined in each sample and analyzed along with other findings. Infections with Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were confirmed or excluded by microscopic examination. Results. In 36 (6% patients cervicovaginal swab cultures retrieved several aerobes and facultative anaerobes, whereas in 52 (11% women Candida albicans was isolated. Based on VFWMM findings and clinical criteria 96 (19% women had BV, 19 (4% vaginitis, and 72 (14% candidiasis. Of 115 women with BV and vaginitis, pH 4.5 was found in 5, and of 390 with normal findings 83 (21% had vaginal pH 4.5. Elevated numbers of PMN were found in 154 (30% women - in 83 (54% of them VFWMM was normal. Specificity and sensitivity of KOH test and vaginal pH determination in defining pathological vaginal flora were 95% and 81%, and 79% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion. Cervicovaginal swab culture is expensive but almost non-informative test in clinical practice. The use of simpler and rapid methods as vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy, KOH test and vaginal pH offers better results in diagnosis, and probably in the treatment and prevention of sequels of vaginal

  4. Flujo vaginal. Etiología en una unidad intermedia de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Alzate

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available En una serie de 584 mujeres que consultaron por flujo vaginal a una Unidad Intermedia de Salud se halló que la entidad más frecuente era la vaginosis bacteriana (vaginitis inespecífica o por Gardnerella vaginalis con un 34,8% seguida por la candidiasis (9,4% y la tricomoniasis (43%; hubo también infecciones mixtas (7,2%; la candidiasis, la tricomoniasis y las infecciones mixtas, pero no la vaginosis bacteriana, fueron más frecuentes en mujeres embarazadas; se hace énfasis en la facilidad de diagnosticar vaginosis bacteriana en el laboratorio corriente con base en criterios de muy fácil determinación.

  5. Prolapso vaginal e uterino em ovelhas

    OpenAIRE

    Maíra Bianchi R. Alves; Benesi,Fernando J.; Lilian Gregory; Della Libera, Alice M.M.P.; Sucupira,Maria Cláudia A.; Fábio C. Pogliani; Viviani Gomes

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou realizar um estudo retrospectivo sobre os prolapsos vaginal e uterino em ovelhas atendidas no Serviço de Clínica de Bovinos e Pequenos Ruminantes (CBPR) da FMVZ/USP no período compreendido entre 2000 a 2010, no qual, foram atendidas 56 ovinos com problemas inerentes ao sistema reprodutivo, dessas, 25 apresentaram prolapso vaginal ou uterino (44,6%). O prolapso vaginal total foi o de maior frequência (72%). As ovelhas acometidas, em sua maioria, possuíam idade sup...

  6. Women's Intention to Prevent Vesico Vaginal Fistula Recurrence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study purpose was to determine the association between intention to prevent Vesico-Vaginal Fistula recurrence and knowledge of the risk factors of Vesico Vaginal Fistula recurrence, attitude towards Vesico Vaginal Fistula prevention and self esteem among women with Vesico-Vaginal Fistula in two repair ...

  7. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  8. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  9. Surgical removal of a large vaginal calculus formed after a tension-free vaginal tape procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberlicht, Ariel; Feiner, Benjamin; Haya, Nir; Auslender, Ron; Abramov, Yoram

    2016-11-01

    Vaginal calculus is a rare disorder which has been reported in association with urethral diverticulum, urogenital sinus anomaly, bladder exstrophy and the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure. We report a 42-year-old woman who presented with persistent, intractable urinary tract infection (UTI) following a TVT procedure. Cystoscopy demonstrated an eroded tape with the formation of a bladder calculus, and the patient underwent laser cystolithotripsy and cystoscopic resection of the tape. Following this procedure, her UTI completely resolved and she remained asymptomatic for several years. Seven years later she presented with a solid vaginal mass. Pelvic examination followed by transvaginal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large vaginal calculus located at the lower third of the anterior vaginal wall adjacent to the bladder neck. This video presents the transvaginal excision and removal of the vaginal calculus.

  10. Vaginal Calculus in a Woman With Mixed Urinary Incontinence and Vaginal Mesh Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, William D; Rabban, Joseph T; Korn, Abner P

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal calculi are extremely rare and are most commonly encountered in the setting of an urethrovaginal or vesicovaginal fistula. We present a case of a 72-year-old woman with mixed urinary incontinence and vaginal mesh exposure incidentally found to have a large vaginal calculus. We removed the calculus surgically and analyzed the components. Results demonstrated the presence of ammonium-magnesium phosphate hexahydrate and carbonate apatite.

  11. Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among pregnant women with abnormal vaginal discharge in Maiduguri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, S M; Bukar, M; Mohammed, Y; Mohammed, B; Yahaya, M; Audu, B M; Ibrahim, H M; Ibrahim, H A

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidiasis. To determine the prevalence and clinical features associated with abnormal vaginal discharge and C. albicans infection in pregnant women. High vaginal swab samples and data on epidemiological characteristics were collected from 400 pregnant women with complaints of abnormal vaginal discharge at booking clinic of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. The data was analysed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge in pregnancy was 31.5%. The frequency of abnormal vaginal discharge was 183 (45.8%) among those aged 20-24 years, 291 (72.8%) in multipara, 223 (55.8%) in those with Primary education and 293 (73.2%) in unemployed. Vulval pruritus 300 (75.0%) was significantly related to abnormal vaginal discharge (P vaginal discharge in pregnancy was high in this study and C. albicans was the commonest cause. It is recommended that a pregnant woman complaining of abnormal vaginal discharge be assessed and Laboratory diagnosis done in order to give appropriate treatment.

  12. Relationship among vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of female pelvic floor muscles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Vanessa S; Hirakawa, Humberto S; Oliveira, Ana B; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    .... PFM function was assessed based on digital palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic activity, bilateral diameter of the bulbocavernosus muscles and the amount of bladder neck movement...

  13. Do vaginal lactobacilli prevent preterm labour?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % before 34 weeks (obstetric database - Tygerberg Hospital). Therefore, it is not surprising that preterm labour is the main cause of perinatal mortality.1According to recent information, infection and particularly vaginal bacteriosis play a major ...

  14. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Has a Weapon. What Should I Do? School Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System ... the vagina, and helping to prevent and fight infections. Although it's normal for the color, texture, and amount of vaginal fluids to vary ...

  15. VBAC (Vaginal Birth After C-Section)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 19, 2015. Lang CT, et al. Uterine dehiscence and rupture after ... Health Letter PRC-20395237 Patient Care & Health Information Tests & Procedures Vaginal birth after C-section (VBAC) Request ...

  16. ureteric perforation following laparoscopic assisted vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-03

    Mar 3, 2011 ... SUMMARY. Ureteric injury is one of the most common complications of hysterectomy, both in open ... the laparoscopic hysterectomy (abdominal or vaginal approaches) is ... primary end to end anastomosis due big gap, the.

  17. Vaginal itching and discharge - adult and adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other symptoms ( atrophic vaginitis ). Forgotten tampon or foreign body, which may cause a foul odor. Chemicals found in detergents, fabric softeners, feminine sprays, ointments, creams, douches, and contraceptive foams or jellies or creams, ...

  18. Microbes on the Human Vaginal Epithelium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard W. Hyman; Marilyn Fukushima; Lisa Diamond; Jochen Kumm; Linda C. Giudice; Ronald W. Davis

    2005-01-01

    Using solely a gene-based procedure, PCR amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene coupled with very deep sequencing of the amplified products, the microbes on 20 human vaginal epithelia of healthy...

  19. Twin vaginal delivery: innovate or abdicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Sarah Rae; Taouk, Laura; Schulkin, Jay; Robinson, Julian N

    2017-05-01

    Neonatal safety data along with national guidelines have prompted renewed interest in vaginal delivery of twins, particularly in the case of the noncephalic second twin. Yet, the rising rate of twin cesarean deliveries, coupled with the national decline in operative obstetrics, raises concerns about the availability of providers who are skilled in twin vaginal birth. Providers are key stakeholders for increasing rates of twin vaginal delivery. We surveyed a group of practicing obstetricians to explore potential barriers to the vaginal birth of twins with a focus on delivery of the noncephalic second twin. Among 107 responding providers, only 57% would deliver a noncephalic second twin by breech extraction. Providers who preferred breech extraction had a higher rate of maternal-fetal medicine subspecialty training (26.2% vs 4.3%; P30 sets of twins annually (57.4% vs 34.8%; P=.02). Most providers (54.2%) were familiar with the findings from the recent randomized trial that demonstrated the safety of twin vaginal birth. However, knowledge of the trial was not associated statistically with a preference for breech extraction (62.3% vs 43.5%; P=.05). Providers who preferred breech extraction were more likely to agree with recent society guidelines that encourage the vaginal birth of twins (86.9% vs 63.0%; Pinnovation. Without novel provider-focused strategies, we may relinquish passively the requisite skills for not only our patients but also for future generations of obstetricians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Frequency of epidural analgesia for vaginal delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, M; Nikolov, A

    2011-01-01

    To establish the frequency of epidural analgesia for vaginal delivery. The research includes 51 632 deliveries for 16 years period. Total frequency of vaginal delivery with EA, compared to total number of vaginal deliveries for period is 11.77%. The frequency shows tendency to slowly increase in the beginning of the period, probably because of getting experienced among some of the obstetricians, after then frequency stay relatively constant. Except care of somatic health of mother and foetus, modern obstetrics requires to ensure maximum comfort of parturient, to satisfy requirements of modern women for "painless" delivery and leave a positive memory of birth. That is why more frequently use of EA for vaginal delivery is necessary. EA is an approved method for anesthetizing vaginal delivery. It is established slowly increasing frequency of EA for anesthetizing vaginal delivery. The frequency of EA in University hospital "Maichin dom" is relatively low in comparison with mentioned in literature values, which raises the question of finding ways to further promote and increase the application of EA.

  1. Vaginal fold histology reduces the variability introduced by vaginal exfoliative cytology in the classification of mouse estrous cycle stages

    OpenAIRE

    Arnon, Gal; Po-Ching, Lin; Anne M, Barger; Amy L, MacNeill; CheMyong, Ko

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal exfoliative cytology is commonly used in biomedical and toxicological research to classify the stages of the rodent estrous cycle. However, mouse vaginal exfoliative cytology is commonly used as a stand-alone tool and has not been evaluated in reference to vaginal histology and serum sex hormone levels. In this study, the direct and Giemsa-stained methods of vaginal exfoliative cytology were compared in reference to vaginal fold histology and serum sex hormone levels. Both methods pre...

  2. Sepsis neonatal por Estreptococos Pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Rodríguez-Herrera; Cinthya Ramírez-Navarro

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, recién nacido a término adecuado para la edad gestacional, quien nace por parto vaginal, con el antecedente de fiebre en la madre durante el periodo de postparto inmediato. Los padres consultan a los 2 días de vida pues le notan dificultad respiratoria, hipoactividad y rechazo a la leche materna. El paciente se interna y se aborda como una sepsis. Durante su estancia en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Niños asocia fallo respir...

  3. Vaginal orgasm is associated with vaginal (not clitoral) sex education, focusing mental attention on vaginal sensations, intercourse duration, and a preference for a longer penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2010-08-01

    Evidence was recently provided for vaginal orgasm, orgasm triggered purely by penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), being associated with better psychological functioning. Common sex education and sexual medicine approaches might undermine vaginal orgasm benefits. To examine the extent to which women's vaginal orgasm consistency is associated with (i) being told in childhood or adolescence that the vagina was the important zone for inducing female orgasm; (ii) how well they focus mentally on vaginal sensations during PVI; (iii) greater PVI duration; and (iv) preference for above-average penis length.   In a representative sample of the Czech population, 1,000 women reported their vaginal orgasm consistency (from never to almost every time; only 21.9% never had a vaginal orgasm), estimates of their typical foreplay and PVI durations, what they were told in childhood and adolescence was the important zone for inducing female orgasm, their degree of focus on vaginal sensations during PVI, and whether they were more likely to orgasm with a longer than average penis. The association of vaginal orgasm consistency with the predictors noted above. Vaginal orgasm consistency was associated with all hypothesized correlates. Multivariate analysis indicated the most important predictors were being educated that the vagina is important for female orgasm, being mentally focused on vaginal sensations during PVI, and in some analyses duration of PVI (but not foreplay) and preferring a longer than average penis. Focusing attention on penile-vaginal sensation supports vaginal orgasm and the myriad benefits thereof. Brody S, and Weiss P. Vaginal orgasm is associated with vaginal (not clitoral) sex education, focusing mental attention on vaginal sensations, intercourse duration, and a preference for a longer penis. © 2009 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Unexpected premalignant gynecological lesions in women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy for utero-vaginal prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem A.M. Elbiaa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of unexpected premalignant gynecological lesions in women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy for utero-vaginal prolapse. Material and methods : Eighty women with asymptomatic utero-vaginal prolapse were included in this prospective study for vaginal hysterectomy after preoperative preparation and after written informed consent. Women included in this study were screened preoperatively by high vaginal swab, Pap smear, endometrial biopsy and trans-vaginal ultrasound. Surgically removed uteri and ovaries were sent for histopathological examination. Results of histopathological examination as gold standard were compared with conventional gynecological screening methods. Results : Histopathological examination of surgically removed uteri and ovaries after vaginal hysterectomy for uterovaginal prolapse showed abnormal findings in 61.25% (49/80 of studied cases (10 chronic cervicitis; 20 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia-1 [CIN-1]; 5 CIN-2; 2 CIN-3; 10 simple endometrial hyperplasia without atypia and 2 simple serous ovarian cyst. Also, histopathological examination showed premalignant changes in 33.75% (27/80 of studied cases (20 CIN-1; 5 CIN-2 and 2 CIN-3, which mean 50% sensitivity of pre-operative Pap smear to detect premalignant cervical changes. Conclusions : Asymptomatic women with utero-vaginal prolapse may have associated premalignant lesions which may not be detected by conventional screening methods, and this should be explained preoperatively for women undergoing surgery, especially if conservative management was considered.

  5. Semaphorin 4D induces vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis to control mouse postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takuji; Bai, Tao; Tanaka, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Kenji; Ueyama, Takashi; Miyajima, Masayasu; Negishi, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Takamatsu, Hyota; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Yukawa, Kazunori

    2015-02-01

    The opening of the mouse vaginal cavity to the skin is a postnatal tissue remodeling process that occurs at approximately five weeks of age for the completion of female genital tract maturation at puberty. The tissue remodeling process is primarily composed of a hormonally triggered apoptotic process predominantly occurring in the epithelium of the distal section of the vaginal cavity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the apoptotic induction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was observed that the majority of BALB/c mice lacking the class 4 semaphorin, semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), developed imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos resulting in a perpetually unopened vaginal cavity regardless of a normal estrogen level comparable with that in wild‑type (WT) mice. Administration of β‑estradiol to infant Sema4D‑deficient (Sema4D‑/‑) mice did not induce precocious vaginal opening, which was observed in WT mice subjected to the same β‑estradiol administration, excluding the possibility that the closed vaginal phenotype was due to insufficient estrogen secretion at the time of vaginal opening. In order to assess the role of Sema4D in the postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling process, the expression of Sema4D and its receptor, plexin‑B1, was examined as well as the level of apoptosis in the vaginal epithelia of five‑week‑old WT and Sema4D‑/‑ mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the localization of Sema4D and plexin‑B1 in the mouse vaginal epithelia. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry detecting activated caspase‑3 revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in situ in the vaginal mucosa of five‑week‑old Sema4D‑/‑ mice compared with WT mice. The addition of recombinant Sema4D to Sema4D‑/‑ vaginal epithelial cells in culture significantly enhanced apoptosis of the vaginal epithelial cells, demonstrating the apoptosis‑inducing activity of Sema4D. The

  6. Does vaginal estrogen treatment with support pessaries in vaginal prolapse reduce complications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulchandani, Supriya; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Verghese, Tina; Latthe, Pallavi

    2015-12-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is often co-existant with atrophy of the genital tract in older women who tend to prefer vaginal pessaries for prolapse. Vaginal estrogen therapy is used by some along with a support pessary for prolapse with no robust evidence to back this practice. We aimed to evaluate differences in complications of support pessaries for vaginal prolapse in postmenopausal women, with and without vaginal estrogen use. We prospectively assessed postmenopausal women attending the urogynaecology clinic for a pessary change. We asked them about the level of discomfort during pessary change (visual analogue scale for pain), discharge, bleeding and infection. Ethics approval was not required as this was a service evaluation project. Statistical analysis for relative risk was performed, including sub-group analysis for 'ring pessary' and 'non-ring group' (Shelf, Gellhorn, Shaatz). Between July 2013 and December 2014, we assessed 120 postmenopausal women using support pessaries for prolapse. The mean age was 70 years; 45% of the patients used vaginal estrogen. There were no statistically significant differences in complications with or without vaginal estrogen use, although the trend was higher amongst non-users. The 'non-ring' sub-group not using vaginal estrogen had a higher risk of vaginal ulceration, bleeding and discharge. Postmenopausal women may have lesser complications when using vaginal estrogen with a support pessary for prolapse, particularly with pessaries other than the ring. An adequately powered randomised controlled trial is needed to assess conclusively whether vaginal estrogen enhances comfort and reduces complications of support pessaries for prolapse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Aerobic vaginal pathogens and their sensitivity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Shamim; Ahmad, Mumtaz; Aftab, Irum; Akhtar, Naeem; ul Hassan, Masood; Hamid, Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The vaginal flora is a complicated environment, containing dozens of microbiological species in variable quantities and relative proportions. The frequent cause of vaginal discharge is an infection or colonization with different microorganisms. Some pathologic conditions causing vaginitis are well defined yet, 7-72% of women with vaginitis may remain undiagnosed and such forms of abnormal vaginal flora neither considered as normal, nor can be called bacterial vaginosis have been termed as 'intermediate flora' and its management probably differ from that of bacterial vaginosis. It is of crucial importance in pregnant females at risk of preterm delivery. The present study has been conducted especially to elucidate this type of aerobic vaginal isolates and their culture and sensitivity towards currently used antibiotics. This study was conducted at the Microbiology Department of Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi over a period of two years (April 2004-March 2006). One thousand, nine hundred and twenty three high vaginal swabs, both from indoor and outdoor patients were collected, cultured and their susceptibility to various antibiotics was determined. Significant growth was obtained in 731 samples. The highest frequency of infection (39.5%) was observed at 31-40 years followed by 41-50 years (35.8%). About 76% were from outdoor and 24% were from indoor patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent vaginal pathogen at 11-60 yrs & with highest prevalence at 31-40 years followed by 41-50 years. It was a predominant pathogen in both indoor (35%) as well as outdoor (41.6%) patients, followed by enteric gram-negative bacilli and other gram-positive cocci. There were very few antibiotics among the conventionally available aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, penicillin, quinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines possessing good sensitivity (> 80%) against any one the common aerobic vaginal pathogens. The effective chemotherapeutics agents belong to

  8. Carga viral vaginal de HIV em mulheres brasileiras infectadas pelo HIV HIV vaginal viral load in Brazilian HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Campos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores associados à presença de RNA-HIV na vagina. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, em mulheres infectadas por HIV, excluindo-se aquelas com antecedente de histerectomia, as em uso de medicações vaginais nas últimas 48 horas, as que se referiram à relação sexual desprotegida há menos de 72 horas, as gestantes e aquelas com sangramento genital. Após consentimento, coletou-se amostra sanguínea para contagem de linfócitos T CD4 e carga viral plasmática de HIV, além de lavado vaginal com 10mL de solução salina, que foi centrifugado, aliquotado e armazenado em freezer -70°C para posterior quantificação de RNA-HIV livre. A mensuração de carga viral de RNA-HIV livre plasmática e vaginal foi realizada utilizando-se o kit HIV Monitor v1.5 Cobas Amplicor®, Roche. Pesquisou-se a presença de HPV de alto e baixo risco, clamídia e gonococo por Captura Híbrida II®, Digene, em amostra endocervical. Colheu-se amostra vaginal para bacterioscopia com coloração de Gram, utilizando-se os critérios de Nugent. RESULTADOS: Entre as 200 mulheres estudadas, 73,5% usavam terapia anti-retroviral (TARV com drogas múltiplas. O RNA-HIV foi detectável no lavado vaginal de 18 delas (9%, mas em apenas uma daquelas que tinham carga viral plasmática indetectável (0,5%. A prevalência de HIV vaginal foi 24 vezes maior naquelas em que HIV plasmático era detectável. Carga viral plasmática de HIV, não usar TARV, CD4 reduzido e vaginose bacteriana aumentaram a prevalência de RNA-HIV vaginal, mas apenas a carga viral plasmática se manteve significativa na análise ajustada. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de RNA-HIV vaginal foi baixa (9%. A carga viral acima de 1.500 cópias/mL foi a única variável que permaneceu como fator de risco para RNA-HIV vaginal livre.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors associated to presence of free RNA-HIV in the vagina. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with HIV-infected women, excluding those who had

  9. Screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gel formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ochoa Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of vaginal drug delivery formulations requires special attention to vehicle properties that optimize vaginal coating and retention. The aim of the present work was to perform a screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gels formulated with carbomer or carrageenan in binary combination with a second polymer (carbomer, guar or xanthan gum. The gels were characterised using in vitroadhesion, spreadability and leakage potential studies, as well as rheological measurements (stress and frequency sweep tests and the effect of dilution with simulated vaginal fluid (SVF on spreadability. Results were analysed using analysis of variance and multiple factor analysis. The combination of polymers enhanced adhesion of both primary gelling agents, carbomer and carrageenan. From the rheological point of view all formulations presented a similar behaviour, prevalently elastic and characterised by loss tangent values well below 1. No correlation between rheological and adhesion behaviour was found. Carbomer and carrageenan gels containing the highest percentage of xanthan gum displayed good in vitro mucoadhesion and spreadability, minimal leakage potential and high resistance to dilution. The positive results obtained with carrageenan-xanthan gum-based gels can encourage the use of natural biocompatible adjuvants in the composition of vaginal products, a formulation field that is currently under the synthetic domain.

  10. Vaginal leiomyosarcoma in a cow from Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil Leiomiossarcoma Vaginal em uma vaca de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Elsen Saut

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings associated with a vaginal leiomyosarcoma in a 12-year-old, Senepol breed of cow from Uberlândia, Minas Gerais are described. The animal had a large ulcerative neoplastic growth that originated between the base and the left-lateral vaginal wall. Histopathology revealed a tumor formed by muscle-like cells that demonstrated cellular pleomorphism, anisokaryosis, prominent and multiple nucleoli, with rare tumor giant cells. The neoplastic growth invaded adjacent adipose tissue, and contained areas of hemorrhage with discrete accumulations of inflammatory cells. By immunohistochemistry, most neoplastic cells expressed actin, while immunoreactivity to desmin was weakly expressed. These findings support a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma, and represent the first description of a bovine vaginal leiomyosarcoma from Brazil.No presente trabalho, foram descritos os achados clínicos, patológicos e imunohistoquímicos de uma vaca da raça Senepol, 12 anos, com leiomiossarcoma vaginal, de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. O animal apresentou massa ulcerada localizada entre a base e parede lateral-esquerda da vagina. A histopatologia revelou uma neoplasia formada por células fusiformes a arredondadas que demonstraram pleomorfismo celular, anisocariose, nucléolos proeminentes e múltiplos, com raras células gigantes tumorais. O crescimento neoplásico invadiu o tecido adiposo adjacente e continha áreas de hemorragia com discreto acúmulo de células inflamatórias. A maioria das células neoplásicas expressou actina na avaliação imunohistoquímica, enquanto a imunoreatividade para desmina foi fracamente expressa. Os achados suportam o diagnóstico de leiomiossarcoma e representa a primeira descrição de leiomiossarcoma vaginal em bovinos no Brasil.

  11. Fasciocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.N.; Whetzel, T.; Mathes, S.J.; Vasconez, L.O.

    1987-07-01

    A skin and fascia flap from the medial thigh is proposed for vaginal and perineal reconstruction. Dissection, vascular injection, and radiographs of 20 fresh cadaver limbs uniformly demonstrated the presence of a communicating suprafascial vascular plexus in the medial thigh. Three to four nonaxial vessels were consistently found to enter the proximal plexus from within 5 cm of the perineum. Preservation of these vessels permitted reliable elevation of a 9 X 20 cm fasciocutaneous flap without using the gracilis muscle as a vascular carrier. Fifteen flaps in 13 patients were used for vaginal replacement and coverage of vulvectomy, groin, and ischial defects. Depending on the magnitude of the defect, simultaneous and independent elevation of the gracilis muscle provided additional vascularized coverage as needed. Our experience indicates that the medial thigh fasciocutaneous flap is a durable, less bulky, and potentially sensate alternative to the gracilis musculocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction.

  12. Vaginal Biogenic Amines: Biomarkers of Bacterial Vaginosis or Precursors to Vaginal Dysbiosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffanie Maree Nelson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common vaginal disorder among reproductive age women. One clinical indicator of BV is a ‘fishy’ odor. This odor has been associated with increases in several biogenic amines (BAs that may serve as important biomarkers. Within the vagina, BA production has been linked to various vaginal taxa, yet their genetic capability to synthesize BAs is unknown. Using a bioinformatics approach, we show that relatively few vaginal taxa are predicted to be capable of producing BAs. Many of these taxa (Dialister, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Megasphaera, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella spp. are more abundant in the vaginal microbial community state type (CST IV, which is depleted in lactobacilli. Several of the major Lactobacillus species (L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were identified as possessing gene sequences for proteins predicted to be capable of putrescine production. Finally, we show in a small cross sectional study of 37 women that the BAs putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine are significantly higher in CST IV over CSTs I and III. These data support the hypothesis that BA production is conducted by few vaginal taxa and may be important to the outgrowth of BV-associated (vaginal dysbiosis vaginal bacteria.

  13. A Novel Technique for Anterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse Repair: Anterior Vaginal Wall Darn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Köse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study is to introduce a new technique, anterior vaginal wall darn (AVWD, which has not been used before to repair the anterior vaginal wall prolapse, a common problem among women. Materials and Methods. Forty-five women suffering from anterior vaginal wall prolapse were operated on with a new technique. The anterior vaginal wall was detached by sharp and blunt dissection via an incision beginning from the 1 cm proximal aspect of the external meatus extending to the vaginal apex, and the space between the tissues that attach the lateral walls of the vagina to the arcus tendineus fascia pelvis (ATFP was then darned. Preoperation and early postoperation evaluations of the patients were conducted and summarized. Results. Data were collected six months after operation. Cough stress test (CST, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q evaluation, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7, and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6 scores indicated recovery. According to the early postoperation results, all patients were satisfied with the operation. No vaginal mucosal erosion or any other complications were detected. Conclusion. In this initial series, our short-term results suggested that patients with grade II-III anterior vaginal wall prolapsus might be treated successfully with the AVWD method.

  14. Pregnancy's stronghold on the vaginal microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R S Walther-António

    Full Text Available To assess the vaginal microbiome throughout full-term uncomplicated pregnancy.Vaginal swabs were obtained from twelve pregnant women at 8-week intervals throughout their uncomplicated pregnancies. Patients with symptoms of vaginal infection or with recent antibiotic use were excluded. Swabs were obtained from the posterior fornix and cervix at 8-12, 17-21, 27-31, and 36-38 weeks of gestation. The microbial community was profiled using hypervariable tag sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene, producing approximately 8 million reads on the Illumina MiSeq.Samples were dominated by a single genus, Lactobacillus, and exhibited low species diversity. For a majority of the patients (n = 8, the vaginal microbiome was dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus throughout pregnancy. Two patients showed Lactobacillus iners dominance during the course of pregnancy, and two showed a shift between the first and second trimester from L. crispatus to L. iners dominance. In all of the samples only these two species were identified, and were found at an abundance of higher than 1% in this study. Comparative analyses also showed that the vaginal microbiome during pregnancy is characterized by a marked dominance of Lactobacillus species in both Caucasian and African-American subjects. In addition, our Caucasian subject population clustered by trimester and progressed towards a common attractor while African-American women clustered by subject instead and did not progress towards a common attractor.Our analyses indicate normal pregnancy is characterized by a microbiome that has low diversity and high stability. While Lactobacillus species strongly dominate the vaginal environment during pregnancy across the two studied ethnicities, observed differences between the longitudinal dynamics of the analyzed populations may contribute to divergent risk for pregnancy complications. This helps establish a baseline for investigating the role of the microbiome in

  15. Fanconi anemia and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Paula Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi Anemia (FA is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by chromosome instability, cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, and increased predisposition to malignancies. We describe here a 28 year-old female with FA and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma treated by radiation therapy alone. The patient developed arm phlebitis, pulmonary fungal infection, and severe rectal bleeding, followed by hypocalcaemia, hypokalemia, vaginal bacterial and fungal infection, with subsequent leg and arm phlebitis, perineal abscess, and sepsis. The patient died 12 weeks later.

  16. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-tao; Zheng, Jin-xin; Yu, Zhi-jian; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Pan, Wei-guang; Yang, Wei-zhi; Wang, Hong-yan; Deng, Qi-wen; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2015-04-01

    Sucrose gel was used to treat bacterial vaginosis in a phase III clinical trial. However, the changes of vaginal flora after treatment were only examined by Nugent score in that clinical trial, While the vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques is characterized by anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, few lactobacilli, and pH levels above 4.6, similar to the microbiota of patients with bacterial vaginosis. This study is aimed to investigate the change of the vaginal microbiota of rehsus macaques after topical use of sucrose gel to reveal more precisely the bacterial population shift after the topical application of sucrose gel. Sixteen rhesus macaques were treated with 0.5 g sucrose gel vaginally and three with 0.5 g of placebo gel. Vaginal swabs were collected daily following treatment. Vaginal pH levels and Nugent scores were recorded. The composition of the vaginal micotbiota was tested by V3∼V4 16S rDNA metagenomic sequencing. Dynamic changes in the Lactobacillus genus were analyzed by qPCR. The vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques are dominated by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, with few lactobacilli and high pH levels above 4.6. After five days' treatment with topical sucrose gel, the component percentage of Lactobacillus in vaginal microbiota increased from 1.31% to 81.59%, while the component percentage of Porphyromonas decreased from 18.60% to 0.43%, Sneathia decreased from 15.09% to 0.89%, Mobiluncus decreased from 8.23% to 0.12%, etc.. The average vaginal pH values of 16 rhesus macaques of the sucrose gel group decreased from 5.4 to 3.89. There were no significant changes in microbiota and vaginal pH observed in the placebo group. Rhesus macaques can be used as animal models of bacterial vaginosis to develop drugs and test treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the topical application of sucrose gel induced the shifting of vaginal flora of rhesus macaques from a BV kind of flora to a lactobacilli-dominating flora. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  17. Prolapso vaginal e uterino em ovelhas Uterine and vaginal prolapse in ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Maíra Bianchi R. Alves; Benesi,Fernando J.; Lilian Gregory; Della Libera, Alice M.M.P.; Sucupira,Maria Cláudia A.; Fábio C. Pogliani; Viviani Gomes

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou realizar um estudo retrospectivo sobre os prolapsos vaginal e uterino em ovelhas atendidas no Serviço de Clínica de Bovinos e Pequenos Ruminantes (CBPR) da FMVZ/USP no período compreendido entre 2000 a 2010, no qual, foram atendidas 56 ovinos com problemas inerentes ao sistema reprodutivo, dessas, 25 apresentaram prolapso vaginal ou uterino (44,6%). O prolapso vaginal total foi o de maior frequência (72%). As ovelhas acometidas, em sua maioria, possuíam idade sup...

  18. Preliminary findings on vaginal epithelial cells and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sahelian zone of Cameroon, in order to assess vaginal cytology and body temperature variations during oestrous cycle. Swabbing was done daily in the vagina, and vaginal smears were stained according to Romanowski method.

  19. Vaginitis: How Many Women Are Affected/at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About 3% of women of childbearing age have trichomoniasis. 4 Many women with vaginal infections have no ... a yeast infection. 15 to 20 women have trichomoniasis. Who gets vaginitis and who is at risk? ...

  20. Characterisation of probiotic properties in human vaginal lactobacilli strains

    OpenAIRE

    Hütt, Pirje; Lapp, Eleri; Štšepetova, Jelena; Smidt, Imbi; Taelma, Heleri; Borovkova, Natalja; Oopkaup, Helen; Ahelik, Ave; Rööp, Tiiu; Hoidmets, Dagmar; Samuel, Külli; Salumets, Andreas; Mändar, Reet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vaginal lactobacilli offer protection against recurrent urinary infections, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal candidiasis.Objective: To characterise the isolated vaginal lactobacilli strains for their probiotic properties and to compare their probiotic potential.Methods: The Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal samples by conventional culturing and identified by sequencing of the 16S rDNA fragment. Several functional properties were detected (production of hydrogen pero...

  1. OUTCOME OF INSTRUMENTAL VAGINAL DELIVERIES IN REFERRED CASES

    OpenAIRE

    Prameela; Asha; Prajwal

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Instrumental vaginal deliveries are important procedures. Performed in indicated cases and attending to the well laid criterias will reduce the fetal and maternal morbidity. These assisted instrumental vaginal deliveries help in reducing the caesarean sec tion rate. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and indications of instrumental vaginal deliveries. To know the maternal and fetal outcome in ventouse (vaccum assisted vaginal delivery) and...

  2. Variety of Candida in Women with Abnormal Vaginal Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Duncan, José; Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel A. Carrión" Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Béjar, Vilma; Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel A. Carrión" Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Cáceres, Alfredo; Hospital Arzobispo Loayza Lima, Perú; Valencia, Esther; Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel A. Carrión" Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Vaginal discharge and related aymptoms are frequent complaints among young women. The aim of this study was to describe Candida species isolated from vaginal discharge samples, as well as the relationship between Candida species and some of these symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A survey of consecutive patients presenting with vaginal discharge in the course of normal consultations was conducted at the Hospital Loayza. One hundred women with vaginal discharge were surveyed, with ma...

  3. Clinical predictors and risk factors for vaginal mesh extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrucharoen, Usah; Ramart, Patkawat; Choi, Judy; Kang, Diana; Kim, Ja-Hong; Raz, Shlomo

    2017-11-24

    Our study aims to enhance the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis in patients with vaginal mesh extrusion following transvaginal mesh placement for pelvic organ prolapse using significant clinical parameters and risk factors. All patients who underwent vaginal mesh removal were retrospectively reviewed from January 2000 to May 2014. Eligible patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of vaginal mesh extrusion. A total of 862 patients, 798 were included. 357 (44.7%) had evidence of vaginal mesh extrusion, and 441 (55.3%) had no evidence of vaginal mesh extrusion. The mean age of the vaginal mesh extrusion group was slightly higher than in the group without vaginal mesh extrusion (58.7 ± 11.2 vs. 56.4 ± 11.5, respectively; p = 0.002). From multivariate analysis, the significant clinical correlations for vaginal mesh extrusion were vaginal bleeding [60 (16.9) vs. 14 (3.2%), p vaginal discharge [45 (12.6) vs. 18 (4.1%), p = 0.001]. The risk factors were multiple mesh implantations [218 (67.06) vs. 175 (39.68%), p vaginal atrophy, both local and systemic hormonal use, smoking status, and hysterectomy status, were not significantly different, as well as the clinical symptoms including dyspareunia, vaginal infection, and symptomatic vaginal bulge. Vaginal bleeding, hispareunia, and vaginal discharge were the most significant clinical predictors for raising suspicion of vaginal mesh extrusion. Multiple mesh implantations were a significant risk factor for extrusion.

  4. An audit of instrumental vaginal delivery in Aminu Kano Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Operative vaginal delivery is used to shorten the second stage of labour. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of instrumental vaginal deliveries in a large teaching hospital. Study design and setting: Descriptive study involving 354 women, who either had forceps or vacuum operative vaginal ...

  5. Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidiasis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and clinical features associated with abnormal vaginal discharge and C. albicans infection in pregnant women. METHODS: High vaginal swab samples and data on epidemiological ...

  6. Complete utero vaginal prolapse in a woman with prolapsed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case: A case of irreducible complete utero-vaginal and infected sub-mucous fibroid prolapse, in a 45-year-old grandmultiparous woman, is reported. Bed rest and antibiotics failed to relief edema and infection of the vault. Vaginal myomectomy, followed by interval vaginal hysterectomy, and pelvic floor repair a week later ...

  7. Relationship among vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of female pelvic floor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa S; Hirakawa, Humberto S; Oliveira, Ana B; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The proper evaluation of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) is essential for choosing the correct treatment. Currently, there is no gold standard for the assessment of female PFM function. To determine the correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the female PFM. This cross-sectional study evaluated 80 women between 18 and 35 years of age who were nulliparous and had no pelvic floor dysfunction. PFM function was assessed based on digital palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic activity, bilateral diameter of the bulbocavernosus muscles and the amount of bladder neck movement during voluntary PFM contraction using transperineal bi-dimensional ultrasound. The Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis (ppalpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the PFM in nulliparous women. The strong correlation between digital palpation and PFM contraction pressure indicated that perineometry could easily be replaced by PFM digital palpation in the absence of equipment.

  8. [Prolapse surgery. With abdominal or vaginal meshes?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertzer, H; Schneider, P; Thelen, P; Ringert, R H; Strauß, A

    2012-09-01

    In prolapse surgery several surgical techniques are available. The different open, laparoscopic and vaginal approaches are distinguished by distinct success and relapse rates and operation-specific complications. A safe and optimal therapeutic pelvic floor surgery should be based on the three support levels according to DeLancy and be individually adjusted for every patient. The vaginal approach may be used for all kinds of female genital prolapse and is a comparatively less invasive technique with a short time of convalescence. Apart from stress incontinence there is no need for synthetic meshes in primary approaches and excellent results with low complication and relapse rates can be achieved. An uncritical application of synthetic material is to be avoided in vaginal repair at all times. Abdominal surgical techniques, both open and laparoscopic, present their strengths in the therapeutic approach to level 1 defects or stress incontinence. They provide excellent functional and anatomical corrections and low relapse rates. Abdominally inserted meshes have lower complication rates than vaginal ones.

  9. Predictors of vaginal delivery in nulliparous mothers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nulliparity is an obstetric high-risk group whose labor, compared with multiparae, are more likely to develop labor abnormalities that requires intervention. The aim of this report is todetermine factors that influence vaginal delivery in nulliparae. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was ...

  10. Vaginal plethysmography in women with dyspareunia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouda, JC; Hartman, Petra M; Bakker, Riksta M; Bakker, JO; van de Wiel, HBM; Schultz, WCMW

    We investigated by means of vaginal plethysmography the extent to which the genital reactions of women with dyspareunia (N = 18) differed from those of women without dyspareunia (N = 16) during sexual arousal. In addition, we used questionnaires to investigate whether the genital reaction was

  11. Vaginal Lacerations from Consensual Intercourse in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frioux, Sarah M.; Blinman, Thane; Christian, Cindy W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: (1) To describe lacerations of the vaginal fornices, an injury known to be associated with consensual sexual intercourse, including known complications and treatment course, (2) to contrast these injuries with injuries sustained during sexual assault, and (3) to discuss the assessment of adolescent patients for sexual injuries. Methods:…

  12. assisted vaginal hysterectomy versus abdominal hysterectomy on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J Gynecol Surg 1989;. 5: 213-216. 2. Garry R. Various approaches to laparoscopic hysterectomies. Curr Opin Obstet. Gynecol 1994; 6: 215-222. 3. Dickec RC, Greenspan J. Strauss LT, et al. Complications of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy among women of reproductive age in the United States. Am J Obstet. Gynecol ...

  13. VAGINAL HYSTERECTOMY - CEFUROXIME, METRONIDAZOLE OR BOTH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAUER, FM; WIJMA, J; MANSON, WL

    1990-01-01

    A randomized double-blind prospective study on the efficacy of single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis compared cefuroxime versus metronidazole versus the combination of both agents in vaginal hysterectomy. Overall antibiotic prophylaxis was effective in abscess prevention (one abscess in 68 patients).

  14. [Significance of laparoscopic assistance in vaginal hysterectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Andrzej; Bobin, Leszek; Maciołek-Blewniewska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this publication was the analysis of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomies (LAVH) performed in Department of Surgical and Endoscopic Gynecology of Polish Mother Health Centre Research Institute. There was the analysis of 57 LAVHs performed from June 2002 to December 2003. Following parameters were evaluated: indications to LAVH, operating time, weight of the removed uterus, complications, blood loss, duration of postoperative hospitalisation, the day of introducing general diet, anesthetic and antibiotic demand in postoperative period. There were indications to LAVH: fibroid uterus, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer, adnexal mass, cervix dysplasia. Previous laparotomy and caesarean section, endometriosis, narrow vagina of non-parous women were additional indications to use of laparoscopy during the operation. Complications were found in two (3,5%) cases: bleeding to abdominal cavity from infundibulo-pelvic ligament demanding reoperation and superficial epigastric artery injury no demanding reoperation. There were no infection, conversion to laparotomy, abdominal cavity organs injury and other complications. It was observed short time of introducing general diet, low anesthetic consumption and short post-operation stay in hospital (mean 3,6 days). Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy is an operation with a small risk of intra- and postoperative complications, quick return to general diet and full life activity, short post-operation stay in hospital, low anesthetic consumption and good cosmetic effect. Use of laparoscopic stage in vaginal hysterectomy make possible evasion of laparotomy in the situation of impossible performance of ordinary vaginal hysterectomy.

  15. Vaginal yeast infections in diabetic women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall vaginal prevalence of C. albicans was 12,8% (26/203 patients). This yeast was associated with genital symp- toms in 84,6% (22/26) ofthe patients from whom it was isolated. Only 4 patients without symptoms yielded C. albicans. One of these had classic candidiasis on clinical grounds, while the other 3 patients ...

  16. Red alert – Infant vaginal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerabhadra Radhakrishna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infant vaginal bleeding is an alarming symptom in an infant. Although several causes can be listed, the possibility of malignancy still needs to be ruled out in view of the guarded prognosis of these uncommon infantile tumors. This case report aims to raise the awareness towards the workup and management of infantile malignancies in a baby girl

  17. The vaginal microflora in relation to gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Gingivitis has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with APO. We assessed if bacterial counts in BV is associated with gingivitis suggesting a systemic infectious susceptibilty. Methods Vaginal samples were collected from 180 women (mean age 29.4 years, SD ± 6.8, range: 18 to 46), and at least six months after delivery, and assessed by semi-quantitative DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization assay (74 bacterial species). BV was defined by Gram stain (Nugent criteria). Gingivitis was defined as bleeding on probing at ≥ 20% of tooth sites. Results A Nugent score of 0–3 (normal vaginal microflora) was found in 83 women (46.1%), and a score of > 7 (BV) in 49 women (27.2%). Gingivitis was diagnosed in 114 women (63.3%). Women with a diagnosis of BV were more likely to have gingivitis (p = 0.01). Independent of gingival conditions, vaginal bacterial counts were higher (p gingivitis had higher counts of Prevotella bivia (p 1.0 × 104 cells) and a diagnosis of gingivitis was 3.9 for P. bivia (95% CI 1.5–5.7, p gingivitis in comparison to women with BV but not gingivitis. P. bivia and P. disiens may be of specific significance in a relationship between vaginal and gingival infections. PMID:19161595

  18. Prolapso vaginal e uterino em ovelhas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maíra Bianchi R. Alves; Fernando J. Benesi; Lilian Gregory; Alice M.M.P. Della Libera; Maria Cláudia A. Sucupira; Fábio C. Pogliani; Viviani Gomes

    2013-01-01

    ... de Clínica de Bovinos e Pequenos Ruminantes (CBPR) da FMVZ/USP no período compreendido entre 2000 a 2010, no qual, foram atendidas 56 ovinos com problemas inerentes ao sistema reprodutivo, dessas, 25 apresentaram prolapso vaginal ou uterino (44,6...

  19. vaginal histological changes of the baboon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-04

    Apr 4, 2009 ... VAGINAL HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THE BABOON DURING THE NORMAL MENSTRUAL CYCLE AND. PREGNANCY. A. Nyachieo ... During the luteal phase, menstrual phase and pregnancy the squamous epithelium was ... point, an endoscopic cup (Karl Storz, GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) was used ...

  20. Lactobacilli Dominance and Vaginal pH: Why is the Human Vaginal Microbiome Unique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Miller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human vaginal microbiome is dominated by bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus, which create an acidic environment thought to protect women against sexually transmitted pathogens and opportunistic infections. Strikingly, lactobacilli dominance appears to be unique to humans; while the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the human vagina is typically >70%, in other mammals lactobacilli rarely comprise more than 1% of vaginal microbiota. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain humans' unique vaginal microbiota, including humans' distinct reproductive physiology, high risk of STDs, and high risk of microbial complications linked to pregnancy and birth. Here, we test these hypotheses using comparative data on vaginal pH and the relative abundance of lactobacilli in 26 mammalian species and 50 studies (N=21 mammals for pH and 14 mammals for lactobacilli abundance. We found that non-human mammals, like humans, exhibit the lowest vaginal pH during the period of highest estrogen. However, the vaginal pH of non-human mammals is never as low as is typical for humans (median vaginal pH in humans = 4.5; range of pH across all 21 non-human mammals = 5.4 to 7.8. Contrary to disease and obstetric risk hypotheses, we found no significant relationship between vaginal pH or lactobacilli abundance and multiple metrics of STD or birth injury risk (P-values ranged from 0.13 to 0.99. Given the lack of evidence for these hypotheses, we discuss two alternative explanations: the common function hypothesis and a novel hypothesis related to the diet of agricultural humans. Specifically, with regard to diet we propose that high levels of starch in human diets have led to increased levels of glycogen in the vaginal tract, which, in turn, promotes the proliferation of lactobacilli. If true, human diet may have paved the way for a novel, protective microbiome in human vaginal tracts. Overall, our results highlight the need for continuing research on non

  1. PERFIL CITOLÓGICO VAGINAL DE OVELHAS DA RAÇA SANTA INÊS NO ACOMPANHAMENTO DO CICLO ESTRAL VAGINAL CYTOLOGY PROFILE FOR ACCOMPANIMENT TO ESTROUS CYCLE IN BREED SANTA INÊS EWES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adamir Torres de Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o perfil citológico vaginal em ovelhas da raça Santa Inês, durante um ciclo estral completo. Selecionaram-se cinco fêmeas cíclicas criadas em sistema semi-intensivo, na Fazenda Pe-dras Santa em Araguaína, TO. Prepararam-se os esfregaços vaginais diariamente nas ovelhas cujo estro foi detectado por um rufião. Confeccionou-se um esfregaço vaginal por fêmea, em lâminas de vidro secas à temperatura ambiente e fixadas em álcool a 95%. Em seguida, foram coradas pelo método panótico rápido. As lâminas foram observadas ao microscópio óptico de luz com aumentos de 10 x e 40 x para contagem de 100 células por lâmina. Analisaram-se as características morfológicas e tintoriais das células epiteliais ao longo do ciclo estral, levando em consideração tanto as variáveis de cada fase do ciclo estral – proestro, estro, metaestro e diestro –, bem como os tipos celulares encon-trados – basal, parabasal, intermediária e anucleada. Os valores foram estudados por meio de ANOVA, ao nível de probabilidade de 5% pelo teste de Tukey. Na fase de estro, notou-se uma diferença do tipo celular superficial anucleada sobre os demais tipos (P<0,05. Concluiu-se que, através da citologia vaginal esfoliativa, podem-se diferenciar as fases do ciclo estral em ovelhas da raça Santa Inês.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Ciclo estral, citologia vaginal, epitélio vaginal, ovelhas.

    The objective of this work was to establish a vaginal cytological profile in ewe of the Race Saint Inês, during a complete estrous cycle. Five created cyclical females in half-intensive system had been selected, in the Farm Rocks Saint, Araguaína, TO. The vaginal smears had been made daily during the estrous cycle, detected for a ruffian. One was confectioned vaginal smears for female, in dry glass slides to the ambient temperature and settled in alcohol 95% and in followed. They had been staining by the fast panótico method

  2. Atrophic Vaginitis in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Difficult Survivorship Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Lester

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of breast cancer includes systematic therapies including chemotherapy and endocrine therapy can lead to a variety of symptoms that can impair the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. Atrophic vaginitis, caused by decreased levels of circulating estrogen to urinary and vaginal receptors, is commonly experienced by this group. Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure and endocrine therapies including aromatase inhibitors and selective estrogen receptor modulators can trigger the onset of atrophic vaginitis or exacerbate existing symptoms. Symptoms of atrophic vaginitis include vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and irritation of genital skin, pruritus, burning, vaginal discharge, and soreness. The diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis is confirmed through patient-reported symptoms and gynecological examination of external structures, introitus, and vaginal mucosa. Lifestyle modifications can be helpful but are usually insufficient to significantly improve symptoms. Non-hormonal vaginal therapies may provide additional relief by increasing vaginal moisture and fluid. Systemic estrogen therapy is contraindicated in breast cancer survivors. Continued investigations of various treatments for atrophic vaginitis are necessary. Local estrogen-based therapies, DHEA, testosterone, and pH-balanced gels continue to be evaluated in ongoing studies. Definitive results are needed pertaining to the safety of topical estrogens in breast cancer survivors.

  3. The Comparison of vaginal cream of mixing yogurt, honey and clotrimazole on symptoms of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Maryam; Jahdi, Fereshteh; Hamzegardeshi, Zeinab; Goodarzi, Saied; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2015-04-03

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is known as one of the most common fungal infection among women of reproductive age and considered as an important public health problem. In recent years, due to resistance to common antifungal medication, the use of traditional medicine of anti-fungal and herbal treatment increased. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the effects of vaginal cream, mixture of yogurt and honey and comparing it with clotrimazole vaginal cream on symptoms of Vulvovaginal candidiasis in patients. In this randomized, triple blind clinical trial of 70 non-pregnant women infected with Candidal vulvovaginitis were placed in two groups of Vaginal cream mixed of yogurt and honey recipients (N=35) and clotrimazole vaginal cream (N=35). Both groups were treated for 7 days. At the beginning of study, Clinical and laboratory signs and symptoms were registered 7 and 14 days after treatment by questionnaire, observation form and secretions culture results. Data by chi-square test, t test, McNemar tests were analyzed by SPSS version 21. Significance level of 0.05 was considered. The result of present study reveals the significant differences in symptom improvement of ' yogurt and honey, than clotrimazole group (Pyogurt and honey" and clotrimazole (20% versus 8.6%) and second time cultivation (14 days after treatment) (17/1% versus 8.6%) were similar and there was no significant differences between the two groups. (P>0.05) CONCLUSION: This study indicated that he therapeutic effects of vaginal cream, yogurt and honey is not only similar with clotrimazole vaginal cream but more effective in relieving some symptoms of vaginal candidiasis. Therefore, the use of this product can be suggested as an herbal remedy for candida infection treatment.

  4. Biofilms of vaginal Lactobacillus in vitro test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Rui; Xiao, Bing-Bing; Liao, Qin-Ping

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on biofilms of Lactobacillus spp. - a type of normal flora isolated from healthy human vaginas of women of childbearing age; thereupon, it broadens the research scope of investigation of vaginal normal flora. The static slide culture method was adopted to foster biofilms, marked by specific fluorescence staining. Laser scanning confocal and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe the microstructure of the biofilms. Photographs taken from the microstructure were analysed to calculate the density of the biofilms. The body of Lactobacillus spp., though red, turned yellow when interacting with the green extracellular polysaccharides. The structure of the biofilm and aquaporin within the biofilm were imaged. Lactobacillus density increases over time. This study provides convincing evidence that Lactobacillus can form biofilms and grow over time in vitro. This finding establishes an important and necessary condition for selecting proper strains for the pharmaceutics of vaginal ecology.

  5. Adolescent Experiences with the Vaginal Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Laura B.; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Ivey, Susan L.; Raine, Tina; Auerswald, Colette

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To understand racial/ethnic minority adolescent females’ experiences with the vaginal ring. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with a clinic-based sample of 32 young women aged 15–24 years who had used the vaginal ring. Results Qualitative analysis using grounded theory revealed that adolescents undergo a multi-stage process when trying the ring and adopting ring use. These stages include hearing about the ring, initial reactions, first experiences with insertion and removal, and first sexual experiences. Adolescents subsequently enter an assessment and adjustment stage in which they decide whether to adopt or discontinue ring use. Ultimately they share their experiences with friends. Conclusions The model developed provides a context within which providers may advise adolescents as they begin use of the ring. Some specific recommendations are offered. PMID:18565439

  6. [Morphogenesis of vaginal aplasia. Therapeutic deductions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, H N; Smadja, A; Belaisch, J

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the studies of the embryogenesis of the vagina, the authors consider that malformations classically described as being partial aplasia should not be separated from the total absence of the vagina. The important feature is the association of a functioning or non functioning uterus with the absence of the vagina. They believe that it is incorrect to describe the pouch of menstrual retention associated with a functioning uterus as "haematocolpos" and that is not justified to describe the cup-shaped vestibular depression as "hemi-vagina". According to the authors, although vaginal aplasia with a functioning uterus forming a pouch of menstrual retention constitutes an absolute indication for surgery, surgery is not justified in cases of vaginal aplasia with a non functioning uterus. If Frank's method fails in these cases, the patient or the couple should be referred to a sexologist, as women with this anomaly retain a perfect femininity, although unable to conceive.

  7. Vaginal fibrosarcoma in bitch: a case report

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    E.R. Al-Kenanny

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A nine year–old wolf bitch was admitted to the surgical section of veterinary clinic teaching hospital in Mosul with abnormal mass occupying relatively the vulvar opening. According to the case history of owner, the bitch was suffered from varying degree of difficulty during parturition due to presence of this mass that showed during and after parturition. Appetite and all body health condition were normal. Clinical examination revealed presence of mass like tumor attached to the vaginal wall with numerous nodules or small growths originated also from wall of vulva near to large mass. The large growth was protruded completely through the vagina without any vaginal prolapse. After general anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine, the mass was surgically removed. Histopathological sections were revealed presence of fibrosarcoma which represented by arrangement of cells that have features of malignancy like darkly staining nuclei (hyperchromasia. The mass was diagnosed as a well-differentiated fibrosarcoma.

  8. Secretory Aspartyl Proteinases Cause Vaginitis and Can Mediate Vaginitis Caused by Candida albicans in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Amacker, Mario; Kasper, Lydia; Roselletti, Elena; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Kaeser, Matthias; Moser, Christian; Hube, Bernhard; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Cassone, Antonio

    2015-06-02

    Vaginal inflammation (vaginitis) is the most common disease caused by the human-pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Secretory aspartyl proteinases (Sap) are major virulence traits of C. albicans that have been suggested to play a role in vaginitis. To dissect the mechanisms by which Sap play this role, Sap2, a dominantly expressed member of the Sap family and a putative constituent of an anti-Candida vaccine, was used. Injection of full-length Sap2 into the mouse vagina caused local neutrophil influx and accumulation of the inflammasome-dependent interleukin-1β (IL-1β) but not of inflammasome-independent tumor necrosis factor alpha. Sap2 could be replaced by other Sap, while no inflammation was induced by the vaccine antigen, the N-terminal-truncated, enzymatically inactive tSap2. Anti-Sap2 antibodies, in particular Fab from a human combinatorial antibody library, inhibited or abolished the inflammatory response, provided the antibodies were able, like the Sap inhibitor Pepstatin A, to inhibit Sap enzyme activity. The same antibodies and Pepstatin A also inhibited neutrophil influx and cytokine production stimulated by C. albicans intravaginal injection, and a mutant strain lacking SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 was unable to cause vaginal inflammation. Sap2 induced expression of activated caspase-1 in murine and human vaginal epithelial cells. Caspase-1 inhibition downregulated IL-1β and IL-18 production by vaginal epithelial cells, and blockade of the IL-1β receptor strongly reduced neutrophil influx. Overall, the data suggest that some Sap, particularly Sap2, are proinflammatory proteins in vivo and can mediate the inflammasome-dependent, acute inflammatory response of vaginal epithelial cells to C. albicans. These findings support the notion that vaccine-induced or passively administered anti-Sap antibodies could contribute to control vaginitis. Candidal vaginitis is an acute inflammatory disease that affects many women of fertile age, with no definitive cure and, in

  9. Evaluación de la toxicidad vaginal de Croton lechleri en conejas

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    Salomón Ayala

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la toxicidad vaginal de una preparación en gel de Croton lechleri en conejas. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición Alberto Guzmán Barrón, Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Instituto de Patología de la Facultad de Medicina, y Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Resina de Croton lechleri y conejos hembras, blancos, Nueva Zelanda. Métodos: Los animales fueron distribuidos en tres grupos (n=5: I. Control, vehículo; II, C. lechleri 1%; y III, C. lechleri 5%; los conejos recibieron estas muestras en un volumen de 1 mL por vía intravaginal, una vez/día, durante 10 días consecutivos. Se observó el estado clínico general, así como la apariencia física de la vagina y el perineo por signos de flujo, eritema y edema. Al final del experimento se realizó la exéresis quirúrgica de la vagina de cada coneja y se evaluó macroscópicamente, buscando signos de irritación, sangrado o daño de la mucosa. Luego, se fijó en formol tamponado al 10% y posteriormente se tomó tres muestras representativas de las regiones cérvico-vaginal, media-vaginal, y urovaginal, para el estudio histopatológico. Principales medidas de resultados: Irritación vaginal. Resultados: El examen macroscópico de la vagina en el grupo control mostró aspecto congestivo leve en forma difusa, en todos los casos, y de aspecto similar en las muestras del grupo Croton lechleri al 1%. En la formulación al 5%, en dos casos se observó congestión petequial parcial leve. El estudio histopatológico reveló un puntaje promedio de irritación vaginal de 3,4 a 6 y 3,6 a 8 para las preparaciones al 1% y 5%, respectivamente. Conclusión: En nuestras condiciones experimentales, las preparaciones de gel de C. lechleri evaluadas fueron no irritantes para la mucosa vaginal y resultaron aceptables.

  10. Pregnancy and Vaginal Delivery after Sacrohysteropexy

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    Deniz Balsak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and birth after a Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP surgery is a rare condition and less is known about the method for delivery. A 31-year-old women with gravida 3 para 3 underwent abdominal sacrohysteropexy and transobturatuar tape (TOT procedures for stage III prolapse who delivered via vaginal birth and showed no relapse. Sacrohysteropexy is a good option for women with POP who desire fertility with a long term follow-up period.

  11. Bakri balloon in vaginal-perineal hematomas complicating vaginal delivery: a new therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Saccardi, Carlo; Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Di Gangi, Stefania; D'Antona, Donato; Battista Nardelli, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Bakri balloon as a hemostatic device in severe postpartum hemorrhage due to complicated vaginal-perineal hematoma not responsive to standard surgical treatments. The article discusses an effective and minimally invasive technique for resolving a case of massive vaginal-perineal bleeding after vaginal delivery complicated by ischiorectal fossa hematoma. A 36-year-old primipara white woman, 41 weeks 1 day pregnant, was admitted to our unit for beginning of labor. She experienced a precipitous delivery of a healthy male baby (3.72 kg, 51 cm in length), and spontaneous complete afterbirth of placenta and membranes. The intervention involved positioning of an hemostatic Bakri balloon device in the vagina, to compress the vaginal wall, ensuring that the draining apex was well positioned into the uterine cervix. The patient was discharged after having a puerperal course without further complications. Vaginal hemostatic Bakri balloon device shows hemostatic efficacy immediately assessable, is promptly removable, not interfering with subsequent surgical or radiological procedures, does not increase the risk of infections as other compressive procedures, allows flow of lochia, does not cause pain or discomfort in women, and permits adjustable compression when a drainage is placed during surgery. Despite the high cost, it does not show disadvantages.

  12. Relationship among vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of female pelvic floor muscles

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    Vanessa S. Pereira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proper evaluation of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM is essential for choosing the correct treatment. Currently, there is no gold standard for the assessment of female PFM function. Objective: To determine the correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the female PFM. Method: This cross-sectional study evaluated 80 women between 18 and 35 years of age who were nulliparous and had no pelvic floor dysfunction. PFM function was assessed based on digital palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic activity, bilateral diameter of the bulbocavernosus muscles and the amount of bladder neck movement during voluntary PFM contraction using transperineal bi-dimensional ultrasound. The Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05. Results: There was a strong positive correlation between PFM function and PFM contraction pressure (0.90. In addition, there was a moderate positive correlation between these two variables and PFM electromyographic activity (0.59 and 0.63, respectively and movement of the bladder neck in relation to the pubic symphysis (0.51 and 0.60, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that there was a correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the PFM in nulliparous women. The strong correlation between digital palpation and PFM contraction pressure indicated that perineometry could easily be replaced by PFM digital palpation in the absence of equipment.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of primary vaginal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Withington, Manchester (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ben.taylor@christie-tr.nwest.nhs.uk; Dugar, N. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Withington, Manchester (United Kingdom); Davidson, S.E. [Radiation Oncology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Withington, Manchester (United Kingdom); Carrington, B.M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Withington, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    Aims: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of vaginal carcinoma and to suggest a role for MRI in its management. Materials and methods: Twenty-five patients with primary vaginal carcinoma treated at our institution between 1996 and 2005 were included in the study. The MRI examinations were reviewed and tumour dimensions, signal characteristics and involvement of pelvic structures were documented, as were sites of enlarged lymph nodes and metastases. Details of patient treatment and outcome were obtained from the clinical notes. Results: The median patient age was 54 years (range 31-86 years). Tumour maximum diameter ranged from 1.6-11.3 cm (mean 3.7 cm). Most tumours were of iso-intense signal to muscle on T1-weighted images and hyper-intense to muscle on T2-weighted images. Eighty-eight percent of patients had tumour extending beyond the vagina and 56% of patients had Figo stage III or above tumours. Sixteen patients were treated with radiotherapy (two with chemoradiotherapy), five with surgery and four with supportive care. Ten patients (40%) died of their disease during the study period. The MRI stage of the tumour correlated with survival. Conclusion: MRI identified over 95% of primary vaginal tumours in the present study, enabled radiological staging, which correlated with outcome, and provided information of use in treatment planning.

  14. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Potentially Probiotic Vaginal Lactobacilli

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    Virginia Ocaña

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the antimicrobial susceptibility of six vaginal probiotic lactobacilli. Methods. The disc diffusion method in Müeller Hinton, LAPTg and MRS agars by the NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards procedure was performed. Due to the absence of a Lactobacillus reference strains, the results were compared to those of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC with 21 different antibiotics in LAPTg agar and broth was also determined. Results. LAPTg and MRS agars are suitable media to study antimicrobial susceptibility of lactobacilli. However, the NCCLS procedure needs to be standardized for this genus. The MICs have shown that all Lactobacillus strains grew at concentrations above 10 μg/mL of chloramphenicol, aztreonam, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, streptomycin and kanamycin. Four lactobacilli were sensitive to 1 μg/mL vancomycin and all of them were resistant to 1000 μg/mL of metronidazole. Sensitivity to other antibiotics depended on each particular strain. Conclusions. The NCCLS method needs to be standardized in an appropriate medium to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus. Vaginal probiotic lactobacilli do not display uniform susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to high concentrations of metronidazole suggests that lactobacilli could be simultaneously used with a bacterial vaginosis treatment to restore the vaginal normal flora.

  15. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Potentially Probiotic Vaginal Lactobacilli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Virginia; Silva, Clara; Nader-Macías, María Elena

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To study the antimicrobial susceptibility of six vaginal probiotic lactobacilli. Methods. The disc diffusion method in Müeller Hinton, LAPTg and MRS agars by the NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) procedure was performed. Due to the absence of a Lactobacillus reference strains, the results were compared to those of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) with 21 different antibiotics in LAPTg agar and broth was also determined. Results. LAPTg and MRS agars are suitable media to study antimicrobial susceptibility of lactobacilli. However, the NCCLS procedure needs to be standardized for this genus. The MICs have shown that all Lactobacillus strains grew at concentrations above 10 μg/mL of chloramphenicol, aztreonam, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, streptomycin and kanamycin. Four lactobacilli were sensitive to 1 μg/mL vancomycin and all of them were resistant to 1000 μg/mL of metronidazole. Sensitivity to other antibiotics depended on each particular strain. Conclusions. The NCCLS method needs to be standardized in an appropriate medium to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus. Vaginal probiotic lactobacilli do not display uniform susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to high concentrations of metronidazole suggests that lactobacilli could be simultaneously used with a bacterial vaginosis treatment to restore the vaginal normal flora. PMID:17485797

  16. Stereophotogrammetry of the perineum during vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemčík, Robert; Karbanova, Jaroslava; Kalis, Vladimir; Lobovský, Libor; Jansová, Magdalena; Rusavy, Zdenek

    2012-10-01

    To analyze deformation of the perineum during normal vaginal delivery in order to identify clinical steps that might be beneficial when executing manual perineal protection. The present prospective study at Charles University Hospital, Pilsen, Czech Republic, enrolled 10 primiparous women at term undergoing non-instrumental vaginal delivery assisted by the same obstetrician between September 2009 and September 2010. A modified hands-poised technique performed concurrently with stereophotogrammetry was used to analyze and quantify perineal deformation and strain at the final stage of delivery. The highest tissue strain (mean, 177%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 106.3-248.5) was in a transverse direction and occurred at the level of the fourchette (i.e. 1cm was transversely stretched and deformed to 2.77 cm during the final stage of vaginal delivery). This strain was more than 4 times higher than the maximum anteroposterior strain (mean, 43%; 95% CI, 28.6-57.4). On the basis of these stereophotogrammetry data, a technique of perineal protection executed by fingers of the posterior (right) hand can be proposed. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to evaluate whether this technique might assist in reducing obstetric perineal trauma. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Postmenopausal Vaginal Endometriotic Cyst: A Case Report

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    Esengul Turkyilmaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A seventy-three-year-old patient%u2019s vaginal examination revealed a semi-mobile cystic structure visualised at the middle third portion of the posterior vaginal wall. The cyst was excised and the cyst wall was sent for pathological examination. The histopathological examination of the cyst with CD10 staining and tests for nuclear estrogen receptor positivity and nuclear progesteron receptor positivity revealed that the cyst wall contained endometrial stromal cells, endometrial surface epithelial cells, and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Endometriosis externa was diagnosed based on the above findings. The case we report here, of an isolated vaginal endometriotic cyst, is unique because of its presentation in a postmenopausal woman without any history of infertility, any gynecologic surgery, or hormone replacement therapy. The reasonable explanation for this case might include certain mechanisms such as the self-sustaining existence of endometriotic cells that were implanted during the premenopausal period to the vagina and that maintain local estrogen production. No single hypothesis can explain the pathophysiology of endometriosis, given all of its various forms and presentations.

  18. Effects of intrauterine contraception on the vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassis, Christine M; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Wahl, Heather N; Sack, Daniel E; Young, Vincent B; Bell, Jason D

    2017-09-01

    There have been conflicting reports of altered vaginal microbiota and infection susceptibility associated with contraception use. The objectives of this study were to determine if intrauterine contraception altered the vaginal microbiota and to compare the effects of a copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) and a levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) on the vaginal microbiota. DNA was isolated from the vaginal swab samples of 76 women using Cu-IUD (n=36) or LNG-IUS (n=40) collected prior to insertion of intrauterine contraception (baseline) and at 6 months. A third swab from approximately 12 months following insertion was available for 69 (Cu-IUD, n=33; LNG-IUS, n=36) of these women. The V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene was amplified from the vaginal swab DNA and sequenced. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were processed and analyzed using the software package mothur to compare the structure and dynamics of the vaginal bacterial communities. The vaginal microbiota from individuals in this study clustered into 3 major vaginal bacterial community types: one dominated by Lactobacillus iners, one dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus and one community type that was not dominated by a single Lactobacillus species. Changes in the vaginal bacterial community composition were not associated with the use of Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS. Additionally, we did not observe a clear difference in vaginal microbiota stability with Cu-IUD versus LNG-IUS use. Although the vaginal microbiota can be highly dynamic, alterations in the community associated with the use of intrauterine contraception (Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS) were not detected over 12 months. We found no evidence that intrauterine contraception (Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS) altered the vaginal microbiota composition. Therefore, the use of intrauterine contraception is unlikely to shift the composition of the vaginal microbiota such that infection susceptibility is altered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spectrum of vaginal discharge in a tertiary care setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaranjini, R; Jaisankar, TJ; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Kumari, Rashmi; Chandrasekhar, Laxmisha; Malathi, M; Parija, SC; Habeebullah, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Vaginal discharge is one of the common reasons for gynecological consultation. Many of the causes of vaginitis have a disturbed vaginal microbial ecosystem associated with them. Effective treatment of vaginal discharge requires that the etiologic diagnosis be established and identifying the same offers a precious input to syndromic management and provides an additional strategy for human immunodeficiency virus prevention. The present study was thus carried out to determine the various causes of vaginal discharge in a tertiary care setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 women presenting with vaginal discharge of age between 20 and 50 years, irrespective of marital status were included in this study and women who had used antibiotics or vaginal medication in the previous 14 days and pregnant women were excluded. Results: Of the 400 women with vaginal discharge studied, a diagnosis was established in 303 women. Infectious causes of vaginal discharge were observed in 207 (51.75%) women. Among them, bacterial vaginosis was the most common cause seen in 105 (26.25%) women. The other infections observed were candidiasis alone (61, 15.25%), trichomoniasis alone (12, 3%), mixed infections (22, 5.5%) and mucopurulent cervicitis (7 of the 130 cases looked for, 8.46%). Among the non-infectious causes, 72 (18%) women had physiological vaginal discharge and 13 (3.3%) women had cervical in situ cancers/carcinoma cervix. Conclusion: The pattern of infectious causes of vaginal discharge observed in our study was comparable with the other studies in India. Our study emphasizes the need for including Papanicolaou smear in the algorithm for evaluation of vaginal discharge, as it helps establish the etiology of vaginal discharge reliably and provides a valuable opportunity to screen for cervical malignancies. PMID:24470998

  20. Avaliação e tratamento da dor perineal no pós-parto vaginal Evaluación y tratamiento del dolor perineal en el posparto vaginal Evaluation and treatment of perineal pain in vaginal postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Amorim Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar a prevalência, intensidade e medidas terapêuticas de alívio da dor perineal, após o parto vaginal. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado na Unidade de Alojamento Conjunto do Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo e os dados foram colhidos por entrevista, junto a 303 puérperas que tiveram parto vaginal, com escala numérica (0 a 10 para avaliar a dor perineal, avaliação perineal e dados do prontuário. RESULTADOS: A prevalência da dor perineal foi de 18,5%, com intensidade moderada (51,8%, associada à presença de episiotomia (p=0,001. Houve 303 partos vaginais; 80,5% apresentaram trauma perineal, 75,4% episiotomias e 24,6% lacerações. O analgésico oral foi o método mais utilizado para alívio da dor perineal. CONCLUSÃO: Há diversos tratamentos para o alívio da dor perineal; não há método com completa eficácia para a resolução do problema.OBJETIVOS: Identificar la prevalencia, intensidad y medidas terapéuticas de alivio del dolor perineal en el posparto vaginal. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado en la Unidad de Alojamiento Conjunto del Hospital Universitario de la Universidad de Sao Paulo; los datos fueron recolectados por medio de entrevista a 303 puérperas que tuvieron parto vaginal (escala numérica de 0 a 10 para evaluar: el dolor perineal, la evaluación perineal y los datos de la ficha médica. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia del dolor perineal fue de 18,5%, con intensidad moderada (51,8%, asociada a la presencia de episiotomía (p=0,001. Hubo 303 partos vaginales; 80,5% presentaron trauma perineal, 75,4% episiotomías y 24,6% laceraciones. El analgésico oral fue el método más utilizado para aliviar el dolor perineal. CONCLUSIÓN: Existen diversos tratamientos para el alivio del dolor perineal y no existen métodos con completa eficacia para la resolución del problema.OBJECTIVES: To identify the prevalence, intensity and therapeutic measures for relief of perineal pain in

  1. Vaginal cuff closure: a comparison between the vaginal route and laparoscopic suture in patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jong Ha; Lee, Jae Kwan; Lee, Nak Woo; Lee, Kyu Wan

    2011-01-01

    To compare the vaginal route and laparoscopic suture for vaginal cuff closure (VCC) in patients undergoing a total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH). A total of 471 women who required hysterectomy were allocated to two groups. 261 women had TLH via VCC by the vaginal route and 210 women had TLH via VCC by laparoscopic suture. All TLHs were performed by the same laparoscopic surgeon. The cuff-related complications included vaginal disruption (3.4%), dehiscence (1.27%), vaginal vault bleeding (1.91%), vaginal spotting (19.32%), granulation (1.27%), cuff infection (1.49%), and yellowish vaginal discharge (6.16%). No difference in vaginal cuff complications was found between the laparoscopic and vaginal approach. The median operation time was significantly shorter for the laparoscopic suture (76.74 min, range 40-220; 95% CI 74.84-83.45) than the vaginal route for VCC (85.77 min, range 45-290; 95% CI 86.87-95.36) after hysterectomy (p < 0.001). For VCC with TLH, laparoscopic suture was a safe and less time-consuming procedure. The cuff-related complications were similar in the two groups. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Thermosensitive hydrogels a versatile concept adapted to vaginal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurin, Sebastien; Almomen, Aliyah A; Pollak, Tatianna; Kim, Sun Jin; Maxwell, John; Peterson, C Matthew; Owen, Shawn C; Janát-Amsbury, Margit M

    2017-11-15

    Vaginal drug delivery represents an attractive strategy for local and systemic delivery of drugs otherwise poorly absorbed after oral administration. The rather dense vascular network, mucus permeability and the physiological phenomenon of the uterine first-pass effect can all be exploited for therapeutic benefit. However, several physiological factors such as an acidic pH, constant secretion, and turnover of mucus as well as varying thickness of the vaginal epithelium can impact sustained drug delivery. In recent years, polymers have been designed to tackle challenges mentioned above. In particular, thermosensitive hydrogels hold great promise due to their stability, biocompatibility, adhesion properties and adjustable drug release kinetics. Here, we discuss the physiological and anatomical uniqueness of the vaginal environment and how it impacts the safe and efficient vaginal delivery and also reviewed several thermosensitive hydrogels deemed suitable for vaginal drug delivery by addressing specific characteristics, which are essential to engage the vaginal environment successfully.

  3. Vaginal Approaches Using Synthetic Mesh to Treat Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Jei Won; Chae, Hee Dong

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a very common condition in elderly women. In women with POP, a sacrocolpopexy or a vaginal hysterectomy with anterior and posterior colporrhaphy has long been considered as the gold standard of treatment. However, in recent decades, the tendency to use a vaginal approach with mesh for POP surgery has been increasing. A vaginal approach using mesh has many advantages, such as its being less invasive than an abdominal approach and easier to do than a laparoscopic ...

  4. PERFIL CITOLÓGICO VAGINAL DE OVELHAS DA RAÇA SANTA INÊS NO ACOMPANHAMENTO DO CICLO ESTRAL VAGINAL CYTOLOGY PROFILE FOR ACCOMPANIMENT TO ESTROUS CYCLE IN BREED SANTA INÊS EWES

    OpenAIRE

    José Adamir Torres de Souza; Josefa Moreira do Nascimento Rocha; Francisca Elda Ferreira Dias; Tânia Vasconcelos Cavalcante; Rhiane Rodrigues Macedo Porto

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o perfil citológico vaginal em ovelhas da raça Santa Inês, durante um ciclo estral completo. Selecionaram-se cinco fêmeas cíclicas criadas em sistema semi-intensivo, na Fazenda Pe-dras Santa em Araguaína, TO. Prepararam-se os esfregaços vaginais diariamente nas ovelhas cujo estro foi detectado por um rufião. Confeccionou-se um esfregaço vaginal por fêmea, em lâminas de vidro secas à temperatura ambiente e fixadas em álcool a 95%. Em seguida, f...

  5. Supporting Women Planning a Vaginal Breech Birth: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovska, Karolina; Watts, Nicole P; Catling, Christine; Bisits, Andrew; Homer, Caroline S E

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of women who planned a vaginal breech birth. An online survey was developed consisting of questions regarding women's experiences surrounding planned vaginal breech birth. The survey was distributed between April 2014 and January 2015 to closed membership Facebook groups that had a consumer focus on vaginal breech birth. In total, 204 unique responses to the survey were obtained from women who had sought the option of a vaginal breech birth in a previous pregnancy. Most women (80.8%) stated that they were happy with the birth choices they made, and a significant proportion (89.4%) would attempt a vaginal breech birth in subsequent pregnancies. Less than half of women were formally referred to a clinician skilled in vaginal breech birth when their baby was diagnosed breech (41.8%), while the remainder sourced a clinician themselves. Half of the women felt supported by their care provider (56.7%) and less than half (42.3%) felt supported by family and friends. The women who responded to this international survey sought the option of a vaginal breech birth, were subsequently happy with this decision, and would attempt a vaginal breech birth in their next pregnancy. Access to vaginal breech birth is important for some women; however, this choice may be challenging to achieve. Consistent information and support from clinicians is important to assist decision-making. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Human vaginal pH and microbiota: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godha, Keshav; Tucker, Kelly M; Biehl, Colton; Archer, David F; Mirkin, Sebastian

    2017-12-22

    A woman's vaginal pH has many implications on her health and it can be a useful tool in disease diagnosis and prevention. For that reason, the further examination of the relationship between the human vaginal pH and microbiota is imperative. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the physiological mechanisms modulating the vaginal pH, and exogenous/genetic factors that may influence it. A unified, coherent understanding of these concepts is presented to comprehend their interrelationships and their cumulative effect on a woman's health. In this review, we explore research on vaginal pH and microbiota throughout a woman's life, vaginal intermediate cell anaerobic metabolism and net proton secretion by the vaginal epithelial, and the way these factors interact to acidify the vaginal pH. This review provides foundational information about what a microbiota is and its relationship with human physiology and vaginal pH. We then evaluate the influence of physiological mechanisms, demographic factors, and propose ideas for the mechanisms behind their action on the vaginal pH.

  7. A simplified classification for describing colposcopic vaginal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indraccolo, Ugo; Baldoni, Angelo

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to highlight that colposcopic vaginal patterns are not specific, unlike cervical colposcopic patterns, and to provide a simpler classification of vaginal colposcopic patterns. A total of 223 patients who underwent colposcopy with Schiller test were assessed (hierarchical log-linear model) retrospectively. The greatest predictability for histologically confirmed warts and cancers is represented by colposcopic patterns of wart and cancer. Lugol-negative area is strongly predictive of koilocytosis, even if it is found in other vaginal lesions. Thickened epithelium seems to better predict a severe vaginal lesion, whereas thin white epithelium better suggests a mild vaginal lesion. Colposcopic patterns were simplified as follows: Lugol-negative area, white epithelia (thin white epithelium and white thickened epithelium), vascular lesions (regular and irregular mosaicisms and punctations), wart, and cancer. Thus, koilocytosis is predicted by the Lugol-negative area, whereas white epithelia patterns and vascular patterns are not specific, suggesting overall vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias. Wart and cancer patterns are pathognomonic for histologically confirmed warts and cancers. Vaginal colposcopy poorly predicts the severity of vaginal lesions. By including each type of white epithelium within a new category called "white epithelia patterns" and each type of vascular pattern within a new category called "vascular patterns," it is possible to simplify vaginal colposcopy without compromising its accuracy.

  8. Citología vaginal no útil, causas y riesgos No-useful vaginal cytology causes and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusimí García Trujillo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal en una muestra de 79 mujeres seleccionadas por muestreo sistemático en el área de salud del policlínico docente "Emilia de Córdoba", de San Nicolás, durante el año 2007, con el objetivo de analizar el comportamiento de la citología vaginal no útil y los factores que propiciaron su incidencia. Se apreció un elevado número de citologías no útiles, lo que constituyó el 23,1 %, y sus principales motivos están relacionados fundamentalmente con dificultades en la técnica y requisitos necesarios para la toma de la muestra. Predominó el grupo de edad de 40 a 44 años; las relaciones sexuales precoces, con 56 casos de 15 a 19 años, para un 70,9 %; y la edad al primer parto por debajo de los 20 años, así como las infecciones de transmisión sexual (la moniliasis y la trichomoniasis. Estuvieron presentes el hábito de fumar y el uso de anticonceptivos hormonales como cofactores.An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in a cohort of 79 women chosen by systemic sampling in health area of "Emilia de Córdoba" Teaching polyclinic, from San Nicolás de Bari municipality during 2007, to analyze behavior of no-useful vaginal cytology and factors causing its incidence. We noted a high figure of non-useful cytologies accounting for 23,1 % and its main causes are fundamentally related to early sexual intercourses in 56 cases aged from 15 to 19, to 70,9 % and age of first delivery was under 20 years, as well as the sexually transmitted infections (moniliasis and trichomoniasis. Smoking and excessive use of hormonal contraceptives were present as cofactors.

  9. Descubriendo las prácticas de cuidado de adolescentes gestantes con infección vaginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARY LUZ MONROY RUBIANO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivo descubrir el significado de cuidado a partir de prácticas y creencias culturales de las adolescentes gestantes con diagnóstico de infección vaginal que asistieron a control prenatal en la ESE Hospital San Rafael de Girardot en el primer trimestre de 2007. Diseño cualitativo de tipo etnográfico, basado en la etnoenfermería de la teoría transcultural de Leininger. Se empleó la entrevista y el análisis etnográfico de Spradley y se realizaron en promedio tres entrevistas a cada una de las 7 informantes, hasta que hubo saturación de información. La muestra estuvo representada por la calidad de la información brindada. A partir del análisis a profundidad se construyeron tres dominios y taxonomías: 1. conocimiento de la infección vaginal, 2. acciones de protección, 3. consejos recibidos. El estudio reveló que las adolescentes gestantes tenían conocimientos sobre la infección vaginal, sus causas y consecuencias. Cuidarse representó poner en práctica los consejos recibidos de las fuentes informales y formales para que desapareciera la infección vaginal, evitar la reinfección y las complicaciones para ellas y el hijo por nacer. Para las adolescentes gestantes, cuidarse durante la infección vaginal representó poner en práctica los consejos recibidos de las fuentes informales y formales para que desapareciera la infección vaginal y evitar la reinfección y las complicaciones para ellas y el hijo por nacer. Se evidenciaron las diferentes formas que tenían de conocer y establecer prácticas de cuidado durante la infección vaginal y se resaltó la ausencia de consejos formales del profesional de enfermería.

  10. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  11. Prolapso vaginal e uterino em ovelhas Uterine and vaginal prolapse in ewes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maíra Bianchi R. Alves; Fernando J. Benesi; Lilian Gregory; Alice M.M.P. Della Libera; Maria Cláudia A. Sucupira; Fábio C. Pogliani; Viviani Gomes

    2013-01-01

    ... Clínica de Bovinos e Pequenos Ruminantes (CBPR) da FMVZ/USP no período compreendido entre 2000 a 2010, no qual, foram atendidas 56 ovinos com problemas inerentes ao sistema reprodutivo, dessas, 25 apresentaram prolapso vaginal ou uterino (44,6...

  12. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-tao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Rhesus macaques can be used as animal models of bacterial vaginosis to develop drugs and test treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the topical application of sucrose gel induced the shifting of vaginal flora of rhesus macaques from a BV kind of flora to a lactobacilli-dominating flora.

  13. Vaginal fold histology reduces the variability introduced by vaginal exfoliative cytology in the classification of mouse estrous cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Arnon; Lin, Po-Ching; Barger, Anne M; MacNeill, Amy L; Ko, CheMyong

    2014-12-01

    Vaginal exfoliative cytology is commonly used in biomedical and toxicological research to classify the stages of the rodent estrous cycle. However, mouse vaginal exfoliative cytology is commonly used as a stand-alone tool and has not been evaluated in reference to vaginal histology and serum sex hormone levels. In this study, the direct and Giemsa-stained methods of vaginal exfoliative cytology were compared in reference to vaginal fold histology and serum sex hormone levels. Both methods predicted the estrous stages similarly with mean discordance rates of 55%, 77%, 46%, and 31%, for diestrus, proestrus, estrus, and metestrus, respectively. From these results, we conclude that vaginal exfoliative cytology may be used as a general guide to determine the desired estrous stage end point and that a definitive confirmation of the estrous stage should be obtained from evaluation of vaginal fold histology. Confirmation of the stage of the estrous cycle by vaginal fold histology will decrease the variability otherwise introduced by misclassification of estrous cycle stages with vaginal exfoliative cytology. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  14. Vaginal epithelioid angiosarcoma: a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brătilă, Elvira; Ionescu, Oana Maria; Berceanu, Costin; Coroleucă, Ciprian Andrei; Ardeleanu, Carmen Maria; MehedinŢu, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the vagina is a rare variant, easily misdiagnosed as other epithelial neoplasms. On Hematoxylin-Eosin-stained sections, the pathologist encounters sheets of large, mildly to moderately pleomorphic epithelioid cells, with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei, and prominent nucleoli. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman initially diagnosed with condiloma-like tumor of the left vaginal wall, which turned out positive at immunostaining for epithelioid angiosarcoma. In her case, after the failure of chemotherapy in controlling the relapse of the disease, the only treatment option was radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.

  15. Preterm delivery and intimacy during pregnancy: interaction between oral, vaginal and intestinal microbiomes

    OpenAIRE

    Demian Arturo Herrera Morban

    2015-01-01

    Durante el embarazo los microbiomas bucal, vaginal e intestinal de la mujer sufren cambios para adaptarse a las demandas del cuerpo, aumentando la relación y similitud entre ellos. Debido a esto se considera pertinente realizar una revisión literaria con el propósito de determinar la existencia de factores que influyen en un microbioma específico y que posteriormente podrían modificar a los demás. Este es el caso del microbioma bucal que depende de la actividad íntima de la mujer y por consig...

  16. Endovascular Management of Intractable Postpartum Hemorrhage Caused by Vaginal Laceration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koganemaru, Masamichi, E-mail: mkoganemaru@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Nonoshita, Masaaki, E-mail: z2rs-1973@yahoo.co.jp; Iwamoto, Ryoji, E-mail: iwamoto-ryouji@kurume-u.ac.jp; Kuhara, Asako, E-mail: kuhara-asako@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Nabeta, Masakazu, E-mail: nabeta-masakazu@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Kusumoto, Masashi, E-mail: kusumoto-masashi@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Kugiyama, Tomoko, E-mail: kugiyama-tomoko@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kozuma, Yutaka, E-mail: kouduma-yutaka@kurume-u.ac.jp [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Japan); Nagata, Shuji, E-mail: sn4735@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Abe, Toshi, E-mail: toshiabe@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeWe evaluated the management of transcatheter arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage caused by vaginal laceration.Materials and MethodsWe reviewed seven cases of patients (mean age 30.9 years; range 27–35) with intractable hemorrhages and pelvic hematomas caused by vaginal lacerations, who underwent superselective transcatheter arterial embolization from January 2008 to July 2014. Postpartum hemorrhage was evaluated by angiographic vascular mapping to determine the vaginal artery’s architecture, technical and clinical success rates, and complications.ResultsThe vaginal artery was confirmed as the source of bleeding in all cases. The artery was found to originate from the uterine artery in three cases, the uterine and obturator arteries in two, or the internal pudendal artery in two. After vaginal artery embolization, persistent contrast extravasation from the inferior mesenteric artery as an anastomotic branch was noted in one patient. Nontarget vessels (the inferior vesical artery and nonbleeding vaginal arterial branches) were embolized in one patient. Effective control of hemostasis and no post-procedural complications were confirmed for all cases.ConclusionPostpartum hemorrhages caused by vaginal lacerations involve the vaginal artery arising from the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery with various branching patterns. Superselective vaginal artery embolization is clinically acceptable for the successful treatment of vaginal laceration hemorrhages, with no complications. After vaginal artery embolization, it is suggested to check for the presence of other possible bleeding vessels by pelvic aortography with a catheter tip at the L3 vertebral level, and to perform a follow-up assessment.

  17. Profilaxis antibiótica en histerectomía abdominal y vaginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Hernández Torres

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron retrospectivamente los expedientes clínicos de 155 pacientes a las que se les realizó histerectomía por vía abdominal o vaginal, en el Servicio de Cirugía General durante un período de 30 meses. Las pacientes se dividieron en 3 grupos según: a recibieron antibioticoterapia perioperatoria, b recibieron antibioticoterapia en el posoperatorio inmediato y c no recibieron tratamiento antibiótico. Se analizó la tasa de infección de la herida quirúrgica, además de la relación de ésta con algunos factores, entre ellos el tiempo quirúrgico y la antisepsia vaginal. Se llevaron los resultados a tratamiento estadístico (chi cuadrado y test de Fisher y se concluyó en que existe diferencia significativa entre la tasa de infección de la herida cuando se utiliza profilaxis perioperatoria (4,7 % si se compara con las pacientes que no recibieron tratamiento antibióticoA retrospective study of the medical histories of 155 patients who underwent vaginal of abdominal hysterectomy at the General Surgery Service during 30 months was conducted. Patients were divided into 3 groups: a patients who received perioperative antibiotic therapy, b patients that were administered antibiotics theraphy in the immediate postoperative and c those under no antibiotics treatment. The surgical wound infection rate was analyzed as well as its relation with some factors, such as surgical time and vaginal antisepsis. The results were statistically treated (chi square and Fisher’s test and it was concluded that there is a significant difference between the wound infection rate of patients receiving perioperative prophylaxis (4.7 % and those without antibiotics treatment

  18. Short-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 for women with normal cytology and human papillomavirus infection Riesgo a corto plazo de lesiones intraepiteliales cervicales grados 2 y 3 en mujeres con citología vaginal normal e infección por el virus del papiloma humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hernández-Suárez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE. To assess the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2, 3 or higher (CIN 2/3+ for women with normal cytology and concurrent high-risk human papillomavirus infection (HR-HPV. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We examined 2 200 women every 6 months for an average of 9 years. Cervical smears and samples for HPV DNA were obtained at each visit. Absolute risk of subsequent CIN2/CIN3+ was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS. The absolute risk of CIN2/CIN3+ among HR-HPV-positive women with normal Pap smear results was 1.06% (95%CI, 0.57-2.20, 5 times higher the risk among all women with normal Pap smears (0.20%; 95%CI, 0.12-0.32 but 7 times lower than that for women with HR-HPV infection and LSIL (7.24%; 95%CI, 3.78-15.2. CONCLUSION. Short-term absolute risk of CIN2/3+ after a normal Pap smear with concurrent HR-HPV infection is low (~1%, suggesting that the HR-HPV test has limited utility in short-term clinical decision-making for women with normal cytology.OBJETIVO. Evaluar el riesgo a corto plazo de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical de alto grado (CIN2/CIN3+ en mujeres con citologí-a cervicouterina normal e infección por virus del papiloma humano de alto riesgo (HR-HPV. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Cohorte prospectiva de 2200 mujeres evaluadas cada seis meses durante 9 años en promedio. En cada visita se tomó muestra cervical para extendido y detección de HPV DNA. El riesgo absoluto de CIN2/CIN3+ a la siguiente visita fue calculado utilizando el método de Kaplan-Meier. RESULTADOS. En mujeres con citologí-a normal e infección concomitante por HR-HPV el riesgo absoluto de presentar CIN2/CIN3+ fue de 1.06% (95%CI, 0.57-2.20. Este riesgo fue cinco veces mayor al observado en todas las mujeres con citologí-a normal (0.20%; 95%CI, 0.12-0.32 pero siete veces menor que el observado en mujeres con lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de bajo grado con infección concomitante (7.24%; 95%CI, 3.78-15.2. CONCLUSIÓN. El riesgo absoluto de

  19. Operative vaginal deliveries in Zaria, Nigeria | Adaji | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background : Operative vaginal deliveries are frequent features of obstetrics practice in tertiary levels of care even in developing countries. It is essential to review these practices in order to assess their benefits or otherwise to safe motherhood in resource limited settings Study design : Labor records on operative vaginal ...

  20. The use of supersaturation for the vaginal application of microbicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grammen, Carolien; Plum, Jakob; Van Den Brande, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential of supersaturation for the formulation of the poorly water-soluble microbicide dapivirine (DPV) in an aqueous vaginal gel in order to enhance its vaginal tissue uptake. Different excipients such as hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, polyethylene glycol 1000...

  1. THE USE OF ISOLATED SIGMOID COLON SEGMENT FOR VAGINAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hack JT, Howards SS, Duckett JW (eds.): Adult vaginal reconstruction. BJU 2000, 85:715. RESUME. L'Utilisation du colon sigmoide dans le remplacement vaginal chez les jeunes adultes. Objectlfs : La vaginoplastie pour atrésie congénitale, un élément du syndrome de Mayer-Ftokitansky-. Kuster, ou la confirmation du sexe ...

  2. Evaluation of vaginal implant transmitters in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce K. Johnson; Terrance McCoy; Christopher O. Kochanny; Rachel C. Cook

    2006-01-01

    The effects of vaginal implant transmitters for tissue damage after 11 wk in 13 captive adult elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and subsequent reproductive performance in 38 free-ranging elk were evaluated. Vaginal implant transmitters are designed to be shed at parturition and are used to locate birth sites of wild ungulates; however, potential adverse...

  3. Perception of Vaginal Discharge and Care Seeking Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perception of Vaginal Discharge and Care Seeking Behaviour among Obstetric and Gynaecological Clinic Attendees in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria. ... and their paradoxical poor knowledge about the causes of vaginal discharge underscore the need to incorporate reproductive health education into secondary schools ...

  4. 539 Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... asymptomatic women do have Candida organisms as part of their endogenous vaginal flora; hence limitations of signs and symptoms in the diagnosis of vaginal infection has been recognised (Akinbiyi et al., 2008). Thus, mere isolation of Candida in the laboratory does not show real indication that it is the ...

  5. Pregnancy outcome in asymptomatic women with abnormal vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of abnormal vaginal flora was correlated with pregnancy outcomes in terms of preterm delivery or late miscarriage, premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) and puerperal sepsis. Results. A total of 242 patients with abnormal vaginal flora for whom outcome data were complete were analysed. Intervention ...

  6. Vaginal drug delivery systems: A Review of Current Status | Dobaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the various routes of drug delivery, the vaginal route offers many advantages due to its large permeation area, rich vascularization, avoidance of first pass metabolism and relatively low enzymatic activity. Several studies have shown that the vaginal cavity is an effective route for drug administration intended mainly ...

  7. Antifungal susceptibility profiles and risk factors of vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal candidiasis (VC) is second to bacterial vaginitis, as the most common opportunistic mucosal infection that affects large numbers of otherwise healthy women of childbearing age. The incidence of VC is significantly modified by dressing patterns and aberrant health-care practices. Contemporary young women often ...

  8. The threat of aerobic vaginitis to pregnancy and neonatal morbidity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an endogenous opportunistic infection brought about by the disruption of the normal vaginal microbiota. Its early diagnosis and treatment during pregnancy may reduce the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this review was to report on the aerobic bacteria most prevalent in AV and to ...

  9. Leech as a cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding: Presentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bleeding stopped soon. The patient was discharged in a good condition with hemoglobin on 8gm% on iron tablets. Leech as a cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding: Presentation of three cases in adults. Kibreab Asrat MD. Orotta National referral Maternity Hospital, Asmara, Eritrea. Abstract. Vaginal bleeding in women ...

  10. a case report of premenarchial transverse vaginal septum at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. The incidence of vaginal atresia has been estimated to be 1 in 400,000 female children.1 The vagina is derived from interaction between the uterovaginal primordium and the pelvic part of the urogenital sinus.2 The causes of vaginal anomalies are difficult to discern because of the controversial subject of ...

  11. Vaginal breech births in a hospital where caesarean section is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SCIENTIFIC LETTER. Objectives. Caesarean section has become the preferred delivery method for breech presentation at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic ... This study has shown that vaginal breech births continue to occur as unexpected events. ... descriptive study was to understand why and how vaginal breech.

  12. Vaginal practices of HIV-negative Zimbabwean women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, Abigail Norris; Morrison, Charles S.; Munjoma, Marshall W.; Moyo, Precious; Chipato, Tsungai; van de Wijgert, Janneke H.

    2010-01-01

    Vaginal practices (VPs) may increase HIV risk by injuring vaginal epithelium or by increasing risk of bacterial vaginosis, an established risk factor for HIV. HIV-negative Zimbabwean women (n = 2,185) participating in a prospective study on hormonal contraception and HIV risk completed an ancillary

  13. Vaginal metastasis of pancreatic cancer | Benhayoune | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal metastasis from pancreatic cancer is an extreme case and often indicates a poor prognosis. We present a case of pancreatic carcinoma with metastasis to the vagina that was discovered by vaginal bleeding. To our knowledge, this is the third case in the world of a primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma discovered of ...

  14. Species distribution and antifungal sensitivity patterns of vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To identify yeast isolates in vaginal specimens to species level and determine their antifungal susceptibility patterns. Design: Cross-sectional laboratory-based study. Setting: The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Nairobi. Subjects: Yeast isolates from high vaginal swabs presented to the laboratory for ...

  15. Prevalence of Vaginal Trichomoniasis: An Assessment of Sensitivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study which was conducted on 400 females patients aged 15 to 60 years who complained of vaginal discharge and itching in some selected health centers in Yola between 2003 and March 2005, is a comparative study of the relative accuracies of three techniques for diagnosing vaginal trichomoniasis. Three sterile ...

  16. Aerobic vaginitis: no longer a stranger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Bellen, Gert; Grinceviciene, Svitrigaile; Ruban, Kateryna; Vieira-Baptista, Pedro

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is the name given in 2002 to a vaginal infectious entity which was not recognized as such before. It is characterized by abnormal (dysbiotic) vaginal microflora containing aerobic, enteric bacteria, variable levels of vaginal inflammation and deficient epithelial maturation. Although AV and bacterial vaginosis (BV) share some characteristics, such as a diminished number or absence of lactobacilli, increased discharge (fishy smelling in BV, while in severe forms of AV, a foul, rather rotten smell may be present) and increased pH (often more pronounced in AV), there are also striking differences between the two. There is no inflammation in women with BV, whereas the vagina of women with AV often appears red and edematous, and may even display small erosions or ulcerations. The color of the discharge in BV is usually whitish or gray and of a watery consistency, whereas in AV it is yellow to green and rather thick and mucoid. Women with BV do not have dyspareunia, while some women with severe AV do. Finally, the microscopic appearance differs in various aspects, such as the presence of leucocytes and parabasal or immature epithelial cells in AV and the absence of the granular aspect of the microflora, typical of BV. Despite all these differences, the distinction between AV and BV was not recognized in many former studies, leading to incomplete and imprecise diagnostic workouts and erroneous management of patients in both clinical and research settings. The prevalence of AV ranges between 7 and 12%, and is therefore less prevalent than BV. Although still largely undiagnosed, many researchers and clinicians increasingly take it into account as a cause of symptomatic vaginitis. AV can co-occur with other entities, such as BV and candidiasis. It can be associated with dyspareunia, sexually transmitted infections (such as human papilloma virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Trichomonas vaginalis and Chlamydia trachomatis), chorioamnionitis, fetal

  17. Descubriendo las prácticas de cuidado de adolescentes gestantes con infección vaginal Discovering care practices of pregnant adolescents with vaginal infection Descobrindo as práticas de cuidado de adolescentes gestantes com infecção vaginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUÑOZ DE RODRÍGUEZ LUCY

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivo descubrir el significado de cuidado a partir de prácticas y creencias culturales de las adolescentes gestantes con diagnóstico de infección vaginal que asistieron a control prenatal en la ESE Hospital SanRafael de Girardot en el primer trimestre de 2007. Diseño cualitativo de tipo etnográfico, basado en la etnoenfermería de la teoría transcultural de Leininger. Se empleó la entrevista y el análisis etnográfico de Spradley y se realizaron en promedio tres entrevistas a cada una de las 7 informantes, hasta que hubo saturación de información. La muestra estuvo representada por la calidad de la información brindada. A partir del análisis a profundidad se construyeron tres dominios y taxonomías: 1. conocimiento de la infección vaginal, 2. acciones de protección, 3. consejos recibidos. El estudio reveló que las adolescentes gestantes tenían conocimientos sobre la infección vaginal, sus causas y consecuencias. Cuidarse representó poner en práctica los consejos recibidos de las fuentes informales y formales para que desapareciera la infección vaginal, evitar la reinfección y las complicaciones para ellas y el hijo por nacer. Para las adolescentes gestantes, cuidarse durante la infección vaginal representó poner en práctica los consejos recibidos de las fuentes informales y formales para que desapareciera la infección vaginal y evitar la reinfección y las complicaciones para ellas y el hijo por nacer. Se evidenciaron las diferentes formas que tenían de conocer y establecer prácticas de cuidado durante la infección vaginal y se resaltó la ausencia de consejos formales del profesional de enfermería.The study was aimed at discovering the meaning of care from the perspective of cultural beliefs and customs of pregnant adolescents with vaginal infection diagnosis who had pre-natal control at the ESE Hospital San Rafael of the city of Girardot during the first quarter of 2007. Qualitative

  18. Vaginal Primary Malignant Melanoma: A Rare and Aggressive Tumor

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    Georgios Androutsopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal primary malignant melanoma is a rare and very aggressive tumor. It most commonly occurs in postmenopausal women, with a mean age of 57 years. Our patient is an 80-year-old, postmenopausal Greek woman presented with a complaint of abnormal vaginal bleeding. On gynecologic examination there was a pigmented, raised, ulcerated, and irregular lesion  cm in the upper third of anterior vaginal wall. She underwent a wide local excision of the lesion. The histopathology revealed vaginal primary malignant melanoma with ulceration and no clear surgical margins. She denied any additional surgical interventions and underwent to postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. Follow up 5 months after initial diagnosis revealed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. The prognosis of vaginal primary malignant melanoma is very poor despite treatment modality, because most of the cases are diagnosed at advanced stage. Particularly patients with no clear surgical margins and tumor size >3 cm needed postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy.

  19. An experimental cyst model established from human unkeratinized vaginal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, I O; van Wyk, C W

    1996-12-01

    Because of the scarcity of sizeable specimens of normal oral mucosa and the availability of human vaginal mucosa, which resembles the lining mucosa of the mouth, we used the latter to establish a human cyst model. Fragments of vaginal mucosa, removed during corrective procedures, were sutured around 2 mm glass balls and implanted into the flanks of nude mice. Thirty-seven specimens were implanted and 31 harvested after 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks. At 6 weeks the wall of the implanted cyst consisted of recognizable unkeratinized vaginal mucosa but had not healed completely at the sutured edges. From 9 weeks the cyst cavities were healed and the lumens lined by unkeratinized stratified squamous vaginal epithelium. The enclosing connective tissue had retained the characteristics of the lamina propria of the vaginal mucosa and could be distinguished from mouse tissue.

  20. Recurrence of vaginal prolapse after total vaginal hysterectomy with concurrent vaginal uterosacral ligament suspension: comparison between normal-weight and overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappa, Carlo; Saccone, Gabriele

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is one of the most important risk factors for the development and progression of the pelvic organ prolapse. However, data regarding whether obesity is a risk factor for recurrence after pelvic organ prolapse surgery are controversial. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of recurrent prolapse in any vaginal compartment after total vaginal hysterectomy with concurrent uterosacral ligament vaginal vault suspension among normal-weight women compared with either overweight or obese women. This is a 5-year retrospective cohort study of women who underwent total vaginal hysterectomy with concurrent vaginal uterosacral ligament suspension at one referral center for pelvic organ prolapse in Italy from January 2010 to January 2015. All women who underwent total vaginal hysterectomy with concurrent uterosacral ligament suspension were included in the analysis. Laparoscopic approach was excluded. Women were classified according to the body mass index of 2 groups: (1) normal weight (body mass index, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) and (2) either overweight (body mass index, 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) or obese (body mass index, ≥30.0 kg/m2). The primary outcome was the incidence of recurrent prolapse in any vaginal compartment (anterior, posterior, or apical). Recurrent prolapse was defined as prolapse extending beyond the hymen with straining (pelvic organ prolapse quantification points Ba, C, Bp ≥0) or repeat treatment for prolapse with either pessary or surgery. Uterosacral ligament suspensions were performed with a vaginal approach with the use of sutures placed in the intermediate uterosacral ligament, at or above the ischial spine, and affixed to the vaginal apex. Delayed absorbable sutures were used, with 2 sutures per side. Three hundred sixty women who underwent total vaginal hysterectomy with concurrent uterosacral ligament suspension with at least 6 months of follow up after surgery were included in the study. The overall incidence of recurrent prolapse in any vaginal

  1. Trocar-guided total tension-free vaginal mesh repair of post-hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milani, A.L.; Withagen, M.I.J.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The objective of this study was to report 1 year anatomical and functional outcomes of trocar-guided total tension-free vaginal mesh (Prolift) repair for post-hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse with one continuous piece of polypropylene mesh. METHODS: We conducted a

  2. Comparação entre tecnicas morfometricas aplicadas ao epitelio vaginal apos uso prolongado do contraceptivo injetavel acetato de medroxiprogesterona de deposito

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Augusto Hart Madureira Filho

    2001-01-01

    Resumo: O acetato de medroxiprogesterona de depósito (AMPD) é um contraceptivo de depósito, de absorção lenta, extensamente usado no mundo. Tem sido sugerido que esta droga possa alterar a mucosa vaginal e assim poderia aumentar o risco de transmissão de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, facilitando, por exemplo, a aquisição do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV). Em experiências com animais, foi mostrado que injeções de AMPD provocavam uma atrofia no epitélio vaginal, ocorrendo um aumen...

  3. Treating dyspareunia caused by vaginal atrophy: a review of treatment options using vaginal estrogen therapy

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    SA Kingsberg

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available SA Kingsberg¹, S Kellogg², M Krychman³1University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University Cleveland OH, USA; 2The Pelvic and Sexual Health Institute of Philadelphia, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA; 3Southern California Center for Sexual Health and Survivorship Medicine, Newport Beach, CA, USAAbstract: Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA and dryness are common symptoms of the decline in endogenous production of estrogen at menopause and often result in dyspareunia. Yet while 10% to 40% of women experience discomfort due to VVA, it is estimated that only 25% seek medical help. The main goals of treatment for vaginal atrophy are to improve symptoms and to restore vaginal and vulvar anatomic changes. Treatment choices for postmenopausal dyspareunia resulting from vulvovaginal atrophy will depend on the underlying etiology and might include individualized treatment. A number of forms of vaginal estrogen and manner of delivery are currently available to treat moderate to severe dyspareunia caused by VVA. They all have been shown to be effective and are often the preferred treatment due to the targeted efficacy for urogenital tissues while resulting in only minimal systemic absorption. Both healthcare professionals and patients often find it difficult to broach the subject of sexual problems associated with VVA. However, with minimal effort to initiate a conversation about these problems, healthcare providers can provide useful information to their postmenopausal patients in order to help them each choose the optimal treatment for their needs and symptoms.Keywords: dyspareunia, postmenopausal vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal estrogen therapy

  4. Uso del profiláctico entre la juventud en sus relaciones de coito vaginal Condom use among the young engaging in vaginal intercourse

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    J.L. Bimbela

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir el uso del profiláctico entre jóvenes en sus relaciones de coito vaginal e identificar los factores asociados a dicho uso. Método: La información se recogió mediante un cuestionario realizado en domicilio y con presencia del entrevistador, a 1.000 jóvenes (14-24 años residentes en Andalucía (España. Se llevó a cabo un análisis bifactorial y se ajustaron las ecuaciones de regresión logística jerárquica para verificar asociaciones entre la variable dependiente «uso del profiláctico en el coito vaginal» y las variables clasificadas por el modelo PRECEDE (predisponentes, facilitadores y reforzantes. El ajuste del modelo fue de un 38% según el estadístico de Nagelkerke. Resultados: 750 jóvenes mantuvieron relaciones afectivas y/o sexuales con contacto físico y un 63% de ellos practicó el coito vaginal (47% del total de la muestra. Los que tuvieron una sola relación de coito vaginal (12% del total de la muestra usaron profiláctico el 83% (un 10,3% del total de la muestra, y entre los que tuvieron más de una relación con coito vaginal (34% del total de la muestra, utilizaron siempre profiláctico un 49% (16,9% del total de la muestra. Las variables asociadas a su utilización siempre fueron dos: tener una intención de conducta «segura» con la pareja habitual y una baja frecuencia de la práctica. Las variables asociadas a no utilizarlo nunca fueron: estar emancipado, pensar que infectarse depende de factores externos (locus de control externo, identificar pocas zonas del cuerpo como sensibles al placer, pensar que no es necesario usar profiláctico si se confía en la pareja, tener una intención de conducta «insegura» con la pareja habitual y no hablar con la pareja sobre métodos preventivos antes de llevar a cabo la práctica sexual. Discusión: Los factores más asociados con el uso o no del profiláctico en el coito vaginal son predisponentes (actitudes, valores y creencias relacionados con el

  5. Performing Vaginal Lavage, Crystal Violet Staining, and Vaginal Cytological Evaluation for Mouse Estrous Cycle Staging Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Ashleigh C.; Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A.L.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid means of assessing reproductive status in rodents is useful not only in the study of reproductive dysfunction but is also required for the production of new mouse models of disease and investigations into the hormonal regulation of tissue degeneration (or regeneration) following pathological challenge. The murine reproductive (or estrous) cycle is divided into 4 stages: proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. Defined fluctuations in circulating levels of the ovarian steroids 17-β-estradiol and progesterone, the gonadotropins luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, and the luteotropic hormone prolactin signal transition through these reproductive stages. Changes in cell typology within the murine vaginal canal reflect these underlying endocrine events. Daily assessment of the relative ratio of nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells, and leukocytes present in vaginal smears can be used to identify murine estrous stages. The degree of invasiveness, however, employed in collecting these samples can alter reproductive status and elicit an inflammatory response that can confound cytological assessment of smears. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive protocol that can be used to determine the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse without altering her reproductive cycle. We detail how to differentiate between the four stages of the estrous cycle by collection and analysis of predominant cell typology in vaginal smears and we show how these changes can be interpreted with respect to endocrine status. PMID:23007862

  6. The VI-SENSE-vaginal discharge self-test to facilitate management of vaginal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Adam; Bornstein, Jacob; Dan, Michael; Shoham, Hadar Kessary; Sobel, Jack D

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate a diagnostic panty liner (VI-SENSE) (Common Sense, Caesarea, Israel) developed to facilitate diagnosis of vaginal infections by detecting disordered acidity level. Five hundred sixteen women with vulvovaginal symptoms were enrolled. Final clinical diagnosis included Amsel criteria, Gram stain analysis, pH determination, and Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida culture. VI-SENSE strip color status estimated by patients was compared with clinical diagnosis and pH measurement by using nitrazine paper. Statistical analysis included sensitivity and specificity calculations. The VI-SENSE test was positive in 226 of 249 patients (90.8%) with bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. Nitrazine pH paper revealed elevated pH in 165 (66.5%) and the amine test was positive in 160 (64.3%) patients. The VI-SENSE test was negative in 217 of 267 patients (81.3%) without trichomoniasis or bacterial vaginosis. The VI-SENSE was positive in 85 of 92 women (92%), with mixed vaginal infection including Candida and bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. Amine test, nitrazine pH paper and physician diagnosis relying only on speculum examination were inferior and positive in only 65 (70%), 59 (64%), and 66 (72%) patients, respectively. The VI-SENSE test was found to be superior to traditional individual tests in facilitating preliminary diagnosis of vaginal infections.

  7. Creencias en salud en mujeres universitarias relacionadas con la toma de citología vaginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Rubio León

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se orientó al estudio de la relación existente entre las variables psicosociales propuestas por el Modelo de Creencias en Salud y la realización de la citología vaginal por parte de una muestra de mujeres universitarias entre los 18 y 27 años. En la primera fase del estudio se construyó una batería de instrumentos con el fin de evaluar las diferentes variables de interés: sociodemográficas, psicosociales, de riesgo, y relacionadas con la conducta saludable; en la segunda fase se realizó un estudio descriptivo correlacional exploratorio con una muestra de 110 mujeres universitarias. Se observaron diferentes asociaciones entre las variables evaluadas y la realización de la citología vaginal, en donde las variables barreras percibidas, motivación para la salud y señales para la acción, mostraron asociaciones importantes con la realización y mantenimiento de dicha conducta saludable.

  8. CREENCIAS EN SALUD EN MUJERES UNIVERSITARIAS RELACIONADAS CON LA TOMA DE CITOLOGÍA VAGINAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Restrepo Forero

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se orientó al estudio de la relación existente entre las variables psicosociales propuestas por el Modelo de Creencias en Salud y la realización de la citología vaginal por parte de una muestra de mujeres universitarias entre los 18 y 27 años. En la primera fase del estudio se construyó una batería de instrumentos con el fin de evaluar las diferentes variables de interés: sociodemográficas, psicosociales, de riesgo, y relacionadas con la conducta saludable; en la segunda fase se realizó un estudio descriptivo correlacional exploratorio con una muestra de 110 mujeres universitarias. Se observaron diferentes asociaciones entre las variables evaluadas y la realización de la citología vaginal, en donde las variables barreras percibidas, motivación para la salud y señales para la acción, mostraron asociaciones importantes con la realización y mantenimiento de dicha conducta saludable.

  9. Effects of a One Year Reusable Contraceptive Vaginal Ring on Vaginal Microflora and the Risk of Vaginal Infection: An Open-Label Prospective Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Huang

    Full Text Available A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR containing Nestorone® (NES and ethinyl estradiol (EE that is reusable for 1- year (13 cycles is under development. This study assessed effects of this investigational CVR on the incidence of vaginal infections and change in vaginal microflora.There were 120 women enrolled into a NES/EE CVR Phase III trial and a microbiology sub-study for up to 1- year of cyclic product use. Gynecological examinations were conducted at baseline, the first week of cycle 6 and last week of cycle 13 (or during early discontinuation visits. Vaginal swabs were obtained for wet mount microscopy, Gram stain and culture. The CVR was removed from the vagina at the last study visit and cultured. Semi-quantitative cultures for Lactobacillus, Gardnerella vaginalis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, anaerobic gram negative rods (GNRs, Candida albicans and other yeasts were performed on vaginal and CVR samples. Vaginal infections were documented throughout the study.Over 1- year of use, 3.3% of subjects were clinically diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, 15.0% with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and 0.8% with trichomoniasis. The detection rate of these three infections did not change significantly from baseline to either Cycle 6 or 13. Nugent scores remained stable. H2O2-positive Lactobacillus dominated vaginal flora with a non-significant prevalence increase from 76.7% at baseline to 82.7% at cycle 6 and 90.2% at cycle 13, and a median concentration of 107 colony forming units (cfu per gram. Although anaerobic GNRs prevalence increased significantly, the median concentration decreased slightly (104 to 103cfu per gram. There were no significant changes in frequency or concentrations of other pathogens. High levels of agreement between vaginal and ring surface microbiota were observed.Sustained use of the NES/EE CVR did not increase the risk of vaginal infection and was not disruptive to the vaginal ecosystem

  10. Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign-Hodges, Laura

    A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations

  11. Dynamics of the Vaginal Ecosystem—Hormonal Influences

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    Miranda A. Farage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The vagina is a dynamic and finely tuned ecosystem in which homeostasis depends on mutually beneficial interactions between a human female and her resident microorganisms, an ecosystem that can be thrown off balance by a wide variety of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Although a functional equilibrium provides stability to the ecosystem considered crucial to maintaining vaginal health, “normal flora” is a concept currently being redefined. New methodologies enable molecular analyses of the vaginal microbiota which have widened the definition of “normal” from a single specific microbiological profile to a range of functional microbial equilibria dependent upon pertinent host and microbial factors. One of the strongest influences on the vaginal microbiota is the hormonal changes that define the reproductive phases of a woman's life. The vaginal environment is particularly responsive to estrogen, a hormone that creates distinctive changes in the vaginal microbiota. This review summarizes the components of a healthy vaginal ecosystem during the reproductive years, including the characteristics of a healthy equilibrium and factors that can disturb a functional balance. It also summarizes what is known about the vaginal microbiota in childhood and after menopause. Healthful ecosystems at any stage of a female's reproductive life will be characterized by a microbiota that both maintains physiological function and though changeable, adapts to normal perturbation without succumbing to disease.

  12. Difficulty in the management of pregnancy after vaginal radical trachelectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Sakura; Ishioka, Shin-Ichi; Endo, Toshiaki; Baba, Tsuyoshi; Morishita, Miyuki; Akashi, Yushi; Mizuuchi, Masahito; Adachi, Hidefumi; Kim, Miseon; Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2013-12-01

    We have performed 26 vaginal radical trachelectomies (RTs) for patients with early invasive uterine cervical cancer since 2003 and, to date, have experienced 8 deliveries. The procedure has a high risk for preterm labor and the subsequent occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM). We report the present situation and the limits of follow-up of pregnancy after vaginal RT. Our operative procedure is based on that of Dargent et al. We usually amputate the cervix approximately 10 mm below the isthmus. To remove the parametrium, we cut at the level of type II hysterectomy. Pregnancy courses after vaginal RT were studied in 8 patients with respect to symptoms, cervical length, and several infectious signs. We recommended that patients enter hospital early in their second trimester, and prophylactic daily vaginal disinfection with povidone-iodine and an ulinastatin vaginal suppository were administered. Careful checking for vaginal infectious signs, as well as cervical length and abdominal tension of patients was also performed. Four patients followed up with this modality were able to continue their pregnancies until late in the third trimester. However, this follow-up modality was not effective for patients who showed cervical incompetence due to slack cervical cerclage. They suffered from pPROM at 26 and 19 weeks of gestation. We need a new approach for the management of pregnant patients after vaginal RT with cervical incompetence due to slack cervical cerclage to prevent cervical infection.

  13. The vaginal microbiota, host defence and reproductive physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven B; Ravel, Jacques

    2017-01-15

    The interaction between the human host and the vaginal microbiota is highly dynamic. Major changes in the vaginal physiology and microbiota over a woman's lifetime are largely shaped by transitional periods such as puberty, menopause and pregnancy, while daily fluctuations in microbial composition observed through culture-independent studies are more likely to be the results of daily life activities and behaviours. The vaginal microbiota of reproductive-aged women is largely made up of at least five different community state types. Four of these community state types are dominated by lactic-acid producing Lactobacillus spp. while the fifth is commonly composed of anaerobes and strict anaerobes and is sometimes associated with vaginal symptoms. The production of lactic acid has been associated with contributing to the overall health of the vagina due to its direct and indirect effects on pathogens and host defence. Some species associated with non-Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota may trigger immune responses as well as degrade the host mucosa, processes that ultimately increase susceptibility to infections and contribute to negative reproductive outcomes such as infertility and preterm birth. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional underpinnings of how the vaginal microbiota affect host physiology but also how host physiology affects the vaginal microbiota. Understanding this fine-tuned interaction is key to maintaining women's reproductive health. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  14. A comparison of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies in Benghazi, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnaeber, K; Bodalal, Z

    2013-08-01

    We performed a comparative study between abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies using clinical data from Al-Jamhouria hospital (one of the largest maternity hospitals in Eastern Libya). Various parameters were taken into consideration: the rates of each type (and their subtypes); average age of patients; indications; causes; postoperative complications; and duration of stay in the hospital afterwards. Conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the results of this study. In light of the aforementioned parameters, it was found that: (1) abdominal hysterectomies were more common than vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (2) patients admitted for abdominal hysterectomies are younger than those admitted for vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (3) the most common indication for an abdominal hysterectomy was menstrual disturbances, while for vaginal hysterectomies it was vaginal prolapse; (4) the histopathological cause for abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies were observed and the most common were found to be leiomyomas and atrophic endometrium; (5) there was no significant difference between the two routes in terms of postoperative complications; (6) patients who were admitted for abdominal hysterectomies spent a longer amount of time in the hospital (p < 0.01). It was concluded that efforts should be made to further pursue vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomies as a viable option to the more conventional abdominal route.

  15. Estudio sobre agentes etiológicos de vaginitis en la mujer grávida costarricense

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    Luis E Solano S

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A fin de determinar la importancia de infecciones vaginales de tipo no gonorreico en nuestra embarazada, se tomaron muestras a 300 pacientes y se efectuaron las siguientes pruebas de rutina a cada una de ellas: presencia de Trichomonas vaginalis por examen del material a fresco, flora bacteriana por plateos sobre medio base para agar sangre, siembra y aislamiento de organismos del género Candida con posterior identificación específica utilizando los métodos del auxanograma y zimograma, determinación del pH por medio del indicador de Bogen, contenido de glucógeno de la mucosa utilizando lugol a fresco y examen microscópico de la muestra utilizando la coloración de Gram. Las pacientes fueron divididas en los siguientes grupos: normales; con infecciones leves sin vaginitis; con infecciones graves acompañándose de vaginitis, incluyendo en este grupo infecciones por T. vaginalis, C. albicans y Escherichia coli. Un último grupo comprendió las que presentaban vaginitis no determinadas y de tipo no infeccioso, entre las que se cuentan algunas por causas traumáticas y otras posiblemente por disturbios funcionales. Se encontró un total de 89 pacientes (29.66 % con Trichomonas vaginalis, en 16 de las cuales éstas se acompañaron de Candida albicans y en 4 de las cuales las infecciones no se relacionaron a vaginitis ni anormalidades, suponiéndose se trate de estados iniciales de infección. Cuarenta pacientes (13.33 % presentaron Candida albicans, 16 de las cuales tenían también T. vaginalis. Una paciente mostró vaginitis causada por Escherichia coli. Las pacientes presentaron Candida krusei en el 2% de los casos, pero no se encontró ninguna cepa de Candida stellatoidea. Se determinó como flora bacteriana normal y saprofítica a M. epidermidis, M. aurantiacus, M. flavus, M. candidus, Micrococcus sp., Gaffkya tetragenil, Sarcina Iutea, Streptococcus sp., Mima polymorpha, Herella vaginicola. CoIloides anoxydana, lactobacilos de D

  16. Prevalencia de vaginitis y vaginosis bacteriana en pacientes con flujo vaginal anormal en el Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Medina

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de vaginitis y vaginosis bacteriana en pacientes con flujo vaginal y su asociación con características clínicas y de laboratorio. Material y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal. Se estudiaron 370 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta ginecológica del Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza de enero a marzo de 1998. A todas las pacientes se les tomó muestras de flujo vaginal para la medición del pH, del test de amina y la identificación microscópica de "células clave", Trichomonas vaginalis, levaduras e hifas. Resultados: La prevalencia de infección vaginal fue de 42.2%; siendo vaginosis bacteriana la infección más frecuente (23.24%, seguido de candidiasis vaginal (16.2% y tricomoniasis vaginal (7.8%. Vaginosis bacteriana estuvo asociada a mal olor postcoital, ausencia de signos inflamatorios en vagina, flujo vaginal blanquecino, lechoso, homogéneo y fétido. La candidiasis vaginal estuvo asociada a prurito, ardor vulvovaginal, eritema vulvar y vaginal, flujo vaginal amarillento, grumoso sin olor, test de amina negativo; así como ausencia de relaciones sexuales, ningún compañero sexual en el último año, ninguna gestación, una vida sexual menor de dos años y paridad de ninguno a un hijo. La tricomoniasis vaginal estuvo asociada a eritema vaginal, flujo vaginal amarillo verdoso, espumoso, homogéneo y fétido y test de amina positivo. Conclusión: Un diagnóstico correcto y oportuno de las infecciones vaginales no debe basarse sólo en las características clínicas sino en la confirmación con métodos sencillos de laboratorio. ( Rev Med Hered 1999; 10:144-150 .

  17. Prevalência e fatores associados à percepção de ocorrência de corrimento vaginal patológico entre gestantes Prevalence of self-reported vaginal discharge and associated factors in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci A. Cesar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo medir a prevalência e identificar fatores associados à percepção de corrimento vaginal patológico por gestantes residentes em Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário padronizado a todas as parturientes nas maternidades do município em 2007. Utilizou-se teste do qui-quadrado para comparar proporções e análise multivariável por regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de corrimento vaginal foi de 40%. Análise ajustada mostrou as seguintes razões de prevalência: 1,6 (1,4-1,8 para adolescentes; 1,3 (1,1-1,6 para aquelas com até oito anos de escolaridade; 1,3 (1,1-1,5 para aquelas que ingeriram álcool; 2,0 (1,8-2,2 para aquelas que referiram corrimento vaginal em gestação anterior; 1,4 (1,3-1,6 para infecção urinária na gestação atual; prematuridade em gestação anterior mostrou-se protetor com RP = 0,8 (0,7-0,9. Os serviços de saúde deveriam priorizar diagnóstico e tratamento de corrimento vaginal entre gestantes adolescentes, de baixa renda familiar e escolaridade, com história prévia de corrimento em gravidez anterior e infecção urinária na gravidez atual.This study aims to determine the prevalence self-reported abnormal vaginal discharge and to identify associated risk factors in pregnant women in the municipality of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A standardized questionnaire was applied to all pregnant women admitted for delivery in local maternity hospitals. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions, and Poisson regression was applied using multivariate analysis. Prevalence of vaginal discharge was 40%. Adjusted analysis showed the following prevalence ratios for vaginal discharge: 1.6 (1.4-1.8 for adolescents; 1.3 (1.1-1.6 for 8 years of schooling or less; 1.3 (1.1-1.5 for alcohol consumption; 2.0 (1.8-2.2 for vaginal discharge in the previous pregnancy; 1.4 (1.3-1.6 for urinary tract infection in the current pregnancy; and 0.8 (0

  18. Stage IV Primary Vaginal Leiomyosarcoma with Lung and Breast Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lin; Liu, Hui; Yang, Kai-Xuan; Peng, Zhi-Lan

    2012-01-01

    Background Reproductive tract sarcomas metastasizing to the breast are uncommon. To our knowledge, metastasis of vaginal leiomyosarcoma to the breast has not been previously reported in the literature. Case Report We present the first report of a FIGO stage IV primary vaginal leiomyosarcoma with metastases to the lung and left breast. Treatment included neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and postoperative chemotherapy. Lung metastasis disappeared but recurred 14 months later in conjunction with left breast metastasis which was resected. Conclusion Primary vaginal sarcoma with lung and breast metastases is very rare in female genital malignancies. We present this case to alert gynecologists to the need for early diagnosis and aggressive management. PMID:22740804

  19. Characterization of Human Vaginal Mucosa Cells for Autologous In Vitro Cultured Vaginal Tissue Transplantation in Patients with MRKH Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Nodale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH is a rare syndrome characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and vagina. The most common procedure used for surgical reconstruction of the neovagina is the McIndoe vaginoplasty, which consists in creation of a vaginal canal covered with a full-thickness skin graft. Here we characterized the autologous in vitro cultured vaginal tissue proposed as alternative material in our developed modified McIndoe vaginoplasty in order to underlie its importance in autologous total vaginal replacement. To this aim human vaginal mucosa cells (HVMs were isolated from vaginal mucosa of patients affected by MRKH syndrome and characterized with respect to growth kinetics, morphology, PAS staining, and expression of specific epithelial markers by immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR analyses. The presence of specific epithelial markers along with the morphology and the presence of mucified cells demonstrated the epithelial nature of HMVs, important for an efficient epithelialization of the neovagina walls and for creating a functional vaginal cavity. Moreover, these cells presented characteristics of effective proliferation as demonstrated by growth kinetics assay. Therefore, the autologous in vitro cultured vaginal tissue might represent a highly promising and valid material for McIndoe vaginoplasty.

  20. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose Vagifem 10 microg in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, L S G; Naessen, T; Elia, D

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the endometrial safety of a 10 microg estradiol vaginal tablet in the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women.......The objective of the study was to evaluate the endometrial safety of a 10 microg estradiol vaginal tablet in the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women....

  1. Histerectomía vaginal en pacientes sin prolapso uterino Vaginal hysterectomy in patients with uterus prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Emilio García Rodríguez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. En la literatura médica se cita la nuliparidad, la existencia de operaciones anteriores y el tamaño del útero como factores excluyentes a la hora de elegir la técnica de histerectomía. El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la eficacia y factibilidad de la histerectomía vaginal por la técnica de Heaney, practicada en pacientes sin prolapso uterino, incluso en presencia de los factores antes mencionados. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo multivariado, en una muestra de 1 000 pacientes operadas en el servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Universitario «Martín Chang Puga», en Nuevitas (Camagüey, entre mayo del 1994 y diciembre del 2006. Se diseñó una base datos en Excel, que se importó al paquete estadístico profesional SPSS, con el que se realizaron análisis univariados, bivariados y multivariados, que finalmente se representaron en tablas de frecuencias y porcentajes. Se utilizó una significación de p = 0,05. RESULTADOS. El 6 % de las pacientes eran nulíparas y el 23,5 % tenían cirugías previas en la pelvis. Un 82,6 % de las pacientes tenían úteros que no sobrepasaban un valor aproximado de 12 semanas de gestación, y el fibroma uterino fue el motivo principal (88,5 % de la intervención. Solamente un 4,1 % de las pacientes necesitó transfusión sanguínea. Las complicaciones peri- y posoperatorias ocuparon el 1,7 % y el 10,3 % respectivamente. El 97,2 % de las pacientes estuvo menos de 48 h en el hospital y el 99,4 % se reincorporó antes de los 30 días. CONCLUSIONES. Se desestiman la nuliparidad, el tamaño del útero y las operaciones anteriores como factores aislados y excluyentes para la vía vaginal. No obstante, el tipo de histerectomía dependerá de la decisión tomada en conjunto por la paciente y su médico tratante, según los costos y beneficios que implique en cada caso.INTRODUCTION. In the medical literature is quoted the nulliparity, the existence of

  2. HPV vaginal self-sampling among women non-adherent to Papanicolaou screening in Chile Autotoma vaginal para detección de virus del papiloma humano en mujeres no adherentes a tamizaje con Papanicolaou en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera Léniz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate acceptance, preference and compliance with referral of vaginal self-sampling for the detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV among women non-adherent to Papanicolaou (Pap screening in Santiago, Chile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using multistage sampling we identified women aged 30-64 years who reported not receiving a Pap test in the previous three years and offered them Pap testing at the health center or vaginal self-sampling for HPV testing at home. Self-collected samples were analyzed with hybrid capture. All HPV+ women were referred for colposcopy, biopsy and treatment when needed. RESULTS: 1 254 eligible women were contacted; 86.5% performed self-sampling and 8.1% refused; 124 women were HPV+ (11.4%: 95%CI 9.6-13.5 of whom 85.5% attended colposcopy; 12 had CIN2+ (1.1%: 95 %CI 0.5-1.7. CONCLUSION: HPV vaginal self-sampling can be easily implemented in Chile and could improve coverage, successfully reaching women who drop out of the screening program.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la aceptación, preferencia y adherencia a seguimiento de la autotoma vaginal para detección del virus del papiloma humano (VPH en mujeres inasistentes a Papanicolaou (Pap en Santiago, Chile. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Mediante un muestreo polietápico se identificaron mujeres entre 30 y 64 años inasistentes a Pap por < 3 años, invitándolas a realizarse un Pap en su centro de salud o una autotoma vaginal a domicilio. Las muestras fueron analizadas con captura de híbridos. Las mujeres VPH+ fueron referidas a colposcopía, biopsia y tratamiento en caso necesario. RESULTADOS: 1 254 mujeres elegibles fueron contactadas; 86.5% aceptó la autotoma vaginal y 8.1% la rechazó; 124 mujeres resultaron VPH+ (11.4%: IC95% 9.6-13.5 de las que 85.5% asistió a colposcopía; 12 tenían CIN2+ (1.1%: IC95% 0.5-1.7. CONCLUSIÓN: La autotoma vaginal para detección de VPH es implementable en Chile y su utilización podría mejorar la cobertura del programa rescatando a mujeres

  3. Prevalencia de vaginitis y vaginosis bacteriana en pacientes con flujo vaginal anormal en el Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza.

    OpenAIRE

    MEDINA, Ruth; RECHKEMMER PRIETO, Adolfo; GARCIA-HJARLES, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de vaginitis y vaginosis bacteriana en pacientes con flujo vaginal y su asociación con características clínicas y de laboratorio. Material y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal. Se estudiaron 370 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta ginecológica del Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza de enero a marzo de 1998. A todas las pacientes se les tomó muestras de flujo vaginal para la medición del pH, del test de amina y la identificación microscópica d...

  4. Fetal Acidosis from Obstetric Interventions During the First Vaginal Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Su

    2008-12-01

    Conclusion: Oxytocin augmentation and vacuum extraction were significantly related to low cord arterial pH values (pH < 7.20, but there were no adverse effects to the newborns of first vaginal deliveries.

  5. Instrumental vaginal delivery - an assessment of use in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O'SHEHU

    Instrumental vaginal delivery - an assessment of use in a tertiary care centre. Constance E SHEHU. Joel C OMEMBELEDE. Dept of Obstetrics &. Gynaecology, Usmanu. Danfodiyo, University. Teaching Hospital Sokoto. NIGERIA. Author for Correspondence. Constance E SHEHU. Dept of Obstetrics &. Gynaecology, Usmanu.

  6. perspectives on the practice of vaginal birth after caesarean section ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... North America (7). The same is true for ..... Rates and implication of Caesarean sections in Latin. America: ... Menacker, F. and Curtin, S. Trends in Caesarean birth and vaginal ... Cochrane Database of Systematic. Reviews ...

  7. The role of lactobacilli and probiotics in maintaining vaginal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Sandra; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2014-03-01

    The vaginal microbiota of healthy women consists typically of a diversity of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms. Lactobacilli are the most prevalent and often numerically dominant microorganisms and are relevant as a barrier to infection. The capacity of lactobacilli to adhere and compete for adhesion sites in the vaginal epithelium and the capacity to produce antimicrobial compounds (hydrogen peroxide, lactic acid, bacteriocin-like substances), are important in the impairment of colonization by pathogens. This review summarizes the role of lactic acid bacteria in preventing illness of the host, including bacterial vaginosis, yeast vaginitis, urinary tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases. The administration of probiotics that colonize the vaginal tract can be important in maintaining a normal urogenital health and also to prevent or treat infections.

  8. Vaginal Foreign Bodies and Child Sexual Abuse: An Important Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lichenstein

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal foreign bodies are a complaint occasionally encountered in pediatric clinics and emergency departments, and when pediatric patients present with a vaginal foreign body sexual abuse may not be considered. We describe two children with vaginal foreign bodies who were found to have been sexually abused. Each child had a discharge positive for a sexually transmitted infection despite no disclosure or allegation of abuse. We recommend that all pre-pubertal girls who present with a vaginal foreign body should be considered as possible victims of sexual abuse and should receive a sexual abuse history and testing for sexually transmitted infections. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:437–439.

  9. Vaginal cesarean section for second-trimester therapeutic abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Karakida

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Although its indications are limited, vaginal cesarean section is a useful option for terminating a pregnancy that compensates for the disadvantages of dilatation and curettage and systemic abortifacients.

  10. Postpartum Prolapsed Leiomyoma with Uterine Inversion Managed by Vaginal Hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L. Pieh-Holder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Uterine inversion is a rare, but life threatening, obstetrical emergency which occurs when the uterine fundus collapses into the endometrial cavity. Various conservative and surgical therapies have been outlined in the literature for the management of uterine inversions. Case. We present a case of a chronic, recurrent uterine inversion, which was diagnosed following spontaneous vaginal delivery and recurred seven weeks later. The uterine inversion was likely due to a leiomyoma. This late-presenting, chronic, recurring uterine inversion was treated with a vaginal hysterectomy. Conclusion. Uterine inversions can occur in both acute and chronic phases. Persistent vaginal bleeding with the appearance of a prolapsing fibroid should prompt further investigation for uterine inversion and may require surgical therapy. A vaginal hysterectomy may be an appropriate management option in select populations and may be considered in women who do not desire to maintain reproductive function.

  11. Evaluation of vaginal pessary use by South African gynaecologists

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    performed for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. (POP). In 2009 Maher ... 2713). Introduction. The use of vaginal pessaries for conservative management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is well .... quality of life, and body image. Am J Obstet ...

  12. The Use of Isolated Sigmoid Colon Segment for Vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rokitansky-Kuster syndrome, or for gender confirmation may be achieved by several techniques. This report focuses on the efficacy of rectosigmoid neocolporrhaphy (RSNC) for primary vaginal replacement. Patients and Methods From 1990 to 2002 ...

  13. Correlates of the molecular vaginal microbiota composition of African women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautam, Raju; Borgdorff, Hanneke; Jespers, Vicky; Francis, Suzanna C.; Verhelst, Rita; Mwaura, Mary; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Ndayisaba, Gilles; Kyongo, Jordan K.; Hardy, Liselotte; Menten, Joris; Crucitti, Tania; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Schuren, Frank; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Mandaliya, Kishor; Dierick, Lou; Jaoko, Walter; Irungu, Eunice; Katingima, Christine; Maina, Mercy; Mazera, Jane Wanjiru; Gichuru, Josephine; Onuki, Grace Aketch; Kiambi, Mary; Thiong, Mary; Wanjiku, Salome; Nduku, Patricia; Njeru, Carol; Mbogho, Bernard; Wambua, Sammy; Baya, Rachel Sidi; Onduko, Emmanuel Moffat; Kombo, Patrick Katana; Masha, Simon Chengo; John, Mary Ndinda; Odeyo, Kevin; Ngala, Dora; Odero, Collins; Edward, Vinodh Aroon; Reddy, Krishnaveni; Von Knorring, Nina; Mahabeer, Ishania; Mashilo, Johannah Nkoleleng; Mnyandu, Ntombifuthi; Mokoatle, Keneuoe; Nani, Siyabulela; Tshabalala, Gugu; Mngwevu, Thembisile Hope; Mtabane, Noxolo; Masalesa, Puseletso Maria; Kumase, Zodidi; Mohale, Sefora Dipolelo; Madi, Mavis Mantshitseng; Mlotshwa, Mandla; Maenetje, Pholo Wilson; Arjun, Nishanee; de Assis Rosa, Debra; Ubuzima, Rinda; Ndayisaba, Gilles F.; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Gasarabwe, Ammiel; van Eeckhoudt, Servaas; Agaba, Stephen; Busasa, Rosette; Nshimuyimana, Deogratias; Umutoni, Grace; Karangwa, Vincent; Bukuru, Claire; Fiat, Alice; Mwambarangwe, Lambert; Musengamana, Viateur; Nyinawabega, Jeanine; Schurmans, Céline; van Loen, Harry; Buvé, Anne; Kyongo, Jordan; Ariën, Kevin; Vanham, Guido; Abdellati, Said; Cuylaert, Vicky; Thys, Wendy; Ielegems, An; Casier, Lieve; Verstraelen, Hans; Temmerman, Marleen; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Cools, Piet; Saerens, Bart; Janssen, Friso; McCormack, Sheena; Joseph, Sarah; Francis, Suzanna; Baisley, Kathy; Hayes, Richard; Kapiga, Saidi; Andreasen, Aura; Changalucha, John; Maganja, Kaballa; Masesa, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical correlates of the vaginal microbiome (VMB) as characterized by molecular methods have not been adequately studied. VMB dominated by bacteria other than lactobacilli may cause inflammation, which may facilitate HIV acquisition and other adverse reproductive

  14. Vaginal pH: Home-Use Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do this test to help evaluate if your vaginal symptoms (i.e., itching, burning, unpleasant odor, or unusual discharge) are likely caused by an infection that needs medical treatment. The test is not ...

  15. Management of Recurrent Stricture Formation after Transverse Vaginal Septum Excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhima Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A transverse vaginal septum (TVS is a rare obstructing anomaly, caused due to improper fusion of Müllerian ducts and urogenital sinus during embryogenesis. Case. A 15-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea. She had multiple congenital anomalies. Initial examination and imaging investigation revealed the presence of a unicornuate uterus and a TVS. The TVS was excised; however the patient was unable to perform vaginal dilation postoperatively leading to recurrent stricture formation. She underwent multiple surgeries for excision of the stricture. The patient was eventually evaluated every day in the clinic until she was able to demonstrate successful vaginal dilatation in the presence of a clinician. Summary and Conclusion. Properly guided regular and intensive vaginal dilation after TVS excision may decrease the need of reoperations due to recurrent stricture formation.

  16. Management of Recurrent Stricture Formation after Transverse Vaginal Septum Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ridhima; Bozzay, Joseph D; Williams, David L; DePond, Robert T; Gantt, Pickens A

    2015-01-01

    Background. A transverse vaginal septum (TVS) is a rare obstructing anomaly, caused due to improper fusion of Müllerian ducts and urogenital sinus during embryogenesis. Case. A 15-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea. She had multiple congenital anomalies. Initial examination and imaging investigation revealed the presence of a unicornuate uterus and a TVS. The TVS was excised; however the patient was unable to perform vaginal dilation postoperatively leading to recurrent stricture formation. She underwent multiple surgeries for excision of the stricture. The patient was eventually evaluated every day in the clinic until she was able to demonstrate successful vaginal dilatation in the presence of a clinician. Summary and Conclusion. Properly guided regular and intensive vaginal dilation after TVS excision may decrease the need of reoperations due to recurrent stricture formation.

  17. Hormone Replacement Therapy: Can It Cause Vaginal Bleeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy: Can it cause vaginal bleeding? I'm taking hormone therapy for menopause symptoms, and my monthly ... www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/menopause/expert-answers/hormone-replacement-therapy/FAQ-20058499 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  18. Clinical Validation of a Test for the Diagnosis of Vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Charlotte A; Beqaj, Sajo; Schwebke, Jane R; Lebed, Joel; Smith, Bonnie; Davis, Thomas E; Fife, Kenneth H; Nyirjesy, Paul; Spurrell, Timothy; Furgerson, Dorothy; Coleman, Jenell; Paradis, Sonia; Cooper, Charles K

    2017-07-01

    Vaginitis may be diagnosed as bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, or coinfection. A new molecular test assays the vaginal microbiome and organisms that cause three common infections. The objective of the trial was to evaluate the clinical accuracy of the investigational test for vaginal swabs collected by patients (self) or clinicians. The primary and secondary outcomes were to compare the investigational test with reference methods for the three most common causes of vaginitis and compare clinician-collected with self-collected swabs. We conducted a cross-sectional study in which women with symptoms of vaginitis were recruited at ten clinical centers and consented to the investigation between May and September 2015. The woman collected a vaginal swab, sheathed, and then handed it to the clinician. These swabs were to evaluate how self-collected swabs compared with clinician-collected swabs. The clinician collected an investigational test swab and reference test swabs. From 1,740 symptomatic patients, clinician-collected and self-collected vaginal swabs were evaluated by the molecular test and six tests. The reference methods for bacterial vaginosis were Nugent's score and Amsel's criteria for intermediate Nugent results. The reference methods for Candida infection were isolation of any potential Candida microorganisms from inoculation of two culture media: chromogenic and Sabouraud agar and sequencing. The reference methods for trichomoniasis were wet mount and culture. For clinician-collected swabs, by reference methods, bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 56.5%, vaginal candidiasis in 32.8%, trichomoniasis in 8%, and none of the three infections in 24% with a coinfection rate of 20%. The investigational test sensitivity was 90.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 88.3-92.2%) and specificity was 85.8% (95% CI 83.0-88.3%) for bacterial vaginosis. The investigational test sensitivity was 90.9% (95% CI 88.1-93.1%) and specificity was 94

  19. Exploring the umbilical and vaginal port during minimally invasive surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Tinelli, Andrea; Tsin, Daniel A.; Forgione, Antonello; Zorron,Ricardo; Dapri, Giovanni; Malvasi, Antonio; Benhidjeb, Tahar; Sparic, Radmila; Nezhat, Farr

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the anatomy, literature, and our own experiences in an effort to assist in the decision-making process of choosing between an umbilical or vaginal port. Umbilical access is more familiar to general surgeons; it is thicker than the transvaginal entry, and has more nerve endings and sensory innervations. This combination increases tissue damage and pain in the umbilical port site. The vaginal route requires prophylactic antibiotics, a Foley catheter, and a period of post...

  20. On the Biomechanics of Vaginal Birth and Common Sequelae

    OpenAIRE

    Ashton-Miller, James A.; DeLancey, John O. L.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 11% of U.S. women undergo surgery for pelvic floor dysfunction, including genital organ prolapse and urinary and fecal incontinence. The major risk factor for developing these conditions is giving vaginal birth. Vaginal birth is a remarkable event about which little is known from a biomechanical perspective. We first review the functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor, the normal loads acting on the pelvic floor in activities of daily living, and the functional capacity of ...

  1. What to Do With Recurrent Prolapse After Vaginal Mesh Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norinho de Oliveira, Paula; Bourdel, Nicolas; Rabischong, Benoit; Canis, Michel; Botchorishvili, Revaz

    2016-02-01

    To show that in selected cases laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy can be used for the treatment of recurrent pelvic organ prolapse after vaginal mesh surgery. Step-by-step examination of the technique using an educative video. Institutional review board approval was obtained. The authors describe two clinical cases of treatment of recurrent pelvic organ prolapse, after a vaginal mesh surgery, using laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. A 56-year old patient (para 3, gravida 2) presented with the sentation of bulging in the vagina. On physical examination, the patient had a grade 2-3 vaginal apical prolapse and a stage 4 rectocele. She had a slight mesh contraction but no vaginal extrusion and no pain were reported. Eleven years before, she had a vaginal total hysterectomy for pelvic organ prolapse correction and one year before she had a vaginal prolapse repair using a synthetic mesh. A laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy with bilateral ooforectomy was performed. The second case is of a 54-year old patient (para 2, gravida 2) that presented stress urinary incontinence. On physical examination, the patient had a grade 3 uterine prolapse and grade 2 cystocele. Eleven years before she had a vaginal prolapse repair using a synthetic mesh and a miduretral sling for stress urinary incontinence. Two years before, she had the miduretal sling removed for recurrent urinary infections and dysuria. A laparoscopic sub-total hysterectomy with salpingectomy and ovarian conservation, sacrocolpopexy and a Burch colposuspension was performed. The procedures and postoperative recovery were uneventful. No minor or major complications occurred. The patients were discharged three days after surgery. Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy is a promising approach for the treatment of recurrent pelvic organ prolapse after vaginal mesh surgery. It appears to be feasible, safe, and effective. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vaginal cytokines do not correlate with postmenopausal vulvovaginal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Zahraa; Bersinger, Nick; von Wolff, Michael; Thurman, Andrea R; Archer, David F; Stute, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Exploratory pilot study to determine the correlation between postmenopausal vulvovaginal symptoms and vaginal cytokine levels. Postmenopausal women (n = 34) not using menopausal hormone therapy and presenting with or without symptoms of vulvovaginal irritation were screened. Each participant underwent a vaginal examination and screening for vaginitis. A cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) with sterile saline and a peripheral blood sample were obtained. Main outcome measures were assessed by Luminex® X-map method on the Bio-Plex® platform. Main outcome measures were cervicovaginal and serum interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, TNF-α, GM-CSF, MIP-1-alpha and RANTES level. Cervicovaginal cytokines were adjusted to total protein concentration [pg/mcg protein]. Twenty-six postmenopausal women were enrolled (symptomatic: n = 15; asymptomatic: n = 11). There were no significant differences between groups: age, age at menopause, vaginal pH and all CVL and serum cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, TNF-α, GM-CSF, MIP-1-alpha and RANTES). GM-CSF was the most abundant vaginal cytokine (symptomatic: 146.5 ± 165.6 pg/mcg protein; asymptomatic: 146.0 ± 173.5 pg/mcg protein; p = 0.99). Postmenopausal vulvovaginal symptoms did not correlate with vaginal inflammatory marker. There was no difference in serum or CVL cytokines between symptomatic and asymptomatic postmenopasual women. Vaginal symptoms after menopause are not related to the vaginal cytokine changes associated with loss of estrogen.

  3. The performance of the vaginal discharge syndromic management in treating vaginal and cervical infection : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zemouri, C.; Wi, T.E.; Kiarie, J.; Seuc, A.; Mogasale, V.; Latif, A.; Broutet, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background This review aimed to synthesize and analyze the diagnostic accuracy and the likelihood of providing correct treatment of the syndromic approach Vaginal Discharge Flowchart in managing cervical infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and vaginal

  4. Impedance pattern of vaginal and vestibular mucosa in cyclic goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Křivánek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of vaginal and vestibular impedance during the oestrous cycle in goats were examined. The onset of oestrus was teased with a buck once a day during the experiment. Impedance was mea­sured by a four-terminal method. The vaginal impedance was recorded under slight pressure of electrodes to the vaginal dorsal wall at the cervix. The vestibular impedance was recorded under slight pressure of electrodes to the vestibular dorsal wall 5 cm from the vulva and at the vulva. The im­pe­dan­ce was measured once a day from 4 days before the expected oestrus to 6 days after onset of oestrus. The vaginal impedance at the cervix decreased during pro-oestrus (P < 0.01 and increased du­ring oestrus (P < 0.01. The vestibular impedance 5 cm from the vulva decreased during pro-oestrus (P < 0.01 and increased after oestrus (P < 0.01. The decrease of vaginal impedance during peri-oestrus was nearly twofold in comparison with the vestibular impedance 5 cm from the vulva. No sig­ni­fi­cant decrease of the vestibular impedance at the vulva was found during the oestrous cycle. The results indicate that the vaginal impedance at the cervix and vestibular impedance 5 cm from the vulva measured by means of a four-terminal method during the oestrous cycle display cyclic changes that are closely related to the oestrous behaviour of goats.

  5. [Vulvovaginitis: vaginal pH changes and associated microflora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Ana Conceiçáo Ribeiro Dantas; Sisenando, Herbert Ary Arzabe Anteza Costa Nóbrega; Pereira, Alessandra Ramalho; Vale, Ana Patrícia Medeiros; Pires, Leila Monte; de Araújo, Jarine Torres; Ramos, Eleni Souto Nóbrega

    2005-01-01

    To establish a correlation between pH vaginal and the microflora associated in carriers of vulvovaginites. In the present study, the cytopathological examination and the vaginal flow in a group of 65 sexually active women had been carried through, 20 and 72 years, taken care of in the Laboratório de Citologia Clínica do Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, for determination of microorganisms in cervicovaginal sample and of pH in the vaginal flow. Associating pH vaginal with the presence of vulvovaginitis, it was evidenced that the Candida sp. occurred more frequently in pH 4.0, Trichomonas vaginalis in pH 6.0, Gardnerella vaginalis in pH 5.0, coconuts in pH 5.0, bacilli in pH 4.0 and cocos/bacilos in pH 6.0. It was observed that all the patients had presented at least one type of ethiological agent of vulvovaginiti and an associated microflora. The joint accomplishment of the cytological examinations and the determination of pH revealed important for directing the microflora associated with the vulvovaginiti, suggesting, of this form, that pH vaginal plays preponderant role how much to the presence of the infectious agents in the vaginal ecosystem.

  6. Surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse: abdominal and vaginal approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvach, Kristina; Dwyer, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common condition, affecting women of all ages. Both abdominal (open and laparoscopic) and vaginal approaches are utilised by the surgeon to achieve the best result for the patient. The aim of this review is to evaluate the most common surgical techniques used to correct POP based on current evidence and our experience. PubMed was searched using the following terms: 'pelvic organ prolapse; vaginal prolapse surgery; abdominal prolapse surgery'. These studies were complimented by our personal experience in diagnosing and treating women with prolapse. Current evidence suggests that attention to the apical compartment is paramount to decrease the risk of recurrent POP. Apical procedures include abdominal sacrocolpopexy (hysteropexy), vaginal uterosacral ligament suspension and sacrospinous ligament suspension. The use of vaginal polypropylene mesh is controversial but may have a place in repair of recurrent prolapse, particularly of the anterior compartment. The vaginal approach has a lower morbidity and is appropriate especially in the elderly or medically compromised. The abdominal sacrocolpopexy or sacrohysteropexy is our preferred procedure when vaginal capacity is reduced and ongoing sexual function is important, or when fertility and future pregnancies are desired. POP is a complex condition requiring individualised patient care. The pelvic surgeon needs to be proficient in a number of different prolapse surgical techniques so that surgical treatment can be tailored to patient needs.

  7. Correlates of the molecular vaginal microbiota composition of African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Raju; Borgdorff, Hanneke; Jespers, Vicky; Francis, Suzanna C; Verhelst, Rita; Mwaura, Mary; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Ndayisaba, Gilles; Kyongo, Jordan K; Hardy, Liselotte; Menten, Joris; Crucitti, Tania; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Schuren, Frank; van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M

    2015-02-21

    Sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical correlates of the vaginal microbiome (VMB) as characterized by molecular methods have not been adequately studied. VMB dominated by bacteria other than lactobacilli may cause inflammation, which may facilitate HIV acquisition and other adverse reproductive health outcomes. We characterized the VMB of women in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa and Tanzania (KRST) using a 16S rDNA phylogenetic microarray. Cytokines were quantified in cervicovaginal lavages. Potential sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical correlates were also evaluated. Three hundred thirteen samples from 230 women were available for analysis. Five VMB clusters were identified: one cluster each dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus (KRST-I) and L. iners (KRST-II), and three clusters not dominated by a single species but containing multiple (facultative) anaerobes (KRST-III/IV/V). Women in clusters KRST-I and II had lower mean concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1α (p infections (STIs; ptrend = 0.07) and urinary tract infection (UTI; p = 0.06), and a higher proportion of women in clusters KRST-I and II had vaginal candidiasis (ptrend = 0.09), but these associations did not reach statistical significance. Women who reported unusual vaginal discharge were more likely to belong to clusters KRST-III/IV/V (p = 0.05). Vaginal dysbiosis in African women was significantly associated with vaginal inflammation; the associations with increased prevalence of STIs and UTI, and decreased prevalence of vaginal candidiasis, should be confirmed in larger studies.

  8. The aetiology of vaginal symptoms in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Claire C; Desgrottes, Tania; Cutler, Lauren; Cutler, David; Devarajan, Karthika; Ocheretina, Oksana; Pape, Jean William; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    Vaginal symptoms are a common chief complaint amongst women visiting outpatient clinics in rural Haiti. A systematic sample of 206 consecutive women over age 18 with gynaecological symptoms underwent gynaecologic examination and laboratory testing for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, HIV infection, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis. Among 206 women, 174 (84%) presented with vaginal discharge, 165 (80%) with vaginal itching, 123 (60%) with vaginal pain or dysuria, and 18 (9%) with non-traumatic vaginal sores or boils. Laboratory results were positive forChlamydia trachomatisin 5.4% (11/203), syphilis in 3.5% (7/202), HIV in 1.0% (2/200), andNeisseria gonorrhoeaein 1.0% (2/203). Among those that had microscopy, hyphae suggestive of candidiasis were visualized in 2.2% (1/45) and no cases of trichomoniasis were diagnosed 0% (0/45). Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 28.3% (13/46). The prevalence of chlamydia was 4.9 (95% CI: 1.3-17.7) times greater among those 25 years of age and under (10.8%) than those older (2.3%). Chlamydia and bacterial vaginosis were the most common sexually transmitted infection and vaginal condition, respectively, in this study of rural Haitian adult women. The higher risk of chlamydia in younger women suggests education and screening programmes in young women should be considered. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Vaginal discharge: perceptions and health seeking behavior among Nepalese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Narjis; Luby, Stephen

    2004-12-01

    To understand women's perceptions and health seeking behavior and the association between vaginal discharge, clinical signs and laboratory findings as a presentation of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). We conducted five focus group discussions with women attending the outpatient department in a large public hospital in Katmandu, Nepal, during May-June 1997. We also interviewed seventy women presenting with vaginal discharge to the same hospital, through structured questionnaire. Women presenting with discharge were also examined and investigated for six common sexually transmitted diseases and reproductive tract infections. In the focus groups vaginal discharge was identified as a common disease distinct from STDs, for which women can seek treatment. STDs were considered as social diseases transmitted to women through multiple sexual partners and not from husband. Patients with vaginal discharge preferred traditional healers and pharmacist. Clinical signs were inconclusive for type of infection. Simple laboratory tests identified etiologic agent in 64 (91%) patients and the three commonest infections were Moniliasis (78%), Bacterial Vaginosis (25%) and Trichomoniasis (17%). Vaginal discharge may be used as a risk marker for identification of STDs by Primary Health Workers. Low cost investigations should be made available at the secondary care level for identification of most common Reproductive Tract Infections. Communication campaigns should target the misconceptions that exist in the communities local context related to the prevention, treatment and control of vaginal discharge and STDs.

  10. Tension-free vaginal tape and percutaneous vaginal tape sling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackley, R R; Abdelmalak, J B; Tchetgen, M B; Madjar, S; Jones, S; Noble, M

    2001-06-01

    Midurethral synthetic sling procedures for treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) are gaining increased attention from surgeons specializing in female pelvic reconstructive techniques seeking successful patient outcomes through reproducible simplicity. This report describes the procedural steps and methods used to maximize the potential for successful outcomes using techniques of midurethral synthetic sling placement. Reported complications and surgical outcomes are reviewed with respect to patient selection and minimizing the potential for morbidity and mortality as long-term clinical experience is accumulated. Tension-free vaginal or transvaginal tape (TVT) and the recently introduced percutaneous vaginal tape (PVT) are two new procedural choices for placement of synthetic sling material at the midurethra. Both procedures use sling material composed of polypropylene mesh, a nonabsorbable synthetic material, placed at the level of the midurethra via an antegrade (PVT, using a percutaneous ligature carrier) suprapubic approach or retrograde (TVT, using vaginal trocars) vaginal approach. Patient selection, procedural techniques, and methods described are based on observations obtained or reported from clinical experience. Outcomes and complications for TVT are derived from a literature review of all published articles in Index Medicus from 1996 to 2000. The experience with TVT for the last 5 years is encouraging. At 3-year follow-up for TVT, reported cure rates for SUI range from 80% to 95%. A multitude of worldwide reports on PVT with shorter follow-up support the findings of the TVT experience. Reproducible findings with midurethral synthetic slings are the short operative times recorded for the sling procedure, ease of technical performance, minimal patient discomfort, and a high rate of early return of normal voiding function. The rate of complications such as obstructive voiding or de novo instability (0-15%) and urinary retention necessitating a

  11. Sexual functioning and vaginal changes after radical vaginal trachelectomy in early stage cervical cancer patients: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froeding, LP; Ottesen, C; Rung-Hansen, H

    2014-01-01

    Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) offers low complication rate, good survival, and possibility for future childbearing for young women with early stage cervical cancer. However, the literature on quality of life (QOL) and sexual functioning in patients undergoing RVT is scarce....

  12. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: a therapeutical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frega, Antonio; Sopracordevole, Francesco; Assorgi, Chiara; Lombardi, Danila; DE Sanctis, Vitaliana; Catalano, Angelica; Matteucci, Eleonora; Milazzo, Giusi Natalia; Ricciardi, Enzo; Moscarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN) represents a rare and asymptomatic pre-neoplastic lesion. Its natural history and potential evolution into invasive cancer are uncertain. VaIN can occur alone or as a synchronous or metachronous lesion with cervical and vulvar HPV-related intra epithelial or invasive neoplasia. Its association with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is found in 65% of cases, with vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia in 10% of cases, while for others, the association with concomitant cervical or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasias is found in 30-80% of cases. VaIN is often asymptomatic and its diagnosis is suspected in cases of abnormal cytology, followed by colposcopy and colposcopically-guided biopsy of suspicious areas. In the past, high-grade VaIN and multifocal VaIN have been treated by radical surgery, such as total or partial upper vaginectomy associated with hysterectomy and radiotherapy. The need to maintain the integrity of reproductive capacity has determined the transition from radical therapies to conservative ones, according to the different patients' characteristics.

  13. Partial vaginal expulsion of a leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Yokochi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Uterine sarcomas are an uncommon and heterogeneous group of tumors that account for 3-7% of the malignant neoplasms of the uterus and approximately 1% of all malignant tumors of the female genital system. The main clinical manifestations are abnormal uterine bleeding in pre- or postmenopausal women. Pelvic pain, abdominal distension, urinary urgency, and profuse and fetid leukorrhea are other frequent complaints. The authors present a case of a 48-year-old patient that was in amenorrhea for 2 years, who sought treatment for vaginal bleeding. On physical examination, the abdomen was distended, painful in the hypogastrium and upon examination of the external genitalia, it was observed the exteriorization of an amorphous “mass”. The patient was submitted to uterine curettage. The results of the histological examination revealed leiomyosarcoma. Staging workup showed an enlarged uterus with endometrial lesion, and non-calcified pulmonary nodules. The patient underwent a pan-hysterectomy and chemotherapy, and is under oncologic treatment. The authors call attention for the unusual form of presentation of this entity.

  14. THE PROFILE OF VAGINAL TEMPERATURE AND CYTOLOGY OF VAGINAL SMEAR IN BALI CATTLE DURING ESTRUS CYCLE PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira P.N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate physiological condition of Bali cattle during estrus. Ninecattles were used in the research. The method of the research was descriptive analysis. The measurementof vaginal temperature was conducted by using digital thermometer and cytology of vaginal smear wasdone by using cotton bud swabbed on object glass. It was washed by methanol and was stained withGiemsa staining and was observed by microscope. The results indicated that vaginal temperature were38.39 ± 0.29 oC; 38.05 ± 0.15 oC; 37.4 ± 0.74 oC; 37.86 ± 0.3 oC at estrus, metestrus, diestrus, proestrusphase, respectively. On the basis of the cytology of vaginal smear, estrus phase had more superficialcornification and intermediate cells causing estrogen concentration increased. In conclusion, the profileof vaginal temperature showed that each kind of estrus cycle phase had characteristic within estrus. Thecytology of vaginal smear showed various types of cells preferences in different phase of estrus cycle.

  15. Early pregnancy vaginal microbiome trends and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Molly J; Zhou, Yanjiao; Wylie, Kristine M; Tarr, Phillip I; Macones, George A; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2017-09-01

    Despite decades of attempts to link infectious agents to preterm birth, an exact causative microbe or community of microbes remains elusive. Nonculture 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing suggests important racial differences and pregnancy specific changes in the vaginal microbial communities. A recent study examining the association of the vaginal microbiome and preterm birth documented important findings but was performed in a predominantly white cohort. Given the important racial differences in bacterial communities within the vagina as well as persistent racial disparities in preterm birth, it is important to examine cohorts with varied demographic compositions. To characterize vaginal microbial community characteristics in a large, predominantly African-American, longitudinal cohort of pregnant women and test whether particular vaginal microbial community characteristics are associated with the risk for subsequent preterm birth. This is a nested case-control study within a prospective cohort study of women with singleton pregnancies, not on supplemental progesterone, and without cervical cerclage in situ. Serial mid-vaginal swabs were obtained by speculum exam at their routine prenatal visits. Sequencing of the V1V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was performed on the Roche 454 platform. Alpha diversity community characteristics including richness, Shannon diversity, and evenness as well as beta diversity metrics including Bray Curtis Dissimilarity and specific taxon abundance were compared longitudinally in women who delivered preterm to those who delivered at term. A total of 77 subjects contributed 149 vaginal swabs longitudinally across pregnancy. Participants were predominantly African-American (69%) and had a preterm birth rate of 31%. In subjects with subsequent term delivery, the vaginal microbiome demonstrated stable community richness and Shannon diversity, whereas subjects with subsequent preterm delivery had significantly decreased vaginal richness

  16. Cirugía vaginal del prolapso genital por la técnica de Fothergill

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor-Henríquez Hernando

    2013-01-01

    An article published sixty years ago by the bulletin of scientific divulgation for students and professors of the faculty of Medicine of the Universidad de Cartagena, Colombia, concerning to the surgical techniques for the management of genital prolapse is presented. The loss of the pelvic floor support has been tackled since various surgical alternatives. There have been several proposals and the work of the professor Hernando Taylor Henríquez demonstrated it. The majority of ...

  17. Bacterial vaginosis, vaginal flora patterns and vaginal hygiene practices in patients presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome in The Gambia, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Robin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV – a syndrome characterised by a shift in vaginal flora – appears to be particularly common in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known of the pattern of vaginal flora associated with BV in Africa. We conducted a study aimed at determining the prevalence of BV and patterns of BV-associated vaginal micro-flora among women with vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS in The Gambia, West Africa. Methods We enrolled 227 women with VDS from a large genito-urinary medicine clinic in Fajara, The Gambia. BV was diagnosed by the Nugent's score and Amsel's clinical criteria. Vaginal swabs were collected for T vaginalis and vaginal flora microscopy, and for Lactobacillus spp, aerobic organisms, Candida spp and BV-associated bacteria (Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobic bacteria, and Mycoplasma spp cultures; and cervical swabs were collected for N gonorrhoeae culture and C trachomatis PCR. Sera were tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. Sexual health history including details on sexual hygiene were obtained by standardised questionnaire. Results BV prevalence was 47.6% by Nugent's score and 30.8% by Amsel's clinical criteria. Lactobacillus spp were isolated in 37.8% of women, and 70% of the isolates were hydrogen-peroxide (H202-producing strains. Prevalence of BV-associated bacteria were: G vaginalis 44.4%; Bacteroides 16.7%; Prevotella 15.2%; Peptostretococcus 1.5%; Mobiluncus 0%; other anaerobes 3.1%; and Mycoplasma hominis 21.4%. BV was positively associated with isolation of G vaginalis (odds-ratio [OR] 19.42, 95%CI 7.91 – 47.6 and anaerobes (P = 0.001 [OR] could not be calculated, but not with M hominis. BV was negatively associated with presence of Lactobacillus (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.03 – 0.15, and H2O2-producing lactobacilli (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.05 – 0.28. Presence of H2O2-producing lactobacilli was associated with significantly lower prevalence of G vaginalis, anaerobes and C trachomatis. HIV prevalence was 12

  18. [Epidemiological factors and vaginal flora changes in vaginal bacteriosis (bacterial vaginosis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Bellido, J L; García Sánchez, J E; García-Rodríguez, J A

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the modifications of the vaginal bacterial flora that occurs in bacterial vaginosis and to know the involvement of these microorganisms and the influence of several epidemiologic factors in the etiology of this disease. We studied, by using semiquantitative cultures and GLC, vaginal washings from 50 healthy women and 50 women with bacterial vaginosis. The most remarkable results were the high sensitivity of Amsel's criteria and their good correlation with GLC. Women with bacterial vaginosis showed a great increase of CFUs/ml of Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and several species of anaerobic bacteria, and an important decrease of the amounts of aerobic lactobacilli. The main epidemiologic factor among those that were studied was the use of IUDs. The appearance of bacterial vaginosis is associated with the increase of the amounts of G. vaginalis, Bacteroides or related genera (Prevotella, Porphyromonas), and probably M. hominis and U. urealyticum, also being associated to a decrease of the amounts of aerobic lactobacilli. These facts are probably related with alteration in the ecologic relationship lactobacilli/G. vaginalis/anaerobic bacteria.

  19. STUDY OF VAGINAL MICROBIAL FLORA IN CONTRACEPTIVE USERS

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    Prajakta Saurabh Barde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present study was carried out at Government Medical College, Nagpur, to study the vaginal microbial flora in women using contraceptive measures. The lactobacillus dominant flora is a protective barrier against development of various microbial infections of vagina. The alteration of this protective mechanism is associated with an increased risk of bacterial vaginosis. The vaginal flora can be disrupted by a variety of factors like use of contraceptive measures, sexual intercourse, antimicrobial use and douching. The effects of specific contraceptive methods on the vaginal flora are not clear. The present study is therefore undertaken to study the vaginal microbial flora in contraceptive users. MATERIALS AND METHODS The vaginal swab was taken in all cases for detection of microbial flora in women who were using various contraceptive measures and nonusers. Isolation of organisms was done by using various bacteriological tests. The microbial data obtained in the two groups was compared. Student’s T-test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Gardnerella vaginalis, E. coli, Enterococci, group B streptococci and Candida spp were grown in the patients using oral contraceptives as well as copper-T. However, the growth of Gardnerella vaginalis (69.12%, group B streptococci (60% and Candida spp (58% was more in patients using copper-T while, growth of E. coli (51.72% and Enterococci (72.22% was more in patients using oral contraceptives. This difference in the growth of various organisms, however, was not significant. CONCLUSION It is concluded that the vaginal swab for microbial flora should be studied in all women using contraceptive measures. Presence of any abnormal microorganisms should alarm for immediate measures to control the infection and thus prevent establishment of vaginitis.

  20. Vaginal semisolid products: Technological performance considering physiologic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rita Monteiro; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Rita

    2017-11-15

    Vaginal semisolid products are frequently used to treat vaginal infections and atrophy-related symptoms of menopause. Formulations composition and the methods for their characterization, especially those developed concerning the target epithelia, are key tools to predict in vivo results at early stages of product development. However, recent studies on this subject have been almost exclusively focused on anti-HIV preparations. The aim of this work consists on improving traditional characterization methods by using physiological parameters in order to construct predictive tools to characterize a new ideal vaginal semisolid formulation whatever target it may have. Ten vaginal antimicrobial and hormonal products already available in the market were studied (Gino-Canesten®, Sertopic®, Dermofix®, Gyno-pevaryl®, Lomexin®, Gino Travogen®, Dalacin V®, Ovestin®, Blissel®, Colpotrophine®). Furthermore, Universal Placebo gel and Replens® were used for comparison. Products were characterized in terms of: pH and buffering capacity in a vaginal fluid simulant (VFS); osmolality - directly and upon dilution in VFS; textural parameters (firmness, adhesiveness and bioadhesion) using vaginal ex vivo porcine epithelium; and viscosity (including VFS dilution at 37°C and after administration on an ex vivo model). Interestingly, the majority of the tested commercial vaginal formulations did not present technological characteristics close to the ideal ones when tested under target biological conditions. The inclusion of such methodologic adaptations is expected to optimize cost-efficiency of new formulations development by predicting efficacy and safety profiles at early stages of product development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficiency of fenticonazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

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    Živaljević Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis appears in 75% women of reproductive age. The most frequent causes are Candida albicans (85-95% or C. glabrata, and infrequently C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, etc. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate efficiency and safety of fenticonazole for vaginal candidiasis treatment. Methods. Therapeutic effect of a single 600 mg fenticonasole vaginal capsule was observed in 417 women, aged 16-67, in five centers in Serbia. In all women, before the treatment, vaginal candidiasis was confirmed by testing of vaginal smear. Based on smear findings and associated symptoms observed on the 7th and 28th day after therapy administration, treatment results were evaluated. On the next day after drug application the patients recorded by using a questionnaire their own feelings on withdrawal symptoms and possible side effects in the period prior to the first control. Results. Control after seven days showed a statistically significant decrease of symptoms. In 385 women, vaginal smear was found negative to yeast and yeast blastospores. Within the first seven days after treatment 84 women had to repeat therapy due to the persistence of symptoms or positive vaginal smear. After 28 days we recorded full recovery in 392 patients, clinical improvement in eight, no change in 16, and deterioration in one patient only. Side effects were very seldom, mostly in the form of a slight redness of the vulva and vagina, and mild itching during several days. Conclusion. Our observations confirmed good efficacy and safety of fenticonazole in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

  2. Vaginal flora alterations and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Fausto; da Silva, Márcia G; Polettini, Jossimara; Tristao, Andréa da R; Peracoli, José C; Witkin, Steven S; Rudge, Marilza V C

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate associations between alterations in vaginal flora and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women. Vaginal specimens from 245 pregnant women were analyzed by microscopy for vaginal flora. Signs and symptoms of vaginal infection were determined by patient interviews and gynecologic examinations. Abnormal vaginal flora was identified in 45.7% of the subjects. The final clinical diagnoses were bacterial vaginosis (21.6%), vaginal candidosis (10.2%), intermediate vaginal flora (5.2%), aerobic vaginitis (2.9%), mixed flora (2.9%) and other abnormal findings (2.9%). The percentage of women with or without clinical signs or symptoms was not significantly different between these categories. The presence of vaginal odor or vaginal discharge characteristics was not diagnostic of any specific flora alteration; pruritus was highly associated with candidosis (p vaginal odor was associated with bacterial vaginosis (p = 0.0026). The prevalence of atypical vaginal flora is common in our low-risk pregnant population and is not always associated with pathology. The occurrence of specific signs or symptoms does not always discriminate between women with different types of atypical vaginal flora or between those with abnormal and normal vaginal flora. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. A prospective trial comparing tension-free vaginal tape and transobturator vaginal tape inside-out for the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: 1-year followup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Sung; Han, Deok Hyun; Choi, Yang Su; Yum, Seung Hee; Song, Seung Hun; Doo, Chin Kyung; Choo, Myung-Soo

    2007-01-01

    We prospectively compared the efficacy and safety of tension-free vaginal tape and transobturator vaginal tape inside-out for female stress urinary incontinence. A total of 120 women with stress urinary incontinence were alternately assigned to the tension-free vaginal tape group (60) or the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out group (60). Preoperative evaluation included urodynamic study and a Korean version of the incontinence quality of life questionnaire. One year after operation the surgical result, patient satisfaction, incontinence quality of life questionnaire, long-term complications and uroflowmetry were evaluated in the 2 groups. Patient characteristics were comparable in the 2 groups. Mean +/- SD operative time was significantly shorter in the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out vs the tension-free vaginal tape group (11 +/- 1.4 vs 15 +/- 1.8 minutes). In the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out and the tension-free vaginal tape groups the rates of cure (86.8% and 86.8%), improvement (6.6% and 8.2%) and failure (6.6% and 5.0%, respectively) were similar. Incontinence quality of life questionnaire parameters 1 year after surgery were improved significantly in each group and there was no difference between the 2 groups (p 0.05, respectively). There was no long-term complication in either group. Preoperative urge incontinence resolved in 80% of the tension-free vaginal tape group and in 100% of the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out group. De novo urgency developed in 4 patients (6.6%) in the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out group. The tension-free vaginal tape and transobturator vaginal tape inside-out procedures were minimally invasive and similar in operation related morbidity. Transobturator vaginal tape inside-out appeared to be as effective and safe as tension-free vaginal tape for the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women at 1-year followup.

  4. Hidrocolpo por ectopia ureteral em hemivagina associado a displasia renal: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Barba,Mario Flores; Ogawa,Renata Emy; Tanuri,Uenis; Tanuri,Anna; Koch,Vera H.; Oliveira,Luiz Antônio Nunes de

    2004-01-01

    Os autores apresentam um caso de displasia renal associada a ectopia ureteral vaginal homolateral, com uretero-hidronefrose contralateral devida a compressão por hidrocolpo causado pela ectopia e por um septo vaginal oblíquo. Os exames de imagem utilizados foram urografia excretora, cistografia, ultra-sonografia, tomografia computadorizada e cintilografia renal com Tc-99m-DMSA. Foi realizada revisão da literatura sobre casos de hidrocolpo associado a malformações urinárias.

  5. ANAL INCONTINENCE AFTER UNRECOGNISED ANAL SPHINCTER TEAR AT VAGINAL DELIVERY

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    Mija Blaganje

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anal sphincter tears during vaginal delivery may result in serious sequel. Anal sphincter tears occur in approximately 2–19 % of all vaginal deliveries and are the most common precursor for faecal incontinence,1 however »occult« anal sphincter injury has been defined in 33 % of primiparous women following vaginal delivery.2 Methods: 31-year old primiparous woman received transfusion due to atony after delivery. Episiotomy, second degree perineal tear and vaginal tear were surgically corrected immediately after delivery. In the following days inability to control passing of liquid stools and flatulence together with stress urinary incontinence appeared. The complaint persisted. Ultrasound and EMG examination confirmed rupture of the external anal sphincter, which had been missed at delivery. Over a year after delivery the patient had a posterior colporraphy with surgical correction of external anal sphincter, which did not result in any clinical improve- ment. On follow-up ultrasound examination a hypoechoegenic area between the external sphincter and vaginal wall was detected. The patient was referred to The University Hos- pital in Graz, where the tear will be treated with autologous myoblast transplantation in a clinical trial. Conclusions: Treatment of a missed anal sphincter tear is complicated, expensive and unpleasant for the patient. Early detection with immediate appropriate surgical correction after delivery is most efficient, but it takes experience.

  6. Characterisation of probiotic properties in human vaginal lactobacilli strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütt, Pirje; Lapp, Eleri; Štšepetova, Jelena; Smidt, Imbi; Taelma, Heleri; Borovkova, Natalja; Oopkaup, Helen; Ahelik, Ave; Rööp, Tiiu; Hoidmets, Dagmar; Samuel, Külli; Salumets, Andres; Mändar, Reet

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli offer protection against recurrent urinary infections, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal candidiasis. To characterise the isolated vaginal lactobacilli strains for their probiotic properties and to compare their probiotic potential. The Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal samples by conventional culturing and identified by sequencing of the 16S rDNA fragment. Several functional properties were detected (production of hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid; antagonistic activity against Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Gardnerella vaginalis; auto-aggregation and adhesiveness) as well as safety (haemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of transferrable resistance genes). A total of 135 vaginal lactobacilli strains of three species, Lactobacillus crispatus (56%), Lactobacillus jensenii (26%), and Lactobacillus gasseri (18%) were characterised using several functional and safety tests. Most of L. crispatus (89%) and L. jensenii (86%) strains produced H2O2. The best lactic acid producers were L. gasseri (18.2±2.2 mg/ml) compared to L. crispatus (15.6±2.8 mg/ml) and L. jensenii (11.6±2.6 mg/ml) (pjensenii. L. gasseri strains expressed significantly lower anticandidal activity compared to L. crispatus and L. jensenii (pjensenii; therefore; a potential probiotic candidate could be found among L. crispatus strains.

  7. Successful treatment of vaginal malakoplakia in a young cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Cattin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 3-year-old, female, spayed, domestic shorthair cat presented for dysuria and haematuria, unresponsive to antibiotic treatment. A small, fleshy, erythematous mass protruded from the vaginal vault. Ultrasound identified a vaginal mass effect with mixed echogenicity measuring in excess of 3 cm. Vaginoscopy confirmed an extensive, fleshy, irregular mass that was characterised histologically as pyogranulomatous vaginitis, with periodic acid–Schiff-positive macrophages containing gram-negative bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis demonstrated invasive intracellular Escherichia coli. Vaginal malakoplakia was diagnosed. Tissue culture and antimicrobial susceptibility of E coli was used to guide treatment. A 6 week course of enrofloxacin 5 mg/kg q24h resulted in complete resolution of the mass and clinical signs. Relevance and novel information Malakoplakia is a rare chronic inflammatory condition that has been previously reported in the bladder of two cats. The pathogenesis of malakoplakia is thought to involve ineffective killing of bacteria (eg. E coli , similar to granulomatous colitis in Boxers and French Bulldogs. The literature on malakoplakia in cats is sparse. This is the first reported feline case with vaginal involvement, intracellular E coli and successful treatment with a fluoroquinolone. Malakoplakia is an important, non-neoplastic differential diagnosis when a mass is identified in the urogenital system of a young cat.

  8. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome secondary to group A Streptococcus vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikone, Mayu; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Washino, Takuya; Ota, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Naoya; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a systemic illness usually caused in the setting of infection by group A Streptococcus (GAS). The primary infections are often invasive infections of the respiratory tract or necrotizing infections of the skin and soft tissue, but some infections occur without relevant focus. GAS vaginitis is a rare condition among adult women and is accordingly thought to be uncommon as a cause of streptococcal TSS. Here we report the cases of two postmenopausal women with streptococcal TSS secondary to GAS vaginitis, one aged 55 and one aged 60. Both came to our emergency department with complaints or symptoms of abdominal pain, fever, hypotension, and multi-organ failure. In both cases, the relevant factor associated with streptococcal infection was a recent episode of GAS vaginitis. Both underwent fluid management and 14 days of antibiotic treatment and fully recovered without complications. Vaginitis was likely to be the primary infectious trigger of TSS in these two cases. Intrauterine device insertion, endometrial biopsy, and post-partum state have all been previously reported in TSS patients, and the female genital tract has been described as a portal of entry. GAS vaginitis warrants appropriate treatment as it may progress to severe systemic infection as described. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential Use of Antimicrobial Peptides as Vaginal Spermicides/Microbicides

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    Nongnuj Tanphaichitr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The concurrent increases in global population and sexually transmitted infection (STI demand a search for agents with dual spermicidal and microbicidal properties for topical vaginal application. Previous attempts to develop the surfactant spermicide, nonoxynol-9 (N-9, into a vaginal microbicide were unsuccessful largely due to its inefficiency to kill microbes. Furthermore, N-9 causes damage to the vaginal epithelium, thus accelerating microbes to enter the women’s body. For this reason, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, naturally secreted by all forms of life as part of innate immunity, deserve evaluation for their potential spermicidal effects. To date, twelve spermicidal AMPs have been described including LL-37, magainin 2 and nisin A. Human cathelicidin LL-37 is the most promising spermicidal AMP to be further developed for vaginal use for the following reasons. First, it is a human AMP naturally produced in the vagina after intercourse. Second, LL-37 exerts microbicidal effects to numerous microbes including those that cause STI. Third, its cytotoxicity is selective to sperm and not to the female reproductive tract. Furthermore, the spermicidal effects of LL-37 have been demonstrated in vivo in mice. Therefore, the availability of LL-37 as a vaginal spermicide/microbicide will empower women for self-protection against unwanted pregnancies and STI.

  10. Vaginohysteroscopy for the diagnosis and treatment of vaginal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Zizolfi, Brunella; Calagna, Gloria; Florio, Pasquale; Nappi, Carmine; Di Carlo, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    The vaginoscopic approach for hysteroscopy allows detailed endoscopic evaluation of the vaginal walls, fornices, and exocervix. To review the feasibility and efficacy of vaginohysteroscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of vaginal lesions. A systematic review was performed of PubMed/Medline, Embase, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Database to identify papers published in English. The search terms were "hysteroscopy," "vaginoscopy," "vagino-hysteroscopy," and "vaginal lesion." The last review was performed on January 31, 2015. Studies in which the diagnosis and treatment of vaginal lesions used the vaginoscopic approach and hysteroscopic instrumentation were reviewed. Data were extracted from the identified studies and then analyzed. Thirteen studies were reviewed. Eleven described one case; one reported observations from two patients, and one study reported a case series. All vaginohysteroscopies reported were performed successfully and without significant complications. Vaginohysteroscopy is an easy way to gain access to the cervical canal and an important tool with which to diagnose and treat vaginal lesions. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Corrimento vaginal referido entre gestantes em localidade urbana no Sul do Brasil: prevalência e fatores associados Self-reported vaginal discharge among pregnant women in an urban area in Southern Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M. V. da Fonseca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Por intermédio de delineamento transversal, buscou-se determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados à ocorrência de corrimento vaginal referido entre gestantes da cidade de Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Utilizando-se de questionário padrão, foram investigadas características sócio-econômicas, demográficas, reprodutivas, condições de moradia, assistência recebida e ocorrência de corrimento vaginal referido entre estas gestantes. Para as comparações entre proporções utilizou-se teste do qui-quadrado e para análise multivariada regressão de Poisson. Dentre as 339 gestantes estudadas, 51,6% referiram corrimento vaginal na gestação. As seguintes variáveis mostraram-se significativamente associadas à ocorrência de corrimento vaginal referido: idade (razão de prevalências: RP= 1,49, estado civil (RP = 1,31, ocorrência de infecção urinária (RP = 1,56, hiperglicemia na gestação atual (RP = 1,48, uso de dispositivo intra-uterino (RP = 2,35, ocorrência prévia de parto prematuro (RP = 1,37 e utilização de anticoncepcional oral como fator de proteção (RP = 0,79. Este estudo mostrou prevalência elevada de corrimento vaginal referido entre as gestantes estudadas e permitiu identificar aquelas com maior risco de adoecer por esta causa, o que pode contribuir para a adoção de medidas preventivas.The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with self-reported vaginal discharge among pregnant women in the city of Rio Grande, South Brazil. Using a cross-sectional design, a standard interview was applied to pregnant women at home by previously trained interviewers, covering the following: demographic, reproductive, and socioeconomic data, household conditions, health care, and illnesses during pregnancy, including vaginal discharge. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions, and Poisson regression was used in the multivariate analysis. Among the 339

  12. Tinidazol versus cefazolina na antibioticoprofilaxia de histerectomia vaginal e abdominal Tinidazole versus cefazolin in antibiotic prophylaxis of vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Simões

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a eficácia do tinidazol e da cefazolina na antibioticoprofilaxia da morbidade febril e infecciosa pós-histerectomia vaginal e abdominal. MÉTODOS: estudo clínico randomizado, no qual as mulheres internadas para histerectomia foram aleatorizadas para um dos seguintes grupos de antibioticoprofilaxia: Grupo C (2 g de cefazolina EV na indução anestésica; Grupo T (2 g de tinidazol VO 12 horas antes da cirurgia; ou Grupo C+T (2 g de tinidazol VO 12 horas antes da cirurgia e 2 g de cefazolina EV na indução anestésica. Amostras cervicovaginais foram coletadas para culturas específicas e o diagnóstico de vaginose bacteriana (VB foi baseado nos critérios de Amsel e Nugent. As pacientes foram reavaliadas sete e 30 dias após a cirurgia para sinais de morbidade febril e/ou infecciosa. Para avaliar as diferenças entre os três grupos, realizaram-se os testes do χ2 ou exato de Fisher com nível de significância de 5%. Calulou-se o poder da amostra (1-β através do programa SAS. RESULTADOS: morbidade infecciosa sete dias após a histerectomia foi diagnosticada em 6,6% das mulheres, mas não houve diferença significativa na distribuição entre os três grupos estudados (p=0,12. Não diagnosticou-se morbidade febril ou infecciosa no pós-operatório imediato ou após 30 dias da cirurgia. A freqüência de VB no pré-operatório foi significativamente maior entre as mulheres submetidas à histerectomia vaginal do que naquelas submetidas à histerectomia abdominal (27 versus 7%, p=0,02. Também se observou freqüência maior de VB após 30 dias entre as mulheres submetidas à histerectomia vaginal (20 versus 8%, porém sem significância estatística (p=0,19. CONCLUSÕES: o uso do tinizadol, isoladamente ou em associação com cefazolina, não apresentou maior eficácia que o uso de apenas cefazolina na prevenção de morbidade febril ou infecciosa pós-histerectomia. A elevada freqüência de VB no pré-operatório imediato

  13. Uso del profiláctico entre la juventud en sus relaciones de coito vaginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimbela J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir el uso del profiláctico entre jóvenes en sus relaciones de coito vaginal e identificar los factores asociados a dicho uso. Método: La información se recogió mediante un cuestionario realizado en domicilio y con presencia del entrevistador, a 1.000 jóvenes (14-24 años residentes en Andalucía (España. Se llevó a cabo un análisis bifactorial y se ajustaron las ecuaciones de regresión logística jerárquica para verificar asociaciones entre la variable dependiente «uso del profiláctico en el coito vaginal» y las variables clasificadas por el modelo PRECEDE (predisponentes, facilitadores y reforzantes. El ajuste del modelo fue de un 38% según el estadístico de Nagelkerke. Resultados: 750 jóvenes mantuvieron relaciones afectivas y/o sexuales con contacto físico y un 63% de ellos practicó el coito vaginal (47% del total de la muestra. Los que tuvieron una sola relación de coito vaginal (12% del total de la muestra usaron profiláctico el 83% (un 10,3% del total de la muestra, y entre los que tuvieron más de una relación con coito vaginal (34% del total de la muestra, utilizaron siempre profiláctico un 49% (16,9% del total de la muestra. Las variables asociadas a su utilización siempre fueron dos: tener una intención de conducta «segura» con la pareja habitual y una baja frecuencia de la práctica. Las variables asociadas a no utilizarlo nunca fueron: estar emancipado, pensar que infectarse depende de factores externos (locus de control externo, identificar pocas zonas del cuerpo como sensibles al placer, pensar que no es necesario usar profiláctico si se confía en la pareja, tener una intención de conducta «insegura» con la pareja habitual y no hablar con la pareja sobre métodos preventivos antes de llevar a cabo la práctica sexual. Discusión: Los factores más asociados con el uso o no del profiláctico en el coito vaginal son predisponentes (actitudes, valores y creencias relacionados con el

  14. Validation of a questionnaire for self-assessment of sexual function and vaginal changes after gynaecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille T; Klee, Marianne C; Thranov, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    The Sexual function-Vaginal changes Questionnaire (SVQ), was developed to investigate sexual and vaginal problems in gynaecological cancer patients. The instrument consists of 20 core items, measuring sexual interest, lubrication, orgasm, dyspareunia, vaginal dimensions, intimacy, sexual problems...

  15. Preterm delivery and intimacy during pregnancy: interaction between oral, vaginal and intestinal microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Arturo Herrera Morban

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Durante el embarazo los microbiomas bucal, vaginal e intestinal de la mujer sufren cambios para adaptarse a las demandas del cuerpo, aumentando la relación y similitud entre ellos. Debido a esto se considera pertinente realizar una revisión literaria con el propósito de determinar la existencia de factores que influyen en un microbioma específico y que posteriormente podrían modificar a los demás. Este es el caso del microbioma bucal que depende de la actividad íntima de la mujer y por consiguiente puede ser un factor que se relacione con el desarrollo de un embarazo pretérmino.

  16. Factors associated with vaginal birth after previous cesarean section in Brazilian women Factores relacionados con el parto vaginal en mujeres brasileñas con cesárea anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guilherme Cecatti

    2005-08-01

    que tuvieron su primer hijo en 1985 en la ciudad de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, y que fueron entrevistadas 10 años más tarde, en 1995. La población estudiada se compuso de 1 352 mujeres cuyo primer hijo había nacido por cesárea y que también habían tenido como mínimo un parto posterior. El grupo de los casos (150 mujeres, o alrededor de 11% de la muestra estuvo integrado por mujeres que tuvieron su segundo parto por la vía vaginal, y el grupo testigo se compuso de 1 202 mujeres que tuvieron su segundo parto por cesárea. Para cada uno de los posibles factores asociados se calcularon la razón de posibilidades y el intervalo de confianza de 95%. Se aplicó la prueba de tendencias de ji al cuadrado para analizar las variables categóricas. Se usó una regresión multifactorial incondicionada para estimar las razones de posibilidades ajustadas correspondientes a cada factor asociado. RESULTADOS: Los factores que mostraron una asociación estadísticamente significativa con el parto vaginal fueron un ingreso familiar mensual menor de cinco veces el salario mínimo mensual en el Brasil; depender del sistema nacional de salud brasileño para obtener atención sanitaria; poca edad materna; y una primera cesárea efectuada por presentación de nalgas o transversal, o por embarazo gemelar. Del grupo de mujeres que también tuvieron un segundo parto por cesárea, solamente 11% habían hecho un esfuerzo por tener un parto vaginal. CONCLUSIONES: El principal factor que determina el parto vaginal en mujeres que ya habían tenido una cesárea fue la presencia de factores sociales y económicos adversos.

  17. Vaginal bacteria modify HIV tenofovir microbicide efficacy in African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Nichole R; Cheu, Ryan; Birse, Kenzie; Zevin, Alexander S; Perner, Michelle; Noël-Romas, Laura; Grobler, Anneke; Westmacott, Garrett; Xie, Irene Y; Butler, Jennifer; Mansoor, Leila; McKinnon, Lyle R; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Burgener, Adam D

    2017-06-02

    Antiretroviral-based strategies for HIV prevention have shown inconsistent results in women. We investigated whether vaginal microbiota modulated tenofovir gel microbicide efficacy in the CAPRISA (Centre for the AIDS Program of Research in South Africa) 004 trial. Two major vaginal bacterial community types-one dominated by Lactobacillus (59.2%) and the other where Gardnerella vaginalis predominated with other anaerobic bacteria (40.8%)-were identified in 688 women profiled. Tenofovir reduced HIV incidence by 61% ( P = 0.013) in Lactobacillus- dominant women but only 18% ( P = 0.644) in women with non- Lactobacillus bacteria, a threefold difference in efficacy. Detectible mucosal tenofovir was lower in non- Lactobacillus women, negatively correlating with G. vaginalis and other anaerobic bacteria, which depleted tenofovir by metabolism more rapidly than target cells convert to pharmacologically active drug. This study provides evidence linking vaginal bacteria to microbicide efficacy through tenofovir depletion via bacterial metabolism. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Herbal Medicine and Vaginal Candidiasis in Iran: A Review

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    Sedigheh Sheidaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is the second most common vaginal infection. Given the frequent recurrence of the disease, many women tend to use herbal remedies. Thus, the present study aimed to review the association between vaginal candidiasis and herbal medicines in Iran. In this review, we retrieved articles published from 2001 to 2016. Then, the results were expressed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this study, nine articles were reviewed, which had investigated thyme, garlic, garlic-thyme, olive oil, propolis, myrtus, Nigella sativa (black cumin, and Bunium perscicum boiss (black zira. Subsequently, each of these plants was thoroughly dealt with. The studies on black cumin, garlic, and thyme reported positive effects for these herbs, and they were widely produced for therapeutic purposes. In addition, myrtus was found to have a salutary impact on vaginal candidiasis.

  19. The Human Vaginal Bacterial Biota and Bacterial Vaginosis

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    Sujatha Srinivasan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new insights regarding bacterial diversity in this important niche, particularly in women with the common condition bacterial vaginosis (BV. PCR methods have shown that women with BV have complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include many fastidious species, particularly from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Healthy women are mostly colonized with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners, though a variety of other bacteria may be present. The microbiology of BV is heterogeneous. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae coating the vaginal epithelium in some subjects with BV suggests that biofilms may contribute to this condition.

  20. Longitudinal vaginal septa with associated uterine anomalies: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alur, Snigdha; Nicandri, Katrina; Bhagavath, Bala

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal septa and associated mullerian anomalies can be difficult to diagnose and manage. This case series intends to educate the readers about the benefits and limitations of radiologic techniques both for the investigation as well as for the surgical management of these cases. It also seeks to inform them about a unique combination of vaginal and uterine anomalies known as Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome. Three cases were discussed, each with a different presentation. All of the cases included obstructed right hemivagina and right renal agenesis. One case was associated with uterine septum and the other 2 cases were associated with uterus didelphys. The correct diagnosis of associated uterine anomalies in patients presenting with vaginal septa can be challenging. Diagnosis solely based on imaging should be cautioned because of its limitations. Use of ultrasound in the operating room can be a valuable tool.

  1. Longitudinal vaginal septum 'obstructive variety'--a challenge for gynaecologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, Neelam B; Radhika, A G; Radhakrishnan, Gita

    2008-04-01

    The cases which have been presented here have varied presentations but all the three patients in the series had acyclical abdominal pain. Since the uterus is functional there is collection of blood in the pouch formed due to the vaginal septum. This is a potential site for infection and could result in foul smelling discharge. Failure of fusion of lower ends of mullerian ducts that form vagina results in longitudinal vaginal septum. The septum may be partial or complete. The clinical syndrome of double uterus with vaginal obstruction (unilateral, partial or complete) and ipsilateral renal agenesis (same as of the side of obstruction) is rare. This combination is suggestive of embryologic arrest occuring at 8 weeks of pregnancy that simultaneausly affected the mullerian and metanephric ducts.

  2. Cervical Abscess with Vaginal Fistula After Extraperitoneal Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Chou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraperitoneal cesarean section was once used for the prevention of infection and postoperative adhesion. However, we report an unusual complication after this procedure. A 29-year-old woman had pus discharge from the anterior vaginal wall after extraperitoneal cesarean section. Broad-spectrum antibiotics failed to relieve her symptoms and vaginal culture yielded Morganella morganii. Magnetic resonance imaging, sagittal view, showed a cervical abscess measuring 5 × 5 cm with a tract extending to the anterior vagina. After performing dilation and abscess drainage via the cervical ostium, the symptoms gradually subsided with adequate antibiotic treatment. Cervical abscess may develop after extraperitoneal cesarean section and present initially as vaginal fistula. Detailed imaging study provides comprehensive anatomic information for effective management.

  3. Anterior vaginal repair for urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazener, Cathryn Ma; Cooper, Kevin; Mashayekhi, Atefeh

    2017-07-31

    Anterior vaginal repair (anterior colporrhaphy) is an operation traditionally used for moderate or severe stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. About a third of adult women experience urinary incontinence. SUI imposes significant health and economic burden to the society and the women affected. To determine the effects of anterior vaginal repair (anterior colporrhaphy) on urinary incontinence in comparison with other management options. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Trials Register (searched 1 September 2009) and the reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials that included anterior vaginal repair for the treatment of urinary incontinence. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Three trial investigators were contacted for additional information. Ten trials were identified which included 385 women having an anterior vaginal repair and 627 who received comparison interventions.A single small trial provided insufficient evidence to assess anterior vaginal repair in comparison with physical therapy. The performance of anterior repair in comparison with bladder neck needle suspension appeared similar (risk ratio (RR) for failure after one year 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 1.56), but clinically important differences could not be confidently ruled out. No trials compared anterior repair with suburethral sling operations or laparoscopic colposuspensions, or compared alternative vaginal operations.Anterior vaginal repair was less effective than open abdominal retropubic suspension based on patient-reported cure rates in eight trials both in the medium term (failure rate within one to five years after anterior repair 97/259 (38%) versus 57/327 (17%); RR 2.29, 95% confidence Interval (CI) 1.70 to 3.08) and in the long term (after five years, (49/128 (38%) versus 31/145 (21%); RR 2.02, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.01). There was evidence from three of these trials that this

  4. Acrometastasis to hand in vaginal carcinoma: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Khosla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although metastases to bones from solid tumors are very common, involvement of small bones of the hands is extremely rare. We report the first case of acrometastasis in vaginal carcinoma. We present a 65-year-old multiparous woman with FIGO Stage II vaginal carcinoma. The patient received treatment with external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy. She had complete response to above treatment. Eleven months later, she presented with swelling on dorsum of hand. Investigations revealed metastasis to 4th metacarpal bone with lung metastasis. Hence, we present a patient with metastasis of carcinoma vagina to the 4 th metacarpal to draw the attention for the potential of such lesions to be developed in this region. It should be remembered that bone metastasis at unusual sites might be seen in vaginal carcinoma. We present this case because of its rarity and for documentation and discussion.

  5. Infecciones genitales por VPH tratadas por microinmunoterapia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacques Grauwet, Diego

    2011-01-01

    ... genitales por VPH tratadas por microinmunoterapia Diego Jacques Grauwet Médico ginecólogo y homeópata, Madrid, España Recibido el 30 de mayo de 2010; aceptado el 10 de septiembre de 2011 Correo...

  6. Mifepristone-induced abortion and vaginal bleeding in subsequent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Gao, Er-sheng; Chen, Ai-min; Luo, Lin; Cheng, Yi-min; Yuan, Wei

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of first-trimester mifepristone-induced abortion on vaginal bleeding in subsequent pregnancy. This observational cohort study was conducted during 1998-2001 at antenatal clinics in Beijing, Chengdu, and Shanghai, China. The study enrolled 4,931 women with one previous mifepristone-induced abortion, 4,925 women with no history of induced abortion, and 4,800 women with one previous surgical abortion and followed them through pregnancy and childbirth. The rates of vaginal bleeding in pregnant women with a history of medical abortion, no abortion, and surgical abortion were 16.5%, 13.9%, and 17.3%, respectively. The women with medical abortion had a higher risk (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.29) of vaginal bleeding compared with those with no abortion but similar risk to prior surgical abortion. When the correlation between medical abortion and vaginal bleeding was examined by period, increased risk was observed only in the early period (abortion and no abortion showed that the observed risks increased particularly in those with abortion at gestational age ≤ 7 weeks (aRR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.49), those followed by a postabortion curettage (aRR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.37, 1.84) or complications (aRR=1.99, 95% CI: 1.67, 2.37). There was no difference between women with medical abortion and women with surgical abortion in the occurrence of vaginal bleeding for either period. One previous mifepristone-induced abortion increased the risk of vaginal bleeding in early gestation period of subsequent pregnancy compared with no abortion, especially if abortion occurred before 7 weeks of gestation and was followed by a curettage or complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MRI in the assessment of congenital vaginal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, P.D. [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Simpson, J.C.; Creighton, S.M. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Hall-Craggs, M.A. [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: margaret.hall-craggs@uclh.nhs.uk

    2008-04-15

    Aim: To assess accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the delineation of morphological abnormalities of the vagina in patients with congenital anomalies of the genito-urinary tract. Materials and methods: Fifty-one patients (median age 19 years; range 12-40 years) were studied. All were consecutively referred for MRI to assess genital tract anatomy, between 1996 and 2004, from a clinic specializing in congenital abnormalities of the urogenital tract. All patients were assessed clinically and underwent MRI. Images were reviewed retrospectively by an experienced radiologist. Where there was discordance between clinical and radiological findings a consensus diagnosis was achieved by the gynaecologists and radiologists reviewing all of the clinical and radiological evidence together, including assessment of vaginal length. Results: The clinical data were incomplete for five women and the images non-diagnostic in two cases; consequently, 44 of 51 women had complete datasets and could be evaluated. Vaginas were abnormal in 30 of the 44 patients. There was discordance between the clinical and imaging findings at the initial review in three of the 44 cases (6.8%). After consensus review, and with the inclusion of measurement of the vaginal length on MRI, the MRI and clinical findings were concordant in all cases. The initial discordance was due to two vaginal dimples not being appreciated on MRI and one case in which presence of vaginal tissue proximal to a mid-segment obstruction was not appreciated clinically. Conclusion: MRI is an accurate method of imaging vaginal anomalies. However, to achieve reliable results the radiologist requires details of previous surgery and the vaginal length must be measured.

  8. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patras, Kathryn A; Wescombe, Philip A; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D; Tagg, John R; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Primate vaginal microbiomes exhibit species specificity without universal Lactobacillus dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Suleyman; Yeoman, Carl J; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Thomas, Susan M; Ho, Mengfei; Leigh, Steven R; White, Bryan A; Wilson, Brenda A; Stumpf, Rebecca M

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial communities colonizing the reproductive tracts of primates (including humans) impact the health, survival and fitness of the host, and thereby the evolution of the host species. Despite their importance, we currently have a poor understanding of primate microbiomes. The composition and structure of microbial communities vary considerably depending on the host and environmental factors. We conducted comparative analyses of the primate vaginal microbiome using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of a phylogenetically broad range of primates to test for factors affecting the diversity of primate vaginal ecosystems. The nine primate species included: humans (Homo sapiens), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), olive baboons (Papio anubis), lemurs (Propithecus diadema), howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus), vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops), mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Our results indicated that all primates exhibited host-specific vaginal microbiota and that humans were distinct from other primates in both microbiome composition and diversity. In contrast to the gut microbiome, the vaginal microbiome showed limited congruence with host phylogeny, and neither captivity nor diet elicited substantial effects on the vaginal microbiomes of primates. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance and Wilcoxon tests revealed correlations among vaginal microbiota and host species-specific socioecological factors, particularly related to sexuality, including: female promiscuity, baculum length, gestation time, mating group size and neonatal birth weight. The proportion of unclassified taxa observed in nonhuman primate samples increased with phylogenetic distance from humans, indicative of the existence of previously unrecognized microbial taxa. These findings contribute to our understanding of host-microbe variation and coevolution, microbial biogeography, and disease risk, and have important

  10. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina N. Fichorova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over-the-counter (OTC feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods: A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil, personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9 known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU. Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion: Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested

  11. [Vaginal and postpregnancy inflamations, risks of their treatment for fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaková, E; Hubicková Heringová, L

    2008-10-01

    Paper describes risks of gynaecological inflamations and their treatment for the successful course of pregnancy. Review. Czech Teratology Information Service, 3. LF UK, Praha. The article refers the most common types of vaginal inflamation and gives recommendation for the appropriate treatment that is safe for embryo or fetus according to advice of Teratology Information Service. Vaginal inflamation during pregnancy represents risks of abortion, miscarriage or prematurity. For the treatment, we have to take in consideration the age of pregnancy and we should use the drugs, that are safe during this period. It is necessary always to compare risks resulting from disorder and from drugs used.

  12. Vaginal dilator therapy for women receiving pelvic radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Tracie; Johnson, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background Many vaginal dilator therapy guidelines advocate routine vaginal dilation during and after pelvic radiotherapy to prevent stenosis (abnormal narrowing of the vagina). The UK Gynaecological Oncology Nurse Forum recommend dilation “three times weekly for an indefinite time period”. The UK patient charity Cancer Backup advises using vaginal dilators from two to eight weeks after the end of radiotherapy treatment. Australian guidelines recommend dilation after brachytherapy “as soon as is comfortably possible” and “certainly within four weeks and to continue for three years or indefinitely if possible”. However, dilation is intrusive, uses health resources and can be psychologically distressing. It has also caused rare but very serious damage to the rectum. Objectives To review the benefits and harms of vaginal dilation therapy associated with pelvic radiotherapy for cancer. Search methods Searches included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to 2008), EMBASE (1980 to 2008) and CINAHL (1982 to 2008). Selection criteria Any comparative randomised controlled trials (RCT) or data of any type which compared dilation or penetration of the vagina after pelvic radiotherapy treatment for cancer. Data collection and analysis The review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. We analysed the mean difference in sexual function scores and the risk ratio for non-compliance at six weeks and three months in single trial analyses. No trials met the inclusion criteria. Main results Dilation during or immediately after radiotherapy can, in rare cases, cause damage and there is no persuasive evidence from any study to demonstrate that it prevents stenosis. Data from one RCT showed no improvement in sexual scores in women who were encouraged to practice dilation. Two case series and one comparative study using historical controls suggest that dilation might be

  13. Validitet af kodning og indberetning ved vaginal prolapskirurgi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    as a vaginal prolapse procedure the validity of this being true was 93.6%. 18 non-prolapse procedures were registered as vaginal procedures. The registration was incomplete in 12.5% due to typing or hearing errors or missing codes. The coding was misleading in 11.8%, due to lack of consensus on coding. 86......-level. However, the validity of such register data is affected by the risk of errors when drawing such data, and by coding errors. The main problems are lack of consensus on which codes to use, and that codes for very different procedures are very much alike. To improve the quality and usefulness of register...

  14. The vaginal microbiome: Associations with sexually transmitted infections and the mucosal immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, H.

    2016-01-01

    A healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by lactobacilli. Disturbance of the microbiological vaginal microbiota balance ("dysbiosis") is associated with an increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections including HIV, and preterm birth in pregnant women. Since 2002, studies have

  15. Application of exfoliative vaginal cytology in clinical canine reproduction – a review

    OpenAIRE

    A. Antonov

    2017-01-01

    Vaginal cytology has many practical applications in the evaluation of both the normal and abnormal bitch. The objective of this review is to describe the use of exfoliative vaginal cytology as a diagnostic tool in clinical canine reproduction

  16. Delayed postcoital vaginal cuff dehiscence with small bowel evisceration after robotic-assisted staging surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Po Lan

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Unusual delayed-type vaginal cuff dehiscence hints the possibility that a combination of robotic surgery and postoperative chemotherapy might result in delayed healing of the vaginal cuff.

  17. Retomando la iconografía vaginal

    OpenAIRE

    Caviness, Madeline H.

    2007-01-01

    La iconografía del sexo femenino que puede rastrearse en época medieval permite realizar un ejercicio de contraste y parangón con un gran número de obras contemporáneas generadas por visiones feministas. Ante la más conocida producción de obras con temática sexual masculina, ya sea de manera explícita como implícita, un gran número de artistas feministas han especulado con los genitales femeninos como tema central, buscando su yuxtaposición simbólica con la preponderancia de las r...

  18. Descriptive epidemiology of vulvar and vaginal cancers in Vaud, Switzerland, 1974-1994

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, F.; Randimbison, L.; La Vecchia, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To analyse trends in incidence, survival and risk of second neoplasms following vaginal and vulvar cancers using data collected by the Swiss Cancer Registry of Vaud over the 21-year period 1974-1994. Materials and methods: Subjects were 257 vulvo-vaginal cancers. Of these, 69 were vaginal, 153 vulvar cancers, and 35 non-specified lower genital tract neoplasms; 94 in situ neoplasms were also registered (85 for the vulva). Results: Invasive vaginal cancer incidence decreased from 0....

  19. Trénink konzistence vaginálního orgasmu u žen

    OpenAIRE

    Formánek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To confirm the correlation between the ability to focus attention on vaginal sensations during penile-vaginal intercourse and the consistency of vaginal orgasm (Brody & Weiss, 2010) in our sample. To create a psychological method which would help women to improve their ability to focus the attention on vaginal sensations during PVI. The core of the method consists of mindfulness-based techniques and the Kegel exercise. In the next step we empirically verify the effectivity of such train...

  20. Foreign Body in Vagina: An Uncommon Cause of Vaginitis in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal discharge in children may result from a variety of causes. A long.standing intra.vaginal foreign body can pose both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in children. Treatment failure may occur because of alteration of the normal vaginal flora. A 6.year.old girl, who lived with her parents, presented with a ...

  1. Ovulation inhibition following vaginal administration of pills containing norethindrone and mestranol

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, Elsimar Metzker; Silva, A R; Carreira, C; Barbosa, Ione Cristina

    1984-01-01

    Texto completo. Acesso restrito. p. 197 – 202 Plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone were investigated in women using daily vaginal pills containing 1 mg norethindrone and 50 mcg mestranol. Of 13 treatment cycles in ten women using one vaginal pill daily, six were ovulatory and seven anovulatory. All 12 cycles in ten women using two vaginal pills daily were anovulatory.

  2. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Mo; Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter , Escherichia coli , Candida , and Gardnerella ). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC.

  3. 76 FR 17444 - In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S... certain vaginal ring birth control devices by reason of infringement of claim 1 of U.S. Patent No. 6,086... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain vaginal ring birth control...

  4. Vaginal dose de-escalation in image guided adaptive brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Sandy; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian; de Leeuw, Astrid A C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Vaginal stenosis is a major problem following radiotherapy in cervical cancer. We investigated a new dose planning strategy for vaginal dose de-escalation (VDD). Materials and methods Fifty consecutive locally advanced cervical cancer patients without lower or middle vaginal involvement...

  5. Infección vaginal en gestantes y su incidencia en indicadores seleccionados del Programa Materno Infantil Vaginal infection in pregnants and its incidence in indicators selected from Mother Child Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri de Jesús Miranda Guerra

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: en la atención materno infantil las infecciones se encuentran entre las primeras tres causas de muerte materna, junto a las hemorragias y la hipertensión arterial. Objetivos: describir el cuadro clínico-epidemiológico de las infecciones vaginales y la distribución de gestantes con estas infecciones según indicadores seleccionados del Programa Materno Infantil. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal realizado en las gestantes ingresadas en el hogar materno "Mariana Grajales Coello" del municipio Playa en La Habana durante el trienio 2006-2008. El universo de estudio quedó conformado por 182 gestantes con el diagnóstico de infección vaginal según el protocolo de manejo sindrómico del flujo vaginal. Las variables de estudio fueron edad, momento del diagnóstico, momento del ingreso, tipo de infección vaginal y respuesta al tratamiento e indicadores del Programa Materno Infantil. Para la recolección de la información se utilizó el método observacional documental de historias clínicas. Resultados: se encontró que el 31,31 % de la muestra eran adolescentes, el 40,66 % ingresaron en el segundo y tercer trimestre del embarazo, con moniliasis el 48,35 % y el 12,08 % aportaron niños bajo peso al nacer. Conclusiones: la incidencia de las infecciones vaginales en el hogar materno "Mariana Grajales Coello" es alta con predominio de moniliasis, infección que en la mayoría de las mujeres evoluciona satisfactoriamente al tratamiento indicado. El bajo peso al nacer es el indicador del Programa Materno infantil más afectado.Introduction: in the mother child care, infections are among the three causes of mother death, together with hemorrhages and high blood pressure. Objectives: to describe the clinical-epidemiological picture of vaginal infections and the pregnants distribution presenting these infections according to the indicators selected from the Mother Child Program. Method: a cross-sectional and descriptive

  6. Obstetric vesico-vaginal fistulae seen in the Northern Democratic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and involuntary leakage of urine through the vagina6. An obstetric vesico-vaginal fistula results from trauma ... During both missions, patients who presented com- plaining of uncontrolled leakage of urine were recruit- ... We calculated frequency and percent age of each cat- egorical socio-demographic variable (education ...

  7. Instrumental vaginal delivery: a dying saving art; an experience at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complications of prolonged and obstructed labor cause 4-13% of all maternal deaths in developing countries. This results other problems of women like obstetric fistula, Ruptured uterus and obstetric palsy. The use of vacuum assisted vaginal deliveries can reduce these mortalities as well as have impact on the ...

  8. A comparative study of vaginal misoprostol and intravenous oxytocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background : Intrauterine fetal death is a major problem in obstetrics particularly in developing countries such as Uganda. Induction of labour in cases of fetal death using the available method of oxytocin is often difficult, expensive and frustrating. Objectives : To compare the effectiveness of vaginal misoprostol and ...

  9. Do vaginal lactobacilli prevent preterm labour? | Kotze | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 87, No 8 (1997) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Do vaginal lactobacilli prevent preterm labour? I.R. Kotze ...

  10. Characteristics of women with continued use of vaginal pessaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Barbara J; Staley, Doug; Girouard, Lise; Maslow, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal pessaries have been shown to be a safe, effective treatment for pelvic organ prolapse, and in some cases, female urinary incontinence. There are limited data that predict long-term pessary use; therefore, the aim of this retrospective, exploratory study was to describe selected characteristics of women using a pessary for 12 months or longer in a nurse-run clinic.

  11. Preliminary findings on vaginal epithelial cells and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    Animal Reproduction. Science, 77(3, 4): 247-259. Mayor P, Galvez H, Guimaraes DA, Lopez-. Gatius F, Lopez-Bejar M. 2005. Serum estradiol-17β, vaginal cytology and vulval appearance as predictors of estrus cyclicity in the female collared peccary. (Tayassu tajacu) from the eastern. Amazon region. Animal Reproduction.

  12. Recommendations for the management of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturdee, D W; Panay, N; Ulrich, Lian

    2010-01-01

    Unlike hot flushes and night sweats which resolve spontaneously in time, atrophic symptoms affecting the vagina and lower urinary tract are often progressive and frequently require treatment. The prevalence of vaginal dryness increases as a woman advances through the postmenopausal years, causing...

  13. Vaginal hyperplasia in Nigeria Local bitch: Case Report | Ajala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 21/2-year-old local bitch was diagnosed as having vaginal hyperplasia by both physical examination and histopathology. The mass, which was firm and whitish in colour, measured about 5cm in diameter, was reducible and protruded out of the vulva. Vagina cytology confirmed that the bitch was in proestrus. The mass ...

  14. Large Vesico‑Vaginal Fistula Caused by a Foreign Body

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vesico‑vaginal fistula is commonly caused by obstructed labor, gynecological surgery, occasionally due to malignancy and rarely foreign body; in most cases being ring pessaries.[1] Cases of a foreign body in the vagina have been reported mostly in developed countries.[1‑4] Foreign body within the vagina can result in ...

  15. Laser therapy for the restoration of vaginal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacciani, Marco; Palacios, Santiago

    2017-05-01

    Laser therapy has a therapeutic role in various medical conditions and most recently has gained interest as a non-hormonal treatment for genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) and as a non-invasive option for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Several therapies are available to alleviate GSM symptoms, including hormonal and non-hormonal products. Both microablative fractional CO2 laser and the non-ablative vaginal Er:YAG laser (VEL) induce morphological changes in the vaginal tissues, and data from non-randomized clinical trials suggest that laser therapy can alleviate vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. VEL has been reported to improve SUI as well as vaginal prolapse. Although large randomized trials have not been reported, the evidence suggests that VEL can be offered as a safe and efficacious alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for GSM, as well as a first-line treatment for mild to moderate SUI, before surgical procedures are resorted to. Randomized studies are needed to compare laser treatments with other therapies, as well as to assess the duration of the therapeutic effects and the safety of repeated applications. Research is presently evaluating both an automated robotic probe for VEL treatments and an intraurethral probe for the treatment of severe and type III SUI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vaginal Histological Changes Of The Baboon During The Normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... histological changes throughout the menstrual cycle which may be associated with hormonal variations. The data from this study also suggest that olive baboon is a good model for investigating possible effects of hormonal contraceptives on vaginal epithelium and the mechanism of female heterosexual transmission of ...

  17. Estudo comparativo entre histerectomia abdominal e vaginal sem prolapso uterino

    OpenAIRE

    Lisboa, Vânio Cardoso

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas. Objetivo: Comparar a histerectomia abdominal e vaginal sem prolapso uterino.

  18. Oral microflora in infants delivered vaginally and by caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelun Barfod, Mette; Magnusson, Kerstin; Lexner, Michala Oron

    2011-01-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2011 Background. Early in life, vaginally delivered infants exhibit a different composition of the gut flora compared with infants delivered by caesarean section (C-section); however, it is unclear whether this also applies to the oral cavity. Aim...

  19. The use of mesh implants in vaginal prolapse surgery: Position ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , or the use of full-length mid-urethral mesh for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (e.g. tension-free vaginal tape/transobturator sling tape). In January 2012, the FDA introduced mandatory postmarket surveillance of all mesh implanted ...

  20. Living with vesico-vaginal fistula: experiences of women awaiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF) is one of maternal health problems confronting public health workers in Nigeria today. Information on how women suffering from this condition cope is important in that it can inform the design and delivery of programmes and interventions to address the challenges that face victims of VVF.

  1. Effect of Bacteriocin-like Inhibitory Substances Produced by Vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduction of vaginal Lactobacillus population leads to overgrowth of opportunistic organisms such as Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), which causes life threatening neonatal infections. The activities of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) produced by Lactobacillus species isolated from the ...

  2. Factors contributing to uterine rupture in women having vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninteen (76.0%) were of low social class. Various reasons for attempting vaginal delivery at TBA's or spiritual churches included lack of funds 9(37.5%) husbands or close relative not available to take decision for hospital delivery 6(25.0%), not appreciating the need for hospital delivery 3(12.5%) and no reason 1(4.2%).

  3. Bladder perforation and development of a vesico - vaginal fistula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservative management by continuous bladder drainage was not successful. A low-pressure cystogram done on day eight revealed a bladder leakage. On day 21, a repeat low-pressure cystogram showed a vesico-vaginal fistula. A successful transvesical repair by laparotomy was undertaken on day 23. The possible ...

  4. Is a Vaginal Birth Possible After a Cesarean Delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Find a Study Resources and Publications Is a vaginal birth possible after a cesarean delivery? Skip sharing on social media links ... delivery necessary and what are the risks? ​​ Related A-Z Topics High-Risk Pregnancy Labor and Delivery ...

  5. Vaginal cytology, vaginoscopy and progesterone profile: breeding tools in bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. S. Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The exfoliative vaginal cytology, vaginoscopic examination of vaginal mucosa and progesterone profiles were recorded in an attempt to identify the ideal time of breeding in bitches. A total of 18 anestrus bitches were selected and divided into 03 groups (Control, CABG and eCG groups. The bitches in control group did not receive any treatment and exhibited estrus. The estrus was induced with Cabergoline (CABG and equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG in the other two groups of bitches. In control group, higher percentage of superficial cells (89.94 ± 0.64 and lower percentage of intermediate (7.30 ± 0.77 and parabasal cells (2.76 ± 0.30 were characteristic vaginal cytological changes during estrus. Vaginoscopic examination of CABG group of bitches revealed that the vaginal mucus was creamy and paper white with angular shrinkage during estrus. In eCG group of bitches, the plasma progesterone concentration was 1.55 ± 0.19 ng/ml on day 8.00 ± 0.71 of proestrus. The conception rates were 66.66, 83.33 and 83.33 per cent in Control, Cabergoline and eCG groups, respectively. The litter size varied from 3.50 + 1.12 to 4.83 + 0.83 in the three groups.

  6. Tension-Free Vaginal Tape versus Transobturator Tape for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The transobturator tape (TOT) is based on a similar principle as the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), but introduced through the obturator foramen. The aim of this study was to compare these slings as surgical procedures for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. Patients and Methods: This ...

  7. CASE REPORT- Vaginal Leech Infestation: A Rare Cause of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She was admitted with the diagnosis of hypovolumic shock and severe anemia secondary to postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. After the patient was stabilized with intravenous crystalloids, the leech was removed from the vagina. She was then transfused with two units of whole blood and discharged with good condition on ...

  8. Vesico-vaginal fistula surgery in Uganda | Hancock | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childbirth injuries are common in Uganda. This paper describes our experience with Vesico-vaginal Fistula repair and aftercare. Methods: Between 1999 and 2003, 341 consecutive patients underwent VVF repair complicating childbirth trauma. Another 29 VVF patients were seen but not operated because of ...

  9. Comparison of vaginal and oral misoprostol, for the induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More women (10/18) who received oral misoprostol required oxytocin augmentation to complete the induction of labour compared with 4/20 women in the vaginal group (p< 0.05; Odds Ratio 2.8; 95% Cl 1.36 - 4.24). There were no cases of failed induction. The systemic side effects (shivering, diarrhoea, vomiting and ...

  10. Vaginal Symptoms after Reconstructive Surgery for Prolapsed Pelvic Organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Eftekhar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pelvic organ prolapse is a common disorder in women over the world and its general treatment is surgery. Therefore it is important to consider if vaginal symptoms, quality of life and sexual function after surgery improve. The purpose of this study was to assess vaginal symptoms in women 3 months after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse.Materials and methods: In this study 50 eligible women were evaluated between March 2007 and May 2008. These women underwent physical examination for prolapse staging and medical status and completed the ICIQ–VS questionnaire pre– and post operation 3 months later.Results: Mean age was 44.86 (31–74 years and %72 were premenopausal. Vaginal symptoms, sexual function and quality of life scores improved in order (8.88 Vs 18.04, 17.16 Vs 34.48, 2.76 Vs 4.8, all P<0.05.Conclusion: Vaginal symptoms, sexual function and quality of life after surgery improved. It appears that in Iranian patients, the performance of reconstruction surgery alone results in satisfaction.

  11. Gynecologic bleeding revealing vaginal metastasis of renal cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tumour was classified pT3bN0M0 and grade III of Furhmann grading. One year later, scanner discovered mediastinal and lombo-aortic lymph nodes. She received 2 months of immunotherapy associated with bevacizumab, but stopped because of intolerance. She was readmitted in our institute for vaginal bleeding. Clinical ...

  12. Outcomes in women attempting vaginal birth after caesarean section ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A successful vaginal delivery was associated with lower NICU admissions and higher APGAR scores in the neonate than those delivered by caesarean section but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups for APGAR scores <7. There were 3 cases of uterine rupture discovered at caesarean section ...

  13. prevalence and risk factors for vaginal candidiasis among women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2005-03-01

    Mar 1, 2005 ... intercourse, number of sexual partners, marital status or antibiotic usage. Conculsion: The high prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among women with genital infections should be taken into account when updating policies concerning syndromic management of sexually transmitted diseases. More gender ...

  14. Vaginal Practices of HIV-Negative Zimbabwean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Norris Turner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vaginal practices (VPs may increase HIV risk by injuring vaginal epithelium or by increasing risk of bacterial vaginosis, an established risk factor for HIV. Methods. HIV-negative Zimbabwean women (n=2,185 participating in a prospective study on hormonal contraception and HIV risk completed an ancillary questionnaire capturing detailed VP data at quarterly followup visits for two years. Results. Most participants (84% reported ever cleansing inside the vagina, and at 40% of visits women reported drying the vagina using cloth or paper. Vaginal tightening using cloth/cotton wool, lemon juice, traditional herbs/powders, or other products was reported at 4% of visits. Women with ≥15 unprotected sex acts monthly had higher odds of cleansing (adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04–1.32. Women with sexually transmitted infections had higher odds of tightening (aOR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.08–1.86. Conclusion. Because certain vaginal practices were associated with other HIV risk factors, synergism between VPs and other risk factors should be explored.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for vaginal candidiasis among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conculsion: The high prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among women with genital infections should be taken into account when updating policies concerning syndromic management of sexually transmitted diseases. More gender specific approach to syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections in females ...

  16. Association between absence of vaginal lactobacilli PCR products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age is bacterial vaginosis (BV). This condition predisposes women to increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and preterm birth. The diagnostic methods ...

  17. Obstetric vesico-vaginal fistulae seen in the Northern Democratic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is a developing country with poor obstetric indicators. Despite ongoing efforts to improve care, women continue to suffer multiple complications of child birth including vesico-vaginal fistulae (VVF). Objective: To describe socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of ...

  18. 539 Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in Nnewi Town of Anambra State, Nigeria (Pp. 539-548). Okonkwo Nnaemeka J. - Department of Parasitology and Entomology,. Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. E-mail: mumamaka@yahoo.com, ...

  19. Antibiotic Administration and Factors Influencing the Vaginal Microbiota during Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    with a following increase in pH level can lead to an overgrowth of certain microbiota resulting in bacterial vaginosis or vaginal candidiasis. Humans are continuously exposed to a large amount of environmental factors providing a possible influence on their microbial ecology. Antibiotic administration is one...

  20. The Prevalence and Pattern of Vaginal Candidiasis in Pregnancy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of vaginal candidiasis was 42.9%. It was commoner in the younger women between the ages of 21 – 30 years and in primigravida. The attack rate was higher in the third trimester of pregnancy. There was no clear relationship between weight and prevalence. A comparatively high prevalence is reported.

  1. fluconazole and boric acid for treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-01

    Apr 1, 2013 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 90 No. 4 April 2013. FLUCONAZOLE AND BORIC ACID FOR TREATMENT OF VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS- NEW WORDS ABOUT OLD. ISSUE. M. K. Khameneie, Assistant Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Imam Reza hospital, Tehran - Iran,. N. Arianpour ...

  2. Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis thus, giving a prevalence rate of 30%. The pregnant women aged 26 to 30 recorded the highest prevalence (13.669; df = 5) which is statistically significant (p<0.05). The women who were in their third trimester of pregnancy were mostly infected (6.163; df = 2) and the ...

  3. Vesico vaginal fistula (VVF): a shift in epidemiology in northeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolonged obstructed labour was the leading cause in 90% and most were in social class IV and V ( using standard occupational classification, OPCS.). Seventy five percent had successful repair, while about 50% were either divorced or neglected by their husbands. Conclusion: Vesico-vaginal fistula remains one ...

  4. Vaginal Bleeding In 6 Years Old Young Female: Diagnostic Challenge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In parous women, simple speculum examination without anesthesia and removal of a leech by surgical forceps from vagina is a management option.2 However; in our case, this was not possible, because she was too young. The emphasis is that if a health worker has doubt as to whether vaginal bleeding in a child is due to ...

  5. Family planning methods among women in a vaginal microbicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    0.93-1.75]. †Pseudo R-square=0.1039, model p<0.0001. Adjusted for clinic at recruitment. * P values from likehood ratio tests. Family planning methods among women in a vaginal microbicide feasibility study in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa ...

  6. Female sexual outcomes in primiparous women after vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexual function is an essential component of life and yet very little is known about the relationships between the female sexuality and the mode of delivery. Objective: To compare sexual outcomes after vaginal delivery and cesarean section. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on women in two ...

  7. Vaginal Approaches Using Synthetic Mesh to Treat Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jei Won; Chae, Hee Dong

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a very common condition in elderly women. In women with POP, a sacrocolpopexy or a vaginal hysterectomy with anterior and posterior colporrhaphy has long been considered as the gold standard of treatment. However, in recent decades, the tendency to use a vaginal approach with mesh for POP surgery has been increasing. A vaginal approach using mesh has many advantages, such as its being less invasive than an abdominal approach and easier to do than a laparoscopic approach and its having a lower recurrence rate than a traditional approach. However, the advantages of a vaginal approach with mesh for POP surgery must be weighed against the disadvantages. Specific complications that have been reported when using mesh in POP procedures are mesh erosion, dyspareunia, hematomas, urinary incontinence and so on, and evidence supporting the use of transvaginal surgery with mesh is still lacking. Hence, surgeons should understand the details of the surgical pelvic anatomy, the various surgical techniques for POP surgery, including using mesh, and the possible side effects of using mesh.

  8. The Effect of Prolapse Surgery on Vaginal Sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, Marielle M. E.; van der Vaart, C. Huub; Laan, Ellen; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    Introduction. Prolapse surgery has been shown to have major impact on sexual function. Since prolapse surgery not only influences psychological factors but might also influence physiological conditions such as vaginal innervation, there is a need for objective outcome measurements to better

  9. Benefits of Laser Therapy in Postmenopausal Vaginal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brînzan, Daniela; Pǎiuşan, Lucian; Daşcǎu, Voicu; Furǎu, Gheorghe

    2011-08-01

    Maybe the worst aspect of menopause is the decline of the quality of the sexual life. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser therapy in comparison with topical application of estrogen preparations, for the treatment of vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions induced by menopause. A total of 50 menopausal patients were examined during a one year period. The methods used for objectifying vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions were history taking, local clinical exam and PAP smear. From this group, 40 patients had vaginal atrophy with sexual dysfunctions. They have been treated differently, being included in four groups: patients treated with local estrogens, patients treated with intravaginal laser therapy, patients treated with both laser therapy and estrogens, patients treated with estrogens and placebo laser therapy. Therapeutic benefit, improvement of vaginal atrophy and quality of sexual life, were objectified by anamnesis (questionnaire), local and general clinical examination and PAP smear. The best results have been obtained, by far, in the 3rd group, followed by the women treated only with laser. In conclusion, we can say that laser therapy is the best way for solving the sexual inconveniences of menopause.

  10. Instrumental vaginal delivery - an assessment of use in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resident trainees (93.4%) applied the instruments and the most common maternal complication was post-partum haemorrhage (11.1%) followed by perineal laceration (5.9%). Few neonates (4.6%)suffered complications. Conclusion: The incidence of instrumental vaginal delivery is low. There is an obvious shift from the ...

  11. Predictors of vaginal delivery in nulliparous mothers | Adeyemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Of a total of 944 primigravidae delivered in the unit during the study period, 286 (30.3%) were eligible for the study. Vaginal delivery was achieved in 214 (74.8%) of the eligible parturient, while 72 (25.2%) had emergency caesarean delivery. Indications for the caesarean delivery were: failure to progress (46; ...

  12. Porcine skin collagen implants for anterior vaginal wall prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Ulla; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F; Rudnicki, Martin

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The effect of a Pelvicol graft compared with a conventional anterior vaginal repair was evaluated in this randomised controlled study. METHODS: Only patients with a stage II or higher (Ba >or= -1) defect were included. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were allocated to a ...

  13. Deep sequencing of the vaginal microbiota of women with HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); A.D. Fernandes (Andrew); J.M. Macklaim (Jean); R.J. Dickson (Russell); J. Changalucha (John); G.B. Gloor (Gregory); G.K. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Women living with HIV and co-infected with bacterial vaginosis (BV) are at higher risk for transmitting HIV to a partner or newborn. It is poorly understood which bacterial communities constitute BV or the normal vaginal microbiota among this population and how the microbiota

  14. Chlamydia and Vaginitis in Sexually Active Females: Classical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six hundred (600) adult females from hotel/brothel, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Clinic, Obstetrics/Gynaecology Clinic, Family Planning Clinic and Healthy controls were investigated for Chlamydia, Candida, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis (BV). This was done using microscopy: wet mount, stained vaginal ...

  15. Vulvo-vaginal candidosis in a cohort of hormonal contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of vulvo-vaginal candidosis was 23.3%. Other associated sexually transmitted infections were bacterial vaginosis (24.1%), HIV (12.1%), trichomoniasis (10.3%), chlamydia cervicitis (7.8%), syphilis (5.2%), genital warts (6.0%) and gonorrhoea (2.6%).Younger age of sexual debut influenced the decision of ...

  16. Uterine artery embolisation in the management of recurrent vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a rare case of primary postpartum haemorrhage due to a traumatic cause following spontaneous vaginal delivery in which surgical intervention failed. ... haematomas in which surgical intervention fails to control bleeding is still under-reported. ... In the recovery room after 1 hour her blood pressure dropped to ...

  17. Clinical analysis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yue; Zhao, Qun; Geng, Yu-Ning; Yang, Shu-Li; Yin, Cheng-Hong; Wu, Yu-Mei

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to evaluate the importance of screening and its diagnostic accuracy compared with the pathological diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN).The prospective study enrolled 419 patients (pts) and was conducted between February 1, 2015 and January 31, 2016 at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University.All enrolled pts underwent multipoint biopsy of cervix and vaginal wall directed by colposcopy. All samples of biopsy underwent pathological examination. Among them, 201 pts (48.0%) were diagnosed with CIN, 218 pts (52.0%) were diagnosed with cervicitis, and 51 pts (12.2%) were diagnosed with VAIN. It was found that the incidence of CIN in pts was 4 times higher than that of VAIN. In all 419 patients enrolled, 218 pts had cervicitis with 13 pts (6.0%) of VAIN. There were 201 pts of CIN with 38 pts (18.9%) of VAIN: including 53 pts of CIN3 with 12 pts (22.6%) of VAIN; 49 pts of CIN2 with 9 pts of VAIN (18.4%), and 99 pts of CIN1 with 17 pts of VAIN (17.2%). The incidence of CIN with VAIN (18.9%) was significantly higher than cervicitis with VAIN (6.0%) (χ = 16.39, P = .00). Our results showed that there was a significant consistency between cervical lesions and vaginal lesions (χ = 135.91, P = .00), which indicated that the increase of CIN grades may be related to an increase of the VAIN grades. Our results also showed the significant (p 50 years Kappa = 0.28).This study showed that cytological test can be used as a routine screening method for cervical lesions and vaginal diseases. If the cytology result shows abnormality, and pathological examination confirms that there is no obvious abnormal cervical disease, colposcopy directed vaginal multipoint biopsy should be conducted to exclude vaginal disease. All patients of CIN should routinely undergo vaginal multipoint biopsy (1/3 upper vagina), especially in patients

  18. MODERN APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY OF VAGINAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Николаевна Кравченко

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern obstetrical and gynecological practice, the problem of disturbing the vaginal microflora is one of the most urgent because of the possibility of developing a whole complex of complications affecting the reproductive function of women. Mixed variants of vaginal infections have been little studied, nevertheless, they must be distinguished, since different forms of coexistence of pathogens require an individual therapeutic approach. Objective – evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of a new combination gel form preparation for vaginal infections in pregnant women. Methods of research. The study included 200 pregnant women with vaginal infections: 100 women made up the basic group, received treatment with a new gel preparation Metrogyl Plus within 5 days. The comparison group consisted of 100 patients treated with Clion-D 100. The second stage involved lactobacilli providing colonization resistance of the vaginal biotope. Results. Efficacy after the end of treatment after 1 month was 99 % in the main group, 94 % in the comparison group (p = 0,12, relapses after treatment at 3 months were revealed in 2 % and 10 % of the observations, respectively, in the study groups (p = 0,02. Placental disorders, the threat of spontaneous abortion, polyhydramnios, gestational pyelonephritis, edema caused by pregnancy, and preeclampsia were collectively observed in the main group less frequently than in the comparison group (p = 0,025. Complications of childbirth and the postpartum period are also noted less frequently in the main group than in the comparison group, which is associated with a much smaller number of relapses after treatment (p = 0,004. Conclusion. Treatment of vaginal infections with a new gel form preparation in pregnant women is highly effective and is 99 %. The number of relapses after treatment with the combined preparation in the form of a gel is only 2 % after 3 months. Consequently, the use of an effective

  19. Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, J; Schjørring, S; Eskildsen, C E; Pedersen, L; Bischoff, A L; Følsgaard, N; Carson, C G; Chawes, B L K; Bønnelykke, K; Mølgaard, A; Jacobsson, B; Krogfelt, K A; Bisgaard, H

    2014-07-01

    Antibiotics may induce alterations in the commensal microbiota of the birth canal in pregnant women. Therefore, we studied the effect of antibiotic administration during pregnancy on commensal vaginal bacterial colonization at gestational week 36. Six hundred and sixty-eight pregnant women from the novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010 ) pregnancy cohort participated in this analysis. Detailed information on oral antibiotic prescriptions during pregnancy filled at the pharmacy was obtained and verified prospectively. Vaginal samples were obtained at pregnancy week 36 and cultured for bacteria. Women who received oral antibiotics during any pregnancy trimester had an increased rate of colonization by Staphylococcus species in the vaginal samples as compared with samples obtained from women without any antibiotic treatment during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.06-2.52, p 0.028). Oral antibiotic administration in the third trimester were also associated with increased colonization by Staphylococcus species (adjusted OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.04-3.76, p 0.037). These bacteriological changes were associated with urinary tract infection antibiotics. Women treated in the third trimester of pregnancy were more often colonized by Escherichia coli than women without antibiotic treatment in the third trimester (adjusted OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04-3.52, p 0.038). This change was associated with respiratory tract infection (RTI) antibiotics. We did not observe any significant changes in vaginal Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptoccocus) or Staphylococcus aureus colonization following antibiotic treatment in pregnancy. Antibiotic administration during pregnancy leads to alterations in the vaginal microbiological ecology prior to birth, with potential morbidity, and long-term effects on the early microbial colonization of the neonate. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical

  20. Throwing the dice for the diagnosis of vaginal complaints?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras David

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Vaginitis is among the most common conditions women are seeking medical care for. Although these infections can easily be treated, the relapse rate is high. This may be due to inadequate use of the diagnostic potential. Methods We evaluated the misjudgement rate of the aetiology of vaginal complaints. A total of 220 vaginal samples from women with a vaginal complaint were obtained and analysed for numbers of total lactobacilli, H2O2-producing lactobacilli, total aerobic cell counts and total anaerobic cell counts including bifidobacteria, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp. Additionally, the presence of Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis was evaluated by DNA-hybridisation using the PCR and Affirm VPIII Microbial Identification Test, respectively. Results The participating physicians diagnosed Bacterial vaginosis (BV as origin of discomfort in 80 cases, candidiasis in 109 cases and mixed infections in 8 cases. However, a present BV, defined as lack of H2O2-lactobacilli, presence of marker organisms, such as G. vaginalis, Bacteroides spp. or Atopobium vaginae, and an elevated pH were identified in only 45 cases of the women examined. Candida spp. were detected in 46 cases. Interestingly, an elevated pH corresponded solely to the presence of Atopobium vaginae, which was detected in 11 cases. Conclusion Errors in the diagnosis of BV and candida vulvovaginitis (CV were high. Interestingly, the cases of misjudgement of CV (77% were more numerous than that of BV (61%. The use of Amsel criteria or microscopy did not reduce the number of misinterpretations. The study reveals that the misdiagnosis of vaginal complaints is rather high.

  1. Comparison of storage conditions for human vaginal microbiome studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyun Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of storage conditions on the microbiome and metabolite composition of human biological samples has not been thoroughly investigated as a potential source of bias. We evaluated the effect of two common storage conditions used in clinical trials on the bacterial and metabolite composition of the vaginal microbiota using pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene sequencing and (1H-NMR analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight women were enrolled and four mid-vaginal swabs were collected by a physician from each woman. The samples were either processed immediately, stored at -80°C for 4 weeks or at -20°C for 1 week followed by transfer to -80°C for another 4 weeks prior to analysis. Statistical methods, including Kolmogorovo-Smirnov and Wilcoxon tests, were performed to evaluate the differences in vaginal bacterial community composition and metabolites between samples stored under different conditions. The results showed that there were no significant differences between samples processed immediately after collection or stored for varying durations. (1H-NMR analysis of the small molecule metabolites in vaginal secretions indicated that high levels of lactic acid were associated with Lactobacillus-dominated communities. Relative abundance of lactic acid did not appear to correlate with relative abundance of individual Lactobacillus sp. in this limited sample, although lower levels of lactic acid were observed when L. gasseri was dominant, indicating differences in metabolic output of seemingly similar communities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings benefit large-scale, field-based microbiome and metabolomic studies of the vaginal microbiota.

  2. VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS – GYNECOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Živadinović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal candidiasis (VC is one of the most common reasons for consultations with a gynecologist, with an increasing trend in occurrence in female patients. It is estimated that 75% of all women experience an episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis in their lifetime, 50% of them experience at least a second episode, and 5% have recurrent candidiasis. Cervical and vaginal secretions act as the last line of defense from ascendant infection pathway spreading. Factors that may disturb vaginal ecosystem are: endogenous factors, way of life, infectious factors and iatrogenic factors. The most common cause of VC in 85-90% of cases is C. albicans, but other Candida species tend to be more likely to cause VVC (Candida tropicalis , Candida glabrata , C particulary, C crusei and so on. These non-albicans species have been found to be fluconazole and antimycotics resistant in more than 70% of cases. This is especially true for C. glabrata. There are several predisposing factors that have been associated with VC recurrence and resistance, such as Candida genotypes, resistance and virulence, immunodeficiency, unregulated hyperglycemia, use of oral contraceptives, long-term use of antibiotics. Therapy approach should be individual, including local and oral antimycotics until the symptoms disappear. The maintenance dose can be continuous or intermittent. Due to hormone concentration increase, increase in local glycogen, alternations of vaginal flora, VC incidence in pregnancy is two times higher in comparison to other female population. The problem of vaginal candidiasis requires individual approach, taking into account all the risk factors and accompanying physiological conditions or diseases in female patients.

  3. Trichomonas vaginalis treatment reduces vaginal HIV-1 shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia; Amedee, Angela; Clark, Rebecca A; Dumestre, Jeanne; Theall, Katherine P; Myers, Leann; Hagensee, Michael E; Farley, Thomas A; Martin, David H

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal HIV-1 shedding has been associated with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection and could play a role in HIV transmission. The purpose of the study was to examine if effective TV treatment reduces the presence of vaginal HIV-1 RNA. TV+ women attending an HIV outpatient clinic in New Orleans, LA, who resolved infection (n = 58) and TV-negative controls (n = 92), matched on antiretroviral therapy (ART) were examined and interviewed at baseline, 1, and 3 months. TV status was tested by culture and the amount of cell free HIV-1 RNA in the vaginal fluids was determined by the Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor ultrasensitive assay. : Most women (81.3%) were black and the mean age was 37.5 (SD 8.7). At baseline, 46.0% had plasma HIV-1 RNA >/=10,000 copies/mL, 26.4% had CD4<200 cells/muL, 54.7% were taking ART, and only 26.0% had detectable HIV-1 RNA in their vaginal fluids. TV-positive women who were effectively treated for TV were less likely to shed HIV vaginally at 3-months post-treatment compared to baseline (R.R. 0.34, 95% CI: 0.12-0.92, P = 0.03), whereas there was no change for TV-negative women. This study provides additional support that reducing TV infection among HIV-positive women may have an impact on the prevention of HIV transmission. Reasons for the delayed treatment effect and the effect on cervical shedding need further investigation.

  4. Bioadhesive vaginal tablets containing spray dried microspheres loaded with clotrimazole for treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Naresh Vishal; Natasha, Shirodker; Getyala, Anil; Bhat, Ramnath Sudeendra

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate novel bioadhesive vaginal tablets containing clotrimazole loaded microspheres in order to provide long-term therapeutic activity at the site of infection. Tablets were prepared by incorporating drug loaded microspheres and using bioadhesive polymers hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and Carbopol. Microspheres were prepared by the spray drying technique using Eudragit RS-100 and Eudragit RL-100. Microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, FTIR, particle size analysis and evaluated for percentage yield, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. To achieve bioadhesion to the mucosal tissue, optimized microspheres were incorporated into bioadhesive tablets and were evaluated for in vitro drug release, in vitro and in vivo mucoadhesion. FTIR and DSC studies showed that no chemical interaction occurred between the drug and polymers. The sphericity factor indicated that the prepared microspheres were spherical. Formulation Mt6 indicated a controlled in vitro drug release and good bioadhesive strength. The in vivo images confirmed the bioadhesion and retention property of tablets up to 24 h. The results indicated that this drug delivery system can be explored for controlled intravaginal drug release.

  5. Effects of horizontal vs vertical vaginal cuff closure techniques on vagina length after vaginal hysterectomy: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavkaytar, Sabri; Kokanali, Mahmut Kuntay; Topcu, Hasan Onur; Aksakal, Orhan Seyfi; Doganay, Melike

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effects of horizontal and vertical vaginal cuff closure techniques on vagina length after vaginal hysterectomy. Prospective randomized study (Canadian Task Force classification I). Teaching and research hospital, a tertiary center. Fifty-two women with POP-Q stage 0 or 1 uterine prolapse were randomized into 2 groups using vertical (n = 26) or horizontal (n = 26) vaginal cuff closure. All patients underwent vaginal hysterectomy. Vagina length in the 2 groups was compared preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and at 6 weeks postoperatively. Mean (SD) preoperative vagina length in the horizontal and vertical groups was similar (7.87 [0.92] cm vs 7.99 [0.78] cm; p = .41). Immediately postoperatively, the vagina was significantly shorter in the horizontal group than in the vertical group (6.61 [0.89] cm vs 7.51 [0.74] cm; p vagina was still significantly shorter in the horizontal group (6.55 [0.89] cm vs 7.42 (0.73) cm; p vagina length before and after surgery was also significantly higher in the horizontal group than in the vertical group (-1.26 [0.12] cm vs 0.49 [0.11] cm; p vagina length better than does horizontal cuff closure. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vaginal chitosan tablets with clotrimazole-design and evaluation of mucoadhesive properties using porcine vaginal mucosa, mucin and gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Emilia; Winnicka, Katarzyna; Amelian, Aleksandra; Cwalina, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Topical administration of clotrimazole represents the common use therapy in the antimycotic genitourinary tract treatment. Due to the fast self-cleaning action of the vagina, commercially available vaginal dosage forms with clotrimazole cannot assure prolonged contact time with mucosa, therefore the main objective of this study was to develop a dosage form for vaginal administration of clotrimazole using chitosan-a biodegradable and biocompatible derivative of chitin. Tablets mucoadhesive properties were examined using texture analyser under the presence of porcine vaginal mucosa and two different models of adhesive layers- mucin gel and gelatine discs. In addition, friability, hardness, swelling behaviour, residence time, surface morphology of the performed tablets, the in vitro release profile of clotrimazole and clotrimazole release kinetics were determined. The release of clotrimazole from formulations with 25 or 40% of chitosan (F2 and F3) followed non Fickian diffusion through chitosan-gel layer and was retarded up to 6 h. Additionally, tablets F2 showed the best results in terms of mucoadhesive properties and appeared to be a good alternative to commercially available antimycotic vaginal dosage forms.

  7. Sepsis neonatal por Estreptococos Pyogenes Neonatal Sepsis by Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Rodríguez-Herrera; Cinthya Ramírez-Navarro

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, recién nacido a término adecuado para la edad gestacional, quien nace por parto vaginal, con el antecedente de fiebre en la madre durante el periodo de postparto inmediato. Los padres consultan a los 2 días de vida pues le notan dificultad respiratoria, hipoactividad y rechazo a la leche materna. El paciente se interna y se aborda como una sepsis. Durante su estancia en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Niños asocia fallo respir...

  8. Women's experiences of using vaginal trainers (dilators) to treat vaginal penetration difficulties diagnosed as vaginismus: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Kat; Gregory, Angela; Nunns, David; das Nair, Roshan

    2015-06-20

    Recent research has highlighted controversies in the conceptualisation, diagnosis and treatment of vaginismus. Vaginal trainers are currently the most widely used treatment. Critiques have highlighted concerns that the evidence-base of its effectiveness is limited, with controlled trials reporting disappointing results, and its prescription promotes 'performance-based' sexuality which may be detrimental. Despite this, little has been done to seek women's views about their treatment. This study set out to explore women's experiences of vaginismus treatment with vaginal trainers, and to use their voices to propose guidelines for improving treatment. 13 women who had used vaginal trainers for vaginal penetration difficulties diagnosed as vaginismus were recruited through a specialist clinic, university campuses, and online forums. The women took part in semi-structured individual interviews (face-to-face/telephone/Skype), which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Thematic Analysis. Four superordinate themes were elicited and used to draft 'better treatment' guidelines. Themes were: (1) Lack of knowledge, (2) Invalidation of suffering by professionals, (3) Difficult journey, and (4) Making the journey easier. This paper describes themes (3) and (4). Difficult Journey describes the long and arduous 'Journey into treatment', including difficulties asking for help, undergoing physical investigations and negotiating 'the system' of medical referrals. It also describes the sometimes demoralising process of 'being in treatment', which includes emotional and practical demands of treatment. Making the journey easier highlights the importance of and limits to 'partner support'. 'Professional support' comprises personal qualities of professionals/therapeutic relationship, the value of specialist skills and knowledge and the need for facilitating couple communication about vaginismus. 'Peer support/helping each other' describes the importance of

  9. Citologia vaginal de preguiça-de-coleira (Bradypus torquatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P.N. Snoeck

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As preguiças-de-coleira (Bradypus torquatus são mamíferos arborícolas da família Bradypodidae. Podem ser encontradas nos trechos de Mata Atlântica do Brasil e a maior diversidade genética de suas populações ocorre em matas do sul da Bahia. A observação desses animais na natureza é muito difícil, pois passam a maior parte da vida escondidos no denso emaranhado das copas, por isso, dados sobre aspectos reprodutivos são escassos e não existem informações sobre ciclo estral dessa espécie. Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar as células do epitélio vaginal da preguiça-de-coleira (Bradypus torquatus como forma de viabilizar o uso dessa técnica para estudar as fases do ciclo estral desses animais. As amostras para citologia vaginal foram obtidas de quatro preguiças de coleira que habitavam áreas de Mata Atlântica do sul da Bahia. Após captura manual do animal, procedeu-se a coleta de material biológico, introduzindo uma escova ginecológica estéril, na comissura dorsal da vulva. Para cada amostra foram feitos dois esfregaços rotacionando a extremidade da escova sobre cada lâmina de vidro, fazendo-se em geral três impressões lineares. O esfregaço foi imediatamente corado pelo método Panótico rápido (Laborclin®. Nas preguiças BT033, BT065 e BT042 foi possível identificar respectivamente 30%, 33% e 7% de células parabasais (PB; 56%, 22% e 10% de células intermediárias pequenas (IP; 6%, 18% e 6% de células intermediárias grandes (IG; 2%, 13% e 24% de células superficiais nucleadas (SN; 6%, 14% e 53% de células superficiais anucleadas (SA. Na preguiça BT464 foi possível fazer duas coletas com intervalo de 13 meses. Os dados da primeira e segunda coleta foram, respectivamente: 6% e 17,5 de células PB, 5% e 25% de células IP, 11% e 15,5% de células IG, 8% e 19,5% de células SN e 70% e 22,5% de células SA. Enfatiza-se que as porcentagens de células do epitélio vaginal variaram entre indivíduos e

  10. Prevalencia de candidiasis vaginal en embarazadas: Identificación de levaduras y sensibilidad a los antifúngicos Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women: Identification of yeasts and susceptibility to antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García Heredia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La mujer embarazada es más susceptible tanto a la colonización como a la infección vaginal por levaduras. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de levaduras aisladas de exudados vaginales de mujeres embarazadas y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos de uso frecuente. Se estudiaron 493 pacientes en el período comprendido desde diciembre de 1998 hasta febrero de 2000. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue 28% (Candida albicans 90,4%, Candida glabrata 6,3%, Candida parapsilosis 1,1%, Candida kefyr 1,1%, especies no identificadas 1,1%. Se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol, ketoconazol, itraconazol y nistatina por el método de difusión en agar Shadomy. Todos los aislamientos de C. albicans, C. kefyr y C. parapsilosis fueron sensibles in vitro a los antifúngicos probados, mientras que 1 de 6 aislamientos de C. glabrata presentó resistencia extendida a todos los azoles, pero sensibilidad a nistatina. En mujeres embarazadas C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de exudados vaginales y continúa siendo ampliamente sensible a los antifúngicos; sólo en C. glabrata se observó resistencia a los azoles. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie particularmente en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes o crónicas.Pregnant women are more susceptible to both vaginal colonization and infection by yeast. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence in pregnant women of yeasts isolated from vaginal exudates and their susceptibility to current antifungal drugs. A total of 493 patients was studied between December 1998 and February 2000. The prevalence of Candida spp. was 28% (Candida albicans 90.4%; Candida glabrata 6.3%; Candida parapsilosis 1.1%, Candida kefyr 1.1%; unidentified species 1.1%. The diffusion test in Shadomy agar was employed to determine the susceptibility to fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and nistatine. All C. albicans, C. kefyr and

  11. A woman's history of vaginal orgasm is discernible from her walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Aurelie; Brody, Stuart; de Sutter, Pascal; de Carufel, François

    2008-09-01

    Research has demonstrated the association between vaginal orgasm and better mental health. Some theories of psychotherapy assert a link between muscle blocks and disturbances of both character and sexual function. In Functional-Sexological therapy, one focus of treatment is amelioration of voluntary movement. The present study examines the association of general everyday body movement with history of vaginal orgasm. The objective was to determine if appropriately trained sexologists could infer women's history of vaginal orgasm from observing only their gait. Women with known histories of either vaginal orgasm or vaginal anorgasmia were videotaped walking on the street, and their orgasmic status was judged by sexologists blind to their history. The concordance between having had orgasms triggered by penile-vaginal intercourse (not orgasm from direct clitoral stimulation) and raters' inferences of vaginal orgasm history based on observation of the woman's walk was the main outcome measure. In the sample of healthy young Belgian women (half of whom were vaginally orgasmic), history of vaginal orgasm (triggered solely by penile-vaginal intercourse) was diagnosable at far better than chance level (81.25% correct, Fisher's Exact Test P orgasm history was unrelated to both ratings and to vaginal orgasm history. Exploratory analyses suggest that greater pelvic and vertebral rotation and stride length might be characteristic of the gait of women who have experienced vaginal orgasm (r = 0.51, P women's experience of vaginal orgasm from a gait that comprises fluidity, energy, sensuality, freedom, and absence of both flaccid and locked muscles. Results are discussed with regard to previous research on gait, the effect of the musculature on sexual function, the special nature of vaginal orgasm, and implications for sexual therapy.

  12. Filiform papillae in the mucosa of the human vaginal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Daisy; Jit, Indar; Joshi, Kusum; Gupta, Indu

    2006-02-01

    While giving the gross anatomy of the mucosa of the vagina, textbooks of Anatomy and Obstetrics and Gynaecology describe the presence of a median longitudinal ridge on its anterior wall (columna rugarum anterior) and another similar ridge (columna rugarum posterior) on its posterior wall is described, and transverse rugae separated by sulci of variable depth, extend bilaterally from these ridges. While conducting autopsy of female cases the routine examination of vaginal mucosa did not show the presence of longitudinal ridges. In addition, some small areas bearing filiform papillae were seen in the lower third of the vagina in young subjects. As these papillae have not been described earlier, it was decided to study them in detail using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 215 vaginal specimens were studied. At autopsy the vagina was slit open on the lateral sides up to the upper ends of the lateral fornices. The anterior vaginal wall was turned up over the uterus and mucosa of both walls examined macroscopically. In 16 subjects, small pieces of vaginal mucosa bearing filiform papillae were cut out and processed for examination under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a light microscope. In addition, vaginae of 55 married women (20-40 yr age) with complain of lower abdominal pain or infertility were examined particularly for the median longitudinal ridges on the vaginal walls. At autopsy, the two median longitudinal ridges were not seen in any instance. Small variable areas of the lower third of the vagina showed the presence of filiform papillae on the two walls and at sides; they were prominent in the young individuals and tended to become absent in multipara and in old age. They were 2 to 3 in number on each wall. Histologically the papilla showed a core of highly vascular connective tissue covered by non-keratinized squamous epithelium. Immunoperoxidase staining with S-100 showed a large number of small nerve fibres in the subepithelial tissue which

  13. Identification and genotyping of bacteria from paired vaginal and rectal samples from pregnant women indicates similarity between vaginal and rectal microflora

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    Temmerman Marleen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vaginal microflora is important for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections of the reproductive tract. The rectum has been suggested as the major source for the colonisation of the vaginal econiche. Methods To establish whether the rectum can serve as a possible bacterial reservoir for colonisation of the vaginal econiche, we cultured vaginal and rectal specimens from pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, identified the isolates to the species level with tRNA intergenic length polymorphism analysis (tDNA-PCR and genotyped the isolates for those subjects from which the same species was isolated simultaneously vaginally and rectally, by RAPD-analysis. One vaginal and one rectal swab were collected from a total of each of 132 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. Swabs were cultured on Columbia CNA agar and MRS agar. For each subject 4 colonies were selected for each of both sites, i.e. 8 colonies in total. Results Among the 844 isolates that could be identified by tDNA-PCR, a total of 63 bacterial species were present, 9 (14% only vaginally, 26 (41% only rectally, and 28 (44% in both vagina and rectum. A total of 121 (91.6% of 132 vaginal samples and 51 (38.6% of 132 rectal samples were positive for lactobacilli. L. crispatus was the most frequently isolated Lactobacillus species from the vagina (40% of the subjects were positive, followed by L. jensenii (32%, L. gasseri (30% and L. iners (11%. L. gasseri was the most frequently isolated Lactobacillus species from the rectum (15%, followed by L. jensenii (12%, L. crispatus (11% and L. iners (2%. A total of 47 pregnant women carried the same species vaginally and rectally. This resulted in 50 vaginal/rectal pairs of the same species, for a total of eight different species. For 34 of the 50 species pairs (68%, isolates with the same genotype were present vaginally and rectally and a high level of genotypic diversity within species per subject was also

  14. Prevotella as a Hub for Vaginal Microbiota under the Influence of Host Genetics and Their Association with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiyeon; You, Hyun Ju; Yu, Junsun; Sung, Joohon; Ko, GwangPyo

    2017-01-11

    While the vaginal ecosystem is maintained through mutualistic relationships between the host and the vaginal bacteria, the effect of host genetics on the vaginal microbiota has not been well characterized. We examined the heritability of vaginal microbiota and its association with obesity in 542 Korean females, including 222 monozygotic and 56 dizygotic twins. The vaginal microbiota significantly varied depending on host menopausal status and bacterial vaginosis. Lactobacillus and Prevotella, whose relative abundances are strongly associated with bacterial vaginosis, were the most heritable bacteria among the beneficial and potentially pathogenic vaginal microbiota, respectively. Candidate gene analysis revealed an association between genetic variants of interleukin-5 and the abundance of Prevotella sp. Furthermore, host obesity significantly increased the diversity of the vaginal microbiota in association with Prevotella. Our results provide insight into the effect of host genetics on the vaginal microbiota and their association with both vaginal and non-vaginal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hidrocolpo por ectopia ureteral em hemivagina associado a displasia renal: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Congenital hydrocolpos due to ectopic ureter in hemivagina associated with renal dysplasia: a case report and review of the literature

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    Mario Flores Barba

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de displasia renal associada a ectopia ureteral vaginal homolateral, com uretero-hidronefrose contralateral devida a compressão por hidrocolpo causado pela ectopia e por um septo vaginal oblíquo. Os exames de imagem utilizados foram urografia excretora, cistografia, ultra-sonografia, tomografia computadorizada e cintilografia renal com Tc-99m-DMSA. Foi realizada revisão da literatura sobre casos de hidrocolpo associado a malformações urinárias.The authors report a case of congenital hydrocolpos due to vaginal malformation (vaginal septae associated with ectopic ureter and renal displasia. Several imaging diagnostic procedures (ultrasonography, nuclear medicine, intravenous urography and computed tomography were performed. A review of the literature on hydrocolpos and its association with urinary malformations is also presented.

  16. Comparison of Midterm Efficiency and Complications of Tension-Free Vaginal Tape Alone and Tension-Free Vaginal Tape Performed with Vaginal Hysterectomy

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    Emre Sinan Güngör

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate and compare the results and complications of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT when performed alone or with vaginal hysterectomy (VH and to evaluate the mid-term success rates of TVT for both groups. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 179 patients who had TVT alone for stress urinary incontinance (SUI or TVT with VH for SUI and vaginal prolapse. Demographic, outcome and complication data were obtained from medical records. The main outcome measures were postoperative SUI and voiding dysfunction. Results: The mean age of the patients who underwent TVT and TVT+VH were 50.2±6.8 and 52.2±8.1, respectively (p>0.05 and the mean parity was 4±2.07 and 4.15±2.02, respectively (p>0.05. The success rate was significantly higher in TVT alone group than in TVT+VH group (93.6% vs. 84.5%, p0.05. Overall complication rate was higher in TVT+VH group (4.2% vs. 9.5%, p<0.05. Postoperative residuel urine volumes were significantly higher than preoperative residuel urine volumes in both groups (p=0.001. Due to mesh rejection, second surgery was performed in one patient from both groups to reomove the mesh. Conclusion: Midterm success rates were significantly higher in TVT group than in TVT+VH group, but success rates in TVT+VH were acceptable. Overall complication rates were higher in TVT+VH group; requirement for a second surgery was similar for both groups.

  17. Abnormal vaginal microbiota may be associated with poor reproductive outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has a prevalence of approximately 19% in the infertile population. BV is often sub-clinical, characterized by a dysbiosis with anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, such as Gardnerella (g) vaginalis and Atopobium (a) vaginae. Few studies have been...... primers were specific for four common Lactobacillus spp., G. vaginalis and A. vaginae. Results: The prevalence of BV defined by Nugent score was 21% (27/130), whereas the prevalence of an abnormal vaginal microbiota was 28% (36/130) defined by qPCR with high concentrations of G. vaginalis and/or A....... vaginae. The qPCR diagnostic approach had a sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 93% for Nugent-defined BV. Eighty-four patients completed IVF treatment. The overall clinical pregnancy rate was 35% (29/84). Interestingly, only 9% (2/22) with qPCR defined abnormal vaginal microbiota obtained a clinical...

  18. Changes in vaginal microbiota following antimicrobial and probiotic therapy

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    Jean M. Macklaim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The composition of the vaginal microbiota is known to be important for health. When infections occur, antimicrobial therapy is often poorly efficacious. Objective and design: We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize changes in the bacterial microbiota following oral antimicrobial and probiotic interventions. Results: While the bacterial vaginal profiles of women with vulvovaginal candidiasis were dominated by lactobacilli as in healthy women, and unchanged by therapy, Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella, Atopobium, Sneathia, and Megasphaera dominated the vagina of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV, and treatment with tinidazole plus Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14+L. rhamnosus GR-1 resulted in an increased relative abundance of indigenous L. iners or L. crispatus. Conclusions: The ability to restore homeostasis provides a rationale for conjoint use of probiotics with antibiotic treatment of BV.

  19. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Jyothi B; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V; Prabhu, Vl

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  20. Vaginal vault suspension during hysterectomy for benign indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth; Noer, Mette Calundann; Møller, Lars Alling

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Several suspension methods are used to try to prevent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) after hysterectomy. We aimed to evaluate agreement on terminology and surgical procedure of these methods. METHODS: We randomly chose 532 medical records of women with a history......: Regarding medical records, agreement on terminology was good among patients undergoing pooled suspension in cases of hysterectomy via the abdominal and vaginal route (agreement 78.7, 92.3%). Regarding videos, agreement on surgical procedure was good among pooled suspension patients in cases of hysterectomy...... via the abdominal, laparoscopic, and vaginal routes (agreement 88.9, 97.8, 100%). Agreement on individual suspension methods differed regarding both medical records (agreement 0-90.1%) and videos (agreement 0-100%). CONCLUSIONS: Agreement on terminology and surgical procedure regarding suspension...

  1. Pregnant women’s preference for vaginal or caesarean childbirth

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    Lígia Ebner Melchiori

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the preference for delivery in 40 pregnant women using a semi-structured interview. Most women (75% reported a preference for vaginal delivery, mainly because they believe it will result in a speedy recovery and be better for them and/or their babies. Of the women interviewed, 15% preferred a caesarean section because they considered it be less painful. These preferences, in general, were influenced by friends. Most women said they had fear of parturition due to: feelings of pain/suffering, concern of something happening to them or their babies and because the situation is unknown or assessed in a negative fashion. The presence of trusted people, like one’s husband, mother or doctor, could minimize this fear. These results reinforce the contributions of health professionals, such as psychologists, in answering the psychosocial needs of pregnant women in situations of delivery and birth.   Keywords: vaginal birth; caesarean section; pregnancy; health psychology.

  2. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi B Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  3. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Jyothi B; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V; Prabhu, VL

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis. PMID:22438633

  4. Speciation and susceptibility testing of Candida isolates from vaginal discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Muthusamy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a normal commensal that takes the role of a pathogen under compromised conditions. Increased longevity of human life and immunocompromised conditions together paves the way for the increase in opportunistic infections like candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common cause of vaginal discharge next to Chlamydia.1 VVC is the leading cause of abnormal vaginal discharge due to microbial causes. Untreated VVC is a possible risk factor for acquisition of HIV.2 Prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including VVC can reduce the transmission of HIV since STIs and HIV have the common mode of transmission and one enhances the risk of infection with the other. Early diagnosis and treatment of candidiasis can reduce the pregnancy related morbidity

  5. Primary subfertility with partial septate uterus and longitudinal vaginal septum

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    Jesmine Banu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A 22 year old married woman presented with the complaints of severe dyspareunia, difficulty in conceiving for 18 months, menorrhagia and dysmenorrhoea since menarche. Clinical examination revealed longitudinal vaginal septum. Ultrasound scan revealed two endometrial cavities with a single cervix. Hysterosalpingogram revealed septum which had separated the endometrial cavity with no free spillage of contrast media on both fallopian tubes. Ultrasound KUB and intravenous urethrography did not reveal any abnormality in the urinary system. Resection of vaginal septum, hysteroscopic septoplasty and diagnostic laparoscopy were performed. Three months after the surgery, she was relieved from the symptoms. However, no comments on fertility issue can be made at the moment as the couple is practicing contraceptive methods.

  6. A rare complication of vaginal delivery: labial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, E K

    2014-01-01

    Labial adhesions are mostly seen in teenagers and menopausal women, however they may be encountered rarely in the postpartum period. Surgical division under local anesthesia is more effective than topical estrogen. In this article a young women at the age of 23 years, who gave normal vaginal birth 12 months prior and who had difficulty in coitus because of labial sinechia is reported. During physical examination, an adhesion between right and left labia minora approximately three cm in length was observed. The adhesion was seperated under local anesthesia and the patient was discharged from the hospital on the same day. On postoperative seventh day control, she had neither complaints nor complications. Labial adhesions are rarely encountered after normal vaginal childbirth. The most effective treatment of labial sinechia is surgical division under local anesthesia.

  7. Vaginal Myomectomy for Semipedunculated Cervical Myoma during Pregnancy

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    Mikitaka Obara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Cases of prolapsed myoma in which pregnancy was carried to full term or near term after vaginal myomectomy are very rare. Previously, only two such cases have been reported. In addition, both those patients had a pedunculated leiomyoma, which could be treated by twisting or clamping. Here, we report a case of a patient who was able to carry her pregnancy to term despite vaginal myomectomy for semipedunculated myoma at 13 weeks of pregnancy. Study Design - This study is a case presentation. Results - The myoma nucleus was removed by making an incision on the surface of the mass. Systemic and transvaginal antibiotics were prescribed after the surgery. Uterine contractions, short cervix, or cervical funneling was not observed in the remaining duration of pregnancy. Conclusion - While performing myomectomy during pregnancy, removal of the myoma nucleus is safer than twisting. In addition, postoperative administration of local or systemic antibiotic agents does not adversely affect pregnancy.

  8. Avaliação dosimétrica de uma combinação de aplicadores para braquiterapia de tumores do colo uterino com acometimento da porção distal da vagina

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães,Roger Guilherme Rodrigues; Carvalho,Heloisa de Andrade; Stuart,Silvia Radwanski; Rubo,Rodrigo Augusto; Seraide,Rodrigo Migotto

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar uma alternativa de braquiterapia para tumores do colo uterino acometendo a porção distal da vagina, sem aumentar os riscos de toxicidade. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo teórico comparando três diferentes aplicadores de braquiterapia intracavitária de alta taxa de dose: sonda intrauterina e cilindro vaginal (SC); sonda e anel associado ao cilindro vaginal (SA+C) e um aplicador virtual com sonda, anel e cilindro vaginal em um único conjunto (SAC). Foram prescritas doses de 7 Gy n...

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma in vaginal fundus in a Brahman cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pimenta-Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available É descrito o carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE no fundo vaginal de uma vaca. O diagnóstico de CCE moderadamente diferenciado foi confirmado através do exame histopatológico. Os testes imunoistoquímicos com os marcadores p53 e Ki67 realizados em amostras do tumor confirmaram a mutação na p53 e aumento da proliferação celular.

  10. Deep sequencing of the vaginal microbiota of women with HIV.

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    Ruben Hummelen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Women living with HIV and co-infected with bacterial vaginosis (BV are at higher risk for transmitting HIV to a partner or newborn. It is poorly understood which bacterial communities constitute BV or the normal vaginal microbiota among this population and how the microbiota associated with BV responds to antibiotic treatment.The vaginal microbiota of 132 HIV positive Tanzanian women, including 39 who received metronidazole treatment for BV, were profiled using Illumina to sequence the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Of note, Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus iners were detected in each sample constituting core members of the vaginal microbiota. Eight major clusters were detected with relatively uniform microbiota compositions. Two clusters dominated by L. iners or L. crispatus were strongly associated with a normal microbiota. The L. crispatus dominated microbiota were associated with low pH, but when L. crispatus was not present, a large fraction of L. iners was required to predict a low pH. Four clusters were strongly associated with BV, and were dominated by Prevotella bivia, Lachnospiraceae, or a mixture of different species. Metronidazole treatment reduced the microbial diversity and perturbed the BV-associated microbiota, but rarely resulted in the establishment of a lactobacilli-dominated microbiota.Illumina based microbial profiling enabled high though-put analyses of microbial samples at a high phylogenetic resolution. The vaginal microbiota among women living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa constitutes several profiles associated with a normal microbiota or BV. Recurrence of BV frequently constitutes a different BV-associated profile than before antibiotic treatment.

  11. [Outcomes of anterior vaginal wall repair using polypropylene mesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, M; Pastorčáková, M; Belkov, I; Sedláková, K

    2012-10-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a major health concern especially in the elderly women. Anterior vaginal wall prolapse (AWP) represents the most common form of POP with reoperation rate 30-40% when primary treated by anterior colporrhaphy. Modern surgical techniques of POP repair uses polypropylene (PP) mesh implants to better support pelvic structures and lower the risk of recurrence. Aim of our study was to assess the safety and efficacy of anterior vaginal wall prolapse repair using PP mesh system NAZCA TC (Promedon). The kit consists of preformed PP mesh anchored to pelvic structures by two needle inserters via pre-pubic and trans-obturator route. From January 2010 to February 2011, 21 patients with stage III/IV AWP underwent transvaginal repair with implantation of PP mesh. The stage of POP measured according to POP-Q system, surgery length, blood loss and complications has been evaluated six month after the surgery. Surgery has been assessed as successful when POP stage 0/I o has been reached. In 42.9% of patients AWP repair was combined with other procedures: vaginal hysterectomy or posterior vaginal repair. (Statistical evaluation was done by Wilcoxon test.). The average age of operated women was 62.4±9.4 years, average body mass index was 27.5±4.1 kg/m2, with overall parity of 2.2±1.4 children. The surgery time was 64.0±26.0 minutes with average blood loss of 185.0±17,0 ml. No serious per-operating complication has been recorded. The objective cure rate at 6 months was 90.5%. Statistically significant difference in the position of points Aa, Ba and C (ppolypropylene mesh is an effective and safe technique in the hands of surgeon experienced in classical POP reconstruction techniques. For the assessment of long term efficacy the further follow-up of patients is necessary.

  12. Is vaginal mesh a stimulus of autoimmune disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Bilal; Sedrakyan, Art; Mao, Jialin; Eilber, Karyn S; Anger, Jennifer T; Clemens, J Quentin

    2017-05-01

    Polypropylene mesh has been used as a means of reinforcing weak tissues in women with pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. We sought to investigate a potential link between the development of systemic/autoimmune disorders and synthetic polypropylene mesh repairs. New York State Department of Health Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System data were utilized to conduct this retrospective cohort study. Adult women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse with vaginally implanted mesh from January 2008 through December 2009 in inpatient and ambulatory surgery settings in New York State were identified. Two separate control cohorts were created to compare outcomes, including a screening colonoscopy cohort and a vaginal hysterectomy cohort for benign gynecologic conditions (without pelvic organ prolapse repair or sling). Patients in the mesh cohort were individually matched to the control cohorts based on demographics, comorbidities, and procedure date. The development of systemic/autoimmune disease was determined before and after matching for 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, and entire follow-up (up to 6 years until December 2014) and differences between groups were evaluated. A total of 2102 patients underwent mesh-based pelvic organ prolapse surgery from January 2008 through December 2009. In the control cohorts, 37,298 patients underwent colonoscopy and 7338 underwent vaginal hysterectomy. When patients were matched based on demographics, comorbidities, and procedure time, mesh-based surgery was not associated with an increased risk of developing autoimmune disease at any of the evaluated time periods. Mesh-based vaginal surgery was not associated with the development of systemic/autoimmune diseases. These data refute claims against mesh as a cause of systemic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of vaginal and vulval pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, N.; Grant, L.A.; Sala, E. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Box 219, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    There are a number of conditions affecting the vagina and vulva that can be optimally assessed with the use of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This paper gives a suggested protocol for MRI technique and sequences for imaging the pelvis and perineum and reviews the MRI appearances of many of the common pathologies affecting the vagina and vulva. Congenital anomalies, inflammatory and neoplastic entities such as vaginal and vulval carcinoma are discussed, with rarer malignancies also reviewed. (orig.)

  14. Demonstration of Microbial Subgroups among Normal Vaginal Microbiota Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, M.-L. T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we identified subgroups of observations relating to the healthy vaginal microbiota. This microbiota resides in a dynamic environment that undergoes cyclic change during the menstrual cycle. Cluster analysis procedures were applied to divide a set of 226 normal microbiota observations into groups. Three subgroups containing 100, 65, and 61 observations were identified. Plots of principal components determined by canonical analysis were obtained to demonstrate graphically the clus...

  15. Diabetes Insipidus after normal vaginal delivery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Keypour

    2014-07-01

    Treatment was continuing, when the symptoms of central diabetes insipidus resolve and urinary concentrating ability was preferred. Maximum urinary osmolality over the next 11 hours was assessed, 730 mosm/kg was considered normal. Conclusion: Close attention to electrolyte and fluid balance is important in the postpartum period. The symptoms of transient vasopressin-resistant diabetes insipidus resolve in few days to a few weeks after vaginal delivery or when hepatic function returns to normal.

  16. A prospective randomized multicentre study comparing vaginal progesterone gel and vaginal micronized progesterone tablets for luteal support after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Christina; Lindenberg, Svend; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY QUESTION: Is vaginal progesterone gel equivalent to vaginal micronized progesterone tablets concerning ongoing pregnancy rate and superior concerning patient convenience when used for luteal support after IVF/ICSI? SUMMARY ANSWER: Equivalence of treatments in terms of ongoing live intraut...

  17. Rescreening for abnormal vaginal flora in pregnancy and re-treating with clindamycin vaginal cream significantly increases cure and improvement rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamont, R F; Taylor-Robinson, D; Bassett, P

    2012-01-01

    We investigated 199 pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) who received clindamycin vaginal cream (CVC) for three days and compared with 205 women treated with placebo. The vaginal flora was assessed at each visit. At the second visit, 71% in the CVC group were cured/improved, compared...

  18. Assemblies for in vitro measurement of bioadhesive strength and retention characteristics in simulated vaginal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermani, Kavita; Garg, Sanjay; Zaneveld, Lourens J D

    2002-10-01

    The vaginal route of administration offers a promising option for local and systemic delivery of drugs. Conventional vaginal formulations are associated with limitations of poor retention, leakage, and messiness, thereby causing inconvenience to users. To overcome these limitations, formulations that adhere to the vaginal mucosa for a sufficient period of time need to be developed. Bioadhesion and retention are desirable characteristics of a vaginal formulation to achieve desired efficacy. These properties can be built in during formulation development by the use of bioadhesive polymers. In the present study, assemblies for in vitro measurement of bioadhesive strength and retention characteristics of vaginal formulations have been developed. A modified simulated vaginal fluid (SVFM) was used to simulate vaginal conditions for bioadhesion studies. Cellophane hydrated with SVFM and isolated sheep vaginal mucosa were used as model membranes. The bioadhesive potential of various polymers and their combinations was evaluated. Among the polymers evaluated, xanthan gum (XG), sodium alginate (SA), Polycarbophil (PC), and their combinations (XG + SA and XG + PC) were found to possess significant bioadhesive strength. In retention experiments, XG, SA, and combinations (XG + SA and XG + PC) were retained in isolated sheep vaginal tissue, while PC exhibited poor retention under experimental conditions. Based on the results of the study conducted, XG, SA, and combinations (XG + SA and XG + PC) have been proposed as potential candidates for developing bioadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems.

  19. Quantitative analyses of variability in normal vaginal shape and dimension on MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiajia; Betschart, Cornelia; Ashton-Miller, James A.; DeLancey, John O. L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis We present a technique for quantifying inter-individual variability in normal vaginal shape, axis, and dimension, and report findings in healthy women. Methods Eighty women (age: 28~70 years) with normal pelvic organ support underwent supine, multi-planar proton-density MRI. Vaginal width was assessed at five evenly-spaced locations, and vaginal axis, length, and surface area were quantified via ImageJ and MATLAB. Results The mid-sagittal plane angles, relative to the horizontal, of three vaginal axes were 90± 11, 72± 21, and 41± 22° (caudal to cranial, p < 0.001). The mean (± SD) vaginal widths were 17± 5, 24± 4, 30± 7, 41± 9, and 45± 12 mm at the five locations (caudal to cranial, p < 0.001). Mid-sagittal lengths for anterior and posterior vaginal walls were 63± 9 and 98 ± 18 mm respectively. The vaginal surface area was 72 ± 21 cm2 (range: 34 ~ 164 cm2). The coefficient of determination between any demographic variable and any vaginal dimension did not exceed 0.16. Conclusions Large variations in normal vaginal shape, axis, and dimensions were not explained by body size or other demographic variables. This variation has implications for reconstructive surgery, intravaginal and surgical product design, and vaginal drug delivery. PMID:26811115

  20. Cytology for the detection of early recurrence of gynecologic cancer in the vaginal vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Lucia A S; de Andrade, Jurandyr M; Dos Reis, Francisco J C

    2014-01-01

    The real benefit of follow-up cervical cytology in women treated for gynecological cancer is unclear. This study was designed to assess the rate of success of cytological examinations in the detection of early vaginal recurrence of gynecological cancer in women found by other methods to have vaginal recurrence of cervical and endometrial cancer. Records of cytological examinations. Thirty-three women treated for early and invasive cervical and endometrial cancer with recurrence in the vaginal vault were retrospectively analyzed. Records from 1979 to 2010. Sixteen women (48.5%) had symptomatic vaginal recurrence associated with distant metastases, whereas 17 (51.5%) had vaginal recurrence only. Cytology was negative in 12 women (36.4%) with both symptomatic and asymptomatic recurrence and positive in the other 21 (63.6%). In 9 of these 21 women (42.9%), the disease was limited to the vaginal vault, whereas the remaining 12 (57.1%) presented with vaginal lesions associated with distant metastases. Cytology was positive in 9 of the 17 (52.9%) women whose recurrence was limited to the vaginal vault and negative in 8 (47.1%). Vaginal cytology yielded false-negative results in almost half of the women with vaginal recurrence of gynecological cancer. Patents of methods used for early diagnosis and detection of immortalization of cervical cancer are also reviewed in this article.

  1. Exploring the umbilical and vaginal port during minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinelli, Andrea; Tsin, Daniel A; Forgione, Antonello; Zorron, Ricardo; Dapri, Giovanni; Malvasi, Antonio; Benhidjeb, Tahar; Sparic, Radmila; Nezhat, Farr

    2017-09-01

    This article focuses on the anatomy, literature, and our own experiences in an effort to assist in the decision-making process of choosing between an umbilical or vaginal port. Umbilical access is more familiar to general surgeons; it is thicker than the transvaginal entry, and has more nerve endings and sensory innervations. This combination increases tissue damage and pain in the umbilical port site. The vaginal route requires prophylactic antibiotics, a Foley catheter, and a period of postoperative sexual abstinence. Removal of large specimens is a challenge in traditional laparoscopy. Recently, there has been increased interest in going beyond traditional laparoscopy by using the navel in single-incision and port-reduction techniques. The benefits for removal of surgical specimens by colpotomy are not new. There is increasing interest in techniques that use vaginotomy in multifunctional ways, as described under the names of culdolaparoscopy, minilaparoscopy-assisted natural orifice surgery, and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Both the navel and the transvaginal accesses are safe and convenient to use in the hands of experienced laparoscopic surgeons. The umbilical site has been successfully used in laparoscopy as an entry and extraction port. Vaginal entry and extraction is associated with a lower risk of incisional hernias, less postoperative pain, and excellent cosmetic results.

  2. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Aparecida da Silva

    Full Text Available In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro.

  3. Selection of Lactobacillus strains as potential probiotics for vaginitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carolina M A; Pires, Maria C V; Leão, Thiago L; Hernández, Zulema P; Rodriguez, Marisleydys L; Martins, Ariane K S; Miranda, Lilian S; Martins, Flaviano S; Nicoli, Jacques R

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacilli are the dominant bacteria of the vaginal tract of healthy women, and imbalance of the local microbiota can predispose women to acquire infections, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Although antimicrobial therapy is generally effective, there is still a high incidence of recurrence and increase of microbial resistance due to the repetitive use of antimicrobials. Thus, it has been suggested that administration of probiotics incorporating selected Lactobacillus strains may be an effective strategy for preventing vaginal infections. Accordingly, the in vitro probiotic potential of 23 lactobacilli isolated from the vaginal ecosystem of healthy women from Cuba was evaluated for use in BV and VVC treatments. Eight strains were selected based on their antagonist potential against Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida albicansor both. In vitro assays revealed that all these strains reduced the pathogen counts in co-incubation, showed excellent adhesive properties (biofilm formation and auto-aggregation), were able to co-aggregate with G. vaginalis and C. albicans, yielded high amounts of hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid and demonstrated high adhesion rates to epithelial HeLa cells. Interference tests within HeLa cells showed that all strains were able to reduce the adherence of pathogens by exclusion or displacement. Lactobacilli were able to inhibit HeLa cell apoptosis caused by pathogens when the cells were incubated with the probiotics prior to challenge. These results suggest that these strains have a promising probiotic potential and can be used for prevention or treatment of BV and VVC.

  4. [The risk factors for pelvic floor trauma following vaginal delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalec, I; Tomanová, M; Navrátilová, M; Šimetka, O; Procházka, M

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of the risk and protective factors for pelvic floor trauma in relation to vaginal delivery. Review. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Ostrava. The aim was to provide a comprehensive survey of studies focused on risk factors for pelvic floor trauma following vaginal delivery; and to constitute the relationship between the risk and protective factors and levator ani injury. To state the prognosis of the pelvic floor injury before a child delivery is difficult and almost impossible, but it has been assumed that an operative vaginal delivery (obstetrical forceps) represents a significant risk factor for avulsion. The change in obstetric practice can prevent the injury and thus to reduce an adverse effect. Pregnancy and the methods of childbirth are important factors with an impact on pelvic floor injury, potentially contributing to the development of pelvic organ prolapse, and stress and anal incontinence. The recognition of the factors, the proper training of medical staff in the management of labour, and subsequently the proper treatment of perineal tears should prevent pelvic floor injury.

  5. Clinical challenges in the management of vaginal prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui NY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nazema Y Siddiqui, Autumn L EdenfieldDivision of Urogynecology and Reconstructive Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Pelvic organ prolapse is highly prevalent, and negatively affects a woman’s quality of life. Women with bothersome prolapse may be offered pessary management or may choose to undergo corrective surgery. In choosing the most appropriate surgical procedure, there are many factors to consider. These may include the location(s of anatomic defects, the severity of prolapse symptoms, the activity level of the woman, and concerns regarding the durability of the repair. In many instances, women and their surgeons are challenged to weigh the risks and benefits of native tissue versus mesh-augmented repairs. Though mesh-augmented repairs may offer better durability, they are also associated with unique complications, such as mesh erosion. Furthermore, newer surgical techniques of mesh placement via abdominal or vaginal routes may result in different outcomes compared to traditional techniques. Biologic grafts may also be considered to improve durability of a surgical repair, while avoiding potential complications of synthetic mesh. In this article, we review many of the clinical challenges that gynecologic surgeons face in the surgical management of vaginal prolapse. Furthermore, we review data that can help guide decision making when treating women with pelvic organ prolapse.Keywords: pelvic organ prolapse, vaginal prolapse, surgery, sacrocolpopexy, sacrospinous ligament fixation, transvaginal mesh, uterosacral ligament suspension

  6. Viability of lactobacillus acidophilus in various vaginal tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazeli M.R.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The lactobacilli which are present in vaginal fluids play an important role in prevention of vaginosis and there are considerable interests in formulation of these friendly bacteria into suitable pharmaceutical dosage forms. Formulating these microorganisms for vaginal application is a critical issue as the products should retain viability of lactobacilli during formulation and also storage. The aim of this study was to examine the viability and release of Lactobacillus acidophilus from slow-release vaginal tablets prepared by using six different retarding polymers and from two effervescent tablets prepared by using citric or adipic acid. The Carbomer–based formulations showed high initial viablility compared to those based on HPMC-LV, HPMC-HV, Polycarbophil and SCMC polymers which showed one log decrease in viable cells. All retarding polymers in slow release formulations presented a strong bacterial release at about 2 h except Carbomer polymers which showed to be poor bacterial releasers. Although effervescent formulations produced a quick bacterial release in comparison with polymer based slow-release tablets, they were less stable in cold storage. Due to the strong chelating characteristic of citric acid, the viability was quickly lost for aqueous medium of citric acid in comparison with adipic acid based effervescent tablets.

  7. Retention of Vaginal Breech Delivery Skills Taught in Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Heather; Crane, Joan; Johnston, Kathy; Craig, Catherine

    2018-02-01

    The optimal frequency of conducting simulation training for high-acuity, low-frequency events in obstetrics and gynaecology residency programs is unknown. This study evaluated retention over time of vaginal breech delivery skills taught in simulation, by comparing junior and senior residents. In addition, the residents' subjective comfort level to perform this skill clinically was assessed. This prospective cohort study included 22 obstetrics and gynaecology residents in a Canadian residency training program. Digital recordings were completed for pre-training, immediate post-training, and delayed (10-26 weeks later) post-training intervals of a vaginal breech delivery simulation, with skill assessment by a blinded observer using a binary checklist. Residents also completed questionnaires to assess their subjective comfort level at each interval. Junior and senior residents had significant improvements in vaginal breech delivery skills from the pre-training assessment to both the immediate post-training assessment (junior, P simulation 10-26 weeks later, although a decline in skills occurred over this time period. Comfort level was positively affected and retained. These results will aid in determining the frequency of simulation teaching for high-acuity, low-frequency events in a residency simulation curriculum. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterisation of probiotic properties in human vaginal lactobacilli strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirje Hütt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaginal lactobacilli offer protection against recurrent urinary infections, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal candidiasis. Objective: To characterise the isolated vaginal lactobacilli strains for their probiotic properties and to compare their probiotic potential. Methods: The Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal samples by conventional culturing and identified by sequencing of the 16S rDNA fragment. Several functional properties were detected (production of hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid; antagonistic activity against Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Gardnerella vaginalis; auto-aggregation and adhesiveness as well as safety (haemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of transferrable resistance genes. Results: A total of 135 vaginal lactobacilli strains of three species, Lactobacillus crispatus (56%, Lactobacillus jensenii (26%, and Lactobacillus gasseri (18% were characterised using several functional and safety tests. Most of L. crispatus (89% and L. jensenii (86% strains produced H2O2. The best lactic acid producers were L. gasseri (18.2±2.2 mg/ml compared to L. crispatus (15.6±2.8 mg/ml and L. jensenii (11.6±2.6 mg/ml (p<0.0001; p<0.0001, respectively. L. crispatus strains showed significantly higher anti-E. coli activity compared to L. jensenii. L. gasseri strains expressed significantly lower anticandidal activity compared to L. crispatus and L. jensenii (p<0.0001. There was no significant difference between the species in antagonistic activity against G. vaginalis. Nearly a third of the strains were able to auto-aggregate while all the tested strains showed a good ability to adhere to HeLa cells. None of the tested lactobacilli caused haemolysis. Although phenotypical resistance was not found to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin, the erm(B, tet(M, and tet(K were detected in some strains. All strains were resistant to

  9. Determining Proportion of Exfoliative Vaginal Cell during Various Stages of Estrus Cycle Using Vaginal Cytology Techniques in Aceh Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Tongku N; Melia, Juli; Rohaya; Thasmi, Cut Nila; Masyitha, Dian; Wahyuni, Sri; Rosa, Juliana; Nurhafni; Panjaitan, Budianto; Herrialfian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the period of estrus cycle in aceh cattle, Indonesia, based on vaginal cytology techniques. Four healthy females of aceh cattle with average weight of 250-300 kg, age of 5-7 years, and body condition score of 3-4 were used. All cattle were subjected to ultrasonography analysis for the occurrence of corpus luteum before being synchronized using intramuscular injections of PGF2 alpha 25 mg. A vaginal swab was collected from aceh cattle, stained with Giemsa 10%, and observed microscopically. Period of estrus cycle was predicted from day 1 to day 24 after estrus synchronization was confirmed using ultrasonography analysis at the same day. The result showed that parabasal, intermediary, and superficial epithelium were found in the vaginal swabs collected from proestrus, metestrus, and diestrus aceh cattle. Proportions of these cells in the particular period of estrus cycle were 36.22, 32.62, and 31.16 (proestrus); 21.33, 32.58, and 46.09 (estrus); 40.75, 37.58, and 21.67 (metestrus); and 41.07, 37.38, and 21.67 (diestrus), respectively. In conclusion, dominant proportion of superficial cell that occurred in estrus period might be used as the base for determining optimal time for insemination.

  10. Determining Proportion of Exfoliative Vaginal Cell during Various Stages of Estrus Cycle Using Vaginal Cytology Techniques in Aceh Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongku N. Siregar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the period of estrus cycle in aceh cattle, Indonesia, based on vaginal cytology techniques. Four healthy females of aceh cattle with average weight of 250–300 kg, age of 5–7 years, and body condition score of 3-4 were used. All cattle were subjected to ultrasonography analysis for the occurrence of corpus luteum before being synchronized using intramuscular injections of PGF2 alpha 25 mg. A vaginal swab was collected from aceh cattle, stained with Giemsa 10%, and observed microscopically. Period of estrus cycle was predicted from day 1 to day 24 after estrus synchronization was confirmed using ultrasonography analysis at the same day. The result showed that parabasal, intermediary, and superficial epithelium were found in the vaginal swabs collected from proestrus, metestrus, and diestrus aceh cattle. Proportions of these cells in the particular period of estrus cycle were 36.22, 32.62, and 31.16 (proestrus; 21.33, 32.58, and 46.09 (estrus; 40.75, 37.58, and 21.67 (metestrus; and 41.07, 37.38, and 21.67 (diestrus, respectively. In conclusion, dominant proportion of superficial cell that occurred in estrus period might be used as the base for determining optimal time for insemination.

  11. Celulitis por citomegalovirus

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    A. Ruiz Lascano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones cutáneas por citomegalovirus (CMV son infrecuentes y a menudo una manifestación tardía de una enfermedad sistémica, que generalmente anuncia un curso fatal. Comunicamos un caso de celulitis por CMV: una mujer de 70 años con trasplante renal efectuado 1 mes antes de la consulta, terapia inmunosupresora con ciclosporina A y metilprednisona. La paciente ingresó por fiebre, dolor e impotencia funcional en pierna derecha. Comprobamos la existencia de una placa de 8 por 4 cm eritematoedematosa. La tratamos con antibióticos sin mejoría, por lo que realizamos un estudio histopatológico de piel que mostró cambios citopáticos compatibles con infección por CMV. Los cultivos bacteriológicos y micológicos fueron negativos. La inmunohistoquímica específica para CMV y el estudio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR de la biopsia de piel fueron positivas, al igual que la antigenemia. El tratamiento con ganciclovir produjo la mejoría del cuadro clínico. En la literatura revisada no hemos encontrado la celulitis como manifestación de enfermedad cutánea por CMV.

  12. A common clinical dilemma: Management of abnormal vaginal cytology and human papillomavirus test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Michelle J; Massad, L Stewart; Kinney, Walter; Gold, Michael A; Mayeaux, E J; Darragh, Teresa M; Castle, Philip E; Chelmow, David; Lawson, Herschel W; Huh, Warner K

    2016-05-01

    Vaginal cancer is an uncommon cancer of the lower genital tract, and standardized screening is not recommended. Risk factors for vaginal cancer include a history of other lower genital tract neoplasia or cancer, smoking, immunosuppression, and exposure to diethylstilbestrol in utero. Although cervical cancer screening after total hysterectomy for benign disease is not recommended, many women inappropriately undergo vaginal cytology and/or human papillomavirus (hrHPV) tests, and clinicians are faced with managing their abnormal results. Our objective is to review the literature on vaginal cytology and hrHPV testing and to develop guidance for the management of abnormal vaginal screening tests. An electronic search of the PubMed database through 2015 was performed. Articles describing vaginal cytology or vaginal hrHPV testing were reviewed, and diagnostic accuracy of these tests when available was noted. The available literature was too limited to develop evidence-based recommendations for managing abnormal vaginal cytology and hrHPV screening tests. However, the data did show that 1) the risk of vaginal cancer in women after hysterectomy is extremely low, justifying the recommendation against routine screening, and 2) in women for whom surveillance is recommended, e.g. women post-treatment for cervical precancer or cancer, hrHPV testing may be useful in identification of vaginal cancer precursors. Vaginal cancer is rare, and asymptomatic low-risk women should not be screened. An algorithm based on expert opinion is proposed for managing women with abnormal vaginal test results. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vaginal infections in pregnant patients of a high complexity clinic from Medellín-Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Jimenez, Sara; Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana; Lopera Valle, Johan Sebastián; Rodríguez Padilla, Libia María; Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana; Martínez Sánchez, Lina Maria; Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to describe the characteristics of vaginal infections in pregnant patients. pregnancy is a predisposing factor for vaginal infections, which can lead to deleterious consequences for mother and fetus. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional study. Population consists in pregnant patients diagnosed with vaginal infection in a high complexity clinic, January 2011 to June 2012. Sociodemographic, clinical, microbiological and therapeutic information were collected from the clinical his...

  14. Laparoscopic Reconstructive Surgery is Superior to Vaginal Reconstruction in the Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Young-Han; Yang, Seong Cheon; Park, Sung Taek; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Hong Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our purpose was to provide the clinical advantages of the laparoscopic approach compare to the vaginal approach in correcting uterine and vaginal vault prolapse. Methods: Between June 2007 and June 2011, 174 women were admitted to HUMC (Hallym University Medical Center) and underwent pelvic reconstructive surgery for prolapsed vaginal vault and uterus. Upon retrospective review of the medical records, 174 of the patients who had symptoms of pelvic organ prolapsed and Baden-Walker ...

  15. Biosynthesis and Degradation of H2O2 by Vaginal Lactobacilli▿

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Rebeca; Suárez, Juan E.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide production by vaginal lactobacilli represents one of the most important defense mechanisms against vaginal colonization by undesirable microorganisms. To quantify the ability of a collection of 45 vaginal Lactobacillus strains to generate H2O2, we first compared three published colorimetric methods. It was found that the use of DA-64 as a substrate rendered the highest sensitivity, while tetramethyl-benzidine (TMB) maintained its linearity from nanomolar to millimolar H2O2 c...

  16. Embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Gómez Santa María; Mauro García Aurelio; Yanina Castillo Costa; Víctor Mauro; Carlos Barrero

    2009-01-01

    Los primeros registros de embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato se publicaron recientemente (2003) y desde entonces se describieron no más de 15 casos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente joven a quien dos meses antes de la consulta se le había efectuado una vertebroplastia percutánea con polimetilmetacrilato. Por síntomas pleuríticos se le realizó una radiografía de tórax, que evidenció múltiples imágenes radioopacas en ambos campos pulmonares. La embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato...

  17. The Effects of Hormones and Vaginal Microflora on the Glycome of the Female Genital Tract: Cervical-Vaginal Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncla, Bernard J; Chappell, Catherine A; Debo, Brian M; Meyn, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the glycome of cervical-vaginal fluid, collected with a Catamenial cup. We quantified: glycosidase levels; sialic acid and high mannose specific lectin binding; mucins, MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC7; and albumin in the samples collected. These data were analyzed in the context of hormonal status (day of menstrual cycle, hormonal contraception use) and role, if any, of the type of the vaginal microflora present. When the Nugent score was used to stratify the subjects by microflora as normal, intermediate, or bacterial vaginosis, several important differences were observed. The activities of four of six glycosidases in the samples from women with bacterial vaginosis were significantly increased when compared to normal or intermediate women: sialidase, P = <0.001; α-galactosidase, P = 0.006; β-galactosidase, P = 0.005; α-glucosidase, P = 0.056. Sialic acid binding sites as measured by two lectins, Maackia amurensis and Sambucus nigra binding, were significantly lower in women with BV compared to women with normal and intermediate scores (P = <0.0001 and 0.008 respectively). High mannose binding sites, a measure of innate immunity were also significantly lower in women with BV (P = <0.001). Additionally, we observed significant increases in MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC7 concentrations in women with BV (P = <0.001, 0.001, <0.001, 0.02 respectively). Among normal women we found that the membrane bound mucin MUC4 and the secreted MUC5AC were decreased in postmenopausal women (P = 0.02 and 0.07 respectively), while MUC7 (secreted) was decreased in women using levonorgestrel-containing IUDs (P = 0.02). The number of sialic acid binding sites was lower in the postmenopausal group (P = 0.04), but the number of high mannose binding sites, measured with Griffithsin, was not significantly different among the 6 hormonal groups. The glycosidase levels in the cervical-vaginal mucus were rather low in the groups, with exception of α-glucosidase activity

  18. The Effects of Hormones and Vaginal Microflora on the Glycome of the Female Genital Tract: Cervical-Vaginal Fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J Moncla

    Full Text Available In this study, we characterized the glycome of cervical-vaginal fluid, collected with a Catamenial cup. We quantified: glycosidase levels; sialic acid and high mannose specific lectin binding; mucins, MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC7; and albumin in the samples collected. These data were analyzed in the context of hormonal status (day of menstrual cycle, hormonal contraception use and role, if any, of the type of the vaginal microflora present. When the Nugent score was used to stratify the subjects by microflora as normal, intermediate, or bacterial vaginosis, several important differences were observed. The activities of four of six glycosidases in the samples from women with bacterial vaginosis were significantly increased when compared to normal or intermediate women: sialidase, P = <0.001; α-galactosidase, P = 0.006; β-galactosidase, P = 0.005; α-glucosidase, P = 0.056. Sialic acid binding sites as measured by two lectins, Maackia amurensis and Sambucus nigra binding, were significantly lower in women with BV compared to women with normal and intermediate scores (P = <0.0001 and 0.008 respectively. High mannose binding sites, a measure of innate immunity were also significantly lower in women with BV (P = <0.001. Additionally, we observed significant increases in MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC7 concentrations in women with BV (P = <0.001, 0.001, <0.001, 0.02 respectively. Among normal women we found that the membrane bound mucin MUC4 and the secreted MUC5AC were decreased in postmenopausal women (P = 0.02 and 0.07 respectively, while MUC7 (secreted was decreased in women using levonorgestrel-containing IUDs (P = 0.02. The number of sialic acid binding sites was lower in the postmenopausal group (P = 0.04, but the number of high mannose binding sites, measured with Griffithsin, was not significantly different among the 6 hormonal groups. The glycosidase levels in the cervical-vaginal mucus were rather low in the groups, with exception of

  19. Homeostatic properties of Lactobacillus jensenii engineered as a live vaginal anti-HIV microbicide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Xu, Qiang; Fichorova, Raina N

    2013-01-01

    .... We applied an innovative experimental model using primary and immortalized human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells to assess the functional properties of Lactobacillus jensenii, a predominant...

  20. Vaginal myofibroblastoma with prostatic glands: is there an association with tamoxifen use? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorange, Ellen; Harmanli, Oz; Cao, Q Jackie; Jones, Keisha A

    2013-01-01

    Both ectopic prostate tissue in the female genital tract and vaginal myofibroblastoma have rarely been reported in the literature. Tamoxifen use has been associated with the development of vaginal myofibroblastoma. A 76-year-old, multiparous woman who had taken tamoxifen for breast cancer presented with postmenopausal bleeding and a vaginal mass. Endometrial work-up revealed a benign polyp, and the polypoid tumor in the vagina was found to be a myofibroblastoma harboring ectopic prostatic glands. To our knowledge this is the first case of these two rare pathologic entities occurring together. Of note, this patient also had a history of tamoxifen therapy, like some of the previous patients with vaginal myofibroblastoma.

  1. Post-hysterectomy vaginal cuff cancer secondary to HPV infection and CIN: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Yue, Ying; Zong, Shan

    2013-07-01

    We present a case report of secondary vaginal cancer after complete hysterectomy due to myoma that was complicated by low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I) and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. After complete hysterectomy, the HPV DNA level in the vaginal tissue was obviously increased, and vaginal cancer was diagnosed 6 months later. We conclude that HPV infection can cause vaginal cancer after complete hysterectomy in cases complicated by CIN. Therefore, HPV should be regularly assessed during the postoperative follow-up period.

  2. Functional and anatomical outcome of anterior and posterior vaginal prolapse repair with prolene mesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milani, Rodolfo; Salvatore, Stefano; Soligo, Marco; Pifarotti, Paola; Meschia, Michele; Cortese, Marina

    2005-01-01

    ...  Women requiring prolapse repair for anterior or posterior vaginal prolapse. Methods  All women were assessed for urinary, bowel, prolapse symptoms and dyspareunia pre- and post-operatively...

  3. CLarifying vaginal atrophy's impact On SEx and Relationships (CLOSER) survey in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidozzi, F; Thomas, C; Smith, T; Nappi, R E

    2017-02-01

    With a paucity of information from sub-Saharan Africa, the impact of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy on women and male partners in South Africa was investigated. Four hundred individuals in South Africa (200 postmenopausal women who had experienced symptoms of vaginal atrophy, and 200 male partners) completed a structured questionnaire. Sixty-eight percent of women had avoided intimacy because of vaginal discomfort; 62% of men described observing this behavior in their partners. Consequently, 52% of women and 51% of men reported decreased sexual activity - 20% of women and 18% of men believed vaginal discomfort had 'caused a big problem'. Significantly higher proportions of women than men (p South Africa.

  4. Perineal muscle strength during pregnancy and postpartum: the correlation between perineometry and digital vaginal palpation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riesco, Maria Luiza Gonzalez; Caroci, Adriana de Souza; de Oliveira, Sonia Maria Junqueira Vasconcellos; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes

    2010-01-01

    Digital vaginal palpation performed during clinical practice can help diagnose urinary, intestinal and sexual disorders, while perineometry is more useful for performing perineal exercises with biofeedback...

  5. Perineal Muscle Strength During Pregnancy and Postpartum: the Correlation Between Perineometry and Digital Vaginal Palpation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Luiza Gonzalez Riesco; Adriana de Souza Caroci; Sonia Maria Junqueira Vasconcellos de Oliveira; Maria Helena Baena de Moraes Lopes

    2010-01-01

    Digital vaginal palpation performed during clinical practice can help diagnose urinary, intestinal and sexual disorders, while perineometry is more useful for performing perineal exercises with biofeedback...

  6. Primary vaginal calculus in a middle-aged woman with mental and physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Oda, Katsutoshi; Matsuzawa, Naoki; Shimizu, Ken

    2013-07-01

    Vaginal calculi are rarely encountered and are often misdiagnosed as bladder calculi because of the difficulty in achieving an appropriate diagnosis. Most vaginal calculi result from the presence of a urethrovaginal fistula; those occurring in the absence of such fistulas are extremely rare. We present a case of a 42-year-old bedridden woman with mental and physical disabilities who had been misdiagnosed for a decade as having a bladder calculus. We removed the calculus nonsurgically and the analyzed the components. Results demonstrated the presence of a primary vaginal calculus. Vaginal calculi may occasionally occur in disabled women, but further investigation of the etiology of such calculi is required.

  7. Diagnosis of vaginal discharge by wet mount microscopy: a simple and underrated method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, Ioannis; Bergauer, Florian

    2011-06-01

    Vaginal discharge is highly variable in quality and quantity among different individuals, and even in the same individual during different periods of life. Vaginal discharge is most commonly caused by infection with sexually transmitted organisms or increased colonization by different facultative pathogenic microorganisms (i.e., Gardnerella vaginalis). Noninfectious causes of vaginal discharge are quite rare (10% noninfectious as compared to 90% infectious causes). Most common in women with a vaginal infection is bacterial vaginosis (40%-50% of cases), followed by vulvovaginal candidosis (20%-25%), and then trichomoniasis (15%-20%). If infection is suspected as the primary cause, a sample of the vaginal discharge should be taken and examined microscopically. When evaluating vaginal secretions by phase-contrast wet mount microscopy, knowledge of what is normal versus abnormal is very important. Knowledge of the sensitivity and specificity of wet mount microscopy in different clinical settings is also important. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to evaluate lifetime changes in vaginal secretions, characterize the physiological and pathological appearance of vaginal discharge, assess the clinical practicality and usefulness of wet mount microscopy and use wet mount microscopy to diagnose bacterial vaginosis and other common vaginal infections.

  8. Vaginal Candidiasis Infection Treated Using Apple Cider Vinegar: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Betul; Baser, Muruvvet

    2017-11-07

    A 32-y-old married woman was admitted with intense vaginal discharge with foul odor, itching, groin pain, and infertility for the past 5 y. Candida albicans was isolated from the culture of vaginal swab. The patient was diagnosed with chronic vaginal candida infection. She failed to respond to integrative medicine methods prescribed. Recovery was achieved with the application of apple cider vinegar. Alternative treatment methods can be employed in patients unresponsive to medical therapies. As being one of these methods, application of apple cider vinegar can cure vaginal candida infection.

  9. Evaluation of vaginal group B streptococcal culture results after digital vaginal examination and its pattern of antibiotic resistance in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Khadijeh; Chehrei, Ali; Manavi, Mahdokht Sadat

    2013-12-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract of 10-40% of pregnant women and it is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. This study was to evaluate whether vaginal GBS culture results alter after digital vaginal examination or not. Antibiotic resistance pattern of this specie has been also assessed. A total of 186 pregnant women with gestational age of 37 weeks were enrolled to the study. Two vaginal swaps were taken before and immediately after digital vaginal examination, then third swap was taken after 48 hours of examination. The cultures were evaluated for bacterial growth and the isolated bacteria were assessed for antimicrobial drugs sensitivity. Positive culture of GBS was seen in 16.1%. Initially negative GBS result was found not to change immediately after examination. But positive cultures were negative in 1.6% of women after digital vaginal examination. After 48 hours 2.7% of initially negative GBS was positive and no one with initially positive GBS had negative culture. Sensitivity to penicillin and vancomycin was 100%, erythromycin 74%, ampicillin 65%, cefazolin 62.8%, cefotaxime 54.2% and ceftizoxime was 40%. The present investigation showed that the vaginal GBS culture result is minimally affected by digital vaginal examination. Drug of choice for GBS eradication is penicillin; vancomycin could be the choice in the case of penicillin hypersensitivity. This article extracted from M.D. thesis. (Mahdokht Sadat Manavi).

  10. Second dose of PGE2 vaginal insert versus Foley transcervical balloon for induction of labor after failure of cervical ripening with PGE2 vaginal insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr-Sasson, Aya; Schiff, Eyal; Sindel, Ofra; Suday, Ramy Rahamim; Kalter-Farber, Anat; Mashiach, Roy; Yinon, Yoav; Dulitzki, Moti; Sivan, Eyal; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali

    2017-09-01

    To determine the success rate of induction of labor (IOL) using Foley transcervical balloon (FTB) versus prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) vaginal insert, following failure of cervical ripening with PGE2 vaginal insert. A retrospective cohort study of all pregnant women admitted for IOL with either FTB or PGE2 vaginal insert. Either second dose of PGE2 vaginal insert or FTB was used as a second line treatment after failure (not giving birth in 24 h from insertion) of first PGE2 vaginal insert. During the study period, 1162 women were admitted for IOL. Failure was reported in 322/852 (37.8%) in the FTB versus 162/310 (52.2%) in the PGE2 group (p < 0.001). Among 162 patients treated with PGE2 as first line who did not deliver after 24 h, 14 had spontaneous rupture of membranes, 15 underwent stripping and 42 were in still in active labor. The remainder were allocated to either second trial of PGE2 treatment (n = 58) or FTB (n = 33) with failure rate higher in the PGE2 group, not statistically significant (p = 0.23). IOL with FTB was not superior to PGE2 vaginal insert for IOL following failure of cervical ripening with PGE2 vaginal insert.

  11. Estabilidad de diagnosticador para infecciones vaginales Diagnosis method stability used for vaginal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenio Betancourt Bravo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available FemPure es un diagnosticador de infecciones vaginales compuesto por componentes biológicos multidosis. Se estudió su estabilidad en condiciones reales de conservación durante el uso hasta agotar el contenido del frasco y a largo plazo por 24 meses. Durante la estabilidad en uso los indicadores de la calidad mantuvieron los valores en los límites de aceptación establecidos. A largo plazo los látex-anti T.vaginalis y anti C. albicans conservaron las propiedades físicas, la detectabilidad y valores de sensibilidad y especificidad mayores del 90 %. El látex-anti G. vaginalis a los 18 meses no detectó G. vaginalis a la concentración establecida como límite de detección, lo que coincidió con la disminución de la sensibilidad hasta 71 %. Se conservó por primera vez una mezcla estable de suspensiones celulares compuesta por bacteria, levadura y parásito como control positivo. El control positivo a los 24 meses disminuyó su funcionamiento por daño celular del parásito T. vaginalis. Se estableció 12 meses como tiempo de validez del producto.RemPure is a diagnosis tool for vaginal infections composed of multidose biological compounds. Its stability level under real conditions of preservation during from its use to selling-out of content and long-term at 24 hours was studied. During use of stability, quality indicators remain values within established acceptation limits. T.vaginalis and anti-C.albincans maintained physical properties, detection parameters, and sensitivity and specificity values over 90 %. The use of latex-anti G vaginalis at 18 months fails in the detection of this parasite at established concentration to detection limit, coinciding with decrease in sensitivity up to 71 %. We preserved an stable mix of cellular suspensions composed of bacterium, yeast, and parasite as a positive control. This control at 24 months decreases its functioning by cellular damage caused by T.vaginalis parasite.

  12. Women who prefer longer penises are more likely to have vaginal orgasms (but not clitoral orgasms): implications for an evolutionary theory of vaginal orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Miller, Geoffrey F; Brody, Stuart

    2012-12-01

    Research indicates that (i) women's orgasm during penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is influenced by fitness-related male partner characteristics, (ii) penis size is important for many women, and (iii) preference for a longer penis is associated with greater vaginal orgasm consistency (triggered by PVI without concurrent clitoral masturbation). To test the hypothesis that vaginal orgasm frequency is associated with women's reporting that a longer than average penis is more likely to provoke their PVI orgasm. Three hundred twenty-three women reported in an online survey their past month frequency of various sexual behaviors (including PVI, vaginal orgasm, and clitoral orgasm), the effects of a longer than average penis on likelihood of orgasm from PVI, and the importance they attributed to PVI and to noncoital sex. Univariate analyses of covariance with dependent variables being frequencies of various sexual behaviors and types of orgasm and with independent variable being women reporting vs. not reporting that a longer than average penis is important for their orgasm from PVI. Likelihood of orgasm with a longer penis was related to greater vaginal orgasm frequency but unrelated to frequencies of other sexual behaviors, including clitoral orgasm. In binary logistic regression, likelihood of orgasm with a longer penis was related to greater importance attributed to PVI and lesser importance attributed to noncoital sex. Women who prefer deeper penile-vaginal stimulation are more likely to have vaginal orgasm, consistent with vaginal orgasm evolving as part of a female mate choice system favoring somewhat larger than average penises. Future research could extend the findings by overcoming limitations related to more precise measurement of penis length (to the pubis and pressed close to the pubic bone) and girth, and large representative samples. Future experimental research might assess to what extent different penis sizes influence women's satisfaction and likelihood

  13. Embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Gómez Santa María

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros registros de embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato se publicaron recientemente (2003 y desde entonces se describieron no más de 15 casos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente joven a quien dos meses antes de la consulta se le había efectuado una vertebroplastia percutánea con polimetilmetacrilato. Por síntomas pleuríticos se le realizó una radiografía de tórax, que evidenció múltiples imágenes radioopacas en ambos campos pulmonares. La embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato es una complicación muy poco frecuente de ese procedimiento y un diagnóstico diferencial para tener en cuenta en pacientes con el antecedente y que consulten por dolor precordial o disnea.REV ARGENT CARDIOL 2009;77:129-130.

  14. Descrição de duas novas técnicas cirúrgicas para o tratamento de prolapso vaginal em vacas zebuínas: vaginectomia parcial e vaginopexia dorsal

    OpenAIRE

    Hellú, José Abdo de Andrade [UNESP; Toniollo, Gilson Hélio [UNESP; Marques Neto, Isaías

    2015-01-01

    Com o aumento da casuística e o insucesso da aplicação das técnicas convencionais de Caslick, Bühner ou Flessa, na redução do prolapso vaginal não associado à gestação em vacas zebuínas, caracterizada pela elevação significativa da recorrência da afecção, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar duas novas técnicas cirúrgicas na correção do prolapso vaginal, denominadas de vaginectomia parcial e vaginopexia dorsal em vacas. O estudo foi conduzido a campo, por um período de quatro anos, utiliza...

  15. Fatores associados à preferência por cesareana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal-Cury Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os fatores relacionados à preferência por cesariana, em gestantes sem intercorrências. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 156 gestantes, de clínica privada na cidade de Osasco, Estado de São Paulo, no período de outubro de 2000 a dezembro de 2001. As gestantes estavam em idade gestacional de 28 semanas ou mais, sem contra-indicação formal para parto vaginal, no momento da entrevista. Foi aplicado questionário sobre informações sociodemográficas, história obstétrica passada e atual. Perguntou-se à gestante questão específica sobre preferência para o parto. Realizou-se teste do qui-quadrado de Pearson e regressão logística para análise multivariada, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Sessenta e sete (42,9% gestantes se diziam pouco motivadas para parto vaginal. Na análise multivariada foram estatisticamente significativas as seguintes variáveis: parto vaginal prévio (p<0,001; ORaj=0,04; IC 95%=0,01-0,12; a renda do marido superior a 750 Reais mensais (p=0,006; ORaj=3,44; IC 95%=1,38-8,33. As mulheres com parto vaginal prévio apresentaram chance 25 vezes menor de optarem por cesariana. O fato de a gestante não ter considerado satisfatória a experiência do parto prévio esteve marginalmente associado ao desfecho (p=0,06; ORaj=0,42; IC 95%=0,16-1,05. CONCLUSÕES: A motivação para parto cesariano está associada a influências como tipo e grau de satisfação com o parto prévio e renda.

  16. Vaginal extrusion of transobturator tape 6 years after procedure: how long should be the follow-up period after vaginal sling surgeries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chanchal; Weng, Roy Ng Kwok

    2012-01-01

    A 77-year-old lady presented to the gynaecology outpatient clinic with vaginal extrusion (3C/T3/S1) six years after a transobturator suburethral sling procedure (TOT). The entire tape was spontaneously extruded vaginally and the vaginal erosion healed with conservative management. Midurethral tapes, currently the standard of care in the management of urodynamic stress incontinence (USI), are associated with a risk of erosion and extrusion of the synthetic material. The present case highlights the importance of the long-term followup after any sling procedure as erosion and/or extrusion may arise at any time following the procedure.

  17. Vaginal Extrusion of Transobturator Tape 6 Years after Procedure: How Long Should Be the Follow-Up Period after Vaginal Sling Surgeries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old lady presented to the gynaecology outpatient clinic with vaginal extrusion (3C/T3/S1 six years after a transobturator suburethral sling procedure (TOT. The entire tape was spontaneously extruded vaginally and the vaginal erosion healed with conservative management. Midurethral tapes, currently the standard of care in the management of urodynamic stress incontinence (USI, are associated with a risk of erosion and extrusion of the synthetic material. The present case highlights the importance of the long-term followup after any sling procedure as erosion and/or extrusion may arise at any time following the procedure.

  18. Multicompartmental Pharmacokinetic Model of Tenofovir Delivery by a Vaginal Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yajing; Katz, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Trials of a vaginal Tenofovir gel for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV have given conflicting results. Knowledge of concentrations of Tenofovir and its active form Tenofovir diphosphate, at putative sites of anti-HIV functioning, is central to understanding trial outcomes and design of products and dosage regimens. Topical Tenofovir delivery to the vaginal environment is complex, multivariate and non-linear; determinants relate to drug, vehicle, dosage regimen, and environment. Experimental PK methods cannot yield mechanistic understanding of this process, and have uncontrolled variability in drug sampling. Mechanistic modeling of the process could help delineate its determinants, and be a tool in design and interpretation of products and trials. Methods and Findings We created a four-compartment mass transport model for Tenofovir delivery by a gel: gel, epithelium, stroma, blood. Transport was diffusion-driven in vaginal compartments; blood concentration was time-varying but homogeneous. Parameters for the model derived from in vitro and in vivo PK data, to which model predictions gave good agreement. Steep concentration gradients occurred in stroma ≤8 hours after gel release. Increasing epithelial thickness delayed initial TFV delivery to stroma and its decline: tmax increased but AUC at 24 hours was not significantly altered. At 24 and 48 hours, stromal concentrations were 6.3% and 0.2% of Cmax. Concentrations in simulated biopsies overestimated stromal concentrations, as much as ∼5X, depending upon time of sampling, biopsy thickness and epithelial thickness. Conclusions There was reasonably good agreement of model predictions with clinical PK data. Conversion of TFV to TFV-DP was not included, but PK data suggest a linear relationship between them. Thus contrasts predicted by this model can inform design of gels and dosage regimens in clinical trials, and interpretation of PK data. This mass transport based approach can be extended to TFV

  19. A large primary vaginal calculus in a woman with paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsar, Ayse Filiz; Keskin, Huseyin Levent; Catma, Tuba; Kaya, Basak; Sivaslioglu, Ahmet Akın

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to report a primary vaginal stone, an extremely rare entity, without vesicovaginal fistula in a woman with disability. We describe the case of a large primary vaginal calculus in a 22-year-old woman with paraplegia, which, surprisingly, was not diagnosed until she was examined under general anesthesia during a preparation for laparoscopy for an adnexal mass. The stone had not been identified by physical examination with the patient in a recumbent position or by transabdominal ultrasonography and pelvic tomography during the preoperative preparation. Vaginoscopy was not performed because the vagina was completely filled with the mass. As a result of its size and hard consistency, a right-sided episiotomy was performed and a 136-g stone was removed using ring forceps. A vesicovaginal fistula was excluded. There was no evidence of a foreign body or other nidus on the cut section of the stone, and it was determined to be composed of 100% struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate). Culture of urine obtained via catheter showed Escherichia coli. After the surgical removal of the calculus without complications, a program of intermittent catheterization was started. The follow-up period was uneventful, and the patient was symptom free at 6 months after the operation. We postulate that the calculus formed as a consequence of urinary contamination of the vagina in association with incontinence and prolonged maintenance in a recumbent posture. This report is important because it highlights that, although vaginal stones are very rare, their possibility should be considered in the differential diagnosis of individuals with long-term paraplegia.

  20. Acute Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis with a Vaginal Contraceptive Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Eilbert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare cause of abdominal pain, which if left untreated may result in bowel infarction, peritonitis and death. The majority of patients with this illness have a recognizable, predisposing prothrombotic condition. Oral contraceptives have been identified as a predisposing factor for mesenteric venous thrombosis in reproductive-aged women. In the last fifteen years new methods of hormonal birth control have been introduced, including a transdermal patch and an intravaginal ring. In this report, we describe a case of mesenteric venous thrombosis in a young woman caused by a vaginal contraceptive ring. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:395-397.

  1. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of vaginal lactobacillus isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavišić Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the probiotic potential of bacteriocin-producing lactobacilli strain Lactobacillus plantarum G2 isolated from the vaginal mucus of healthy women. The antimicrobial effect of G2 was confirmed in the mixed culture with pathogenic Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella abony and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while bacteriocine activity was detected against S. aureus and S. abony only. The strain showed an excellent survival rate in low pH and in the presence of bile salts. The percentage of adhered cells of L. plantarum G2 to hexadecane was 63.85±2.0 indicating the intermediate hydrophobicity.

  2. Patient goals after tension free vaginal tape operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, Karin; Bjørk, Jonna; Kousgaard, Sabrina Just

    INTRODUCTION: This prospective study investigates sexual function in women after a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) operation and compares short-term and long-term effects. METHODS: Sixty-three women had a TVT operation performed at Aalborg University Hospital, Department of Gynecology...... negative emotional reactions during intercourse, less coital incontinence, and less fear of being incontinent during intercourse after the TVT operation. CONCLUSION: This study shows that a woman's sex life does not deteriorate after a TVT operation, that their sexual function improves somewhat...

  3. Disc Battery - An Unusual Vaginal Foreign Body in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yousuf Aziz; Mahmood, Mansoor; Taqi, Esmaeel

    2016-01-01

    Disc battery ingestion and esophageal injury is well-known in children. Insertion of a disc/lithium battery into body's natural orifices is rarely reported. We present a case of self-insertion of a lithium battery into the vagina by a 2 ½ year old female. Vaginoscopy was performed and the battery was retrieved which had corroded and caused vaginal ulceration. Post-operative outcome was favorable. Treating physicians must be aware of the hazardous effects of insertion of lithium batteries as it may cause significant damage in a short period.

  4. Recommendations for the management of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturdee, D W; Panay, N; Ulrich, Lian

    2010-01-01

    for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) over recent years that has suggested an increased risk of breast cancer, heart disease and stroke. But, regardless of whether these scares are justified, local treatment of vaginal atrophy is not associated with these possible risks of systemic HRT. Other reasons...... dryness can be helped by simple lubricants but the best and most logical treatment for urogenital atrophy is to use local estrogen. This is safe, effective and with few contraindications. It is hoped that these guidelines and recommendations, produced to coincide with World Menopause Day 2010, will help...

  5. Vaginal and Uterine Bacterial Communities in Postpartum Lactating Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke A. Clemmons

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive inefficiency in cattle has major impacts on overall productivity of cattle operations, increasing cost of production, and impacting the sustainability of the cattle enterprise. Decreased reproductive success and associated disease states have been correlated with the presence of specific microbes and microbial community profiles, yet details of the relationship between microbial communities and host physiology are not well known. The present study profiles and compares the microbial communities in the bovine uterus and vagina using 16S rRNA sequencing of the V1–V3 hypervariable region at the time of artificial insemination. Significant differences (p < 0.05 between the vaginal and uterine communities were observed at the level of α-diversity metrics, including Chao1, Shannon’s Diversity Index, and observed OTU. Greater clustering of vaginal OTU was apparent in principal coordinate analysis compared to uterine OTU, despite greater diversity in the vaginal community in both weighted and unweighted UniFrac distance matrices (p < 0.05. There was a significantly greater relative abundance of unassigned taxa in the uterus (p = 0.008, otherwise there were few differences between the overall community profiles. Both vaginal and uterine communities were dominated by Firmicutes, although the relative abundance of rRNA sequences corresponding to species in this phylum was significantly (p = 0.007 lower in the uterine community. Additional differences were observed at the genus level, specifically in abundances within Clostridium (p = 0.009, Anaerofustis (p = 0.018, Atopobium (p = 0.035, Oscillospira (p = 0.035, 5-7N15 (p = 0.035, Mycoplasma (p = 0.035, Odoribacter (p = 0.042, and within the families Clostridiaceae (p = 0.006, Alcaligenaceae (p = 0.021, and Ruminococcaceae (p = 0.021. Overall, the comparison revealed differences and commonalities among bovine reproductive organs, which may be influenced by host physiology. The increased

  6. Tinidazol versus cefazolina na antibioticoprofilaxia de histerectomia vaginal e abdominal

    OpenAIRE

    Simões,José Antonio; Discacciati, Michelle Garcia; Poletti, Giana Balestro; Brolazo, Eliane; Crema,Gabriela Daoud; Pereira, Cláudia Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: comparar a eficácia do tinidazol e da cefazolina na antibioticoprofilaxia da morbidade febril e infecciosa pós-histerectomia vaginal e abdominal. MÉTODOS: estudo clínico randomizado, no qual as mulheres internadas para histerectomia foram aleatorizadas para um dos seguintes grupos de antibioticoprofilaxia: Grupo C (2 g de cefazolina EV na indução anestésica); Grupo T (2 g de tinidazol VO 12 horas antes da cirurgia); ou Grupo C+T (2 g de tinidazol VO 12 horas antes da cirurgia e 2 g ...

  7. Outcome of Treatment of Anterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse and Stress Urinary Incontinence with Transobturator Tension-Free Vaginal Mesh (Prolift and Concomitant Tension-Free Vaginal Tape-Obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Azazy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. It is to assess the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of transobturator tension-free vaginal mesh (Prolift and concomitant tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (TVT-O system as a treatment of female anterior vaginal wall prolapse associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI. Patients and Methods. Between December 2006 and July 2007, 20 patients with anterior genital prolapse and voiding dysfunction were treated with the transobturator tension-free vaginal mesh (Prolift and concomitant tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (TVT-O. Sixteen patients had stress urinary incontinence and 4 patients were considered at risk for development of de novo stress incontinence after the prolapse is repaired. All patients underwent a complete urodynamic assessment. All the patients underwent pelvic examination 4–6 weeks after the operation, and anatomical and functional outcomes were recorded. Results. Twenty cystocoeles were repaired: 6 grade II, 12 grade III, and 2 grade IV. There were no vessel or bladder injuries. Eighteen patients had optimal anatomic results and 2 patients had persistent asymptomatic stage I prolapse. Conclusion. These preliminary results suggest that Prolift system offers a safe and effective treatment for female anterior vaginal wall prolapse. However, a long-term followup is necessary in order to support the good result maintenance.

  8. Incidência de Gardnerella vaginalis nas Amostras de Secreção Vaginal em Mulheres Atendidas pelo Laboratório Municipal de Fraiburgo

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Domingos do Amaral

    2012-01-01

    A vagina possui um variado número de bactérias que vivem em harmonia com os Lactobacillus spp. Quando ocorre um desequilíbrio na flora, há um crescimento exagerado de bactérias em especial Gardnerella vaginalis, causando a vaginose bacteriana. Este trabalho tem por objetivo verificar a incidência de G. vaginalis nas amostras de secreção vaginal em mulheres atendidas pelo Laboratório Municipal de Fraiburgo. O estudo foi realizado no referido laboratório. Os dados for...

  9. Follicular development and morphological changes in the vaginal epithelium during the estrous cycle of Galea spixii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Amilton Cesar; Viana, Diego Carvalho; Oliveira, Gleidson Benevides; Silva, Renata Santos; Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Assis-Neto, Antônio Chaves

    2017-02-01

    The current study aimed to determine if characteristics observed in vaginal cytology during the estrous cycle of female SYT cavies corresponded with proliferation of the vaginal epithelium, characterized by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunolocalization, and with follicular development at different phases of the estrous cycle. After determining estrous cycle phases by vaginal cytology, females were euthanized at metestrus, diestrus, proestrus, and estrus. Histological study of the vaginal epithelium and ovary were then performed. Immunohistochemistry for PCNA in vaginal tissue at each cycle phase was also performed. Superficial cornified cells and early post-ovulatory follicles were found at estrus. Few nuclei below the enucleate superficial cells were immunoreactive to PCNA. At metestrus, the vaginal epithelium underwent desquamation and lost the superficial cornified cells; basal and intermediate cells appeared, and the post-ovulatory follicle formed an early corpus luteum. No PCNA immunoreactivity was observed. At diestrus, the corpus luteum was developed, and the vaginal epithelium contained basal and intermediate cells. There was PCNA immunoreactivity in the cellular nucleus in the germinative stratum of the epithelium. Because of the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles, the vaginal epithelium suffered intense proliferation at proestrus. Vaginal cytology revealed large intermediate cells and nucleated and enucleated superficial cornified cells. In the ovary, mature follicles were present. More apparent immunoreactivity of PCNA in the germinative layer was found. In summary, we inferred that vaginal exfoliative findings matched the proliferation process of the vaginal epithelium. PCNA immunolocalization occurred as well as corresponding follicular development in the ovaries. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Study to Evaluate Targeted Management and Syndromic Management in Women Presenting with Abnormal Vaginal Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Veena; Bansal, Charu Lata

    2016-10-01

    Vaginal discharge is a commonest complaint among women in reproductive age group. Infective vaginal discharge can be broadly categorized into vaginitis or mucopurulent cervicitis. Vaginitis is predominantly caused by bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, vaginal trichomoniasis, etc. Mucopurulent cervicitis is due to chlamydia or gonococcal infection. The targeted management is based on identification of causative organism and targeting the therapy against it, while syndromic management is based on high risk factors's presence. To study the effect of targeted management as compared to syndromic management in achieving a complete cure for abnormal vaginal discharge and to study the microbial flora of women presenting with abnormal vaginal discharge. The study is a randomized control trial conducted at tertiary health care on 200 women who presented with abnormal vaginal discharge, distributed in two groups A and B each consisted of 100 women. Group A underwent laboratory investigations, and treatment was started as soon as reports were available. Group B was given syndromic management based on high risk factors's presence. Both groups were followed up after 2 weeks. The prevalence of various organisms in vaginal discharge was candidiasis 39 %, bacterial vaginosis 28 %, trichomoniasis 5 %, N. gonorrhoeae 5 % and chlamydia 2 % among the 100 women in group A. Response to treatment for vaginitis was 76.3 % in group A, whereas it was 41 % in group B. With cervicitis, 71.4 % women responded to treatment in targeted group as compared to 54 % in syndromic management group. There is a potential disadvantage of syndromic management because of its total reliability on a subjective clinical assessment.

  11. Presentación de caso del tumor maligno vaginal en edad pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuria Suárez Ortiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La  presentación de caso es de un adenocarcinoma de células claras de vagina, diagnosticado en el Laboratorio Nacional de Asmara, Eritrea, en diciembre de 2008. Este padecimiento es una neoplasia extremadamente rara, que representa del 1 al 2% de los cánceres ginecológicos. Se trata de una niña de cuatro años de edad, atendida en el Hospital de Adikey del territorio eritreano, en la consulta de ginecología, por presentar sangramiento vaginal. Al realizar el examen físico se encontró una tumoración que ocupaba toda la vagina; se le realizó exéresis quirúrgica de la lesión y en estudio anatomopatológico se confirmó un adenocarcinoma de células claras, los cuales son considerados tumores infrecuentes y deben incluirse en el diagnóstico diferencial de otros tumores vaginales descritos en infantes, con un comportamiento agresivo, recomendándose un tratamiento quirúrgico radical.

  12. Robust Vaginal Colonization of Macaques with a Novel Vaginally Disintegrating Tablet Containing a Live Biotherapeutic Product to Prevent HIV Infection in Women: e0122730

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laurel A Lagenaur; Iwona Swedek; Peter P Lee; Thomas P Parks

    2015-01-01

      MucoCept is a biotherapeutic for prevention of HIV-1 infection in women and contains a human, vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii that has been genetically enhanced to express the HIV-1 entry inhibitor...

  13. Chitosan in Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery: Focus on Local Vaginal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toril Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive drug therapy destined for localized drug treatment is gaining increasing importance in today’s drug development. Chitosan, due to its known biodegradability, bioadhesiveness and excellent safety profile offers means to improve mucosal drug therapy. We have used chitosan as mucoadhesive polymer to develop liposomes able to ensure prolonged residence time at vaginal site. Two types of mucoadhesive liposomes, namely the chitosan-coated liposomes and chitosan-containing liposomes, where chitosan is both embedded and surface-available, were made of soy phosphatidylcholine with entrapped fluorescence markers of two molecular weights, FITC-dextran 4000 and 20,000, respectively. Both liposomal types were characterized for their size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and the in vitro release profile, and compared to plain liposomes. The proof of chitosan being both surface-available as well as embedded into the liposomes in the chitosan-containing liposomes was found. The capability of the surface-available chitosan to interact with the model porcine mucin was confirmed for both chitosan-containing and chitosan-coated liposomes implying potential mucoadhesive behavior. Chitosan-containing liposomes were shown to be superior in respect to the simplicity of preparation, FITC-dextran load, mucoadhesiveness and in vitro release and are expected to ensure prolonged residence time on the vaginal mucosa providing localized sustained release of entrapped model substances.

  14. Vaginal ring delivery of selective progesterone receptor modulators for contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal ring delivery of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) are under development to address limitations of current hormonal methods that affect use and effectiveness. This method would be appropriate for use in women with contraindications to, or preferences to avoid, estrogens. A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) also eliminates the need for daily dosing, and therefore might improve the effectiveness of contraception. The principle contraceptive effect of SPRMs is the suppression of ovulation. One limiting factor of chronic SPRM administration is the development of benign endometrial thickening characterized as PRM-associated endometrial changes. Ulipristal acetate is approved for use as an emergency contraceptive pill, but no SPRM is approved for regular contraception. The Population Council is developing an ulipristal acetate CVR for regular contraception. The CVR studied is of a matrix design composed of micronized UPA mixed in a silicone rubber matrix The target product is a ring designed for continuous use over 3 months delivering near steady-state drug levels that will suppress ovulation. Results from Phase 1–2 studies demonstrate that suppression of ovulation occurs with UPA levels above 6–7 ng/mL. PMID:23040126

  15. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhowmik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

  16. Vaginal cuff brachytherapy in endometrial cancer - a technically easy treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Sebastià; Andres, Ignacio; Lopez-Honrubia, Veronica; Berenguer, Roberto; Sevillano, Marimar; Jimenez-Jimenez, Esther; Rovirosa, Angeles; Arenas, Meritxell

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological cancers among women in the developed countries. Vaginal cuff is the main location of relapses after a curative surgical procedure and postoperative radiation therapy have proven to diminish it. Nevertheless, these results have not translated into better survival results. The preeminent place of vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCB) in the postoperative treatment of high- to intermediate-risk EC was given by the PORTEC-2 trial, which demonstrated a similar reduction in relapses with VCB than with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), but VCB induced less late toxicity. As a result of this trial, the use of VCB has increased in clinical practice at the expense of EBRT. A majority of the clinical reviews of VCB usually address the risk categories and patient selection but pay little attention to technical aspects of the VCB procedure. Our review aimed to address both aspects. First of all, we described the risk groups, which guide patient selection for VCB in clinical practice. Then, we depicted several technical aspects that might influence dose deposition and toxicity. Bladder distension and rectal distension as well as applicator position or patient position are some of those variables that we reviewed.

  17. Failed manual removal of the placenta after vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjurström, Johanna; Collins, Sally; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Sundberg, Karin; Jørgensen, Annemette; Duvekot, Johannes J; Groenbeck, Lene

    2018-02-01

    A retained placenta after vaginal delivery where manual removal of placenta fails is a clinical challenge. We present six cases that illustrate the heterogeneity of the condition and discuss the etiology and terminology as well as the clinical management. Members of the European Working group on Abnormally Invasive Placenta (EW-AIP) were invited to report all recent cases of retained placenta that were not antenatally suspected to be abnormally adherent or invasive, but could not be removed manually despite several attempts. The six cases from Denmark, The Netherlands and the UK provide examples of various treatment strategies such as ultrasound-guided vaginal removal, removal of the placenta through a hysterotomy and just leaving the placenta in situ. The placentas were all retained, but it was only possible to diagnose abnormal invasion in the one case, which had a histopathological diagnosis of increta. Based on these cases we present a flow chart to aid clinical management for future cases. We need properly defined stringent terminology for the different types of retained placenta, as well as improved tools to predict and diagnose both abnormally invasive and abnormally adherent placenta. Clinicians need to be aware of the options available to them when confronted by the rare case of a retained placenta that cannot be removed manually in a hemodynamically stable patient.

  18. Release of Tenofovir from Carrageenan-Based Vaginal Suppositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Toral; Hayes, John E.; Ziegler, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    Microbicides are an active area of research for HIV prevention, being developed as a woman-initiated method of prevention during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have produced microbicide prototypes in the form of semisoft vaginal suppositories prepared from carrageenan and conducted both qualitative and quantitative studies using these prototypes to determine the physical properties that drive acceptability and possibly adherence. In order to ensure that the suppositories function as effective drug delivery vehicles, we have conducted in vitro dissolution studies in water, vaginal simulant fluid (VSF) and semen simulant fluid (SSF) with suppositories loaded with the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir (TFV). TFV was released via diffusion and matrix erosion in water or by diffusion out of the matrix in VSF and SSF. Diffusion studies were conducted in two different volumes of VSF and SSF. The volume of VSF/SSF into which TFV diffused and the size of the suppositories determined the rate of diffusion from the suppositories. About 45%–50% of the encapsulated TFV diffused out of the suppositories within the first two hours, irrespective of suppository size, diffusion medium (VSF/SSF) and the volume of medium. Prior work indicates that a short waiting period between insertion and coitus is highly desired by women; present data suggest our microbicide prototypes have rapid initial release followed by a slow release curve over the first 24 h. PMID:24999606

  19. Release of Tenofovir from Carrageenan-Based Vaginal Suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toral Zaveri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbicides are an active area of research for HIV prevention, being developed as a woman-initiated method of prevention during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have produced microbicide prototypes in the form of semisoft vaginal suppositories prepared from carrageenan and conducted both qualitative and quantitative studies using these prototypes to determine the physical properties that drive acceptability and possibly adherence. In order to ensure that the suppositories function as effective drug delivery vehicles, we have conducted in vitro dissolution studies in water, vaginal simulant fluid (VSF and semen simulant fluid (SSF with suppositories loaded with the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir (TFV. TFV was released via diffusion and matrix erosion in water or by diffusion out of the matrix in VSF and SSF. Diffusion studies were conducted in two different volumes of VSF and SSF. The volume of VSF/SSF into which TFV diffused and the size of the suppositories determined the rate of diffusion from the suppositories. About 45%–50% of the encapsulated TFV diffused out of the suppositories within the first two hours, irrespective of suppository size, diffusion medium (VSF/SSF and the volume of medium. Prior work indicates that a short waiting period between insertion and coitus is highly desired by women; present data suggest our microbicide prototypes have rapid initial release followed by a slow release curve over the first 24 h.

  20. [Dutch College of General Practitioners' practice guideline on 'Vaginal bleeding'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Corlien J H; Meijer, Loes J; Janssen, C A H Ineke; Burgers, Jako S; Opstelten, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The revised Dutch College of General Practitioners' practice guideline on 'Vaginal bleeding' provides recommendations for abnormal bleeding in women in the reproduction phase of life and for post-menopausal bleeding. This guideline is closely attuned to the guideline on 'Heavy menstrual bleeding' of the Dutch Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Transvaginal sonography is not reliable for excluding endometrial carcinoma in women with abnormal vaginal bleeding treated with tamoxifen. The choice of medical treatment is determined in consultation with the patient. The following factors are assessed: severity and bother, long-term need for contraception, preference for cycle control, desire to have a child, pain during menstruation, comorbidity and use of medication. Treatment options are nonhormonal (NSAIDs, or tranexamic acid) or hormonal (a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, or combined oral contraceptive). In women of reproductive age, referral is indicated if medical treatment is not effective. Other indications are intracavitary abnormalities diagnosed by transvaginal sonography, tamoxifen use, persistent contact bleeding, and suspicion of coagulation disorders. Indications for referral for post-menopausal bleeding include: sonographic endometrial thickness > 4 mm, abnormal cervical cytology, tamoxifen use, irregular bleeding during use of hormone therapy for vasomotor symptoms and persistent or recurrent bleeding, regardless of endometrial thickness.

  1. Origanum vulgare essential oil affects pathogens causing vaginal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, M; Bogavac, M; Radovanović, B; Sudji, J; Tešanović, K; Janjušević, L

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the application of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (EO) as an alternative antimicrobial agent against vaginal infections. Microdilution methods were applied for the detection of the minimal inhibitory (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal/fungicidal (MBC/MFC) concentration of 15 clinical strains originating from women with symptoms of vaginal infection. Optical density determination (OD) was used for detection of the Candida growth rate. Staining with DAPI was used to detect the influence of EO on nuclear condensation and fragmentation, while the brine shrimp bioassay was used to determine the toxicity of EO. Chemical composition analysis was done using GS-MS. According to the MIC and MBC/MFC values, the most susceptible strains to EO were: Escherichia coli 1, E. coli 2, Staphylococcus aureus 3 and Candida albicans 1-3. Inhibition of C. albicans filamentation was detected at 0·45 μl ml(-1) . The obtained inhibition (%) from Candida growth curves points to a shorter period of time (24 h) for determining IC50 as MIC and IC99 as MFC value. These values could be recommended as valid parameters for the faster detection of the effectiveness of EO on Candida isolates. Examination of potential of the O. vulgare EO as a main antimicrobial constituent within vaginalettes in gynaecological practice. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. A novel and multifunctional excipient for vaginal drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Aamir Mirza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the pharmaceutical potential of a natural organic matter (fulvic acid for sustained release, acid buffering capacity and mucoadhesion in vaginal drug delivery. The antifungal drug, Itraconazole, was first converted into inclusion complexes with fulvic acid (1:1 & 1:2 molar ratio and then characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT IR and Mass Spectroscopy. Results were also authenticated by conformational analysis. Solubility analysis of complexes yielded different thermodynamic parameters and explained the driving force for solubilisation when the pH was varied in an acidic range. MTT assays were also performed to assess the potential in vitro cell toxicity of the complexes in comparison to the neat drug. The complexes were then formulated into tablets and optimized for hardness, mucoadhesion and release profiles. The optimized tablets presented with satisfactory mucoadhesion, acid buffering and spreading ability. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the formulation was also increased due to improved aqueous solubility of the drug despite the larger size of the complex. The study also indicated the potential use of fulvic acid as a functional excipient in the preparation of a vaginal drug delivery system (VDDS.

  3. Once daily bioadhesive vaginal clotrimazole tablets: design and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Garima; Jain, S; Tiwary, A K; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2006-09-01

    In this study, a bioadhesive dosage form of clotrimazole was designed using a combination of bioadhesive polymers Carbopol 934P, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate in different ratios. The bioadhesive strength was evaluated by measuring the force required to detach the tablets from porcine vaginal mucosal membrane. The strong interaction between polymer and mucus lining of the tissue helps increase the contact time and permits localization of activity. Carbopol 934P showed maximum bioadhesion and required maximum force for detachment; the force required for detachment was directly proportional to its content. The formulations were tested for their swelling behavior using the agar gel plate method. The swelling index was a function of the concentration of the hydrophilic polymer and the formulations containing Carbopol 934P and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose were found to swell to a greater extent than those containing Carbopol and sodium alginate. In vitro release studies showed that the batch consisting of 2:1 ratio of Carbopol 934P/sodium alginate (batch C3) released clotrimazole over 24 h. The similarity factor showed that the dissolution profiles of fresh and aged tablets were similar, suggesting good stability of vaginal tablets prepared using a combination of Carbopol 934P and sodium alginate.

  4. An emerging mycoplasma associated with trichomoniasis, vaginal infection and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Fettweis

    Full Text Available Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name "Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii" for this potential new pathogen.

  5. [Clinical analysis of six cases of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Xia; Zhu, Lan; Lang, Jing-He; Shen, Keng; Huang, Hui-Fang; Pan, Ling-Ya

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN). A retrospective study was made of 6 patients with VAIN, who were hospitalized at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 1980 to 2006. Five cases had a history of hysterectomy, two of whom were because of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or invasive cervical cancer. Four cases had the infection of high-risk oncogenic human papillomaviruses detected with hybrid capture II (HC-II), the other two had no record. In all patients the VAIN lesions were within the upper one third of the vagina. They were all diagnosed by colposcopic examination and directed biopsy after the abnormal cytology by thinprep cytology test (TCT). Six cases of VAIN II-III were treated by excisional surgery. One case had residual lesion and had another surgery 3 months after the first one. Two patients obtained remission at one-year follow-up, three had abnormal cytology by TCT 6 months after surgery, and one had abnormal cytology by TCT at six-month follow-up but normal at one-year follow-up. A history of CIN is the main risk factor for VAIN, so routine vaginal cytology is needed for the patients after hysterectomy due to CIN. Cytology, colposcopic examination and directed biopsy are the mainstays of VAIN diagnosis. Excisional surgery is recommended for the patients with VAIN II-III. Long term follow-up is necessary after treatment.

  6. The Performance of the Vaginal Discharge Syndromic Management in Treating Vaginal and Cervical Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemouri, Charifa; Wi, Teodora Elvira; Kiarie, James; Seuc, Armando; Mogasale, Vittal; Latif, Ahmed; Broutet, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    This review aimed to synthesize and analyze the diagnostic accuracy and the likelihood of providing correct treatment of the syndromic approach Vaginal Discharge Flowchart in managing cervical infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and vaginal infections caused by Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and Candida albicans. This review will inform updating the WHO 2003 guidelines on Vaginal Discharge syndromic case management. A systematic review was conducted on published studies from 01-01-2000 to 30-03-2015 in multiple databases. Studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy and validation of the WHO Vaginal Discharge Flowchart were included. Validation parameters including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and the 95% confidence intervals for the different types of the flowchart were taken as outcomes, re-calculated, and analysed using a fixed model meta-analysis for data pooling. The level of agreement between the index and reference test were determined by the Cohen's Kappa co-efficiency test. Each individual study was assessed on quality using the QUADAS-2 tool. The search yielded 2,845 studies of which 16 met the eligibility criteria for final analysis. The diagnostic performance to identify cervical infections was low and resulted in a high proportion of over and missed treatment. The four flowcharts had a sensitivity between 27.37% in history and risk assessment and 90.13% with microscopy, with the inverse in specificity rates. The treatment performances between the flowcharts were inconsistent. The same applies to the use of vaginal discharge flowchart for treating vaginal infections. For vaginal infections the vaginal discharge flowchart had a good performance in flowchart 3 with 91.68% of sensitivity; 99.97% specificity; 99.93% PPV and 0.02% who missed their treatment and 8.32% of women who were over treated by the vaginal discharge

  7. Prevalent urinary incontinence as a correlate of pregnancy, vaginal childbirth and obstetric techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, Søren; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    1999-01-01

    showed increases in relation to urinary incontinence during pregnancy, urinary incontinence immediately after a vaginal childbirth, and age of 30 years or more at the second vaginal childbirth. No multivariate associations were found for forceps delivery or vacuum extraction delivery, episiotomy...

  8. The trend of presentation of vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF) and recto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case report of an unmarried 16 year old unbooked (P1+0) female patient with a diagnosis of vesico-vaginal fistula and recto-vaginal fistula following four day obstructed labour is presented. Following an intravenous urography (IVU), evidence of contrast in the bladder, vagina and rectum due to fistulous connection ...

  9. Commensal Bacteria Modulate Innate Immune Responses of Vaginal Epithelial Cell Multilayer Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William A.; McGowin, Chris L.; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia D.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Pyles, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    The human vaginal microbiome plays a critical but poorly defined role in reproductive health. Vaginal microbiome alterations are associated with increased susceptibility to sexually-transmitted infections (STI) possibly due to related changes in innate defense responses from epithelial cells. Study of the impact of commensal bacteria on the vaginal mucosal surface has been hindered by current vaginal epithelial cell (VEC) culture systems that lack an appropriate interface between the apical surface of stratified squamous epithelium and the air-filled vaginal lumen. Therefore we developed a reproducible multilayer VEC culture system with an apical (luminal) air-interface that supported colonization with selected commensal bacteria. Multilayer VEC developed tight-junctions and other hallmarks of the vaginal mucosa including predictable proinflammatory cytokine secretion following TLR stimulation. Colonization of multilayers by common vaginal commensals including Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. rhamnosus led to intimate associations with the VEC exclusively on the apical surface. Vaginal commensals did not trigger cytokine secretion but Staphylococcus epidermidis, a skin commensal, was inflammatory. Lactobacilli reduced cytokine secretion in an isolate-specific fashion following TLR stimulation. This tempering of inflammation offers a potential explanation for increased susceptibility to STI in the absence of common commensals and has implications for testing of potential STI preventatives. PMID:22412914

  10. Counseling on vaginal delivery of contraceptive hormones: implications for women's body knowledge and sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Rossella E

    2013-12-01

    Healthcare providers (HCPs) have an important role in helping women select the contraceptive method that best matches their needs and lifestyle. Recent surveys outline the need of women to be informed about all available choices, including the newest methods (particularly those not requiring daily administration), such as vaginal contraception. The most relevant publications on combined contraceptive vaginal ring are revised in the context of counseling as an opportunity to empower women in term of vaginal health and sexual functioning. HCPs should explain the main characteristics of the combined contraceptive vaginal ring including the anatomical and physiological implications that make the vagina an ideal route of hormonal administration and the basic notions about functional modifications of the vagina during reproductive life. Clinical data on the vaginal ring should be summarized with regard to efficacy, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, cycle control and user acceptability, including recent findings on extra-contraceptive benefits (also compared to other hormonal contraceptives) on the vaginal flora and on sexual function. Vaginal contraception offers various benefits and should always be discussed during contraceptive counseling. An open dialogue about vaginal contraception will also help enhance body knowledge and sexual health.

  11. Multicentre evaluation of a novel vaginal dose reporting method in 153 cervical cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, Henrike; de Leeuw, Astrid; Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Dankulchai, Pittaya; Oosterveld, Bernard; Oinam, Arun; Hudej, Robert; Swamidas, Jamema; Lindegaard, Jacob; Tanderup, Kari; Pötter, Richard; Kirisits, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a vaginal dose reporting method for combined EBRT and BT in cervical cancer patients was proposed. The current study was to evaluate vaginal doses with this method in a multicentre setting, wherein different applicators, dose rates and protocols were used. In a subset of patients from the

  12. Application of exfoliative vaginal cytology in clinical canine reproduction – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Antonov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal cytology has many practical applications in the evaluation of both the normal and abnormal bitch. The objective of this review is to describe the use of exfoliative vaginal cytology as a diagnostic tool in clinical canine reproduction

  13. 77 FR 8900 - Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Termination of the Investigation Based on Withdrawal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Termination of the Investigation Based on Withdrawal... within the United States after importation of certain vaginal birth control devices by reason of...

  14. Pilot study of vaginal plethysmography in women treated with radiotherapy for gynecological cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pras, E; Wouda, J; Willemse, PHB; Midden, ME; Zwart, M; de Vries, EGE; Schultz, WCMW

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. After pelvic radiotherapy for gynecological cancer, changes in the vaginal epithelium might influence sexual arousal and satisfaction, leading to dyspareunia and relational problems. The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of vaginal plethysmography in order to measure

  15. Multicentre evaluation of a novel vaginal dose reporting method in 153 cervical cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerveld, Henrike; de Leeuw, Astrid; Kirchheiner, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Recently, a vaginal dose reporting method for combined EBRT and BT in cervical cancer patients was proposed. The current study was to evaluate vaginal doses with this method in a multicentre setting, wherein different applicators, dose rates and protocols were used. Materia...

  16. Beneficial lactobacilli: effects on the vaginal tract in a murine experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio, Priscilla Romina; Juárez Tomás, María Silvina; Santos, Viviana; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fatima

    2012-11-01

    Vaginal probiotics containing lactic acid bacteria with activity towards pathogenic microorganisms that cause urogenital tract infections have been proposed as a valid strategy for their prophylaxis and therapy. A murine experimental model was set up to evaluate the colonization capability of beneficial human lactobacilli and their effects on the mouse vaginal mucosa and innate immune cells. Five Lactobacillus strains were intravaginally inoculated into previously estrogenized BALB/c mice. The significance of the effects observed in the vaginal tract was determined by analysis of variance using the general linear model. The numbers of viable vaginal lactobacilli were significantly higher at proestrous-estrous than those at the metaestrous-diestrous phase and decreased markedly on the days after inoculation. Lactobacilli inoculation did not cause cytological or histological modifications of the murine vaginal tract. Moreover, the intravaginal administration of Lactobacillus salivarius CRL (Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos culture collection) 1328 and Lactobacillus gasseri CRL 1263 did not affect the amounts of granulocytes and macrophages present in vaginal washings. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that vaginal lactobacilli did not produce adverse effects on the murine vaginal tract. Therefore, they could be proposed as safe probiotic candidates to promote a balanced microbiota in the urogenital tract.

  17. Long-term results of vaginal repairs with and without xenograft reinforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Lone; Kronschnabl, M.; Lose, G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study if xenograft reinforcement of vaginal repair reduces recurrence of prolapse. Results 1-5 years after vaginal repair were studied in 41 cases with xenograft and in 82 matched controls without. Symptoms were evaluated by a validated questionnaire and anatomy...... to literature. Xenograft reinforcement might improve results...

  18. Risk factors for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery after successful external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hundt, Marcella; Vlemmix, Floortje; Bais, Joke M J; de Groot, Christianne J; Mol, Ben Willem; Kok, Marjolein

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this article is to examine if we could identify factors that predict cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in women who had a successful external cephalic version. We used data from a previous randomized trial among 25 hospitals and their referring midwife practices in the Netherlands. With the data of this trial, we performed a cohort study among women attempting vaginal delivery after successful ECV. We evaluated whether maternal age, gestational age, parity, time interval between ECV and delivery, birth weight, neonatal gender, and induction of labor were predictive for a vaginal delivery on one hand or a CS or instrumental vaginal delivery on the other hand. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Among 301 women who attempted vaginal delivery after a successful external cephalic version attempt, the cesarean section rate was 13% and the instrumental vaginal delivery rate 6%, resulting in a combined instrumental delivery rate of 19%. Nulliparity increased the risk of cesarean section (OR 2.7 (95% CI 1.2-6.1)) and instrumental delivery (OR 4.2 (95% CI 2.1-8.6)). Maternal age, gestational age at delivery, time interval between external cephalic version and delivery, birth weight and neonatal gender did not contribute to the prediction of failed spontaneous vaginal delivery. In our cohort of 301 women with a successful external cephalic version, nulliparity was the only one of seven factors that predicted the risk for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery.

  19. Abnormal vaginal bleeding in women with venous thromboembolism treated with apixaban or warfarin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brekelmans, Marjolein P. A.; Scheres, Luuk J. J.; Bleker, Suzanne M.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Timmermans, Anne; Büller, Harry R.; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal vaginal bleeding can complicate direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) treatment. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of abnormal vaginal bleeding in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) receiving apixaban or enoxaparin/warfarin. Data were derived from the AMPLIFY trial. We compared

  20. Vaginal High Pressure Zone Assessed by Dynamic 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Images of the Pelvic Floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    JUNG, Sung-Ae; PRETORIUS, Dolores H.; PADDA, Bikram S.; WEINSTEIN, Milena M.; NAGER, Charles W.; den BOER, Derkina J.; MITTAL, Ravinder K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the shape and characteristics of the vaginal high pressure zone (HPZ) by imaging a compliant fluid-filled bag placed in the vaginal HPZ with the 3-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) system. Study Design Nine nulliparous asymptomatic women underwent 3D US imaging and vaginal pressure measurements. A compliant bag was placed in the vagina and filled with various volumes of water. 3D US volumes of the pelvic floor were obtained at each bag volume while the subjects were at rest and during pelvic floor contraction. Results At low volumes, the bag was collapsed for a longitudinal extent of approximately 3.3 ± 0.2 cm (length of vaginal HPZ). With increasing bag volume, there was opening of the vaginal HPZ in the lateral dimension before the anterior-posterior (AP) dimension. Pelvic floor contraction produced a decrease in the AP dimension but not the lateral dimension of the bag in the region of the vaginal HPZ. Conclusion We propose that the shape and characteristics of the vaginal HPZ are consistent with the hypothesis that the puborectalis muscle is responsible for the genesis of the vaginal HPZ. PMID:17618755

  1. Enhanced vaginal drug delivery through the use of hypotonic formulations that induce fluid uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Laura M; Hoen, Timothy E; Maisel, Katharina; Cone, Richard A; Hanes, Justin S

    2013-09-01

    Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that administration of hypotonic solutions would induce fluid uptake that could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We found that hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which small molecule drugs and mucoinert nanoparticles (mucus-penetrating particles, or MPP), but not conventional mucoadhesive nanoparticles (CP), reached the vaginal epithelial surface in vivo in mice. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that drugs or MPP in isotonic formulations failed to reach efficiently. However, hypotonic formulations caused unencapsulated "free" drugs to be drawn through the epithelium, reducing vaginal retention. In contrast, hypotonic formulations caused MPP to accumulate rapidly and uniformly on vaginal surfaces, ideally positioned for localized sustained drug delivery. Using a mouse model of vaginal genital herpes (HSV-2) infection, we found that hypotonic delivery of free drug led to improved immediate protection, but diminished longer-term protection. In contrast, as we previously demonstrated, hypotonic delivery of drug via MPP led to better long-term retention and protection in the vagina. Importantly, we demonstrate that slightly hypotonic formulations provided rapid and uniform delivery of MPP to the entire vaginal surface, thus enabling formulations with minimal risk of epithelial toxicity. Hypotonic formulations for vaginal drug delivery via MPP may significantly improve prevention and treatment of reproductive tract diseases and disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vaginal cuff dehiscence resulting in small-bowel evisceration. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percalli, Luigi; Pricolo, Renato; Passalia, Luigi; Croce, Paolo; Ricco', Matteo; Berretta, Roberto; Marchesi, Federico

    2016-09-13

    Vaginal cuff dehiscence is a rare complication of hysterectomies which seems to be more frequent after surgery with laparoscopic suture of the cuff. We present a clinical case of evisceration of the small bowel emerging from vaginal cuff dehiscence, successfully repaired by positioning a low profile polypropylene ePTFE mesh*.

  3. Moyamoya disease and pregnancy: case reports and criteria for successful vaginal delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sei, Kiguna; Sasa, Hidenori; Furuya, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Based on our experience with seven deliveries (five cesarean and two vaginal deliveries) in five women with Moyamoya disease, we discussed the appropriate method of delivery and anesthesia for patients with Moyamoya disease. In certain conditions, women with Moyamoya disease can successfully undergo vaginal delivery.

  4. Vaginal symptoms of unknown etiology - a study in dutch general-practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Janny H.; Boeke, A. Joan P.; Janssens, J; van Eijk, J.Th.M.

    Vaginal symptoms are frequently presented by women to general practitioners. In many cases, the aetiology of these symptoms remains unknown. This study focused on the factors associated with microbiologically unexplained vaginal symptoms, the course of symptoms and signs in these cases, and factors

  5. Changes in vaginal breech delivery rates in a single large metropolitan area.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hehir, Mark P

    2012-06-01

    Vaginal breech delivery rates have been accepted widely to be in decline and the Term Breech Trial (TBT) has recommended delivery of a breech-presenting infant by elective cesarean section delivery. Our aim was to examine the rate of vaginal delivery of term breech pregnancies in the 8 years before and after the publication of the TBT.

  6. Commensal bacteria modulate innate immune responses of vaginal epithelial cell multilayer cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Rose

    Full Text Available The human vaginal microbiome plays a critical but poorly defined role in reproductive health. Vaginal microbiome alterations are associated with increased susceptibility to sexually-transmitted infections (STI possibly due to related changes in innate defense responses from epithelial cells. Study of the impact of commensal bacteria on the vaginal mucosal surface has been hindered by current vaginal epithelial cell (VEC culture systems that lack an appropriate interface between the apical surface of stratified squamous epithelium and the air-filled vaginal lumen. Therefore we developed a reproducible multilayer VEC culture system with an apical (luminal air-interface that supported colonization with selected commensal bacteria. Multilayer VEC developed tight-junctions and other hallmarks of the vaginal mucosa including predictable proinflammatory cytokine secretion following TLR stimulation. Colonization of multilayers by common vaginal commensals including Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. rhamnosus led to intimate associations with the VEC exclusively on the apical surface. Vaginal commensals did not trigger cytokine secretion but Staphylococcus epidermidis, a skin commensal, was inflammatory. Lactobacilli reduced cytokine secretion in an isolate-specific fashion following TLR stimulation. This tempering of inflammation offers a potential explanation for increased susceptibility to STI in the absence of common commensals and has implications for testing of potential STI preventatives.

  7. Quadro citológico vaginal, concentração plasmática de progesterona durante a gestação e medidas fetais em paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 Vaginal citology, serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy and fetal measurements in paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria França Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 objetivou-se descrever aos 30, 60 e 90 dias (D de prenhez diagnosticada por ultrassonografia (US, os tipos celulares do epitélio vaginal em esfregaços vaginais, relatar as condições de abertura da vulva e as características do muco vaginal, determinar a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 por radioimunoensaio, e ainda, mensurar por ultrassonografia (US o diâmetro biparietal (DBP fetal aos 60 e 90 dias de prenhez. No D30, 40% das amostras exibiram células (com características estrogênicas superficiais e presença de núcleos nus. Nos D60 e D90, células parabasais, intermediárias, superficiais e naviculares estavam presentes nas mesmas proporções, mas células endocervicais foram descritas em apenas 73,9% e 69% das amostras daqueles dias, respectivamente. No D30 a maior proporção de células naviculares e superficiais diferiu (p The objective of this work was to describe in 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 at 30, 60 and 90 days (D of pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasonography (U.S. the cell types of the vaginal epithelium by vaginal smears, to report the vulva opening condition and the characteristics of vaginal mucus, to determine the progesterone (P4 serum concentration by radioimmunoassay, and also measure by ultrasound (U.S. the fetuses biparietal diameter (BPD at 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. At D30, 40% of the smears exhibited surface cells (with estrogenic characteristics and of naked nuclei. At D60 and D90, parabasal, intermediate, superficial, and navicular cells were present in the same proportions, but endocervical cells were described in only 73.9% and 69% of those day's smears, respectively. At D30 the highest proportion of navicular and surface cells differed (p < 0.05 compared with other cell types. The vaginal mucus was crystalline and fluid in 100% and 70% of females at D30 and D60, respectively. It was observed the vaginal vestibule open in around 50% of

  8. Comparing the effects of low-dose contraceptive pills to control dysfunctional uterine bleeding by oral and vaginal methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehrabian, Ferdous; Abbassi, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    .... The vaginal use of these pills can reduce such complications. Our objective was to compare the efficacy and side effects of low dose contraceptive pills by oral and vaginal route in the management of dysfunctional uterine bleeding-(DUB) Methods...

  9. [Effects of Electric Stimulation and Biofeedback for Pelvic Floor Muscle Exercise in Women with Vaginal Rejuvenation Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Bok; Choi, So Young

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pelvic floor muscle exercise using electric stimulation and biofeedback on maximum pressure of vaginal contraction, vaginal contraction duration and sexual function in women who have had vaginal rejuvenation. The research design was a non-equivalent control group non-synchronized design study. Participants in this study were women who had vaginal rejuvenation at C obstetrics and gynecology hospital. The 15 participants in the experimental group were given pelvic floor muscle exercise using electric stimulation and biofeedback and the 15 participants in the control group received self pelvic floor muscle exercise. For maximum pressure of vaginal contraction, the experimental group showed a statistically significant increase compared to than the control group (t=5.96, pelectric stimulation and biofeedback after vaginal rejuvenation is effective in strengthening vaginal contraction pressure, vaginal contraction and that it also positively functions to increase women's sexual function.

  10. Comparison of pregnancy rates with intramuscular and vaginal progesterone use for luteal phase support in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Isikalan

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The results of vaginal progesterone administration were similar with the results obtained with intramuscular progesterone. Vaginal progesterone use is a more tolerable method for patients. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 639-647

  11. Delayed diagnosis of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome due to microperforation and pyocolpos in obstructed vaginal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniakowska, Ewa; Torres, Anna; Milart, Pawel; Wozniak, Slawomir; Czuczwar, Piotr; Szkodziak, Piotr; Paszkowski, Tomasz

    2014-08-01

    To present a rare anomaly consisting of uterus didelphys, longitudinal vaginal septum, obstructed hemivagina with pyocolpos, fistula to the open vaginal canal, and ipsilateral renal agenesis, referred as Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS). A 14-year-old girl with recurring purulent vaginal discharge lasting for a few months. Preoperative examination revealed one vaginal canal with one cervical opening on the right side. There was a fistula leading from the obstructed vaginal canal to the left vagina. Intravaginal ultrasound examination demonstrated a longitudinal vaginal septum and a closed pyocolpos on the right side. The longitudinal vaginal septum was excised by way of electrocauterization under direct vision. HWWS should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with uterus didelphys and unusual symptoms such as pyocolpos and vaginal discharge. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bacteria in the vaginal microbiome alter the innate immune response and barrier properties of the human vaginal epithelia in a species-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerflinger, Sylvie Y; Throop, Andrea L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2014-06-15

    Bacterial vaginosis increases the susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and negatively affects women's reproductive health. To investigate host-vaginal microbiota interactions and the impact on immune barrier function, we colonized 3-dimensional (3-D) human vaginal epithelial cells with 2 predominant species of vaginal microbiota (Lactobacillus iners and Lactobacillus crispatus) or 2 prevalent bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (Atopobium vaginae and Prevotella bivia). Colonization of 3-D vaginal epithelial cell aggregates with vaginal microbiota was observed with direct attachment to host cell surface with no cytotoxicity. A. vaginae infection yielded increased expression membrane-associated mucins and evoked a robust proinflammatory, immune response in 3-D vaginal epithelial cells (ie, expression of CCL20, hBD-2, interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and tumor necrosis factor α) that can negatively affect barrier function. However, P. bivia and L. crispatus did not significantly upregulate pattern-recognition receptor-signaling, mucin expression, antimicrobial peptides/defensins, or proinflammatory cytokines in 3-D vaginal epithelial cell aggregates. Notably, L. iners induced pattern-recognition receptor-signaling activity, but no change was observed in mucin expression or secretion of interleukin 6 and interleukin 8. We identified unique species-specific immune signatures from vaginal epithelial cells elicited by colonization with commensal and bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria. A. vaginae elicited a signature that is consistent with significant disruption of immune barrier properties, potentially resulting in enhanced susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections during bacterial vaginosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Martius flap and anterior vaginal wall sling for correction of urethrovaginal fistula (UVF associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI after vaginal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Abdelbary

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: Patients with a post-birth trauma in the form of UVF should be examined intra-operatively for the presence of associated SUI following correction of UVF. The use of the Martius flap and anterior vaginal wall sling in treating such patients is safe, efficient and reproducible. An anterior vaginal wall sling should be avoided in distal UVF to avoid recurrence of SUI.

  14. Asma inducido por ejercicio

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Zabala, Mª Gracia

    1997-01-01

    Este trabajo consiste en una revisión de artículos y libros que tratan sobre el asma inducido por ejercicio. Principalmente me he basado en cinco artículos realizados en los últimos arios y en diferentes libros que me han servido de apoyo. Algunas consideraciones del asma inducido por el ejercicio son las siguientes: La probabilidad de presentar broncoespasmo, así como la intensidad del mismo, después de realizar ejercicio, se incrementa con la severidad del asma, aunque hay individuos en los...

  15. Razonamiento rebatible por casos

    OpenAIRE

    Bodanza, Gustavo A.

    1996-01-01

    Este trabajo constituye un estudio de las dificultades de la incorporación de información disyuntiva en un sistema conteniendo reglas rebatibles. Se presenta una ampliación del sistema MTDR a fin de aumentar la capacidad de éste, permitiendo el razonamiento por casos mediante argumentos. En un artículo anterior ([BS95]) se brindaba una aproximación al problema introduciendo una relación de inferencia rebatible que incluía la prueba por casos. Tal solución presenta limitaciones en determ...

  16. Plebiscito por la paz

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes Trujillo, Carlos; Cepeda, Iván

    2016-01-01

    Sin lugar a dudas, este tema podría permitir el cambio del rumbo de la historia en nuestro país, en tanto el próximo domingo 2 de octubre los colombianos podrán votar en un Plebiscito Nacional por el Sí o por el No a estos acuerdos de paz. En esta emisión, se darán los elementos para tomar la decisión no sólo de nuestro voto, sino nuestro compromiso como ciudadanos responsables.

  17. POSTOPERATIVE URINARY RETENTION AND EARLY REPOSITION OF TENSION-FREE VAGINAL TAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Lužnik

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this article is to show a possible method of treatment of postoperative urinary retention after an initial tension-free vaginal tape.Methods. From December 1999 to May 2003 we performed one hundred TVT procedures at our department, among them five women had postoperative urinary retention evaluated with catheterization. Revision and reposition of tension-free vaginal tape were performed if retention of urine was over 100 ml.Results. Urinary retention after an initial tension-free vaginal tape was successfully treated by early reposition of tension-free vaginal tape. This resulted in immediate residualfree voiding and continence, which remained unchanged at 6 week and 3 month follow-up.Conclusions. Postoperative urinary retention may be treated by reposition instead of dissection or elongation of the tension-free vaginal tape.

  18. [Summary of the practice guideline 'Vaginal discharge' (first revision) from the Dutch College of General Practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukes, F S; Boeke, A J P; Dekker, J H; Wiersma, T; Goudswaard, A N

    2007-06-16

    The 1996 practice guideline of the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) on vaginal discharge has been updated. Most women who visit their doctor with complaints about vaginal discharge do not have an increased risk of a sexually-transmitted disease. Investigations into vaginal discharge comprise history taking, physical examination and microscopic analysis in the laboratory of the general practitioner. Additional investigation into Chlamydia, gonorrhoea and Trichomonas infection is only necessary if the patient history reveals an increased risk of a sexually-transmitted disease. A Candida infection or bacterial vaginosis should only be treated if the patient experiences bothersome complaints. Treatment of a Candida infection consists of a vaginally applied imidazole compound. Bacterial vaginosis can be treated with oral administration of metronidazole. Patients with vaginal fluor can be examined and, if necessary, treated by their general practitioner. Referral to a gynaecologist is rarely necessary.

  19. Caracterização fenotípica de leveduras isoladas da mucosa vaginal em mulheres adultas Phenotypic characterization of yeasts isolated from the vaginal mucosa of adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula dos Reis Corrêa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar fenotipicamente leveduras isoladas do conteúdo vaginal de 223 mulheres adultas, sintomáticas (S e assintomáticas (A para vulvovaginite, e determinar os indicadores clínicos que possivelmente levam ao surgimento de sinais e sintomas relacionados ao acometimento da mucosa por essa patologia. MÉTODOS: inicialmente foi aplicado um questionário, com questões abertas e fechadas, sobre dados clínicos epidemiológicos. Logo, ocorreu o diagnóstico micológico com semeadura em meio Chrom Agar Candida, identificação micromorfológica e bioquímica. Métodos específicos para detecção de fatores de virulência, proteinase e fosfolipase foram empregados. A análise estatística das variáveis foi estabelecida utilizando os testes χ2 e χ2 de Pearson. RESULTADOS: Candida albicans foi a espécie mais prevalente (87%, S e 67%, A, seguida de Candida glabrata (4%, S e 17%, A. O número de mulheres que referiram adoção de anticoncepcionais foi mais alto entre as sintomáticas, 77%. Nos dois grupos estudados, em torno de 87% apresentaram ciclos menstruais regulares, 57% das mulheres eram casadas com idade entre 30 a 40 anos. Em relação a práticas sexuais, houve para parte das pacientes, concomitância entre os hábitos, anal, oral e vaginal. Em relação à fosfolipase, apenas Candida albicans produziu este fator de virulência em 37,5%. A proteinase foi detectada em Candida albicans, Candida glabrata e Candida parapsilosis. Esse último fator de virulência esteve associado, principalmente, a isolados de pacientes sintomáticas. CONCLUSÕES: a colonização e infecção da mucosa vaginal por levedura é real com diversas espécies de Candida presentes. No entanto, Candida albicans se destaca como espécie prevalente em mucosa vaginal de mulheres adultas. Fica evidente a emergência de espécies de Candida não albicans, algumas com resistência intrínseca aos azólicos, tais como Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis

  20. Clinical update on the use of ospemifene in the treatment of severe symptomatic vulvar and vaginal atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios S.; Cancelo MJ

    2016-01-01

    Santiago Palacios,1 María Jesús Cancelo2 1Palacios Institute of Women’s Health, Madrid, Spain; 2Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, Guadalajara University Hospital, University of Alcalá, Spain Abstract: The physiological decrease in vaginal estrogens is accountable for the emergence of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) and its related symptoms such as vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, vaginal and/or vulvar irritation or itching, and dysuria. The reper...