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Sample records for vaginal candida colonization

  1. The relationship of Candida colonization of the oral and vaginal mucosae of mothers and oral mucosae of their newborns at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rusan, Rund M; Darwazeh, Azmi M G; Lataifeh, Isam M

    2017-04-01

    Vaginal Candida colonization is common during pregnancy. Vaginal Candida may transmit vertically to the mouth of newborns during labor. The aim of this study was to assess and compare oral Candida colonization between vaginally born newborns and cesarean-born newborns and to investigate the association of the mother's vaginal and oral Candida colonization and the newborn's oral colonization at the time of delivery. Culture swabs were collected from the oral and vaginal mucosae of 100 pregnant women and from the oral mucosa of their 100 full-term newborns. Fifty (50%) of the mothers gave birth vaginally and the other 50 (50%) by cesarean section. The prevalence of oral and vaginal Candida in pregnant mothers was 49% and 40%, respectively. Oral Candida colonization in newborns was 7%. Oral Candida was isolated from 5 of 50 (10%) in the vaginally born group and from 2 of 50 (4%) in the cesarean-born group (P = .44). In vaginally born group, oral Candida was isolated from 5 of 20 (25%) in those born to mothers with vaginal colonization of Candida, and 0 of 30 (0.0%) in mothers without vaginal colonization of Candida (P = .007). The mother's vaginal Candida may constitute an important source of oral Candida in the newborns, particularly in those delivered vaginally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of eating probiotic yogurt on colonization by Candida species of the oral and vaginal mucosa in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women.

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    Hu, Haihong; Merenstein, Daniel J; Wang, Cuiwei; Hamilton, Pilar R; Blackmon, Mandy L; Chen, Hui; Calderone, Richard A; Li, Dongmei

    2013-10-01

    Candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients continues to be a public health problem. Antifungal therapies are not always effective and may result in complications, such as the development of drug-resistant strains of Candida species. This study evaluated the impact of probiotic consumption on Candida colonization of the oral and vaginal mucosa. A pilot study was conducted in 24 women (17 HIV-infected, 7 HIV-uninfected) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. The women underwent a 60-day initiation period with no probiotic consumption, followed by two 15-day consumption periods, with a different probiotic yogurt (DanActive™ or YoPlus™ yogurt) during each interval. There was a 30-day washout period between the two yogurt consumption periods. Oral and vaginal culture swabs were collected on days 0, 60, 74, and 120. Candida was detected by inoculating each swab in both Sabouraud's dextrose agar with or without chloramphenicol and CHROMagar. Less fungal colonization among women was observed when the women consumed probiotic yogurts (54 % of the women had vaginal fungal colonization during the non-probiotic yogurt consumption period, 29 % during the DanActive™ period, and 38 % during YoPlus™ yogurt consumption period), and HIV-infected women had significantly lower vaginal fungal colonization after they consumed DanActive™ yogurt compared to the non-intervention periods (54 vs 29 %, p = 0.03). These data are promising, but as expected in a small pilot study, there were some significant changes but also some areas where colonization was not changed. This type of conflicting data is supportive of the need for a larger trial to further elucidate the role of probiotic yogurts in fungal growth in HIV-infected women.

  3. Prevalence of Candida albicans and non-albicans isolates from vaginal secretions: comparative evaluation of colonization, vaginal candidiasis and recurrent vaginal candidiasis in diabetic and non-diabetic women

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    Luciene Setsuko Akimoto Gunther

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is caused by abnormal growth of yeast-like fungi on the female genital tract mucosa. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM are more susceptible to fungal infections, including those caused by species of Candida. The present study investigated the frequency of total isolation of vaginal Candida spp., and its different clinical profiles - colonization, VVC and recurrent VVC (RVVC - in women with DM type 2, compared with non-diabetic women. The cure rate using fluconazole treatment was also evaluated. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in the public healthcare system of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: The study involved 717 women aged 17-74 years, of whom 48 (6.7% had DM type 2 (mean age: 53.7 years, regardless of signs and symptoms of VVC. The yeasts were isolated and identified using classical phenotypic methods. RESULTS: In the non-diabetic group (controls, total vaginal yeast isolation occurred in 79 (11.8% women, and in the diabetic group in 9 (18.8% (P = 0.000. The diabetic group showed more symptomatic (VVC + RVVC = 66.66% than colonized (33.33% women, and showed significantly more colonization, VVC and RVVC than seen among the controls. The mean cure rate using fluconazole was 75.0% in the diabetic group and 86.7% in the control group (P = 0.51. CONCLUSION: We found that DM type 2 in Brazilian women was associated with yeast colonization, VVC and RVVC, and similar isolation rates for C. albicans and non-albicans species. Good cure rates were obtained using fluconazole in both groups.

  4. Variety of Candida in Women with Abnormal Vaginal Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Duncan, José; Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel A. Carrión" Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Béjar, Vilma; Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel A. Carrión" Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Cáceres, Alfredo; Hospital Arzobispo Loayza Lima, Perú; Valencia, Esther; Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel A. Carrión" Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Vaginal discharge and related aymptoms are frequent complaints among young women. The aim of this study was to describe Candida species isolated from vaginal discharge samples, as well as the relationship between Candida species and some of these symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A survey of consecutive patients presenting with vaginal discharge in the course of normal consultations was conducted at the Hospital Loayza. One hundred women with vaginal discharge were surveyed, with ma...

  5. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Paula Matos Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  6. Prevalence and immediate outcome of candida colonized preterm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Candida species is the third commonest cause of sepsis among neonates. Colonization by Candida is a predictor for candidemia among preterm neonates. Objectives: To determine prevalence of early Candida colonization and early outcome among colonized preterm neonates admitted to Mulago hospital ...

  7. The influence of maternal vaginal flora on the intestinal colonization in newborns and 3-month-old infants.

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    Gabriel, Iwona; Olejek, Anita; Stencel-Gabriel, Krystyna; Wielgoś, Miroslaw

    2017-05-09

    The role of maternal vaginal bacteria on the colonization of neonatal gut is still a matter of discussion. Our aim was to estimate the role of maternal vaginal flora on the development of intestinal flora in neonates and 3-month-old infants. Seventy-nine maternal-neonatal pairs were included in the study. Vaginal swabs were taken before the rupture of membranes after admission to the delivery ward. First neonatal stool (meconium) and stool at 3-month-old infants were collected and cultured. All samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium (including C. difficile), Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Candida. Maternal vagina was colonized mainly by streptococci (67%) followed by lactobacilli (58%) and Candida spp. (39%). Vaginal streptococci influenced the intestinal colonization in infants with staphylococci, C. difficile, and candida. Vaginal lactobacilli influenced colonization with C. difficile, and Candida. Vaginal flora is a potent factor influencing the development of bacterial flora in the neonatal and infantile gut. The extension of the observation period until 3 months of life allow to discover the potential changes in the intestinal flora of children.

  8. Candida colonization in preterm babies admitted to neonatal intensive care unit in the rural setting

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    Mendiratta D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Candida colonization in neonates results in significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine colonization of Candida spp. in preterm babies and identify the risk factors. Methods: Swabs from oral, rectum, groin and umblicus of 103 preterm and 100 term neonates were obtained within 24 hours of birth, day three, day five, day seven and thereafter every week till the neonate was admitted in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Swabs were also collected from the mother′s vagina prior to delivery. Twice every month, air of the NICU was sampled by settle plate and swabs were collected from the hands of health care workers and inanimate objects of NICU. Identification and speciation was done by standard methods. Antibiotic sensitivity was studied against amphotericin B, ketoconazole and fluconazole by disk diffusion method. Results: Colonization with Candida was significantly higher in preterms. Earliest colonization was of oral mucosa and 77.1% of the preterms had colonised at various sites by the first week of life. Significant risk factors in colonized versus non-colonized preterms were male sex, longer duration of rupture of membranes (DROM, administration of steroids and antibiotics and vaginal colonization of mothers, whereas those in preterms versus terms were low birth weight and gestational age. C. albicans was the commonest species, both in the colonized preterms (45.9% and vagina of mothers. Resistance was seen to fluconazole and ketoconazole only. No Candida spp. was isolated from health care personnel or environment. Conclusions: Colonization of preterms by Candida is a significant problem in NICU and the significant risk factors observed in colonized preterms were male sex, longer DROM, administration of steroids and antibiotics and vaginal colonization of mothers.

  9. Mechanistic Insights Underlying Tolerance to Acetic Acid Stress in Vaginal Candida glabrata Clinical Isolates.

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    Cunha, Diana V; Salazar, Sara B; Lopes, Maria M; Mira, Nuno P

    2017-01-01

    During colonization of the vaginal tract Candida glabrata cells are challenged with the presence of acetic acid at a low pH, specially when dysbiosis occurs. To avoid exclusion from this niche C. glabrata cells are expected to evolve efficient adaptive responses to cope with this stress; however, these responses remain largely uncharacterized, especially in vaginal strains. In this work a cohort of 18 vaginal strains and 2 laboratory strains (CBS138 and KUE100) were phenotyped for their tolerance against inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid at pH 4. Despite some heterogeneity has been observed among the vaginal strains tested, in general these strains were considerably more tolerant to acetic acid than the laboratory strains. To tackle the mechanistic insights behind this differential level of tolerance observed, a set of vaginal strains differently tolerant to acetic acid (VG281∼VG49 acetic acid the more tolerant vaginal strains exhibited a higher activity of the plasma membrane proton pump CgPma1 and a reduced internal accumulation of the acid, these being two essential features to maximize tolerance. Based on the higher level of resistance exhibited by the vaginal strains against the action of a β-1,3-glucanase, it is hypothesized that the reduced internal accumulation of acetic acid inside these strains may originate from them having a different cell wall structure resulting in a reduced porosity to undissociated acetic acid molecules. Both the vaginal and the two laboratory strains were found to consume acetic acid in the presence of glucose indicating that metabolization of the acid is used by C. glabrata species as a detoxification mechanism. The results gathered in this study advance the current knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the increased competitiveness of C. glabrata in the vaginal tract, a knowledge that can be used to guide more suitable strategies to treat infections caused by this pathogenic yeast.

  10. Speciation and susceptibility testing of Candida isolates from vaginal discharge

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    Swapna Muthusamy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a normal commensal that takes the role of a pathogen under compromised conditions. Increased longevity of human life and immunocompromised conditions together paves the way for the increase in opportunistic infections like candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common cause of vaginal discharge next to Chlamydia.1 VVC is the leading cause of abnormal vaginal discharge due to microbial causes. Untreated VVC is a possible risk factor for acquisition of HIV.2 Prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including VVC can reduce the transmission of HIV since STIs and HIV have the common mode of transmission and one enhances the risk of infection with the other. Early diagnosis and treatment of candidiasis can reduce the pregnancy related morbidity

  11. Secretory Aspartyl Proteinases Cause Vaginitis and Can Mediate Vaginitis Caused by Candida albicans in Mice.

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    Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Amacker, Mario; Kasper, Lydia; Roselletti, Elena; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Kaeser, Matthias; Moser, Christian; Hube, Bernhard; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Cassone, Antonio

    2015-06-02

    Vaginal inflammation (vaginitis) is the most common disease caused by the human-pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Secretory aspartyl proteinases (Sap) are major virulence traits of C. albicans that have been suggested to play a role in vaginitis. To dissect the mechanisms by which Sap play this role, Sap2, a dominantly expressed member of the Sap family and a putative constituent of an anti-Candida vaccine, was used. Injection of full-length Sap2 into the mouse vagina caused local neutrophil influx and accumulation of the inflammasome-dependent interleukin-1β (IL-1β) but not of inflammasome-independent tumor necrosis factor alpha. Sap2 could be replaced by other Sap, while no inflammation was induced by the vaccine antigen, the N-terminal-truncated, enzymatically inactive tSap2. Anti-Sap2 antibodies, in particular Fab from a human combinatorial antibody library, inhibited or abolished the inflammatory response, provided the antibodies were able, like the Sap inhibitor Pepstatin A, to inhibit Sap enzyme activity. The same antibodies and Pepstatin A also inhibited neutrophil influx and cytokine production stimulated by C. albicans intravaginal injection, and a mutant strain lacking SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 was unable to cause vaginal inflammation. Sap2 induced expression of activated caspase-1 in murine and human vaginal epithelial cells. Caspase-1 inhibition downregulated IL-1β and IL-18 production by vaginal epithelial cells, and blockade of the IL-1β receptor strongly reduced neutrophil influx. Overall, the data suggest that some Sap, particularly Sap2, are proinflammatory proteins in vivo and can mediate the inflammasome-dependent, acute inflammatory response of vaginal epithelial cells to C. albicans. These findings support the notion that vaccine-induced or passively administered anti-Sap antibodies could contribute to control vaginitis. Candidal vaginitis is an acute inflammatory disease that affects many women of fertile age, with no definitive cure and, in

  12. THE USE OF ISOLATED SIGMOID COLON SEGMENT FOR VAGINAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hack JT, Howards SS, Duckett JW (eds.): Adult vaginal reconstruction. BJU 2000, 85:715. RESUME. L'Utilisation du colon sigmoide dans le remplacement vaginal chez les jeunes adultes. Objectlfs : La vaginoplastie pour atrésie congénitale, un élément du syndrome de Mayer-Ftokitansky-. Kuster, ou la confirmation du sexe ...

  13. Vaginal lactobacilli as potential probiotics against Candida spp

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    Natalia F. Gil

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital infections affect millions of people every year worldwide. The treatment of these diseases usually requires the use of antimicrobial agents, and more recently, the use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB cultures for the management of vaginal infections has been extensively studied. In this work, 11 vaginal lactobacilli isolates, previously obtained from healthy patients, were studied to screen microorganisms with probiotic properties against Candida spp. The LAB were tested for their ability of auto-aggregation, coaggregation with C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis, adhesion to Caco-2 epithelial cells and production of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. All lactobacilli isolates tested were able to auto-aggregate (ranging from 25.3% to 75.4% assessed at 4 hours of incubation and to co-aggregate with the four Candida species into different degrees; among them L. crispatus showed the highest scores of coaggregation. The highest amount of lactic acid was produced by L. salivarius (13.9 g/l, followed by L. johnsonii (6.5 g/l, L. acidophilus (5.5 g/l, and L. jensenii (5.4 g/l. All isolates produced H2O2 , but the highest levels (3 -10 mg/l were observed for L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. johnsonii, and L. vaginalis. Only L. agilis, L. jensenii, L. johnsonii and L. ruminus were able to adhere to epithelial Caco-2 cells. Among the isolates evaluated, L agilis, L. jensenii, L. johnsonii, and L. ruminus exhibited simultaneously several desirable properties as potential probiotic strains justifying future studies to evaluate their technological properties in different pharmaceutical preparations for human use.

  14. Antifungal mechanisms supporting boric acid therapy of Candida vaginitis.

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    De Seta, Francesco; Schmidt, Martin; Vu, Bao; Essmann, Michael; Larsen, Bryan

    2009-02-01

    Boric acid is a commonly cited treatment for recurrent and resistant yeast vaginitis, but data about the extent and mechanism of its antifungal activity are lacking. The aim of this study was to use in vitro methods to understand the spectrum and mechanism of boric acid as a potential treatment for vaginal infection. Yeast and bacterial isolates were tested by agar dilution to determine the intrinsic antimicrobial activity of boric acid. Established microbial physiology methods illuminated the mechanism of the action of boric acid against Candida albicans. C. albicans strains (including fluconazole-resistant strains) were inhibited at concentrations attainable intravaginally; as were bacteria. Broth dilution MICs were between 1563 and 6250 mg/L and boric acid proved fungistatic (also reflected by a decrease in CO(2) generation); prolonged culture at 50,000 mg/L was fungicidal. Several organic acids in yeast nitrogen broth yielded a lower pH than equimolar boric acid and sodium borate but were less inhibitory. Cold or anaerobic incubation protected yeast at high boric acid concentrations. Cells maintained integrity for 6 h in boric acid at 37 degrees C, but after 24 h modest intrusion of propidium iodide occurred; loss of plate count viability preceded uptake of vital stain. Growth at sub-MIC concentrations of boric acid decreased cellular ergosterol. The drug efflux pump CDR1 did not protect Candida as CDR1 expression was abrogated by boric acid. Boric acid interfered with the development of biofilm and hyphal transformation. Boric acid is fungistatic to fungicidal depending on concentration and temperature. Inhibition of oxidative metabolism appears to be a key antifungal mechanism, but inhibition of virulence probably contributes to therapeutic efficacy in vivo.

  15. [Study on the relationship between vaginal and intestinal candida in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis].

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    Lin, Xiao-li; Li, Zhen; Zuo, Xu-lei

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between vaginal and intestinal candida in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis by using microbiological and molecular methods. The samples of vaginal discharge and anal swabs were collected from 148 cases with vulvovaginal candidiasis, followed by fungal culture, identification, purification and genome DNA extraction. The genome sequences from respective locations were aligned and typed according to their homology analyzed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR. Patients with vulvovaginal infection or those with infections in intestine and vulvovagina were pooled respectively, while the recurrent incidences after local anti-fungal treatments were analyzed. Candida albicans is the dominant pathogen in 148 cases with vulvovaginal candidiasis (91.9%, 136/148); 33.1% (49/148) of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis were infected in both intestine and vulvovagina. While 92% (22/24) of patients with intestinal and vaginal candida infection showed high homology. The recurrent rate of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis complicated with concurrent intestinal candida infection (7/14) was significantly higher than that of solo vaginal infected patients [21% (6/29)] after vaginal treatment (Pinfection of vulvovaginal candidiasis is highly associated with the concurrent infection of intestinal candida. The recurrent rate is high in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis with concurrent infection of intestinal candida after vaginal treatment. The general management to those patients infected by both vulvovaginal and intestinal candida is necessary in reducing the recurrence of the disease.

  16. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization.

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    Patras, Kathryn A; Wescombe, Philip A; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D; Tagg, John R; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Economic impact of Candida colonization and Candida infection in the critically ill patient.

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    Olaechea, P M; Palomar, M; León-Gil, C; Alvarez-Lerma, F; Jordá, R; Nolla-Salas, J; León-Regidor, M A

    2004-04-01

    The objective of the study presented here was to assess the economic impact of Candida colonization and Candida infection in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). For this purpose, a prospective, cohort, observational, and multicenter study was designed. A total of 1,765 patients over the age of 18 years who were admitted for at least 7 days to 73 medical-surgical ICUs in 70 Spanish hospitals between May 1998 and January 1999 were studied. From day 7 of ICU admission to ICU discharge, samples of tracheal aspirates, pharyngeal exudates, gastric aspirates and urine were collected every week for culture. Prolonged length of stay was associated with severity of illness, Candida colonization or infection, infection by other fungi, antifungal therapy, treatment with more than one antifungal agent, and toxicity associated with this therapy. Compared to non-colonized, non-infected patients (n=720), patients with Candida colonization (n=880) had an extended ICU stay of 6.2 days (OR, 1.69; 95%CI, 1.53-1.87; Pcolonization resulted in an additional 8,000 EUR in direct costs and Candida infection almost 16,000 EUR. Both Candida colonization and Candida infection had an important economic impact in terms of cost increases due to longer stays in both the ICU and in the hospital.

  18. Prevalence of Candida spp. in cervical-vaginal samples and the in vitro susceptibility of isolates

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    Tchana Martinez Brandolt

    Full Text Available Abstract Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is an infection of the genital mucosa caused by different species of the genus Candida. Considering the lack of data on this topic in the south of Brazil, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of Candida spp. in the cervical-vaginal mucosa of patients treated at a university hospital in southern Rio Grande do Sul, as well as the etiology and the susceptibility of the isolates against fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and nystatin. Samples were collected at the gynecology clinic of the Federal Hospital of the University of Rio Grande, and the isolates were identified using phenotypic and biochemical tests. The susceptibility analysis was performed according to the CLSI M27-A2 protocol. Of the 263 patients included, Candida spp. was isolated in 27%, corresponding to a prevalence of approximately 15% for both VVC and colonization. More than 60% of the isolates were identified as Candida albicans; C. non-albicans was isolated at a rate of 8.6% in symptomatic patients and 14.3% in asymptomatic patients. The prevalence of resistance against fluconazole and itraconazole was 42% and 48%, respectively; the minimal inhibitory concentration of miconazole ranged from 0.031 to 8 µg/mL, and that of nystatin ranged from 2 to >16 µg/mL. The high rate of resistance to triazoles observed in our study suggests the necessity of the association of laboratory exams to clinical diagnosis to minimize the practice of empirical treatments that can contribute to the development of resistance in the isolates.

  19. Evaluation of CAMP-Like Effect, Biofilm Formation, and Discrimination of Candida africana from Vaginal Candida albicans Species

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    Keyvan Pakshir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida africana as a species recovered from female genital specimens is highly close to C. albicans. The present study was conducted to discriminate C. africana from presumptive vaginal C. albicans strains by molecular assay and evaluate their hemolysin activity, biofilm formation, and cohemolytic effect (CAMP with vaginal bacterial flora. A total of 110 stock vaginal C. albicans isolates were examined by HWP1 gene amplification. Hemolysin activity and the ability of biofilm formation were evaluated by blood plate assay and visual detection methods, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus agalactiae were used to evaluate the CAMP-like effects in Sabouraud blood agar media. Based on the size of the amplicons (941 bp, all isolates were identified as C. albicans. All samples were able to produce beta-hemolysin. Moreover, 69 out of 110 of the isolates (62.7% were biofilm-positive, 54 out of 110 Candida isolates (49% demonstrated cohemolytic effects with S. agalactiae, and 48 out of 110 showed this effect with S. aureus (43.6%. All isolates were CAMP-negative with S. epidermidis. We detected all isolates as Candida albicans and almost half of the isolates were CAMP-positive with S. aureus and S. agalactiae, suggesting that these bacteria increase the pathogenicity of Candida in vaginal candidiasis.

  20. Exoenzyme activity and possibility identification of Candida dubliniensis among Candida albicans species isolated from vaginal candidiasis.

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    Jafari, Maryam; Salari, Samira; Pakshir, Keyvan; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2017-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) or vaginal candidiasis is a common fungal infection of the genitals causing inflammation, irritation, itching, and vaginal discharge. Common yeast infections are caused by the yeast species C. albicans. However, there are other species of Candida such as C. dubliniensis which are considered as the causative agents of this infection. Hydrolytic enzymes such as proteinase and coagulase are known as virulence factors. The aim of this study was the molecular confirmation and differentiation of C. dubliniensis among C. albicans strains isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and the evaluation of proteinase and coagulase activities. A total of 100 C. albicans strains isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis referred to Shiraz medical clinics were enrolled in the study. All the isolates were primarily identified by conventional methods. PCR-RFLP method was used for the confirmation and identification of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. Moreover, in vitro proteinase and coagulase activities of these isolates were evaluated using bovine serum albumin media and classical rabbit plasma tube test. As a result, PCR-RFLP identified 100% of the isolates as C. albicans, and no C. dubliniensis could be identified in this study. 84% of the isolates showed proteinase activity, whereas coagulase activity was only detected in 5% of the isolates. This study reveals that C. dubliniensis plays no role in vaginal candidiasis in Iranian patients. Proteinase production could be an essential virulence factor in C. albicans pathogenicity, but coagulase activity has less potential in this matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of oral Candida colonization in patients with diabetes mellitus.

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    Zomorodian, K; Kavoosi, F; Pishdad, G R; Mehriar, P; Ebrahimi, H; Bandegani, A; Pakshir, K

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of oral Candida colonization in patients with diabetes and its relationship with factors such as Candida species, serum glucose level, and the susceptibility rate of isolated yeasts to antifungals. Random samples were obtained from 113 patients with type 2 diabetes, 24 patients with type 1 diabetes, and 105 healthy controls. The samples were taken by swabbing the oral mucosa of patients with diabetes mellitus and healthy individuals. Afterwards the samples were inoculated onto CHROMagar-Candida. The growing colonies were counted, and the isolated yeasts were identified by PCR-RFLP and RapID methods. Various isolated species of Candida were also subjected to susceptibility testing of antibiotic drugs. Blood samples were taken to evaluate glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Although the Candida carriage rate and density were statistically higher in diabetics than healthy individuals, no direct association was found between having high Candida-burden and glycosylated hemoglobin. The most commonly isolated species in both diabetics and controls was Candida albicans. Of the tested antifungal drugs, the highest rate of resistance was found against itraconazole, followed in frequency by ketoconazole and fluconazole. This study identified a significant association between the poor glycemic control and the higher prevalence rates of Candida carriage and density in diabetic patients. In addition, a high prevalence of C. dubliniensis in diabetic patients was found, which might be misdiagnosed with its morphologically related species, C. albicans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of the therapeutic effects of Garcin(®) and fluconazole on Candida vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimy, Farzaneh; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Moatar, Fariborz; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to determine and compare the effects of garlic tablets (Garcin(®)) and fluconazole on Candida vaginitis in women who presented to a health centre in Koohdasht, Iran, from August 2011 to March 2012. The clinical trial was conducted on 110 married women (aged 18-44 years) who had complaints of itching or a burning sensation in the vaginal area. Candida vaginitis was diagnosed by pH measurement of vaginal secretions, direct microscopic evaluation and Sabouraud dextrose agar cultures of the vaginal discharge. On confirmation of diagnosis, the patients were randomly divided into two groups (n = 55). One group received 1,500 mg of Garcin tablets daily and the other received fluconazole tablets 150 mg daily, over a period of seven days. Four to seven days after the completion of treatment, patients were examined for treatment response and possible side effects. Complaints related to the disease improved by about 44% in the Garcin group and 63.5% in the fluconazole group (p fluconazole group (p > 0.05). Results of microscopic evaluation and vaginal discharge culture showed significant differences before and after intervention in both groups (p fluconazole for the treatment of Candida vaginitis.

  3. Clinicopathologic assessment of Candida colonization of oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Reena; Rathod, G P

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common premalignant lesion of the oral mucosa. We studied the colonization of Candida in oral leukoplakia using direct microscopy, culture and histopathology to determine if there is a statistical correlation between Candida invasion and the clinical appearance and presence of epithelial dysplasia in leukoplakia. Samples were collected from 40 patients with oral leukoplakia and 21 controls. The swabs collected were used to inoculate Sabouraud's dextrose agar slant and for direct microscopy with Gram's stain. Culture growths were subjected to germ tube and corn meal agar tests to differentiate between Candida albicans and non-albicans groups. Biopsies were also done in all patients for histopathological confirmation; Gomori's methanamine silver stain was used to identify fungal invasion of lesional epithelium. Nineteen cases of leukoplakia showed Candida on direct smears, compared to 3 controls. Eighteen cases and one control showed growth of Candida on culture. Non-homogenous leukoplakia showed a higher positivity rate on microscopy and culture than homogenous lesions. All these correlations were statistically significant. Forty percent of leukoplakia cases were simultaneously positive for Candida on direct microscopy, culture and histopathologic evaluation. No significant difference was found between non-dysplastic and distinctly dysplastic lesions with respect to Candida detection on microscopy or culture.

  4. Distinct stages during colonization of the mouse gastrointestinal tract by Candida albicans

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    Daniel ePrieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a member of the human microbiota, colonizing both the vaginal and gastrointestinal tracts. This yeast is devoid of a life style outside the human body and the mechanisms underlying the adaptation to the commensal status remain to be determined. Using a model of mouse gastrointestinal colonization, we show here that C. albicans stably colonizes the mouse gut in about 3 days starting from a dose as low as 100 cells, reaching steady levels of around 107 cells/g of stools. Using fluorescent labeled strains we have assessed the competition between isogenic populations from different sources in cohoused animals. We show that long term (15 days colonizing cells have increased fitness in the gut niche over those grown in vitro or residing in the gut for 1-3 days. Therefore, two distinct states, proliferation and adaptation, seem to exist in the adaptation of this fungus to the mouse gut, a result with potential significance in the prophylaxis and treatment of Candida infections.

  5. Posttreatment Antifungal Resistance among Colonizing Candida Isolates in Candidemia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R H; Johansen, H K; Søes, L M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of intrinsic and acquired resistance among colonizing Candida isolates from patients after candidemia was investigated systematically in a 1-year nationwide study. Patients were treated at the discretion of the treating physician. Oral swabs were obtained after treatment. Species...... transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, susceptibility was examined by EUCAST EDef 7.2 methodology, echinocandin resistance was examined by FKS sequencing, and genetic relatedness was examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). One hundred ninety-three episodes provided 205 blood and 220 oral isolates. MLST...... isolates (36.6% versus 12.9%; P 0.5). Acquired resistance in Candida albicans was rare (

  6. Comparison of cervico-vaginal colonization among sexually active women by intrauterine device use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songur Dagli, Selda; Demir, Tülin

    2015-09-27

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of intrauterine devices (IUDs) on cervico-vaginal colonization. Cervico-vaginal samples of 96 patients with vaginal discharge were included in the study. Microscopic evaluation, bacteriological and fungal culture, and antigen testing for Chlamydia trachomatis using an immunochromatographic test method were performed. Trichomonas vaginalis was not detected by wet mount examination. Gram smear revealed that seven patients (7.3%) had Candida spp. and five (5.2%) had clue cell. Of the 96 swabs tested for conventional culture, pathogenic microorganisms were isolated from 24 patients. While Neisseria gonorrhoeae was not found in any of the sample, five (5.2%) were positive for Gardnerella vaginalis. Five (5.2%) were positive for C. trachomatis antigen, while three positivity only for C. trachomatis antigen, one had G. vaginalis additionally, and the other had a mixed infection. Chlamydial antigen positivity was higher among women over 30 years of age (p = 0.157). Increase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PNL) was detected 40% and 35.2% of samples, positive and negative, for chlamydial antigen, respectively (p = 1.000). Among IUD+ cases, increase in PNL, fungal elements,  E. coli and Gram-positive bacteria and decrease in Lactobacillus spp. were observed, compared to IUD-cases. No statistically significant relationship was detected between IUD and chlamydial antigen with the reported rates of 4.8% and 5.6% for IUD+ or IUD-, respectively (p > 0.05). Statistically significant relationship was not detected between IUD and cervico-vaginal colonization. More comprehensive studies using specific test methods should be conducted to better understand the relationship.

  7. Correlates of vaginal colonization with group B streptococci among pregnant women

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    Tsering Chomu Dechen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A study of genital colonization by group B streptococcus (GBS was conducted in pregnant women in their third trimester, which is a known risk factor of morbidity and mortality among newborns. Aims: The present study was undertaken to study the prevalence and the correlates of vaginal colonization by GBS among pregnant women. Setting and Design: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted during September 2002 to March 2004 on 524 pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Three high vaginal swabs were obtained from all the pregnant women admitted at term and in preterm labor. Two swabs were used for aerobic culture and the third one for gram staining. The first set of swabs was cultured on 5% Sheep blood agar plates. The second set of swabs were inoculated into Todd-Hewitt broth and then subcultured in 5% Sheep blood agar plates. The main outcome measures were the presence of GBS infection in comparison to the age group, gravida, gestational age, premature rupture of membrane (PROM, preterm labor and association with febrile spells of the present pregnancy. Results: The culture positivity rate of GBS was 4.77% and coexistent organisms isolated were Candida species (36%, Staphylococcus aureus (8% and Enterococcus species (8%. Culture positivity in the age group of 18-25 years was 5.71%, of which 5.74% were in their first pregnancy. The correlation between age group and gravida with GBS culture positivity was statistically insignificant. The culture positivity in <36 weeks of gestational age was 6.93%. This relation was statistically significant. Twenty-eight percent developed PROM. Sixty-four percent of culture positives had preterm labor. Conclusion: GBS infection among pregnant women was significantly correlated with the gestational age, PROM and preterm labor. In pregnancy GBS colonization causes asymptomatic bacteriuria or UTI. It is a well known cause of puerperal infections with amnionitis,endometritis and sepsis being

  8. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from the patients with vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Masahito; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-02-01

    There have been the current Japanese data on susceptibility testing for Candida isolates from vaginal candidiasis. The in vitro activities of therapeutic antifungal drugs for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC); miconazole (MCZ), itraconazole (ITCZ), fluconazole (FLCZ), clotrimazole (CTZ), oxiconazole (OCZ), isoconazole (ICZ) and bifonazole (BFZ) against vaginal isolates. Fifty-four strains Candida albicans and 19 strains of Candida glabrata were evaluated using a broth microdilution method specified by Clinical Laboratories Standard Institute (CLSI) document M27-A3. The MIC90 of each drug, MCZ, ITCZ, FLCZ, CTZ, OCZ, ICZ and BFZ, against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates were 0.25, 0.12, 1, 0.06, 0.12, 0.12 and 1 μg/ml and 1, 1, 8, 0.5, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/ml respectively. The activities of these drugs, except for BFZ, against C. glabrata were lower than that of C. albicans. There was one azole-resistant isolate in C. glabrata of which MIC of FLCZ is > 64 μg/ml and this isolate had cross resistance to other antifungal drugs tested. These results suggest that antifungal drugs for treatment of VVC continues to have potent antifungal activities against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates from vaginitis. CTZ, OCZ and ICZ susceptibility of FLCZ low susceptibility C. glabrata are relatively higher than MCZ, ITCZ and FLCZ. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Phenotypic characterization and adhesive properties of vaginal Candida spp. strains provided by the CHU Farhat Hached (Sousse, Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumi, Emira; Snoussi, Mejdi; Noumi, Inès; Saghrouni, Fatma; Aouni, Mahjoub; Valentin, Eulogio

    2015-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common infection among women worldwide, being Candida albicans the most commonly isolated species. Therefore, controlling this opportunistic yeast is one of the key factors for reducing nosocomial infection. We investigated several virulence properties of 28 vaginal strains of Candida isolated from Tunisian women suffering from vulvovaginitis. We also analyzed the virulence properties of a clinical Candida krusei strain and five Candida reference strains. Candida strains were subjected to microscopic analysis and culture in Candida ID2 chromogenic medium. The adhesive properties of these strains were estimated by the microtiter plate - the safranin-staining - and the Congo red agar (CRA) methods, for determining yeast ability to form biofilms on biomaterials used in urinary catheter manufacturing. Their potency to produce hydrolytic enzymes was also studied. Our results showed that nine out of the total studied strains produced phospholipase. In addition, very high protease activity was detected in 23 Candida strains. All Candida strains were beta-hemolytic and adhered to polystyrene microtiter plates in varying degrees. Two vaginal C. albicans strains were strongly adhesive to polystyrene and glass slides. Also, our results showed that vaginal Candida strains were more adhesive to the three tested materials than the reference strains. This study shows the presence of a range of virulence and adhesion factors in clinical isolates of vaginal Candida. Consequently, control and treatment of vaginal candidiasis as a means to prevent biofilm formation on urinary catheters is of crucial importance. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation of Vaginal Lactobacilli and Characterization of Anti-Candida Activity.

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    Carola Parolin

    Full Text Available Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., which form a critical line of defence against pathogens, including Candida spp. The present study aims to identify vaginal lactobacilli exerting in vitro activity against Candida spp. and to characterize their antifungal mechanisms of action. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy premenopausal women. The isolates were taxonomically identified to species level (L. crispatus B1-BC8, L. gasseri BC9-BC14 and L. vaginalis BC15-BC17 by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide and lactate. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. lusitaniae were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method. The broadest spectrum of activity was observed for L. crispatus BC1, BC4, BC5 and L. vaginalis BC15, demonstrating fungicidal activity against all isolates of C. albicans and C. lusitaniae. Metabolic profiles of lactobacilli supernatants were studied by 1H-NMR analysis. Metabolome was found to be correlated with both taxonomy and activity score. Exclusion, competition and displacement experiments were carried out to investigate the interference exerted by lactobacilli toward the yeast adhesion to HeLa cells. Most Lactobacillus strains significantly reduced C. albicans adhesion through all mechanisms. In particular, L. crispatus BC2, L. gasseri BC10 and L. gasseri BC11 appeared to be the most active strains in reducing pathogen adhesion, as their effects were mediated by both cells and supernatants. Inhibition of histone deacetylases was hypothesised to support the antifungal activity of vaginal lactobacilli. Our results are prerequisites for the development of new therapeutic agents based on probiotics for prophylaxis and adjuvant therapy of Candida infection.

  11. Isolation of Vaginal Lactobacilli and Characterization of Anti-Candida Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Carola; Marangoni, Antonella; Laghi, Luca; Foschi, Claudio; Ñahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Calonghi, Natalia; Cevenini, Roberto; Vitali, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., which form a critical line of defence against pathogens, including Candida spp. The present study aims to identify vaginal lactobacilli exerting in vitro activity against Candida spp. and to characterize their antifungal mechanisms of action. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy premenopausal women. The isolates were taxonomically identified to species level (L. crispatus B1-BC8, L. gasseri BC9-BC14 and L. vaginalis BC15-BC17) by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide and lactate. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. lusitaniae were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method. The broadest spectrum of activity was observed for L. crispatus BC1, BC4, BC5 and L. vaginalis BC15, demonstrating fungicidal activity against all isolates of C. albicans and C. lusitaniae. Metabolic profiles of lactobacilli supernatants were studied by 1H-NMR analysis. Metabolome was found to be correlated with both taxonomy and activity score. Exclusion, competition and displacement experiments were carried out to investigate the interference exerted by lactobacilli toward the yeast adhesion to HeLa cells. Most Lactobacillus strains significantly reduced C. albicans adhesion through all mechanisms. In particular, L. crispatus BC2, L. gasseri BC10 and L. gasseri BC11 appeared to be the most active strains in reducing pathogen adhesion, as their effects were mediated by both cells and supernatants. Inhibition of histone deacetylases was hypothesised to support the antifungal activity of vaginal lactobacilli. Our results are prerequisites for the development of new therapeutic agents based on probiotics for prophylaxis and adjuvant therapy of Candida infection. PMID:26098675

  12. In vitro antifungal activity of Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão against human vaginal Candida species

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    FERNANDO A. DE OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Myracrodruon urundeuva is a plant native to Brazil, which is used by the indigenous population for the treatment of candidiasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antifungal activity of extract against human vaginal Candida species and evaluate the possible toxicological activities of M. urundeuva. Initially, ethanol extracts, ethyl acetate fractions, and hydroalcoholic fractions of the bark and leaf of M. urundeuva were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The extracts that showed antifungal activity were characterized by liquid chromatography and subjected to toxicity assessment. Toxic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic testing were performed using Allium cepa and Ames assays with the ethanol extracts of the bark and leaves. Hemolytic activity was evaluated in erythrocytes and acute toxicity in rats. The ethanol bark extracts showed best activity against Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis ATCC (4-512 µg/mL. Chemical characterization indicated the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Hemolytic activity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity were not observed. The results of the Ames and A. cepa tests were also in agreement, ethanol bark extracts and ethanol leaf extracts of M. urundeuva showed absence of mutagenic activity. Similar results were observed in the A. cepa assay and acute toxicity test in rats. M. urundeuva bark extracts showed potential for the treatment of vaginal infections caused Candida species, as a topical.

  13. Antifungal susceptibility testing of vaginal candida isolates: the broth microdilution method

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    Mahmoudi Rad M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common mucosal infection among immunocompetent, healthy women, and is caused by opportunistic yeasts that belong to genus Candida. In this study, we isolated and identified the Candida species in the vagina of patients who admitted in Gynecology Department of Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran, Iran to evaluate the in vitro activities of fluconazole, miconazole, itraconazole and flucytosine against 191 clinical Candida isolates by the NCCLS microdilution method."n"nMethods: 191 Candida were isolated from vaginal secretions and identified with conventional mycological methods in the diagnosis of Candida species. The identity of all strains was confirmed genotypically by multiplex PCR. In vitro susceptibility testing of vaginal Candida isolates was performed by the NCCLS broth microdilution method. The results were read at 48 h."n"nResults: Most C. albicans isolates (>90% were sensitive in vitro to the antifungal agents tested. Most C. glabrata isolates showed sensitivity to miconazole and then flucytosine while they were more resistant to Itraconazole and fluconazole. Many isolates of C. tropicalis were susceptible to miconazole and then fluconazole. They showed a little resistance to

  14. Murine Vaginal Colonization Model for Investigating Asymptomatic Mucosal Carriage of Streptococcus pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael E.; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    While many virulence factors promoting Streptococcus pyogenes invasive disease have been described, specific streptococcal factors and host properties influencing asymptomatic mucosal carriage remain uncertain. To address the need for a refined model of prolonged S. pyogenes asymptomatic mucosal colonization, we have adapted a preestrogenized murine vaginal colonization model for S. pyogenes. In this model, derivatives of strains HSC5, SF370, JRS4, NZ131, and MEW123 established a reproducible, asymptomatic colonization of the vaginal mucosa over a period of typically 3 to 4 weeks' duration at a relatively high colonization efficiency. Prior treatment with estradiol prolonged streptococcal colonization and was associated with reduced inflammation in the colonized vaginal epithelium as well as a decreased leukocyte presence in vaginal fluid compared to the levels of inflammation and leukocyte presence in non-estradiol-treated control mice. The utility of our model for investigating S. pyogenes factors contributing to mucosal carriage was verified, as a mutant with a mutation in the transcriptional regulator catabolite control protein A (CcpA) demonstrated significant impairment in vaginal colonization. An assessment of in vivo transcriptional activity in the CcpA− strain for several known CcpA-regulated genes identified significantly elevated transcription of lactate oxidase (lctO) correlating with excessive generation of hydrogen peroxide to self-lethal levels. Deletion of lctO did not impair colonization, but deletion of lctO in a CcpA− strain prolonged carriage, exceeding even that of the wild-type strain. Thus, while LctO is not essential for vaginal colonization, its dysregulation is deleterious, highlighting the critical role of CcpA in promoting mucosal colonization. The vaginal colonization model should prove effective for future analyses of S. pyogenes mucosal colonization. PMID:23460515

  15. Candida vaginitis during contraceptive use: the influence of methods, antifungal susceptibility and virulence patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, A B; Küçükgöz-Güleç, U; Aydin, M; Gümral, R; Kalkanci, A; Ilkit, M

    2013-11-01

    No consensus exists about whether contraceptives cause an increased risk of vaginitis, including vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC). We investigated 495 women (252 who used contraceptives; 243 who did not) for the presence of VVC. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed for five antifungal agents and for boric acid, and three virulence factors were also examined. We recovered 129 (26.1%) monofungal populations from vaginal samples of women with acute VVC (AVVC, n = 18), symptomatic recurrent VVC (RVVC, n = 22) and asymptomatic RVVC (n = 28), as well as of other contraceptive users who carried Candida in their vaginas (n = 61). It is important to note that the women who had VVC used the same contraceptive methods (p > 0.05). Candida albicans was the most common species isolated (45%), followed by C. glabrata (40.3%). Most of the vaginal yeast isolates exhibited low minimum inhibitory concentration levels for the five antifungals tested. However, this was not the case for boric acid. In addition, the yeast fungi that was derived from the AVVC and RVVC patients showed higher amounts of haemolytic activity than the yeast fungi found among the controls (p contraception does not predispose women to VVC (p > 0.05). Also, both host- and organism-related factors were required to achieve optimal clinical treatment for VVC.

  16. In vitro Susceptibility of Fluconazole, Clotrimazole and Toucrium Polium Smoke Product on Candida Isolates of Vaginal Candidiasis

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    B Bonyadpour

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: It has been estimated that up to 75% of women in their child-bearing age have been affected by vulvovaginal candidiasis at least once in their life time. Almost 45% of women experience this infection two or more times. The antifungal azole group, in topical and oral forms, is the common way of therapy. Herbal products are often used for vulvovaginal therapy. Nowadays, Toucrium polium (TP products are being used as traditional medicine to reduce signs of Candida vaginitis. There is no study regarding to antifungal activity of TP smoke product in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the In vitro activity of TP smoke product against Candida, isolated from women with Candida vaginitis, compared with antifungal drugs which are ordinary used to cure Candida vaginitis. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at the University of Medical Sciences of Shiraz in 1387 (2008. During seven months, samples were taken from 450 patients suffering from urogenital infections and 105 Candida vaginitis were detected. Germ tube test was used for identification of fungal species. TP smoke product was prepared in suitable potency. Antifungal activity of fluconazole, clotrimazole and TP product were evaluated by disk diffusion method. Sterile blank disks were loaded by TP smoke product in potency of 10-240 microliter/disk. Inhibition zone around the disks were measured and compared with each other. Results: 105 Candida species were isolated from the patients. Candida species were identified by germ tube test as Candida albicans 74 (70.5% and Candida non-albicans 31(29.5%.The mean of inhibition zone around the clotrimazole disks was 22±5.39 along with one case of resistance. Forty seven species had resistance to fluconazole while 94% and 55.2.% of all samples were sensitive to clotrimazole and fluconazole respectively. All of the clinical isolates and standard Candida species were sensitive to TP smoke product

  17. A bedside scoring system ("Candida score") for early antifungal treatment in nonneutropenic critically ill patients with Candida colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Cristóbal; Ruiz-Santana, Sergio; Saavedra, Pedro; Almirante, Benito; Nolla-Salas, Juan; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Garnacho-Montero, José; León, María Angeles

    2006-03-01

    To obtain a score for deciding early antifungal treatment when candidal infection is suspected in nonneutropenic critically ill patients. Analysis of data collected from the database of the EPCAN project, an ongoing prospective, cohort, observational, multicenter surveillance study of fungal infection and colonization in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Seventy-three medical-surgical ICUs of 70 teaching hospitals in Spain. A total of 1,699 ICU patients aged 18 yrs and older admitted for at least 7 days between May 1998 and January 1999 were studied. Surveillance cultures of urine, tracheal, and gastric samples were obtained weekly. Patients were grouped as follows: neither colonized nor infected (n=719), unifocal or multifocal Candida colonization (n=883), and proven candidal infection (n=97). The odds ratio (OR) for each risk factor associated with colonization vs. proven candidal infection was estimated. A logistic regression model was performed to adjust for possible confounders. The "Candida score" was obtained according to the logit method. The discriminatory power was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve. In the logit model, surgery (OR=2.71, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-5.06); multifocal colonization (OR=3.04, 95% CI, 1.45-6.39); total parenteral nutrition (OR=2.48, 95% CI, 1.16-5.31); and severe sepsis (OR=7.68, 95% CI, 4.14-14.22) were predictors of proven candidal infection. The "Candida score" for a cut-off value of 2.5 (sensitivity 81%, specificity 74%) was as follows: parenteral nutrition, +0.908; surgery, +0.997; multifocal colonization, +1.112; and severe sepsis, +2.038. Central venous catheters were not a significant risk factor for proven candidal infection (p=.292). In a large cohort of nonneutropenic critically ill patients in whom Candida colonization was prospectively assessed, a "Candida score">2.5 accurately selected patients who would benefit from early antifungal treatment.

  18. Single vaginal metastasis from cancer of the right colon: case report

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    Sergio Renato Pais Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal metastases of colonic origin are exceedingly rare. When present, the prognosis is poor, and most individuals do not survive past 40 months. Surgical excision and radiotherapy have been used to treat this type of lesion. Ccase: A 67-year-old woman went to the Oncology Surgery Service with complaints of vaginal discharge and local pain. On physical examination, a 2.5 cm nodular lesion was found in the vagina. She had undergone a right hemicolectomy for a right colon cancer three months earlier. Punch biopsy was performed, and histological examination of the specimen showed metastasis of colonic adenocarcinoma. Subsequently, she underwent both radical wide excision and localized adjuvant radiotherapy. Four years later, the patient is asymptomatic, with no signs of local or systemic recurrence. Despite the rarity of this entity and its usually poor outcome, surgical treatment for isolated vaginal metastases of colonic origin is an appropriate therapeutic option with effective local control associated with low morbidity.

  19. High glucose-mediated overexpression of ICAM-1 in human vaginal epithelial cells increases adhesion of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikamo, Hiroshige; Yamagishi, Yuka; Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Sadakata, Hisato; Miyazaki, Shun; Sano, Takako; Tomita, Tsutomu

    2017-09-18

    To investigate the involvement of ICAM-1 in the adhesion of Candida to the genitourinary epithelial cells in high glucose, we examined the adhesion of Candida albicans or Candida glabrata to human vaginal epithelial cells (VK2/E6E7) or human vulvovaginal epidermal cells (A431). These cells were cultured in 100, 500 or 3000 mg/dL glucose for three days and inoculated with Candida for 60 minutes. Followed by, adhering of Candida to the cells, which were counted. While the adhesion of Candida albicans to VK2/E6E7 significantly increased in the high glucose, A431 did not. We next examined the expression of ICAM-1 as a ligand on the epithelial cells. ICAM-1 expression was increased in VK2/E6E7 cultured in the high glucose; however, the expression level in A431 was not high compared with VK2/E6E7. This data suggested that ICAM-1 functions as one of ligands in the adhesion of Candida albicans to the vaginal epithelial cells in a high glucose environment. Impact statement What is already known on the subject: Candida's complement receptor is involved in the adhesion to epithelial cells. The expression of this receptor has been reported to increase as glucose concentration increases. This is considered as a contributing factor to the high risk for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in diabetes. On the host side, diabetic patients have a factor that facilitates adhesion of Candida to epithelial cells. This factor has been unknown until recently. What the results of this study add: In this study, we used a vaginal epithelial cell line and showed that the adhesion of C. albicans to cells increased at higher glucose concentrations. At the same time, ICAM-1 expression of cells also increased. Thereby, it is suggested that the expression of ICAM-1 in vaginal epithelial cells is increased by glucose such as urinary sugar in diabetic patients and is a condition for facilitating adhesion of Candida. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further

  20. The Use of Isolated Sigmoid Colon Segment for Vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rokitansky-Kuster syndrome, or for gender confirmation may be achieved by several techniques. This report focuses on the efficacy of rectosigmoid neocolporrhaphy (RSNC) for primary vaginal replacement. Patients and Methods From 1990 to 2002 ...

  1. Candida spp. airway colonization: A potential risk factor for Acinetobacter baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaojiang; Zhu, Song; Yan, Dongxing; Chen, Weiping; Chen, Ruilan; Zou, Jian; Yan, Jingdong; Zhang, Xiangdong; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2016-08-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to identify potential risk factors for Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and evaluate the association between Candida spp. airway colonization and A. baumannii VAP. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were on mechanical ventilation (MV) for ≥48 hours were divided into the following groups: patients with and without Candida spp. airway colonization; colonized patients receiving antifungal treatment or not; patients with A. baumannii VAP and those without VAP. Logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching were used to identify factors independently associated with A. baumannii VAP. Among 618 eligible patients, 264 (43%) had Candida spp. airway colonization and 114 (18%) developed A. baumannii VAP. Along with MV for ≥7 days (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.9, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 4.9-15.8) and presence of a central venous catheter (aOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1-9), Candida spp. airway colonization (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.6-4.3) was identified as an independent risk factor for A. baumannii VAP. Patients with Candida spp. airway colonization were more likely to develop A. baumannii VAP than non-colonized patients (23% vs 15%, P=.01 and 34% vs. 15%, PCandida spp. airway colonization (43%) and A. baumannii VAP (18%) were common in ICU patients who were on mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. Candida spp. airway colonization was an independent risk factor for subsequent A. baumannii VAP. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Manipulation of host diet to reduce gastrointestinal colonization by the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, can cause systemic infections with a mortality rate of ~40%. Infections arise from colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where C. albicans is part of the normal microflora. Reducing colonization in at-risk patients using antifungal ...

  3. Vaginal colonization of the Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant woman in Tunisia: risk factors and susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferjani, A; Ben Abdallah, H; Ben Saida, N; Gozzi, C; Boukadida, J

    2006-01-01

    .... We have evaluated prospectively GBS vaginal colonization in pregnant women and we have tried to determine the risk factors of the colonization by GBS and the particularities of the different isolated strains...

  4. [25S rDNA genotype and antifungal susceptibility of vaginal Candida albicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Liu, Z H

    2016-04-25

    To investigate 25S rDNA genotype distribution of vaginal Candida albicans and its relationship with antifungal susceptibility. A total of 954 isolates of Candida albicans were subjected to genotype analysis according to the presence and the size of transposable group Ⅰ intron in 25S rDNA with PCR; 156 isolates were enrolled to detect their antifungal susceptibility of 5 antifungal agents with the M27-A3 broth microdilution method. Totally 876 isolates were determined to be intronless genotype A(91.8%, 876/954); 58(6.1%, 58/954)and 20 isolates(2.1%, 20/954)were introncontaining genotype B and genotype C, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentrations(MIC)of itraconazole and fluconazole against the intron-containing group were significantly higher than those of the intronless group(0.25 versus 0.125 μg/ml, PCandida albicans to itraconazole of the intron-containing group was significantly higher than that of the intronless group[24%(19/78)versus 3%(2/78), PCandida albicans might be important in affecting itraconazole, fluconazole and nystatin susceptibility.

  5. Photodynamic therapy has antifungal effect and reduces inflammatory signals in Candida albicans-induced murine vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-de-Sena, R M; Corrêa, L; Kato, I T; Prates, R A; Senna, A M; Santos, C C; Picanço, D A; Ribeiro, M S

    2014-09-01

    Vaginal candidiasis (VC) is a disease that affects thousands of women of childbearing age, mainly caused by Candida albicans fungus. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses photosensitizing substances that are nontoxic in the dark, but able to produce reactive oxygen species when they are subjected to a light source. In this work our purpose was to investigate PDT effects on fungal burden and inflammatory cells in a murine model of C. albicans-induced vaginal candidiasis. Female BALB/c mice 6-10 weeks were estrogenized and maintained in this state during all experiment. After 72h, mices were inoculated intravaginally (IV) with 20μL of 2×10(5)C. albicans cells suspension. Mice were separated into 5 groups after five days: H (healthy), PBS (control), laser, MB (methylene blue) and PDT. PDT and MB groups received IV 20μL solution with 1mM of MB, others received PBS. PDT and laser groups were irradiated with a red laser (100mW, 660nm) in one (36J, 6min) or two sessions (18J, 3min). After the end of treatment, mice were submitted to microbiological and histomorphometric analysis with ImageJ software. Data were plotted by mean values and standard deviations of CFU/mL and percentage of inflammatory cells area. ANOVA and Bonferroni post-test were used and data were considered significant when psignals associated with VC in a murine model of vaginitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Candida albicans Airway Colonization Facilitates Subsequent Acinetobacter baumannii Pneumonia in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaojiang; Chen, Ruilan; Zhu, Song; Wang, Huijun; Yan, Dongxing; Zhang, Xiangdong; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of Candida albicans respiratory tract colonization on Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia in a rat model. Rats were colonized with C. albicans by instillation of 3 × 10(6) CFU into their airways, while sterile saline was instilled in the control group. The colonized rats were further divided into two groups: treated with amphotericin B or not. The rats were subsequently infected with A. baumannii (10(8) CFU by tracheobronchial instillation). A. baumannii lung CFU counts, cytokine lung levels, and rates of A. baumannii pneumonia were compared between groups. In vitro expression of A. baumannii virulence genes was measured by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR after 24-hour incubation with C. albicans or with Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth alone. Rats with Candida colonization developed A. baumannii pneumonia more frequently and had higher A. baumannii CFU burdens and heavier lungs than controls. After A. baumannii infection, lung interleukin 17 (IL-17) concentrations were lower and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) concentrations were higher in Candida-colonized rats than in controls. Candida-colonized rats treated with amphotericin B had a decreased rate of A. baumannii pneumonia and lower IFN-γ levels but higher IL-17 levels than untreated rats. Expression of basC, barB, bauA, ptk, plc2, and pld2 was induced while expression of ompA and abaI was suppressed in A. baumannii cultured in the presence of C. albicans C. albicans colonization facilitated the development of A. baumannii pneumonia in a rat model. Among Candida-colonized rats, antifungal treatment lowered the incidence of A. baumannii pneumonia. These findings could be due to modification of the host immune response and/or expression of A. baumannii virulence genes by Candida spp. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Esophageal candidiasis and Candida colonization in asthma patients on inhaled steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaoglu, Sema; Turktas, Haluk; Kokturk, Nurdan; Tuncer, Candan; Kalkanci, Ayse; Kustimur, Semra

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of esophageal candidiasis in asthma patients who are on inhaled steroids without any other risk factors for esophageal candidiasis by comparing the treatment group with the control group. Moreover, the oropharyngeal and esophageal Candida colonizations were evaluated in the subgroups of both control and treatment groups. Upper gastrointestinal system endoscopic evaluation was performed in 40 asthma patients who were on inhaled steroids for at least 1 month. The control group consisted of 40 steroid naïve patients without asthma. Oral and esophageal samples were obtained for performing quantitative culture. Candida growth in cultures without any clinical signs and symptoms was described as colonization. Candida growth accompanied by clinical signs and symptoms was described as infection. None of the patients in the control group had either esophageal or oropharyngeal candidiasis; however, one (2.5%) asthma patient had esophageal candidiasis and two (5%) asthma patients had oropharyngeal candidiasis. Esophageal and oropharyngeal Candida colonization was determined in 5 (22.7%) and 11 (50%) of the asthma patients and 7 (31%) and 9 (41%) of the control group, respectively. Although the mean numbers of Candida colonies were higher in the asthma group in both localizations, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding esophageal or oropharyngeal Candida colonization. The risk of esophageal candidiasis due to inhaled steroids is low and inhaled steroids may be used safely in terms of esophageal candidiasis. Future prospective studies are needed to draw more definitive conclusions.

  8. The effects of oral garlic on vaginal candida colony counts: a randomised placebo controlled double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C J; Grando, D; Fairley, C K; Chondros, P; Garland, S M; Myers, S P; Pirotta, M

    2014-03-01

    Garlic is effective against Candida species in vitro, and along with other alternative therapies, is used by women with vulvovaginal candidiasis. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether oral garlic reduced vaginal candida counts during the second half of the menstrual cycle in asymptomatic women colonised with Candida species. A simple randomised double-blinded controlled trial. Melbourne, Australia. Sixty-three asymptomatic women who were culture-positive for Candida species at screening. Participants were randomised to three garlic tablets or placebo orally, twice daily, for 14 days. The primary outcome was the proportion of women with colony counts of candida >100 colony-forming units per ml in any given day during the last 7 days before menstruation, defined as a 'case'. Secondary outcomes included the mean quantitative colony counts of candida over 14 days prior to menses. There was no evidence of a difference between the proportion of cases in the garlic and placebo groups (76 versus 90%; relative risk, RR 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 0.67-1.08), in the mean colony counts in both groups (ratio of geometric means of candidal colony counts 0.63; 95% CI 0.39-10.03; P = 0.74), or difference in the number of women reporting abnormal vaginal symptoms during the 2 weeks before menstruation (RR 1.03; 95% CI 0.67-1.58; P = 0.91). The garlic group reported more adverse effects (83% compared 43% in the placebo group; difference in proportions 39%; 95% CI 17-%; P garlic, but provided no evidence to inform clinical practice regarding the use of garlic in vaginal candidiasis. Further studies might investigate longer courses or topical formulations. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Candida colonization and species identification by two methods in NICU newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Sadat Taherzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the last two decades invasive candidiasis has become an increasing problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. Colonization of skin and mucous membranes with Candida spp. is important factor in the pathogenesis of neonatal infection and several colonized sites are major risk factors evoking higher frequencies of progression to invasive candidiasis. The aim of this study was to detect Candida colonization in NICU patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 93 neonates in NICUs at Imam Khomeini and Children Medical Center Hospitals in Tehran. Cutaneous and mucous membrane samples obtained at first, third, and seventh days of patients’ stay in NICUs during nine months from August 2013 to May 2014. The samples were primarily cultured on CHROMagar Candida medium. The cultured media were incubated at 35°C for 48h and evaluated based on colony color produced on CHROMagar Candida. In addition, isolated colonies were cultured on Corn Meal Agar medium supplemented with tween 80 for identification of Candida spp. based on their morphology. Finally, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was performed for definite identification of isolated species. Results: Colonization by Candida spp. was occurred in 20.43% of neonates. Fifteen and four patients colonized with one and two different Candida spp., respectively. Isolated Candida spp. identified as; C. parapsilosis (n: 10, C. albicans (n: 7, C. tropicalis (n: 3, C. guilliermondii (n: 2, and C. krusei (n: 1. In present study non-albicans Candia species were dominant (69.56% and C. parapsilosis was the most frequent isolate (43.47%. Using Fisher's exact test, the correlation between fungal colonization with low birth weight, low gestational age, and duration of hospital stay was found to be statistically significant (P=0.003. Conclusion: The results of this study imply to the candida species colonization of neonates

  10. In Vitro Study on the Adhesion and Colonization of Candida Albicans on Metal and Acrylic Piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenov N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral/perioral piercing may provide an ideal environment for adhesion and colonization of microorganisms. The aim of this study is to perform an “in vitro” research on the capabilities of adhesion of Candida albicans on oral piercings made of plastic and metal. Acrylic and metal piercings were incubated with Candida albicans and then were observed using scanning electron microscopy under different magnifications. A lot of irregularities and roughness were observed on the surface of the plastic piercing unlike the surface of the metal one, which is not so rough. Nevertheless, the number of Candida albicans colonies was considerably larger on the scanned metal surface in comparison to the plastic surface. In vitro the metal surface of the piercing creates better environment for the adhesion and colonization of microorganisms than the acrylic. This could be attributed to the electrostatic forces that most likely attract Candida albicans to the metal piercing in the early stages of biofilm formation.

  11. Effects of cefepime, cefixime and ceftibuten on murine gut colonization by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, S; Barbounakis, E; Chatzinikolaou, I; Anatoliotakis, N; Plataki, M; Tselentis, Y; Samonis, G

    1998-01-01

    Crl:CD1(ICR) BR mice were fed chow containing Candida albicans or regular chow. Both groups were subsequently given either antibiotics or normal saline. Stool cultures were performed before, at the end of treatment and 1 week after treatment, to determine the effect on the stool yeast concentration. Candida-colonized mice treated with cefepime, cefixime or ceftibuten had higher (however not significantly) counts of the yeast in their stools than control Candida-fed mice treated with saline. A group of Candida-fed mice were treated with ceftriaxone, which is known to increase the yeast stool concentration significantly and served as positive control. Mice fed regular chow and treated with the study drugs or saline did not have any yeasts in their stools. Dissemination of Candida did not occur.

  12. Candida colonization on the denture of diabetic and non-diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Lotfi-Kamran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection in diabetic patients. Presence of denture in the oral cavity of diabetic patients can promote Candida colonization and results in the higher incidence of oral and systemic candidiasis. The general purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare Candida colonization in denture of diabetic patients and non-diabetic control group. Methods: In current case-control study, samples for mycological examinations were collected from the palatal impression surface of maxillary dentures from 92 edentulous patients including 46 dia-betic and 46 non-diabetic denture wearers. All samples were cultured directly on sabouraud agar me-dium and isolated colonies were counted and identified based on specific tests. Data were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests. Results: The higher density of isolated colonies was seen in diabetic group in compare with control group (P = 0.0001. There was a statistically significant correlation between the blood glucose level (P = 0.0001 and the duration of denture usage (P = 0.022 with the colonization of Candida on den-ture of diabetic patients. C. albicans was the most common isolated Candida species in both groups, though diabetic patients with dentures had more non-albicans Candida isolated from their dentures compared to non-diabetic patients. Conclusions: Mycological findings from the present study revealed that diabetes mellitus can in-crease colonization of Candida in denture and mouth. By elimination of local and systemic factors in diabetic patients and improving their oral health care, Candida colonization and the risk of oral and systemic candidiasis will be decreased.

  13. In vivo activity of Sapindus saponaria against azole-susceptible and -resistant human vaginal Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damke, Edílson; Tsuzuki, Joyce K; Cortez, Diógenes A G; Ferreira, Izabel C P; Bertoni, Thâmara A; Batista, Márcia R; Donati, Lucélia; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E; Consolaro, Márcia E L

    2011-05-04

    Study of in vivo antifungal activity of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE) and n-BuOH extract (BUTE) of Sapindus saponaria against azole-susceptible and -resistant human vaginal Candida spp. The in vitro antifungal activity of HE, BUTE, fluconazole (FLU), and itraconazole (ITRA) was determined by the broth microdilution method. We obtained values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) for 46 strains of C. albicans and 10 of C. glabrata isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). VVC was induced in hyperestrogenic Wistar rats with azole-susceptible C. albicans (SCA), azole-resistant C. albicans (RCA), and azole-resistant C. glabrata (RCG). The rats were treated intravaginally with 0.1 mL of HE or BUTE at concentrations of 1%, 2.5% and 5%; 100 μg/mL of FLU (treatment positive control); or distilled water (negative control) at 1, 24, and 48 h after induction of the infection, and the progress of VVC was monitored by culturing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The toxicity was evaluated in cervical cells of the HeLa cell line. The extracts showed in vitro inhibitory and fungicidal activity against all the isolates, and the MIC and MFC values for the C. glabrata isolates were slightly higher. In vivo, the SCA, RCA, and RCG infections were eliminated by 21 days post-infection, with up to 5% HE and BUTE, comparable to the activity of FLU. No cytotoxic action was observed for either extract. Our results demonstrated that HE and BUTE from S. saponaria show inhibitory and fungicidal activity in vitro, in addition to in vivo activity against azole-resistant vaginal isolates of C. glabrata and azole-susceptible and resistant isolates of C. albicans. Also considering the lack of cytotoxicity and the low concentrations of the extracts necessary to eliminate the infection in vivo, HE and BUTE show promise for continued studies with purified antifungal substances in VVC yeast isolates.

  14. In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Micucci, Matteo; Nahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Vitali, Beatrice; Camarda, Luca; Mandrioli, Mara; De Giorgio, Marta; Aldini, Rita; Corazza, Ivan; Chiarini, Alberto; Cevenini, Roberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of a fully-characterized water extract of Spirulina platensis against 22 strains of Candida spp. Prior to considering its potential topical use, we both investigated whether the extract exerted target activities on guinea pig uterine smooth muscle, and the impact of Spirulina platensis on the dominant microorganisms of the vaginal microbiota (i.e., lactobacilli), in order to exclude possible adverse events. By means of a broth microdilution assay, we found that the microalga extract possesses good antifungal properties (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml), against all the Candida species with a fungicidal activity. At the concentrations active against candida, Spirulina platensis did not modify the spontaneous basic waves pattern of uterine myometrium as underlined by the absence of aberrant contractions, and did not affect the main health-promoting bacteria of the vaginal ecosystem. Finally, we evaluated the selectivity index of our extract by testing its cytotoxicity on three different cell lines and it showed values ranging between 2 and 16. Further in vivo studies are needed, in particular to evaluate the use of control-release formulations in order to maintain Spirulina platensis concentrations at anti-Candida active doses but below the toxic levels found in the present work.

  15. Typing of Candida isolates from patients with invasive infection and concomitant colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, A.; Bergmann, O.; Jensen, Irene Møller

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between colonizing and invasive isolates from patients with candidaemia. Molecular typing was performed using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We found MLST to be sufficient for typing Candida isolates, and that...

  16. Frequency of Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis in cervical-vaginal smears in four different decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Jorge Adad

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Vaginitis is one of the principal motives that lead women to seek out an obstetrician or gynecologist. Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis are responsible for 90% of the cases of infectious vaginitis. OBJECTIVE: To verify the frequency of the three main causative agents of vaginitis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis, in four different decades (1960's, 1970's, 1980's and 1990's. DESIGN: Retrospective. PLACE: A tertiary referral center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients attended to as gynecology and obstetrics outpatients at the Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro during the years 1968, 1978, 1988, 1998, taken as samples of each decade. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Diagnoses of infection by Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis were gathered from 20,356 cervical-vaginal cytology tests on patients attended to as gynecology outpatients at Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro during the years 1968, 1978, 1988, 1998, representing the four decades. The results were grouped according to the age group of the patients: under 20, between 20 and 29, between 30 and 39, between 40 and 49, and 50 or over. Statistical analysis was done via the chi-squared (Mantel-Haentzel test with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: In 1968 infections by Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida sp were diagnosed in 10% and 0.5% of the cytology tests and in 1978, 5.1% and 17.3%, respectively (P < 0.0001. Infection by Gardnerella vaginalis could only be evaluated in the latter two decades. In 1988, 19.8% of the women had positive tests for Gardnerella vaginalis, which was the most frequent agent in that year, diminishing in the subsequent decade to 15.9% (P < 0.0001. Candidiasis was the most frequent infection in 1998, detected in 22.5% of the tests (P < 0.0001. In a general manner, all the infections were most frequent among younger patients, especially those aged under 20, in all decades, whereas infections were

  17. In vivo activity of Sapindus saponaria against azole-susceptible and -resistant human vaginal Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svidzinski Terezinha IE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Study of in vivo antifungal activity of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE and n-BuOH extract (BUTE of Sapindus saponaria against azole-susceptible and -resistant human vaginal Candida spp. Methods The in vitro antifungal activity of HE, BUTE, fluconazole (FLU, and itraconazole (ITRA was determined by the broth microdilution method. We obtained values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC for 46 strains of C. albicans and 10 of C. glabrata isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC. VVC was induced in hyperestrogenic Wistar rats with azole-susceptible C. albicans (SCA, azole-resistant C. albicans (RCA, and azole-resistant C. glabrata (RCG. The rats were treated intravaginally with 0.1 mL of HE or BUTE at concentrations of 1%, 2.5% and 5%; 100 μg/mL of FLU (treatment positive control; or distilled water (negative control at 1, 24, and 48 h after induction of the infection, and the progress of VVC was monitored by culturing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The toxicity was evaluated in cervical cells of the HeLa cell line. Results The extracts showed in vitro inhibitory and fungicidal activity against all the isolates, and the MIC and MFC values for the C. glabrata isolates were slightly higher. In vivo, the SCA, RCA, and RCG infections were eliminated by 21 days post-infection, with up to 5% HE and BUTE, comparable to the activity of FLU. No cytotoxic action was observed for either extract. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that HE and BUTE from S. saponaria show inhibitory and fungicidal activity in vitro, in addition to in vivo activity against azole-resistant vaginal isolates of C. glabrata and azole-susceptible and resistant isolates of C. albicans. Also considering the lack of cytotoxicity and the low concentrations of the extracts necessary to eliminate the infection in vivo, HE and BUTE show promise for continued studies with purified antifungal substances

  18. The synthetic melanocortin (CKPV2 exerts anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory effects against Candida albicans vaginitis via inducing macrophage M2 polarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-xia Ji

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory effects of the synthetic melanocortin peptide (Ac-Cys-Lys-Pro-Val-NH22 or (CKPV2 against Candida albicans vaginitis. Our in vitro results showed that (CKPV2 dose-dependently inhibited Candida albicans colonies formation. In a rat Candida albicans vaginitis model, (CKPV2 significantly inhibited vaginal Candida albicans survival and macrophages sub-epithelial mucosa infiltration. For mechanisms study, we observed that (CKPV2 inhibited macrophages phagocytosis of Candida albicans. Meanwhile, (CKPV2 administration inhibited macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 release, while increasing the arginase activity and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production, suggesting macrophages M1 to M2 polarization. Cyclic AMP (cAMP production was also induced by (CKPV2 administration in macrophages. These above effects on macrophages by (CKPV2 were almost reversed by melanocortin receptor-1(MC1R siRNA knockdown, indicating the requirement of MC1R in the process. Altogether, our results suggest that (CKPV2 exerted anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory activities against Candida albicans vaginitis probably through inducing macrophages M1 to M2 polarization and MC1R activation.

  19. Variation in Candida albicans EFG1 expression enables host-dependent changes in colonizing fungal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jessica V; Kumamoto, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    To understand differences in host-Candida albicans interactions that occur during colonization of healthy or compromised hosts, production of phenotypic variants and colonization of healthy or immunodeficient mice by C. albicans were studied. We showed that activity of the transcription factor Efg1p exhibited cell-to-cell variability and identified Efg1p as a major regulator of colonization. In C. albicans populations colonizing the murine gastrointestinal tract, average expression of EFG1 differed depending on the immune status of the host. We propose that cellular heterogeneity in Efg1p activity allows the C. albicans colonizing population to differ depending on the immune status of the host, because selective pressure from a healthy host alters the composition of the population. These data are the first demonstration that differences in host immune status are associated with differences in gene expression in colonizing C. albicans cells. Altered gene expression in organisms colonizing immunocompromised hosts may begin the transition of C. albicans from a commensal to a pathogen. In healthy people, the fungus Candida albicans colonizes the gastrointestinal tract and other sites without producing obvious pathology. In an immunocompromised patient, the organism can cause serious disease. The demonstration that the expression and activity of the C. albicans transcription factor Efg1p differs during colonization of healthy or immunocompromised mice shows that the organism adjusts its physiology when colonizing different hosts. Further, the effects of a healthy host on a heterogeneous C. albicans population containing cells with different levels of Efg1p activity show that selective pressure in the host can change the makeup of the population, allowing the population to respond to host immune status. The ability to sense host status may be key to the ability of C. albicans to colonize as a harmless commensal in some hosts but become a deadly pathogen in others.

  20. Activation of HIF-1α and LL-37 by commensal bacteria inhibits Candida albicans colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Di; Coughlin, Laura A; Neubauer, Megan M; Kim, Jiwoong; Kim, Min Soo; Zhan, Xiaowei; Simms-Waldrip, Tiffany R; Xie, Yang; Hooper, Lora V; Koh, Andrew Y

    2015-07-01

    Candida albicans colonization is required for invasive disease. Unlike humans, adult mice with mature intact gut microbiota are resistant to C. albicans gastrointestinal (GI) colonization, but the factors that promote C. albicans colonization resistance are unknown. Here we demonstrate that commensal anaerobic bacteria-specifically clostridial Firmicutes (clusters IV and XIVa) and Bacteroidetes-are critical for maintaining C. albicans colonization resistance in mice. Using Bacteroides thetaiotamicron as a model organism, we find that hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a transcription factor important for activating innate immune effectors, and the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 (CRAMP in mice) are key determinants of C. albicans colonization resistance. Although antibiotic treatment enables C. albicans colonization, pharmacologic activation of colonic Hif1a induces CRAMP expression and results in a significant reduction of C. albicans GI colonization and a 50% decrease in mortality from invasive disease. In the setting of antibiotics, Hif1a and Camp (which encodes CRAMP) are required for B. thetaiotamicron-induced protection against C. albicans colonization of the gut. Thus, modulating C. albicans GI colonization by activation of gut mucosal immune effectors may represent a novel therapeutic approach for preventing invasive fungal disease in humans.

  1. Vaginitis test - wet mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wet prep - vaginitis; Vaginosis - wet mount; Trichomoniasis - wet mount; Vaginal candida - wet mount ... a rash, painful intercourse, or odor after intercourse. Trichomoniasis , a sexually transmitted disease. Vaginal yeast infection .

  2. Colonization of the bovine uterus by Candida kefyr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen Karstrup, Cecilia; Aalbæk, Bent; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard

    2017-01-01

    , but little attention has been paid to this as most studies of the bovine pp uterus have focused on bacteria. Case presentation. Microscopy of uterine lavage cytology slides of three cows from one herd revealed the presence of numerous yeast-like organisms, which were located either free in the fluid...... or within macrophages. Two of the cows were around 30 days pp, while the third was 7 months pp. None of the cows had been treated with antibiotics. Culturing of the flush samples was unsuccessful, but Sanger sequencing of DNA extracted from an endometrial biopsy of one of the cows revealed the presence...... pregnant and delivered a normal calf at term, while the two others were not bred. Conclusions. Candida kefyr is commonly isolated from milk of cows with mastitis, but has not been reported in association with other diseases of cattle. The infection was present as a monoculture in all three cows...

  3. Robust vaginal colonization of macaques with a novel vaginally disintegrating tablet containing a live biotherapeutic product to prevent HIV infection in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagenaur, Laurel A; Swedek, Iwona; Lee, Peter P; Parks, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    MucoCept is a biotherapeutic for prevention of HIV-1 infection in women and contains a human, vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii that has been genetically enhanced to express the HIV-1 entry inhibitor, modified cyanovirin-N (mCV-N). The objective of this study was to develop a solid vaginal dosage form that supports sustained vaginal colonization of the MucoCept Lactobacillus at levels previously shown, with freshly prepared cultures, to protect macaques from SHIV infection and to test this formulation in a macaque vaginal colonization model. Vaginally disintegrating tablets were prepared by lyophilizing the formulated bacteria in tablet-shaped molds, then packaging in foil pouches with desiccant. Disintegration time, potency and stability of the tablets were assessed. For colonization, non-synchronized macaques were dosed vaginally with either one tablet or five tablets delivered over five days. Vaginal samples were obtained at three, 14, and 21 days post-dosing and cultured to determine Lactobacillus colonization levels. To confirm identity of the MucoCept Lactobacillus strain, genomic DNA was extracted from samples on days 14 and 21 and a strain-specific PCR was performed. Supernatants from bacteria were tested for the presence of the mCV-N protein by Western blot. The tablets were easy to handle, disintegrated within two minutes, potent (5.7x1011 CFU/g), and stable at 4°C and 25°C. Vaginal administration of the tablets to macaques resulted in colonization of the MucoCept Lactobacillus in 66% of macaques at 14 days post-dosing and 83% after 21 days. There was no significant difference in colonization levels for the one or five tablet dosing regimens (p=0.88 Day 14, p=0.99 Day 21). Strain-specific PCR confirmed the presence of the bacteria even in culture-negative macaques. Finally, the presence of mCV-N protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis using a specific anti-mCV-N antibody.

  4. Self-regulation of Candida albicans population size during GI colonization.

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    Sarah Jane White

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between colonizing commensal microorganisms and their hosts play important roles in health and disease. The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a common component of human intestinal flora. To gain insight into C. albicans colonization, genes expressed by fungi grown within a host were studied. The EFH1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor, was highly expressed during growth of C. albicans in the intestinal tract. Counterintuitively, an efh1 null mutant exhibited increased colonization of the murine intestinal tract, a model of commensal colonization, whereas an EFH1 overexpressing strain exhibited reduced colonization of the intestinal tract and of the oral cavity of athymic mice, the latter situation modeling human mucosal candidiasis. When inoculated into the bloodstream of mice, both efh1 null and EFH1 overexpressing strains caused lethal infections. In contrast, other mutants are attenuated in virulence following intravenous inoculation but exhibited normal levels of intestinal colonization. Finally, although expression of several genes is dependent on transcription factor Efg1p during laboratory growth, Efg1p-independent expression of these genes was observed during growth within the murine intestinal tract. These results show that expression of EFH1 regulated the level of colonizing fungi, favoring commensalism as opposed to candidiasis. Also, different genes are required in different host niches and the pathway(s that regulates gene expression during host colonization can differ from well-characterized pathways used during laboratory growth.

  5. Living with Cat and Dog Increases Vaginal Colonization with E. coli in Pregnant Women

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    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise; Bischoff, Anne Louise; Følsgaard, Nilofar; Carson, Charlotte G.; Chawes, Bo; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Mølgaard, Anne; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vaginal flora, and furthermore the need for oral antibiotics and rate of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Methods The novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010) pregnancy cohort of 709 women participated in this analysis. Detailed information on pet exposure, oral antibiotic prescriptions filled at pharmacy and urinary tract infection during pregnancy was obtained and verified prospectively during clinic visits. Vaginal cultures were obtained at pregnancy week 36. Results Women, who had cat or dog in the home during pregnancy, had a different vaginal flora, in particular with increased Escherichia coli (E. coli) colonization; odds ratio after adjustment for lifestyle confounders and antibiotics 2.20, 95% CI, [1.27–3.80], p = 0.005. 43% of women living with cat and/or dog in the home used oral antibiotics compared to 33% of women with no cat or dog; adjusted odds ratio 1.51, 95% CI, [1.08–2.12], p = 0.016. Women living with cat had increased frequency of self-reported urinary tract infection; adjusted odds ratio 1.57, 95% CI, [1.02–2.43], p = 0.042. Conclusions The increased vaginal E. coli colonization in women living with cat or dog suggests a clinically important transmission of pathogenic bacteria from pet to owner substantiated by increased rate of antibiotic use and urinary tract infections which, which is of particular concern during pregnancy. PMID:23049986

  6. Living with cat and dog increases vaginal colonization with E. coli in pregnant women.

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    Jakob Stokholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vaginal flora, and furthermore the need for oral antibiotics and rate of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. METHODS: The novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC(2010 pregnancy cohort of 709 women participated in this analysis. Detailed information on pet exposure, oral antibiotic prescriptions filled at pharmacy and urinary tract infection during pregnancy was obtained and verified prospectively during clinic visits. Vaginal cultures were obtained at pregnancy week 36. RESULTS: Women, who had cat or dog in the home during pregnancy, had a different vaginal flora, in particular with increased Escherichia coli (E. coli colonization; odds ratio after adjustment for lifestyle confounders and antibiotics 2.20, 95% CI, [1.27-3.80], p=0.005. 43% of women living with cat and/or dog in the home used oral antibiotics compared to 33% of women with no cat or dog; adjusted odds ratio 1.51, 95% CI, [1.08-2.12], p=0.016. Women living with cat had increased frequency of self-reported urinary tract infection; adjusted odds ratio 1.57, 95% CI, [1.02-2.43], p=0.042. CONCLUSIONS: The increased vaginal E. coli colonization in women living with cat or dog suggests a clinically important transmission of pathogenic bacteria from pet to owner substantiated by increased rate of antibiotic use and urinary tract infections which, which is of particular concern during pregnancy.

  7. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in Portuguese pregnant women and vaginal colonization by Gardnerella vaginalis

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    Daniela Machado

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of vaginal colonization by Gardnerella vaginalis and of bacterial vaginosis (BV in Portuguese pregnant women, and to identify risk factors for BV and G. vaginalis colonization in pregnancy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women aged ≥ 18 years who were attending in two public hospitals of the Northwest region of Portugal. Epidemiological data was collected by anonymous questionnaire. BV was diagnosed by Nugent criteria and G. vaginalis presence was identified by polymerase chain reaction. Crude associations between the study variables and BV or G. vaginalis colonization were quantified by odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results The prevalences of BV and of G. vaginalis colonization among Portuguese pregnant women were 3.88% and 67.48%, respectively. Previous preterm delivery and colonization by G. vaginalis were factors with very high OR, but only statistically significant for a 90% CI. Conversely, higher rates of G. vaginalis colonization were found in women with basic educational level (OR = 2.77, 95% CI [1.33–5.78], during the second trimester of pregnancy (OR = 6.12, 95% CI [1.80–20.85] and with BV flora (OR = 8.73, 95% CI [0.50–153.60]. Discussion Despite the lower number of women with BV, prevalence ratios and association with risk factors were similar to recent European studies. However, the percentage of healthy women colonized by G. vaginalis was significantly higher than many previous studies, confirming that G. vaginalis colonization does not always lead to BV development.

  8. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in Portuguese pregnant women and vaginal colonization by Gardnerella vaginalis.

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    Machado, Daniela; Castro, Joana; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Nogueira-Silva, Cristina; Cerca, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of vaginal colonization by Gardnerella vaginalis and of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in Portuguese pregnant women, and to identify risk factors for BV and G. vaginalis colonization in pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women aged ≥ 18 years who were attending in two public hospitals of the Northwest region of Portugal. Epidemiological data was collected by anonymous questionnaire. BV was diagnosed by Nugent criteria and G. vaginalis presence was identified by polymerase chain reaction. Crude associations between the study variables and BV or G. vaginalis colonization were quantified by odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The prevalences of BV and of G. vaginalis colonization among Portuguese pregnant women were 3.88% and 67.48%, respectively. Previous preterm delivery and colonization by G. vaginalis were factors with very high OR, but only statistically significant for a 90% CI. Conversely, higher rates of G. vaginalis colonization were found in women with basic educational level (OR = 2.77, 95% CI [1.33-5.78]), during the second trimester of pregnancy (OR = 6.12, 95% CI [1.80-20.85]) and with BV flora (OR = 8.73, 95% CI [0.50-153.60]). Despite the lower number of women with BV, prevalence ratios and association with risk factors were similar to recent European studies. However, the percentage of healthy women colonized by G. vaginalis was significantly higher than many previous studies, confirming that G. vaginalis colonization does not always lead to BV development.

  9. Posttreatment Antifungal Resistance among Colonizing Candida Isolates in Candidemia Patients: Results from a Systematic Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R H; Johansen, H K; Søes, L M; Lemming, L E; Rosenvinge, F S; Nielsen, L; Olesen, B; Kristensen, L; Dzajic, E; Astvad, K M T; Arendrup, M C

    2015-12-28

    The prevalence of intrinsic and acquired resistance among colonizing Candida isolates from patients after candidemia was investigated systematically in a 1-year nationwide study. Patients were treated at the discretion of the treating physician. Oral swabs were obtained after treatment. Species distributions and MIC data were investigated for blood and posttreatment oral isolates from patients exposed to either azoles or echinocandins for resistance was examined by FKS sequencing, and genetic relatedness was examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). One hundred ninety-three episodes provided 205 blood and 220 oral isolates. MLST analysis demonstrated a genetic relationship for 90% of all paired blood and oral isolates. Patients exposed to azoles for ≥ 7 days (n = 93) had a significantly larger proportion of species intrinsically less susceptible to azoles (particularly Candida glabrata) among oral isolates than among initial blood isolates (36.6% versus 12.9%; P 0.5). Acquired resistance in Candida albicans was rare (acquired resistance to fluconazole (29.4%; P resistant Candida species, especially C. glabrata, following treatment for candidemia. The resistance rates were high, raising concern in general for patients exposed to antifungal drugs. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Comparison of laparoscopic peritoneal vaginoplasty and sigmoid colon vaginoplasty performed during radical surgery for primary vaginal carcinoma

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    Yao, Fengqiu; Zhao, Weidong; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Aijun; Sun, Fanglin; Hu, Weiping; Ling, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background Radical surgery of primary vaginal carcinoma typically involves partial or complete resection of the vagina, and young patients in particular can experience sexual dysfunction after surgery. Vaginoplasty is mandatory for this population, multiple vaginal reconstructive techniques have been reported. Here we attempted to determine whether the peritoneum is a feasible alternative to the sigmoid colon in vaginoplasty performed during radical surgery. Methods Between February 2005 and ...

  11. Horizontal transmission of Candida albicans and evidence of a vaccine response in mice colonized with the fungus.

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    Jim E Cutler

    Full Text Available Disseminated candidiasis is the third leading nosocomial blood stream infection in the United States and is often fatal. We previously showed that disseminated candidiasis was preventable in normal mice by immunization with either a glycopeptide or a peptide synthetic vaccine, both of which were Candida albicans cell wall derived. A weakness of these studies is that, unlike humans, mice do not have a C. albicans GI flora and they lack Candida serum antibodies. We examined the influence of C. albicans GI tract colonization and serum antibodies on mouse vaccination responses to the peptide, Fba, derived from fructose bisphosphate aldolase which has cytosolic and cell wall distributions in the fungus. We evaluated the effect of live C. albicans in drinking water and antimicrobial agents on establishment of Candida colonization of the mouse GI tract. Body mass, C. albicans in feces, and fungal-specific serum antibodies were monitored longitudinally. Unexpectedly, C. albicans colonization occurred in mice that received only antibiotics in their drinking water, provided that the mice were housed in the same room as intentionally colonized mice. The fungal strain in unintentionally colonized mice appeared identical to the strain used for intentional GI-tract colonization. This is the first report of horizontal transmission and spontaneous C. albicans colonization in mice. Importantly, many Candida-colonized mice developed serum fungal-specific antibodies. Despite the GI-tract colonization and presence of serum antibodies, the animals made antibodies in response to the Fba immunogen. This mouse model has potential for elucidating C. albicans horizontal transmission and for exploring factors that induce host defense against disseminated candidiasis. Furthermore, a combined protracted GI-tract colonization with Candida and the possibility of serum antibody responses to the presence of the fungus makes this an attractive mouse model for testing the

  12. First characterization of Candida albicans by random amplified polymorphic DNA method in Nicaragua and comparison of the diagnosis methods for vaginal candidiasis in Nicaraguan women

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    Bello Martha Darce

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 106 women with vaginitis in Nicaragua were studied. The positive rate for the identification of Candida species was 41% (44 positive cultures out of 106 women with vaginitis. The sensitivity of microscopic examination of wet mount with the potassium hydroxide (KOH was 61% and 70% with Gram's stain when using the culture of vaginal fluid as gold standard for diagnosis of candidiasis. Among the 44 positives cultures, isolated species of yeast from vaginal swabs were C. albicans (59%, C. tropicalis (23%, C. glabrata (14% and C. krusei (4%. This study reports the first characterization of 26 C. albicans stocks from Nicaragua by the random amplified polymorphic DNA method. The genetic analysis in this small C. albicans population showed the existence of linkage disequilibrium, which is consistent with the hypothesis that C. albicans undergoes a clonal propagation.

  13. Abnormal vaginal colonization by gram-negative bacteria is significantly higher in pregnancy conceived through infertility treatment compared to natural pregnancy.

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    Kim, Ji Y; Sung, Ji-Hee; Chang, Kylie Hae-Jin; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2017-03-01

    To compare abnormal vaginal colonization between natural pregnancy and pregnancy by infertility treatment in high-risk parturient women and to examine the association between abnormal vaginal colonization and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). The clinical characteristics, vaginal culture result, and delivery outcome of patients who admitted to our high-risk unit between 2005 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed and compared. We investigated the prevalence of EONS according to maternal vaginal colonization and examined the concordance between maternal vaginal bacteria and etiologic microorganism causing EONS. Among 1096 pregnancies, the rate of vaginal colonization by gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli was significantly higher in pregnancies by infertility treatment after adjustment of confounding variables (E. coli, OR [95% CI]: 2.47 [1.33-4.57], p = 0.004). The rate of EONS was significantly higher in neonates with maternal abnormal vaginal bacteria colonization (OR [95% CI]: 3.38 [1.44-7.93], p = 0.005) after adjusting for confounding variables. Notably, among microorganisms isolated from maternal vagina, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus were consistent with the results from neonatal blood culture in EONS. Our data implicate a possible association between gram-negative bacteria colonization and infertility treatment and suggest that maternal vaginal colonization may be associated with EONS of neonates in high-risk pregnancy.

  14. [Study on the production of IgG derived from vaginal epithelial cells and the effect of anti-Candida albicans].

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    Niu, X X; Li, T; Liu, Z H

    2016-10-25

    Objective: To investigate the function of IgG secreted by vaginal epithelial cells in natural resistance to vulvovaginal candidiasis. Methods: (1)Immunohistochemical method was used to determine the expression of IgG secreted by normal vaginal epithelial cells VK2/E6E7.(2)Samples were divided into three groups by different proportions of VK2/E6E7 cells to Candida albicans ,including Candida albicans: VK2/E6E7 cells were 1∶10, 1∶1[yeast+ cells(1∶10)group and yeast+ cells(1∶1)group]and VK2/E6E7 cells as blank control group. The growth status of 3 groups were observed under inverted microscope after 24 hours. ELISA method was used to detect the production of IgG in 3 groups after 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 hours. Results: (1)Immunohistochemical method showed normal vaginal epithelial cells were polygonal with pale blue nucleus and cytoplasm were distributed by brown granules, which indicated that IgG were strongly positive. While negative control group just had light blue nuclei.(2)Inverted microscope observation represented that control group had a clear outline, strong refraction and large nuclei with cobblestone-like appearance. After yeast+cells(1∶10)group co-cultured for 24 hours, Candida albicans begin to sprout and transformed to hyphae. VK2/E6E7 cells and Candida albicans were close to each other with vacuoles and small black granules in the cytoplasm. The morphology of cells were complete. Yeast+ cells(1∶1)group showed obvious invasion effect of Candida albicans to VK2/E6E7 cells with vigorous growth of hyphae, the decreased number and incomplete morphology of cells. Moreover, the connection of cells were loose. ELISA assay showed that there were statistically significant difference of IgG secretions between the 3 groups after 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 hours(PCandida albicans, secretion of IgG was significantly lower than that in the control group. The statistical difference of IgG secretions between yeast+ cells(1∶10)group and yeast+ cells(1∶1)group after

  15. Prevalence of Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization in The Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

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    MR Nazer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Group B Strepococcus(GBS is one of the most important causes of neonatal infections including septicemia and meningitis. It also plays an important role in maternal infections such as chorioamnionitis, pyelonephritis, metritis and post partum infection. The present study was carried out to find the prevalence of GBS in pregnant women with 28 to 38 weeks gestational age. Methods: In this study, 100 pregnant women referring to the obstetrical clinic of Asalian Hospital in Khorramabad city in the third trimester of pregnancy (after explaining the study, getting informed consent and demographic informations were tested for GBS by taking a vaginal sample. The sample was taken by sterile cotton swab. The swabs were placed in transport media, transported to the central Lab, and were inoculated in blood agar. Then all samples were analyzed for the presence of GBS. Results: In this study, the prevalence of positive vaginal GBS culture in pregnant women was 14% (CI: 7.2-20.8%. No significant correlation were found between this positive culture and maternal age, gestational age, abortion status, diabetes mellitus and pregnancy induced hypertension, while a significant correlation was found between positive cultures and parity. Conclusion: As the colonization rate of GBS in pregnant women of Khorramabad is high, routine culture-based screening is recommended for all pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy.

  16. Comparison of laparoscopic peritoneal vaginoplasty and sigmoid colon vaginoplasty performed during radical surgery for primary vaginal carcinoma.

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    Yao, Fengqiu; Zhao, Weidong; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Aijun; Sun, Fanglin; Hu, Weiping; Ling, Bin

    2014-09-30

    Radical surgery of primary vaginal carcinoma typically involves partial or complete resection of the vagina, and young patients in particular can experience sexual dysfunction after surgery. Vaginoplasty is mandatory for this population, multiple vaginal reconstructive techniques have been reported. Here we attempted to determine whether the peritoneum is a feasible alternative to the sigmoid colon in vaginoplasty performed during radical surgery. Between February 2005 and July 2009, 12 patients underwent radical surgery for Federation of International Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage I primary vaginal carcinoma in the upper one-third of the vagina. To retain a sex life, the patients received vaginoplasty either with the peritoneum (peritoneal group, 5 patients) or with the sigmoid colon (sigmoid group, 7 patients) during radical surgery. Surgeries were performed at the Anhui Provincial Hospital in China. The data between the two groups was retrospectively analyzed. The operating time was shorter for the peritoneal group than for the sigmoid group (Pvaginas between the two groups during surgery (P>0.05). No metastasis or operation-related complications were observed in any of the patients. Six months after surgery, the neo-vaginas of both groups were smooth, soft, and moist. The neo-vaginas in the sigmoid group were similar in size during and 6 months after surgery. The neo-vaginas in the peritoneal group were shorter (although no less wide) 6 months after surgery (Pvaginas of the peritoneal group, and intestinalization in the neo-vaginas of the sigmoid group. At the 36-month follow-up, all patients were clinically free of disease. Laparoscopic vaginoplasty using the peritoneum compared with using the sigmoid colon is simpler and more feasible for management of Stage I primary vaginal carcinoma. Its benefits include shorter operating time, no bowel disturbance, and production of a hygienic vaginal environment, as well as a potential sex life and oncologic outcome

  17. Characterization of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal fluid: identification, antifungal susceptibility, and virulence profile - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.13557

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    Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 101 (20.0% yeast samples were isolated from vaginal fluids of 504 non-hospitalized patients in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil and Candida albicans was more frequent specie (93.1% identified by seminested PCR method. All the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and nystatin, and 93.1% of them were susceptible to fluconazole. The acid proteinase, hemolytic and phospholipase activities were observed in 99.0, 90.0, and 88.0% of Candida spp., respectively. Around 67.0% of the strains had adherence indexes of 0.5 to 1.5 yeasts by Vero cell, and most of them showed a hydrophilic profile. Correlation studies indicated hydrophilic yeasts presented higher adherence index, proteinase, and phospholipase activities; and a positive correlation between all enzymes was also observed. In addition, the isolates with high hemolytic activity were less susceptible to fluconazole and amphotericin B. These results of Candida prevalence and antifungal susceptibility corroborate with literature’s datas and correlation between virulence factors and MIC values suggest Candida isolates from vaginal fluid less susceptible to antifungal and with higher extracellular enzymes production can be more virulent to cause tissue damage.  

  18. The game theory of Candida albicans colonization dynamics reveals host status-responsive gene expression.

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    Tyc, Katarzyna M; Herwald, Sanna E; Hogan, Jennifer A; Pierce, Jessica V; Klipp, Edda; Kumamoto, Carol A

    2016-03-01

    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans colonizes the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mammalian hosts as a benign commensal. However, in an immunocompromised host, the fungus is capable of causing life-threatening infection. We previously showed that the major transcription factor Efg1p is differentially expressed in GI-colonizing C. albicans cells dependent on the host immune status. To understand the mechanisms that underlie this host-dependent differential gene expression, we utilized mathematical modeling to dissect host-pathogen interactions. Specifically, we used principles of evolutionary game theory to study the mechanism that governs dynamics of EFG1 expression during C. albicans colonization. Mathematical modeling predicted that down-regulation of EFG1 expression within individual fungal cells occurred at different average rates in different hosts. Rather than using relatively transient signaling pathways to adapt to a new environment, we demonstrate that C. albicans overcomes the host defense strategy by modulating the activity of diverse fungal histone modifying enzymes that control EFG1 expression. Based on our modeling and experimental results we conclude that C. albicans cells sense the local environment of the GI tract and respond to differences by altering EFG1 expression to establish optimal survival strategies. We show that the overall process is governed via modulation of epigenetic regulators of chromatin structure.

  19. Hypoxic conditions and iron restriction affect the cell-wall proteome of Candida albicans grown under vagina-simulative conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosinska, Grazyna J.; de Groot, Piet W. J.; Teixeira de Mattos, M. Joost; Dekker, Henk L.; de Koster, Chris G.; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.; Klis, Frans M.

    2008-01-01

    Proteins that are covalently linked to the skeletal polysaccharides of the cell wall of Candida albicans play a major role in the colonization of the vaginal mucosal surface, which may result in vaginitis. Here we report on the variability of the cell-wall proteome of C. albicans as a function of

  20. Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans colonization in patients wearing dental prosthesis.

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    Baena-Monroy, Tania; Moreno-Maldonado, Víctor; Franco-Martínez, Fernando; Aldape-Barrios, Beatriz; Quindós, Guillermo; Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio

    2005-04-01

    Denture stomatitis is associated to Candida albicans, different bacteria and other co-factors such as an acid pH, a carbohydrate ingestion increase, different systemic illnesses and pharmacological treatments. The aim of this study was to determine Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans prevalence in the mucous membrane and prosthesis of patients with and without atrophic denture stomatitis and its relationship with other potential clinical co-factors. Saliva was collected from 105 patients (62 female and 43 male) wearing dental prosthesis in order to measure their pH. Oral samples of the mucous membrane and the internal surface of dental prosthesis were taken with sterile cotton to proceed with the microbiological study. The identification of the isolated microorganisms was performed using conventional microbiological methods. Diabetes and Hypertension were the most frequent systemic illnesses. High carbohydrate ingestion was observed in numerous patients. Atrophic denture stomatitis was reported in 50 patients and the pH average in saliva was of 5.2. The presence of C albicans, S. aureus and S. mutans in the mucous membrane and prosthesis was of 51.4%, 52.4% and 67.6%, respectively. C. albicans was isolated in 66.7% from the prosthesis, whereas S. aureus and S. mutans were isolated in 49.5% of those same prosthesis. C. albicans was isolated in 86% of the patients with atrophic denture stomatitis and S. aureus was isolated in a similar percentage (84% of patients). The isolation of S. mutans was less frequent, and it was observed in 16% of the oral samples of these patients. C. albicans, S. aureus and S. mutans frequently colonize the oral mucous of patients wearing dental prosthesis. This illness-bearing condition is more frequent in patients with denture stomatitis, even though dental prosthesis colonization is lower than in the oral mucous.

  1. Detection of Candida spp. in the vagina of a cohort of nulliparous pregnant women by culture and molecular methods: Is there an association between maternal vaginal and infant oral colonisation?

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    Payne, Matthew S; Cullinane, Meabh; Garland, Suzanne M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Donath, Susan M; Bennett, Catherine M; Amir, Lisa H

    2016-04-01

    Most studies describing vaginal Candida spp. in pregnancy focus on symptomatic vaginitis, rather than asymptomatic colonisation, and solely utilise microbiological culture. The extent to which asymptomatic vaginal carriage may represent a reservoir for infant oral colonisation has been highly debated. This study formed part of the Candida and Staphylococcus Transmission Longitudinal Evaluation (CASTLE) study, in Melbourne, Australia, from 2009 to 2011 and used culture and molecular methods to examine vaginal swabs collected late in the third trimester of pregnancy for Candida spp. Oral swabs from infants were also examined using culture methods. Overall, 80 of 356 (22%) women were positive for Candida spp; the majority being Candida albicans (83%). Candida glabrata and other Candida spp. were also identified, but in much lower numbers. Molecular analysis identified numerous positive samples not detected by culture, including 13 cases of C. albicans. In addition, some positive samples only recorded to genus level by culture were accurately identified as either C. albicans or C. glabrata following molecular analyses. Eighteen infants recorded positive Candida spp. cultures, predominantly C. albicans. However, there were only four (25%) mother/infant dyads where C. albicans was detected. This study provides valuable data on asymptomatic colonisation rates of Candida spp. within an asymptomatic population of women late in pregnancy. The utilisation of molecular methods improved the rate of detection and provided a more accurate means for identification of non-albicans Candida spp. The low mother/infant colonisation rate suggests that non-maternal sources are likely involved in determining infant oral colonisation status. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Identificação por PCR e sensibilidade a antifúngicos de isolados clínicos vaginais de Candida sp Identification by PCR and antifungal susceptibility of vaginal clinical Candida sp isolates

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    Izabel Almeida Alves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A candidíase vaginal é uma condição que afeta um grande número de mulheres em idade fértil. Candida albicans é a espécie mais frequentemente isolada de secreção vaginal, entretanto, outras espécies mais resistentes às drogas antifúngicas podem ser isoladas de amostras clínicas vaginais. MÉTODOS: Foram identificadas as espécies de 30 isolados vaginais de Candida sp por PCR utilizando o primer universal ITS4 e primers espécie-específicos para C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis e C. krusei. A sensibilidade destes isolados frente à anfotericina B, fluconazol e voriconazol foi determinada pelo método de macrodiluição M27-A2 do CLSI. RESULTADOS: Através dos ensaios de PCR, 28 isolados foram caracterizados como C. albicans e 2 isolados apresentaram amplificação para os primers específicos de C. albicans e C. glabrata. A concentração inibitória mínima para anfotericina B variou de 0,03µg/mL a 0,25µg/mL, para o fluconazol de 0,125µg/mL a 16µg/mL e para o voriconazol de 0,03µg/mL a 0,25µg/mL. CONCLUSÕES: A identificação de Candida ao nível de espécie através de ensaios de PCR deve ser relevante para o gerenciamento clínico destas infecções.INTRODUCTION: Vaginal candidiasis is a condition that affects innumerous fertile women. Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated species from vaginal discharge; however, other different species that are more resistant to antifungal drugs can be identified in vaginal clinical samples. METHODS: The species of 30 vaginal Candida isolates was identified by PCR using the universal ITS4 primer and species-specific primers for C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The sensitivity pattern to amphotericin B, fluconazole and voriconazole was assessed using the CLSI M27-A2 macrodilution method. RESULTS: The PCR assay revealed 28 C. albicans and 2 samples showed amplification for C. albicans and C. glabrata primers. The minimum inhibitory

  3. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran: comparison of colonizing and infecting isolates

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    Parisa Badiee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran. Methods In totally, 846 Candida species were isolated from more than 4000 clinical samples and identified by the API 20 C AUX system. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution method according to CLSI. Results The most frequent Candida species isolated from all patients was Candida albicans (510/846. The epidemiological cutoff value and percentage of wild-type species for amphotericin B and fluconazole in Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml (95% and 4 μg/ml (96%; 1 μg/ml (95% and 8 μg/ml (95%; 0.5 μg/ml (99% and 19 μg/ml (98%; and 4 μg/ml (95% and 64 μg/ml (95%, respectively. The MIC90 and epidemiological cutoff values to posaconazole in Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml. There were significant differences between infecting and colonizing isolates of Candida tropicalis in MIC 90 values of amphotericin B, and isolates of Candida glabrata in values of amphotericin B, caspofungin, and voriconazole (P < 0.05. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the susceptibility patterns of Candida species (colonizing and infecting isolates in immunocompromised patients are not the same and acquired resistance was seen in some species.

  4. Investigation of Oral Candida Albicans Colonization in Patients Treated with Rapid Maxillary Expansion

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    Fundagül Bilgiç

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate Candida albicans colonies in the oral microflora of patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion (RME. Materials and Methods: Totally 54 male and female subjects, including 27 using bonded rapid maxillary expander and 27 patients without orthodontic treatment, were entered in the present study. The study group consisted of 27 patients (14 females and 13 males suffering from both maxillary constriction and posterior cross-bite. Patients treated with a rigid acrylic, bonded rapid maxillary expander were evaluated two times using oral rinses: one at baseline (T0 and 2 after palatal spreading out (T1. The data were analyzed using a chi-square test and a Fisher’s exact test. Results: After the use of RME, no significant changes were found between the data showing C. albicans colonies at T0 and at T1 (p=1.964. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the RME therapy and appliance did not cause a significant change in oral C. albicans colonization.

  5. A survey on Candida colonization prevalence in patients with gastritis, duodenitis and peptic ulcer

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    "S.J. Hashemi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged antiacid and antibiotic usage in gasterointestinal diseases may predispose candidial colonization in GI tract. In order to isolate and diagnose of candida infections in patients with gastritis, duodenitis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, this study have been planned. Methods: We studied 300 biopsy specimens of patients referred to hospital, 51.7% of the patients were male and the others were female. The isolated fungi were identified by direct examination and culture of specimens. Results: Forthy four cases of yeasts were isolated in this investigation. Isolated yeasts have been identified as follows: 26 cases of C.albicance , I case C.tropicalis, 2 cases of C.krusei, and finally 1 case of unknown yeast. Conclusion: All the patients had a positive history of long lasting antacid taking for gastric ulser or gastritis. Candidiasis must be investigated in patients with gastritis, duodenitis and gastric ulcer, who are refractory to classic therapies and also in patients who have the chronic disease .

  6. Candida isolates from pregnant women and their antifungal susceptibility in a Malaysian tertiary-care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Siti Norbaya; Noor, Sabariah Md; Nor, Lailatul Akmar Mat; Osman, Malina; Rahman, M M

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant women are susceptible to vaginal colonization and infection by yeast. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of Candida spp in high vaginal swabs of pregnant women and their antifungal susceptibility. High vaginal swab samples received from Serdang Hospital, Selangor, Malaysia during 2011 initially had microscopic examination, Gram-staining and fungal culture. These were finally confirmed by growth in chromogenic medium (CHROMagarCandida; Difco BBL, USA) and commercial biochemical identification kit (API 20C AUX; bioMérieux, Lyon, France). Antifungal susceptibility was performed by E-test method. Out of 1163 specimens 200 (17.2%) candida spp were confirmed from high vaginal swabs of pregnant women. Candida albicans (83.5%) is the most common species detected followed by Candida glabrata (16%) and Candida famata (0.05%). All C. albicans and C.famata isolates were susceptible to fluconazole while C.glabrata isolates were dose dependent susceptibility. First and second trimester, and diabetes were considered significant factors in patients for the vaginal candidiasis (p < 0.001). In pregnant women, C. albicans was the frequently isolated yeast from high vaginal swabs. Routine screening and treatment are important of pregnant women regardless of symptoms.

  7. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Mo; Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter , Escherichia coli , Candida , and Gardnerella ). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC.

  8. Host factors do not influence the colonization or infection by fluconazole resistant Candida species in hospitalized patients

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    Ho Yu-Huai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nosocomial yeast infections have significantly increased during the past two decades in industrialized countries, including Taiwan. This has been associated with the emergence of resistance to fluconazole and other antifungal drugs. The medical records of 88 patients, colonized or infected with Candida species, from nine of the 22 hospitals that provided clinical isolates to the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY program in 1999 were reviewed. A total of 35 patients contributed fluconazole resistant strains [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs ≧ 64 mg/l], while the remaining 53 patients contributed susceptible ones (MICs ≦ 8 mg/l. Fluconazole resistance was more frequent among isolates of Candida tropicalis (46.5% than either C. albicans (36.8% or C. glabrata (30.8%. There was no significant difference in demographic characteristics or underlying diseases among patients contributing strains different in drug susceptibility.

  9. Vaginal reconstruction with sigmoid colon in patients with congenital absence of vagina and menses retention: a report of treatment experience in 22 young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Shulan; Wang, Mingqian

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the surgical feasibility, sexual satisfaction and complications of vaginal reconstruction with sigmoid colon in patients with congenital absence of vagina and menses retention. Retrospective analysis of surgical techniques and long-term postoperative follow-up was performed for 22 patients who underwent vaginal reconstruction with sigmoid colon at a single hospital between 1977 and 2011 to treat congenital absence of vagina with menses retention. All patients achieved satisfactory sexual function after marriage. No patients experienced enterospastic abdominal pain during sexual intercourse. The neovaginas accommodated two or more fingers and had depths >10 cm. The mucous membranes were soft and flexible, and secretions of the sigmoid mucosa provided adequate and acceptable lubrication. No patient required vaginal stents, and none developed vaginal stenosis or reported pain with vaginal expansion. Fifteen of the 22 patients underwent hysterectomies due to cervical agenesis; seven retained their uterus and had onset of normal menses postoperatively. Two patients became pregnant 1 year after marriage; one achieved 38-week gestation, underwent cesarean section due to premature rupture of membranes, and delivered a healthy boy. The other experienced natural incomplete abortion and underwent curettage at her local hospital. This study confirms that sigmoid colon vaginal reconstruction is a good choice for treating congenital absence of vagina and menses retention and results in the closest approximation to the physical function of a normal female vagina. Reproductive ability can be retained in many cases for patients with a well-developed uterus and cervix.

  10. Prevalência de cândida na flora vaginal de mulheres atendidas num serviço de planejamento familiar Prevalence of candida in the vagina of women attended at a family planning service

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    Antônio Aleixo Neto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a prevalência de Candida sp. e a distribuição de suas espécies na flora vaginal de mulheres numa clínica de planejamento familiar. Método: estudo transversal no qual se avaliaram prospectivamente 72 mulheres não-grávidas, com ou sem queixas específicas, sendo coletadas amostras de secreção vaginal para cultura de leveduras, efetuada a medição do pH vaginal e anotados dados de achados do exame ginecológico. Resultados: leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida foram encontradas em 18 casos (25%. A C. albicans foi a espécie mais prevalente (77,8% e conseqüentemente 22,2% foram não-albicans. Entre as não-albicans a espécie mais prevalente foi a C. glabrata (16,7% seguida pela C. parapsilosis (5,6%. Prurido e ardor foram os únicos sintomas relacionados significativamente com a presença de cândida. Foi observado que a C. glabrata, ao contrário da C. albicans, não causa corrimento clinicamente verificável ao exame ginecológico. Não foram verificadas associações de alguns fatores predisponentes (idade, escolaridade e uso de contraceptivos com a presença ou não de cândida. Conclusões: nossos resultados sugerem: a uma alta prevalência de Candida sp. entre as mulheres (25%; b que as espécies não-albicans desempenham um papel importante no meio vaginal; c que prurido e ardor são os sintomas mais comuns na presença de cândida e d que a C. glabrata não costuma causar corrimento vaginal ao exame ginecológico. Finalmente, é importante observar que nossos resultados são consistentes com o que a literatura internacional tem mostrado nos últimos anos.SUMMARY Purpose: to estimate the prevalence of Candida sp. and the distribution of its species in the vagina of women attended at a family planning Service. Methods: a cross-sectional study evaluating prospectively 72 nonpregnant women, with or without specific complaints. Samples were checked for the presence of yeast and vaginal pH. Data obtained

  11. Effects of salivary protein flow and indigenous microorganisms on initial colonization of Candida albicans in an in vivo model

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    Kanaguchi Norihiko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that is part of the commensal microbial flora of the oral cavity. When the host immune defenses are impaired or when the normal microbial flora is disturbed, C. albicans triggers recurrent infections of the oral mucosa and tongue. Recently, we produced NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice that show hyposalivation, decrease of salivary protein flow, lack IgA and IgG in saliva, and have decreased NK cells. Our objective was to characterize C. albicans infection and biofilm formation in mice. Methods NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice were used as an animal model for C. albicans infection. C. albicans yeast and hyphal forms solutions were introduced in the oral cavity after disinfection by Chlorhexidine. Results The numbers of C. albicans colonized and decreased in a time-dependent manner in NOD/SCID.e2f1+/+ after inoculation. However, the colonization levels were higher in NOD/SCID.e2f1+/+ than NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice. In the mice fed 1% sucrose water before inoculation, C. albicans sample was highly contaminated by indigenous microorganisms in the oral cavity; and was not in the mice fed no sucrose water. The colonization of C. albicans was not influenced by the contamination of indigenous microorganisms. The hyphal form of C. albicans restricted the restoration of indigenous microorganisms. The decreased saliva in NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- did not increase the colonization of C. albicans in comparison to NOD/SCID.e2f1+/+ mice. We suggest that the receptor in saliva to C. albicans may not be sufficiently provided in the oral cavity of NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice. Conclusion The saliva protein flow may be very important for C. albicans initial colonization, where the indigenous microorganisms do not affect colonization in the oral cavity.

  12. The vaginal mycobiome: A contemporary perspective on fungi in women's health and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, L Latéy; Ravel, Jacques

    2017-04-03

    Most of what is known about fungi in the human vagina has come from culture-based studies and phenotypic characterization of single organisms. Though valuable, these approaches have masked the complexity of fungal communities within the vagina. The vaginal mycobiome has become an emerging field of study as genomics tools are increasingly employed and we begin to appreciate the role these fungal communities play in human health and disease. Though vastly outnumbered by its bacterial counterparts, fungi are important constituents of the vaginal ecosystem in many healthy women. Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, colonizes 20% of women without causing any overt symptoms, yet it is one of the leading causes of infectious vaginitis. Understanding its mechanisms of commensalism and patho-genesis are both essential to developing more effective therapies. Describing the interactions between Candida, bacteria (such as Lactobacillus spp.) and other fungi in the vagina is funda-mental to our characterization of the vaginal mycobiome.

  13. Fluconazole Resistance Patterns in Candida Species that Colonize Women with HIV Infection

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    Lulu Zhang, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Systemic antifungal therapy, including a vaginal topical regimen in women with HIV infection correlated with reduced fluconazole susceptibility of oral and vaginal isolates. Genotype profiling has disclosed that a majority of isolates from the same individual are clustered together, suggesting the likelihood of an original strain with some microevolution. We observed a change from a susceptibility dose dependent to a resistant phenotype of isolates in 2 women with HIV infection, even though no treatments were received during the 4-month study and the prior 2 years.

  14. Efficacy of the clinical agent VT-1161 against fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant Candida albicans in a murine model of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, E P; Hoekstra, W J; Schotzinger, R J; Sobel, J D; Lilly, E A; Fidel, P L

    2015-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent VVC (RVVC) remain major health problems for women. VT-1161, a novel fungal CYP51 inhibitor which has potent antifungal activity against fluconazole-sensitive Candida albicans, retained its in vitro potency (MIC50 of ≤0.015 and MIC90 of 0.12 μg/ml) against 10 clinical isolates from VVC or RVVC patients resistant to fluconazole (MIC50 of 8 and MIC90 of 64 μg/ml). VT-1161 pharmacokinetics in mice displayed a high volume of distribution (1.4 liters/kg), high oral absorption (73%), and a long half-life (>48 h) and showed rapid penetration into vaginal tissue. In a murine model of vaginal candidiasis using fluconazole-sensitive yeast, oral doses as low as 4 mg/kg VT-1161 significantly reduced the fungal burden 1 and 4 days posttreatment (P fluconazole (MIC of 64 μg/ml) but fully sensitive in vitro to VT-1161 was used. When an isolate partially sensitive to VT-1161 (MIC of 0.12 μg/ml) and moderately resistant to fluconazole (MIC of 8 μg/ml) was used, VT-1161 remained efficacious, whereas fluconazole was efficacious on day 1 but did not sustain efficacy 4 days posttreatment. Both agents were inactive in treating an infection with an isolate that demonstrated weaker potency (MICs of 2 and 64 μg/ml for VT-1161 and fluconazole, respectively). Finally, the plasma concentrations of free VT-1161 were predictive of efficacy when in excess of the in vitro MIC values. These data support the clinical development of VT-1161 as a potentially more efficacious treatment for VVC and RVVC. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Robust Vaginal Colonization of Macaques with a Novel Vaginally Disintegrating Tablet Containing a Live Biotherapeutic Product to Prevent HIV Infection in Women: e0122730

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laurel A Lagenaur; Iwona Swedek; Peter P Lee; Thomas P Parks

    2015-01-01

      MucoCept is a biotherapeutic for prevention of HIV-1 infection in women and contains a human, vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii that has been genetically enhanced to express the HIV-1 entry inhibitor...

  16. The Correlation Between Candida Colonization of Distinct Body Sites and Invasive Candidiasis in Emergency Intensive Care Units: Statistical and Molecular Biological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Cen; Dong, Danfeng; Zhang, Lihua; Tian, Yuan; Ni, Qi; Mao, Enqiang; Peng, Yibing

    2016-08-01

    Both statistical and molecular biological methods were used to evaluate the association between Candida colonization of different body sites and invasive candidiasis (IC) and analyse the potential infection sources of IC. Candida surveillance cultures from the urine, sputum, rectum and skin were performed on patients admitted to an emergency intensive care units (EICU) of a tertiary care hospital in Shanghai, China, from February 2014 to January 2015. Specimens were collected once a week at admission and thereafter. The patients' clinical data were collected, and Candida isolates were genotyped using polymorphic microsatellite markers. A total of 111 patients were enrolled. Patients with positive urine (23.3 vs. 2.5 %, p = 0.001) and rectal swab (13.6 vs. 0 %, p = 0.010) cultures were more likely to develop IC. However, the risk for IC was not significantly different among patients with and without respiratory (10.0 vs. 5.8 %, p = 0.503) and skin (33.3 vs. 6.5 %, p = 0.056) colonization. Gene microevolution frequently occurred at rectal swab and urine sites, and IC with possible source of infection was caused by rectal isolates (2/7), urine isolates (4/7) and sputum isolate (1/7).The colonization of gut and urinary tract maybe more relevant indicators of IC, which should be taken into consideration when selecting practical body sites for Candida surveillance cultures.

  17. Oral Candida colonization in oral cancer patients and its relationship with traditional risk factors of oral cancer: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Ali D; Wiesenfeld, David; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Candida, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, has been implicated in oral and oesophageal cancers. This study aimed to examine oral Candida carriage in 52 oral cancer patients and 104 age-, gender- and denture status-matched oral cancer-free subjects. We assessed general health, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, use of alcohol-containing mouthwash and periodontal status (community periodontal index of treatment needs). Yeasts were isolated using oral rinse technique and genetically identified via Real-Time PCR-High resolution melting curve analysis of conserved ribosomal DNA. Conditional and binary logistic regressions were used to identify explanatory variables that are risk factors for oral cancer. The frequencies of oral yeasts' presence and high oral colonization were significantly higher in oral cancer than non-oral cancer patients (p=001; p=0.033, respectively). No significant difference in the isolation profile of Candida species was found between the two groups, except C. parapsilosis was more frequent in non-oral cancer group. Differences were noticed in the incidence of C. albicans strains where significantly more C. albicans genotype-A was isolated from cancer patients and significantly more C. albicans genotype-B isolated from non-cancer patients. Multiple regression analyses showed significant association with cancer observed for alcohol drinking (OR=4.253; 95% CI=1.351, 13.386), Candida presence (OR=3.242; 95% CI=1.505, 6.984) and high oral colonization (OR=3.587; 95% CI=1.153, 11.162). These results indicate that there is a significant association between oral cancer occurrence and Candida oral colonization and that the observed genotypic diversity of C. albicans strains may play a role in oral carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Probiotics Prevent Candida Colonization and Invasive Fungal Sepsis in Preterm Neonates: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hua-Jian; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qiao; Shakya, Shristi; Li, Zhong-Yue

    2017-04-01

    To investigate whether probiotic supplementation could reduce the risk of fungal infection in preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on the effect of probiotics on fungal infection in preterm neonates. The outcomes of interest were Candida colonization and invasive fungal sepsis. Seven trials involving 1371 preterm neonates were included. Meta-analysis (fixed-effects model) showed that probiotic supplementation was significantly associated with a lower risk of Candida colonization (2 RCTs, n = 329; relative risk (RR), 0.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27-0.67; p = 0.0002; I 2  = 0%), and invasive fungal sepsis (7 RCTs, n = 1371; RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46-0.88; p = 0.006; I 2  = 13%). After excluding one study with a high baseline incidence (75%) of fungal sepsis, the effect of probiotics on invasive fungal sepsis became statistically insignificant (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.44-1.78; p = 0.72; I 2  = 15%). When using the random-effects model, the effect of probiotics remained favorable for Candida colonization (RR, 0.43; 95% CI 0.27-0.68; p = 0.0002; I 2  = 0%) but not for fungal sepsis (RR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.38-1.08; p = 0.10; I 2  = 13%). Current evidence indicates that probiotics can reduce the risk of Candida colonization in preterm neonates in NICUs. Limited data support that probiotic supplementation prevents invasive fungal sepsis in preterm neonates. High-quality and adequately powered RCTs are warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Interaction of Candida Species with the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühbacher, Andreas; Burger-Kentischer, Anke; Rupp, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    The human skin is commonly colonized by diverse fungal species. Some Candida species, especially C. albicans, do not only reside on the skin surface as commensals, but also cause infections by growing into the colonized tissue. However, defense mechanisms at the skin barrier level are very efficient, involving residential non-immune and immune cells as well as immune cells specifically recruited to the site of infection. Therefore, the skin is an effective barrier against fungal infection. While most studies about commensal and pathogenic interaction of Candida species with host epithelia focus on the interaction with mucosal surfaces such as the vaginal and gastrointestinal epithelia, less is known about the mechanisms underlying Candida interaction with the skin. In this review, we focus on the ecology and molecular pathogenesis of Candida species on the skin and give an overview of defense mechanisms against C. albicans in this context. We also discuss new research avenues in dermal infection, including the involvement of neurons, fibroblasts, and commensal bacteria in both mouse and human model systems. PMID:28590443

  20. Potential association of specific Candida parapsilosis genotypes, bloodstream infections and colonization of health workers' hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, D; Scordino, F; Pernice, I; Lo Passo, C; Galbo, R; David, A; Barberi, I; Criseo, G; Cascio, A; Romeo, O

    2014-11-01

    Fungal nosocomial infections continue to be a serious problem among hospitalized patients, decreasing quality of life and adding millions of euros to healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of fungi associated with the hands of healthcare workers and to genotype Candida parapsilosis isolates in order to understand whether their high clinical prevalence stems from endemic nosocomial genotypes or from the real emergence of epidemiologically-unrelated strains. Approximately 39% (50/129) of healthcare workers were positive for yeasts and among 77 different fungal isolates recovered, C. parapsilosis was the most frequent (44/77; 57%). Twenty-seven diverse genotypes were obtained by microsatellite analysis of 42 selected blood and hand isolates. Most of the isolates from hands showed a new, unrelated, genotype, whereas a particular group of closely related genotypes prevailed in blood samples. Some of the latter genotypes were also found on the hands of healthcare workers, indicating a persistence of these clones within our hospital. C. parapsilosis genotypes from the hands were much more heterogeneous than clinical ones, thus reflecting a high genetic diversity among isolates, which is notably unusual and unexpected for this species. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  1. Puborectal sling interposition combined with seton drainage for pouch-vaginal fistula after rectal cancer surgery with colonic J pouch-anal reconstruction: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Aya; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Okigami, Masato; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Hiro, Junichiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koji; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The management of postoperative rectovaginal fistula (RVF) after rectal cancer surgery is difficult and requires reconstruction of the anastomotic site and fistula. Though various surgical procedures have been reported for the repair of RVFs, the results of surgical repair are often unsatisfactory, and failure of the initial repair leads to difficulty in the later operations. Furthermore, it has been reported that cases associated with local infection result in low success rates. We report a case of an 80-year-old woman with a recurrent colonic J pouch-vaginal fistula after anoabdominal rectal resection with partial internal sphincteric resection, who achieved a good outcome following a repair using a puborectal sling interposition combined with seton drainage. It may be a useful option for RVF management in repair of such pouch-vaginal fistula after coloanal anastomosis with intersphincteric resection.

  2. Effect of E.globulus upon Candida colonization in normal and diabetic rats

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    Mohammad Bokaeian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of present study is to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Method: Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n=10: I. normal control, II. control+C. albicans, III. control+eucalyptus+C. albicans, IV. Diabetic control, V. diabetic+C. albicans, VI. diabetic+eucalyptus+C. albicans. Experimental diabetes was induced in IV-VI groups after a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight and eucalyptus was added to the diet (62.5 g/kg and drinking water (2.5 g/L of III and VI groups for 3 weeks. The II, III, V, and VI groups were inoculated with C. albicans in seventh day using intraperitoneal injection of C. albicans. At the end of 23 days experiment, fasted rats were killed by cervical decapitation. Blood was collected from neck vein for estimation of glucose. C. albicans concentrations were estimated in liver and kidneys using serial dilution culture of tissue homogenates. Results: Eucalyptus administration significantly improved the hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyphagia, and it also compensated weight loss of diabetic rats (p=0.05. Moreover, eucalyptus caused a significant reduction in C. albicans concentration in liver and kidney homogenates (p=0.04. Conclusion: The results revealed that eucalyptus improves Candidia infection in normal and diabetic rats

  3. Candida survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polke, Melanie; Hube, Bernhard; Jacobsen, Ilse D

    2015-01-01

    Only few Candida species, e.g., Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida parapsilosis, are successful colonizers of a human host. Under certain circumstances these species can cause infections ranging from superficial to life-threatening disseminated candidiasis. The success of C. albicans, the most prevalent and best studied Candida species, as both commensal and human pathogen depends on its genetic, biochemical, and morphological flexibility which facilitates adaptation to a wide range of host niches. In addition, formation of biofilms provides additional protection from adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, in many host niches Candida cells coexist with members of the human microbiome. The resulting fungal-bacterial interactions have a major influence on the success of C. albicans as commensal and also influence disease development and outcome. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge of important survival strategies of Candida spp., focusing on fundamental fitness and virulence traits of C. albicans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Colonização e espécies de Candida em pacientes submetidos à radioterapia cervicofacial Candida colonization and species in patients submitted to head and neck radiotherapy

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    Paulo Rogério Ferreti Bonan

    2007-12-01

    radiotherapy (p = 0.001 and increased Candida carriage, mainly C. tropicalis and C. albicans, with species diversification. The correlation between reduced salivary flow and increased Candida carriage was statistically demonstrated (p = 0.009. After 12 months of the radiotherapy, the patients showed higher incidence of C. albicans and C. tropicalis. In conclusion, head and neck irradiated patients showed reduced salivary flow during radiotherapy, increasing of Candida colonization and higher variety of Candida species on saliva than non irradiated patients during and after radiotherapy.

  5. Exploring ecological modelling to investigate factors governing the colonization success in nosocomial environment of Candida albicans and other pathogenic yeasts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corte, Laura; Roscini, Luca; Colabella, Claudia; Tascini, Carlo; Leonildi, Alessandro; Sozio, Emanuela; Menichetti, Francesco; Merelli, Maria; Scarparo, Claudio; Meyer, Wieland; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Bassetti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Two hundred seventy seven strains from eleven opportunistic species of the genus Candida, isolated from two Italian hospitals, were identified and analyzed for their ability to form biofilm in laboratory conditions...

  6. Prevalence of Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana in pregnant women suffering from vulvovaginal candidiasis in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, María Josefina; Cuestas, María Luján; Landanburu, María Fernanda; Mujica, María Teresa

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a vulvovaginitis commonly diagnosed in gynecology care. In recent years, the taxonomy of the most important pathogenic Candida species, such as Candida albicans have undergone significant changes. This study examined the prevalence of C. albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in vaginal specimens from 210 pregnant women suffering from vulvovaginitis or having asymptomatic colonization. Phenotypic and molecular methods were used for the identification of the species. During the studied period, 55 isolates of Candida or other yeasts were obtained from specimens collected from 52 patients suffering from vulvovaginitis (24.8%). C. albicans was the predominant Candida species in 42 isolates (80.7%), either alone or in combination with other species of the genus (5.7%, n=3). Additionally, nine isolates of C. albicans (50%) were obtained from asymptomatic patients (n=18). C. dubliniensis was the causative agent in 2 (3.8%) cases of VVC, and was also isolated in one asymptomatic patient. Molecular assays were carried out using specific PCR to amplify the ACT1-associated intron sequence of C. dubliniensis. The amplification of the HWP1 gene also correctly identified isolates of the species C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. No C. africana was isolated in this work. Some C. albicans isolates were either homozygous or heterozygous at the HWP1 locus. The distribution of heterozygous and homozygous C. albicans isolates at the HWP1 locus was very similar among patients suffering from VVC and asymptomatic patients (p=0.897). The presence of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, and the absence of C. africana in pregnant is noteworthy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. COMPARISON OF THE EFFECT OF NYSTATIN AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE ADDITION ON CANDIDA COLONIZATION IN SOFT LINING MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    BAYINDIR, Funda; Kul, Esra; AKTAŞ, Esin; BAŞTOPÇU, Ayşe

    2017-01-01

    NISTATIN VE TITANYUM DIOKSIT ILAVESININ YUMUŞAK ASTAR MATERYALINDEKI CANDIDA KOLONIZASYONU ÜZERINE ETKISININ KARŞILAŞTIRILMASIAmaç. Tam protez kullanan hastalarda, yumuşak astarmateryalleri, mukozayı irrite eden lezyon oluşumları ile sonuçlanan, Candida albicans’ ların adezyonunu vekolonizasyonunu destekleyebilir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, nistatin ve titanium dioksit[TiO2] antifungal ajanlarının,yumuşak astar maddelerindeki Candidaalbicans kolonizasyonunu önlemedeki etkisini değerlendirmektir.Mat...

  8. Influência da co-agregação entre Candida. albicans e Lactobacillus acidophilus na capacidade de adesão destes microrganismos às células epiteliais vaginais humanas (CEVH = Influence of the co-aggregation between Candida. albicans e Lactobacillus acidophilus on the adhesion capacity these microorganisms in the human ephitelial vaginal cells (HEVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Américo Etgeton

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da co-agregação in vitro entre Candida albicans e Lactobacillus acidophilus na capacidade de adesão destes microrganismos às células epiteliais vaginais humanas (CEVH. Foram utilizados um isolado vaginal de C. albicans e uma cepa ATCC de L. acidophilus. Uma suspensão de cada microrganismo isoladamente e do coagregado foram incubados com as CEVH obtidas de uma doadora saudável. Foram feitos esfregaços por cristal violeta e Papanicolaou, e o número de leveduras, lactobacilos ou coagregados aderidos às células foi contado (em 300 células superficiais-CS e 300 intermediárias-CI. A Microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV foi realizada em todas as situações dos ensaios.Leveduras e lactobacilos aderiram fortemente as CEVH, tanto em CS quanto em CI. A coagregação levou a um aumento na capacidade de adesão das leveduras (p 0,05. Havendo correlação com o que acontece in vivo, probióticos à base de L. acidophillus e mesmo uma flora lactobacilar vaginal não surtiriam efeito protetor contra a adesão de C. albicans as CEVH e do possível desenvolvimento de candidíase vulvovaginal.This work has aimed to evaluate the influence of the L. acidophilus and Candida albicans co-aggregation on the adhesion capacity this microorganisms in the human ephitelial vaginal cells (HEVC. One vaginal isolated of C. albicans and one ATCC strain of L. acidophilus was used. A suspension of the isolated and co-aggregated microorganisms was incubated with HVEC obtained from a healthy donor. After one hour, smears were made with crystal violet and Papanicolaou, and the number of yeasts adhered to HVEC was evaluated (300 superficial-SC and 300 intermediate cells-IC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was made in all situations of the assays. Yeasts and lactobacilli adhered strongly to the HEVC, both SC and IC. The co-aggregation there was an increase in the adhesion capacity of the yeasts (p 0

  9. Vaginal cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of tissue. It can be filled with air, fluid, pus, or other material. A vaginal cyst occurs on or under the vaginal lining. ... There are several types of vaginal cysts. Vaginal inclusion cysts ... may collect fluid and develop into a vaginal wall cyst later ...

  10. 539 Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... asymptomatic women do have Candida organisms as part of their endogenous vaginal flora; hence limitations of signs and symptoms in the diagnosis of vaginal infection has been recognised (Akinbiyi et al., 2008). Thus, mere isolation of Candida in the laboratory does not show real indication that it is the ...

  11. Caracterização fenotípica de leveduras isoladas da mucosa vaginal em mulheres adultas Phenotypic characterization of yeasts isolated from the vaginal mucosa of adult women

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    Paula dos Reis Corrêa

    2009-04-01

    , Candida tropicalis, e Candida guillermondii, o que pode ser explicado pelo uso inadequado de medicamentos e tratamento empírico.PURPOSE: to characterize, phenotypically, yeasts isolated from the vaginal content of 223 symptomatic (S and asymptomatic (A adult women with vulvovaginitis, and to determine the clinical indicators which may lead to the appearance of signs and symptoms related to the mucosa involvement by this pathology. METHODS: a questionnaire with open and closed questions on epidemiological clinical data was applied initially. Then, mycological diagnosis with sowing in Chrom Agar Candida was done, followed by micro-morphological and biochemical identification. Specific methods for the detection of the virulence factors, proteinase and phospholipase were employed. Statistical analysis was performed through χ2 and Pearson's χ2 tests. RESULTS: the most prevalent species found was Candida albicans (87%, S and 67%, A followed by Candida glabrata (4%, S e 17% A. The number of women reporting the use of contraceptives was higher among the symptomatic, 77%. In the two groups studied, about 87% of the women presented regular menstrual cycles and 57% were married with ages between 30 to 40 years old. Concerning the sexual practices, there has been concomitance among anal, oral and vaginal habits from the patients. Only Candida albicans produced the virulence factor phospholipase in 37.5% of them. Proteinase has been detected in Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis. This latter virulence factor was mainly associated to isolates from symptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: it is a fact that the vaginal mucosa can be colonized and infected by yeasts, with several Candida species present. Nevertheless, Candida albicans is the most prevalent in the vaginal mucosa of adult women. It is evident the emergence of non-albicans Candida species, some of them with intrinsic resistance to azolics, such as Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida

  12. Vaginal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urinary signs and symptoms: Vaginal dryness Vaginal burning Vaginal discharge Genital itching Burning with urination Urgency with urination More urinary tract infections Urinary incontinence Light bleeding after intercourse Discomfort with ...

  13. Decreased beta-carotene levels in exfoliated vaginal epithelial cells in women with vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, M S; Palan, P R; Basu, J; Anyaegbunam, A; Romney, S L

    1994-10-01

    Women are more susceptible to vaginal candidiasis when the host immune response is suppressed. The antioxidant nutrient beta-carotene is postulated to possess immunoenhancing properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate beta-carotene concentrations in exfoliated vaginal epithelial (EVE) cells in women with vaginal candidiasis. Beta-carotene levels in EVE cells, collected by a saline lavage technique from 22 women with vaginal candidiasis and 20 normal controls, were analyzed. The diagnosis of vaginal candidiasis was established by the presence of pruritus, white cheesy vaginal discharge, and a positive potassium hydroxide preparation. Beta-carotene levels were assayed using high pressure liquid chromatography. Vaginal cell concentrations of beta-carotene were significantly decreased in women with vaginal candidiasis (P < 0.001). Decreased beta-carotene levels, and possibly other antioxidants, may alter the local immune response resulting in disturbances in the vaginal flora, overgrowth of candida, and the development of vaginal candidiasis.

  14. Prevalencia de candidiasis vaginal en embarazadas: Identificación de levaduras y sensibilidad a los antifúngicos Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women: Identification of yeasts and susceptibility to antifungal agents

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    M. García Heredia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La mujer embarazada es más susceptible tanto a la colonización como a la infección vaginal por levaduras. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de levaduras aisladas de exudados vaginales de mujeres embarazadas y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos de uso frecuente. Se estudiaron 493 pacientes en el período comprendido desde diciembre de 1998 hasta febrero de 2000. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue 28% (Candida albicans 90,4%, Candida glabrata 6,3%, Candida parapsilosis 1,1%, Candida kefyr 1,1%, especies no identificadas 1,1%. Se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol, ketoconazol, itraconazol y nistatina por el método de difusión en agar Shadomy. Todos los aislamientos de C. albicans, C. kefyr y C. parapsilosis fueron sensibles in vitro a los antifúngicos probados, mientras que 1 de 6 aislamientos de C. glabrata presentó resistencia extendida a todos los azoles, pero sensibilidad a nistatina. En mujeres embarazadas C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de exudados vaginales y continúa siendo ampliamente sensible a los antifúngicos; sólo en C. glabrata se observó resistencia a los azoles. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie particularmente en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes o crónicas.Pregnant women are more susceptible to both vaginal colonization and infection by yeast. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence in pregnant women of yeasts isolated from vaginal exudates and their susceptibility to current antifungal drugs. A total of 493 patients was studied between December 1998 and February 2000. The prevalence of Candida spp. was 28% (Candida albicans 90.4%; Candida glabrata 6.3%; Candida parapsilosis 1.1%, Candida kefyr 1.1%; unidentified species 1.1%. The diffusion test in Shadomy agar was employed to determine the susceptibility to fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and nistatine. All C. albicans, C. kefyr and

  15. Fatores de risco associados à colonização por Candida spp em neonatos internados em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal brasileira Risk factors associated with colonization by Candida spp in neonates hospitalized in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Brazil

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    Raniery Martins Borges

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desse estudo foram investigar a participação de Candida albicans e não-albicans como agente de colonização e sepse, bem como os fatores de risco associados aos neonatos internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Foi realizada vigilância epidemiológica pelo sistema National Healthcare Safety Network no período entre agosto de 2007 e abril de 2008. A taxa de incidência de sepse com critério microbiológico foi de 6,7/1.000 paciente/dia, constatando-se apenas um caso de candidemia. Aproximadamente, 19% dos neonatos estavam colonizados por Candida, identificadas como Candida albicans (50% e Candida não-albicans (50%. Os fatores de risco significantes para colonização por Candida spp foram a idade gestacional entre 26 e 30 semanas, o uso prévio de antibiótico e o cateter vascular central umbilical. A mortalidade total foi de 11,8% nos neonatos internados durante o período de estudo com sepse, porém o recém-nascido com candidemia não evoluiu para óbito.The objectives of this study were to investigate the participation of Candida albicans and non-albicans as colonization and sepsis agents, along with the risk factors associated with the neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit of the clinical hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia. Epidemiological surveillance was implemented through the National Healthcare Safety Network between August 2007 and April 2008. The incidence rate for sepsis with microbiological criteria was 6.7/1,000 patients/day, which was shown as only one case of candidemia. Approximately 19% of the neonates were colonized by Candida, which was identified as Candida albicans (50% and Candida not-albicans (50%. The significant risk factors for Candida spp colonization were gestational age of between 26 and 30 weeks, previous antibiotic use and umbilical central vascular catheter. The overall mortality among the

  16. Polyethylene glycol-functionalized poly (Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic Acid and graphene oxide nanoparticles induce pro-inflammatory and apoptotic responses in Candida albicans-infected vaginal epithelial cells.

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    R Doug Wagner

    Full Text Available Mucous-penetrating nanoparticles consisting of poly lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-polyethylene glycol (PEG could improve targeting of microbicidal drugs for sexually transmitted diseases by intravaginal inoculation. Nanoparticles can induce inflammatory responses, which may exacerbate the inflammation that occurs in the vaginal tracts of women with yeast infections. This study evaluated the effects of these drug-delivery nanoparticles on VK2(E6/E7 vaginal epithelial cell proinflammatory responses to Candida albicans yeast infections. Vaginal epithelial cell monolayers were infected with C. albicans and exposed to 100 μg/ml 49.5 nm PLGA-PEG nanospheres or 20 μg/ml 1.1 x 500 nm PEG-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-PEG sheets. The cells were assessed for changes in mRNA and protein expression of inflammation-related genes by RT-qPCR and physiological markers of cell stress using high content analysis and flow cytometry. C. albicans exposure suppressed apoptotic gene expression, but induced oxidative stress in the cells. The nanomaterials induced cytotoxicity and programmed cell death responses alone and with C. albicans. PLGA-PEG nanoparticles induced mRNA expression of apoptosis-related genes and induced poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage, increased BAX/BCL2 ratios, and chromatin condensation indicative of apoptosis. They also induced autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and DNA damage. They caused the cells to excrete inflammatory recruitment molecules chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1, interleukin-1α (IL1A, interleukin-1β (IL1B, calprotectin (S100A8, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF. GO-PEG nanoparticles induced expression of necrosis-related genes and cytotoxicity. They reduced autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic gene expression responses. The results show that stealth nanoparticle drug-delivery vehicles may cause intracellular damage to vaginal epithelial cells by several mechanisms and that

  17. Self-taken vaginal swabs versus clinician-taken for detection of candida and bacterial vaginosis: a case-control study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Pam; Vieira, Rute; Harwood, Jayne; Chauhan, Mayur

    2017-12-01

    Vaginal discharge and vulvitis are common presenting symptoms in general practice. Few studies have specifically looked at the validity of self-taken low vulvovaginal swabs (LVS) for the diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). To assess if patient self-taken LVS are a valid alternative to clinician-taken high vaginal swabs (HVS) for the detection of VVC and BV. Case-control study with the patient acting as their own control in an urban sexual health centre in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Females aged 16-65 years attending with symptomatic vaginal discharge, vulval irritation, genital pain, and an offensive genital smell were recruited into the study. Participants took a self-taken LVS before vaginal examination, during which a clinician took an HVS (reference standard). Main outcome measures were the diagnosis of BV or VVC infection. A total of 104 females were enrolled. Of those, 45 were diagnosed with VVC and 26 with BV. The sensitivities of self-taken LVS for VVC and BV were 95.5% and 88.5% respectively. Cohen's κ coefficient showed 'strong agreement' for the detection of both VVC and BV. Vulval itching was the most common symptom associated with VVC (69%), whereas 50% of females diagnosed with BV presented with an offensive discharge. Both symptoms had poor positive predictive values (0.63 and 0.50, respectively). Self-taken LVS appears to be a valid alternative to clinician-taken HVS for detecting VVC and BV infections. Symptoms were found to be a poor indicator of underlying infection. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  18. Colonization and transmission of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis from mothers to full and preterm babies by normal vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, K B; Ngeow, Y F; Lim, C T; Ng, K B; Chye, J K

    1999-06-01

    A prospective study was carried out among pregnant women and their newborn babies in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from January 1996 to June 1997. The maternal cervical colonization rates of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Mycoplasma hominis (MH) were found to be 57.5% and 15.8% respectively while the isolation rates from nasopharyngeal secretions of the newborns were 50.8% for UU and 6.6% for MH. The overall transmission rates were 88.4% for UU and 42.1% for MH. There was no significant difference in the transmission rates of either organism from mothers to their respective newborn babies by the maturity of pregnancy. In preterm babies, the nasopharyngeal isolation rates of UU and MH were not influenced by the babies' gestational age and birth weight nor by the maternal history of abortion or parity. However, there was a tendency for UU to persist in the nasopharyngeal secretion of preterm babies especially those of birth weight below 2 kg. None of the babies contaminated with mycoplasmas at birth developed respiratory symptoms during six to eight weeks of follow-up.

  19. Incidence Of Candida Albicans Infection Among Women Having ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: It can be said that Candia albicans is one a common organism that cause vaginal discharge and itching among women, especially pregnant women in our environment. Keywords: Candida albicans, vaginal discharge, women and high vaginal swab. Tropical Journal of Medical Research Vol. 11 (2) 2007: pp.

  20. Risk of Vaginal Infections at Early Gestation in Patients with Diabetic Conditions during Pregnancy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

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    Julian Marschalek

    Full Text Available Pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are reported to be at increased risk for infections of the genital tract. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV and Candida colonization at early gestation between pregnant women with and without diabetic conditions during pregnancy. We included data from 8, 486 singleton pregnancies that underwent an antenatal infection screen-and-treat programme at our department. All women with GDM or pre-existing diabetes were retrospectively assigned to the diabetic group (DIAB, whereas non-diabetic women served as controls (CON. Prevalence for BV and Candida colonization was 9% and 14% in the DIAB group, and 9% and 13% in the CON group, respectively (n.s.. No significant difference regarding stillbirth and preterm delivery (PTD, defined as a delivery earlier than 37 + 0 (37 weeks plus 0 days weeks of gestation was found. We could not find an increased risk of colonization with vaginal pathogens at early gestation in pregnant women with diabetes, compared to non-diabetic women. Large prospective studies are needed to evaluate the long-term risk of colonization with vaginal pathogens during the course of pregnancy in these women.

  1. Isolation and identification of fungi from vaginal flora in three species of captive Leontopithecus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Ismar A; Stussi, Jussara S P; Lilenbaum, Walter; Pissinatti, Alcides; Luz, Fabio P; Ferreira, Ana Maria R

    2004-11-01

    The ability to reproduce in captivity is an essential component of lion tamarin (Leontopithecus) conservation programs. However, infections such as vaginitis, cervicitis, and endometritis are important diseases that may influence the reproduction of these animals. Therefore, it is important to detect continuous or occasional vaginal microbial populations, and to understand their potential role as an endogenous source of infection [Collins, 1964; Blue, 1983; Pugh et al., 1986]. Vaginal swabs were collected from 25 female tamarins of the three currently available species (L. rosalia, L. chrysopygus, and L. chrysomelas) at the Center of Primatology in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The swabs were processed according to standard mycological protocols, and isolates were biochemically characterized. Fungal isolates were recovered from 16 animals (64.0%). The results showed that 70.6% of the isolated microorganisms consisted of yeast, including three species of Candida (mainly C. glabrata). We suggest that this species is a resident member of the normal vaginal flora in Leontopithecus. Filamentous fungi (mainly from Trichosporon, Aspergillus, and Penicilliumgenera) constituted 29.4% of the isolates, and were considered to be transitory contaminants of the genital area. We suggest that colonization of the vaginal environment is related to the endocrine pattern associated with the reproductive status of these animals, but not to parity.

  2. A prospective randomized trial to reduce oral Candida spp. colonization in patients with hyposalivation Ensaio clínico aleatório para reduzir a colonização oral de Candida spp. em pacientes com hipossalivação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Torres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Low salivary flow rates are associated with higher oral Candida spp. counts, which may predispose to oral candidiasis. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of stimulating salivary flow rates with that of a regimen of chlorhexidine mouth rinse on the intensity of Candida colonization in patients with reduced salivary flow rates. Thirty-one outpatients were randomized to stimulate salivary output (group 1 or to receive chlorhexidine mouth rinses (group 2. Evaluations were performed at baseline (T0, at end of treatment (T1, and 15 days after last day of treatment (T2. Chewing-stimulated whole saliva samples were collected at each visit. Group 1 showed a constant reduction in median cfu counts, although the difference was significant only between T0 and T2 (p = 0.004. Group 2 showed a reduction in median Candida cfu counts between T0 and T1 (p = 0.01, but the counts increased at T2 (p = 0.01, and the difference between T0 and T2 was not significant (p = 0.8. In conclusion, patients who received salivary stimulation showed reductions of Candida cfu counts in saliva and a trend for increasing salivary flow rates between baseline and end of study evaluations. The use of chlorhexidine mouth rinses dramatically reduced Candida cfu counts, but when patients discontinued treatment, intensity of colonization rose again.O fluxo salivar reduzido está associado a maior quantidade de Candida spp. na boca, predispondo a candidíase. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o efeito da estimulação salivar ao efeito do uso de bochechos de clorexidina sobre a intensidade de colonização por Candida em pacientes com fluxo salivar reduzido. Trinta e um pacientes de ambulatório foram aleatoriamente incluídos nos protocolos de estimulação salivar (grupo 1 ou de bochecho com clorexidina (grupo 2. As avaliações foram realizadas no dia inicial (T0, ao final do tratamento (T1 e 15 dias após o final do tratamento (T2. A cada consulta foram coletadas

  3. Use of chlorhexidine gel (0.2%) to control gingivitis and candida species colonization in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fernanda Campos; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; de Araújo Soares, Rosangela Maria; Freitas-Fernandes, Liana Bastos; Castro, Gloria Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate chlorhexidine to control gingivitis and Candida species (spp.) in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and their acceptance of the therapy. Twenty-six HIV+ children were selected, and oral exam-established biofilm, gingival indexes, and stimulated saliva were collected for Candida ssp. identification. The children brushed their teeth for 21 days with chlorhexidine gel (0.2%). Salivary samples, biofilm, and gingival indexes were collected after 21-days and again 35 days after ceasing gel use. The children answered a questionnaire about the therapy. All children tested positive for Candida and gingivitis. After 21 days, Candida counts and gingivitis decreased in 25 and 26 children, respectively. Mean reduction was approximately 68% for Candida spp. and 74% for gingivitis. Thirty-five days after discontinuing gel use, gingivitis and Candida spp. increased in 13 and 16 patients, respectively. Considering the Candida spp., the heavy growth was lower in the first re-evaluation. Candida albicans was the most frequent species. Approximately 85% did not experience inconvenience with the gel, and approximately 48% thought it was good for tooth-brushing. Chlorhexidine therapy may be an option to treat and pre- vent gingivitis and reduce yeast counts in children infected with HIV.

  4. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm. Copyright © 2016 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Value of bacterial culture of vaginal swabs in diagnosis of vaginal infections

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    Nenadić Dane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Vaginal and cervical swab culture is still very common procedure in our country’s everyday practice whereas simple and rapid diagnostic methods have been very rarely used. The aim of this study was to show that the employment of simple and rapid diagnostic tools [vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy (VFWMM, vaginal pH and potassium hydroxide (KOH test] offers better assessment of vaginal environment than standard microbiologic culture commonly used in Serbia. Methods. This prospective study included 505 asymptomatic pregnant women undergoing VFWMM, test with 10% KOH, determination of vaginal pH and standard culture of cervicovaginal swabs. Combining findings from the procedures was used to make diagnoses of bacterial vaginosis (BV and vaginitis. In addition, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN was determined in each sample and analyzed along with other findings. Infections with Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were confirmed or excluded by microscopic examination. Results. In 36 (6% patients cervicovaginal swab cultures retrieved several aerobes and facultative anaerobes, whereas in 52 (11% women Candida albicans was isolated. Based on VFWMM findings and clinical criteria 96 (19% women had BV, 19 (4% vaginitis, and 72 (14% candidiasis. Of 115 women with BV and vaginitis, pH 4.5 was found in 5, and of 390 with normal findings 83 (21% had vaginal pH 4.5. Elevated numbers of PMN were found in 154 (30% women - in 83 (54% of them VFWMM was normal. Specificity and sensitivity of KOH test and vaginal pH determination in defining pathological vaginal flora were 95% and 81%, and 79% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion. Cervicovaginal swab culture is expensive but almost non-informative test in clinical practice. The use of simpler and rapid methods as vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy, KOH test and vaginal pH offers better results in diagnosis, and probably in the treatment and prevention of sequels of vaginal

  6. Vaginal Candidiasis Infection Treated Using Apple Cider Vinegar: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Betul; Baser, Muruvvet

    2017-11-07

    A 32-y-old married woman was admitted with intense vaginal discharge with foul odor, itching, groin pain, and infertility for the past 5 y. Candida albicans was isolated from the culture of vaginal swab. The patient was diagnosed with chronic vaginal candida infection. She failed to respond to integrative medicine methods prescribed. Recovery was achieved with the application of apple cider vinegar. Alternative treatment methods can be employed in patients unresponsive to medical therapies. As being one of these methods, application of apple cider vinegar can cure vaginal candida infection.

  7. Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  8. Vaginal evisceration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Y.C.; Lindenauer, S.M. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA) Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)

    1981-08-01

    A patient with vaginal evisceration due to prior radiation treatment of cervical carcinoma is presented, together with a review to reported cases. The salient features, predisposing causes and management of this unusual problem are discussed.

  9. Vaginal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker NF. Vulvar and vaginal cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40. Jhingran ...

  10. Metronidazole Vaginal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metronidazole is used to treat vaginal infections such as bacterial vaginosis (an infection caused from too much of certain bacteria in the vagina). Metronidazole is in a class of medications called nitroimidazole ...

  11. [Prevalence of anal-vaginal colonization of Streptococcus agalactiae in third trimester of pregnancy and susceptibility to macrolides and lincosamides, in pregnant women controlled at Clínica Alemana Temuco, Southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzúa, Fernando; Argomedo, Carolina; Meissner, Arturo; Díaz, Tatiana; Garrido, Paulina; Fariña, Samantha; Chahin, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is the most common agent in early neonatal sepsis. Strategies incorporating universal screening for maternal colonization show the lowest rates of perinatal infection. A significant increase in resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin by GBS has been reported around the world. There are no published data regarding prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in southern regions of Chile. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is essential to define the drugs of choice and alternatives, in an institution that applies prevention protocols, as Clinica Alemana Temuco (CAT) does. to determine the prevalence of carriage of GBS in vaginal-anal areas at end of pregnancy, in CAT, Araucanía Region, Chile. To determine the susceptibility to erythromycin and clindamycin of GBS strains isolated. 1,181 pregnant women were included; 167 were positive for GBS (14.4% of colonization). Sixteen were resistant to erythromycin (9.5%); 15 of these strains were also clindamycin resistant. Twenty-three of 167 were resistant to clindamycin (13.7%). The prevalence rate of GBS colonization was lower than previously reported in other regions of Chile. Due to the high rates of resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin it is necessary to widen the study of susceptibility to other antimicrobials to have alternatives in allergy to penicillin (primarily cefazolin and vancomycin).

  12. Vaginal reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesavoy, M.A.

    1985-05-01

    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients.

  13. Management of Azole-Refractory Candida Species Using Boric Acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, College of Natural and Applied Sciences,. University of Dar es Salaam, P. O. Box 35179, Dar es Salaam. Tanzania. ... update the national treatment guidelines for the treatment of Candida vaginitis. Key words: Non-albicans Candida species, azole resistance, boric acid.

  14. Identification of Candida strains isolated from Tanzanian pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To identify Candida strains isolated from Tanzanian women (13 to 45 years) with vaginal candidiasis. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Antenatal clinic in llala district hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from March 1998 to December 2000. Results: The identities of the 272 isolates tested with API Candida ...

  15. Prevalência da colonização vaginal e anorretal por estreptococo do grupo B em gestantes do terceiro trimestre Prevalence of vaginal and anorectal colonization by group B streptococcus in pregnant women in the last three months of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Beraldo

    2004-08-01

    materna inferior a 20 anos e nível sócio econômico baixo e a prevalência da infecção.PURPOSE: to study the prevalence of colonization by group B Streptococcus in pregnant women in the last three months of gestation, and to evaluate the association of colonization with demographic and clinical maternal variables. METHODS: from October 8, 2002 to March 26, 2003, a transversal study of prevalence of colonization by group B Streptococcus was carried out in 309 pregnant women in the last three months of gestation. Samples of vaginal and anorectal secretions were collected and were tested for presumptive identification of group B Streptococcus. The pregnant women were studied according to race, age, level of instruction, family income, number of gestations, gestational age, history of urinary tract infection during present pregnancy, premature rupture of membranes and duration of ruptured membranes, intrapartum fever, chorioamnionitis, meconium in the amniotic fluid, spontaneous or cesarean section delivery, postpartum fever, and postpartum endometritis. RESULTS: fourty-six pregnant women were diagnosed with group B Streptococcus: 26 of them (56.5% had positive vaginal culture, 8 (17.4% positive anorectal culture and 12 (26.5% had both vaginal and anorectal positive cultures. None of the maternal variables were statistically significant with respect to group B Streptococcus colonization. The results were submitted to chi2 bivariate analysis and, when appropriate, Fisher's exact test. CONCLUSION: the prevalence rate of vaginal and anorectal colonization by group B Streptococcus in pregnant women in the last three months of gestation, in Londrina - Paraná, was 14.9%.

  16. Vulvovaginal Candida: a study of (a)symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns presence of asymptomatic vaginal Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by abnormal growth of yeasts in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Acute vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge are the

  17. Candidíase vulvovaginal: sintomatologia, fatores de risco e colonização anal concomitante Vulvovaginal candidiasis: symptomatology, risk factors and concomitant anal colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Arildo Reginaldo de Holanda

    2007-01-01

    and results of anal culture, to identify the frequency of species of Candida albicans and non-C. albicans, and to correlate anal and vaginal colonization. METHODS: a total of 99 patients were included with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis, from Natal, Brazil, between May 2003 and May 2005, totalling 294 collections. The clinical material, obtained by vaginal and anal swabs, was seeded on CHROMagar Candida®. The yeasts were identified using the classic method, in addition to the growth test at 42º and 45ºC and the Hypertonic Saboraud broth test. Symptomatology, risk factors and anal colonization were assessed according to positive or negative culture for Candida spp. The cultures positive for C. albicans at the two sites were compared with other results encountered. Yates’ chi2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: the most frequent was C. albicans in 69% of the cases. Wearing tight and/or synthetic underclothing, the presence of allergic diseases, the occurrence of itching, leukorrhea and hyperemia showed a significant association with positive culture for Candida spp in the vagina. The chance of a patient with positive anal colonization to present with concomitant positive vaginal colonization was 2.8 and 4.9 times greater for Candida spp and C. albicans, respectively. The risk of a patient with anal culture positive for C. albicans to present with positive vaginal colonization was 3.7 times greater when compared to non-C. albicans species. CONCLUSIONS: the most common species was C. albicans, and a relevant association between vaginal cultures positive for Candida spp and the use of tight and/or synthetic underclothing, allergic diseases, the occurrence of pruritus, leukorrhea and erythema was observed (p<0.05. Positive anal colonization concomitant with vaginal colonization was significant, suggesting possible vaginal contamination from the anus.

  18. Candida albicans or Candida dubliniensis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Ruan; Kock, Johan L F; Pohl, Carolina H

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans is increasing as an opportunistic pathogen causing candidemia and candidiasis worldwide. In addition, other non-albicans Candida species are now also associated with pertinent infections. These include the closely related C. dubliniensis, which shares many phenotypic similarities with C. albicans. These similarities pose problems in the identification of isolates and have previously led to misidentification of these species. As a result, several identification techniques based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics have been developed to differentiate between these Candida species. This review will focus on the similarities and differences between these two Candida species highlighting different identification methods and their advantages and disadvantages. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Antibiotic resistance in Candida albicans and Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nowadays, vaginal candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis are frequently encountered in medical practice and antibiotic resistance in implicated pathogens has not been reported in Dschang. This study sought to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 198 isolates of Candida albicans and 300 strains of ...

  20. Vaginal sponge and spermicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter; Contraceptives - over the counter; Family planning - vaginal sponge; Contraception - vaginal sponge ... Spermicides and vaginal sponges do not work as well at preventing pregnancy as some other forms of birth control. However, using a spermicide ...

  1. Differentiation of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei by FT-IR and chemometrics by CHROMagar™ Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmeister, Denise; Vianna, Débora Renz Barreto; Helfer, Virginia Etges; Calil, Luciane Noal; Buffon, Andréia; Fuentefria, Alexandre Meneghello; Corbellini, Valeriano Antonio; Pilger, Diogo André

    2017-10-01

    Pathogenic Candida species are detected in clinical infections. CHROMagar™ is a phenotypical method used to identify Candida species, although it has limitations, which indicates the need for more sensitive and specific techniques. Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) is an analytical vibrational technique used to identify patterns of metabolic fingerprint of biological matrixes, particularly whole microbial cell systems as Candida sp. in association of classificatory chemometrics algorithms. On the other hand, Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy (SIMCA) is one of the typical algorithms still little employed in microbiological classification. This study demonstrates the applicability of the FT-IR-technique by specular reflectance associated with SIMCA to discriminate Candida species isolated from vaginal discharges and grown on CHROMagar™. The differences in spectra of C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei were suitable for use in the discrimination of these species, which was observed by PCA. Then, a SIMCA model was constructed with standard samples of three species and using the spectral region of 1792-1561cm(-1). All samples (n=48) were properly classified based on the chromogenic method using CHROMagar™ Candida. In total, 93.4% (n=45) of the samples were correctly and unambiguously classified (Class I). Two samples of C. albicans were classified correctly, though these could have been C. glabrata (Class II). Also, one C. glabrata sample could have been classified as C. krusei (Class II). Concerning these three samples, one triplicate of each was included in Class II and two in Class I. Therefore, FT-IR associated with SIMCA can be used to identify samples of C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei grown in CHROMagar™ Candida aiming to improve clinical applications of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In Vitro Effect of Local Anesthetics on Candida albicans Germ Tube Formation

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    Acácio Rodrigues

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was planned to clarify the in vitro effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolates from cases of clinical vaginal candidiasis.

  3. Lactobacillus for Vaginal Microflora Correction

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    Saule Saduakhasova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the significant progress made in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, there is still a high rate of vaginal dysbiosis in Kazakh women. The use of antibiotics in the treatment of vaginal dysbiosis contributes to the elimination of pathogens as well as microflora, which can lead to a decrease in local immunity and more favorable conditions for infection spread. The most physiologically safe and promising method for the restoration of vaginal biocenosis is the use of probiotics administered by a vaginal route.Methods. We have allocated 64 of cultures of Lactobacillus from the vaginal epithelium of healthy women of reproductive age and women with diagnosed bacterial vaginosis (BV. Identification of cultures was performed by PCR analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA.  Evaluation of biological significance was determined by the following criteria: high antagonistic activity against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella ozaenae, and Staphylococcus aureus; and production of hydrogen peroxide, resistance to antibiotics, adhesive activity. We studied the symbiotic relationship of selected biologically active of cultures to each other and received options for consortiums with  properties of  probiotics through co-cultivation.Results. Results of genotyping  showed that the isolated lactobacilli belong to the seven species: L. fermentum, L. salivarius, L. gasseri, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, L. plantarum, and L. delbrueskii. L. fermentum, L. salivarius, L. gasseri, and L. jensenii occur in women with suspected BV. The highest percentage of occurrence in the vagina of healthy women was L. fermentum (28%. Most strains of lactobacilli possess high inhibitory activity for all test-strains, except Candida albicans (37.5%. 56% of studied cultures revealed high adhesion to human erythrocytes. All lactobacillus strains were resistant to metronidazole, 80% to kanamycin, 57%  to vancomycin, and

  4. Influência da co-agregação entre Candida. Albicans e Lactobacillus acidophilus na capacidade de adesão destes microrganismos às células epiteliais vaginais humanas (CEVH - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v33i1.7218 Influence of the co-aggregation between Candida. albicans e Lactobacillus acidophilus on the adhesion capacity these microorganisms in the human ephitelial vaginal cells (HEVC - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v33i1.7218

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da co-agregação in vitro entre Candida albicans e Lactobacillus acidophilus na capacidade de adesão destes microrganismos às células epiteliais vaginais humanas (CEVH. Foram utilizados um isolado vaginal de C. albicans e uma cepa ATCC de L. acidophilus. Uma suspensão de cada microrganismo isoladamente e do co-agregado foram incubados com as CEVH obtidas de uma doadora saudável. Foram feitos esfregaços por cristal violeta e Papanicolaou, e o número de leveduras, lactobacilos ou co-agregados aderidos às células foi contado (em 300 células superficiais-CS e 300 intermediárias-CI. A Microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV foi realizada em todas as situações dos ensaios. Leveduras e lactobacilos aderiram fortemente as CEVH, tanto em CS quanto em CI. A co-agregação levou a um aumento na capacidade de adesão das leveduras (p 0,05. Havendo correlação com o que acontece in vivo, probióticos à base de L. acidophillus e mesmo uma flora lactobacilar vaginal não surtiriam efeito protetor contra a adesão de C. albicans as CEVH e do possível desenvolvimento de candidíase vulvovaginal.This work has aimed to evaluate the influence of the L. acidophilus and Candida albicans co-aggregation on the adhesion capacity this microorganisms in the human ephitelial vaginal cells (HEVC. One vaginal isolated of C. albicans and one ATCC strain of L. acidophilus was used. A suspension of the isolated and co-aggregated microorganisms was incubated with HVEC obtained from a healthy donor. After one hour, smears were made with crystal violet and Papanicolaou, and the number of yeasts adhered to HVEC was evaluated (300 superficial-SC and 300 intermediate cells-IC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was made in all situations of the assays. Yeasts and lactobacilli adhered strongly to the HEVC, both SC and IC. The co-aggregation there was an increase in the adhesion capacity of the yeasts (p 0

  5. The vaginal microbiota: what have we learned after a decade of molecular characterization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke H H M van de Wijgert

    Full Text Available We conducted a systematic review of the Medline database (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, U.S.A to determine if consistent molecular vaginal microbiota (VMB composition patterns can be discerned after a decade of molecular testing, and to evaluate demographic, behavioral and clinical determinants of VMB compositions. Studies were eligible when published between 1 January 2008 and 15 November 2013, and if at least one molecular technique (sequencing, PCR, DNA fingerprinting, or DNA hybridization was used to characterize the VMB. Sixty three eligible studies were identified. These studies have now conclusively shown that lactobacilli-dominated VMB are associated with a healthy vaginal micro-environment and that bacterial vaginosis (BV is best described as a polybacterial dysbiosis. The extent of dysbiosis correlates well with Nugent score and vaginal pH but not with the other Amsel criteria. Lactobacillus crispatus is more beneficial than L. iners. Longitudinal studies have shown that a L. crispatus-dominated VMB is more likely to shift to a L. iners-dominated or mixed lactobacilli VMB than to full dysbiosis. Data on VMB determinants are scarce and inconsistent, but dysbiosis is consistently associated with HIV, human papillomavirus (HPV, and Trichomonas vaginalis infection. In contrast, vaginal colonization with Candida spp. is more common in women with a lactobacilli-dominated VMB than in women with dysbiosis. Cervicovaginal mucosal immune responses to molecular VMB compositions have not yet been properly characterized. Molecular techniques have now become more affordable, and we make a case for incorporating them into larger epidemiological studies to address knowledge gaps in etiology and pathogenesis of dysbiosis, associations of different dysbiotic states with clinical outcomes, and to evaluate interventions aimed at restoring and maintaining a lactobacilli-dominated VMB.

  6. Detection of Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis DNA in symptomatic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Focarelli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available While vaginitis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is now less frequent, fungal Candida spp. infections are frequently found and the bacterial vaginosis is one of the most common vaginal diseases caused by anaerobic microorganisms such as Gardnerella vaginalis. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a rapid molecular test for the diagnosis of vaginitis/bacterial vaginosis in symptomatic women. In our clinic, between January 2008 - June 2009, we admitted 1592 (388 were pregnant symptomatic women with a specific request to test them for fungi, Trichomonas and Gardnerella on vaginal fluid. The samples were tested with the kit Affirm (Becton Dickinson that provides results in 40 minutes and allows the simultaneous identification of the DNA of Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis. One hundred and eight out of 388 pregnant women were positive only for Gardnerella; 53 for Candida and Gardnerella; 59 were positive only for Candida and 10 for Trichomonas. As to the remaining 1204 not pregnant patients, 356 were positive only for Gardnerella; 98 for Candida and Gardnerella, 143 were positive only for Candida and 21 for Trichomonas.A simultaneous positivity for Trichomonas and Candida or for Trichomonas and Gardnerella has not been observed in any case. Molecular testing is obviously more sensitive and specific than culture method and microscopic research, especially for the detection of Gardnerella. It also enables differential diagnosis between bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis and therefore allows a targeted therapeutic intervention.

  7. Chlamydia and Vaginitis in Sexually Active Females: Classical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six hundred (600) adult females from hotel/brothel, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Clinic, Obstetrics/Gynaecology Clinic, Family Planning Clinic and Healthy controls were investigated for Chlamydia, Candida, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis (BV). This was done using microscopy: wet mount, stained vaginal ...

  8. Clinical Validation of a Test for the Diagnosis of Vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Charlotte A; Beqaj, Sajo; Schwebke, Jane R; Lebed, Joel; Smith, Bonnie; Davis, Thomas E; Fife, Kenneth H; Nyirjesy, Paul; Spurrell, Timothy; Furgerson, Dorothy; Coleman, Jenell; Paradis, Sonia; Cooper, Charles K

    2017-07-01

    Vaginitis may be diagnosed as bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, or coinfection. A new molecular test assays the vaginal microbiome and organisms that cause three common infections. The objective of the trial was to evaluate the clinical accuracy of the investigational test for vaginal swabs collected by patients (self) or clinicians. The primary and secondary outcomes were to compare the investigational test with reference methods for the three most common causes of vaginitis and compare clinician-collected with self-collected swabs. We conducted a cross-sectional study in which women with symptoms of vaginitis were recruited at ten clinical centers and consented to the investigation between May and September 2015. The woman collected a vaginal swab, sheathed, and then handed it to the clinician. These swabs were to evaluate how self-collected swabs compared with clinician-collected swabs. The clinician collected an investigational test swab and reference test swabs. From 1,740 symptomatic patients, clinician-collected and self-collected vaginal swabs were evaluated by the molecular test and six tests. The reference methods for bacterial vaginosis were Nugent's score and Amsel's criteria for intermediate Nugent results. The reference methods for Candida infection were isolation of any potential Candida microorganisms from inoculation of two culture media: chromogenic and Sabouraud agar and sequencing. The reference methods for trichomoniasis were wet mount and culture. For clinician-collected swabs, by reference methods, bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 56.5%, vaginal candidiasis in 32.8%, trichomoniasis in 8%, and none of the three infections in 24% with a coinfection rate of 20%. The investigational test sensitivity was 90.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 88.3-92.2%) and specificity was 85.8% (95% CI 83.0-88.3%) for bacterial vaginosis. The investigational test sensitivity was 90.9% (95% CI 88.1-93.1%) and specificity was 94

  9. Relationship between recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis and immune mediators in vaginal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenbacher, Tobias M; Witkin, Steven S; Gingelmaier, Andrea; Scholz, Christoph; Friese, Klaus; Mylonas, Ioannis

    2009-05-01

    Recurring vulvovaginal candidosis (RVVC) is a common vaginal discharge, affecting 75% of all women at least once in their life. In 5% of these women, this infection is recurring. Recent studies have focused on determining the importance of vaginal-associated immunity. To investigate the effects of immune mediators and the probability of an immune defect as well as localized allergic responses due to candida, we examined the cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 as well as prostaglandin E(2) (PgE(2)), candida-specific IgE and total-IgE in patients with a clinical diagnosis of RVVC. In 104 symptomatic and 41 asymptomatic patients, regarding clinical symptoms of RVVC, vaginal fluids were measured by ELISA for the immune mediators IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, PgE(2), candida-specific IgE and total-IgE. Polymerase chain reactions as well as culture were used for candida detection. Concerning IL-5, IL-13 and total-IgE no statistically significant difference was found. Those women with a history of RVVC and who were currently symptomatic had elevated concentrations of IL-4 (pvaginal fluids compared to women with no clinical symptoms. Those three interleukins showed no significant differences between symptomatic patients who were positive or negative for Candida albicans or Candida glabrata. These findings indicate that women with clinical vaginal symptoms have a localized vaginal immunosuppression which might be the cause of their symptoms. Greatly elevated vaginal PgE(2) levels can be a consequence of a localized allergic response. An allergic reaction to candida components may be the cause of the allergic response in those women with high levels of candida-specific IgE. In women with elevated PgE(2), treatment with an antihistamine or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor might be beneficial.

  10. [Summary of the practice guideline 'Vaginal discharge' (first revision) from the Dutch College of General Practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukes, F S; Boeke, A J P; Dekker, J H; Wiersma, T; Goudswaard, A N

    2007-06-16

    The 1996 practice guideline of the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) on vaginal discharge has been updated. Most women who visit their doctor with complaints about vaginal discharge do not have an increased risk of a sexually-transmitted disease. Investigations into vaginal discharge comprise history taking, physical examination and microscopic analysis in the laboratory of the general practitioner. Additional investigation into Chlamydia, gonorrhoea and Trichomonas infection is only necessary if the patient history reveals an increased risk of a sexually-transmitted disease. A Candida infection or bacterial vaginosis should only be treated if the patient experiences bothersome complaints. Treatment of a Candida infection consists of a vaginally applied imidazole compound. Bacterial vaginosis can be treated with oral administration of metronidazole. Patients with vaginal fluor can be examined and, if necessary, treated by their general practitioner. Referral to a gynaecologist is rarely necessary.

  11. Antifungal Resistance Among Candida species From Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing incidence of Candidiasis affecting the genitourinary tracts as well as the introduction of new antifungal drugs has recently highlighted the need for performing fungal susceptibility tests. To determine the antifungal resistance among Candida species from the genitourinary tracts, 689 Urine and High vaginal ...

  12. Therapeutic activity of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based probiotic and inactivated whole yeast on vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Ballet, Nathalie; Sabbatini, Samuele; Roselletti, Elena; Cayzeele Decherf, Amélie; Pélerin, Fanny; Luciano, Eugenio; Perito, Stefano; Jüsten, Peter; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2017-01-02

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the most prevalent vaginal infection worldwide and Candida albicans is its major agent. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is characterized by disruption of the vaginal microbiota composition, as happens following large spectrum antibiotic usage. Recent studies support the effectiveness of oral and local probiotic treatment for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a safe yeast used as, or for, the production of ingredients for human nutrition and health. Here, we demonstrate that vaginal administration of probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae live yeast (GI) and, in part, inactivated whole yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (IY), used as post-challenge therapeutics, was able to positively influence the course of vaginal candidiasis by accelerating the clearance of the fungus. This effect was likely due to multiple interactions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Candida albicans. Both live and inactivated yeasts induced coaggregation of Candida and consequently inhibited its adherence to epithelial cells. However, only the probiotic yeast was able to suppress some major virulence factors of Candida albicans such as the ability to switch from yeast to mycelial form and the capacity to express several aspartyl proteases. The effectiveness of live yeast was higher than that of inactivated whole yeast suggesting that the synergy between mechanical effects and biological effects were dominant over purely mechanical effects. The protection of epithelial cells to Candida-induced damage was also observed. Overall, our data show for the first time that Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based ingredients, particularly the living cells, can exert beneficial therapeutic effects on a widespread vaginal mucosal infection.

  13. Pathogenicity of Candida albicans isolates from bloodstream and mucosal candidiasis assessed in mice and Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, M; Mandelblat, M; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Mendlovic, S; Semis, R; Segal, E

    2016-03-01

    The working hypothesis of this study was to elucidate a possible association between the pathogenic potential of Candida albicans strains with a clinical entity, systemic versus superficial candidiasis. Specifically, we assessed the pathogenicity of two groups of clinical C. albicans isolates: isolates from bloodstream infection (S) versus isolates from vaginitis patients (M), in two experimental in vivo systems - mice and Galleria melonella, in comparison to a control strain (CBS 562). Mice and G. mellonella larvae were inoculated with CBS 562 and the different S and M isolates, and followed up for survival rate and survival time during 30 and 7 days, respectively. Candida kidney colonization of mice was assessed by histopathology and colony-forming units' enumeration. The results revealed: (1) S and M isolates had different behavior patterns in the two models and varied in different parameters; (2) no statistically significant difference in pathogenicity between S and M isolates as whole groups was noted; (3) S14 was the most virulent isolate and close to the standard strain CBS 562 in both models. This study is distinctive in its outline combining two different groups of C. albicans clinical isolates originating from two different clinical entities that were assessed in vivo concurrently in two models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India

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    Anuradha Narayankhedkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18–45 years was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV was detected by Nugent’s scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9% women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%, vulval itching/irritation 19 (17.3%, malodor 5 (4.5%, pain in abdomen 3 (2.7%, and dysuria 1 (0.9%. The commonest etiology detected was Candida in 33 (30% cases, of which 18 (54.5% were C. albicans and 15 (45.5% non-albicans Candida (NAC infections. The NAC isolates were C. glabrata (n=10, C. tropicalis (n=3, and C. krusei (n=2. BV and TV were observed in 19 (17.3% and 2 (1.8% cases, respectively. A statistically significant association between Candida infection and presence of curdy-white discharge (p=0.001 and vulval itching/irritation (p=0.007 was noted. To conclude, we observed the etiological predominance of Candida infection, with considerable prevalence of NAC, indicating the need for microbiological investigation up to species level in cases of Candida infections, to ensure appropriate management.

  15. Candida Immunity

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    Julian R. Naglik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the predominant cause of both superficial and invasive forms of candidiasis. C. albicans primarily infects immunocompromised individuals as a result of either immunodeficiency or intervention therapy, which highlights the importance of host immune defences in preventing fungal infections. The host defence system utilises a vast communication network of cells, proteins, and chemical signals distributed in blood and tissues, which constitute innate and adaptive immunity. Over the last decade the identity of many key molecules mediating host defence against C. albicans has been identified. This review will discuss how the host recognises this fungus, the events induced by fungal cells, and the host innate and adaptive immune defences that ultimately resolve C. albicans infections during health.

  16. VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS – GYNECOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE PROBLEM

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    Radomir Živadinović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal candidiasis (VC is one of the most common reasons for consultations with a gynecologist, with an increasing trend in occurrence in female patients. It is estimated that 75% of all women experience an episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis in their lifetime, 50% of them experience at least a second episode, and 5% have recurrent candidiasis. Cervical and vaginal secretions act as the last line of defense from ascendant infection pathway spreading. Factors that may disturb vaginal ecosystem are: endogenous factors, way of life, infectious factors and iatrogenic factors. The most common cause of VC in 85-90% of cases is C. albicans, but other Candida species tend to be more likely to cause VVC (Candida tropicalis , Candida glabrata , C particulary, C crusei and so on. These non-albicans species have been found to be fluconazole and antimycotics resistant in more than 70% of cases. This is especially true for C. glabrata. There are several predisposing factors that have been associated with VC recurrence and resistance, such as Candida genotypes, resistance and virulence, immunodeficiency, unregulated hyperglycemia, use of oral contraceptives, long-term use of antibiotics. Therapy approach should be individual, including local and oral antimycotics until the symptoms disappear. The maintenance dose can be continuous or intermittent. Due to hormone concentration increase, increase in local glycogen, alternations of vaginal flora, VC incidence in pregnancy is two times higher in comparison to other female population. The problem of vaginal candidiasis requires individual approach, taking into account all the risk factors and accompanying physiological conditions or diseases in female patients.

  17. Dynamics of Mixed- Candida Species Biofilms in Response to Antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipulanandan, G; Herrera, M; Wiederhold, N P; Li, X; Mintz, J; Wickes, B L; Kadosh, D

    2018-01-01

    Oral infections caused by Candida species, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, are frequently associated with biofilms. Although Candida albicans is the predominant organism found in patients with oral thrush, a biofilm infection, there is an increasing incidence of oral colonization and infections caused by non- albicans Candida species, including C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis, which are frequently more resistant to antifungal treatment. While single-species Candida biofilms have been well studied, considerably less is known about the dynamics of mixed- Candida species biofilms and how these dynamics are altered by antifungal treatment. To address these questions, we developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based approach to determine the precise species composition of mixed- Candida species biofilms formed by clinical isolates and laboratory strains in the presence and absence of clinically relevant concentrations of 3 commonly used antifungals: fluconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B. In monospecies biofilms, fluconazole exposure favored growth of C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, while caspofungin generally favored significant growth of all species to a varying degree. Fluconazole was not effective against preformed mixed- Candida species biofilms while amphotericin B was potent. As a general trend, in mixed- Candida species biofilms, C. albicans lost dominance in the presence of antifungals. Interestingly, presence in mixed versus monospecies biofilms reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Overall, our data suggest that antifungal treatment favors the growth of specific non- albicans Candida species in mixed- Candida species biofilms.

  18. Interspecies differences of candida species causing recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in response to fluconazole treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Naji

    2017-07-01

    Methods: The cross-sectional study was performed at Kowsar Gynecology Center, Motahhari educational hospital and Medical Mycology Center, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia, Iran, from October 2013 to July 2015. Those patients referred to the clinic with symptoms of vaginal discharge, itching or burning that swab samples from endo-exocervix and distal fornix discharge were taken. The vaginal discharge samples submitted to Medical Mycology Center, Urmia School of Medicine for the direct microscopic examination and cultures. Identification at the level of species was performed using CHROMagar Candida and Corn meal agar media. The molecular test polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP used for confirming culture results. For the susceptibility assay, disc diffusion method was performed with fluconazole and clotrimazole. Results: In these study 198 samples collected from patients with symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis, 77 vulvovaginal candidiasis cases were identified. Candida species are common in primary and recurrent cases in terms of frequency, Candida albicans (85.7%, Candida krusei (10.2% and Candida glabrata (4.1% were identified respectively. Total of 27 cases of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, 10 cases were resistant to both clotrimazole and fluconazole (37% was observed that the most common species are resistant to treatment were Candida albicans by (82.1%, Candida krusei (14.3% and Candida glabrata (3.6% respectively. Drug resistance in Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata causing recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis included 69.1%, 75% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: Our findings have shown frequency of resistant non-albicans Candida species to fluconazole and clotrimazole is increasing. There is a considerable difference between Candida albicans and non-albicans species, Candida glabrata for the resistance to fluconazole and clotrimazole.

  19. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... eat may play a role in getting colon cancer. Colon cancer may be linked to a high-fat, ...

  20. Bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldau, Niels Christian; Brorson, Stig; Jensen, Poul Einar

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis.......We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis....

  1. Characterisation of probiotic properties in human vaginal lactobacilli strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütt, Pirje; Lapp, Eleri; Štšepetova, Jelena; Smidt, Imbi; Taelma, Heleri; Borovkova, Natalja; Oopkaup, Helen; Ahelik, Ave; Rööp, Tiiu; Hoidmets, Dagmar; Samuel, Külli; Salumets, Andres; Mändar, Reet

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli offer protection against recurrent urinary infections, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal candidiasis. To characterise the isolated vaginal lactobacilli strains for their probiotic properties and to compare their probiotic potential. The Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal samples by conventional culturing and identified by sequencing of the 16S rDNA fragment. Several functional properties were detected (production of hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid; antagonistic activity against Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Gardnerella vaginalis; auto-aggregation and adhesiveness) as well as safety (haemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of transferrable resistance genes). A total of 135 vaginal lactobacilli strains of three species, Lactobacillus crispatus (56%), Lactobacillus jensenii (26%), and Lactobacillus gasseri (18%) were characterised using several functional and safety tests. Most of L. crispatus (89%) and L. jensenii (86%) strains produced H2O2. The best lactic acid producers were L. gasseri (18.2±2.2 mg/ml) compared to L. crispatus (15.6±2.8 mg/ml) and L. jensenii (11.6±2.6 mg/ml) (pjensenii. L. gasseri strains expressed significantly lower anticandidal activity compared to L. crispatus and L. jensenii (pjensenii; therefore; a potential probiotic candidate could be found among L. crispatus strains.

  2. The role of lactobacilli and probiotics in maintaining vaginal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Sandra; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2014-03-01

    The vaginal microbiota of healthy women consists typically of a diversity of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms. Lactobacilli are the most prevalent and often numerically dominant microorganisms and are relevant as a barrier to infection. The capacity of lactobacilli to adhere and compete for adhesion sites in the vaginal epithelium and the capacity to produce antimicrobial compounds (hydrogen peroxide, lactic acid, bacteriocin-like substances), are important in the impairment of colonization by pathogens. This review summarizes the role of lactic acid bacteria in preventing illness of the host, including bacterial vaginosis, yeast vaginitis, urinary tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases. The administration of probiotics that colonize the vaginal tract can be important in maintaining a normal urogenital health and also to prevent or treat infections.

  3. The Comparison of vaginal cream of mixing yogurt, honey and clotrimazole on symptoms of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Maryam; Jahdi, Fereshteh; Hamzegardeshi, Zeinab; Goodarzi, Saied; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2015-04-03

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is known as one of the most common fungal infection among women of reproductive age and considered as an important public health problem. In recent years, due to resistance to common antifungal medication, the use of traditional medicine of anti-fungal and herbal treatment increased. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the effects of vaginal cream, mixture of yogurt and honey and comparing it with clotrimazole vaginal cream on symptoms of Vulvovaginal candidiasis in patients. In this randomized, triple blind clinical trial of 70 non-pregnant women infected with Candidal vulvovaginitis were placed in two groups of Vaginal cream mixed of yogurt and honey recipients (N=35) and clotrimazole vaginal cream (N=35). Both groups were treated for 7 days. At the beginning of study, Clinical and laboratory signs and symptoms were registered 7 and 14 days after treatment by questionnaire, observation form and secretions culture results. Data by chi-square test, t test, McNemar tests were analyzed by SPSS version 21. Significance level of 0.05 was considered. The result of present study reveals the significant differences in symptom improvement of ' yogurt and honey, than clotrimazole group (Pyogurt and honey" and clotrimazole (20% versus 8.6%) and second time cultivation (14 days after treatment) (17/1% versus 8.6%) were similar and there was no significant differences between the two groups. (P>0.05) CONCLUSION: This study indicated that he therapeutic effects of vaginal cream, yogurt and honey is not only similar with clotrimazole vaginal cream but more effective in relieving some symptoms of vaginal candidiasis. Therefore, the use of this product can be suggested as an herbal remedy for candida infection treatment.

  4. The CgHaa1-Regulon Mediates Response and Tolerance to Acetic Acid Stress in the Human Pathogen Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Ruben T; Cunha, Diana V; Wang, Can; Pereira, Leonel; Silva, Sónia; Salazar, Sara B; Schröder, Markus S; Okamoto, Michiyo; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Chibana, Hiroji; Aoyama, Toshihiro; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Azeredo, Joana; Butler, Geraldine; Mira, Nuno Pereira

    2017-01-05

    To thrive in the acidic vaginal tract, Candida glabrata has to cope with high concentrations of acetic acid. The mechanisms underlying C. glabrata tolerance to acetic acid at low pH remain largely uncharacterized. In this work, the essential role of the CgHaa1 transcription factor (encoded by ORF CAGL0L09339g) in the response and tolerance of C. glabrata to acetic acid is demonstrated. Transcriptomic analysis showed that CgHaa1 regulates, directly or indirectly, the expression of about 75% of the genes activated under acetic acid stress. CgHaa1-activated targets are involved in multiple physiological functions including membrane transport, metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids, regulation of the activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, and adhesion. Under acetic acid stress, CgHaa1 increased the activity and the expression of the CgPma1 proton pump and contributed to increased colonization of vaginal epithelial cells by C. glabrata CgHAA1, and two identified CgHaa1-activated targets, CgTPO3 and CgHSP30, are herein demonstrated to be determinants of C. glabrata tolerance to acetic acid. The protective effect of CgTpo3 and of CgHaa1 was linked to a role of these proteins in reducing the accumulation of acetic acid inside C. glabrata cells. In response to acetic acid stress, marked differences were found in the regulons controlled by CgHaa1 and by its S. cerevisiae ScHaa1 ortholog, demonstrating a clear divergent evolution of the two regulatory networks. The results gathered in this study significantly advance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the success of C. glabrata as a vaginal colonizer. Copyright © 2017 Bernardo et al.

  5. The VI-SENSE-vaginal discharge self-test to facilitate management of vaginal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Adam; Bornstein, Jacob; Dan, Michael; Shoham, Hadar Kessary; Sobel, Jack D

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate a diagnostic panty liner (VI-SENSE) (Common Sense, Caesarea, Israel) developed to facilitate diagnosis of vaginal infections by detecting disordered acidity level. Five hundred sixteen women with vulvovaginal symptoms were enrolled. Final clinical diagnosis included Amsel criteria, Gram stain analysis, pH determination, and Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida culture. VI-SENSE strip color status estimated by patients was compared with clinical diagnosis and pH measurement by using nitrazine paper. Statistical analysis included sensitivity and specificity calculations. The VI-SENSE test was positive in 226 of 249 patients (90.8%) with bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. Nitrazine pH paper revealed elevated pH in 165 (66.5%) and the amine test was positive in 160 (64.3%) patients. The VI-SENSE test was negative in 217 of 267 patients (81.3%) without trichomoniasis or bacterial vaginosis. The VI-SENSE was positive in 85 of 92 women (92%), with mixed vaginal infection including Candida and bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. Amine test, nitrazine pH paper and physician diagnosis relying only on speculum examination were inferior and positive in only 65 (70%), 59 (64%), and 66 (72%) patients, respectively. The VI-SENSE test was found to be superior to traditional individual tests in facilitating preliminary diagnosis of vaginal infections.

  6. [Investigation of the situation of vaginal microflora in healthy women population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fang; Zhang, Ning; Di, Wen; Liao, Qin-ping; Wang, Wen; Zhao, Xiao-ming; Sun, Yun; Liu, Zhao-hui

    2009-01-01

    To assess the distribution of vaginal microflora in healthy women and investigate their cognition of lower reproductive tract infection-related knowledge as well as personal hygiene habits and character of behavior in seeking medical treatment. Total of 1660 healthy women who had physical check-ups at the Medical Center of Renji Hospital were selected and received gynecologic examination, as well as routine examination, pH examination and bacterial culture of the vaginal discharge. In addition, 860 of them were randomly selected for questionnaire survey, in which reproductive tract infection -related knowledge and personal hygiene habits as well as behavior in seeking medical treatment were involved. Among the 1660 censused women, vaginal average pH was 4. 16 +/- 0.21. The positive rate of Candida in vaginal discharge routine examination was 3.86% (64/1660), which was lower than that in aerobes culture 7.71% (128/1660). Candida albicans was the most populous species 78.9% (101/128), followed by 7.8% (10/128) and 7.0% (9/128) for the Candida glabrata and Candida krusei respectively. The most populous species of vaginal microflora were hemolytic streptococcus A (63.80%, 1059/1660), Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.28%, 237/1660), and Enterococcus faecalis (D) group (11.44%, 190/1660). The questionnaire survey showed that 88.4% (760/860) of 860 women took active treatment when feeling unwell, 92.1% (792/860) of them had good hygiene practices, and only 21.2% (182/860) had the habit of vaginal douching. In addition, 50.0% (430/860) of them had the desire to obtain reproductive health knowledge through out-patient consultation. Vulvovaginal Candida disease ranks the first in all types of vaginitis, among which, Candida albicans is the most populous species followed by the Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. Hemolytic streptococcus A and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most common species of vaginal microflora in healthy women. The censused women have high awareness of

  7. Candida albicans adherence to glass ionomer restorative dental material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Lawaf

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. It is believed that adherence of Candida albicans to oral surfaces is a critical event in the colonization and development of oral diseases such as candida-associated denture stomatitis. Although there is considerable information about the adherence of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells and prosthetic materials, there is very little information available about the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of Candida albicans adherence to glass ionomer restorative material. Materials and methods. In this experimental study adherence of Candida albicans strains was studied with and without human whole saliva. First, glass ionomer fragments were prepared; then yeast cells were inoculated and incubated with different incubation times. After incubation, the fragments were removed from the wells and stained with 0.1% calcofluor white. Adhesion was quantified by counting the total number of cells at 40, 80 and 120 minutes. The analysis of variance and Student's test were used to assess the significance of differences between the means. Results. In the absence of saliva, the adherence of Candida albicans showed an increase, reaching a maximum at the end of the experiment (120 minutes. However, in the presence of saliva, the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer significantly decreased. Conclusion. The presence of human whole saliva is an important factor in the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer restorative material.

  8. STUDY OF VAGINAL MICROBIAL FLORA IN CONTRACEPTIVE USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajakta Saurabh Barde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present study was carried out at Government Medical College, Nagpur, to study the vaginal microbial flora in women using contraceptive measures. The lactobacillus dominant flora is a protective barrier against development of various microbial infections of vagina. The alteration of this protective mechanism is associated with an increased risk of bacterial vaginosis. The vaginal flora can be disrupted by a variety of factors like use of contraceptive measures, sexual intercourse, antimicrobial use and douching. The effects of specific contraceptive methods on the vaginal flora are not clear. The present study is therefore undertaken to study the vaginal microbial flora in contraceptive users. MATERIALS AND METHODS The vaginal swab was taken in all cases for detection of microbial flora in women who were using various contraceptive measures and nonusers. Isolation of organisms was done by using various bacteriological tests. The microbial data obtained in the two groups was compared. Student’s T-test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Gardnerella vaginalis, E. coli, Enterococci, group B streptococci and Candida spp were grown in the patients using oral contraceptives as well as copper-T. However, the growth of Gardnerella vaginalis (69.12%, group B streptococci (60% and Candida spp (58% was more in patients using copper-T while, growth of E. coli (51.72% and Enterococci (72.22% was more in patients using oral contraceptives. This difference in the growth of various organisms, however, was not significant. CONCLUSION It is concluded that the vaginal swab for microbial flora should be studied in all women using contraceptive measures. Presence of any abnormal microorganisms should alarm for immediate measures to control the infection and thus prevent establishment of vaginitis.

  9. Candida infective endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddley, J. W.; Benjamin, D. K.; Patel, M.; Miró, J.; Athan, E.; Barsic, B.; Bouza, E.; Clara, L.; Elliott, T.; Kanafani, Z.; Klein, J.; Lerakis, S.; Levine, D.; Spelman, D.; Rubinstein, E.; Tornos, P.; Morris, A. J.; Pappas, P.; Fowler, V. G.; Chu, V. H.; Cabell, C.; DraGordon, David; Devi, Uma; Spelman, Denis; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Kauffman, Carol; Bradley, Suzanne; Armstrong, William; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Giamarellou, Helen; Lerakis, Stamatios; del Rio, Ana; Moreno, Asuncio; Mestres, Carlos A.; Pare, Carlos; Garcia de la Maria, Cristina; de Lazzario, Elisa; Marco, Francesc; Gatell, Jose M.; Miro, Jose M.; Almela, Manel; Azqueta, Manuel; Jimenez-Exposito, Maria Jesus; de Benito, Natividad; Perez, Noel; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; de Vera, Pablo Rodriguez; Tornos, Pilar; Falco, Vicente; Claramonte, Xavier; Armero, Yolanda; Sidani, Nisreen; Kanj-Sharara, Souha; Kanafani, Zeina; Raglio, Annibale; Goglio, Antonio; Gnecchi, Fabrizio; Suter, Fredy; Valsecchi, Grazia; Rizzi, Marco; Ravasio, Veronica; Hoen, Bruno; Chirouze, Catherine; Leroy, Joel; Plesiat, Patrick; Bernard, Yvette; Casey, Anna; Lambert, Peter; Watkin, Richard; Elliot, Tom; Patel, Mukesh; Dismukes, William; Pan, Angelo; Caros, Giampiero; Tribouilloy, Amel Brahim Mathiron Christophe; Goissen, Thomas; Delahaye, Armelle; Delahaye, Francois; Vandenesch, Francois; Vizzotti, Carla; Nacinovich, Francisco M.; Marin, Marcelo; Trivi, Marcelo; Lombardero, Martin; Cortes, Claudia; Casabe, Jose Horacio; Altclas, Javier; Kogan, Silvia; Clara, Liliana; Sanchez, Marisa; Commerford, Anita; Hansa, Cass; Deetlefs, Eduan; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Commerford, Patrick; Wray, Dannah; Steed, Lisa L.; Cantey, Robert; Morris, Arthur; Holland, David; Murdoch, David; Graham, Katherine; Read, Kerry; Raymond, Nigel; Bridgman, Paul; Troughton, Richard; Lang, Selwyn; Chambers, Stephen; Kotsanas, Despina; Korman, Tony M.; Peterson, Gail; Purcell, Jon; Southern, Paul M.; Shah, Manisha; Bedimo, Roger; Reddy, Arjun; Levine, Donald; Dhar, Gaurav; Hanlon-Feeney, Alanna; Hannan, Margaret; Kelly, Sinead; Wang, Andrew; Cabell, Christopher; Woods, Christopher; Sexton, Daniel J.; Benjamin, Danny; Corey, G. Ralph; McDonald, Jay R.; Federspiel, Jeff; Engemann, John J.; Barth Reller, L.; Drew, Laura; Caram, L. B.; Stryjewski, Martin; Morpeth, Susan; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Fowler, Vance; Chu, Vivian; Mazaheri, Bahram; Neuerburg, Carl; Naber, Christoph; Athan, Eugene; Henry, Margaret; Harris, Owen; Alestig, Eric; Olaison, Lars; Wikstrom, Lotta; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Francis, Johnson; Venugopal, K.; Nair, Lathi; Thomas, Vinod; Chaiworramukkun, Jaruwan; Pachirat, Orathai; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Suwanich, Tewan; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tamin, Syahidah Syed; Premru, Manica Muella; Logar, Mateja; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Orezzi, Christina; Klein, John; Bouza, Emilio; Moreno, Mar; Rodriguez-Creixems, Marta; Marin, Mercedes; Fernandez, Miguel; Munoz, Patricia; Fernandez, Rocio; Ramallo, Victor; Raoult, Didier; Thuny, Franck; Habib, Gilbert; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Chipigina, Natalia; Kirill, Ozerecky; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Kulichenko, Vadim P.; Butkevich, O. M.; Lion, Christine; Selton-Suty, Christine; Alla, Francois; Coyard, Helene; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Larussi, Diana; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Francoise Tripodi, Marie; Utili, Riccardo; Sampath Kumar, A.; Sharma, Gautam; Dickerman, Stuart A.; Street, Alan; Eisen, Damon Peter; McBryde, Emma Sue; Grigg, Leeanne; Abrutyn, Elias; Michelet, Christian; Tattevin, Pierre; Yves Donnio, Pierre; Fortes, Claudio Querido; Edathodu, Jameela; Al-Hegelan, Mashael; Font, Bernat; Raimon Guma, Joan; Cereceda, M.; Oyonarte, Miguel J.; Mella, Rodrigo Montagna; Garcia, Patricia; Braun Jones, Sandra; Isabel de Oliveira Ramos, Auristela; Ley Woon, Lok; Lum, Luh-Nah; Tan, Ru-San; Rees, David; Kornecny, Pam; Lawrence, Richard; Dever, Robyn; Post, Jeffey; Jones, Phillip; Ryan, Suzzane; Harkness, John; Fenely, Michael; Rubinstein, Ethan; Strahilewitz, Jacob; Ionac, Adina; Mornos, Cristian; Dragulescu, Stefan; Forno, Davide; Cecchi, Enrico; de Rosa, Francesco; Imazio, Massimo; Trinchero, Rita; Wiesbauer, Franz; Gattringer, Rainer; Deans, Greg; Andrasevic, Arjana Tambic; Barsic, Bruno; Klinar, Igor; Vincelj, Josip; Bukovski, Suzana; Krajinovic, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716

  10. A Study Of Fungal Colonization In Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rashid Husain

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors responsible for fungal colonization in newborns?Objective: To study the pattern of and predisposing fac­tors for the development of superficial candidiasis and fungal colonization in the newborns.Study Design: Prospective study.Setting: Neonatology unitof the Paediatrics department of a teaching hospital.Participants: Randomly selected pregnant mothers admit­ted to the maternity ward and the newborns delivered to them.Sample Size: 120 pregnant mothers and the newborns delivered.Study Variables: Candida, Site of colonization.Statistical Analysis: By tests of significanceResults: Candida was isolated from 23 (19.16% infants on the first day increasing to 52 (43.33% infants on the sixth day. The most common site of colonization was oral cavity. Candida colonization was more common in prema­ture infants (p<0.05. Oral thrush was seen in 29 (24.17% infants during the study and a significant number of these infants showed colonization from the first day of life.Conclusions: Fungal colonization of the newborns due to Candida species is quite common, and in the first week of life predominantly occurred in the ora I cavity. Superficial clinical candidiasis, especially oral thrush is more common in those colonized on the first day of life.

  11. Interactions of Candida albicans with host epithelial surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Williams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic, fungal pathogen of humans that frequently causes superficial infections of oral and vaginal mucosal surfaces of debilitated and susceptible individuals. The organism is however, commonly encountered as a commensal in healthy individuals where it is a component of the normal microflora. The key determinant in the type of relationship that Candida has with its host is how it interacts with the epithelial surface it colonises. A delicate balance clearly exists between the potentially damaging effects of Candida virulence factors and the nature of the immune response elicited by the host. Frequently, it is changes in host factors that lead to Candida seemingly changing from a commensal to pathogenic existence. However, given the often reported heterogeneity in morphological and biochemical factors that exist between Candida species and indeed strains of C. albicans, it may also be the fact that colonising strains differ in the way they exploit resources to allow persistence at mucosal surfaces and as a consequence this too may affect the way Candida interacts with epithelial cells. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of some of the possible interactions that may occur between C. albicans and host epithelial surfaces that may in turn dictate whether Candida removal, its commensal persistence or infection follows.

  12. Paediatric vaginal discharge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal discharge in the prepubertal patient is a common symptom, and can be a source of distress for the caregiver and con- cern for the healthcare worker. Several factors predispose these patients to the development of recurrent vaginal discharge. Unless noticed by the caregiver, this problem can persist for long periods ...

  13. Throwing the dice for the diagnosis of vaginal complaints?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras David

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Vaginitis is among the most common conditions women are seeking medical care for. Although these infections can easily be treated, the relapse rate is high. This may be due to inadequate use of the diagnostic potential. Methods We evaluated the misjudgement rate of the aetiology of vaginal complaints. A total of 220 vaginal samples from women with a vaginal complaint were obtained and analysed for numbers of total lactobacilli, H2O2-producing lactobacilli, total aerobic cell counts and total anaerobic cell counts including bifidobacteria, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp. Additionally, the presence of Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis was evaluated by DNA-hybridisation using the PCR and Affirm VPIII Microbial Identification Test, respectively. Results The participating physicians diagnosed Bacterial vaginosis (BV as origin of discomfort in 80 cases, candidiasis in 109 cases and mixed infections in 8 cases. However, a present BV, defined as lack of H2O2-lactobacilli, presence of marker organisms, such as G. vaginalis, Bacteroides spp. or Atopobium vaginae, and an elevated pH were identified in only 45 cases of the women examined. Candida spp. were detected in 46 cases. Interestingly, an elevated pH corresponded solely to the presence of Atopobium vaginae, which was detected in 11 cases. Conclusion Errors in the diagnosis of BV and candida vulvovaginitis (CV were high. Interestingly, the cases of misjudgement of CV (77% were more numerous than that of BV (61%. The use of Amsel criteria or microscopy did not reduce the number of misinterpretations. The study reveals that the misdiagnosis of vaginal complaints is rather high.

  14. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pratim Das

    2016-01-01

    Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candidaalbicans (n=47, 77.0%, C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%, C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%, C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%, and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%. Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3% C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country.

  15. Species identification and antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida isolates in cases of vulvovaginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Saad ElFeky

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC remains one of the most common infections of the female genital tract. Correct identification of the isolated Candida species is essential to direct the empirical antifungal therapy. Objectives: This local study was conducted to identify the spectrum of Candida species associated with VVC using different phenotypic and genotypic methods and assess their antifungal susceptibility pattern. Materials and methods: High vaginal swabs were collected from 125 patients presenting with a clinical picture suggestive of VVC. Swabs were subjected to Gram-stain and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Species identification of Candida isolates was done using phenotypic methods including germ tube test, Rice Tween-80 agar, Chrom ID (CAN2 agar and API 20C AUX, while PCR-RFLP was used as the gold standard method. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done using the disk diffusion method. Results: Vaginal swab cultures yielded Candida growth in 63 cases (50.4%. Candida albicans was the predominant isolated species (60.3% while the most common non-albicans species was Candida glabrata (12.7%. Forty-five (71.4% and fifty-five (87.3% Candida isolates were correctly speciated by Rice Tween-80 Agar and API 20C AUX, respectively, while fifty-seven isolates (90.5% were correctly assigned into the 3 groups of yeasts identified by CAN2 agar. Amphotericin B was more effective than azoles against vaginal Candida isolates. Conclusion: C. albicans is the most common species associated with VVC. API 20C AUX was the most accurate phenotypic method for the proper identification of most Candida species whereas PCR-RFLP could properly confirm Candida species identification genotypically.

  16. Clinical Patterns of Candida Infections in Bombay

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    J Pratiba Dalal

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred consecutive cases of candidiasis in Bombay were studied. In each case the suspicion was confirmed by isolation typing of the Candida species. The clinical was as follows: vulvo-vaginitis 30%; intertrigo 18%; onychia and paronychia 12%; thrush 16%; generalised cutaneous candidasis 8%, enteritis 3%; bronchitis 12% and urinary tract infection 1%. When compared to a study carried out in Bombay in 1966, there was an increase in the frequency of disseminated cutaneous candidiasis and a reduction in the cases of intertrigo and onychia and paronychia.

  17. Management of Vaginal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, S B L; Agrawal, Gaurav; Mittal, Megha; Mishra, Priyanshi

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare gynecologic cancer with very little documentation. Literature search to have useful information for the management of vaginal cancer and share. We have searched the PUBMED database, Google search engine and other database. A total of 26 references were taken into account. Once spread from primary other cancers or vulva is ruled out, vaginal cancer is designated to be primary in origin. It was revealed that majority of vaginal cancers reported are squamous cell carcinomas. The most common risk factors implicated are Human Papiloma Virus, age. Most common presenting symptoms were abnormal vaginal bleeding,. Diagnosis requires pathological confirmation. Management depends on staging work-up. Vaginal cancer is staged by FIGO system of staging and TNM staging. There are many prognostic factors influencing the choice of treatment. Lymph node metastasis is one of the important prognostic factors, others to mention are histology, size, age. In a recent SEER analysis of over 2000 patients, the 5 year disease specific survival was 84% for stage 1, 75% for stage II and 57% for advanced tumors. Early carcinomas are generally treated with either surgery or radiation therapy. Advanced cancers are treated with radiation therapy with simultaneous administration of combined chemotherapy. Preventive strategies include safe sex and HPV vaccination. Primary vaginal cancer is a rare entity, if there is no history of cancer cervix or vulva in past or absence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma or vulvar carcinoma within 5 years is usually considered as primary vaginal cancer. Though early stage vaginal cancers have better outcome treated with surgery or radiotherapy or surgery followed by radiotherapy, radiotherapy alone is preferred mode of treatment in vaginal cancers.

  18. Biosynthesis and Degradation of H2O2 by Vaginal Lactobacilli▿

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Rebeca; Suárez, Juan E.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide production by vaginal lactobacilli represents one of the most important defense mechanisms against vaginal colonization by undesirable microorganisms. To quantify the ability of a collection of 45 vaginal Lactobacillus strains to generate H2O2, we first compared three published colorimetric methods. It was found that the use of DA-64 as a substrate rendered the highest sensitivity, while tetramethyl-benzidine (TMB) maintained its linearity from nanomolar to millimolar H2O2 c...

  19. Origanum vulgare essential oil affects pathogens causing vaginal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, M; Bogavac, M; Radovanović, B; Sudji, J; Tešanović, K; Janjušević, L

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the application of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (EO) as an alternative antimicrobial agent against vaginal infections. Microdilution methods were applied for the detection of the minimal inhibitory (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal/fungicidal (MBC/MFC) concentration of 15 clinical strains originating from women with symptoms of vaginal infection. Optical density determination (OD) was used for detection of the Candida growth rate. Staining with DAPI was used to detect the influence of EO on nuclear condensation and fragmentation, while the brine shrimp bioassay was used to determine the toxicity of EO. Chemical composition analysis was done using GS-MS. According to the MIC and MBC/MFC values, the most susceptible strains to EO were: Escherichia coli 1, E. coli 2, Staphylococcus aureus 3 and Candida albicans 1-3. Inhibition of C. albicans filamentation was detected at 0·45 μl ml(-1) . The obtained inhibition (%) from Candida growth curves points to a shorter period of time (24 h) for determining IC50 as MIC and IC99 as MFC value. These values could be recommended as valid parameters for the faster detection of the effectiveness of EO on Candida isolates. Examination of potential of the O. vulgare EO as a main antimicrobial constituent within vaginalettes in gynaecological practice. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. The epidemiology of Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis in an Iranian patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi Rad, M; Zafarghandi, S; Abbasabadi, B; Tavallaee, M

    2011-04-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common infection among women worldwide. According to previous epidemiological studies, Candida albicans is the most common species of Candida. The prevalence of non-Candida species, however, is increasing. Identification of Candida species among the population will not only help health professionals to choose suitable antifungal treatments, but also prevent development of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to identify, using chromogenic agar medium, the Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis among a sample of the Iranian population. In a prospective cohort study during a two year period from March 2006 to March 2008, swab samples of vaginal discharge/secretion were taken from 200 patients admitted to the gynecology clinic of Mahdieh Hospital (Tehran, Iran) with a clinical presentation suggestive of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The isolates obtained were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and chromogenic agar medium. Candida species were also identified by germ tube formation in serum, chlamydospore production on Corn Meal Agar and carbohydrate absorption using the API 20C-AUX kit. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire investigating the risk factors associated with candidiasis. An assessment of the different species of recurrent and non-recurrent candidiasis was also made. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and t-test were used to analyze the data. A total of 191 isolates were obtained from 175 vaginal specimens. Candida albicans accounted for 67% of the strains including single and mixed infections. The other identified species were Candida glabrata (18.3%), Candida tropicalis (6.8%), Candida krusei (5.8%), Candida parapsilosis (1.6%), and Candida guilliermondii (0.5%) respectively. Mixed infection with two or more species of Candida was seen in 10.3% of patients. The most common mixed cause was the combination of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Participants who were sexually active

  1. [Vulvovaginitis: vaginal pH changes and associated microflora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Ana Conceiçáo Ribeiro Dantas; Sisenando, Herbert Ary Arzabe Anteza Costa Nóbrega; Pereira, Alessandra Ramalho; Vale, Ana Patrícia Medeiros; Pires, Leila Monte; de Araújo, Jarine Torres; Ramos, Eleni Souto Nóbrega

    2005-01-01

    To establish a correlation between pH vaginal and the microflora associated in carriers of vulvovaginites. In the present study, the cytopathological examination and the vaginal flow in a group of 65 sexually active women had been carried through, 20 and 72 years, taken care of in the Laboratório de Citologia Clínica do Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, for determination of microorganisms in cervicovaginal sample and of pH in the vaginal flow. Associating pH vaginal with the presence of vulvovaginitis, it was evidenced that the Candida sp. occurred more frequently in pH 4.0, Trichomonas vaginalis in pH 6.0, Gardnerella vaginalis in pH 5.0, coconuts in pH 5.0, bacilli in pH 4.0 and cocos/bacilos in pH 6.0. It was observed that all the patients had presented at least one type of ethiological agent of vulvovaginiti and an associated microflora. The joint accomplishment of the cytological examinations and the determination of pH revealed important for directing the microflora associated with the vulvovaginiti, suggesting, of this form, that pH vaginal plays preponderant role how much to the presence of the infectious agents in the vaginal ecosystem.

  2. Molecular Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern of Non-albicans Candida Species Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi Nejat, Ziba; Farahyar, Shirin; Falahati, Mehraban; Ashrafi Khozani, Mahtab; Hosseini, Aga Fateme; Faiazy, Azamsadat; Ekhtiari, Masoome; Hashemi-Hafshenjani, Saeideh

    2017-07-09

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an important health problem caused by Candida spp. The aim of this study was molecular identification, phylogenetic analysis, and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of non-albicans Candida isolates from VVC. Vaginal secretion samples were collected from 550 vaginitis patients at Sayyad Shirazi Medical and Educational Center of Gorgan (Golestan Province, Iran) from May to October 2015. Samples were analyzed using conventional mycological and molecular approaches. Clinical isolates were analyzed with specific PCR using CGL primers, and the internal transcribed spacer region and the D1-D2 domain of the large-subunit rRNA gene were amplified and sequenced. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and clotrimazole was determined by the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. In total, 35 non-albicans Candida isolates were identified from VVC patients. The isolates included 27 strains of Candida glabrata (77.1%), 5 Candida krusei (Pichia kudriavzevii; 14.3%), 2 Candida kefyr (Kluyveromyces marxianus; 5.7%), and 1 Candida lusitaniae (Clavispora lusitaniae; 2.9%). The fungicides itraconazole and amphotericin B were effective against all species. One isolate of C. glabrata showed resistance to fluconazole and clotrimazole, and 26 isolates of C. glabrata indicated dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole. C. lusitaniae was susceptible in a dose-dependent manner to fluconazole and resistant to clotrimazole. Non-albicans Candida spp. are common agents of vulvovaginitis, and C. glabrata is the most common species in the tested patients.

  3. Aerobic vaginal pathogens and their sensitivity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Shamim; Ahmad, Mumtaz; Aftab, Irum; Akhtar, Naeem; ul Hassan, Masood; Hamid, Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The vaginal flora is a complicated environment, containing dozens of microbiological species in variable quantities and relative proportions. The frequent cause of vaginal discharge is an infection or colonization with different microorganisms. Some pathologic conditions causing vaginitis are well defined yet, 7-72% of women with vaginitis may remain undiagnosed and such forms of abnormal vaginal flora neither considered as normal, nor can be called bacterial vaginosis have been termed as 'intermediate flora' and its management probably differ from that of bacterial vaginosis. It is of crucial importance in pregnant females at risk of preterm delivery. The present study has been conducted especially to elucidate this type of aerobic vaginal isolates and their culture and sensitivity towards currently used antibiotics. This study was conducted at the Microbiology Department of Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi over a period of two years (April 2004-March 2006). One thousand, nine hundred and twenty three high vaginal swabs, both from indoor and outdoor patients were collected, cultured and their susceptibility to various antibiotics was determined. Significant growth was obtained in 731 samples. The highest frequency of infection (39.5%) was observed at 31-40 years followed by 41-50 years (35.8%). About 76% were from outdoor and 24% were from indoor patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent vaginal pathogen at 11-60 yrs & with highest prevalence at 31-40 years followed by 41-50 years. It was a predominant pathogen in both indoor (35%) as well as outdoor (41.6%) patients, followed by enteric gram-negative bacilli and other gram-positive cocci. There were very few antibiotics among the conventionally available aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, penicillin, quinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines possessing good sensitivity (> 80%) against any one the common aerobic vaginal pathogens. The effective chemotherapeutics agents belong to

  4. Streptococcus thermophilus and its biosurfactants inhibit adhesion by Candida spp. on silicone rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; vanHoogmoed, CG; GeertsemaDoornbusch, GI; vanderKuijlBooij, M; vanderMei, HC

    1997-01-01

    The adhesion of yeasts, two Candida albicans and two Candida tropicalis strains isolated from naturally colonized voice prostheses, to silicone rubber with and without a salivary conditioning film in the absence and presence of adhering Streptococcus thermophilus B, a biosurfactant-releasing dairy

  5. In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Oral Candida Isolates from Patients Suffering from Caries and Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Torre, Janire; Ortiz-Samperio, María Esther; Marcos-Arias, Cristina; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Eraso, Elena; Echebarria-Goicouria, María Ángeles; Aguirre-Urizar, José Manuel; Quindós, Guillermo

    2017-06-01

    Caries and chronic periodontitis are common oral diseases where a higher Candida colonization is reported. Antifungal agents could be adjuvant drugs for the therapy of both clinical conditions. The aim of the current study has been to evaluate the in vitro activities of conventional and new antifungal drugs against oral Candida isolates from patients suffering from caries and/or chronic periodontitis. In vitro activities of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, nystatin, posaconazole and voriconazole against 126 oral Candida isolates (75 Candida albicans, 18 Candida parapsilosis, 11 Candida dubliniensis, six Candida guilliermondii, five Candida lipolytica, five Candida glabrata, four Candida tropicalis and two Candida krusei) from 61 patients were tested by the CLSI M27-A3 method. Most antifungal drugs were highly active, and resistance was observed in less than 5% of tested isolates. Miconazole was the most active antifungal drug, being more than 98% of isolates susceptible. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and the new triazoles, posaconazole and voriconazole, were also very active. Miconazole, fluconazole and voriconazole have excellent in vitro activities against all Candida isolates and could represent suitable treatment for a hypothetically adjunctive therapy of caries and chronic periodontitis.

  6. [Candida: epidemiology and risk factors for non-albicans species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornistein, Wanda; Mora, Andrea; Orellana, Nora; Capparelli, Federico Javier; del Castillo, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Nosocomial fungal infections have increased significantly in the last decade. Candida detection in clinical specimens can mean either colonization or an infection which can be local (muguet) or invasive. Knowledge of the species helps in choosing the best treatment. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency and distribution of Candida species detected in clinical samples, to analyze the clinical characteristics of the involved population and to determine the risk factors for Candida non-albicans species. Retrospective, observational. 2006-2010. all isolates of Candida in clinical specimens from patients hospitalized at least 48 hours in a neurological center. We analyzed epidemiological characteristics, co morbidities, risk factors, factors associated with Candida non-albicans detection, antifungal treatment, development of adverse events and mortality. Candida spp. was isolated from 321 clinical specimens: 139 (43.3%) were C. albicans and 182 (56.7%) Candida non-albicans. The distribution of the sample was: urine 122 (Candida non-albicans 67.2%), airway 81, oropharynx 45 (C. albicans) and candidemia 40 (Candida non-albicans 75%). The most frequent co-morbidity was solid tumor (35.5%). The main risk factors were antibiotic therapy (85.5%), steroid therapy (61.7%) and in ICU at diagnosis (61.6%). The analysis of risk factors and the isolation of Candida non-albicans shows that chemotherapy, previous surgery, treatment with aminopenicillins, carbapenems and glycopeptides were statistically significant (PCandida species distribution varies with the type of sample analyzed. Non-albicans species make up the majority of the isolates. The identification of the species involved per sample helps to optimize treatment. The high frequency of isolation of Candida in patients on steroids and antibiotics and admitted to ICU, is worth pointing out. Patients with previous surgery, treated with the aforementioned antibiotics or chemotherapy, could receive non

  7. Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, J; Schjørring, S; Eskildsen, C E; Pedersen, L; Bischoff, A L; Følsgaard, N; Carson, C G; Chawes, B L K; Bønnelykke, K; Mølgaard, A; Jacobsson, B; Krogfelt, K A; Bisgaard, H

    2014-07-01

    Antibiotics may induce alterations in the commensal microbiota of the birth canal in pregnant women. Therefore, we studied the effect of antibiotic administration during pregnancy on commensal vaginal bacterial colonization at gestational week 36. Six hundred and sixty-eight pregnant women from the novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010 ) pregnancy cohort participated in this analysis. Detailed information on oral antibiotic prescriptions during pregnancy filled at the pharmacy was obtained and verified prospectively. Vaginal samples were obtained at pregnancy week 36 and cultured for bacteria. Women who received oral antibiotics during any pregnancy trimester had an increased rate of colonization by Staphylococcus species in the vaginal samples as compared with samples obtained from women without any antibiotic treatment during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.06-2.52, p 0.028). Oral antibiotic administration in the third trimester were also associated with increased colonization by Staphylococcus species (adjusted OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.04-3.76, p 0.037). These bacteriological changes were associated with urinary tract infection antibiotics. Women treated in the third trimester of pregnancy were more often colonized by Escherichia coli than women without antibiotic treatment in the third trimester (adjusted OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04-3.52, p 0.038). This change was associated with respiratory tract infection (RTI) antibiotics. We did not observe any significant changes in vaginal Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptoccocus) or Staphylococcus aureus colonization following antibiotic treatment in pregnancy. Antibiotic administration during pregnancy leads to alterations in the vaginal microbiological ecology prior to birth, with potential morbidity, and long-term effects on the early microbial colonization of the neonate. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical

  8. Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign. The campaign helps women get the facts about gynecologic cancer, providing important “inside knowledge” about their bodies and health. What are vaginal and vulvar cancers? Cancer is ...

  9. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have you: Learn pelvic floor muscle exercises ( Kegel exercises ) Use estrogen cream in your vagina Try ... repair; Urinary incontinence - vaginal wall repair Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  10. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yeast Infections Print A A A en español Infecciones vaginales por hongos What Are Vaginal Yeast Infections? ... keep the amount in a person's body under control. But yeast in the vagina can sometimes "overgrow" ...

  11. Vaginal birth - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/presentations/100198.htm Vaginal birth - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  12. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inflammation or infection of the cervix (cervicitis) or uterus (endometritis) Injury or disease of the vaginal opening (caused by intercourse, trauma, infection, polyp, genital warts , ulcer, or varicose veins) ...

  13. Yeast Infection (Vaginal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal discharge with a cottage cheese appearance Complicated yeast infection You might have a complicated yeast infection ... have an uncomplicated or a complicated infection. Uncomplicated yeast infection For mild to moderate symptoms and infrequent ...

  14. Investigation of minor species Candida africana, Candida stellatoidea and Candida dubliniensis in the Candida albicans complex among Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngouana, Thierry K; Krasteva, Donika; Drakulovski, Pascal; Toghueo, Rufin K; Kouanfack, Charles; Ambe, Akaba; Reynes, Jacques; Delaporte, Eric; Boyom, Fabrice F; Mallié, Michèle; Bertout, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Minor species of the Candida albicans complex may cause overestimation of the epidemiology of C. albicans, and misidentifications could mask their implication in human pathology. Authors determined the occurrence of minor species of the C. albicans complex (C. africana, C. dubliniensis and C. stellatoidea) among Yaoundé HIV-infected patients, Cameroon. Stool, vaginal discharge, urine and oropharyngeal samples were analysed by mycological diagnosis. Isolates were identified by conventional methods and mass spectrometry (MS; carried out by the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight MS protocol). Candida albicans isolates were thereafter submitted to the PCR amplification of the Hwp1 gene. The susceptibility of isolates to antifungal drugs was tested using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 protocol. From 115 C. albicans obtained isolates, neither C. dubliniensis nor C. stellatoidea was observed; two strains of C. africana (422PV and 448PV) were identified by PCR electrophoretic profiles at 700 bp. These two C. africana strains were vaginal isolates. The isolate 448PV was resistant to ketoconazole at the minimal inhibitory concentration of 2 μg ml(-1), and showed reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B at 1 μg ml(-1). This first report on C. africana occurrence in Cameroon brings clues for the understanding of the global epidemiology of this yeast as well as that of minor species of the C. albicans complex. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Frequency Distribution Candidal Vaginitis in Women Referred to Health Centers in Yazd

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    Ali Fattahi Bafghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The vaginal flora is a dynamic ecosystem that can be easily altered. Although, there are four causes of vaginal discharges which cover almost 95% of vaginaitis. Candidal Vaginaitis is an infection of the vagina’s mucous membranes by Candida albicans (CA. Present study attempted to Candidal Vaginitis in women referred to health centers in Yazd and the role of innate & cell-mediated immunity against Candidal Vaginitis. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted from September 2011 to September 2012 in Yazd city. A total of 360 women were recruited. The collection of material for diagnosis is ideally performed during a comprehensive pelvic examination using a speculum for diagnosis of CA with identify vaginal pH; smear preparing and staining and culturing. Results: Finally all of 360 women that observed and tested, 120 (33.33% of them have involved and 240 (66.67% have not involved. from 120 infected women, 55paitents had Bacterial vaginosis (15.6% 40 patients had Ca (10.8% and 25 patients had Trichomonas vaginalis (5.9%. Despite the role for cell-mediated immunity in host protection against the majority of mucosal CA infections, studied has been in women with recurrent vaginitis, in HIV-infected women. Thus, current investigations have been focused specifically on innate and acquired immune responses against CA at the vaginal mucosa instead of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis being caused by defective or dysfunctional CD4+ T helper 1-type cell-mediated immune reactivity. Conclusion: Strongly suggest that distinct vaginal lymphocyte subsets participate in the adaptive anti-Candida immunity at the vaginal level, with the vaginal CD4_ T cells probably playing a major role.

  16. Candida species in stool, symptoms and complaints in general practice--a cross-sectional study of 308 outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobst, Detmar; Kraft, Karin

    2006-09-01

    Patients with unspecific symptoms were sometimes tested for Candida. In case of findings of this yeast-like fungus in their stools they often were labelled with the diagnosis of a "Candida-syndrome". This comprises headache, weakness, flatulence, ravenous appetite for sweets, itching skin and several more unspecific symptoms. All 500 randomly sampled patients in 12 mainly naturopathic practices were asked to take part. In case of participation, they received stool-tubes and questionnaires to be answered during the waiting-time by the patients themselves. We asked for details of lifestyle, diseases and a number of unspecific symptoms. The stool-tubes were sent to a microbiological lab within 24 h after being filled. About one-third of all 308 participants carried Candida albicans in their stools. This finding is regarded as normal. Smoking habits were highly associated to Candida: 45 of the 78 smokers (58%), but only 68 of the 230 (29%) non-smokers were Candida positive, P < 0.0001. Three more results were associated with Candida-positive stools: Candida-vaginitis, allergies against food and allergies in general. Hints of a Candida-syndrome could not be found. The relation with smoking cigarettes is a new result. Associations to Candida-vaginitis and allergies were described before.

  17. Effects of a One Year Reusable Contraceptive Vaginal Ring on Vaginal Microflora and the Risk of Vaginal Infection: An Open-Label Prospective Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Huang

    Full Text Available A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR containing Nestorone® (NES and ethinyl estradiol (EE that is reusable for 1- year (13 cycles is under development. This study assessed effects of this investigational CVR on the incidence of vaginal infections and change in vaginal microflora.There were 120 women enrolled into a NES/EE CVR Phase III trial and a microbiology sub-study for up to 1- year of cyclic product use. Gynecological examinations were conducted at baseline, the first week of cycle 6 and last week of cycle 13 (or during early discontinuation visits. Vaginal swabs were obtained for wet mount microscopy, Gram stain and culture. The CVR was removed from the vagina at the last study visit and cultured. Semi-quantitative cultures for Lactobacillus, Gardnerella vaginalis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, anaerobic gram negative rods (GNRs, Candida albicans and other yeasts were performed on vaginal and CVR samples. Vaginal infections were documented throughout the study.Over 1- year of use, 3.3% of subjects were clinically diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, 15.0% with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and 0.8% with trichomoniasis. The detection rate of these three infections did not change significantly from baseline to either Cycle 6 or 13. Nugent scores remained stable. H2O2-positive Lactobacillus dominated vaginal flora with a non-significant prevalence increase from 76.7% at baseline to 82.7% at cycle 6 and 90.2% at cycle 13, and a median concentration of 107 colony forming units (cfu per gram. Although anaerobic GNRs prevalence increased significantly, the median concentration decreased slightly (104 to 103cfu per gram. There were no significant changes in frequency or concentrations of other pathogens. High levels of agreement between vaginal and ring surface microbiota were observed.Sustained use of the NES/EE CVR did not increase the risk of vaginal infection and was not disruptive to the vaginal ecosystem

  18. Species identification of Candida isolated from clinical specimens in a tertiary care hospital

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    lsmet Nigar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida species are responsible for various clinical manifestations from mucocutaneous overgrowth to blood stream infections especially in immunocompromized situations. Although C. albicans is the most prevalent species, high incidence of non-albicans Candida species with antifungal resistance are emerging which is posing a serious threat to the patients care.Objective: This study aimed to isolate and identify different species of Candida from different clinical specimens. Methods: A total of 100 different clinical specimens were studied of which 35 were oral swab, 28 were high vaginal swab, 15 were urine, 14 were nail, 04 were bronchoalveolar lavage and peritoneal fluid were 04. Among 100 clinical specimens, Candida isolates were identified in 64 specimens. Isolation of Candida species was done by primary culture in SDA. Subsequent identification of species were performed by germ tube test, subculture in chromo­genic agar medium and carbohydrate assimilation test with commonly used twelve sugars.Results: Out of 64 isolated Candida species, Candida albicans were 51.56% and the non-albicans Candida species were 48.44%. The most prevalent Candida species was C. albicans 33 (51.53% followed by C. tropicalis 17 (26.56%. C. glabrata 4 (6.25%, C. parapsilo­sis 4 (6.25%, C. krusei 3 (4.68% and C. guilliermondii 2 (3.2%. One of the isolated Candida species was unidentified.Conclusion: Though Candida albicans was found as the most common species, but non-albicans Candida species are appearing as emerging pathogens as well. Exposure to chemotherapy appeared to be the commonest predisposing factor for Candida infection followed by indwelling urinary catheter in situ for prolong period.

  19. [Identification and susceptibility against fluconazole and albaconazole of 100 yeasts' strains isolated from vaginal discharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechavala, Alicia I; Bianchi, Mario H; Robles, Ana María; Santiso, Gabriela; Negroni, Ricardo

    2007-12-31

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a condition that affects a great number of fertile women. It is considered the second cause of genital infection after vaginosis due to GAM complex. Candida albicans is the most frequent isolated species from vaginal discharge. However, sometimes more than one yeast species could be found in the same clinical sample that are more resistant to antifungal drugs. Nowadays, it is necessary to identify properly up to species level the isolated microorganism and to determine the antifungal susceptibility profile. One hundred strains obtained from vaginal discharge of 94 patients suffering acute vulvovaginal candidiasis were studied. The identification of the isolates showed: C. albicans 86%, Candida glabrata 6%, Candida inconspicua 3%, Candida krusei 2% and Candida intermedia, Candida holmii and Trichosporon asahii one case each. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of all the yeasts against fluconazole and albaconazole were performed. C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. inconspicua were the most resistant against fluconazole, on the other hand albicans was susceptible to this drug. All the isolates presented MIC against albaconazole much lower than fluconazole.

  20. Candida albicans suppresses transcription of melanogenesis enzymes in cultured melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenberger, S; Bernd, A; Menzel, I; Loitsch, S; Ramirez-Bosca, A; Kaufmann, R

    1997-12-01

    Human skin can be colonized by different yeasts that may have an impact on skin pigmentation. In order to study this effect normal human melanocytes were cultured with different yeasts. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis gives evidence that Candida albicans suppresses the transcription of melanogenesis enzymes.

  1. Acid production by oral strains of Candida albicans and Lactobacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinke, T.; Kneist, S.; de Soet, J.J.; Kuhlisch, E.; Mauersberger, S.; Forster, A.; Klimm, W.

    2009-01-01

    Both Candida albicans and lactobacilli are common colonizers of carious lesions in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to compare the velocity of acid production between C. albicans and several Lactobacillus species at different pH levels and concentrations of glucose. Washed,

  2. Efficiency of fenticonazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živaljević Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis appears in 75% women of reproductive age. The most frequent causes are Candida albicans (85-95% or C. glabrata, and infrequently C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, etc. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate efficiency and safety of fenticonazole for vaginal candidiasis treatment. Methods. Therapeutic effect of a single 600 mg fenticonasole vaginal capsule was observed in 417 women, aged 16-67, in five centers in Serbia. In all women, before the treatment, vaginal candidiasis was confirmed by testing of vaginal smear. Based on smear findings and associated symptoms observed on the 7th and 28th day after therapy administration, treatment results were evaluated. On the next day after drug application the patients recorded by using a questionnaire their own feelings on withdrawal symptoms and possible side effects in the period prior to the first control. Results. Control after seven days showed a statistically significant decrease of symptoms. In 385 women, vaginal smear was found negative to yeast and yeast blastospores. Within the first seven days after treatment 84 women had to repeat therapy due to the persistence of symptoms or positive vaginal smear. After 28 days we recorded full recovery in 392 patients, clinical improvement in eight, no change in 16, and deterioration in one patient only. Side effects were very seldom, mostly in the form of a slight redness of the vulva and vagina, and mild itching during several days. Conclusion. Our observations confirmed good efficacy and safety of fenticonazole in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

  3. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krause

    Full Text Available Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy, ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.. Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73% (p<0.05. No case of invasive candidiasis originating from Candida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis.

  4. Prevalence of Candida spp. during radiographic examination in Diabetes mellitus patients

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    Flávia Cristina Volpato

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is suggested that individuals with diabetes are more susceptible to Candida infections than healthy people, especially if periodontal infection is associated. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the prevalence of colonization by Candida spp. during radiographic examination in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 20 patients without diabetes mellitus, presenting chronic periodontitis and presence of Candida spp. in saliva were evaluated. During radiographic examination, samples of saliva were collected from: oral mucosa, conventional radiographic periapical film, digital x-ray sensor (CDR, and bite block of the receptor-positioning device. Colony forming units (cfu/mL and identification of Candida yeasts were assessed. RESULT: Oral mucosa from both groups showed the highest colonization with Candida spp. if compared with others surfaces collected (p < 0.05. In diabetic patients, the mucosa of the upper left regions showed higher levels of colonization. In non-diabetic patients, the upper right molar region showed the highest level of colonization during the examination of the receptor-positioning device, the sensor and the non-sensitive film. Candida spp. levels in saliva were similar between diabetics (mean = 3.0 × 10(6 and non-diabetics (mean = 3.8 × 10(6. CONCLUSION: No difference in Candida spp. colonization (cfu/mL in diabetics and non-diabetic patients was observed for the five collected surfaces and the simulated radiographic region. Candida albicans was the prevalent species of Candida spp. found on all the samples.

  5. EFECTO DE LA RECOLONIZACIÓN VAGINAL POR LACTOBACILLUS SP. PROBIÓTICO POTENCIAL EN MUJERES CON VAGINOSIS BACTERIANA

    OpenAIRE

    HURTADO ESCAMILO, STEVE TONY

    2015-01-01

    The vaginal microflora of healthy women is dominated by Lactobacillus species, which prevent the growth and invasion of pathogenic bacteria and their decrease is associated with increased incidence of vaginal infections. Objective: To evaluate the effect of vaginal re-colonization by a potential probiotic Lactobacillus strain, Lactobacillus sp. BMP9, in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Methods: Women categorized by Nugent criteria: 16 with bacterial vaginosis (Nugent: 7-10 points) ...

  6. MANAGEMENT OF VAGINAL DISCHARGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Northern Branch. He has conducted numerous clinical trials and has a research interest in infectious diseases with special emphasis on sexually transmitted infections. He is a recipi- ent of the NRFs grant for research in sexually transmitted diseases and is also the principal investigator for a phase III vaginal microbicide.

  7. Vaginal rejuvenation: current perspectives

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    Barbara G

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Giussy Barbara,1 Federica Facchin,2 Laura Buggio,3 Daniela Alberico,3 Maria Pina Frattaruolo,3 Alessandra Kustermann1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Service for Sexual and Domestic Violence (SVSeD, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 2Faculty of Psychology, Catholic University of Milan, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Milan, Italy Abstract: Female genital cosmetic surgery includes several procedures aimed at reaching better female genital appearance and/or improved sexual functioning. Among these procedures, vaginal rejuvenation is considered as one of the most controversial genital cosmetic surgical interventions and involves a range of surgical procedures performed by gynecologists or plastic surgeons to decrease the average diameter of the vagina, mainly for sexual reasons. In this narrative review, vaginal rejuvenation outcomes are examined in order to clarify the current scenario of the different vaginal rejuvenation techniques, as well as their effectiveness and associated complications. Psychological and ethical issues linked to these procedures are also addressed. Keywords: vaginal rejuvenation, female genital cosmetic surgery, vaginoplasty 

  8. [Prevalence of 7 microorganisms in abnormal vaginal secretions (vaginitis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupas, A; Wyss, R; Anner, R

    1985-10-19

    Seven microorganisms (N. gonorrhoeae, C. albicans, T. vaginalis, G. vaginalis, M. hominis, U. urealyticum and Streptococcus of group B) have been assayed in genital samplings of 164 asymptomatic women (control group) and of 374 women suffering from abnormal vaginal secretions (vaginitis group). All these bacteria except group B Streptococci were isolated in the vaginitis group more frequently than in the control group (p less than 0.01). The proportion of negative cultures for all tested bacteria was 39% in the control group and 6.4% in the vaginitis group (p less than 0.01). This shows an association of these bacteria with 70% of the patients of the vaginitis group and with only 26% of the women of the control group (p less than 0.01). It is to be noted that the pH values are higher in the group of women with vaginitis than in the control group (p less than 0.01). Comparison of the microbial flora during "specific" an "non-specific" vaginitis indicates that G. vaginalis is isolated more frequently in patients with non-specific vaginitis than among those with specific vaginitis (p less than 0.01). Likewise, M. hominis is isolated more frequently in groups of women with either non-specific vaginitis or T. vaginalis vaginitis, than in groups of patients with a C. albicans vaginitis (p less than 0,01). The results of this study indicate that there is a causal relationship between vaginitis and the presence of T. vaginalis. C. albicans, G. vaginalis, M. hominis or N. gonorrhoeae, either as a single or a mixed infection, and that there is a relationship between increased pH values and abnormal vaginal secretions.

  9. Evaluación de la irritabilidad vaginal causada por supositorios vaginales formulados a partir de aceite de teobroma ozonizado - Evaluation of vaginal irritability caused by formulated vaginal suppositories with ozonized theobroma oil

    OpenAIRE

    Maritza F. Díaz; Rosa I Meneau; Piña, Yoenia C.; Garcia,Gastón.

    2009-01-01

    ResumenEl aceite de teobroma ozonizado presenta actividad antifungicidacontra la Candida albicans. Se realizó un estudio para determinar laposible irritabilidad vaginal de supositorios vaginales OZONOL®,formulados a partir de diferentes porcientos de aceite de teobromaozonizado. Los ensayos se realizaron en conejos albinos hembrassiguiendo las técnicas descritas en los procedimientos normalizadosde trabajo establecidos en el Centro de Investigaciones yEvaluaciones Biológicas de la Universidad...

  10. Angioembolisation in vaginal vascular malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava D

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal arteriovenous malformations are rare entities and their most common presentation is vaginal haemorrhage. This case report describes a 22-year-old woman who presented at 20 weeks of gestation with slow growing soft and tender swelling at anterior vaginal wall. Diagnosis was confirmed as vaginal vascular malformation on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The mass did not subside after delivery and patient developed dyspareunia. It was successfully treated by angioembolisation using polyvinyl alcohol particles. Angioembolisation being safe and effective should be the treatment of first choice for symptomatic vaginal vascular malformation.

  11. Commensal Bacteria Modulate Innate Immune Responses of Vaginal Epithelial Cell Multilayer Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William A.; McGowin, Chris L.; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia D.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Pyles, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    The human vaginal microbiome plays a critical but poorly defined role in reproductive health. Vaginal microbiome alterations are associated with increased susceptibility to sexually-transmitted infections (STI) possibly due to related changes in innate defense responses from epithelial cells. Study of the impact of commensal bacteria on the vaginal mucosal surface has been hindered by current vaginal epithelial cell (VEC) culture systems that lack an appropriate interface between the apical surface of stratified squamous epithelium and the air-filled vaginal lumen. Therefore we developed a reproducible multilayer VEC culture system with an apical (luminal) air-interface that supported colonization with selected commensal bacteria. Multilayer VEC developed tight-junctions and other hallmarks of the vaginal mucosa including predictable proinflammatory cytokine secretion following TLR stimulation. Colonization of multilayers by common vaginal commensals including Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. rhamnosus led to intimate associations with the VEC exclusively on the apical surface. Vaginal commensals did not trigger cytokine secretion but Staphylococcus epidermidis, a skin commensal, was inflammatory. Lactobacilli reduced cytokine secretion in an isolate-specific fashion following TLR stimulation. This tempering of inflammation offers a potential explanation for increased susceptibility to STI in the absence of common commensals and has implications for testing of potential STI preventatives. PMID:22412914

  12. Commensal bacteria modulate innate immune responses of vaginal epithelial cell multilayer cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Rose

    Full Text Available The human vaginal microbiome plays a critical but poorly defined role in reproductive health. Vaginal microbiome alterations are associated with increased susceptibility to sexually-transmitted infections (STI possibly due to related changes in innate defense responses from epithelial cells. Study of the impact of commensal bacteria on the vaginal mucosal surface has been hindered by current vaginal epithelial cell (VEC culture systems that lack an appropriate interface between the apical surface of stratified squamous epithelium and the air-filled vaginal lumen. Therefore we developed a reproducible multilayer VEC culture system with an apical (luminal air-interface that supported colonization with selected commensal bacteria. Multilayer VEC developed tight-junctions and other hallmarks of the vaginal mucosa including predictable proinflammatory cytokine secretion following TLR stimulation. Colonization of multilayers by common vaginal commensals including Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. rhamnosus led to intimate associations with the VEC exclusively on the apical surface. Vaginal commensals did not trigger cytokine secretion but Staphylococcus epidermidis, a skin commensal, was inflammatory. Lactobacilli reduced cytokine secretion in an isolate-specific fashion following TLR stimulation. This tempering of inflammation offers a potential explanation for increased susceptibility to STI in the absence of common commensals and has implications for testing of potential STI preventatives.

  13. Prevalence of Candida spp., xerostomia, and hyposalivation in oral lichen planus--a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, G; Freitas, R S; Santos Filho, A M; Benard, G; Romiti, R; Migliari, D A

    2014-04-01

    To determine the frequency of Candida spp., xerostomia, and salivary flow rate (SFR) in three different groups: patients with OLP (OLP group), patients with oral mucosal lesions other than OLP (non-OLP group), and subjects without oral mucosal lesions (control group). Xerostomia as well as SFR was investigated in the three groups. Samples for isolation of Candida spp. were collected from OLP lesions (38 patients), non-OLP lesions (28 patients), and healthy subjects (32 subjects). There was no statistically significant difference regarding the frequency of xerostomia and hyposalivation among the three groups (P > 0.05). A higher prevalence for colonization by Candida spp. was found in the healthy subject as compared to that of patients with OLP (P = 0.03) and non-OLP (P = 0.02) groups. Low SFR was not a factor for colonization by Candida spp. Xerostomia and hyposalivation occur with similar frequency in subjects with and without oral lesions; also, the presence of oral lesions does not increase the susceptibility to colonization by Candida spp. It seems that any study implicating Candida spp. in the malignant transformation of oral lesions should be carried out mostly on a biochemical basis, that is, by testing the capability of Candida spp. to produce carcinogenic enzyme. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Candida infections in newborns: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoory, B J; Vino, L; Dall'Agnola, A; Fanos, V

    1999-10-01

    Despite adequate treatment, nosocomial fungal infections have become an increasingly important cause of morbidity, extended hospitalization, and mortality in critically ill newborn babies. Furthermore, the high incidence of central nervous system involvement in septic newborns frequently results in serious neurological damage and psychomotorial sequelae. The prevention of fungal colonization in the population at risk, together with prompt diagnosis and treatment, are an efficient combination which lead to a better outcome of neonatal fungal infections. New drugs characterized by great efficacy and tolerance have recently been employed in clinical practice. This article summarizes certain aspects of Candida spp. infections in the neonatal period with regard to multisystemic presentation and involvement.

  15. A relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in patients with xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadig, Suchetha Devendrappa; Ashwathappa, Deepak Timmasandra; Manjunath, Muniraju; Krishna, Sowmya; Annaji, Araleri Gopalkrishna; Shivaprakash, Praveen Kunigal

    2017-01-01

    Most of the adult population is colonized by Candida in their oral cavity. The process of colonization depends on several factors, including the interaction between Candida and salivary proteins. Therefore, salivary gland hypofunction may alter the oral microbiota and increase the risk for opportunistic infections, such as candidiasis. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the relationship between salivary flow rates (SFRs) and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerostomia. This study aims to determine and evaluate the relationship between SFRs and Candida colony forming units (CFUs) in patients with xerostomia. This study was a descriptive study. The study participants were taken from the patients attending outpatient department in a private dental college. Fifty patients, who reported xerostomia in a questionnaire of the symptoms of xerostomia, were selected. Chewing stimulated whole saliva samples were collected from them and their SFRs were assessed. Saliva samples were inoculated in the Sabouraud dextrose agar culture media for 24-48 h, and Candida CFUs were counted. Chi-squared test was used to analyze the data. There was a significant inverse relationship between salivary flow and candida CFUs count when patients with high colony counts were analyzed (cutoff point of 400 or greater CFU/mL). Females had less SFR than males. Most of the patients who had hyposalivation were taking medication for the underlying systemic diseases. Candida albicans was the most frequent species. There was a significantly negative correlation between SFRs and Candida CFUs in the patients with xerostomia.

  16. Characterisation of probiotic properties in human vaginal lactobacilli strains

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    Pirje Hütt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaginal lactobacilli offer protection against recurrent urinary infections, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal candidiasis. Objective: To characterise the isolated vaginal lactobacilli strains for their probiotic properties and to compare their probiotic potential. Methods: The Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal samples by conventional culturing and identified by sequencing of the 16S rDNA fragment. Several functional properties were detected (production of hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid; antagonistic activity against Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Gardnerella vaginalis; auto-aggregation and adhesiveness as well as safety (haemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of transferrable resistance genes. Results: A total of 135 vaginal lactobacilli strains of three species, Lactobacillus crispatus (56%, Lactobacillus jensenii (26%, and Lactobacillus gasseri (18% were characterised using several functional and safety tests. Most of L. crispatus (89% and L. jensenii (86% strains produced H2O2. The best lactic acid producers were L. gasseri (18.2±2.2 mg/ml compared to L. crispatus (15.6±2.8 mg/ml and L. jensenii (11.6±2.6 mg/ml (p<0.0001; p<0.0001, respectively. L. crispatus strains showed significantly higher anti-E. coli activity compared to L. jensenii. L. gasseri strains expressed significantly lower anticandidal activity compared to L. crispatus and L. jensenii (p<0.0001. There was no significant difference between the species in antagonistic activity against G. vaginalis. Nearly a third of the strains were able to auto-aggregate while all the tested strains showed a good ability to adhere to HeLa cells. None of the tested lactobacilli caused haemolysis. Although phenotypical resistance was not found to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin, the erm(B, tet(M, and tet(K were detected in some strains. All strains were resistant to

  17. Multidrug-Resistant Candida: Epidemiology, Molecular Mechanisms, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Patterson, Thomas F

    2017-08-15

    Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients. Although multidrug resistance is uncommon, increasing reports of multidrug resistance to the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes have occurred in several Candida species, most notably Candida glabrata and more recently Candida auris. Drivers are overall antifungal use, subtherapeutic drug levels at sites of infection/colonization, drug sequestration in the biofilm matrix, and, in the setting of outbreaks, suboptimal infection control. Moreover, recent research suggests that DNA mismatch repair gene mutations may facilitate acquisition of resistance mutations in C. glabrata specifically. Diagnosis of antifungal-resistant Candida infections is critical to the successful management of patients with these infections. Reduction of unnecessary use of antifungals via antifungal stewardship is critical to limit multidrug resistance emergence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Invasive Candida Infections in the ICU: Diagnosis and Therapy

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    Hankovszky Péter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections have become a serious problem in the critically ill. One of the main reasons is the development of an immunocompromised condition. The most frequently found pathogens are Candida species. In order to provide adequate treatment, understanding this potentially life-threatening infection is mandatory. The aim of this summary is to view Candida infections from a different perspective and to give an overview on epidemiology, the range of pathophysiology from colonization to the invasive infections, and its impact on mortality. New therapeutic options will also be discussed and how these relate to current guidelines. Finally, the key issue of the choice of antifungal agents will be evaluated.

  19. Pyomyositis after vaginal delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gaughan, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Pyomyositis is a purulent infection of skeletal muscle that arises from haematogenous spread, usually with abscess formation. It can develop after a transient bacteraemia of any cause. This type of infection has never been reported before in the literature after vaginal delivery. A 34-year-old woman had progressive severe pain in the left buttock and thigh and weakness in the left lower limb day 1 post spontaneous vaginal delivery. MRI showed severe oedema of the left gluteus, iliacus, piriformis and adductor muscles of the left thigh and a small fluid collection at the left hip joint. She was diagnosed with pyomyositis. She had fever of 37.9°C immediately postpartum and her risk factors for bacteraemia were a mild IV cannula-associated cellulitis and labour itself. She required prolonged treatment with antibiotics before significant clinical improvement was noted.

  20. Sputum Candida albicans presages FEV₁ decline and hospital-treated exacerbations in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, Sanjay H

    2010-11-01

    The role of Candida albicans in the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway is underexplored. Considered a colonizer, few question its pathogenic potential despite high isolation frequencies from sputum culture. We evaluated the frequency and identified the strongest predictors of C albicans colonization in CF. Independent associations of colonization with clinical outcomes were determined, and the longitudinal effects of C albicans acquisition on BMI and FEV₁ were evaluated.

  1. Status of Removable Dentures and Relationship with Oral Candida-Associated Factors in a Geriatric Population in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martori, Elisenda; Ayuso-Montero, Raúl; Willaert, Eva; Viñas, Miguel; Peraire, Maria; Martinez-Gomis, Jordi

    2017-07-01

    Colonization by Candida is related to wearing a denture. How denture type, status, and maintenance play a role in determining Candida colonization remains unknown. This work evaluated removable denture status in an elderly population and explored the association between denture-related factors and oral Candida colonization as determined by systemic and local factors. Socio-demographic, general health, and behavioral data and oral factors were registered by means of a questionnaire. Oral, dental, and denture-related factors were assessed by clinical examination, and yeasts were isolated from oral and denture specimens. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relative relevance of risk factors. Overall, 52.4% of subjects used complete dentures in both lower and upper arches, and 90% of the prostheses were in good condition. Denture plaque index was high in most cases, and 75% of subjects had yeasts in their oral cavities. Oral Candida colonization was significantly associated with low saliva pH, sugar consumption, and the fault of a denture component; however, only sugar consumption was found to be an independent factor related with oral Candida colonization, showing an odds ratio of 3.04 in a multiple logistic regression model. Elderly people in this study used a complete denture in good condition, with a median age of 15 years. Daily or weekly sugar consumption was found to be highly associated with oral colonization by Candida. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  2. The Human Vaginal Bacterial Biota and Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Srinivasan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new insights regarding bacterial diversity in this important niche, particularly in women with the common condition bacterial vaginosis (BV. PCR methods have shown that women with BV have complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include many fastidious species, particularly from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Healthy women are mostly colonized with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners, though a variety of other bacteria may be present. The microbiology of BV is heterogeneous. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae coating the vaginal epithelium in some subjects with BV suggests that biofilms may contribute to this condition.

  3. Distribution of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species in oral candidiasis patients: Correlation between cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm forming activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muadcheingka, Thaniya; Tantivitayakul, Pornpen

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to study the prevalence of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida (NAC) species from oral candidiasis patients and evaluate the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and biofilm forming capacity of the clinical isolates Candida species from oral cavity. This study identified a total of 250 Candida strains isolated from 207 oral candidiasis patients with PCR-RFLP technique. CSH value, total biomass of biofilm and biofilm forming ability of 117 oral Candida isolates were evaluated. C. albicans (61.6%) was still the predominant species in oral candidiasis patients with and without denture wearer, respectively, followed by C. glabrata (15.2%), C. tropicalis (10.4%), C. parapsilosis (3.2%), C. kefyr (3.6%), C. dubliniensis (2%), C. lusitaniae (2%), C. krusei (1.6%), and C. guilliermondii (0.4%). The proportion of mixed colonization with more than one Candida species was 18% from total cases. The relative CSH value and biofilm biomass of NAC species were greater than C. albicans (palbicans were biofilm formers. Furthermore, the significant difference of relative CSH values between biofilm formers and non-biofilm formers was observed in the NAC species (palbicans. The frequency of the NAC species colonization in oral cavity was gradually increasing. The possible contributing factors might be high cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm forming ability. The relative CSH value could be a putative factor for determining biofilm formation ability of the non-albicans Candida species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vaginal vault prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzoma, Azubuike; Farag, K A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Vaginal vault prolapse is a common complication following vaginal hysterectomy with negative impact on women's quality of life due to associated urinary, anorectal and sexual dysfunction. A clear understanding of the supporting mechanism for the uterus and vagina is important in making the right choice of corrective procedure. Management should be individualised, taking into consideration the surgeon's experience, patients age, comorbidities, previous surgery and sex life. Result. Preexisting pelvic floor defect prior to hysterectomy is the single most important risk factor for vault prolapse. Various surgical techniques have been advanced at hysterectomy to prevent vault prolapse. Studies have shown the McCall's culdoplasty under direct visualisation to be superior. Vault prolapse repair rely on either the use of patient's tissue or synthetic materials and can be carried out abdominally or vaginally. Sacrospinous fixation and abdominal sacrocolpopexy are the commonly performed procedures, with literature in favour of abdominal sacrocolpopexy over sacrospinous fixation due to its reported higher success rate of about 90%. Other less commonly performed procedures include uterosacral ligament suspension and illiococcygeal fixation, both of which are equally effective, with the former having a high risk of ureteric injury. Colpoclesis will play a greater role in the future as the aging population increases. Mesh procedures are gaining in popularity, and preliminary data from vaginal mesh procedures is encouraging. Laparoscopic techniques require a high level of skill and experience. There are many controversies on the mechanism of prolapse and management techniques, which we have tried to address in this article. Conclusion. As the aging population increases, the incidence of prolapse will also rise, older techniques using native tissue will continue, while new techniques using the mesh needs to be studied further. The later may well be the way forward

  5. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  6. Bacteria in the vaginal microbiome alter the innate immune response and barrier properties of the human vaginal epithelia in a species-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerflinger, Sylvie Y; Throop, Andrea L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2014-06-15

    Bacterial vaginosis increases the susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and negatively affects women's reproductive health. To investigate host-vaginal microbiota interactions and the impact on immune barrier function, we colonized 3-dimensional (3-D) human vaginal epithelial cells with 2 predominant species of vaginal microbiota (Lactobacillus iners and Lactobacillus crispatus) or 2 prevalent bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (Atopobium vaginae and Prevotella bivia). Colonization of 3-D vaginal epithelial cell aggregates with vaginal microbiota was observed with direct attachment to host cell surface with no cytotoxicity. A. vaginae infection yielded increased expression membrane-associated mucins and evoked a robust proinflammatory, immune response in 3-D vaginal epithelial cells (ie, expression of CCL20, hBD-2, interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and tumor necrosis factor α) that can negatively affect barrier function. However, P. bivia and L. crispatus did not significantly upregulate pattern-recognition receptor-signaling, mucin expression, antimicrobial peptides/defensins, or proinflammatory cytokines in 3-D vaginal epithelial cell aggregates. Notably, L. iners induced pattern-recognition receptor-signaling activity, but no change was observed in mucin expression or secretion of interleukin 6 and interleukin 8. We identified unique species-specific immune signatures from vaginal epithelial cells elicited by colonization with commensal and bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria. A. vaginae elicited a signature that is consistent with significant disruption of immune barrier properties, potentially resulting in enhanced susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections during bacterial vaginosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Diagnosis of vaginal discharge by wet mount microscopy: a simple and underrated method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, Ioannis; Bergauer, Florian

    2011-06-01

    Vaginal discharge is highly variable in quality and quantity among different individuals, and even in the same individual during different periods of life. Vaginal discharge is most commonly caused by infection with sexually transmitted organisms or increased colonization by different facultative pathogenic microorganisms (i.e., Gardnerella vaginalis). Noninfectious causes of vaginal discharge are quite rare (10% noninfectious as compared to 90% infectious causes). Most common in women with a vaginal infection is bacterial vaginosis (40%-50% of cases), followed by vulvovaginal candidosis (20%-25%), and then trichomoniasis (15%-20%). If infection is suspected as the primary cause, a sample of the vaginal discharge should be taken and examined microscopically. When evaluating vaginal secretions by phase-contrast wet mount microscopy, knowledge of what is normal versus abnormal is very important. Knowledge of the sensitivity and specificity of wet mount microscopy in different clinical settings is also important. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to evaluate lifetime changes in vaginal secretions, characterize the physiological and pathological appearance of vaginal discharge, assess the clinical practicality and usefulness of wet mount microscopy and use wet mount microscopy to diagnose bacterial vaginosis and other common vaginal infections.

  8. Prevalence of yeast other than Candida albicans in denture wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro, Inês; Proença, Luis; Félix, Sérgio; Salema-Oom, Madalena

    2013-07-01

    The isolation of yeast species other than Candida albicans from the oral mucosa has been increasing in frequency, suggesting that those may constitute emerging potential oral colonizers. The purpose of this work was to determine whether yeast species other than C. albicans are associated with factors related to wearing of dental prostheses. tRNA-PCR fingerprinting and sequencing of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain were used to identify all yeasts isolated from CHROMagar™ Candida cultures of oral swabs collected from 178 patients. Besides C. albicans, 13 other species were identified, corresponding to 34% of the yeast isolates. The majority of the non-C. albicans species were not detected as single colonizers but rather in co-colonization with one or two other yeasts, often with C. albicans. No significant associations were found with non-C. albicans species. On the contrary, the best-fitted logistic regression model predicts that either wearing a denture (adjusted odds = 4.6) or insufficient oral hygiene (adjusted odds = 2.3) are risks for colonization by yeast, in general. The colonization with non-C. albicans species and co-colonization were not independently associated with any of the analyzed host-related factors. In particular, neither wearing a removable denture nor being elderly were significant predictors. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. Candida non albicans with a High amphotericin B resistance pattern causing candidemia among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar, Enayatollah; Assadi, Mojan; Pormazaheri, Helen; Hatami, Shiva; Barari, Maryam Agha; Asgari, Esfandiar; Mahmoudi, Elaheh; Kabir, Kourosh; Amin Marashi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Many scientists have reported Candida species to be of great concern because of the high frequency that they colonize and infect human hosts, particularly cancer patients. Moreover, in the last decades Candida species have developed resistance to many antifungal agents. Based on this, we aimed to identify and determine the prevalence of Candida spp from blood culture bottles among cancer patients and their antifungal resistance pattern. From the blood culture bottles isolation and identification of the Candida spp were performed by conventional microbiological techniques. The in vitro antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates was determined by CLSI guidelines. Genomic DNA was isolated and amplified. Each gene was separated by agar gel electrophoresis. Identification of Candida spp was based on the presence of yeast cells in direct examination, culture and DNA extraction. Of the 68 blood samples collected during the study period (April 2013 to October 2013), five (7.35%) were positive for the presence of Candida spp, 2 (40%) of which were identified as Candida albicans and 3 (60%) were Candida non-albicans. High resistance to amphotricin B was observed among all the Candida non-albicans isolates. Regular investigations into antifungal resistance will help us to get an updated knowledge about their antibiotic resistance pattern which may help the physician in selecting the antibiotics for empirical therapy.

  10. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Thrush and Other Candida Infections Page Content Article Body The fungus Candida is normally found on and in the body ... tract and genital area. Most of the time, Candida does not cause any symptoms. When these organisms ...

  11. Overexpression of MDR-1 and CDR-2 genes in fluconazole resistance of Candida albicans isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi Rad, K; Falahati, M; Roudbary, M; Farahyar, S; Nami, S

    2016-12-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is an opportunistic fungus that can colonize women's mucosal epithelial cell surfaces, causing vulvovaginitis in specific circumstances. The major genes contributing to drug resistance in C. albicans are the candida drug resistance (CDR) and multi drug resistance (MDR) genes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CDR-2 and MDR-1 gene expression patterns in C. albicans strains isolated from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. In this study, 40 isolates of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. These isolates were collected from women with vulvovaginitis who were referred to a clinic in Tehran, Iran, and transferred to a mycology laboratory. Then, RNA was extracted from the isolates using phenol-chloroform and glass beads, and the complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthetized. To detect the semi-quantitative expression of CDR-2 and MDR-1 genes, the reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) technique was performed using specific primers. Our findings indicated that of the 40 C. albicans isolates, 35 (87.5%) strains were positive for mRNA of the CDR-2 gene, 32 (80%) strains expressed mRNA of the MDR-1 gene, and 30 (75%) strains were confirmed to express mRNA of both the CDR-2 and MDR-1 genes simultaneously using the RT-PCR assay. According to the obtained results, the expression rates of CDR-2 and MDR-1 genes were high in fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates, which can cause treatments to fail and result in chronic infections. Inhibiting these important genes using novel or natural agents can help with the treatment of chronic and recurrent vaginitis.

  12. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Tati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC, we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata.

  13. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G.; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata. PMID:27029023

  14. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of 186 Candida isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Li, Wen; Wang, Jie-Di; Huang, Wen-Ming; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2015-04-01

    There is limited information regarding the molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida isolates using the Neo-Sensitabs method in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). From August 2012 to March 2013, 301 non-pregnant patients aged 18-50 years with suspected VVC were prospectively screened at a teaching hospital in southern China. The vaginal isolates were identified by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and the D1/D2 domain. Antifungal susceptibility testing of seven antifungal agents was performed using the Neo-Sensitabs tablet diffusion method. Candida species were isolated from 186 cases (61.79 %). The most common pathogen was Candida albicans (91.4 %), followed by Candida glabrata (4.3 %), Candida tropicalis (3.2 %) and Candida parapsilosis (1.1 %). The susceptibility rates to C. albicans were higher for caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole than those for itraconazole, miconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine (Palbicans were 4.7, 6.5, 7.1, 7.6, 12.3, 27.7 and 74.7 % for caspofungin, miconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively. No drugs tested apart from fluconazole exhibited differences in resistance between C. albicans and non-albicans Candida isolates. The results demonstrate that, using DNA sequencing, C. albicans is the most common isolate from Chinese patients with VVC. Caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole may be preferable to other azoles and terbinafine in the treatment of VVC. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. Vaginitis: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Vulvovaginitis - overview (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Vaginitis updates by ... Vaginitis test - wet mount Vulvovaginitis - overview Related Health Topics Trichomoniasis Vaginal Diseases Yeast Infections Other Languages Find ...

  16. Echinocandin Resistance in Candida Species Isolates from Liver Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, Gwénolé; Aït-Ammar, Nawel; Levesque, Eric; Fekkar, Arnaud; Costa, Jean-Marc; El Anbassi, Sarra; Foulet, Françoise; Duvoux, Christophe; Merle, Jean-Claude; Dannaoui, Eric; Botterel, Françoise

    2017-02-01

    Liver transplant recipients are at risk of invasive fungal infections, especially candidiasis. Echinocandin is recommended as prophylactic treatment but is increasingly associated with resistance. Our aim was to assess echinocandin drug resistance in Candida spp. isolated from liver transplant recipients treated with this antifungal class. For this, all liver-transplanted patients in a University Hospital (Créteil, France) between January and June of 2013 and 2015 were included. Susceptibilities of Candida isolates to echinocandins were tested by Etest and the EUCAST reference method. Isolates were analyzed by FKS sequencing and genotyped based on microsatellites or multilocus sequence typing (MLST) profiles. Ninety-four patients were included, and 39 patients were colonized or infected and treated with echinocandin. Echinocandin resistance appeared in 3 (8%) of the treated patients within 1 month of treatment. One patient was colonized by resistant Candida glabrata, one by resistant Candida dubliniensis, and one by resistant Candida albicans Molecular analysis found three mutations in FKS2 HS1 (F659S, S663A, and D666E) for C. glabrata and one mutation in FKS1 HS1 (S645P) for C. dubliniensis and C. albicans Susceptible and resistant isolates belonged to the same genotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study on echinocandin resistance in Candida spp. in a liver transplant population. Most resistant isolates were found around/in digestive sites, perhaps due to lower diffusion of echinocandin in these sites. This work documents the risk of emergence of resistance to echinocandin, even after short-term treatment. Copyright © 2017 Prigent et al.

  17. Bacterial vaginosis, vaginal flora patterns and vaginal hygiene practices in patients presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome in The Gambia, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Robin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV – a syndrome characterised by a shift in vaginal flora – appears to be particularly common in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known of the pattern of vaginal flora associated with BV in Africa. We conducted a study aimed at determining the prevalence of BV and patterns of BV-associated vaginal micro-flora among women with vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS in The Gambia, West Africa. Methods We enrolled 227 women with VDS from a large genito-urinary medicine clinic in Fajara, The Gambia. BV was diagnosed by the Nugent's score and Amsel's clinical criteria. Vaginal swabs were collected for T vaginalis and vaginal flora microscopy, and for Lactobacillus spp, aerobic organisms, Candida spp and BV-associated bacteria (Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobic bacteria, and Mycoplasma spp cultures; and cervical swabs were collected for N gonorrhoeae culture and C trachomatis PCR. Sera were tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. Sexual health history including details on sexual hygiene were obtained by standardised questionnaire. Results BV prevalence was 47.6% by Nugent's score and 30.8% by Amsel's clinical criteria. Lactobacillus spp were isolated in 37.8% of women, and 70% of the isolates were hydrogen-peroxide (H202-producing strains. Prevalence of BV-associated bacteria were: G vaginalis 44.4%; Bacteroides 16.7%; Prevotella 15.2%; Peptostretococcus 1.5%; Mobiluncus 0%; other anaerobes 3.1%; and Mycoplasma hominis 21.4%. BV was positively associated with isolation of G vaginalis (odds-ratio [OR] 19.42, 95%CI 7.91 – 47.6 and anaerobes (P = 0.001 [OR] could not be calculated, but not with M hominis. BV was negatively associated with presence of Lactobacillus (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.03 – 0.15, and H2O2-producing lactobacilli (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.05 – 0.28. Presence of H2O2-producing lactobacilli was associated with significantly lower prevalence of G vaginalis, anaerobes and C trachomatis. HIV prevalence was 12

  18. Plasticity of Candida albicans Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karla J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Candida albicans, the most pervasive fungal pathogen that colonizes humans, forms biofilms that are architecturally complex. They consist of a basal yeast cell polylayer and an upper region of hyphae encapsulated in extracellular matrix. However, biofilms formed in vitro vary as a result of the different conditions employed in models, the methods used to assess biofilm formation, strain differences, and, in a most dramatic fashion, the configuration of the mating type locus (MTL). Therefore, integrating data from different studies can lead to problems of interpretation if such variability is not taken into account. Here we review the conditions and factors that cause biofilm variation, with the goal of engendering awareness that more attention must be paid to the strains employed, the methods used to assess biofilm development, every aspect of the model employed, and the configuration of the MTL locus. We end by posing a set of questions that may be asked in comparing the results of different studies and developing protocols for new ones. This review should engender the notion that not all biofilms are created equal. PMID:27250770

  19. Prevalence of Candida spp. among healthy denture and nondenture wearers with respect to hygiene and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentures are inert and nonshading surfaces and therefore get easily colonized by Candida species. Subsequent biofilm produced by them lead to denture stomatitis and candidiasis. This study was aimed to understand the prevalence of Candida species among healthy denture and nondenture wearers with respect to their age and hygiene status. Swabs were collected from 50 complete dentures and 50 non-denture wearers and processed on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar. Identification of Candida species was done by staining and a battery of biochemical tests. Data obtained was correlated with age & oral hygiene and statistical analysis was performed. Candida was isolated from both denture and nondenture wearers. Prevalence of different Candida species was significantly higher in denture wearers and found predominated by C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. dubliensis and C. glabrata. Among nondenture wearers, C. albicans and C. tropicalis were isolated. Prevalence of Candida increased with increasing age among denture wearers. Men presented declining denture hygiene compared to women with increasing age. In comparison to nondenture wearers, multispecies of Candida colonized the dentures thus presenting higher risk of candidiasis especially with increasing age.

  20. Vaginal Vault Prolapse

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    Azubuike Uzoma

    2009-01-01

    Vault prolapse repair rely on either the use of patient's tissue or synthetic materials and can be carried out abdominally or vaginally. Sacrospinous fixation and abdominal sacrocolpopexy are the commonly performed procedures, with literature in favour of abdominal sacrocolpopexy over sacrospinous fixation due to its reported higher success rate of about 90%. Other less commonly performed procedures include uterosacral ligament suspension and illiococcygeal fixation, both of which are equally effective, with the former having a high risk of ureteric injury. Colpoclesis will play a greater role in the future as the aging population increases. Mesh procedures are gaining in popularity, and preliminary data from vaginal mesh procedures is encouraging. Laparoscopic techniques require a high level of skill and experience. There are many controversies on the mechanism of prolapse and management techniques, which we have tried to address in this article. Conclusion. As the aging population increases, the incidence of prolapse will also rise, older techniques using native tissue will continue, while new techniques using the mesh needs to be studied further. The later may well be the way forward in future.

  1. Multidrug-Resistant Candida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Patterson, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistan...

  2. Determination of Drug Susceptibility of Candida Strains Isolated From Patients With Recurrent Candida Vulvovaginitis and Investigation of Predisposing Factors of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minooeianhaghighi MH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis RVVC(, which is mostly caused by Candida albicans C. albicans(, is the second common cause of genital tract infection in females. Th purpose of this research was to identify Candida isolates from RVVC, identify predisposing factors and determine antifungal effct of flconazole against Candida strains isolated from the patients. Methods: In this descriptive-laboratory study, 20 patients with confimed diagnosis of RVVC were selected. Yeast isolates were characterized using mycological standard methods, including culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium and CHROM agar, germ tube test and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR-RFLP( technique. Th susceptibility of Candida isolates against flconazole was determined by microdilution broth method. Results: Th average age of the patients was 29.43 ± 4.63 years. Candida albicans was obtained from 100% of the samples. Th most common clinical sign was vaginal discharge 60%( in females with positive culture. Statistical correlations were observed between parturition frequency and low RVVC occurrence as well as between the previous antifungal therapy and RVVC occurrence. Th mean minimum inhibitory concentration MIC( and minimum fungicidal concentration MFC( of flconazole against diffrent C. albicans strains was determined as 45.3863 µg/mL and 63 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the uncertainty of diagnosis of this disease according to clinical symptoms and also, due to the resistance of Candida species, using culture and molecular methods are recommended as standard methods of diagnosis.

  3. Performance of Candida ID, a New Chromogenic Medium for Presumptive Identification of Candida Species, in Comparison to CHROMagar Candida

    OpenAIRE

    Willinger, Birgit; Hillowoth, Cornelia; Selitsch, Brigitte; Manafi, Mammad

    2001-01-01

    Candida ID agar allows identification of Candida albicans and differentiation of other Candida species. In comparison with CHROMagar Candida, we evaluated the performance of this medium directly from 596 clinical specimens. In particular, detection of C. albicans after 24 h of incubation was easier on Candida ID (sensitivity, 96.8%) than on CHROMagar (sensitivity, 49.6%).

  4. Routine use of fluconazole prophylaxis in a neonatal intensive care unit does not select natively fluconazole-resistant Candida subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Paolo; Leonessa, Marialisa; Galletto, Paolo; Latino, Maria Agnese; Arisio, Riccardo; Maule, Milena; Agriesti, Giovanni; Gastaldo, Luca; Gallo, Elena; Mostert, Michael; Farina, Daniele

    2008-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated efficacy against fungal colonization and infection of fluconazole prophylaxis that was routinely administered since 2001 in our ICU for preterm infants <1500 g at birth (VLBW). With prolonged use, concerns exist for the emergence of acquired fungal resistance and of Candida subspecies that are natively fluconazole-resistant (NFR), mostly Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. We evaluated retrospectively all clinical and surveillance fungal isolates obtained from VLBW infants in our NICU during a 10-year period (1997-2006). Each fungal isolate was speciated, infants colonized or infected with NFR-Candida spp were identified and the incidence rates of colonization and infection by these fungal species were calculated. A comparison was made of the 6-year (2001-2006) prophylaxis period with the 4-year (1997-2000) preprophylaxis period. Overall, colonization by NFR-Candida spp ranged between 2.8% and 6.6% of VLBW infants yearly admitted, without any increasing trend during the study period. There were 18 of 434 (4.1%) neonates colonized by these species. Five episodes of systemic fungal infections caused by NFR-Candida spp occurred (incidence rate, 1.1%). No significant differences were detected when compared with the preprophylaxis period, when 11 of 295 infants (3.7%) were colonized by NFR-Candida spp and 4 episodes of infection occurred (1.4%) (P = 0.84 and 0.76, respectively). Fluconazole prophylaxis administered to VLBW neonates in 4- to 6-week courses after birth does not lead to the emergence of natively fluconazole-resistant Candida spp.

  5. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in health clinic attendees complaining of vaginal discharge in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S; Garland, S; Currie, M; Tabrizi, S N; Rahman, M; Nessa, K; Bowden, F J

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in a sample of health clinic attendees complaining of vaginal discharge. A subsample of 399 vaginal and cervical swabs was randomly selected from 2579 samples collected during a study to determine the causes of vaginal discharge in women attending primary health-care clinics in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Cervical samples were tested for M. genitalium by polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the samples were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis and candida. M. genitalium was detected in three samples (0.8%; 95% confidence interval: 0.00-1.6). The prevalence of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae T. vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis and candida was 1.3, 3.8, 8, 23.25 and 32.5%, respectively. Two women with M. genitalium were co-infected with T. vaginalis or candida. This is the first study to document the existence of M. genitalium in Bangladesh. Although the prevalence of this infection is low in the population tested, further research into this pathogen in other Bangladeshi populations is justified.

  6. Oral Candida isolates and fluconazole susceptibility patterns in older Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Cruz, Beatriz; Aranda-Romo, Saray; López-Esqueda, Francisco Javier; de la Rosa-García, Estela; Rosas-Hernández, Rebeca; Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio

    2016-01-01

    To assess the epidemiologic and microbiologic profile and in vitro fluconazole susceptibility of yeasts isolated from the oral mucosa colonization/infection of elderly patients. It has been reported that in older adults increases the oral colonization by Candida particularly C. non-albicans, showing a decreased response to fluconazole, which increases the risk of recalcitrant local and disseminated candidiasis. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted in 120 elderly patients. Oral samples were obtained of mucosal Candida colonization or infection by swabbing. Each sample was plated on CHROMagar(®)Candida and incubated (36±1.5°C) for two days. The yeast species were identified using the API(®)ID32-C-AUX. Fluconazole susceptibility was tested using a broth microdilution assay according to the CLSI methods. The yeast colonization/infection frequency in the total population was 65.8%. The frequency of the highest Candida carriers was 67.4% in the 70-79-year-old-group. Oral candidiasis was present in 20%, with a tendency to increase with age (33.3% of adults aged>80years), it was determined that the use of prosthesis is associated with a higher colonization rate (Chi2, p=0.011). The frequency of colonization/infection cases with more than one species showed a tendency to increase with age; 18.9% in the 60-69 year-old-group, 20.9% in the 70-79-year-old-group and 29.2% in the ≥80 year-old-group. About fluconazole susceptibility: for C. albicans, 20.3%, about Candida non-albicans species 15.3% were dose dependently susceptible (DDS) and 17.9% were resistant. After 80 years of age, there is a considerable increase in Candida non-albicans species and a reduced susceptibility to fluconazole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vaginal haemangioendothelioma: an unusual tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Vaginal tumours are uncommon and this is a particularly rare case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma in a 38-year-old woman. Initial presentation consisted of symptoms similar to uterovaginal prolapse with "something coming down". Examination under anaesthesia demonstrated a necrotic anterior vaginal wall tumour. Histology of the lesion revealed a haemangioendothelioma which had some features of haemangiopericytoma. While the natural history of vaginal haemangioendothelioma is uncertain, as a group, they have a propensity for local recurrence. To our knowledge this is the third reported case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma. Management of this tumour is challenging given the paucity of literature on this tumour. There is a need to add rare tumours to our "knowledge bank" to guide management of these unusual tumours.

  8. Description of Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. for placement of Candida auringiensis, Candida salmanticensis and Candida tartarivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2016-07-01

    DNA sequence analyses have demonstrated that species of the polyphyletic anamorphic ascomycete genus Candida may be members of described teleomorphic genera, members of the Candida tropicalis clade upon which the genus Candida is circumscribed, or members of isolated clades that represent undescribed genera. From phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from nuclear large subunit rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II, Candida auringiensis (NRRL Y-17674(T), CBS 6913(T)), Candida salmanticensis (NRRL Y-17090(T), CBS 5121(T)), and Candida tartarivorans (NRRL Y-27291(T), CBS 7955(T)) were shown to be members of an isolated clade and are proposed for reclassification in the genus Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 815817). Neighbouring taxa include species of the Wickerhamiella clade and Candida blankii.

  9. Candida species diversity and antifungal susceptibility patterns in oral samples of HIV/AIDS patients in Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Ordóñez, Isadora; Callejas-Negrete, Olga A; Aréchiga-Carvajal, Elva T; Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa R

    2017-04-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection in HIV patients. The aims of this study were to identify the prevalence of carriers of Candida, Candida species diversity, and in vitro susceptibility to antifungal drugs. In 297 HIV/AIDS patients in Baja California, Mexico, Candida strains were identified by molecular methods (PCR-RFLP) from isolates of oral rinses of patients in Tijuana, Mexicali, and Ensenada. 56.3% of patients were colonized or infected with Candida. In Tijuana, there was a significantly higher percentage of carriers (75.5%). Out of the 181 strains that were isolated, 71.8% were Candida albicans and 28.2% were non-albicans species. The most common non-albicans species was Candida tropicalis (12.2%), followed by Candida glabrata (8.3%), Candida parapsilosis (2.2%), Candida krusei (1.7%), and Candida guilliermondii (1.1%). Candida dubliniensis was not isolated. Two associated species were found in 11 patients. In Mexicali and Ensenada, there was a lower proportion of Candida carriers compared to other regions in Mexico and worldwide, however, in Tijuana, a border town with many peculiarities, a higher carrier rate was found. In this population, only a high viral load was associated with oral Candida carriers. Other factors such as gender, use of antiretroviral therapy, CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels, time since diagnosis, and alcohol/ tobacco consumption, were not associated with Candida carriers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. In vitro synergistic activity of lidocaine and miconazole against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição dos Santos Oliveira Cunha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the main yeast isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC and a major antifungal used to treat VVC is miconazole (MZ, it shows local toxic effects, such as irritation and burns. The lidocaine (LD is a local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic activity of LD/MZ against 19 strains of C. albicans isolated from vaginal secretion. 78.9% of the strains were susceptible to the combination LD/MZ, demonstrating synergism of drugs. These drugs can be used to produce vaginal creams to treat VVC, especially drug resistant.

  11. Vaginal pressure during daily activities before and after vaginal repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, L; Hulbaek, M; Brostrøm, S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to measure vaginal pressure during various daily activities in patients before and after vaginal surgery for pelvic organ prolapse, searching data for evidence-based activity guidelines. Vaginal pressure (VP) was studied in 23 patients during activities such as rest...... was not related to the type of vaginal repair. The results imply that post-operative counselling should concentrate more on treating chronic cough and constipation than restrictions of moderate physical activities.......The objective of the study was to measure vaginal pressure during various daily activities in patients before and after vaginal surgery for pelvic organ prolapse, searching data for evidence-based activity guidelines. Vaginal pressure (VP) was studied in 23 patients during activities such as rest...... and lifting 2 and 5 kg. Lifting in the walking position created a slightly higher VP compared to other lifting techniques, which did not differ. The VP did not increase when lifting 5 kg compared to 2 kg. Mean VP during coughing and Valsalva were significantly lower 1-5 days after the operation. VP...

  12. Beneficial lactobacilli: effects on the vaginal tract in a murine experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio, Priscilla Romina; Juárez Tomás, María Silvina; Santos, Viviana; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fatima

    2012-11-01

    Vaginal probiotics containing lactic acid bacteria with activity towards pathogenic microorganisms that cause urogenital tract infections have been proposed as a valid strategy for their prophylaxis and therapy. A murine experimental model was set up to evaluate the colonization capability of beneficial human lactobacilli and their effects on the mouse vaginal mucosa and innate immune cells. Five Lactobacillus strains were intravaginally inoculated into previously estrogenized BALB/c mice. The significance of the effects observed in the vaginal tract was determined by analysis of variance using the general linear model. The numbers of viable vaginal lactobacilli were significantly higher at proestrous-estrous than those at the metaestrous-diestrous phase and decreased markedly on the days after inoculation. Lactobacilli inoculation did not cause cytological or histological modifications of the murine vaginal tract. Moreover, the intravaginal administration of Lactobacillus salivarius CRL (Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos culture collection) 1328 and Lactobacillus gasseri CRL 1263 did not affect the amounts of granulocytes and macrophages present in vaginal washings. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that vaginal lactobacilli did not produce adverse effects on the murine vaginal tract. Therefore, they could be proposed as safe probiotic candidates to promote a balanced microbiota in the urogenital tract.

  13. Evaluation of vaginal group B streptococcal culture results after digital vaginal examination and its pattern of antibiotic resistance in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Khadijeh; Chehrei, Ali; Manavi, Mahdokht Sadat

    2013-12-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract of 10-40% of pregnant women and it is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. This study was to evaluate whether vaginal GBS culture results alter after digital vaginal examination or not. Antibiotic resistance pattern of this specie has been also assessed. A total of 186 pregnant women with gestational age of 37 weeks were enrolled to the study. Two vaginal swaps were taken before and immediately after digital vaginal examination, then third swap was taken after 48 hours of examination. The cultures were evaluated for bacterial growth and the isolated bacteria were assessed for antimicrobial drugs sensitivity. Positive culture of GBS was seen in 16.1%. Initially negative GBS result was found not to change immediately after examination. But positive cultures were negative in 1.6% of women after digital vaginal examination. After 48 hours 2.7% of initially negative GBS was positive and no one with initially positive GBS had negative culture. Sensitivity to penicillin and vancomycin was 100%, erythromycin 74%, ampicillin 65%, cefazolin 62.8%, cefotaxime 54.2% and ceftizoxime was 40%. The present investigation showed that the vaginal GBS culture result is minimally affected by digital vaginal examination. Drug of choice for GBS eradication is penicillin; vancomycin could be the choice in the case of penicillin hypersensitivity. This article extracted from M.D. thesis. (Mahdokht Sadat Manavi).

  14. Epidemiology and clinico-investigative study of organisms causing vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Swetha; Gopalan, Kannan; Devi, Asha; Kavitha, A

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal vaginal discharge is a common clinical problem in reproductive age group. It is the second most common problem after abnormal uterine bleeding. It is a neglected health problem, most commonly caused due to vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis (BV). The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of common organisms causing vaginal discharge and also to know the variety of clinical presentation. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the Skin and STD Outpatient Department of Vinayaka Mission Kirupananda Variyar Medical College Hospital, Salem, who presented with abnormal vaginal discharge between September 2012 and September 2014. A total of 100 women in the reproductive age group who had symptoms of vaginitis were examined. Data were coded and analyzed. Out of the 100 patients examined, 77 (77%) cases were organism positive. Among the positive cases, BV (27%) was the most common microbiological cause of abnormal vaginal discharge, followed by trichomoniasis (25%), vaginal candidiasis (22%), combined infection (Candida and BV) (3%), and nonspecific cases (23%). Out of 100 cases, few cases showed discordance between clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This discordance can be due to pitfalls in identifying the causative agent clinically or obscuring of the findings due to improper treatment received for other ailments. Thus, clinico-investigative correlation is more important than other clinical findings alone.

  15. Selection of Lactobacillus strains as potential probiotics for vaginitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carolina M A; Pires, Maria C V; Leão, Thiago L; Hernández, Zulema P; Rodriguez, Marisleydys L; Martins, Ariane K S; Miranda, Lilian S; Martins, Flaviano S; Nicoli, Jacques R

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacilli are the dominant bacteria of the vaginal tract of healthy women, and imbalance of the local microbiota can predispose women to acquire infections, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Although antimicrobial therapy is generally effective, there is still a high incidence of recurrence and increase of microbial resistance due to the repetitive use of antimicrobials. Thus, it has been suggested that administration of probiotics incorporating selected Lactobacillus strains may be an effective strategy for preventing vaginal infections. Accordingly, the in vitro probiotic potential of 23 lactobacilli isolated from the vaginal ecosystem of healthy women from Cuba was evaluated for use in BV and VVC treatments. Eight strains were selected based on their antagonist potential against Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida albicansor both. In vitro assays revealed that all these strains reduced the pathogen counts in co-incubation, showed excellent adhesive properties (biofilm formation and auto-aggregation), were able to co-aggregate with G. vaginalis and C. albicans, yielded high amounts of hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid and demonstrated high adhesion rates to epithelial HeLa cells. Interference tests within HeLa cells showed that all strains were able to reduce the adherence of pathogens by exclusion or displacement. Lactobacilli were able to inhibit HeLa cell apoptosis caused by pathogens when the cells were incubated with the probiotics prior to challenge. These results suggest that these strains have a promising probiotic potential and can be used for prevention or treatment of BV and VVC.

  16. Oral Candida spp carriage and periodontal diseases in HIV-infected patients in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Alan Grupioni; Ribeiro, Ana Elisa Rodrigues Alves; Nakao, Cristiano; Motta, Ana Carolina Fragoso; Antonio, Luana Grupioni Lourenço; Machado, Alcyone Artioli; Komesu, Marilena Chinali

    2017-06-01

    The majority of HIV-infected patients develop Candida spp-associated clinical oral lesions. Studies have shown that asymptomatic oral colonization of Candida spp may lead to oral lesions or become a source of disseminated infections. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of periodontal conditions on Candida spp prevalence and Candida spp carriage in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients compared to non-infected patients. Twenty-five patients not infected with HIV and 48 HIV-infected patients were classified according to periodontal conditions as being periodontal healthy or with periodontal disease. Candida spp carriage and classification were performed in oral rinse samples. Viral load and CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4+L) counts were performed in blood samples from HIV-infected patients. No differences in Candida spp prevalence related to HIV status or periodontal condition were detected. However, Candida spp carriage was increased in periodontally affected HIV-infected patients when compared to periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients (p= 0.04). Periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients presented Candida spp carriage in similar levels as healthy or periodontally affected non-HIV-infected patients. Candida spp carriage was correlated with CD4+L counting in HIV-infected patients. We concluded that periodontal disease is associated with increased Candida spp carriage in HIV-infected patients and may be a predisposing factor to clinical manifestations of candidiasis.

  17. [Vaginal infections in pregnant women at the Regional Hospital of Sokode (Togo) in 2010 and 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchelougou, D; Karou, D S; Kpotsra, A; Balaka, A; Assih, M; Bamoke, M; Katawa, G; Anani, K; Simpore, J; de Souza, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the major microorganisms causing vaginal infections in pregnant women consulting at the Regional Hospital of Sokodé and to assess their sensitivity to antibiotics. This prospective study took place from June 2010 through August 2011 and included 302 pregnant women from whom a sample was taken by a vaginal swab. Samples were processed for parasitic, bacterial, and fungal agents, by microscopic examination and culture. We isolated 273 germs, alone or in association in 221 women. These germs were distributed as follows: Gardnerella vaginalis (55.31%), Candida spp (30.77%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.49%), Enterobacteriaceae (4.40%), Trichomonas vaginalis (3.66%) and Mobiluncus spp (0.37%). No Streptococcus strain was isolated during the study. Over 40% of women had bacterial vaginosis and 23.08% of them were coinfected. The occurrence of coinfection was statistically influenced by the stage of pregnancy (P = 0.05). The susceptibility tests revealed that S. aureus developed a strong resistance to aminopenicillins (66.67%) and cephalosporins (>44.44%), while Enterobacteriaceae was resistant to cephalosporins and quinolones. (16.67%). This study showed that pregnant women in Sokode are still exposed to vaginal infection, caused mostly by G. vaginalis and Candida species. These results underline the need for at least one vaginal swab culture for each woman during pregnancy.

  18. Rapid Discrimination between Candida glabrata, Candida nivariensis, and Candida bracarensis by Use of a Singleplex PCR ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Enache-Angoulvant, A.; Guitard, J.; Grenouillet, F.; Martin, T; Durrens, P.; Fairhead, C.; Hennequin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We report here a PCR-based assay using a single primer pair targeting the RPL31 gene that allows discrimination between Candida glabrata, Candida bracarensis, and Candida nivariensis according to the size of the generated amplicon.

  19. Vaginal microbicides: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Abdel-Aleem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that more than 340 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections occur every year throughout the world in men and women age (15–49years. Women bear an increasing burden of the epidemic as both caregivers for the ill and because of their heightened risk of infection due to biological, economic and social vulnerabilities. There is an urgent need for new prevention strategies that women can use themselves and initiate. A vaginal microbicide defined as substances intended to reduce or prevent transmission of HIV and/or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs when applied topically to genital mucosal surfaces, provides a woman-controlled method applied before sex that could kill, neutralize, or block HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.

  20. Vaginoscopic resection of vaginal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Joseph; Al Chami, Ali; Abu Musa, Antoine; Nassar, Anwar H; Kurdi, Ahmed Toufic; Ghulmiyyah, Labib

    2012-12-01

    We report the resection of a vaginal septum while preserving the virginity of a 12-year-old girl with Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome (HWWS) having a didelphys uterus, obstructed hemivagina, and an ipsilateral renal agenesis with follow-up at 18 months. Successful resection of the vaginal septum with conservation of the hymenal ring and complete drainage of both the hematocolpos and the hematometra were achieved. Cyclic dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain were completely resolved on follow-up visits at 4, 6, and 18 months. Office hysteroscopy performed during the last follow-up visit revealed a patent vaginal vault without evidence of adenosis or recurrence of the vaginal septum. Vaginoscopy is a safe, convenient, and efficient diagnostic and therapeutic modality that can be used in the management of patients with an obstructed hemivagina. It maintains the patient's virginity and it is useful in patients with a restrictive vaginal opening or narrow vaginal canal. Furthermore, the hysteroscopic excision of the vaginal septum offers minimal risk of recurrence of the septal defect.

  1. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans and its related species Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana isolated from vulvovaginal samples in a hospital of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theill, Laura; Dudiuk, Catiana; Morano, Susana; Gamarra, Soledad; Nardin, María Elena; Méndez, Emilce; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Candida africana taxonomical status is controversial. It was proposed as a separate species within the Candida albicans species complex; however, phylogenetic analyses suggested that it is an unusual variety of C. albicans. The prevalence of C. albicans-related species (Candida dubliniensis and C. africana) as vulvovaginal pathogens is not known in Argentina. Moreover, data on antifungal susceptibility of isolates causing vulvovaginal candidiasis is scarce. The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of C. dubliniensis and C. africana in vaginal samples and to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of vaginal C. albicans species complex strains. We used a molecular-based method coupled with a new pooled DNA extraction methodology to differentiate C. dubliniensis and C. africana in a collection of 287 strains originally identified as C. albicans isolated from an Argentinian hospital during 2013. Antifungal susceptibilities to fluconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B and terbinafine were evaluated by using the CLSI M27-A3 and M27-S4 documents. Of the 287 isolates, 4 C. dubliniensis and one C. africana strains (1.39% and 0.35% prevalence, respectively) were identified. This is the first description of C. africana in Argentina and its identification was confirmed by sequencing the ITS2 region and the hwp1 gene. C. dubliniensis and C. africana strains showed very low MIC values for all the tested antifungals. Fluconazole-reduced-susceptibility and azole cross-resistance were observed in 3.55% and 1.41% of the C. albicans isolates, respectively. These results demonstrate that antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon in this kind of isolates. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Primate vaginal microbiomes exhibit species specificity without universal Lactobacillus dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Suleyman; Yeoman, Carl J; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Thomas, Susan M; Ho, Mengfei; Leigh, Steven R; White, Bryan A; Wilson, Brenda A; Stumpf, Rebecca M

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial communities colonizing the reproductive tracts of primates (including humans) impact the health, survival and fitness of the host, and thereby the evolution of the host species. Despite their importance, we currently have a poor understanding of primate microbiomes. The composition and structure of microbial communities vary considerably depending on the host and environmental factors. We conducted comparative analyses of the primate vaginal microbiome using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of a phylogenetically broad range of primates to test for factors affecting the diversity of primate vaginal ecosystems. The nine primate species included: humans (Homo sapiens), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), olive baboons (Papio anubis), lemurs (Propithecus diadema), howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus), vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops), mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Our results indicated that all primates exhibited host-specific vaginal microbiota and that humans were distinct from other primates in both microbiome composition and diversity. In contrast to the gut microbiome, the vaginal microbiome showed limited congruence with host phylogeny, and neither captivity nor diet elicited substantial effects on the vaginal microbiomes of primates. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance and Wilcoxon tests revealed correlations among vaginal microbiota and host species-specific socioecological factors, particularly related to sexuality, including: female promiscuity, baculum length, gestation time, mating group size and neonatal birth weight. The proportion of unclassified taxa observed in nonhuman primate samples increased with phylogenetic distance from humans, indicative of the existence of previously unrecognized microbial taxa. These findings contribute to our understanding of host-microbe variation and coevolution, microbial biogeography, and disease risk, and have important

  3. The Performance of the Vaginal Discharge Syndromic Management in Treating Vaginal and Cervical Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemouri, Charifa; Wi, Teodora Elvira; Kiarie, James; Seuc, Armando; Mogasale, Vittal; Latif, Ahmed; Broutet, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    This review aimed to synthesize and analyze the diagnostic accuracy and the likelihood of providing correct treatment of the syndromic approach Vaginal Discharge Flowchart in managing cervical infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and vaginal infections caused by Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and Candida albicans. This review will inform updating the WHO 2003 guidelines on Vaginal Discharge syndromic case management. A systematic review was conducted on published studies from 01-01-2000 to 30-03-2015 in multiple databases. Studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy and validation of the WHO Vaginal Discharge Flowchart were included. Validation parameters including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and the 95% confidence intervals for the different types of the flowchart were taken as outcomes, re-calculated, and analysed using a fixed model meta-analysis for data pooling. The level of agreement between the index and reference test were determined by the Cohen's Kappa co-efficiency test. Each individual study was assessed on quality using the QUADAS-2 tool. The search yielded 2,845 studies of which 16 met the eligibility criteria for final analysis. The diagnostic performance to identify cervical infections was low and resulted in a high proportion of over and missed treatment. The four flowcharts had a sensitivity between 27.37% in history and risk assessment and 90.13% with microscopy, with the inverse in specificity rates. The treatment performances between the flowcharts were inconsistent. The same applies to the use of vaginal discharge flowchart for treating vaginal infections. For vaginal infections the vaginal discharge flowchart had a good performance in flowchart 3 with 91.68% of sensitivity; 99.97% specificity; 99.93% PPV and 0.02% who missed their treatment and 8.32% of women who were over treated by the vaginal discharge

  4. The Candida Pathogenic Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Siobhán A.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Candida species are the most common causes of fungal infection. Approximately 90% of infections are caused by five species: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei. Three (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis) belong to the CTG clade, in which the CTG codon is translated as serine and not leucine. C. albicans remains the most commonly isolated but is decreasing relative to the other species. The increasing incidence of C. glabrata is related to its reduced susceptibility to azole drugs. Genome analysis suggests that virulence in the CTG clade is associated with expansion of gene families, particularly of cell wall genes. Similar independent processes took place in the C. glabrata species group. Gene loss and expansion in an ancestor of C. glabrata may have resulted in preadaptations that enabled pathogenicity. PMID:25183855

  5. Candida Infection of the Bloodstream - Candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candida Infection of the Bloodstream– Candidemia Fungal Disease Series #4 Candida is the single most important cause of fungal infections worldwide. In the U.S., Candida is the 4th most common cause of bloodstream ...

  6. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor will have you try bladder retraining, Kegel exercises, medicines, or other options. If you tried ... vaginal sling; Transobturator sling; Midurethral sling Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  7. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Female reproductive anatomy Causes of vaginal itching Uterus References Davis AJ, Katz VL. Pediatric and adolescent gynecology: gynecologic examination, infections, trauma, pelvic mass, precocious puberty. In: Lentz GM, Lobo ...

  9. Sensitivity of Candida albicans to essential oils: are they an alternative to antifungal agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, E; Cantamessa, S; Pavan, M; Novello, G; Massa, N; Rocchetti, A; Berta, G; Gamalero, E

    2016-12-01

    Candida albicans is an important opportunistic pathogen, responsible for the majority of yeast infections in humans. Essential oils, extracted from aromatic plants, are well-known antimicrobial agents, characterized by a broad spectrum of activities, including antifungal properties. The aim of this work was to assess the sensitivity of 30 different vaginal isolated strains of C. albicans to 12 essential oils, compared to the three main used drugs (clotrimazole, fluconazole and itraconazole). Thirty strains of C. albicans were isolated from vaginal swab on CHROMagar™ Candida. The agar disc diffusion method was employed to determine the sensitivity to the essential oils. The antifungal activity of the essential oils and antifungal drugs (clotrimazole, itraconazole and fluconazole) were investigated using a microdilution method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed to get a deep inside on cellular damages. Mint, basil, lavender, tea tree oil, winter savory and oregano essential oils inhibited both the growth and the activity of C. albicans more efficiently than clotrimazole. Damages induced by essential oils at the cellular level were stronger than those caused by clotrimazole. Candida albicans is more sensitive to different essential oils compared to the main used drugs. Moreover, the essential oil affected mainly the cell wall and the membranes of the yeast. The results of this work support the research for new alternatives or complementary therapies against vaginal candidiasis. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Predictors of the vaginal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, E R; Piper, J M; Shain, R N; Perdue, S T; Peairs, W

    2001-04-01

    Our purpose was to define influences on the patterns of the vaginal microflora. We enrolled 617 African American and Mexican American women in a 1-year longitudinal study of sexual behaviors and the vaginal microflora on the basis of the presence of gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, trichomoniasis, or syphilis at the initial visit. The patients were assigned randomly to a behavioral intervention or standard counseling regarding sexually transmitted disease. We reevaluated 508 (82%) and 549 (89%) women at 6 and 12 months, respectively. A comprehensive survey of lower genital tract organisms was conducted at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Behavioral and microbiologic associations were screened by bivariate analysis. All variables associated with an organism at P 3 times a week, and cunnilingus, fellatio, and anal intercourse at the last sexual encounter. M hominis (but not Ureaplasma urealyticum ), Gardnerella vaginalis, and Lactobacillus species were associated with bacterial vaginosis. Lactobacillus species appeared to protect against bacterial vaginosis and infection with G vaginalis. Sexually transmitted diseases (caused by M hominis, N gonorrhoeae, C trachomatis, and T vaginalis ) were associated with each other. In contrast, hormonal status, vaginal blood, and foreign bodies had little effect. The presence of other microorganisms and race have a more consistent association with the presence or absence of a cervical-vaginal organism than sexual behavior, hormonal status, vaginal devices, or the presence of abnormal vaginal bleeding.

  11. Colonic angiodysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, C.; Legmann, P.; Garnier, T.; Levesque, M.; Favriel, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    The main clinical, endoscopic and radiographic findings in thirty documented cases of colonic angiodysplasia or vacular ectasia are described. We emphasise the association with colonic diverticulosis and cardiovascular pathology, describe the histological changes, summarize the present physiopathological hypothesis, and consider the various therapeutic approaches.

  12. Prevalência e susceptibilidade de leveduras vaginais Prevalence and susceptibility of vaginal yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonilda Chiari Galle

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre as vulvovaginites, a candidíase é apontada como a causa mais freqüente em mulheres na idade fértil. Atualmente, várias pesquisas mostram aumento na freqüência das espécies não-albicans e grande preocupação com episódios de repetição, assim como sua relação com a resistência ao tratamento. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a distribuição de gêneros e espécies de leveduras causadoras de vaginite e analisar o perfil de sensibilidade das leveduras frente às drogas antifúngicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram colhidas amostras de fluido vaginal de 250 pacientes para cultura, realizados identificação e antifungigrama dos isolados. RESULTADOS: Leveduras do gênero Candida estavam presentes em 27,6% das amostras. Candida albicans foi a levedura mais isolada em 74% dos casos, seguida de Candida glabrata, em 14,5%; Candida tropicalis, em 7,3%; e Candida parapsilosis, em 4,3%. Todos os isolados Candida albicans foram sensíveis à anfotericina B, e apenas um isolado da espécie não-albicans apresentou concentração inibitória mínima (CIM mais elevada (2µg/ml. Em Candida albicans, 5,9% das amostras mostraram-se sensíveis, dependendo da dose de fluconazol, e 9,8%, resistentes. Apenas um isolado mostrou-se resistente, com CIM de 8µg/ml, para itraconazol. Nas espécies não-albicans, 11,7% dos isolados foram considerados resistentes ao fluconazol e 23,5, ao itraconazol. CONCLUSÃO: Candida albicans foi a espécie mais freqüentemente encontrada na microbiota vaginal; no entanto, outras espécies foram também comuns nessa população. Porcentual importante de isolados de Candida albicans e não-albicans foi resistente a fluconazol e itraconazol, mostrando a importância de realização de testes de identificação e antifungigrama para os episódios de candidíase vaginal.Among the vulvovaginitis, candidiasis is the most frequent cause in women at reprodutive age of and several researches have shownd an

  13. Detection of phospholipase activity of Candida albicans and non albicans isolated from women of reproductive age with vulvovaginal candidiasis in rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fule, S R; Das, D; Fule, R P

    2015-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is most common accounting for 17 to 39% of symptomatic women. Both Candida albicans and non albicans Candida species are involved in VVC. Amongst various virulence factors proposed for Candida, extracellular phospholipases is one of the virulence factor implicated in its pathogenicity. With this background the present study was carried out to find the prevalence of different Candida species and to detect phospholipase producing strains isolated from symptomatic women with VVC. At least two vaginal swabs from 156 women of reproductive age with abnormal vaginal discharge were collected. Direct microscopy and Gram's stained smear examined for presence of budding yeast and pseudo mycelia followed by isolation and identification of Candida species. Extracellular phospholipase activity was studied by inoculating all isolates on Sabouraud's dextrose egg yolk agar (SDA) medium. Of the 156 women with curdy white discharge alone or in combination with other signs, 59 (37.82%) women showed laboratory evidence of VVC. A total of 31 (52.54%) women had curdy white discharge followed by 12 (20.33%) with other signs and symptoms. C. albicans (62.59%) and non albicans Candida (37.28%) in a ratio of 1.68:1 were isolated. Of the 37 strains of C. albians 30 (81.08%) showed the enzyme activity. Seventeen (56.66%) strains showed higher Pz value of albicans was prevalent species but non albicans species were also frequently isolated. Extracellular phospholipase activity was seen in C. albicans and not in non albicans Candida isolates.

  14. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Jyothi B; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V; Prabhu, Vl

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  15. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi B Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  16. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Jyothi B; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V; Prabhu, VL

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis. PMID:22438633

  17. Vaginal estrogens for the treatment of dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychman, Michael L

    2011-03-01

    Vaginal atrophy, which is associated with vaginal itching, burning, dryness, irritation, and pain, is estimated to affect up to 40% of postmenopausal women. Estrogens play a key role in maintaining vaginal health; women with low serum estradiol are more likely to experience vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and reduced sexual activity compared with women who have higher estradiol levels. The purpose of this review is to assess the prevalence and impact of dyspareunia, a symptom of vaginal atrophy, on the health of postmenopausal women and to evaluate treatment options using vaginal estrogens (U.S. Food and Drug Administration [FDA] approved). Relevant published literature was identified by searching Index Medicus using the PubMed online database. The search terms dyspareunia, vaginal estrogen, vaginal hormone therapy, vaginal atrophy, and atrophic vaginitis were the focus of the literature review. Current treatment guidelines for vaginal atrophy recommend the use of minimally absorbed local vaginal estrogens, along with non-hormonal lubricants or moisturizers, coupled with maintenance of sexual activity. Vaginal estrogen therapy has been shown to provide improvement in the signs and symptoms of vaginal or vulvar atrophy. Vaginal tablets, rings, and creams are indicated for the treatment of vaginal atrophy, and the FDA has recently approved a low-dose regimen of conjugated estrogens cream to treat moderate-to-severe postmenopausal dyspareunia. The use of low-dose vaginal estrogens has been shown to be effective in treating symptoms of vaginal atrophy without causing significant proliferation of the endometrial lining, and no significant differences have been seen among vaginal preparations in terms of endometrial safety. Women should be informed of the potential benefits and risks of the treatment options available, and with the help of their healthcare provider, choose an intervention that is most suitable to their individual needs and circumstances. © 2010

  18. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and

  19. Anterior vaginal compartment surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    To review the safety and efficacy of anterior vaginal compartment pelvic organ prolapse surgery. Every 4 years and as part of the Fifth International Collaboration on Incontinence we reviewed the English-language scientific literature after searching PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, published up to January 2012. Publications were classified as level 1 evidence (randomised controlled trials [RCT] or systematic reviews), level 2 (poor quality RCT, prospective cohort studies), level 3 (case series or retrospective studies) and level 4 case reports. The highest level of evidence was utilised by the committee to make evidence-based recommendations based upon the Oxford grading system. A grade A recommendation usually depends on consistent level 1 evidence. A grade B recommendation usually depends on consistent level 2 and/or 3 studies, or "majority evidence" from RCTs. A grade C recommendation usually depends on level studies or "majority evidence" from level 2/3 studies or Delphi processed expert opinion. A grade D "no recommendation possible" would be used where the evidence is inadequate or conflicting and when expert opinion is delivered without a formal analytical process, such as by Delphi. Absorbable mesh augmentation of anterior compartment native tissue repair improves the anatomical outcome compared with native tissue repair alone with no increased complication rate in meta-analysis of 2 RCTS (grade B). Biological grafts in meta-analysis have improved anatomical outcomes with no change in subjective outcomes compared with native tissue repairs (grade B). There is conflicting level 1 evidence to support porcine dermis and a single RCT to support small intestine submucosa as graft agents in anterior compartment prolapse surgery (grade B). Consistent level 1 data support a superior anatomical outcome for polypropylene mesh compared with a biological graft in the anterior compartment. Mesh exposure rate was

  20. Streptococcus mutans competence-stimulating peptide inhibits Candida albicans hypha formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarosz, L.M.; Deng, D.M.; van der Mei, H.C.; Crielaard, W.; Krom, B.P.

    2009-01-01

    The oral cavity is colonized by microorganisms growing in biofilms in which interspecies interactions take place. Streptococcus mutans grows in biofilms on enamel surfaces and is considered one of the main etiological agents of human dental caries. Candida albicans is also commonly found in the

  1. Streptococcus mutans Competence-Stimulating Peptide Inhibits Candida albicans Hypha Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarosz, Lucja M.; Deng, Dong Mei; van der Mei, Henny C.; Crielaard, Wim; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2009-01-01

    The oral cavity is colonized by microorganisms growing in biofilms in which interspecies interactions take place. Streptococcus mutans grows in biofilms on enamel surfaces and is considered one of the main etiological agents of human dental caries. Candida albicans is also commonly found in the

  2. Association of Oral Candida albicans with Severe Early Childhood Caries - A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ann; Mhambrey, Sanjana; Chokshi, Krunal; Chokshi, Achala; Jana, Sinjana; Thakur, Sneha; Jose, Deepak; Bajpai, Garima

    2016-08-01

    In early childhood, children are more susceptible to opportunistic microbial colonization in the oral cavity due to immature immune system and not fully established micro flora. The current literature proposes a probable role of Candida albicans, a fungus in the etiopathogenesis of dental caries. This study was conducted to compare the Candida albicans count in children with severe early childhood caries and caries free children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 40 randomly selected healthy children between 12 to 71 months of age, who were divided into two groups based on the caries experience as Severe Early Childhood Caries (SECC) (dmfs ≥4) and caries free (dmfs = 0). The caries experiences (dmfs index) of the 40 children were recorded using visible light and diagnostic instruments. A 2ml sample of unstimulated whole saliva collected from the children was transported to the microbiology laboratory in universal containers and evaluated for Candida albicans count using the selective media. The data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software 17.0. Candida albicans was found in both the SECC group and caries free group. Median Candida albicans of the SECC group was numerically greater than the caries free group and this difference was highly statistically significant (p=0.012). In this present cross-sectional study, we found a 100% prevalence of Candida albicans in the saliva of the study children. There was a highly significant increase in Candida albicans count in SECC children compared to the caries free children.

  3. Alcohol and tobacco consumption affect the oral carriage of Candida albicans and mutans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, C C; Makda, K; Dilmahomed, Z; González, R; Luzi, A; Jovani-Sancho, M Del M; Veses, V

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to determine if there is a relationship between the consumption of alcohol and tobacco and oral colonization by mutans streptococci and Candida species. Subjects were recruited from the University Dental Clinic of CEU Cardenal Herrera University (Moncada, Valencia). Information on alcohol and tobacco consumption was obtained by questionnaire. Individual stimulated saliva samples from 105 patients were obtained and selective media was used to isolate and quantify mutans streptococci and Candida spp. colony forming units per millilitre of saliva (CFU ml(-1) ). Samples were stratified by duration and quantity of alcohol and tobacco consumption. Alcohol consumption statistically significantly decreased oral carriage of mutans streptococci, whereas there was no effect on Candida albicans colonization levels. Tobacco users were found to harbour elevated levels of C. albicans; however, there was no observed effect on bacterial colonization by mutans streptococci. The carriage of other species investigated, such as Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis and lactobacilli, do not show a response to the consumption of the stimulants analysed. Microbial colonization of the oral cavity changes in a species-specific manner in response to dietary and social habits such as drinking alcohol and smoking. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of alcohol and tobacco consumption on key species of the oral microflora. Our results show species-specific changes in two major opportunistic pathogens, such as Candida albicans and mutans streptococci, whereas other members of oral microflora are not affected by the consumption of the stimulants studied. We believe this original paper will contribute to raise awareness among the dental community towards a more personalized oral health assessment, taking in consideration alcohol and tobacco consumption in the prevention of specific oral and systemic pathologies. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. A relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in patients with xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadig, Suchetha Devendrappa; Ashwathappa, Deepak Timmasandra; Manjunath, Muniraju; Krishna, Sowmya; Annaji, Araleri Gopalkrishna; Shivaprakash, Praveen Kunigal

    2017-01-01

    Context: Most of the adult population is colonized by Candida in their oral cavity. The process of colonization depends on several factors, including the interaction between Candida and salivary proteins. Therefore, salivary gland hypofunction may alter the oral microbiota and increase the risk for opportunistic infections, such as candidiasis. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the relationship between salivary flow rates (SFRs) and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerostomia. Aims: This study aims to determine and evaluate the relationship between SFRs and Candida colony forming units (CFUs) in patients with xerostomia. Settings and Design: This study was a descriptive study. Subjects and Methods: The study participants were taken from the patients attending outpatient department in a private dental college. Fifty patients, who reported xerostomia in a questionnaire of the symptoms of xerostomia, were selected. Chewing stimulated whole saliva samples were collected from them and their SFRs were assessed. Saliva samples were inoculated in the Sabouraud dextrose agar culture media for 24–48 h, and Candida CFUs were counted. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-squared test was used to analyze the data. Results: There was a significant inverse relationship between salivary flow and candida CFUs count when patients with high colony counts were analyzed (cutoff point of 400 or greater CFU/mL). Females had less SFR than males. Most of the patients who had hyposalivation were taking medication for the underlying systemic diseases. Candida albicans was the most frequent species. Conclusions: There was a significantly negative correlation between SFRs and Candida CFUs in the patients with xerostomia. PMID:28932047

  5. Contraceptive vaginal rings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brache, Vivian; Faundes, Anibal

    2010-11-01

    Development efforts on contraceptive vaginal rings were initiated over 40 years ago based on two principles: the capacity of the vaginal epithelium to absorb steroids and the capacity of elastomers to release these hormones at a nearly constant rate. Numerous models of contraceptive vaginal rings (CVRs) have been studied, but only two have reached the market: NuvaRing, a combined ring that releases etonogestrel (ENG) and ethinylestradiol (EE), and Progering, a progesterone-releasing ring for use in lactating women. The main advantages of CVRs are their effectiveness (similar to or slightly better than the pill), ease of use without the need of remembering a daily routine, user's ability to control initiation and discontinuation, nearly constant release rate allowing for lower doses, greater bioavailability and good cycle control with the combined ring. The main disadvantages are related to the mode of delivery; CVRs may cause vaginal discharge and complaints, ring expulsion is not uncommon, the ring may be felt during coitus and vaginal insertion may be unpleasant for some women. The studies reviewed in this article provide evidence that CVRs are safe, effective and highly acceptable to women. There is no doubt that CVRs offer a new, effective contraceptive option to women, expanding their available choices of hormonal contraception. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Multipurpose treatment of vaginal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, A; Masseva, A; Shopova, E; Georgiev, S

    2012-01-01

    Untreated bacterial vaginosis is related with many complications for non-pregnant women in reproductive age, most common from them are vaginal discharge and postoperative infections. The aim of our investigation was to compare the effectiveness of two therapeutic regimes which consist in Macmiror/Macmiror Complex alone and in combination with Feminella Vagi C for treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and/or mycotic infection. 117 non-pregnant women with symptoms of vaginal infection were prospectively enrolled into two groups according their treatment. First group consist 66 women treated with Macmiror tablets and vaginal capsules followed with local application of Feminella Vagi C, the second group consist 54 women treated with Macmiror tablets and vaginal capsules only. The impact of treatment on clinical symptoms was observed at the end of medication and 20 days after it. Microbiological testing was repeated 20 days after treatment. Over than 80% (78.6 divided by 86.7%) of the cases with vaginal infection (BV and mycotic one) were successfully treated with Macmiror/Macmiror Complex. Supplement treatment with Feminella Vagi C lead to higher percentage of clinically recovery (86.7% vs 84.6%), better microbiological cleaning (86.7% vs 82.1%) and longer effect of treatment. Used medication showed higher efficacy against BV than to fungal infection. According obtained results we may conclude that bacterial vaginosis was better treated with multipurpose treatment (Nifuratel, Nistatin and vit. C) than with Macmiror alone.

  7. Developmental Origin of Vaginal Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    The developmental origin of vaginal epithelium has been controversial for nearly a century, with speculation that vaginal epithelium originates from the Müllerian duct, Wolffian duct, and/or urogenital sinus. None of these possibilities has been definitively proven or disproven by direct scientific data. To define precisely the origin of vaginal epithelium, epithelial cells of the Müllerian duct, Wolffian duct, or urogenital sinus were fluorescently labeled in mouse embryos by crossing tdTomato-EGFP dual-reporter transgenic mice with transgenic mouse lines that express Cre recombinase in each type of epithelium. In embryos and newborn mice, the vagina consisted of fused Müllerian ducts plus the sinus vagina of urogenital sinus origin. However, the proportion of the sinus vagina was significantly reduced as the Müllerian vagina grew caudally. By postpartum day 7, the Müllerian vagina extended to the caudal end of the body, whereas the sinus vagina remained only at the junction between the vagina and perineal skin. As the vagina opened in puberty, urogenital sinus epithelium was detected only in the vulva, but not in the vagina. Additionally, from embryo to adult stages, residual Wolffian duct epithelium was present in the dorsolateral stromal wall of the vagina, but not within vaginal or vulvar epithelium. In conclusion, adult mouse vaginal epithelium is derived solely from Müllerian duct epithelium. PMID:20638775

  8. Species Diversity, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Virulence Attributes of Candida Colonising the Oral Cavities of Adult Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is a common occurrence in diabetic patients. Species of Candida isolated from these infections and their virulence pattern undergo changes over time and require periodic assessments. Objective of this study was to determine changes in the spectrum of Candida species colonizing oral cavity, their antifungal susceptibility patterns, and virulence attributes, in adult diabetic patients. Oral swabs were collected from 100 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and an equal number of healthy controls. Specimens were cultured for Candida and species were identified, according to standard protocols. Of 100 diabetic patients, 42 were colonized by yeasts with C. albicans as the predominant species (51%. Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC species accounted for 47% of the specimens, with C. tropicalis being the commonest. Among healthy controls, 23 were colonized by Candida species, of which C. albicans was predominant. Results obtained indicate that C. albicans continues to be the predominant species in oral cavities of diabetic patients. Candidal carriage was significantly associated with duration of diabetes and fasting blood sugar levels. Virulence attributes, proteinase and phospholipase secretion, and biofilm formation were significantly higher in DM group.

  9. Identification of Candida species and susceptibility testing with Sensititre YeastOne microdilution panel to 9 antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukates, Emine; Gultekin, Nuh N; Alisan, Zeynep; Hondur, Nur; Ozturk, Recep

    2016-07-01

    To determine the species incidence and susceptibility pattern to 9 antifungal agents of yeasts isolated from various clinical specimens of colonized or infected patients treated in the coronary and surgical intensive care units (ICU).  A total of 421 ICU patients were treated at the Cardiology Institute, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey between June 2013 and May 2014, and 44 Candida species were isolated from blood, urine, endotracheal aspiration fluid, sputum, and wounds of 16 ICU patients. Identification of Candida was performed using CHROMagar. Antifungal susceptibility was determined by a Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric microdilution panel.  Candida albicans (C. albicans) was the most commonly observed microorganism 23 (54%); the other microorganisms isolated were Candida tropicalis 12 (27%), Candida glabrata 5 (11%), Candida parapsilosis 1 (2%), Candida lusitaniae 1 (2%), Candida sake 1 (2%), and Geotrichum capitatum 1 (2%). All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine. Geotrichum capitatum excepted, the other isolates were also susceptible to anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin. Candida parapsilosis was found to be susceptible to all the studied antifungals. High MIC rates for azole group of antifungal drugs were found for C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata. The rate of colonisation was 3.8% (16/421). Only 0.7% (3/421) patients out of a total of 421 developed candidemia.  We found that the yeast colonization and infection rates of patients in our ICUs are very low. Candida albicans is still the most common species. We detected a decreasing susceptibility to azole compounds.

  10. Citología Vaginal

    OpenAIRE

    Arrunategui, Ana María; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2001-01-01

    ¿Qué es una neoplasia?/ ¿Qué grupo de mujeres tiene un mayor riesgo de desarrollar cáncer del cuello de la matriz?/ ¿Cuáles son los síntomas más frecuentes del cáncer del cuello de la matriz?/ Anatomía de los órganos genitales femeninos/¿Cómo se realiza la prueba de la citología vaginal?/¿Cómo se interpretan los resultados de la citología vaginal?/ ¿Toda citología anormal es cáncer?/ ¿Qué otras utilidades tiene la citología vaginal?/ ¿Desde qué edad, hasta que edad y con qué frecuencia debe t...

  11. Genotyping Candida albicans from Candida Leukoplakia and Non-Candida Leukoplakia Shows No Enrichment of Multilocus Sequence Typing Clades but Enrichment of ABC Genotype C in Candida Leukoplakia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrahim, Mohammed H.; McManus, Brenda A.; Flint, Stephen R.; Coleman, David C.

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Published: September 18th 2013 Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of ...

  12. MODERN APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY OF VAGINAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Николаевна Кравченко

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern obstetrical and gynecological practice, the problem of disturbing the vaginal microflora is one of the most urgent because of the possibility of developing a whole complex of complications affecting the reproductive function of women. Mixed variants of vaginal infections have been little studied, nevertheless, they must be distinguished, since different forms of coexistence of pathogens require an individual therapeutic approach. Objective – evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of a new combination gel form preparation for vaginal infections in pregnant women. Methods of research. The study included 200 pregnant women with vaginal infections: 100 women made up the basic group, received treatment with a new gel preparation Metrogyl Plus within 5 days. The comparison group consisted of 100 patients treated with Clion-D 100. The second stage involved lactobacilli providing colonization resistance of the vaginal biotope. Results. Efficacy after the end of treatment after 1 month was 99 % in the main group, 94 % in the comparison group (p = 0,12, relapses after treatment at 3 months were revealed in 2 % and 10 % of the observations, respectively, in the study groups (p = 0,02. Placental disorders, the threat of spontaneous abortion, polyhydramnios, gestational pyelonephritis, edema caused by pregnancy, and preeclampsia were collectively observed in the main group less frequently than in the comparison group (p = 0,025. Complications of childbirth and the postpartum period are also noted less frequently in the main group than in the comparison group, which is associated with a much smaller number of relapses after treatment (p = 0,004. Conclusion. Treatment of vaginal infections with a new gel form preparation in pregnant women is highly effective and is 99 %. The number of relapses after treatment with the combined preparation in the form of a gel is only 2 % after 3 months. Consequently, the use of an effective

  13. Vaginal Bleeding: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bleeding in pregnancy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Vaginal Bleeding updates ... late pregnancy Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy Related Health Topics Menstruation Disclaimers MedlinePlus links to health information from ...

  14. Vaginitis: current microbiologic and clinical concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L V; Embil, J A

    1986-02-15

    Infectious vaginitis occurs when the normal vaginal flora is disrupted; it may arise when saprophytes overwhelm the host immune response, when pathogenic organisms are introduced into the vagina or when changes in substrate allow an imbalance of microorganisms to develop. Examples of these types of vaginitis include the presence of chronic fungal infection in women with an inadequate cellular immune response to the yeast, the introduction of trichomonads into vaginal epithelium that has a sufficient supply of glycogen, and the alteration in bacterial flora, normally dominated by Lactobacillus spp., and its metabolites that is characteristic of "nonspecific vaginitis". The authors review microbiologic and clinical aspects of the fungal, protozoal and bacterial infections, including the interactions of bacteria thought to produce nonspecific vaginitis, that are now recognized as causing vaginitis. Other causes of vaginitis are also discussed.

  15. Effects of vaginal prolapse surgery and ageing on vaginal vascularization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Ageing affects pelvic floor anatomy and function, resulting in several disorders like pelvic organ prolapse (POP), lower urinary tract symptoms and vaginal atrophy (VA). In this thesis we searched for methods to link the function of pelvic organs to physiological changes. The effects of POP and

  16. Development of Candida-associated denture stomatitis: new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pereira-Cenci

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite therapeutic progress, opportunistic oral fungal infectious diseases have increased in prevalence, especially in denture wearers. The combination of entrapment of yeast cells in irregularities in denture-base and denture-relining materials, poor oral hygiene and several systemic factors is the most probable cause for the onset of this infectious disease. Hence colonization and growth on prostheses by Candida species are of clinical importance. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss several key factors controlling the adhesion of Candida species which are relevant to denture-associated stomatitis. Although there is some consensus on the role of surface properties, studies on several other factors, as the use of denture liners, salivary properties and yeast-bacterial interactions, have shown contradictory findings. A comprehensive fundamental understanding is hampered by conflicting findings due to the large variations in experimental protocols, while other factors have never been thoroughly studied. Surface free energy and surface roughness control the initial adherence, but temporal changes have not been reported. Neither have in vivo studies shown if the substratum type is critical in dictating biofilm accumulation during longer periods in the oral environment. The contribution of saliva is unclear due to factors like variations in its collection and handling. Initial findings have disclosed that also bacteria are crucial for the successful establishment of Candida in biofilms, but the clinical significance of this observation is yet to be confirmed. In conclusion, there is a need to standardize experimental procedures, to bridge the gap between laboratory and in vivo methodologies and findings and - in general - to thoroughly investigate the factors that modulate the initial attachment and subsequent colonization of denture-base materials and the oral mucosa of patients subjected to Candida infections. Information on how

  17. Oral Yeast Colonization and Fungal Infections in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Simões-Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritonitis and exit-site infections are important complications in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients that are occasionally caused by opportunistic fungi inhabiting distant body sites. In this study, the oral yeast colonization of PD patients and the antifungal susceptibility profile of the isolated yeasts were accessed and correlated with fungal infection episodes in the following 4 years. Saliva yeast colonization was accessed in 21 PD patients and 27 healthy controls by growth in CHROMagar-Candida® and 18S rRNA/ITS sequencing. PD patients presented a lower oral yeast prevalence when compared to controls, namely, Candida albicans. Other species were also isolated, Candida glabrata and Candida carpophila. The antifungal susceptibility profiles of these isolates revealed resistance to itraconazole, variable susceptibility to caspofungin, and higher MIC values of posaconazole compared to previous reports. The 4-year longitudinal evaluation of these patients revealed Candida parapsilosis and Candida zeylanoides as PD-related exit-site infectious agents, but no correlation was found with oral yeast colonization. This pilot study suggests that oral yeast colonization may represent a limited risk for fungal infection development in PD patients. Oral yeast isolates presented a variable antifungal susceptibility profile, which may suggest resistance to some second-line drugs, highlighting the importance of antifungal susceptibility assessment in the clinical practice.

  18. Vaginitis: current microbiologic and clinical concepts.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, L V; Embil, J A

    1986-01-01

    Infectious vaginitis occurs when the normal vaginal flora is disrupted; it may arise when saprophytes overwhelm the host immune response, when pathogenic organisms are introduced into the vagina or when changes in substrate allow an imbalance of microorganisms to develop. Examples of these types of vaginitis include the presence of chronic fungal infection in women with an inadequate cellular immune response to the yeast, the introduction of trichomonads into vaginal epithelium that has a suf...

  19. Flora vaginal e correlação com aspectos citológicos Vaginal flora and correlation with cytological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hygia Maria Nunes Guerreiro

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de esclarecer a patogenicidade de microorganismos que compõem a microflora vaginal, particularmente nas chamadas vaginites inespecíficas e de determinar o valor da citologia como método para identificação da flora vaginal, foram estudadas 97 pacientes, realizando cultura, exame direto a fresco, Gram e citologia do material cérvico-vaginal. Entre os microorganismos de importância clínica reconhecida, Gardnerella vaginalis foi o mais freqüentemente isolado, 48,4%, seguido de Trichomonas vaginalis, 10,3%, Candida albicans, 7,2% e Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 1,1%. Alterações citológicas indicativas de cervicite e/ou vaginite estiveram presentes na maioria dos casos de G.vaginalis, C.albicans e em todos os casos de T.vaginalis. Foi ressaltada a importância da avaliação semi-quantitativa dos microorganismos nos meios de cultura. Na avaliação da citologia como método diagnóstico para a microflora vaginal, foi observada que este foi o melhor dos métodos utilizados na identificação de T.vaginalis, tendo sido detectado cerca de 50% dos casos de C.albicans. No diagnóstico de G.vaginalis a citologia foi positiva em 48,9% dos casos, destacando-se que dos 31 casos positivos ao exame citológico, oito tiveram culturas negativas para G.vaginalis, embora tenham sido isolados nestes últimos: Haemophilus sp. ou Corynebacterium sp.This work is an attempt to throw more light on the pathogenicity of microorganisms of the vaginal flora, specially those of the so-called nonspecific vaginitis. An attempt is made to determine the value of cytology as a method for the identification of vaginal flora, by the study of microbiologic cultures, fresh and Gram stain direct exam and citology of the cervico-vaginal specimens of 97 patients. Among microorganisms with clinical significance, Gardnerella vaginalis was the most frequently isolated organism, 48,4%, followed by Trichomonas vaginalis, 10.3%, Candida albicans, 7.2% and Neisseria

  20. Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, François L; Wilson, Duncan; Hube, Bernhard

    2013-02-15

    The polymorphic fungus Candida albicans is a member of the normal human microbiome. In most individuals, C. albicans resides as a lifelong, harmless commensal. Under certain circumstances, however, C. albicans can cause infections that range from superficial infections of the skin to life-threatening systemic infections. Several factors and activities have been identified which contribute to the pathogenic potential of this fungus. Among them are molecules which mediate adhesion to and invasion into host cells, the secretion of hydrolases, the yeast-to-hypha transition, contact sensing and thigmotropism, biofilm formation, phenotypic switching and a range of fitness attributes. Our understanding of when and how these mechanisms and factors contribute to infection has significantly increased during the last years. In addition, novel virulence mechanisms have recently been discovered. In this review we present an update on our current understanding of the pathogenicity mechanisms of this important human pathogen.

  1. Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, François L.; Wilson, Duncan; Hube, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The polymorphic fungus Candida albicans is a member of the normal human microbiome. In most individuals, C. albicans resides as a lifelong, harmless commensal. Under certain circumstances, however, C. albicans can cause infections that range from superficial infections of the skin to life-threatening systemic infections. Several factors and activities have been identified which contribute to the pathogenic potential of this fungus. Among them are molecules which mediate adhesion to and invasion into host cells, the secretion of hydrolases, the yeast-to-hypha transition, contact sensing and thigmotropism, biofilm formation, phenotypic switching and a range of fitness attributes. Our understanding of when and how these mechanisms and factors contribute to infection has significantly increased during the last years. In addition, novel virulence mechanisms have recently been discovered. In this review we present an update on our current understanding of the pathogenicity mechanisms of this important human pathogen. PMID:23302789

  2. Characterisation of the vaginal microflora of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactobacilli predominate normal vaginal microflora and are important in maintenance of vaginal health. The current study set out to identify and compare culture isolates of vaginal microflora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) women at different phases during menstrual cycle ...

  3. Fungal colonization and/or infection in non-neutropenic critically ill patients: results of the EPCAN observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, C; Alvarez-Lerma, F; Ruiz-Santana, S; León, M A; Nolla, J; Jordá, R; Saavedra, P; Palomar, M

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the incidence of fungal colonization and infection in non-neutropenic critically ill patients and to identify factors favoring infection by Candida spp. A total of 1,655 consecutive patients (>18 years of age) admitted for > or = 7 days to 73 medical-surgical Spanish intensive care units (ICUs) participated in an observational prospective cohort study. Surveillance samples were obtained once a week. One or more fungi were isolated in different samples in 59.2% of patients, 94.2% of which were Candida spp. There were 864 (52.2%) patients with Candida spp. colonization and 92 (5.5%) with proven Candida infection. In the logistic regression analysis risk factors independently associated with Candida spp. infection were sepsis (odds ratio [OR] = 8.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.07-13.6), multifocal colonization (OR = 3.49, 95% CI 1.74-7.00), surgery (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.27-3.30), and the use of total parenteral nutrition (OR = 4.37, 95% CI 2.16-8.33). Patients with Candida spp. infection showed significantly higher in-hospital and intra-ICU mortality rates than those colonized or non-colonized non-infected (P colonization, mainly due to Candida spp., was documented in nearly 60% of non-neutropenic critically ill patients admitted to the ICU for more than 7 days. Proven candidal infection was diagnosed in 5.5% of cases. Risk factors independently associated with Candida spp. infection were sepsis, multifocal colonization, surgery, and the use of total parenteral nutrition.

  4. Differentiated treatment of patients with acne and concomitant candida infection

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    Yaakubi Randa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of works, which are devoted to the study of acne, but these data are often contradictory on the issue of interrelationship and interdependence of clinical manifestations, course and some factors in the pathogenesis of acne and candida infection. Aim of the research was to study the effect of the recommended differentiated therapy on the pathogenetic disorders in patients with acne and concomitant Candida infection. Methods and results. 120 patients with acne were examined. In 100 of them concomitant skin malasseziosis was set in the form of pityriasis rosea, kerosis, comedones, folliculitis, seborrhea, multicolored zoster, with some features, as well as candidiasis. Methods of the research – bacterioscopic, bacteriological, study of skin oiliness and moisture, skin pH, the level of Ca ++, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. In patients with acne significant shifts in the composition of water-lipid mantle, increased oiliness and decreased moisture of skin, pH changes with a shift to the alkaline side were revealed, the most pronounced – in acne patients with Candida infection. The content of Ca ++ in the organism, as well as parathyroid hormone and calcitonin was increased and also the most indicative it was in patients with acne and concomitant Candida infection. After the comparative analysis on the basis of different levels of clinical and laboratory violations two clinical-therapeutic groups were distinguished, in accordance with that the differentiated therapy offered by us was conducted. Increased oiliness and Рh of skin, decline of moisture before the treatment, especially in patients with III and IV stages of acne, complicated by Candida infection, were normalized after treatment, unlike in patients treated traditionally. Conclusion. After treatment intensity of microbal colonization and also microbal associations of skin was diminished, the level of Ca++, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin went down.

  5. Study of strains of Candida spp. Isolated from catheters in UHC of Oran (Algeria): Identification and antifungal susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjelloul, M; Boucherit-Otmani, Z; Boucherit, K

    2016-09-01

    The increasing incidence of Candida spp., and the vital prognosis often compromise for patients with Candida species make urgent the exact knowledge of their distribution worldwide and exhaust action antifungals currently used in clinical. That why we carry out an epidemiological study of Candida species and testing their susceptibility against two antifungals: amphotericin B and caspofungin. Samplings of peripheral venous catheters (PVC) were carried out from during 8months on the services of Internal medicine, Surgery A and Neonatology of Oran's University Hospital Center (UHC). The study of the susceptibility of Candida species to antifungal agents was performed according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI 2008). From 300 samples, 25 yeasts were isolated. The rate of colonization PVC was 8.33% by Candida spp. The most isolated strains were Candida parapsilosis with 64% of cases, followed by Candida albicans (12%) then 8% for Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. However, only 4% of isolates were Candida famata or Candida lusitaniae. Furthermore all isolated strains were susceptible to amphotericin B with Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.25 to 1μg/mL. MIC obtained with caspofungin vary from 0.0625 to 2μg/mL for all strains. Moreover, one strain of C. krusei is resistant to caspofungin with a MIC superior to 8μg/mL. All though caspofungin is at least as effective as amphotericin B, it is better tolerated for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Frequent detection of ‘azole’ resistant Candida species among late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The chronic use of antifungal agents in the treatment of fungal infection in general and oropharyngeal candidiasis mainly in AIDS patient’s leads to the selection of strain resistant to these therapies and a shift in the spectrum of Candida species. This study determines the species diversity and in vitro susceptibility of Candida isolates from late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Two hundred and twenty one HIV/AIDS patients were assessed with a standardized evaluation form at enrolment. Oral rinses were cultured on CHROMagar plates at 37°C for 48 hours and Candida species identification were made following standard microbiological techniques. In vitro drug susceptibility tests were made using broth microdilution method. Results The colonization rate of Candida species was found to be 82.3% (177/215). C. albicans was the predominant species isolated from 139 (81%) patients but there was a diversity of other species. C. glabrata was the most frequent non-albicans species isolated in 22.5% (40/177) of the patients followed by C. tropicalis 14.1% (27/177), C. krusei 5.6% (10) and other unidentifiable Candida species 4% (7/177). Recurrent episodes of oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous exposure to antifungal drugs were found to be predisposing factors for colonization by non-albicans species. Irrespective of the Candida species identified 12.2% (11/90), 7.7% (7/90) and 4.7% (4) of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole, respectively. In contrast, resistance to micafungin, amphotericin B and 5-Fluorocytosine was infrequent. Conclusion HIV/AIDS patients are orally colonized by single or multiple albicans and non- albicans Candida species that are frequently resistant to azoles and occasionally to amphotericin B, 5-Fluorocytosine and micafungin. These highlight the need for national surveillance for examining Candida epidemiology and resistance to antifungal drugs. PMID:23398783

  7. Frequent detection of ‘azole’ resistant Candida species among late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulu Andargachew

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chronic use of antifungal agents in the treatment of fungal infection in general and oropharyngeal candidiasis mainly in AIDS patient’s leads to the selection of strain resistant to these therapies and a shift in the spectrum of Candida species. This study determines the species diversity and in vitro susceptibility of Candida isolates from late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Two hundred and twenty one HIV/AIDS patients were assessed with a standardized evaluation form at enrolment. Oral rinses were cultured on CHROMagar plates at 37°C for 48 hours and Candida species identification were made following standard microbiological techniques. In vitro drug susceptibility tests were made using broth microdilution method. Results The colonization rate of Candida species was found to be 82.3% (177/215. C. albicans was the predominant species isolated from 139 (81% patients but there was a diversity of other species. C. glabrata was the most frequent non-albicans species isolated in 22.5% (40/177 of the patients followed by C. tropicalis 14.1% (27/177, C. krusei 5.6% (10 and other unidentifiable Candida species 4% (7/177. Recurrent episodes of oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous exposure to antifungal drugs were found to be predisposing factors for colonization by non-albicans species. Irrespective of the Candida species identified 12.2% (11/90, 7.7% (7/90 and 4.7% (4 of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole, respectively. In contrast, resistance to micafungin, amphotericin B and 5-Fluorocytosine was infrequent. Conclusion HIV/AIDS patients are orally colonized by single or multiple albicans and non- albicans Candida species that are frequently resistant to azoles and occasionally to amphotericin B, 5-Fluorocytosine and micafungin. These highlight the need for national surveillance for examining Candida epidemiology and resistance to antifungal drugs.

  8. The Oral Carriage of Candida in Oral Cancer Patients of Indian Origin Undergoing Radiotherapy and/or Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Manish; Shah, Raksha; Chandolia, Betina; Mathur, Ayush; Chauhan, Yashwant; Chawda, Jyoti; Mosby, Siddarth; Bhagalia, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    Oral cancer is a challenging disease in Indian subcontinent because of increased use of tobacco and associated products. Although surgery is the main treatment modality, radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) are employed in inaccessible cases. Both RT & CT will result in painful and debilitating adverse effects in oral cavity e.g., mucositis, ulceration, dysgeusia, xerostomia and opportunistic infections. One of the most common opportunistic infection is caused by fungus Candida. Our aim was to investigate the incidence of oral colonization of Candida species with differentiation between carrier and infective state of the organism. We also investigate the effect of treatment modality (RT and CT) on the incidence of Candida, in oral cancer patients, undergoing RT and/or CT, in order to prevent and treat the Candida infection in a better way. It was a cross-sectional case-control study; done in Gujarat, India. Fifty patients of oral cancer undergoing RT, CT alone or combined were investigated and compared with the healthy controls. The samples were collected from mid-dorsum of tongue by using imprint culture technique. The samples were inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium and the organisms were identified by wet mount, germ tube test, chlamydospore formation and sugar fermentation tests. There was significant increase in oral Candida colonization from 20% in healthy controls to 70% in oral cancer patients undergoing RT and/or CT (p = 0.001, < 0.05). A significant increase in infective state of Candida (71.4%) was noted (p = 0.001, < 0.05) with predominance of non-albicans species of Candida, chiefly C. tropicalis (42.8%). RT and CT leads to increased oral colonization and infection by Candida with a shift towards growth of non-albicans species. As the pattern of candidal species infection is changing, such studies are important for better diagnosis and treatment planning to gain good control over the disease.

  9. Colonization of the bovine uterus by Candida kefyr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen Karstrup, Cecilia; Aalbæk, Bent; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard

    2017-01-01

    Background. While fungal infections of the bovine uterus are well-known diseases in pregnant cattle, very limited knowledge exists on the presence and significance of fungi in the uterus of non-pregnant cows. Presence of fungi in the uterine lumen of postpartum (pp) cows has been reported...... or within macrophages. Two of the cows were around 30 days pp, while the third was 7 months pp. None of the cows had been treated with antibiotics. Culturing of the flush samples was unsuccessful, but Sanger sequencing of DNA extracted from an endometrial biopsy of one of the cows revealed the presence...

  10. Isolation of Candida species from the oral cavity and fingertips of complete denture wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaral, Suresh; Desai, Raviraj G; Kamble, Vikas; Patil, Anand Kumar G

    2014-11-01

    Wearing a dental prosthesis is known to increase oral candidal colonization and predispose the wearer to oral candidosis. Denture wearers frequently use fingers to take the prosthesis out of their mouth. Oral Candida, if present may contaminate wearer's finger. The objective of this study was to investigate the simultaneous candidal colonization of oral cavity and fingertips of complete denture wearers. A total of 25 apparently healthy male subjects who had worn complete dentures for at least 1 year were selected. Information about each patient's denture age, denture hygiene, handling, and wearing habits, and hand washing habits after denture handling were be obtained. Intraoral examination of all the patients was done. For microbiological examination samples were collected from the fingertip and oral rinse of each patient. Candida species were identified with use of germ tube test and commercially available yeast identification system. Data was statistically analyzed. Significance was set at p oral candidal colonization was statistically significant. Denture wearers with oral Candida had a higher prevalence of Candida contamination on their fingers. Patients with removable prostheses should be informed about the importance of proper prosthesis and personal hygiene and the possibility of microbial contamination of the hands and other parts of the body.

  11. Vaginal leiomyoma: MRI features with pathologic correlation

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    Avantika Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of vaginal leiomyoma presenting as prolapsed vaginal mass in a 45 years old woman. The leiomyoma was found to arise from the right lateral vaginal fornix with a vascular stalk. MRI showed homogenous hypointense signals on T1W1 and iso to hyperintense signals on T2W1 images with moderate heterogenous enhancement on post contrast images. It was enucleated via vaginal route and the histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of vaginal leiomyoma.

  12. Estudio sobre agentes etiológicos de vaginitis en la mujer grávida costarricense

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    Luis E Solano S

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A fin de determinar la importancia de infecciones vaginales de tipo no gonorreico en nuestra embarazada, se tomaron muestras a 300 pacientes y se efectuaron las siguientes pruebas de rutina a cada una de ellas: presencia de Trichomonas vaginalis por examen del material a fresco, flora bacteriana por plateos sobre medio base para agar sangre, siembra y aislamiento de organismos del género Candida con posterior identificación específica utilizando los métodos del auxanograma y zimograma, determinación del pH por medio del indicador de Bogen, contenido de glucógeno de la mucosa utilizando lugol a fresco y examen microscópico de la muestra utilizando la coloración de Gram. Las pacientes fueron divididas en los siguientes grupos: normales; con infecciones leves sin vaginitis; con infecciones graves acompañándose de vaginitis, incluyendo en este grupo infecciones por T. vaginalis, C. albicans y Escherichia coli. Un último grupo comprendió las que presentaban vaginitis no determinadas y de tipo no infeccioso, entre las que se cuentan algunas por causas traumáticas y otras posiblemente por disturbios funcionales. Se encontró un total de 89 pacientes (29.66 % con Trichomonas vaginalis, en 16 de las cuales éstas se acompañaron de Candida albicans y en 4 de las cuales las infecciones no se relacionaron a vaginitis ni anormalidades, suponiéndose se trate de estados iniciales de infección. Cuarenta pacientes (13.33 % presentaron Candida albicans, 16 de las cuales tenían también T. vaginalis. Una paciente mostró vaginitis causada por Escherichia coli. Las pacientes presentaron Candida krusei en el 2% de los casos, pero no se encontró ninguna cepa de Candida stellatoidea. Se determinó como flora bacteriana normal y saprofítica a M. epidermidis, M. aurantiacus, M. flavus, M. candidus, Micrococcus sp., Gaffkya tetragenil, Sarcina Iutea, Streptococcus sp., Mima polymorpha, Herella vaginicola. CoIloides anoxydana, lactobacilos de D

  13. [The practice guideline 'Vaginal discharge' (first revision) from the Dutch College of General Practitioners; a response from the perspective of general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eekhof, J A H

    2007-06-16

    The revised practice guideline by the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) on vaginal discharge is intended to offer general practitioners a handle for management of vaginal complaints. Most general practitioners experience uncertainties in daily practice with respect to the diagnosis of vaginal discharge. In most cases history taking and physical examination fails to provide sufficient valuable information to arrive at a definite diagnosis. No further (microscopic) investigation is only permissible in a very obvious infection with Candida albicans. A recent onset of complaints of itching accompanied by white odourless discharge means a 70% chance of an infection with C. albicans. If the general practitioner also finds vulvar or vaginal inflammation and a nonhomogeneous fluor during examination the chance of an infection with C. albicans increases to 90%. In all other cases microscopic investigation is inevitable. This does not reflect an inadequacy of the NHG guideline but is a consequence of the limited diagnostic possibilities to arrive at a precise diagnosis.

  14. Impact of Periodic Presumptive Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis on the Vaginal Microbiome among Women Participating in the Preventing Vaginal Infections Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Anzala, Omu; Kimani, Joshua; Andac, Chloe; Schwebke, Jane; Fredricks, David N; McClelland, R Scott

    2017-03-01

    Evidence suggests that specific vaginal bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) may increase the risk of adverse health outcomes in women. Among women participating in a randomized, double-blinded trial, we assessed the effect of periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) on detection of select vaginal bacteria. High-risk women from the United States and Kenya with a recent vaginal infection received intravaginal metronidazole 750 mg plus miconazole 200 mg or placebo for 5 consecutive nights each month for 12 months. Vaginal fluid specimens were collected via polyester/polyethylene terephthalate swabs every other month and tested for bacteria, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The effect of PPT on bacterium detection was assessed among all participants and stratified by country. Of 234 women enrolled, 221 had specimens available for analysis. The proportion of follow-up visits with detectable quantities was lower in the PPT arm versus the placebo arm for the following bacteria: BVAB1, BVAB2, Atopobium vaginae, Leptotrichia/Sneathia, and Megasphaera. The magnitude of reductions was greater among Kenyan participants as compared to US participants. Use of monthly PPT for 1 year reduced colonization with several bacteria strongly associated with BV. The role of PPT to improve vaginal health should be considered, and efforts to improve the impact of PPT regimens are warranted.

  15. Candida albicans infection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Čanković Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Systemic candidiasis in intensive care units remains an improtant problem due to antifungal resistance. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis and they more frequent have prior fungi colonization. Due to identification of specific risk factors predisposing to fungal infection in order to threat such patients the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Candida species in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and compare it to the control subjects (patients with benign oral mucosal lesions. Methods. A total number of 30 consecutive oral cancer examined patients were included in this prospective study (24 men and 6 women with a mean age of 61.47 years, range 41-81 years. The control group consisted of 30 consecutive patients with histologically proven benign oral mucosal lesions (16 men and 14 women with a mean age of 54.53 years, range 16- 83 years. The samples for mycological examination were obtained by using sterile cotton swabs from the cancer lesion surface and in the patients of the control group from the benign mucosal lesion surface. Samples were inoculated in Sabouraud' dextrose agar. For identification purposes, Mackenzie germ tube test was performend on all isolates. Results. The prevalence of Candida was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than in control subjects (χ2 = 5.455, p = 0.020. Candida was found on nine of the 30 cancer surfaces; 5 (16.7% were identified as non-albicans Candida and 4 (13.3% as Candida albicans. In the control group, only Candida albicans was isolated from 2 (6.7% patients. In this study, no statistically significant differences in the presence of Candida species was found with respect to gender, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, wearing of dental protheses and the site of cancer lesion. Conclusion. The increased prevalence of yeasts on the surfaces of oral carcinoma indicates a need for their

  16. Group B Streptococcal Colonization Among Pregnant Women in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Manu; Rench, Marcia A; Baker, Carol J; Singh, Pushpa; Hans, Charoo; Edwards, Morven S

    2017-07-01

    Little is known regarding maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization prevalence and capsular (CPS) serotype distribution among pregnant women in India. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine GBS recto-vaginal colonization prevalence in pregnant women at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital in Delhi, India. Literature review identified reports from India assessing GBS colonization prevalence in pregnant women. Rectal and vaginal swabs were inoculated into Strep B Carrot Broth (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA) and subcultured onto GBS Detect plates (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA). Isolates were serotyped using ImmuLex Strep-B latex kits (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark). Thirteen studies were identified citing GBS colonization prevalence during pregnancy as 0.47%-16%. Among 300 pregnant women (mean age: 26.9 years; mean gestation: 34 weeks) enrolled (August 2015 to April 2016), GBS colonization prevalence was 15%. Fifteen percent of women had vaginal only, 29% had rectal only and 56% had both sites colonized. CPS types were Ia (13.3%), Ib (4.4%), II (20%), III (22.2%), V (20%) and VII (6.7%); 13.3% were nontypable. Fetal loss in a prior pregnancy at ≥20-weeks gestation was more common in colonized than noncolonized women (15.6% vs. 3.5%; P = 0.004). Employing recent census data for the birth cohort and estimating that 1%-2% of neonates born to colonized women develop early-onset disease, at least 39,000 cases of early-onset disease may occur yearly in India. Using optimal methods, 15% of third trimester pregnant women in India are GBS colonized. A multivalent vaccine containing 6 CPS types (Ia, Ib, II, III, V and VII) would encompass ~87% of GBS carried by pregnant women in India.

  17. Abnormal vaginal discharge: what does and does not work in treating underlying causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Linda; Horton, Jennifer; Matousek, Michelle

    2004-11-01

    Antifungal medications for intravaginal use have been available in the United States for more than a decade. Women may be inclined to self-diagnose yeast infections with any vaginal discharge or other vulvovaginal symptoms that they deem abnormal. As we saw in the first part of this article, "Abnormal vaginal discharge: Using office diagnostic testing more effectively" (J Fam Pract 2004; 53[10]:805-814), abnormal discharge is more likely to be bacterial vaginosis or no pathogen at all. Potential delay in diagnosis and treatment of a sexually transmitted disease is also a concern. Increasing resistance of Candida sp. to imidazoles is associated with indiscriminate use of over-the-counter products.

  18. Vaginal pressure during daily activities before and after vaginal repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, L; Hulbaek, M; Brostrøm, S

    2007-01-01

    , pelvic floor contraction (PFC), coughing, Valsalva, rising from sitting to standing and lifting 2 and 5 kg with four different lifting techniques. VP was measured before, 1-5 days and 4-6 weeks after vaginal repair. Mean VP was four to five times higher during coughing and Valsalva compared to PFC...... and lifting 2 and 5 kg. Lifting in the walking position created a slightly higher VP compared to other lifting techniques, which did not differ. The VP did not increase when lifting 5 kg compared to 2 kg. Mean VP during coughing and Valsalva were significantly lower 1-5 days after the operation. VP...... was not related to the type of vaginal repair. The results imply that post-operative counselling should concentrate more on treating chronic cough and constipation than restrictions of moderate physical activities....

  19. A sensitive and a rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the identification of Candida species in concentrated oral rinse specimens in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Asanga; Weerasekera, Manjula; Gunasekara, Chinthika; Dilhari, Ayomi; Bulugahapitiya, Uditha; Fernando, Neluka

    2017-03-01

    Oral candidiasis is being frequently recognized in patients with diabetes, and is associated with multiple pathogens including Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis. The aim of this study was to evaluate a usefulness of a Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction as a rapid diagnostic tool for identification of four oral Candida pathogens in patients with diabetes. A multiplex PCR was optimized to identify four Candida species in concentrated oral rinse samples. Common reverse primer, ITS4 and four species-specific forward primers targeting ITS1 and ITS2 regions of yeast genome were used. Species-specific single amplicon were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Performance efficacy of multiplex PCR was compared with phenotypic identification. Out of 100 oral rinse samples, 72 were culture positive and of these 43 were at risk of oral Candida infection (>600cfu/ml). Multiple Candida species including C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were identified in 22 samples which had risk of oral Candida infection. In total, 85 patients were positive for Candida by multiplex PCR and of them 49 had multiple Candida species. All 43 colonized specimens were also positive by multiplex PCR. C. albicans was the most predominant organism (75/85) followed by C. parapsilosis (47/85), C. tropicalis (17/85) and C. glabrata (6/85). In specimens with multiple species, the two most common organisms were C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. Multiplex PCR yielded a sensitivity of 10 Candida cells/ml of oral rinse sample. Multiplex PCR is found to be rapid, sensitive and specific than phenotypic identification methods in discriminating multiple Candida species in oral rinse specimens.

  20. [Study on vaginal production of human defensins and the correlated pathogenetic factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; DI, Wen; Liao, Qin-ping; Liu, Zhao-hui; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Hui-ying; Zhang, Dai; Geng, Li; Fan, Shang-rong; Hu, Li-na

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the correlated pathogenetic factors and vaginal local immunity in vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). A case control study was conducted to compare VVC group (60 cases) with normal group (60 cases). All of the women filled up the specific questionnaires. Routine examination, pH test and bacterial culture were done on the vaginal discharge. Cytokines of the vaginal lavage were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. (1) Outcomes of the questionnaires: there was no significant difference between the two groups in educational background, knowledge of gynecologic infection, history of gynecologic infection, hygienic habit, sex life, or use of medicine (P > 0.05). The incidence of chronic cervicitis in normal group (43%, 26/60) was higher than in VVC group (22%, 13/60; P vaginal pH between the two groups (P > 0.05). (3) Detection rate of candida albicans by vaginal discharge routine examination was 72% (43/60). (4) The concentrations of interleukin (IL) 2, and IL-4 in vaginal lavage did not show significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05), but the concentrations of human defensin 5, human beta-defensin (HBD) 1, and HBD2 in VVC group [(0.94 +/- 0.44) mg/L, (3.1 +/- 0.4) microg/L, (10 +/- 6) microg/L] were higher than normal group (P infection, history of gynecologic infection, hygienic habit, sex life, or use of medicine in the child-bearing period. Human defensin may be closely correlated with the pathogenesis of VVC.

  1. Antifungal susceptibility and molecular typing of 115 Candida albicans isolates obtained from vulvovaginal candidiasis patients in 3 Shanghai maternity hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chunmei; Zhang, Hongju; Tang, Zhenhua; Chen, Huifen; Gao, Jing; Yue, Chaoyan

    2016-05-01

    In our multicenter study, we studied the distribution of Candida species in vulvovaginal candidiasis patients and investigated antifungal susceptibility profile and genotype of Candida albicans in vaginal swab. A total of 115 Candida albicans strains were detected in 135 clinical isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration determinations showed that 83% and 81% of the 115 Candida albicans strains were susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) was applied to identify clonally related isolates from different patients at the local level. All tested strains were classified into genotype A (77.4%), genotype B (18.3%), and genotype C (4.3%). Genotype A was further classified into five subtypes and genotype B into two subtypes.Candida albicans was the dominant pathogen of vulvovaginal candidiasis, the majority belonging to genotype A in this study. Exposure to azoles is a risk factor for the emergence of azole resistance among Candida albicans isolated from VVC patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Candida antigens and immune responses: implications for a vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moragues, Maria Dolores; Rementeria, Aitor; Sevilla, María Jesús; Eraso, Elena; Quindos, Guillermo

    2014-08-01

    Superficial candidiasis of the oral cavity, vagina and the skin are common mild infections though they may be recalcitrant, as in the case of recurrent vaginitis or denture stomatitis. However, in debilitated people with immune deficiencies, Candida can cause serious invasive infections with high mortality. Both types of patients could benefit from the development of vaccines and monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies of utility for a passive immunization, according to their immune status. Several antigens as mannans, β-glucans, various adhesins, heat shock protein 90 and acid secreted proteinases can be very useful for the vaccines development. There is a broad and sound experience with many of these antigens in animal models, mainly in rabbits and mice. However, only two vaccines, based on recombinant antigens (rAls3p-N and rSap2t) are currently being tested in clinical trials.

  3. The essential oil of Allium sativum as an alternative agent against Candida isolated from dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Juache, Alejandro; Aranda-Romo, Saray; Bermeo-Escalona, Josué R; Gómez-Hernández, Araceli; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio

    The colonization of the surfaces of dental prostheses by Candida albicans is associated with the development of denture stomatitis. In this context, the use of fluconazole has been proposed, but its disadvantage is microbial resistance. Meanwhile, the oil of Allium sativum has shown an effect in controlling biofilm formation by C. albicans. The objective of this study was to determine the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from rigid, acrylic-based partial or total dentures and to compare these agents' effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells. A total of 48 clinical isolates obtained from the acrylic surface of partial or complete dentures were examined, and the following species were identified: C. albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. For each isolate, the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against both biofilm and planktonic cells were evaluated using the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 method. The isolates were also evaluated by semiquantitative XTT reduction. All planktonic Candida isolates were susceptible to the essential oil of A. sativum, whereas 4.2% were resistant to fluconazole. Regarding susceptibilities in biofilms, 43.8% of biofilms were resistant to A. sativum oil, and 91.7% were resistant to fluconazole. All planktonic cells of the different Candida species tested are susceptible to sativum oil, and the majority are susceptible to fluconazole. Susceptibility decreases in biofilm cells, with increased resistance to fluconazole compared with A. sativum oil. The essential oil of A. sativum is thus active against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from dentures, with effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Anti-Candida Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seed Extracts Obtained from Wine and Table Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Simonetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, grape seed extracts (GSEs, obtained from wine and table cultivars of Vitis vinifera L., cultured in experimental fields of Lazio and Puglia regions of Italy and grown in different agronomic conditions, have been tested on 43 Candida species strains. We demonstrated a significant correlation between the content of the flavan-3-ols in GSEs extracts, with a polymerization degree ≥4, and anti-Candida activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that GSEs, obtained from plants cultured with reduced irrigation, showed a content of polymeric flavan-3-ols >250 mg/g with geometric mean MIC values between 5.7 and 20.2 mg/L against Candida albicans reference strains. GSE, showing 573 mg/g of polymeric flavan-3-ols, has been tested in an experimental murine model of vaginal candidiasis by using noninvasive in vivo imaging technique. The results pointed out a significant inhibition of Candida albicans load 5 days after challenge. These findings indicate that GSEs with high content of polymeric flavan-3-ols can be used in mucosal infection as vaginal candidiasis.

  5. Global Identification of Biofilm-Specific Proteolysis in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Winter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a fungal species that is part of the normal human microbiota and also an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing mucosal and systemic infections. C. albicans cells proliferate in a planktonic (suspension state, but they also form biofilms, organized and tightly packed communities of cells attached to a solid surface. Biofilms colonize many niches of the human body and persist on implanted medical devices, where they are a major source of new C. albicans infections. Here, we used an unbiased and global substrate-profiling approach to discover proteolytic activities produced specifically by C. albicans biofilms, compared to planktonic cells, with the goal of identifying potential biofilm-specific diagnostic markers and targets for therapeutic intervention. This activity-based profiling approach, coupled with proteomics, identified Sap5 (Candidapepsin-5 and Sap6 (Candidapepsin-6 as major biofilm-specific proteases secreted by C. albicans. Fluorogenic peptide substrates with selectivity for Sap5 or Sap6 confirmed that their activities are highly upregulated in C. albicans biofilms; we also show that these activities are upregulated in other Candida clade pathogens. Deletion of the SAP5 and SAP6 genes in C. albicans compromised biofilm development in vitro in standard biofilm assays and in vivo in a rat central venous catheter biofilm model. This work establishes secreted proteolysis as a promising enzymatic marker and potential therapeutic target for Candida biofilm formation.

  6. AISLAMIENTO DE CEPAS DE ESCHERICHIA COLI DESDE CASOS CLÍNICOS DE INFECCIÓN VAGINAL: ASOCIACIÓN CON OTROS MICROORGANISMOS Y SUSCEPTIBILIDAD ANTIBACTERIANA

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla E,Carlos; Lobos G,Olga; Padilla E,Ramiro; Fuentes V,Leoncio; Núñez F,Loreto

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de Escheríchia coli en fluidos vaginales de mujeres con infección vaginal y analizar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana. Método: Se estudiaron 425 muestras de mujeres con diagnóstico clínico de infección vaginal (casos) y 100 mujeres sanas (controles). Las muestras vaginales fueron estudiadas mediante los criterios de Amsel y Nugent. Se utilizaron diferentes metodologías para identificar: Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Chlamydi...

  7. Concurrent chemoradiation for vaginal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Miyamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is not known whether the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy improves outcomes in primary vaginal cancer. Here, we review clinical outcomes in patients with primary vaginal cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT. METHODS: Seventy-one patients with primary vaginal cancer treated with definitive RT with or without concurrent chemotherapy at a single institution were identified and their records reviewed. A total of 51 patients were treated with RT alone; 20 patients were treated with CRT. Recurrences were analyzed. Overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 18-92 years and the median follow-up time among survivors was 3.0 years. Kaplan-Meier estimates for OS and DFS differed significantly between the RT and CRT groups (3-yr OS = 56% vs. 79%, log-rank p = 0.037; 3-yr DFS = 43% vs. 73%, log-rank p = 0.011. Twenty-three patients (45% in the RT group had a relapse at any site compared to 3 (15% in the CRT group (p = 0.027. With regard to the sites of first relapse, 10 patients (14% had local only, 4 (6% had local and regional, 9 (13% had regional only, 1 (1% had regional and distant, and 2 (3% had distant only relapse. On univariate analysis, the use of concurrent chemotherapy, FIGO stage, tumor size, and date of diagnosis were significant predictors of DFS. On multivariate analysis, the use of concurrent chemotherapy remained a significant predictor of DFS (hazard ratio 0.31 (95% CI, 0.10-0.97; p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal cancer results in poor outcomes. Adequate radiation dose is essential to ensure curative management. Concurrent chemotherapy should be considered for vaginal cancer patients.

  8. Vaginal delivery of breech presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaska, Andrew; Menticoglou, Savas; Gagnon, Robert

    2009-06-01

    To review the physiology of breech birth; to discern the risks and benefits of a trial of labour versus planned Caesarean section; and to recommend to obstetricians, family physicians, midwives, obstetrical nurses, anaesthesiologists, pediatricians, and other health care providers selection criteria, intrapartum management parameters, and delivery techniques for a trial of vaginal breech birth. Trial of labour in an appropriate setting or delivery by pre-emptive Caesarean section for women with a singleton breech fetus at term. Reduced perinatal mortality, short-term neonatal morbidity, long-term infant morbidity, and short- and long-term maternal morbidity and mortality. Medline was searched for randomized trials, prospective cohort studies, and selected retrospective cohort studies comparing planned Caesarean section with a planned trial of labour; selected epidemiological studies comparing delivery by Caesarean section with vaginal breech delivery; and studies comparing long-term outcomes in breech infants born vaginally or by Caesarean section. Additional articles were identified through bibliography tracing up to June 1, 2008. The evidence collected was reviewed by the Maternal Fetal Medicine Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) and quantified using the criteria and classifications of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. This guideline was compared with the 2006 American College of Obstetrician's Committee Opinion on the mode of term singleton breech delivery and with the 2006 Royal College of Obstetrician and Gynaecologists Green Top Guideline: The Management of Breech Presentation. The document was reviewed by Canadian and International clinicians with particular expertise in breech vaginal delivery. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Vaginal breech birth can be associated with a higher risk of perinatal mortality and short-term neonatal morbidity than

  9. Use of vaginal estrogen in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaidi, Amani; Goukasian, Irina; Lidegaard, Oejvind

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We know little about the use of vaginal estrogen in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. We aimed to assess the prevalence of vaginal estrogen use in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed as a nationwide cross-sectional study of all Danish women aged 40-79 years......, living in Denmark during the period 2007-2013. The Danish Prescription Register delivered data permitting us to assess the prevalence, age and regional geographical belonging of women purchasing prescribed vaginal estradiol. The number of women using over-the-counter vaginal estriol products...... was estimated from sale statistics from the same register. RESULTS: In 2013, 10.2% of all Danish women between 40 and 79 years of age used vaginal estradiol. The prevalence of women using this type of vaginal estrogen increased from 8.5% in year 2007 to 10.2% in 2013. The use peaked at 16.5% in women aged 60...

  10. Importance of Diversity in the Oral Microbiota including Candida Species Revealed by High-Throughput Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of high-throughput technologies, deep sequencing of the human microbiome has revealed commensal bacteria independent of the ability to culture them. The composition of the commensal microbiome is dependent on bacterial diversity and the state of the host regulated by the immune system. Candida species are well known as components of the commensal oral microbiota. Candida species frequently colonize and develop biofilms on medical devices like dentures and catheters. Therefore, Candida biofilm on dentures leads to a decrease in the bacterial diversity and then to a change in the composition of the oral microbiota. A disturbance in the balance between commensal bacteria and the host immune system results in a switch from a healthy state to a diseased state even in the limited oral niche.

  11. Complete Utero Vaginal Prolapse in a Woman with Prolapsed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vault. Vaginal myomectomy, followed by interval vaginal hysterectomy, and pelvic floor repair a week later resulted in a satisfactory outcome. Keywords: Fibroid, Interval vaginal hysterectomy, Utero‑vaginal prolapse, Vaginal myomectomy. Access this article online. Quick Response Code: Website: www.amhsr.org. DOI: *****.

  12. [Candida carriage in the oral mucosa of a student population: adhesiveness of the strains and predisposing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, M; González, M I; Levin, B; Cuesta, A; Iovanniti, C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish oral carriage of Candida and possible factors associated to their virulence in young adults and their relation with local and general situations considered as predisposing factors. Samples were obtained from dorsum tongue in 70 students attending the Faculty of Dentistry (University of Buenos Aires) average age: 23, all in healthy oral conditions. Of these, 21.42% were Candida positive. These samples were seeded in CHROMagar. Candida identification was completed in milk agar and Fungichrom 1. The following species were identified: 11 Candida albicans (C.a), 2 Candida parapsilosis (C.p) and 1 Candida glabrata (C.g). In one case, 2 species (C.a and C.g) were isolated in the same sample. Virulence was determined as adherence capacity by biofilm or in vitro plaque formation and hydrophobicity. Different host factors were analyzed statistically to establish their importance as predisposing factors to allow Candida colonization. Adherence of C.a. was found to be similar in all C.a. strains, whereas significant differences were found between C.a. and C.p. and between C.a. and C.g. Only the antiseptic mouthrinse and the diet were significant among the considered factors.

  13. Biofilm inhibition by Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum essential oils in the strains of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2012-03-27

    Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum have been used in traditional medicine to treat fungal infections of skin, mouth, urinary and vaginal tract in Asian countries particularly India and other developing countries. To evaluate essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum for their anti-biofilm activity against strong biofilm forming strains of Candida albicans. XTT reduction assay, Time kill assays, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to determine the effect of test oils on the Candida albicans biofilms. Most of the Candida albicans strains tested displayed formation of moderate to strong biofilms. Preformed Candida biofilms showed ≥1024 times increased resistance to antifungal drugs, 2 times to Syzygium aromaticum, but no increased tolerance for Cymbopogon citratus. Test oils were more active against preformed biofilms compared to amphotericin B and fluconazole. At 0.5× MIC, Cymbopogon citratus followed by Syzygium aromaticum were most inhibitory against biofilm formation. Light and electron microscopic studies revealed the deformity of three dimensional structures of biofilms formed in the presence of sub-MICs of Cymbopogon citratus. The cell membranes appeared to be the target site of compounds in sessile cells as displayed by SEM observations. Our data had demonstrated promising in vitro anti-biofilm activity by Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum and confirm the ethnopharmacological use of these oils in muco-cutaneous Candida infections. Furthermore, it suggests exploitation of these oils as new anti-biofilm products to deal with the problem of drug-resistance and recurrent infection associated with biofilm mode of growth of Candida spp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Candida albicans identification: comparison among nine phenotypic systems and a multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, G; Di Onofrio, V; Gallé, F; Lucariello, A; Albano, L; Catania, M R; Guida, M

    2010-09-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen isolated from clinical samples and is also the most common yeast species carried as a commensal by healthy individuals although some non-C. albicans species account for an important number of infections. To compare nine phenotypic systems for C. albicans identification [API 20C AUX; RapID Yeast Identification panel (RYIP); Vitek2 ID-YST system; chromogenic media, CHRO-Magar, Oxoid Chromogenic Candida Agar (OCCA), Candida ID2, Candida Identification Agar, CandiSelect 4, and Chromalbicans Agar] with multiplex PCR. A collection of 390 yeast strains was obtained by routine isolation from oral and vaginal swabs. All of the yeasts isolated were tested for germ tube formation, and then submitted to a multiplex PCR protocol tested in previous studies, and to nine phenotypical commercial methods, together with the reference ATCC strains. Comparison was limited to the ability of the tests to identify C. albicans. 253 isolates were provisionally identified as C. albicans by germ tube, and their identities were further confirmed with the multiplex PCR. Sensitivity of phenotypical systems ranged from 81.9% (Vitek2) to 87.7% (Candida ID2 e CHROMagar). For specificity, the highest value was 96.8% for Candida ID2, and the lowest value (75.1%) was for Chromalbicans Agar. Although with differences in discriminatory power, the methods tested showed overall acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity respect to the multiplex PCR; therefore, all could be useful for C. albicans identification where molecular differentiation is not available.

  15. Genotyping Candida albicans from Candida Leukoplakia and Non-Candida Leukoplakia Shows No Enrichment of Multilocus Sequence Typing Clades but Enrichment of ABC Genotype C in Candida Leukoplakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Stephen R.; Coleman, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leukoplakia patients has been undertaken. This study investigated whether specific C. albicans genotypes were associated with Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia in a cohort of Irish patients. Patients with histopathologically-defined Candida leukoplakia (n = 31) or non-Candida leukoplakia (n = 47) were screened for Candida species by culture of oral rinse and lesional swab samples. Selected C. albicans isolates from Candida leukoplakia patients (n = 25), non-Candida leukoplakia patients (n = 19) and oral carriage isolates from age and sex matched healthy subjects without leukoplakia (n = 34) were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and ABC genotyping. MLST revealed that the clade distribution of C. albicans from both Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia lesions overlapped with the corresponding clade distributions of oral carriage isolates and global reference isolates from the MLST database indicating no enrichment of leukoplakia-associated clones. Oral leukoplakia isolates were significantly enriched with ABC genotype C (12/44, 27.3%), particularly Candida leukoplakia isolates (9/25, 36%), relative to oral carriage isolates (3/34, 8.8%). Genotype C oral leukoplakia isolates were distributed in MLST clades 1,3,4,5,8,9 and 15, whereas genotype C oral carriage isolates were distributed in MLST clades 4 and 11. PMID:24058485

  16. Genotyping Candida albicans from Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia shows no enrichment of multilocus sequence typing clades but enrichment of ABC genotype C in Candida leukoplakia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H Abdulrahim

    Full Text Available Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leukoplakia patients has been undertaken. This study investigated whether specific C. albicans genotypes were associated with Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia in a cohort of Irish patients. Patients with histopathologically-defined Candida leukoplakia (n = 31 or non-Candida leukoplakia (n = 47 were screened for Candida species by culture of oral rinse and lesional swab samples. Selected C. albicans isolates from Candida leukoplakia patients (n = 25, non-Candida leukoplakia patients (n = 19 and oral carriage isolates from age and sex matched healthy subjects without leukoplakia (n = 34 were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST and ABC genotyping. MLST revealed that the clade distribution of C. albicans from both Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia lesions overlapped with the corresponding clade distributions of oral carriage isolates and global reference isolates from the MLST database indicating no enrichment of leukoplakia-associated clones. Oral leukoplakia isolates were significantly enriched with ABC genotype C (12/44, 27.3%, particularly Candida leukoplakia isolates (9/25, 36%, relative to oral carriage isolates (3/34, 8.8%. Genotype C oral leukoplakia isolates were distributed in MLST clades 1,3,4,5,8,9 and 15, whereas genotype C oral carriage isolates were distributed in MLST clades 4 and 11.

  17. Genotyping Candida albicans from Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia shows no enrichment of multilocus sequence typing clades but enrichment of ABC genotype C in Candida leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Mohammed H; McManus, Brenda A; Flint, Stephen R; Coleman, David C

    2013-01-01

    Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leukoplakia patients has been undertaken. This study investigated whether specific C. albicans genotypes were associated with Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia in a cohort of Irish patients. Patients with histopathologically-defined Candida leukoplakia (n = 31) or non-Candida leukoplakia (n = 47) were screened for Candida species by culture of oral rinse and lesional swab samples. Selected C. albicans isolates from Candida leukoplakia patients (n = 25), non-Candida leukoplakia patients (n = 19) and oral carriage isolates from age and sex matched healthy subjects without leukoplakia (n = 34) were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and ABC genotyping. MLST revealed that the clade distribution of C. albicans from both Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia lesions overlapped with the corresponding clade distributions of oral carriage isolates and global reference isolates from the MLST database indicating no enrichment of leukoplakia-associated clones. Oral leukoplakia isolates were significantly enriched with ABC genotype C (12/44, 27.3%), particularly Candida leukoplakia isolates (9/25, 36%), relative to oral carriage isolates (3/34, 8.8%). Genotype C oral leukoplakia isolates were distributed in MLST clades 1,3,4,5,8,9 and 15, whereas genotype C oral carriage isolates were distributed in MLST clades 4 and 11.

  18. Expansion of the Candida tanzawaensis yeast clade: 16 novel Candida species from basidiocarp-feeding beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Oui; McHugh, Joseph V; Blackwell, Meredith

    2004-11-01

    A major clade of new yeast taxa from the digestive tract of basidiocarp-feeding beetles is recognized based on rRNA gene sequence analyses. Almost 30 % of 650 gut isolates formed a statistically well-supported clade that included Candida tanzawaensis. The yeasts in the clade were isolated from 11 families of beetles, of which Tenebrionidae and Erotylidae were most commonly sampled. Repeated isolation of certain yeasts from the same beetle species at different times and places indicated strong host associations. Sexual reproduction was never observed in the yeasts. Based on comparisons of small- and large-subunit rRNA gene sequences and morphological and physiological traits, the yeasts were placed in Candida ambrosiae and in 16 other undescribed taxa. In this report, the novel species in the genus Candida are described and their relationships with other taxa in the Saccharomycetes are discussed. The novel species and their type strains are as follows: Candida guaymorum (NRRL Y-27568(T)=CBS 9823(T)), Candida bokatorum (NRRL Y-27571(T)=CBS 9824(T)), Candida kunorum (NRRL Y-27580(T)=CBS 9825(T)), Candida terraborum (NRRL Y-27573(T)=CBS 9826(T)), Candida emberorum (NRRL Y-27606(T)=CBS 9827(T)), Candida wounanorum (NRRL Y-27574(T)=CBS 9828(T)), Candida yuchorum (NRRL Y-27569(T)=CBS 9829(T)), Candida chickasaworum (NRRL Y-27566(T)=CBS 9830(T)), Candida choctaworum (NRRL Y-27584(T)=CBS 9831(T)), Candida bolitotheri (NRRL Y-27587(T)=CBS 9832(T)), Candida atakaporum (NRRL Y-27570(T)=CBS 9833(T)), Candida panamericana (NRRL Y-27567(T)=CBS 9834(T)), Candida bribrorum (NRRL Y-27572(T)=CBS 9835(T)), Candida maxii (NRRL Y-27588(T)=CBS 9836(T)), Candida anneliseae (NRRL Y-27563(T)=CBS 9837(T)) and Candida taliae (NRRL Y-27589(T)=CBS 9838(T)).

  19. AKTIVITAS ANTIFUNGI EKSTRAK DAUN BELUNTAS, JAWER KOTOK, DAN SIRIH SERTA KOMBINASINYA TERHADAP Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Yuniarni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Piper betle, Coleus scutellarioides and Pluchea indica have been used empirically to overcome vaginal discharge and scientifically proven to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans. The goal of this research was to search for a combined extract with effective antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans. Single extract,combination of two and three extracts evaluated antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans using agar diffusion method. Inhibitory effect of Piper betle showed the greatest activity against Candida albicans compared to other single extract. Combination of Piper betle and Pluchea indica (26.57±0.56 mm gave greater inhibition than two other combination extracts (Piper betle and Coleus scutellarioides (25.17±0.96 mm; Coleus scutellarioides and Pluchea indica (22.73±0.95 mm.The combination of Piper betle, Pluchea indica and Coleus scutellarioides gave inhibition of 27.53±1.10 mm. extracts did not give a better diameter compared to the betle extract.

  20. Affirm VPIII microbial identification test can be used to detect gardnerella vaginalis, Candida albicans and trichomonas vaginalis microbial infections in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Seung Won; Park, Yeon Joon; Hur, Soo Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare Affirm VPIII Microbial Identification Test results for Korean women to those obtained for Gardnerella vaginalis through Nugent score, Candida albicans based on vaginal culture and Trichomonas vaginalis based on wet smear diagnostic standards. Study participants included 195 women with symptomatic or asymptomatic vulvovaginitis under hospital obstetric or gynecologic care. A definite diagnosis was made based on Nugent score for Gardnerella, vaginal culture for Candida and wet prep for Trichomonas vaginalis. Affirm VPIII Microbial Identification Test results were then compared to diagnostic standard results. Of the 195 participants, 152 were symptomatic, while 43 were asymptomatic. Final diagnosis revealed 68 (37.87%) cases of Gardnerella, 29 (14.87%) cases of Candida, one (0.51%) case of Trichomonas, and 10 (5.10%) cases of mixed infections. The detection rates achieved by each detection method (Affirm assay vs diagnostic standard) for Gardnerella and Candida were not significantly different (33.33% vs 34.8% for Gardnerella, 13.33% vs 14.87% for Candida, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of the Affirm test for Gardnerella compared to the diagnostic standard were 75.0% and 88.98%, respectively. For Candida, the sensitivity and specificity of the Affirm test compared to the diagnostic standard were 82.76% and 98.80%, respectively. The number of Trichomonas cases was too small (1 case) to be statistically analyzed. The Affirm test is a quick tool that can help physicians diagnose and treat patients with infectious vaginitis at the point of care. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Dynamic Clinical Measurements of Voluntary Vaginal Contractions and Autonomic Vaginal Reflexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, Paul M. A.; Spoelstra, Symen K.; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C. M.

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionThe vaginal canal is an active and responsive canal. It has pressure variations along its length and shows reflex activity. At present, the prevailing idea is that the vaginal canal does not have a sphincter mechanism. It is hypothesized that an active vaginal muscular mechanism exists

  2. Identification of culturable vaginal Lactobacillus species among reproductive age women in Mysore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyn, Harry N.; Raphael, Eva; Krupp, Karl; Ravi, Kavitha; Nebhrajani, Roshan; Arun, Anjali; Reingold, Arthur L.; Riley, Lee W.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    A healthy vaginal environment is predominated by certain Lactobacillus species, which lead to the prevention of infections of the reproductive tract. This study examined the characteristics of cultivable Lactobacillus species in both healthy women and women with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Between November 2011 and September 2013, 139 women attending a women's clinic in Mysore, India, were evaluated for BV in a cross-sectional study. BV was diagnosed using Amsel's criteria: homogeneous vaginal discharge, vaginal pH >4.5, production of amines, and presence of “clue” cells. Those with three or more of the characteristics were considered to have BV. Vaginal swabs were then cultured in Rogosa agar and de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth. Gram-positive lactobacilli generating 600–800 bp amplicons by16 sRNA were further characterized by sequencing. Cultivable vaginal samples were obtained from 132 women (94.9 %). According to the Amsel criteria, 83 women (62.1 %) were healthy, and 49 (37.1 %) had BV. Eleven different Lactobacillus species were isolated from 47 women. The common lactobacilli species found in this sample included L. crispatus (39.6 %), L. gasseri (45.8 %), and L. jensenii (14.6 %). Lactobacilli were isolated from 39 healthy women and eight with BV. L. gasseri was cultured from 18.8 % of healthy women and 6.1 % with BV. The presence of L. reuteri was significantly associated with normal vaginal microbiota (P-value = 0.026). These results further our understanding of vaginal lactobacilli colonization and richness in this particular population. Our findings showed that lactobacilli species present in the vaginas of healthy women in India do not differ from those reported from other countries. PMID:25873579

  3. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution of the three most frequent Candida species contributing to urinary tract candidiasis in different countries around the world. For writing this review, Google Scholar -a scholarly search engine- (http://scholar.google.com/) and PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) were used. The most recently published original articles and reviews of literature relating to the first three Candida species causing urinary tract infections in different countries and the pathogenicity of Candida albicans were selected and studied. Although some studies show rapid changes in the uropathogenesis of Candida species causing urinary tract infections in some countries, Candida albicans is still the most important cause of candidal urinary tract infections. Despite the ranking of Candida albicans as the dominant species for urinary tract candidiasis, specific changes have occurred in some countries. At this time, it is important to continue the surveillance related to Candida species causing urinary tract infections to prevent, control and treat urinary tract candidiasis in future.

  4. Candida albicans Biofilms and Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Clarissa J; Johnson, Alexander D

    2015-01-01

    In humans, microbial cells (including bacteria, archaea, and fungi) greatly outnumber host cells. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species of the human microbiota; this species asymptomatically colonizes many areas of the body, particularly the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals. Alterations in host immunity, stress, resident microbiota, and other factors can lead to C. albicans overgrowth, causing a wide range of infections, from superficial mucosal to hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. To date, most studies of C. albicans have been carried out in suspension cultures; however, the medical impact of C. albicans (like that of many other microorganisms) depends on its ability to thrive as a biofilm, a closely packed community of cells. Biofilms are notorious for forming on implanted medical devices, including catheters, pacemakers, dentures, and prosthetic joints, which provide a surface and sanctuary for biofilm growth. C. albicans biofilms are intrinsically resistant to conventional antifungal therapeutics, the host immune system, and other environmental perturbations, making biofilm-based infections a significant clinical challenge. Here, we review our current knowledge of biofilms formed by C. albicans and closely related fungal species.

  5. Candida albicans Biofilms and Human Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Clarissa J.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, microbial cells (including bacteria, archaea, and fungi) greatly outnumber host cells. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species of the human microbiota; this species asymptomatically colonizes many areas of the body, particularly the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals. Alterations in host immunity, stress, resident microbiota, and other factors can lead to C. albicans overgrowth, causing a wide range of infections, from superficial mucosal to hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. To date, most studies of C. albicans have been carried out in suspension cultures; however, the medical impact of C. albicans (like that of many other microorganisms) depends on its ability to thrive as a biofilm, a closely packed community of cells. Biofilms are notorious for forming on implanted medical devices, including catheters, pacemakers, dentures, and prosthetic joints, which provide a surface and sanctuary for biofilm growth. C. albicans biofilms are intrinsically resistant to conventional antifungal therapeutics, the host immune system, and other environmental perturbations, making biofilm-based infections a significant clinical challenge. Here, we review our current knowledge of biofilms formed by C. albicans and closely related fungal species. PMID:26488273

  6. Soaps and germicides as adjunct topical antimycotic agents on candida species implicated in vulvovaginal candidasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunshe, Adenike A O; Omotoso, Oluwatoyin A; Akindele, Titilayo M

    2011-06-01

    The study aims at evaluating the potentials of soaps and germicides/disinfectants as adjunct topical anti-vulvovaginal candidasis agents. In vitro inhibitory activities of the test agents, prepared according to the manufacturer's specification for toilet and midwifery purposes were determined using modified agar well-diffusion method. Varied susceptibility patterns were exhibited by Candida albicans (26.5%), C. glabrata (18.4%), C. pseudotropicalis (14.3%) and C. tropicalis (40.8%) implicated in vulvovaginal candidasis, indicating Crusader oil (100%), Meriko (95%), Tetmosol (84.7%) and Aloe (68.4%) as the most inhibitory soaps against the Candida strains. The in vitro inhibitory activities of the germicides and disinfectants ranged between (Dettol; 34.6% and Purit; 84.6%) for C. albicans; (Roberts; 33.3% and Purit; 83.3%) for C. glabrata; (Roberts; 21.4% and Purit; 92.9%) for C. pseudotropicalis; (Dettol; 35.0% and Purit; 87.5%) for C. tropicalis respectively. All the Candida strains were totally inhibited by the germicides and disinfectants at the second lower dilutions, except in Morigad towards C. albicans (69.2%]) C. glabrata (72.2%), C. pseudotropicalis (92.9%) and C. tropicalis (82.5%) but none of the vaginal Lactobacillus strains was inhibited by the soaps, germicides or disinfectant. About 90% of a control group indicated relief after pubic cleansing with soaps, germicides and disinfectants. Results indicatied the safety of soaps, germicides and disinfectants as potential adjunct topical cleansing-agents in cases of vaginal itching and candidasis, a common mucosal infection caused by opportunistic yeasts of the Candida genus.

  7. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...

  8. Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, J.; Schjørring, S.; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae

    2014-01-01

    at pregnancy week 36 and cultured for bacteria. Women who received oral antibiotics during any pregnancy trimester had an increased rate of colonization by Staphylococcus species in the vaginal samples as compared with samples obtained from women without any antibiotic treatment during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.......63, 95% CI 1.06-2.52, p 0.028). Oral antibiotic administration in the third trimester were also associated with increased colonization by Staphylococcus species (adjusted OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.04-3.76, p 0.037). These bacteriological changes were associated with urinary tract infection antibiotics. Women...... treated in the third trimester of pregnancy were more often colonized by Escherichia coli than women without antibiotic treatment in the third trimester (adjusted OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04-3.52, p 0.038). This change was associated with respiratory tract infection (RTI) antibiotics. We did not observe any...

  9. Oral ketoconazole prophylaxis for Candida infections during induction therapy for acute leukaemia in adults: more bacteraemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmblad, J; Lönnqvist, B; Carlsson, B; Grimfors, G; Järnmark, M; Lerner, R; Ljungman, P; Nyström-Rosander, C; Petrini, B; Oberg, G

    1992-04-01

    We determined whether ketoconazole prophylaxis might reduce Candida colonization and infections in adult patients with acute leukaemia. During first-remission induction therapy 50 patients were treated with 200 mg ketoconazole administered orally daily, while 57 patients received placebo in a double-blind, randomized trial. The duration of severe neutropenia (granulocytes less than 0.1 x 10(9) l-1) represented 36% of the study period in the ketoconazole group and 26% in the placebo group (P = 0.043). Although fewer patients presented with positive Candida surveillance cultures and serological evidence of Candida infection in the ketoconazole group compared to the placebo group, two candidaemias and one Trichosporum fungaemia were observed in the ketoconazole group. Moreover, significantly more bacteraemias were noted in the ketoconazole group (n = 37) than in the placebo group (n = 21) (P = 0.004). Thus, although oral ketoconazole prophylaxis might be associated with less Candida colonization and fewer seroconversions, it also resulted in more bacteraemias and longer duration of severe neutropenia, suggesting that caution should be exercised when ketoconazole (or related drugs) is given to this group of immunocompromised hosts.

  10. Candida biofilms: is adhesion sexy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, David R

    2008-08-26

    The development of Candida albicans biofilms requires two types of adhesion molecule - the Als proteins and Hwp1. Mutational analyses have recently revealed that these molecules play complementary roles, and their characteristics suggest that they may have evolved from primitive mating agglutinins.

  11. More frequent vaginal orgasm is associated with experiencing greater excitement from deep vaginal stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Klapilova, Katerina; Krejčová, Lucie

    2013-07-01

    Research indicated that: (i) vaginal orgasm (induced by penile-vaginal intercourse [PVI] without concurrent clitoral masturbation) consistency (vaginal orgasm consistency [VOC]; percentage of PVI occasions resulting in vaginal orgasm) is associated with mental attention to vaginal sensations during PVI, preference for a longer penis, and indices of psychological and physiological functioning, and (ii) clitoral, distal vaginal, and deep vaginal/cervical stimulation project via different peripheral nerves to different brain regions. The aim of this study is to examine the association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from deep vaginal stimulation (compared with middle and shallow vaginal stimulation and clitoral stimulation), and (ii) whether vaginal stimulation was present during the woman's first masturbation. A sample of 75 Czech women (aged 18-36), provided details of recent VOC, site of genital stimulation during first masturbation, and their recent sexual arousability from the four genital sites. The association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from the four genital sites and (ii) involvement of vaginal stimulation in first-ever masturbation. VOC was associated with greater sexual arousability from deep vaginal stimulation but not with sexual arousability from other genital sites. VOC was also associated with women's first masturbation incorporating (or being exclusively) vaginal stimulation. The findings suggest (i) stimulating the vagina during early life masturbation might indicate individual readiness for developing greater vaginal responsiveness, leading to adult greater VOC, and (ii) current sensitivity of deep vaginal and cervical regions is associated with VOC, which might be due to some combination of different neurophysiological projections of the deep regions and their greater responsiveness to penile stimulation. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Hand carriage of Candida occurs at lesser rates in hospital personnel who use antimicrobial hand disinfectant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Mustafa; Sahin, Idris; Oksuz, Sukru; Sencan, Irfan; Kucukbayrak, Abdulkadir; Cakir, Selma; Ozaydin, Cigdem

    2014-09-01

    The hands of hospital personnel are considered to be important for colonization and infection of patients with Candida spp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different hand disinfectants in reducing the carriage of Candida species on the hands of hospital personnel. A controlled study was conducted at Duzce University School of Medicine Hospital. Eighty hospital personnel were included in the trial. Subjects were divided into 4 groups according to hand hygiene procedures: group 1, hand rubbing with alcohol-based solution; group 2, hand washing with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate; group 3, hand washing with 7.5% povidone-iodine; group 4, hand washing with plain soap and water. The hands of all participants were tested by culture with the broth wash technique. Hand carriage of Candida spp. was lower in the 4% chlorhexidine gluconate group (10.5%, p = 0.006), in the 7.5% povidone-iodine group (18.7%, p = 0.043), and in the alcohol-based hand rub group (21.1%, p = 0.048) compared to the group washing hands with plain soap and water (50%). The use of hand disinfectant containing antimicrobial agents is more effective than hand washing with water and soap in reducing carriage of Candida on the hands of hospital personnel. It is recommended that hospital personnel use an antimicrobial hand disinfectant in units where there is a high risk of Candida infection.

  13. Vaginitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vagina as a cream or gel. What is trichomoniasis? Trichomoniasis is a condition caused by the microscopic ... transmitted infections (STIs) . What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis? Signs of trichomoniasis may include a yellow-gray ...

  14. prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of candida species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    19, 48.7%), Can- dida glabrata (n=7, 17.9%), Candida tropicalis (n=4, 10.3%) and Candida dubliniensis (n=4,. 10.3%). Other species isolated were Candida sake (n=2, 5.1%), Candida krusei (n=2, 5.1%) and. Candida parapsilosis (n=1, 2.6%).

  15. VULVO-VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS ASSOCIATED WITH ACITRETIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STURKENBOOM, MCJM; MIDDELBEEK, A; VANDENBERG, LTWD; VANDENBERG, PB; STRICKER, BHC; WESSELING, H

    The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis among the users of acitretin. The incidence rate ratio of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis was estimated in a cohort of acitretin users by using prescription sequence analysis. Study subjects were 196 women between 15 and 45 years

  16. Detection of phospholipase activity of Candida albicans and non albicans isolated from women of reproductive age with vulvovaginal candidiasis in rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Fule

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is most common accounting for 17 to 39% of symptomatic women. Both Candida albicans and non albicans Candida species are involved in VVC. Amongst various virulence factors proposed for Candida, extracellular phospholipases is one of the virulence factor implicated in its pathogenicity. With this background the present study was carried out to find the prevalence of different Candida species and to detect phospholipase producing strains isolated from symptomatic women with VVC. Materials and Methods: At least two vaginal swabs from 156 women of reproductive age with abnormal vaginal discharge were collected. Direct microscopy and Gram′s stained smear examined for presence of budding yeast and pseudo mycelia followed by isolation and identification of Candida species. Extracellular phospholipase activity was studied by inoculating all isolates on Sabouraud′s dextrose egg yolk agar (SDA medium. Results: Of the 156 women with curdy white discharge alone or in combination with other signs, 59 (37.82% women showed laboratory evidence of VVC. A total of 31 (52.54% women had curdy white discharge followed by 12 (20.33% with other signs and symptoms. C. albicans (62.59% and non albicans Candida (37.28% in a ratio of 1.68:1 were isolated. Of the 37 strains of C. albians 30 (81.08% showed the enzyme activity. Seventeen (56.66% strains showed higher Pz value of < 0.70 (++++. Conclusion: Although there may be typical clinical presentation of Candidiasis. all the patients did not show laboratory evidence of infection. Pregnancy was found to be major risk factor for development of VVC. C. albicans was prevalent species but non albicans species were also frequently isolated. Extracellular phospholipase activity was seen in C. albicans and not in non albicans Candida isolates.

  17. An emerging mycoplasma associated with trichomoniasis, vaginal infection and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Fettweis

    Full Text Available Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name "Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii" for this potential new pathogen.

  18. Microbiology and epidemiology of oral yeast colonization in hemopoietic progenitor cell transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Steven D; Kirkpatrick, William R; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Freytes, Cesar O; Toro, Juan J; Patterson, Thomas F; Redding, Spencer W

    2013-03-01

    We monitored the epidemiology and microbiology of oral yeast colonization in patients undergoing hemopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (HPCT) to examine associations between yeast colonization and oral mucositis. One hundred twenty-one consecutive HPCT patients were sampled for oral yeasts prior to fluconazole (FLC) prophylaxis, at transplantation, and weekly until discharge. Clinical oral mucositis screenings were performed triweekly. Yeast colonization was evident at 216 of 510 total visits. Candida albicans and Candida glabrata were the predominant organisms. Eight patients showed elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations to FLC. One patient developed fungal septicemia. Patients with oral mucositis assessment scale scores oral yeasts in HPCT recipients. FLC-resistant yeasts do emerge and can be the source of fungal sepsis. A positive association was not shown between yeast colonization and the presence or severity of oral mucositis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Curative effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum L23 in a murine model of vaginal infection by Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, M; Pascual, L; Barberis, L

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a common vaginal infection characterized by changes in the vaginal microbiota. The objective of this work was to evaluate the colonization ability and curative effect of Lactobacillus fermentum L23 after vaginal administration in female BALB/c mice infected with Gardnerella vaginalis. One dose of Lact. fermentum L23 containing 10(9 ) CFU ml(-1) was administered locally in a murine vaginal model. L23 colonized the vaginal tract of BALB-c mice after one inoculation. The infection by G. vaginalis in a murine model was induced by vaginal administration of a 1 × 10(6 ) CFU ml(-1) suspension. Infection with the pathogen was observed in the vaginal tract for 4 days. At 144 h after inoculation, levels of 4 log10 CFU ml(-1) were observed. The curative effect of L23 was evaluated with one administration at 1 × 10(9 ) CFU ml(-1) 72 h after the inoculation with G. vaginalis. Lactobacillus fermentum L23 inhibited the growth of G. vaginalis. The results of suppression of G. vaginalis using different concentrations of L23 were favourable due that these concentrations are normally used in commercial formulas. The obtained results indicate that Lact. fermentum L23 inhibited the growth of G. vaginalis. Therefore, L23 might be used as a potential biotherapeutic agent for the elimination of this bacterium. The use of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum L23 as a biotherapeutic agent can be expected to prevent and treat genital infections, particularly recurrent bacterial vaginosis, with similar concentrations to those normally used in commercial formulas. It is likely that the use of this probiotic strain for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis will provide a natural and nontoxic treatment modality. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Vaginal versus Obstetric Infection Escherichia coli Isolates among Pregnant Women: Antimicrobial Resistance and Genetic Virulence Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sáez-López

    Full Text Available Vaginal Escherichia coli colonization is related to obstetric infections and the consequent development of infections in newborns. Ampicillin resistance among E. coli strains is increasing, which is the main choice for treating empirically many obstetric and neonatal infections. Vaginal E. coli strains are very similar to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli with regards to the virulence factors and the belonging to phylogroup B2. We studied the antimicrobial resistance and the genetic virulence profile of 82 E. coli isolates from 638 vaginal samples and 63 isolated from endometrial aspirate, placental and amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women with obstetric infections. The prevalence of E. coli in the vaginal samples was 13%, which was significant among women with associated risk factors during pregnancy, especially premature preterm rupture of membranes (p<0.0001. Sixty-five percent of the strains were ampicillin-resistant. The E. coli isolates causing obstetric infections showed higher resistance levels than vaginal isolates, particularly for gentamicin (p = 0.001. The most prevalent virulence factor genes were those related to the iron uptake systems revealing clear targets for interventions. More than 50% of the isolates belonged to the virulent B2 group possessing the highest number of virulence factor genes. The ampicillin-resistant isolates had high number of virulence factors primarily related to pathogenicity islands, and the remarkable gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates from women presenting obstetric infections, the choice of the most appropriate empiric treatment and clinical management of pregnant women and neonates should be carefully made. Taking into account host-susceptibility, the heterogeneity of E. coli due to evolution over time and the geographical area, characterization of E. coli isolates colonizing the vagina and causing obstetric infections in different regions may help to develop interventions and avoid the

  1. Maternal vaginal microflora during pregnancy and the risk of asthma hospitalization and use of antiasthma medication in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Thorsen, Poul; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2002-01-01

    was assessed as use of 3 or more packages of antiasthma medication between 4 and 5 years of age. RESULTS: Maternal vaginal colonization with Ureaplasma urealyticum during pregnancy was associated with infant wheezing (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.6), but not with asthma, during the fifth year of life......-based cohort study in Denmark. Vaginal samples for bacterial analysis were obtained during pregnancy. A total of 2927 women (80% of the invited women) completed the study and had 3003 live infants. Infant wheezing was assessed as one or more hospitalizations for asthma between 0 and 3 years of age. Asthma...

  2. Cervical cytopathological changes among women with vaginal discharge attending teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Magdi M; AlHag, Fatma Tage El Sir; Khalifa, Mohammed Ahmed; El Nabi, Abdulla H

    2017-01-01

    To find cytology changes among women attending obstetrics and gynaecology clinic with complaints of vaginal discharges. This descriptive hospital-based cytological study was conducted at the outpatient clinic of the obstetrics and gynaecology department. Two hundred women with complaints of vaginal discharge were selected. Their detailed histories were documented on a special request form. Pap smears were then obtained and sent for cytological examination to the cytopathology department. All low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) cases were advised to follow-up with Pap smears in the next 6-12 months. Those with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were further investigated by a cervical biopsy and managed accordingly. The statistical analysis was performed using, the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Chi-square and cross-tabulation were used in this study. The cytological examination of Pap smears showed no changes (i.e. negative findings) in 88 (44%) cases, while Candida species infection was the most prevalent, which was found in 67 (33.5%) of the cases. Bacterial vaginosis was found in 39 women (19.5%); 6 women (3%) were reported with dyskaryotic changes. Two cases were found to have LSIL and 4 women had HSIL. Infection is common among the illiterate group of women. Women with vaginal discharges should undergo screening tests for evaluation by cervical smear for the early detection of cervical precancer conditions. There is an urgent need to establish a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan.

  3. A novel ketoconazole bioadhesive effervescent tablet for vaginal delivery: design, in vitro and 'in vivo' evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tang, Xing

    2008-02-28

    Bioadhesive tablet formulations of ketoconazole for vaginal delivery were studied. Carbomer (Carbopol 974P, Carbopol 934P), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were used as candidate bioadhesive polymers. Effervescent was incorporated into the formulations as a disintegration agent. The swelling behavior and bioadhesive strength of the drug-free tablets were investigated. Carbopol 934P was selected as biopolymer in combination with HPMC or HPC at different ratios to develop five drug-loaded formulations. The swellings, tackiness and in vitro release were studied on the tablets. A good sustained effect and a moderate bioadhesion were obtained with the tablets. The formulation containing 100mg of effervescent, with the Carbopol 934P:HPC ratio of 1:9, seemed to be the optimum one for the tablet. In vivo drug residence tests were carried out by administering the preferred formulation to female rats. The results showed that the drug remaining followed a one-order model. Even after 24h of administration in vagina of rats, 17% of the original employed drug was retained on the vaginal tissue. Our study may provide a potential vaginal tablet formulation of ketoconazole against Candida albicans.

  4. Salivary lactoferrin in HIV-infected children: correlation with Candida albicans carriage, oral manifestations, HIV infection and its antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Thais Pinto; Simões, Ana Clara Duarte Correa; Soares, Rosangela Maria de Araújo; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Castro, Gloria Fernanda Barbosa de Araújo

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the concentration of lactoferrin in the saliva of HIV infected and healthy children and analyze the associations between lactoferrin levels, Candida sp. colonization, oral manifestations and medical data. Also, the antifungal ability of lactoferrin to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans isolated from saliva of these children was investigated in vitro. Saliva was collected from 70 HIV-infected and 50 healthy children, followed by oral manifestation assessments. The salivary lactoferrin was quantified using an ELISA Kit. The salivary samples were cultured and the Candida spp. colonies counted and then identified by sugar assimilation and fermentation. The antifungal activity of lactoferrin was analyzed in vitro with 10 isolates of C. albicans from each group. The HIV infected children (mean age 9.8 ± 2.8) had higher lactoferrin levels (median 6.13 μg/ml (3.58-7.89)) and were colonized three times more by Candida sp. than the control group (mean age 9.4 ± 2.4) (median 5.74 μg/ml (3.12-6.86)) (p=0.003). Statistical associations were found considering the salivary lactoferrin levels and Candida sp. and oral manifestations between the groups. No associations between lactoferrin concentrations and oral manifestations, immunosuppression, presence of AIDS and use of HAART were observed in the HIV group. The percentage of dead C. albicans due to lactoferrin was inversely proportional to C. albicans cell density for both groups (plactoferrin and it was associated with Candida sp. colonization but no association with medical data was found. Also, both groups showed similar lactoferrin antifungal activity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Global Identification of Biofilm-Specific Proteolysis in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Michael B; Salcedo, Eugenia C; Lohse, Matthew B; Hartooni, Nairi; Gulati, Megha; Sanchez, Hiram; Takagi, Julie; Hube, Bernhard; Andes, David R; Johnson, Alexander D; Craik, Charles S; Nobile, Clarissa J

    2016-09-13

    Candida albicans is a fungal species that is part of the normal human microbiota and also an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing mucosal and systemic infections. C. albicans cells proliferate in a planktonic (suspension) state, but they also form biofilms, organized and tightly packed communities of cells attached to a solid surface. Biofilms colonize many niches of the human body and persist on implanted medical devices, where they are a major source of new C. albicans infections. Here, we used an unbiased and global substrate-profiling approach to discover proteolytic activities produced specifically by C. albicans biofilms, compared to planktonic cells, with the goal of identifying potential biofilm-specific diagnostic markers and targets for therapeutic intervention. This activity-based profiling approach, coupled with proteomics, identified Sap5 (Candidapepsin-5) and Sap6 (Candidapepsin-6) as major biofilm-specific proteases secreted by C. albicans Fluorogenic peptide substrates with selectivity for Sap5 or Sap6 confirmed that their activities are highly upregulated in C. albicans biofilms; we also show that these activities are upregulated in other Candida clade pathogens. Deletion of the SAP5 and SAP6 genes in C. albicans compromised biofilm development in vitro in standard biofilm assays and in vivo in a rat central venous catheter biofilm model. This work establishes secreted proteolysis as a promising enzymatic marker and potential therapeutic target for Candida biofilm formation. Biofilm formation by the opportunistic fungal pathogen C. albicans is a major cause of life-threatening infections. This work provides a global characterization of secreted proteolytic activity produced specifically by C. albicans biofilms. We identify activity from the proteases Sap5 and Sap6 as highly upregulated during C. albicans biofilm formation and develop Sap-cleavable fluorogenic substrates that enable the detection of biofilms from C. albicans and also

  6. In vivo evaluation of safety and toxicity of a Lactobacillus jensenii producing modified cyanovirin-N in a rhesus macaque vaginal challenge model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beda Brichacek

    Full Text Available Sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 across the cervicovaginal mucosa in women is influenced by many factors including the microbiota and the presence of underlying inflammation. It is important that potential HIV preventative agents do not alter the mucosal environment in a way that enhances HIV acquisition. We examined the impact of a "live" microbicide on the vaginal mucosal environment in a rhesus macaque repeated vaginal simian-HIV (SHIVSF162P3 challenge model. The microbicide contained a human vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii expressing the HIV-1 entry inhibitor, modified Cyanovirin-N (mCV-N, and henceforth called LB-mCV-N. Macaques were colonized vaginally each week with LB-mCV-N and sampled six days after colonization for culturable bacteria, pH and cervical-vaginal cytokines during the duration of the six-week study. We show that macaques that retained the engineered LB-mCV-N strain in their vaginal microbiota, during SHIV challenge, had lower pH, when colonization levels were higher, and had no evidence of inflammatory cytokines. Indeed, Interleukin-13, a mediator of inflammation, was detected less often in LB-mCV-N colonized macaques than in controls and we found higher levels of Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA in LB-mCV-N colonized macaques during the SHIV challenge period. We noted an inverse correlation between levels of mucosal IL-1RA and peak plasma viral load, thus higher IL-1RA correlated with lower viral load in LB-mCV-N treated macaques. These data support the use of LB-mCV-N as a safe "live" microbicide and suggest that lactobacilli themselves may positively impact the mucosal environment.

  7. In vivo evaluation of safety and toxicity of a Lactobacillus jensenii producing modified cyanovirin-N in a rhesus macaque vaginal challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brichacek, Beda; Lagenaur, Laurel A; Lee, Peter P; Venzon, David; Hamer, Dean H

    2013-01-01

    Sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) across the cervicovaginal mucosa in women is influenced by many factors including the microbiota and the presence of underlying inflammation. It is important that potential HIV preventative agents do not alter the mucosal environment in a way that enhances HIV acquisition. We examined the impact of a "live" microbicide on the vaginal mucosal environment in a rhesus macaque repeated vaginal simian-HIV (SHIVSF162P3) challenge model. The microbicide contained a human vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii expressing the HIV-1 entry inhibitor, modified Cyanovirin-N (mCV-N), and henceforth called LB-mCV-N. Macaques were colonized vaginally each week with LB-mCV-N and sampled six days after colonization for culturable bacteria, pH and cervical-vaginal cytokines during the duration of the six-week study. We show that macaques that retained the engineered LB-mCV-N strain in their vaginal microbiota, during SHIV challenge, had lower pH, when colonization levels were higher, and had no evidence of inflammatory cytokines. Indeed, Interleukin-13, a mediator of inflammation, was detected less often in LB-mCV-N colonized macaques than in controls and we found higher levels of Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) in LB-mCV-N colonized macaques during the SHIV challenge period. We noted an inverse correlation between levels of mucosal IL-1RA and peak plasma viral load, thus higher IL-1RA correlated with lower viral load in LB-mCV-N treated macaques. These data support the use of LB-mCV-N as a safe "live" microbicide and suggest that lactobacilli themselves may positively impact the mucosal environment.

  8. Bacteriocin production and gene sequencing analysis from vaginal Lactobacillus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyancheva, Galina; Marzotto, Marta; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    The human vagina is a complex and dynamic ecosystem containing an abundance of microorganisms. In women of childbearing age, this system is dominated by Lactobacillus spp. In the present work, seventeen newly isolated vaginal strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and were investigated for their antimicrobial properties. Twelve of the isolated Lactobacillus strains showed activity against one or more microorganisms. Six and five of them produced substances that inhibited the growth of two different Klebsiella strains and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Two lactobacilli strains were active against an Escherichia coli strain, one isolate was active against an Enterococus faecalis strain and another lactobacilli strain showed antimicrobial activity against a Candida parapsilosis strain. The nature of the active compounds was additionally studied, and the presence of bacteriocin-like substances was proved. The genes related to the bacteriocin production in three of the newly isolated strains were identified and sequenced. The presence of gassericin A operon in the genome of the species Lactobacillus crispatus was described for the first time. The presence of antimicrobial activity contributes to their possible use as potential probiotic strains after further research.

  9. Candida-associated denture stomatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Salerno, Carmen; Pascale, Michelangelo; Contaldo, María; Esposito, V.; Busciolano, Maurizio; Milillo, Lucio; Guida, Agostino; Petruzzi, Massimo; Serpico, Rosario

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic yeast strongly gram positive able to live as normal commensal organism in the oral cavity of healthy people. It is the yeast more frequently isolated in the oral cavity. Under local and systemic factors related to the host conditions, it becomes virulent and responsible of oral diseases known as oral candidiasis. It has been shown that the presence of denture is a predisposing factor to the onset of pathologies related to C. albicans. Clinical studies have ...

  10. Isolation of Candida Species from Gastroesophageal Lesions among Pediatrics in Isfahan, Iran: Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Clinical Isolates by E-test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Salehi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida species can become opportunistic pathogens causing local or systemic invasive infections. Gastroesophageal candidiasis may depend on the Candida colonization and local damage of the mucosal barrier. Risk factors are gastric acid suppression, diabetes mellitus, chronic debilitating states such as carcinomas, and the use of systemic antibiotics and corticosteroids. The aim of this study is collection and molecular identification of Candida species from gastroesophageal lesions among pediatrics in Isfahan, and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ranges for clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients underwent endoscopy (130 specimens from gastritis and 70 samples from esophagitis were included in this study between April 2015 and November 2015. All specimens were subcultured on sabouraud dextrose agar, and genomic DNA of all strains was extracted using boiling method. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing of the ITS1-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 region were used for the identification of all Candida strains. MIC ranges were determined for itraconazole (ITC, amphotericin B (AmB, and fluconazole (FLU by E-test. Results: Twenty of 200 suspected patients (10% were positive by direct microscopy and culture. Candida albicans was the most common species (60% followed by Candida glabrata (30%, Candida parapsilosis (5%, and Candida kefyr (5%. MIC ranges were determined for FLU (0.125–8 μg/mL, ITC (0.008–0.75 μg/mL, and AmB (0.008–0.75 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Every colonization of Candida species should be considered as a potentially factor of mucocutaneous candidiasis and should be treated with antifungal drugs.

  11. The effect of Streptococcus mutans and Candida glabrata on Candida albicans biofilms formed on different surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira-Cenci, T.; Deng, D.M.; Kraneveld, E.A.; Manders, E.M.M.; Del Bel Cury, A.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    Although Candida containing biofilms contribute to the development of oral candidosis, the characteristics of multi-species Candida biofilms and how oral bacteria modulate these biofilms is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between Candida albicans and either

  12. Lactobacillus species as biomarkers and agents that can promote various aspects of vaginal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Ivanova Petrova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively referred to as the human microbiota. One of the main microbiota body sites is the female genital tract, commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp., in approximately 70% of women. Each individual species can constitute approximately 99% of the ribotypes observed in any individual woman. The most frequently isolated species are Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus iners. Residing at the port of entry of bacterial and viral pathogens, the vaginal Lactobacillus species can create a barrier against pathogen invasion since mainly products of their metabolism secreted in the cervicovaginal fluid can play an important role in the inhibition of bacterial and viral infections. Therefore, a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota appears to be a good biomarker for a healthy vaginal ecosystem. This balance can be rapidly altered during processes such as menstruation, sexual activity, pregnancy and various infections. An abnormal vaginal microbiota is characterized by an increased diversity of microbial species, leading to a condition known as bacterial vaginosis. Information on the vaginal microbiota can be gathered from the analysis of cervicovaginal fluid, by using the Nugent scoring or the Amsel’s criteria, or at the molecular level by investigating the number and type of Lactobacillus species. However, when translating this to the clinical setting, it should be noted that the absence of a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota does not appear to directly imply a diseased condition or dysbiosis. Nevertheless, the widely documented beneficial role of vaginal Lactobacillus species demonstrates the potential of data on the composition and activity of lactobacilli as biomarkers for vaginal health. The substantiation and further validation of such biomarkers will allow the design of better targeted probiotic strategies.

  13. Lactobacillus species as biomarkers and agents that can promote various aspects of vaginal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Mariya I; Lievens, Elke; Malik, Shweta; Imholz, Nicole; Lebeer, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively referred to as the human microbiota. One of the main microbiota body sites is the female genital tract, commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp., in approximately 70% of women. Each individual species can constitute approximately 99% of the ribotypes observed in any individual woman. The most frequently isolated species are Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus iners. Residing at the port of entry of bacterial and viral pathogens, the vaginal Lactobacillus species can create a barrier against pathogen invasion since mainly products of their metabolism secreted in the cervicovaginal fluid can play an important role in the inhibition of bacterial and viral infections. Therefore, a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota appears to be a good biomarker for a healthy vaginal ecosystem. This balance can be rapidly altered during processes such as menstruation, sexual activity, pregnancy and various infections. An abnormal vaginal microbiota is characterized by an increased diversity of microbial species, leading to a condition known as bacterial vaginosis. Information on the vaginal microbiota can be gathered from the analysis of cervicovaginal fluid, by using the Nugent scoring or the Amsel's criteria, or at the molecular level by investigating the number and type of Lactobacillus species. However, when translating this to the clinical setting, it should be noted that the absence of a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota does not appear to directly imply a diseased condition or dysbiosis. Nevertheless, the widely documented beneficial role of vaginal Lactobacillus species demonstrates the potential of data on the composition and activity of lactobacilli as biomarkers for vaginal health. The substantiation and further validation of such biomarkers will allow the design of better targeted probiotic strategies.

  14. Prolapso vaginal e uterino em ovelhas

    OpenAIRE

    Maíra Bianchi R. Alves; Benesi,Fernando J.; Lilian Gregory; Della Libera, Alice M.M.P.; Sucupira,Maria Cláudia A.; Fábio C. Pogliani; Viviani Gomes

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou realizar um estudo retrospectivo sobre os prolapsos vaginal e uterino em ovelhas atendidas no Serviço de Clínica de Bovinos e Pequenos Ruminantes (CBPR) da FMVZ/USP no período compreendido entre 2000 a 2010, no qual, foram atendidas 56 ovinos com problemas inerentes ao sistema reprodutivo, dessas, 25 apresentaram prolapso vaginal ou uterino (44,6%). O prolapso vaginal total foi o de maior frequência (72%). As ovelhas acometidas, em sua maioria, possuíam idade sup...

  15. [Oral Candida in Mexican children with malnutrition, social marginalization, or HIV/AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Muñoz-Hernández, Rocío; Villegas-Ham, Julio; Caballos-Salobreña, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Determine the frequency of candida in the oral cavity of children with a risk of developing opportunistic infections, and establish if there is an association between the frequency of this oral colonization and three categories of at-risk populations. Four infant population groups in Mexico were studied: an HIV/AIDS group undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (35 girls and 25 boys); a malnourished group (26 girls and 29 boys); a group from the Tarahumara indigenous people, one of the poorest ethnic populations in the country (37 girls and 20 boys); and a control group (8 girls and 21 boys in apparently good health). The children with HIV/AIDS were immunologically and virologically classified according to the EC Clearinghouse criteria, while malnutrition was determined through the World Health Organization's weight/height index. A sample of oral mucosa was taken with a sterile swab, which was incubated in Sabouraud dextrose agar and in Candida CHROMagar®. The species of candida were confirmed through the API ID32C test. The HIV/AIDS and malnutrition groups showed the higher frequency of Candida spps (51.7% and 38.2%, respectively), while the frequency level in the Tarahumara group was similar to that of the control group (17.5% versus 10.3%). With regard to the species of candida, the malnutrition group had the greatest diversity: C. albicans, C. tropical, C. krusei, and C. glabrata. The children with HIV/AIDS and malnutrition require strategies designed to reduce oral candidal colonization and reduce the risk of opportunistic infections.

  16. Identification of Candida Species Associated with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis by Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Mahmoudi Rad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common infection. The aim of this study was to identify the species of vaginal Candida isolates by using multiplex PCR technique. Methods. 191 isolates from patients admitted to Mahdieh hospital were identified. The vaginal swab specimens were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. The ITS1 region between the 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes and a specific DNA fragment within the ITS2 region were amplified. The multiplex PCR products were separated by electrophoresis in 2% agarose gel, visualized by staining with ethidium bromide, and photographed. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and Spearman correlation were used to summarize the findings. Results. C. albicans and C. glabrata were the most common species isolated from the specimens. A mix of C. glabrata and C. albicans was the most common mixed infection isolated from the samples. The analysis revealed a significant positive association between older age and infection with C. glabrata isolates (Spearman’s rho = 0.89, P=0.015. Conclusion. Multiplex PCR is a fast, yet reliable method to identify Candida species. C. albicans and then C. glabrata are the two most common causes of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The number of mixed fungal infections is higher among Iranian population compared to international reports.

  17. The dual role of candida glabrata drug:H+ antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g) in antifungal drug and acetic acid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Catarina; Henriques, André; Pires, Carla; Nunes, Joana; Ohno, Michiyo; Chibana, Hiroji; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Teixeira, Miguel C

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic Candida species often have to cope with inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, in the acidic environment of the vaginal mucosa. Given that the ability of these yeast species to tolerate stress induced by weak acids and antifungal drugs appears to be a key factor in their persistence and virulence, it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms. In this study, the drug:H(+) antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g), from Candida glabrata, was identified as a determinant of resistance to acetic acid, and also to the antifungal agents flucytosine and, less significantly, clotrimazole. These antifungals were found to act synergistically with acetic acid against this pathogen. The action of CgAqr1 in this phenomenon was analyzed. Using a green fluorescent protein fusion, CgAqr1 was found to localize to the plasma membrane and to membrane vesicles when expressed in C. glabrata or, heterologously, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Given its ability to complement the susceptibility phenotype of its S. cerevisiae homolog, ScAqr1, CgAqr1 was proposed to play a similar role in mediating the extrusion of chemical compounds. Significantly, the expression of this gene was found to reduce the intracellular accumulation of (3)H-flucytosine and, to a moderate extent, of (3)H-clotrimazole, consistent with a direct role in antifungal drug efflux. Interestingly, no effect of CgAQR1 deletion could be found on the intracellular accumulation of (14)C-acetic acid, suggesting that its role in acetic acid resistance may be indirect, presumably through the transport of a still unidentified physiological substrate. Although neither of the tested chemicals induces changes in CgAQR1 expression, pre-exposure to flucytosine or clotrimazole was found to make C. glabrata cells more sensitive to acetic acid stress. Results from this study show that CgAqr1 is an antifungal drug resistance determinant and raise the hypothesis that it may play a role in C. glabrata persistent colonization

  18. The dual role of Candida glabrata Drug:H+ Antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g in antifungal drug and acetic acid resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina eCosta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic Candida species often have to cope with inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, in the acidic environment of the vaginal mucosa. Given that the ability of these yeast species to tolerate stress induced by weak acids and antifungal drugs appears to be a key factor in their persistence and virulence, it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms.In this study, the Drug:H+ Antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g, from Candida glabrata, was identified as a determinant of resistance to acetic acid, and also to the antifungal agents flucytosine and, less significantly, clotrimazole. These antifungals were found to act synergistically with acetic acid against this pathogen. The action of CgAqr1 in this phenomenon was analyzed. Using a GFP fusion, CgAqr1 was found to localize to the plasma membrane and to membrane vesicles when expressed in C. glabrata or, heterologously, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Given its ability to complement the susceptibility phenotype of its S. cerevisiae homolog, ScAqr1, CgAqr1 was proposed to play a similar role in mediating the extrusion of chemical compounds. Significantly, the expression of this gene was found to reduce the intracellular accumulation of 3H-flucytosine and, to a moderate extent, of 3H-clotrimazole, consistent with a direct role in antifungal drug efflux. Interestingly, no effect of CgAQR1 deletion could be found on the intracellular accumulation of 14C-acetic acid, suggesting that its role in acetic acid resistance may be indirect, presumably through the transport of a still unidentified physiological substrate. Although neither of the tested chemicals induces changes in CgAQR1 expression, pre-exposure to flucytosine or clotrimazole was found to make C. glabrata cells more sensitive to acetic acid stress. Results from this study show that CgAqr1 is an antifungal drug resistance determinant and raise the hypothesis that it may play a role in C. glabrata persistent colonization and

  19. The dual role of candida glabrata drug:H+ antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g) in antifungal drug and acetic acid resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Catarina; Henriques, André; Pires, Carla; Nunes, Joana; Ohno, Michiyo; Chibana, Hiroji; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Teixeira, Miguel C.

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic Candida species often have to cope with inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, in the acidic environment of the vaginal mucosa. Given that the ability of these yeast species to tolerate stress induced by weak acids and antifungal drugs appears to be a key factor in their persistence and virulence, it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms. In this study, the drug:H+ antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g), from Candida glabrata, was identified as a determinant of resistance to acetic acid, and also to the antifungal agents flucytosine and, less significantly, clotrimazole. These antifungals were found to act synergistically with acetic acid against this pathogen. The action of CgAqr1 in this phenomenon was analyzed. Using a green fluorescent protein fusion, CgAqr1 was found to localize to the plasma membrane and to membrane vesicles when expressed in C. glabrata or, heterologously, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Given its ability to complement the susceptibility phenotype of its S. cerevisiae homolog, ScAqr1, CgAqr1 was proposed to play a similar role in mediating the extrusion of chemical compounds. Significantly, the expression of this gene was found to reduce the intracellular accumulation of 3H-flucytosine and, to a moderate extent, of 3H-clotrimazole, consistent with a direct role in antifungal drug efflux. Interestingly, no effect of CgAQR1 deletion could be found on the intracellular accumulation of 14C-acetic acid, suggesting that its role in acetic acid resistance may be indirect, presumably through the transport of a still unidentified physiological substrate. Although neither of the tested chemicals induces changes in CgAQR1 expression, pre-exposure to flucytosine or clotrimazole was found to make C. glabrata cells more sensitive to acetic acid stress. Results from this study show that CgAqr1 is an antifungal drug resistance determinant and raise the hypothesis that it may play a role in C. glabrata persistent colonization and

  20. How is the high vaginal swab used to investigate vaginal discharge in primary care and how do GPs' expectations of the test match the tests performed by their microbiology services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, H; Estcourt, C; Ison, C; Goold, P; Tite, L; Carter, Y H

    2004-06-01

    To describe the management of vaginal discharge in general practice, with particular regard to the use of the high vaginal swab (HVS), and to compare GPs' expectations of this test with the processing and reporting undertaken by different laboratories. A postal questionnaire survey of 2146 GPs in the North Thames area and postal questionnaire study of the 22 laboratories serving the same GPs were carried out. GPs were asked how they would manage a young woman with vaginal discharge and what information they would like on an HVS report. Laboratories were asked how they would process and report on the HVS sample from the same patient. Response rate was 26%. 72% of GPs would take an HVS and 62% would refer on to a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic. 45% would offer empirical therapy and 47% of these would treat for candida initially. 75% of GPs routinely request "M,C&S" on HVS samples but 55% only want to be informed about specific pathogens. Routine processing of HVS samples varies widely between laboratories and 86% only report specific pathogens. 78% of GPs would like to be offered a suggested diagnosis on HVS reports, and 74% would like a suggested treatment. 43% of laboratories ever provide a diagnosis, and 14% provide a suggested treatment. GPs frequently manage vaginal discharge and most of them utilise the HVS. GPs' expectations of the test are not well matched to laboratory processing or reporting of the samples.

  1. Women's Intention to Prevent Vesico Vaginal Fistula Recurrence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study purpose was to determine the association between intention to prevent Vesico-Vaginal Fistula recurrence and knowledge of the risk factors of Vesico Vaginal Fistula recurrence, attitude towards Vesico Vaginal Fistula prevention and self esteem among women with Vesico-Vaginal Fistula in two repair ...

  2. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  3. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  4. Surgical removal of a large vaginal calculus formed after a tension-free vaginal tape procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberlicht, Ariel; Feiner, Benjamin; Haya, Nir; Auslender, Ron; Abramov, Yoram

    2016-11-01

    Vaginal calculus is a rare disorder which has been reported in association with urethral diverticulum, urogenital sinus anomaly, bladder exstrophy and the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure. We report a 42-year-old woman who presented with persistent, intractable urinary tract infection (UTI) following a TVT procedure. Cystoscopy demonstrated an eroded tape with the formation of a bladder calculus, and the patient underwent laser cystolithotripsy and cystoscopic resection of the tape. Following this procedure, her UTI completely resolved and she remained asymptomatic for several years. Seven years later she presented with a solid vaginal mass. Pelvic examination followed by transvaginal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large vaginal calculus located at the lower third of the anterior vaginal wall adjacent to the bladder neck. This video presents the transvaginal excision and removal of the vaginal calculus.

  5. Maternal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus and Group B streptococcus is associated with colonization in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, A; Bojang, A; Camara, B; Oluwalana, C; Lette, K; West, P; D'Alessandro, U; Bottomley, C

    2017-12-01

    Although Staphylococcus aureus and Group B streptococcus (GBS) are major causes of neonatal sepsis in sub-Saharan Africa, it is unclear how these bacteria are transmitted to the neonate. In a cohort of 377 Gambian women and their newborns, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected at delivery (day 0), and 3, 6, 14 and 28 days later. Breast milk samples and vaginal swabs were collected from the mother. Staphylococcus aureus and GBS were isolated using conventional microbiological methods. Most women were carriers of S. aureus (264 out of 361 with all samples collected, 73.1%) at some point during follow up and many were carriers of GBS (114 out of 361, 31.6%). Carriage of S. aureus was common in all three maternal sites and GBS was common in the vaginal tract and breast milk. Among newborns, carriage of S. aureus peaked at day 6 (238 out of 377, 63.1%) and GBS at day 3 (39 out of 377, 10.3%). Neonatal carriage of S. aureus at day 6 was associated with maternal carriage in the breast milk adjusted OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.45-4.45, vaginal tract (aOR 2.55; 95% CI 1.32-4.92) and nasopharynx (aOR 2.49; 95% CI 1.56-3.97). Neonatal carriage of GBS at day 6 was associated with maternal carriage in the breast milk (aOR 3.75; 95% CI 1.32-10.65) and vaginal tract (aOR 3.42; 95% CI 1.27-9.22). Maternal colonization with S. aureus or GBS is a risk factor for bacterial colonization in newborns. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Streptococcus Agalactiae Research on Secretion Vaginal and Anal Pregnant Women of a City of Paulista Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae has great medical importance in infections associated with severe neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is the most frequent bacterium isolated from the tables of septicemia, pneumonia and neonatal meningitis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anal and vaginal colonization of S. agalactiae in pregnant women at different gestational ages. We evaluated the incidence of colonization by S. agalactiae in 129 pregnant women of any age. Two samples of secretion were collected for culture: a perianal swab and a vaginal swab. Each of the two swabs were inoculated in test tubes containing Todd-Hewitt broth and subcultured on blood agar. After a period of 24 to 48 hours, the colonies suggestive of S. agalactiae were submitted to morfotintorial analysis and to biochemical tests for identification. Among 129 women studied, 3 (2.33% have tested positive for Streptococcus agalactiae and 126 (97.67% were negative. The results presented in this work are inferior to the data from other studies, however, the methodology used was compatible with most authors. Even so this rate is considered a relevant value taking into account the importance of Streptococcus agalactiae infections in pregnant women and newborns, emphasizing the importance of encouraging the culture of vaginal and anal secretion for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in surveys of prenatal care.

  7. Vaginal Calculus in a Woman With Mixed Urinary Incontinence and Vaginal Mesh Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, William D; Rabban, Joseph T; Korn, Abner P

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal calculi are extremely rare and are most commonly encountered in the setting of an urethrovaginal or vesicovaginal fistula. We present a case of a 72-year-old woman with mixed urinary incontinence and vaginal mesh exposure incidentally found to have a large vaginal calculus. We removed the calculus surgically and analyzed the components. Results demonstrated the presence of ammonium-magnesium phosphate hexahydrate and carbonate apatite.

  8. Prevalence of Candida species in the buccal cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals in and around Pondicherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydia Rajakumari, M; Saravana Kumari, P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Candida in the buccal cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals in and around Pondicherry, India and to analyse the antifungal susceptibility profile of the selected isolates. A total of 400 buccal samples, 200 each from diabetic and non-diabetic healthy individuals were included in the study. Sabouraud's dextrose agar was used for isolation of Candida species. Identification was performed through microscopy, germ tube test, sugar fermentation test, sugar assimilation test and by using Hichrome agar. Distinct and phenotypically representative colonies were selected and subjected to ITS analysis. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing for the isolated Candida species was performed using E-test. Results revealed that the prevalence of Candida species in diabetic individuals was higher when compared with non-diabetic healthy individuals. The most predominantly isolated species in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals from buccal cavity was Candida albicans. C. tropicalis was predominant among the non-albicans Candida isolated from both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Among denture wearers C. glabrata was predominant. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing shows that ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole were effective against the isolated Candida species. The rate of candidal carriage in diabetic individuals is higher. Different species of Candida are present in the oral cavity of diabetic individuals. There may be a positive correlation between glycemic control and candidal colonization. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Candia species are required for proper management and treatment of candidal infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among pregnant women with abnormal vaginal discharge in Maiduguri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, S M; Bukar, M; Mohammed, Y; Mohammed, B; Yahaya, M; Audu, B M; Ibrahim, H M; Ibrahim, H A

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidiasis. To determine the prevalence and clinical features associated with abnormal vaginal discharge and C. albicans infection in pregnant women. High vaginal swab samples and data on epidemiological characteristics were collected from 400 pregnant women with complaints of abnormal vaginal discharge at booking clinic of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. The data was analysed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge in pregnancy was 31.5%. The frequency of abnormal vaginal discharge was 183 (45.8%) among those aged 20-24 years, 291 (72.8%) in multipara, 223 (55.8%) in those with Primary education and 293 (73.2%) in unemployed. Vulval pruritus 300 (75.0%) was significantly related to abnormal vaginal discharge (P vaginal discharge in pregnancy was high in this study and C. albicans was the commonest cause. It is recommended that a pregnant woman complaining of abnormal vaginal discharge be assessed and Laboratory diagnosis done in order to give appropriate treatment.

  10. Relationship among vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of female pelvic floor muscles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Vanessa S; Hirakawa, Humberto S; Oliveira, Ana B; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    .... PFM function was assessed based on digital palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic activity, bilateral diameter of the bulbocavernosus muscles and the amount of bladder neck movement...

  11. Do vaginal lactobacilli prevent preterm labour?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % before 34 weeks (obstetric database - Tygerberg Hospital). Therefore, it is not surprising that preterm labour is the main cause of perinatal mortality.1According to recent information, infection and particularly vaginal bacteriosis play a major ...

  12. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Has a Weapon. What Should I Do? School Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System ... the vagina, and helping to prevent and fight infections. Although it's normal for the color, texture, and amount of vaginal fluids to vary ...

  13. VBAC (Vaginal Birth After C-Section)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 19, 2015. Lang CT, et al. Uterine dehiscence and rupture after ... Health Letter PRC-20395237 Patient Care & Health Information Tests & Procedures Vaginal birth after C-section (VBAC) Request ...

  14. ureteric perforation following laparoscopic assisted vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-03

    Mar 3, 2011 ... SUMMARY. Ureteric injury is one of the most common complications of hysterectomy, both in open ... the laparoscopic hysterectomy (abdominal or vaginal approaches) is ... primary end to end anastomosis due big gap, the.

  15. Vaginal itching and discharge - adult and adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other symptoms ( atrophic vaginitis ). Forgotten tampon or foreign body, which may cause a foul odor. Chemicals found in detergents, fabric softeners, feminine sprays, ointments, creams, douches, and contraceptive foams or jellies or creams, ...

  16. Microbes on the Human Vaginal Epithelium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard W. Hyman; Marilyn Fukushima; Lisa Diamond; Jochen Kumm; Linda C. Giudice; Ronald W. Davis

    2005-01-01

    Using solely a gene-based procedure, PCR amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene coupled with very deep sequencing of the amplified products, the microbes on 20 human vaginal epithelia of healthy...

  17. Espondilodiscitis por Candida albicans Candida albicans spondylodiscitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Silvina De Luca; Eduardo Mondello; Soledad Oviedo; Laura Tisser; Eduardo P. Eyheremendy; Carlos Rica

    2008-01-01

    Propósito: Describir los hallazgos radiológicos distintivos en resonancia magnética de las espondilodiscitis fúngicas (Candida albicans) y su importancia en el diagnóstico temprano de estas entidades. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 51 años de edad, inmunocomprometido, que consulta por fiebre y dolor lumbar. La RM con gadolinio demostró en secuencias T2 hipointensidad de la médula ósea en los cuerpos vertebrales afectados, asociados a cambios en la señal discal y realce intenso...

  18. Oropharyngeal perinatal colonization by human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Torices, María Soledad; Corrales-Millan, Rocío; Hijona-Elosegui, Jesús J

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common human sexually transmitted disease. It is clinically relevant because this condition is necessary for the development of epithelial cervical cancer, and it is also a factor closely associated with the occurrence of diverse tumours and various benign and malignant lesions of the head and neck area. The infective mechanism in most of these cases is associated with sexual intercourse, but there is recent scientific evidence suggesting that HPV infection may also be acquired by other routes of infection not necessarily linked to sexual contact. One of them is vertical transmission from mother to child, either during pregnancy or at the time of delivery. The aim of our research was to study maternal-foetal HPV transmission during childbirth in detail, establishing the rate of oropharyngeal neonatal HPV in vaginal deliveries. The presence and type of HPV viral DNA at the time of delivery in samples of maternal cervical secretions, amniotic fluid, venous cord blood samples and neonatal oropharynx in pregnant women (and their babies) were determined. The rate of oropharyngeal neonatal HPV colonization in vaginal deliveries was 58.24%. The maternal and neonatal HPV colonization mechanism is essentially, but not exclusively, transvaginal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Lactobacillus crispatus isolates from Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiomes with isolates from microbiomes containing bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmaksoud, Abdallah A.; Koparde, Vishal N.; Sheth, Nihar U.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Glascock, Abigail L.; Fettweis, Jennifer M.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Buck, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli can inhibit colonization by and growth of other bacteria, thereby preventing development of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Amongst the lactobacilli, Lactobacillus crispatus appears to be particularly effective at inhibiting growth of BV-associated bacteria. Nonetheless, some women who are colonized with this species can still develop clinical BV. Therefore, we sought to determine whether strains of L. crispatus that colonize women with lactobacilli-dominated vaginal microbiomes are distinct from strains that colonize women who develop BV. The genomes of L. crispatus isolates from four women with lactobacilli-dominated vaginal microbiomes ( bacteria (>12 % 16S rRNA reads from bacterial taxa associated with BV) were sequenced and compared. Lactic acid production by the different strains was quantified. Phage induction in the strains was also analysed. There was considerable genetic diversity between strains, and several genes were exclusive to either the strains from Lactobacillus-dominated microbiomes or those containing BV-associated bacteria. Overall, strains from microbiomes dominated by lactobacilli did not differ from strains from microbiomes containing BV-associated bacteria with respect to lactic acid production. All of the strains contained multiple phage, but there was no clear distinction between the presence or absence of BV-associated bacteria with respect to phage-induced lysis. Genes found to be exclusive to the Lactobacillus-dominated versus BV-associated bacteria-containing microbiomes could play a role in the maintenance of vaginal health and the development of BV, respectively. PMID:26747455

  20. Twin vaginal delivery: innovate or abdicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Sarah Rae; Taouk, Laura; Schulkin, Jay; Robinson, Julian N

    2017-05-01

    Neonatal safety data along with national guidelines have prompted renewed interest in vaginal delivery of twins, particularly in the case of the noncephalic second twin. Yet, the rising rate of twin cesarean deliveries, coupled with the national decline in operative obstetrics, raises concerns about the availability of providers who are skilled in twin vaginal birth. Providers are key stakeholders for increasing rates of twin vaginal delivery. We surveyed a group of practicing obstetricians to explore potential barriers to the vaginal birth of twins with a focus on delivery of the noncephalic second twin. Among 107 responding providers, only 57% would deliver a noncephalic second twin by breech extraction. Providers who preferred breech extraction had a higher rate of maternal-fetal medicine subspecialty training (26.2% vs 4.3%; P30 sets of twins annually (57.4% vs 34.8%; P=.02). Most providers (54.2%) were familiar with the findings from the recent randomized trial that demonstrated the safety of twin vaginal birth. However, knowledge of the trial was not associated statistically with a preference for breech extraction (62.3% vs 43.5%; P=.05). Providers who preferred breech extraction were more likely to agree with recent society guidelines that encourage the vaginal birth of twins (86.9% vs 63.0%; Pinnovation. Without novel provider-focused strategies, we may relinquish passively the requisite skills for not only our patients but also for future generations of obstetricians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Frequency of epidural analgesia for vaginal delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, M; Nikolov, A

    2011-01-01

    To establish the frequency of epidural analgesia for vaginal delivery. The research includes 51 632 deliveries for 16 years period. Total frequency of vaginal delivery with EA, compared to total number of vaginal deliveries for period is 11.77%. The frequency shows tendency to slowly increase in the beginning of the period, probably because of getting experienced among some of the obstetricians, after then frequency stay relatively constant. Except care of somatic health of mother and foetus, modern obstetrics requires to ensure maximum comfort of parturient, to satisfy requirements of modern women for "painless" delivery and leave a positive memory of birth. That is why more frequently use of EA for vaginal delivery is necessary. EA is an approved method for anesthetizing vaginal delivery. It is established slowly increasing frequency of EA for anesthetizing vaginal delivery. The frequency of EA in University hospital "Maichin dom" is relatively low in comparison with mentioned in literature values, which raises the question of finding ways to further promote and increase the application of EA.

  2. Cellular Structural Changes in Candida albicans Caused by the Hydroalcoholic Extract from Sapindus saponaria L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane S. Shinobu-Mesquita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is a disease caused by the abnormal growth of yeast-like fungi in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Candida albicans is the principal etiological agent involved in VVC, but reports have shown an increase in the prevalence of Candida non-C. albicans (CNCA cases, which complicates VVC treatment because CNCA does not respond well to antifungal therapy. Our group has reported the in vitro antifungal activity of extracts from Sapindus saponaria L. The present study used scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to further evaluate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extract from S. saponaria (HE against yeast obtained from VVC and structural changes induced by HE. We observed the antifungal activity of HE against 125 vaginal yeasts that belonged to four different species of the Candida genus and S. cerevisae. The results suggest that saponins that are present in HE act on the cell wall or membrane of yeast at the first moments after contact, causing damage to these structures and cell lysis.

  3. Cellular Structural Changes in Candida albicans Caused by the Hydroalcoholic Extract from Sapindus saponaria L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinobu-Mesquita, Cristiane S; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia S; Moreira, Amanda L; Ferreira, Izabel C P; Donatti, Lucelia; Fiorini, Adriana; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E

    2015-05-22

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a disease caused by the abnormal growth of yeast-like fungi in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Candida albicans is the principal etiological agent involved in VVC, but reports have shown an increase in the prevalence of Candida non-C. albicans (CNCA) cases, which complicates VVC treatment because CNCA does not respond well to antifungal therapy. Our group has reported the in vitro antifungal activity of extracts from Sapindus saponaria L. The present study used scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to further evaluate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extract from S. saponaria (HE) against yeast obtained from VVC and structural changes induced by HE. We observed the antifungal activity of HE against 125 vaginal yeasts that belonged to four different species of the Candida genus and S. cerevisae. The results suggest that saponins that are present in HE act on the cell wall or membrane of yeast at the first moments after contact, causing damage to these structures and cell lysis.

  4. Association between high risk human papillomavirus infection and co-infection with Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis in women with cervical premalignant and malignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ishita; Muwonge, Richard; Mittal, Srabani; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Kundu, Pratip; Mandal, Ranajit; Biswas, Jaydip; Basu, Partha

    2017-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Cervico-vaginal infection with pathogens like Chlamydia is a likely cofactor. The interactions between HPV, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Candida spp. are less understood, though inflammation induced by these pathogens has been demonstrated to facilitate oncogenesis. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between Candida spp. and TV co-infection with HPV in cervical oncogenesis. Women with normal cervix who were high-risk HPV-negative (N=104) and HPV-positive (N=105); women with CIN 1 (N=106) and CIN 2/CIN 3 (N=62) were recruited from a community based cervical cancer screening program. Cervical cancer patients (N=106) were recruited from a tertiary care oncology clinic. High-risk HPV was detected by Hybrid Capture II technique; Candida spp. and TV were detected by culturing the high vaginal swabs followed by microscopic examination in all. The disease status was established by histopathology in all the women. HPV-positive women had significantly higher risk of having precursor lesions (of any grade) and cancer compared to HPV-negative women. Candida spp. or TV infection did not alter the risk of low grade or high grade lesions among HPV- positive women. HPV positive women co-infected with TV had higher risk of cervical cancer but not those co-infected with Candida spp. The higher risk of cancer observed in the women co-infected with HPV and TV without any enhanced risk of CIN 3 suggests secondary infection of the malignant growth by TV rather than any causal role. Co-infection with Candida spp. and/or TV infection did not increase the carcinogenic effect of HPV on cervix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fungicidal activity of copper-sputtered flexible surfaces under dark and actinic light against azole-resistant Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballo, Myriam K S; Rtimi, Sami; Kiwi, John; Pulgarin, César; Entenza, José M; Bizzini, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Candida spp. are able to survive on hospital surfaces and causes healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). Since surface cleaning and disinfecting interventions are not totally effective to eliminate Candida spp., new approaches should be devised. Copper (Cu) has widely recognized antifungal activity and the use of Cu-sputtered surfaces has recently been proposed to curb the spread of HCAIs. Moreover, the activity of Cu under the action of actinic light remains underexplored. We investigated the antifungal activity of Cu-sputtered polyester surfaces (Cu-PES) against azole-resistant Candida albicans and Candida glabrata under dark and low intensity visible light irradiation (4.65mW/cm(2)). The surface properties of Cu-PES photocatalysts were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Under dark, Cu-PES showed a fungicidal activity (≥3log10CFU reduction of the initial inoculum) against both C. albicans DSY296 and C. glabrata DSY565 leading to a reduction of the starting inoculum of 3.1 and 3.0log10CFU, respectively, within 60min of exposure. Under low intensity visible light irradiation, Cu-PES exhibited an accelerated fungicidal activity against both strains with a reduction of 3.0 and 3.4log10CFU, respectively, within 30min of exposure. This effect was likely due to the semiconductor Cu2O/CuO charge separation. The decrease in cell viability of the two Candida strains under dark and light conditions correlated with the progressive loss of membrane integrity. These results indicate that Cu-PES represent a promising strategy for decreasing the colonization of surfaces by yeasts and that actinic light can improve its self-disinfecting activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of Candida species by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of intergenic spacer regions of ribosomal DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D. W.; Wilson, M. J.; Lewis, M A; Potts, A J

    1995-01-01

    The PCR was used to amplify a targeted region of the ribosomal DNA from 84 Candida isolates. Unique product sizes were obtained for Candida guilliermondii, Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata, and Candida pseudotropicalis. Isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida stellatoidea, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei could be identified following restriction digestion of the PCR products.

  7. Vaginal fold histology reduces the variability introduced by vaginal exfoliative cytology in the classification of mouse estrous cycle stages

    OpenAIRE

    Arnon, Gal; Po-Ching, Lin; Anne M, Barger; Amy L, MacNeill; CheMyong, Ko

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal exfoliative cytology is commonly used in biomedical and toxicological research to classify the stages of the rodent estrous cycle. However, mouse vaginal exfoliative cytology is commonly used as a stand-alone tool and has not been evaluated in reference to vaginal histology and serum sex hormone levels. In this study, the direct and Giemsa-stained methods of vaginal exfoliative cytology were compared in reference to vaginal fold histology and serum sex hormone levels. Both methods pre...

  8. Oral Candida as an aggravating factor of mucositis Induced by radiotherapy; Candida Oral como fator agravante da mucosite radioinduzida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, Cristiane Araujo; Castro, Jurema Freire Lisboa de; Cazal, Claudia [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de odontologia

    2011-07-01

    Antineoplastic treatment induces some undesirable consequences in head and neck cancer patients. Often, the emergence of major clinical manifestations, such as oral mucositis, results in temporary interruption of the treatment, decreasing the patients' quality of life, and increasing hospital costs. Radio-induced or chemo-induced oral mucositis is possibly aggravated by opportunist fungal infections, which turn the mucositis more resistant to the conventional treatments. Objective: this study aims to identify the presence of Candida sp. as a possible aggravating factor of oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer under antineoplastic treatment. Method: all patients with radio- or chemo-induced oral mucositis from the Cancer Hospital of Pernambuco, treated between October 2008 and April 2009, were selected for the study. The prevalence of Candida sp was measured through the cytological analysis of oral mucosa in patients with oral mucositis. The fungal presence was correlated with the mucositis severity. Results: the results showed a positive association between fungal colonization and more several lesions (degrees III and IV of mucositis). Conclusion: The outcomes shown may contribute to a solution for unconventional mucosites, which do not respond to the usual treatment. (author)

  9. Comparative adherence of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to human buccal epithelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rachael P C; Williams, David W; Moran, Gary P; Coleman, David C; Sullivan, Derek J

    2014-04-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are very closely related pathogenic yeast species. Despite their close relationship, C. albicans is a far more successful colonizer and pathogen of humans. The purpose of this study was to determine if the disparity in the virulence of the two species is attributed to differences in their ability to adhere to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and/or extracellular matrix proteins. When grown overnight at 30°C in yeast extract peptone dextrose, genotype 1 C. dubliniensis isolates were found to be significantly more adherent to human BECs than C. albicans or C. dubliniensis genotypes 2-4 (P albicans to human BECs was observed, and C. dubliniensis genotype 1 and C. albicans adhered to BECs in significantly greater numbers than the other C. dubliniensis genotypes (P albicans to type I and IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, vitronectin, and proline-rich peptides. These data suggest that C. albicans is not more adherent to epithelial cells or matrix proteins than C. dubliniensis and therefore other factors must contribute to the greater levels of virulence exhibited by C. albicans.

  10. Predisposing factors endorsing Candida infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Fatima, Zeeshan; Hameed, Saif

    2015-09-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which is involved in infections ranging from superficial, mucosal to systemic candidiasis. It is the fourth most leading cause of death in nosocomial infections. Candidal infections are increasing at an alarming rate due to poor clinical management in hospital settings, more use of antibiotics, increased drug resistance, immunosuppression and host-pathogen related factors. There are various predisposing factors which can be immunologic or non-immunologic in origin that make a person susceptible to such infections. This review article establishes the need to understand the various predisposing factors leading to Candidal infections and discusses them on a common platform.

  11. Carbon source-induced reprogramming of the cell wall proteome and secretome modulates the adherence and drug resistance of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ene, I.V.; Heilmann, C.J.; Sorgo, A.G.; Walker, L.A.; de Koster, C.G.; Munro, C.A.; Klis, F.M.; Brown, A.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The major fungal pathogen Candida albicans can occupy diverse microenvironments in its human host. During colonization of the gastrointestinal or urogenital tracts, mucosal surfaces, bloodstream, and internal organs, C. albicans thrives in niches that differ with respect to available nutrients and

  12. Surface thermodynamic and adhesion force evaluation of the role of chitin-binding protein in the physical interaction between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ovchinnikova, E.S.; Krom, B.P.; Harapanahalli, A.K.; Busscher, H.J.; van der Mei, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are able to form pathogenic polymicrobial communities. P. aeruginosa colonizes and kills hyphae but is unable to attach to yeast. It is unknown why the interaction of P. aeruginosa is different with yeast than with hyphae. Here we aim to evaluate the role

  13. Adhesion and surface-aggregation of Candida albicans from saliva on acrylic surfaces with adhering bacteria as studied in a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millsap, KW; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Bos, R.R.M.

    Adhesive interactions between Candida albicans and oral bacteria are generally thought to play a crucial role in the microbial colonization of denture acrylic, which may lead to denture stomatitis. This study investigated the influence of saliva on the adhesive interactions between C. albicans and

  14. Surface Thermodynamic and Adhesion Force Evaluation of the Role of Chitin-Binding Protein in the Physical Interaction between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina S.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Harapanahalli, Akshay K.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are able to form pathogenic polymicrobial communities. P. aeruginosa colonizes and kills hyphae but is unable to attach to yeast. It is unknown why the interaction of P. aeruginosa is different with yeast than with hyphae. Here we aim to evaluate the role

  15. The role of candida albicans in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Sepahi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease that is related to many genetic, and environmental factors, as well as infectious pathogens. Findings suggest that the Candida species, particularly Candida albicans, may play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris. In this study, we aimed to systematically review the possible association between C. albicans and the prevalence of psoriasis. Methods: A systematic search of existing literature was performed in the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases and the Google search engine using the following search strategy ((Candida albicans OR C. albicans OR Candida AND (psoriasis vulgaris OR plaque psoriasis OR psoriasis to find relevant articles that described a possible positive or negative association between C. albicans and the incidence or progression of psoriasis. The search was not limited to articles that were published within a specific time period; however, only those written in the English language were included in the review.Result: Of the 499 articles in total that were identified during the initial database search, 491 were excluded from the review because they failed to meet the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The total number of people involved in the selected studies, including both patients and healthy controls, was 1260. The analysis of the results of the included documents showed that the colonization of C. albicans is more prevalent in biological specimens taken from psoriatic patients.Conclusion: Studies show that C. albicans, opportunistic yeast, like diploid fungus, may be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  16. Candida parapsilosis is a Significant Neonatal Pathogen: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammi, Mohan; Holland, Linda; Butler, Geraldine; Gacser, Attila; Bliss, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Candida is the third most common cause of late-onset neonatal sepsis in infants born at Candida infections. C. parapsilosis rates were similar in studies performed before the year 2000, 33.53 % [95% CI, 30.06, 37.40] (28 studies), to those after 2000, 27.00% [95% CI, 8.25, 88.37] (8 studies). The mortality due to neonatal Candida parapsilosis infections was 10.02% [95% CI, 7.66, 13.12]. Geographical variations in C. parapsilosis infections included a low incidence in Europe and higher incidence in North America and Australia. Biofilm formation was a significant virulence determinant and predominant risk factors for C. parapsilosis infections were prematurity, prior colonization and catheterization. Amphotericin B remains the antifungal drug of choice and combination therapy with caspofungin or other echinocandins may be considered in resistant cases. Conclusion C. parapsilosis is a significant neonatal pathogen, comprises a third of all Candida infections and is associated with 10% mortality. Availability of tools for genetic manipulation of this organism will identify virulence determinants and organism characteristics that may explain predilection for preterm neonates. Strategies to prevent horizontal transmission in the neonatal unit are paramount in decreasing infection rates. PMID:23340551

  17. Vaginal orgasm is associated with vaginal (not clitoral) sex education, focusing mental attention on vaginal sensations, intercourse duration, and a preference for a longer penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2010-08-01

    Evidence was recently provided for vaginal orgasm, orgasm triggered purely by penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), being associated with better psychological functioning. Common sex education and sexual medicine approaches might undermine vaginal orgasm benefits. To examine the extent to which women's vaginal orgasm consistency is associated with (i) being told in childhood or adolescence that the vagina was the important zone for inducing female orgasm; (ii) how well they focus mentally on vaginal sensations during PVI; (iii) greater PVI duration; and (iv) preference for above-average penis length.   In a representative sample of the Czech population, 1,000 women reported their vaginal orgasm consistency (from never to almost every time; only 21.9% never had a vaginal orgasm), estimates of their typical foreplay and PVI durations, what they were told in childhood and adolescence was the important zone for inducing female orgasm, their degree of focus on vaginal sensations during PVI, and whether they were more likely to orgasm with a longer than average penis. The association of vaginal orgasm consistency with the predictors noted above. Vaginal orgasm consistency was associated with all hypothesized correlates. Multivariate analysis indicated the most important predictors were being educated that the vagina is important for female orgasm, being mentally focused on vaginal sensations during PVI, and in some analyses duration of PVI (but not foreplay) and preferring a longer than average penis. Focusing attention on penile-vaginal sensation supports vaginal orgasm and the myriad benefits thereof. Brody S, and Weiss P. Vaginal orgasm is associated with vaginal (not clitoral) sex education, focusing mental attention on vaginal sensations, intercourse duration, and a preference for a longer penis. © 2009 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva K Pathak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8% glucose (SDB. Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

  19. Unexpected premalignant gynecological lesions in women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy for utero-vaginal prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem A.M. Elbiaa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of unexpected premalignant gynecological lesions in women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy for utero-vaginal prolapse. Material and methods : Eighty women with asymptomatic utero-vaginal prolapse were included in this prospective study for vaginal hysterectomy after preoperative preparation and after written informed consent. Women included in this study were screened preoperatively by high vaginal swab, Pap smear, endometrial biopsy and trans-vaginal ultrasound. Surgically removed uteri and ovaries were sent for histopathological examination. Results of histopathological examination as gold standard were compared with conventional gynecological screening methods. Results : Histopathological examination of surgically removed uteri and ovaries after vaginal hysterectomy for uterovaginal prolapse showed abnormal findings in 61.25% (49/80 of studied cases (10 chronic cervicitis; 20 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia-1 [CIN-1]; 5 CIN-2; 2 CIN-3; 10 simple endometrial hyperplasia without atypia and 2 simple serous ovarian cyst. Also, histopathological examination showed premalignant changes in 33.75% (27/80 of studied cases (20 CIN-1; 5 CIN-2 and 2 CIN-3, which mean 50% sensitivity of pre-operative Pap smear to detect premalignant cervical changes. Conclusions : Asymptomatic women with utero-vaginal prolapse may have associated premalignant lesions which may not be detected by conventional screening methods, and this should be explained preoperatively for women undergoing surgery, especially if conservative management was considered.

  20. [In vitro activity of crude extracts of two plant species in the Cerrado on yeast of the Candida SPP variety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz e Silva, Sônia Maria Ferreira; Pinheiro, Sandra Maria Botelho; Queiroz, Maria Vilian Ferreira; Pranchevicius, Maria Cristina; Castro, José Gerley Díaz; Perim, Michele Cezimbra; Carreiro, Solange Cristina

    2012-06-01

    This work aims to evaluate the activity of Lafoensia Pacari and Brossimum gaudichaudii on yeast of the Candida variety isolated from vaginal mucus. The yeasts were obtained from swabs of women with or without symptoms. Susceptibility testing in duplicate was carried out for 34 strains of Candida compared to crude extracts of plant species at concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg.mL⁻¹. Extracts that produced inhibition zones with an average of over 10 mm were considered to be active. Antifungal activity of B. gaudichaudii at a concentration of 200-mg.mL⁻¹ was proven, while that of L. pacari was found to be active at 50 mg.mL⁻¹. The activity of plant extracts was revealed compared to Nystatin cream (100.000UI/4g) used for control purposes.

  1. Identification and Frequency of Candida Patient Isolates by CHROMagar Candida Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mirhendi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Candida species can cause opportunistic infections in human. Although Candida albicans is major pathogenic species, non-albicans species of Candida such as C. glabrata , C. tropicalis and C. krusei have been increasingly reported. Identification of Candida species is essential for effective antifungal therapy and for infection control purposes. In the present study the commercial medium CHROMagar Candida was used as a differential method for identification of the yeasts isolated from patients.Materials & Methods: Sixteen standard strains of Candida and non?Candida yeasts were used as the reference cultures. 280 yeasts isolated from the patients referred to two Medical Mycology Laboratories in Tehran were cultured on the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida. The cultures incubated for 48 h at 35ºC and were differentiated based on the color of colonies in comparison with the standard strains. For colonies with unspecific color, a PCR-RFLP method was performed.Results: The most frequent species were Candida albicans(66.5% followed by C. parapsilosis (8.6%, C. tropicalis (8.2%, C. glabrata (6.1%, C. krusei (4.6%, C. kefyr (2.5%, C. guilliermondii (0.7%, C. lusitania (0.35% and Cryptococcus neoformans (0.35%.Conclusion: CHROMagar Candida can be a simple and straight-forward method for specific differentiation of medically important Candida species including C. albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata, but not for all Candida isolates. More phenotypic or genotypic methods are necessary for exact identification of other Candida species.

  2. Influence of Candida krusei and Candida glabrata on Candida albicans gene expression in in vitro biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Ribeiro, Felipe Camargo; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the interactions between the species Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata in monotypic and mixed biofilm models formed in vitro as well as the relative expression of the ALS1, ALS3, HWP1, BCR1, EFG1, TEC1, SAP5, PLB2 and LIP9 genes. Mixed (C. albicans/C. krusei and C. albicans/C. glabrata) and monotypic biofilms were cultured for 0, 12 and 24h. Gene expression was analyzed in the same biofilm model in which the number of CFU/mL was counted. The C. albicans CFU/mL values were lower at the 12 and 24h time points in the mixed biofilms compared with the monotypic biofilms, and decreases of 56.23% and 64.4% in C. albicans were observed when this species was associated with C. glabrata and C. krusei, respectively. In the presence of C. krusei, the expression of the ALS3, HWP1, BCR1, EFG1 and TEC1 genes of C. albicans was completely inhibited, indicating both transcriptome and the phenotypic antagonism between these two species, but genes related to the secretion of enzymes were stimulated. In the presence of C. glabrata, C. albicans showed a similar gene expression profile to that obtained in association with C. krusei, though it was altered to a lesser degree. We conclude that C. krusei and C. glabrata may alter or inhibit the mechanisms involved in the in vitro adherence and formation of C. albicans biofilms, influencing the pathogenicity of this species and suggesting a competitive interaction with C. krusei and C. glabrata in biofilm formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Semaphorin 4D induces vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis to control mouse postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takuji; Bai, Tao; Tanaka, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Kenji; Ueyama, Takashi; Miyajima, Masayasu; Negishi, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Takamatsu, Hyota; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Yukawa, Kazunori

    2015-02-01

    The opening of the mouse vaginal cavity to the skin is a postnatal tissue remodeling process that occurs at approximately five weeks of age for the completion of female genital tract maturation at puberty. The tissue remodeling process is primarily composed of a hormonally triggered apoptotic process predominantly occurring in the epithelium of the distal section of the vaginal cavity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the apoptotic induction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was observed that the majority of BALB/c mice lacking the class 4 semaphorin, semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), developed imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos resulting in a perpetually unopened vaginal cavity regardless of a normal estrogen level comparable with that in wild‑type (WT) mice. Administration of β‑estradiol to infant Sema4D‑deficient (Sema4D‑/‑) mice did not induce precocious vaginal opening, which was observed in WT mice subjected to the same β‑estradiol administration, excluding the possibility that the closed vaginal phenotype was due to insufficient estrogen secretion at the time of vaginal opening. In order to assess the role of Sema4D in the postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling process, the expression of Sema4D and its receptor, plexin‑B1, was examined as well as the level of apoptosis in the vaginal epithelia of five‑week‑old WT and Sema4D‑/‑ mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the localization of Sema4D and plexin‑B1 in the mouse vaginal epithelia. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry detecting activated caspase‑3 revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in situ in the vaginal mucosa of five‑week‑old Sema4D‑/‑ mice compared with WT mice. The addition of recombinant Sema4D to Sema4D‑/‑ vaginal epithelial cells in culture significantly enhanced apoptosis of the vaginal epithelial cells, demonstrating the apoptosis‑inducing activity of Sema4D. The

  4. Can intrauterine contraceptive devices lead to VulvoVaginal Candidiasis (VVC) and Anemia in Iranian new users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behboudi-Gandevani, Samira; Imani, Somaieh; Moghaddam-Banaem, Lida; Roudbar-Mohammadi, Shahla

    2015-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of anemia and VulvoVaginal Candidiasis (VVC) in women before and 3 months after copper Intra Uterine Device (IUD) insertion. Longitudinal prospective study was performed with 101 women aged 15-45 year who wanted to use the IUD at six health centers in Tehran, Iran from November 2011 to August 2012. The pattern of bleeding, Hemoglobin and Hematocirt levels, and Candida colony count/cultures in the women were assessed before and after 3 months of IUD insertion. Data analysis was performed by descriptive and analytical statistics using the SPSS software for Windows. At the end of 3 months, a significant increase in menstrual blood loss and a significant decrease of Hb and HCT (P=0.047 and 0.001, respectively) were reported. Moreover, no difference in the prevalence of anemia before and after IUD insertion was observed. The mean±SD Candida colony counts significantly increased (P=0.001), but positive Candida cultures were not significantly different before and 3 months after IUD insertion. Also, no clinical VVC was reported 3 months after IUD insertion. While BMI≥29 had a positive relationship with Candida colony counts, the results remained unchanged after adjusting for potential risk factors. Despite an increase in bleeding and Candida colony counts in copper IUD users in this study, clinical VVC or anemia cases were not increased, which indicates relative safety of this contraception method. The study findings can be helpful to healthcare professionals and midwives to counsel women who want to start using IUD and also current users who are contemplating IUD removal due to its complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Espondilodiscitis por Candida albicans Candida albicans spondylodiscitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

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    Silvina De Luca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Propósito: Describir los hallazgos radiológicos distintivos en resonancia magnética de las espondilodiscitis fúngicas (Candida albicans y su importancia en el diagnóstico temprano de estas entidades. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 51 años de edad, inmunocomprometido, que consulta por fiebre y dolor lumbar. La RM con gadolinio demostró en secuencias T2 hipointensidad de la médula ósea en los cuerpos vertebrales afectados, asociados a cambios en la señal discal y realce intenso discovertebral. Ante un paciente inmunocomprometido con dolor lumbar que presenta modificaciones disco vertebrales atípicas en la resonancia magnética, debe considerarse la infección micótica dentro de las posibilidades diagnósticas. El diagnóstico de certeza requiere la toma de biopsia del tejido afectado mediante punción aspiración y posterior análisis microbiológico. El tratamiento médico es el de elección, aunque en algunos casos se plantea el drenaje quirúrgico. El reconocimiento de las características radiológicas distintivas evita retardos en el diagnóstico y el tratamiento.Purpose: To describe Candida albicans spondylodiscitis distinctive imaging findings and treatment. The authors reported a 51 years old, male inmunocompromised patient with fever and lumbar pain. MR findings include bone marrow hypointense signal intensity in T2 weighted of affected vertebral bodies and intense discovertebral enhancement. Candida albicans spondylodiscitis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of an inmunocompromised patient with lumbar pain and lumbar atypical findings at MR. Biopsy sample is required in order to reach final diagnosis. The first choice treatment is antyfungal drugs although in certain cases surgery is required. Rapid recognition of distinctive imaging findings avoid missdiagnosis and treatment delays.

  6. Does vaginal estrogen treatment with support pessaries in vaginal prolapse reduce complications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulchandani, Supriya; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Verghese, Tina; Latthe, Pallavi

    2015-12-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is often co-existant with atrophy of the genital tract in older women who tend to prefer vaginal pessaries for prolapse. Vaginal estrogen therapy is used by some along with a support pessary for prolapse with no robust evidence to back this practice. We aimed to evaluate differences in complications of support pessaries for vaginal prolapse in postmenopausal women, with and without vaginal estrogen use. We prospectively assessed postmenopausal women attending the urogynaecology clinic for a pessary change. We asked them about the level of discomfort during pessary change (visual analogue scale for pain), discharge, bleeding and infection. Ethics approval was not required as this was a service evaluation project. Statistical analysis for relative risk was performed, including sub-group analysis for 'ring pessary' and 'non-ring group' (Shelf, Gellhorn, Shaatz). Between July 2013 and December 2014, we assessed 120 postmenopausal women using support pessaries for prolapse. The mean age was 70 years; 45% of the patients used vaginal estrogen. There were no statistically significant differences in complications with or without vaginal estrogen use, although the trend was higher amongst non-users. The 'non-ring' sub-group not using vaginal estrogen had a higher risk of vaginal ulceration, bleeding and discharge. Postmenopausal women may have lesser complications when using vaginal estrogen with a support pessary for prolapse, particularly with pessaries other than the ring. An adequately powered randomised controlled trial is needed to assess conclusively whether vaginal estrogen enhances comfort and reduces complications of support pessaries for prolapse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Phytochemicals as Inhibitors of Candida Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Jayant Shankar; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Candida biofilm and associated infections is a serious threat to the large population of immunocompromised patients. Biofilm growth on prosthetic devices or host tissue shows reduced sensitivity to antifungal agents and persists as a reservoir of infective cells. Options for successful treatment of biofilm associated Candida infections are restricted because most of the available antifungal drugs fail to eradicate biofilms. Various plant actives are known to possess interesting antifungal properties. To explore and review the potential of phytochemicals as a novel strategy against Candida biofilms is the intent of present article. Thorough literature search is performed to identify Candida biofilm inhibitors of plant origin. An account of efficacy of selected phytochemicals is presented taking into consideration their biofilm inhibitory concentrations. This review discusses biofilm formation by Candida species, their involvement in human infections, and associated drug resistance. It gives insight into the biofilm inhibitory potential of various phytochemicals. Based on the available reports including the work done in our laboratory, several plant extracts, essential oils and phytomolecules have been identified as excellent inhibitors of biofilms of C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species (NACS). Selected phytochemicals which exhibit activities at low concentrations without displaying toxicity to host are potential therapeutic agents against biofilm associated Candida infections. In vivo testing in animal models and clinical trials in humans are required to be taken up seriously to propose few of the phytochemicals as candidate drug molecules.

  8. A 78-Year-Old Woman with Fecaloid Vaginal Discharge

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    Yuh Feng Tsai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 78-year-old woman with a history of colon cancer with metastasis to the liver was presented to our emergency department because of bilateral groin pain and difficulty in walking, which had gradually increased during the previous 5 days. The pain was of sudden onset, radiating to the back, without aggravating or relieving factors. It was associated with constipation, dysuria and vaginal discharge. She reported passing fecal matter from the vagina one month ago. On physical examination, she appeared malnourished. Her blood pressure was 98/65 mmHg, with a 108 beats/min heart rate and 28 breaths/min respiratory rate. She was afebrile. Physical examinations were unremarkable, except for pale conjunctiva, abdominal distention, and diffuse tenderness especially over the umbilicus with guarding tenderness. Bowel sounds were decreased. Pelvic examination showed a yellowish odorous vaginal discharge from the external orifice of uterus. A complete blood cell count showed the following: leukocyte count, 34,200/mm3; segmented neutrophils, 87.5%; hemoglobin level of 7.4 mg/dl; hematocrit, 18.8%; and platelet, 180000/uL. Other laboratory studies included: glucose, 86 mg/dL; serum urea nitrogen, 28 mg/dL; serum creatinine, 0.87 mg/dL; sodium, 142 mEq/L; potassium, 4.8 mEq/L; albumin, 2.5g/dL; a carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level of 3,244 U/ml, and a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA level of 64.6 ng/ml. Coronal and axial cuts of patient’s abdominopelvic computed Tomography (CT are shown in figures 1 and 2.

  9. Early stage colon cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2013-01-01

    .... After resection of malignant pedunculated colon polyps or early stage colon cancers, long-term repeated surveillance programs can also lead to detection and removal of asymptomatic high risk advanced...

  10. Colon diverticula - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100158.htm Colon diverticula - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 6 out of 6 Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  11. Colon cancer - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100157.htm Colon cancer - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  12. Screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gel formulations

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    Ana Ochoa Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of vaginal drug delivery formulations requires special attention to vehicle properties that optimize vaginal coating and retention. The aim of the present work was to perform a screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gels formulated with carbomer or carrageenan in binary combination with a second polymer (carbomer, guar or xanthan gum. The gels were characterised using in vitroadhesion, spreadability and leakage potential studies, as well as rheological measurements (stress and frequency sweep tests and the effect of dilution with simulated vaginal fluid (SVF on spreadability. Results were analysed using analysis of variance and multiple factor analysis. The combination of polymers enhanced adhesion of both primary gelling agents, carbomer and carrageenan. From the rheological point of view all formulations presented a similar behaviour, prevalently elastic and characterised by loss tangent values well below 1. No correlation between rheological and adhesion behaviour was found. Carbomer and carrageenan gels containing the highest percentage of xanthan gum displayed good in vitro mucoadhesion and spreadability, minimal leakage potential and high resistance to dilution. The positive results obtained with carrageenan-xanthan gum-based gels can encourage the use of natural biocompatible adjuvants in the composition of vaginal products, a formulation field that is currently under the synthetic domain.

  13. Azole Antifungal Resistance in Candida albicans and Emerging Non-albicans Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Sarah G.; Berkow, Elizabeth L.; Rybak, Jeffrey M.; Nishimoto, Andrew T.; Barker, Katherine S.; Rogers, P. David

    2017-01-01

    Within the limited antifungal armamentarium, the azole antifungals are the most frequent class used to treat Candida infections. Azole antifungals such as fluconazole are often preferred treatment for many Candida infections as they are inexpensive, exhibit limited toxicity, and are available for oral administration. There is, however, extensive documentation of intrinsic and developed resistance to azole antifungals among several Candida species. As the frequency of azole resistant Candida isolates in the clinical setting increases, it is essential to elucidate the mechanisms of such resistance in order to both preserve and improve upon the azole class of antifungals for the treatment of Candida infections. This review examines azole resistance in infections caused by C. albicans as well as the emerging non-albicans Candida species C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. glabrata and in particular, describes the current understanding of molecular basis of azole resistance in these fungal species. PMID:28127295

  14. Postantifungal effect of caspofungin against the Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    Killing and postantifungal effects could be relevant for the selection of optimal dosing schedules. This study aims to compare time-kill and postantifungal effects with caspofungin on Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida africana) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis) clades. In the postantifungal effect experiments, strains were exposed to caspofungin for 1 h at concentrations 0.12-8 μg/mL. Time-kill experiments were conducted at the same concentrations. Caspofungin exhibited a significant and prolonged postantifungal effect (>37 h) with 2 μg/mL against the most strains of C. albicans clade. Against the C. parapsilosis clade, the postantifungal effect was albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. metapsilosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on Candida albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated from superficial candidiasis in outpatients in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M; Sadeghi, G; Zeinali, E; Alirezaee, M; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M; Amani, A; Mirahmadi, R; Tolouei, R

    2014-06-01

    Candidiasis is the most prevalent fungal infection affecting human and animals all over the world. This study represents the epidemiological aspects of superficial candidiasis in outpatients and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of etiologic Candida species. Clinical samples were taken from 173 patients including skin and nail scrapings (107; 61.8%), vaginal discharge (28; 16.2%), sputum (20; 11.6%), oral swabs (7; 4.0%), bronchoalveolar lavage (6; 3.5%) and 1 specimen (0.6%) of each eye tumor, gastric juice, urine, biopsy and urinary catheter and confirmed as candidiasis by direct microscopy, culture and histopathology. Susceptibility patterns of the isolated Candida species were determined using the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Among 173 Candida isolates, C. albicans (72.3%) was the most prevalent species followed by C. parapsilosis (11.5%). Other identified species were C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. intermedia and C. sake. Majority of the Candida isolates were susceptible to fluconazole (95.4%) followed by 5-flucytosine (89.6%), voriconazole (78.6%) itraconazole (48.0%) and ketoconazole (42.8%). Caspofungin was the most potent antifungal drug against C. albicans (MICs; 0.062-1 μg/mL), ketoconazole for C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis (MICs; 0.031-0.25 μg/mL) and itraconazole for C. krusei, C. glabrata and C. guilliermondii (MICs; 0.031-1 μg/mL). This study reinforces the significance of superficial candidiasis as an important fungal infection with multiple clinical presentations. Our results further indicate that susceptibility testing to commonly used antifungals is crucial in order to select the appropriate therapeutic strategies which minimize complications while improving patients' life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolated Candida infection of the lung

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    Yousef Shweihat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.

  18. Candida in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients: Identification of species and susceptibility to fluconazole in Cali, Colombia

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    Castro, Luz Ángela

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated yeast from the oral cavity of HIV-infected individuals. The use of fluconazole has increased the number of resistant or less-sensitive Candida species different from C. albicans, to this antifungal agent. Objective: To establish the Candida species present in the oral cavity of HIV-infected individuals at a hospital in Cali (Colombia, their population densities, and the susceptibility to fluconazole of species different from C. albicans. Materials and methods: Samples were cultured in CHROMagar Candida and the number of colony forming units (CFU was counted. Yeast identification was done with API 20C Aux, and the susceptibility tests to fluconazole, by Etest. Results: 230 patients were studied, and 202 isolates were obtained: 106 single and 96 mixed. C. albicans predominated, followed by C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata. Candida species other than C. albicans predominated in counts lower than 400 CFU/mL. Susceptibility study to fluconazole of species different from C. albicans showed that 14 (40 % of the isolates were susceptible dose-dependent and 7 (20 %, resistant. Conclusion: In the studied population, the oral cavity was colonized by non-wild type isolates that represent a risk for the development of oropharyngeal candidiasis resistant to fluconazole treatment.

  19. Cross-kingdom interactions: Candida albicans and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirtliff, Mark E; Peters, Brian M; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2009-10-01

    Bacteria and fungi are found together in a myriad of environments and particularly in a biofilm, where adherent species interact through diverse signaling mechanisms. Yet, despite billions of years of coexistence, the area of research exploring fungal-bacterial interactions, particularly within the context of polymicrobial infections, is still in its infancy. However, reports describing a multitude of wide-ranging interactions between the fungal pathogen Candida albicans and various bacterial pathogens are on the rise. An example of a mutually beneficial interaction is coaggregation, a phenomenon that takes place in oral biofilms where the adhesion of C. albicans to oral bacteria is considered crucial for its colonization of the oral cavity. In contrast, the interaction between C. albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is described as being competitive and antagonistic in nature. Another intriguing interaction is that occurring between Staphylococcus aureus and C. albicans, which although not yet fully characterized, appears to be initially synergistic. These complex interactions between such diverse and important pathogens would have significant clinical implications if they occurred in an immunocompromised host. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of adhesion and signaling involved in fungal-bacterial interactions may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for impeding microbial colonization and development of polymicrobial disease. © 2009 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fasciocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.N.; Whetzel, T.; Mathes, S.J.; Vasconez, L.O.

    1987-07-01

    A skin and fascia flap from the medial thigh is proposed for vaginal and perineal reconstruction. Dissection, vascular injection, and radiographs of 20 fresh cadaver limbs uniformly demonstrated the presence of a communicating suprafascial vascular plexus in the medial thigh. Three to four nonaxial vessels were consistently found to enter the proximal plexus from within 5 cm of the perineum. Preservation of these vessels permitted reliable elevation of a 9 X 20 cm fasciocutaneous flap without using the gracilis muscle as a vascular carrier. Fifteen flaps in 13 patients were used for vaginal replacement and coverage of vulvectomy, groin, and ischial defects. Depending on the magnitude of the defect, simultaneous and independent elevation of the gracilis muscle provided additional vascularized coverage as needed. Our experience indicates that the medial thigh fasciocutaneous flap is a durable, less bulky, and potentially sensate alternative to the gracilis musculocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction.

  1. Vaginal Biogenic Amines: Biomarkers of Bacterial Vaginosis or Precursors to Vaginal Dysbiosis?

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    Tiffanie Maree Nelson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common vaginal disorder among reproductive age women. One clinical indicator of BV is a ‘fishy’ odor. This odor has been associated with increases in several biogenic amines (BAs that may serve as important biomarkers. Within the vagina, BA production has been linked to various vaginal taxa, yet their genetic capability to synthesize BAs is unknown. Using a bioinformatics approach, we show that relatively few vaginal taxa are predicted to be capable of producing BAs. Many of these taxa (Dialister, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Megasphaera, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella spp. are more abundant in the vaginal microbial community state type (CST IV, which is depleted in lactobacilli. Several of the major Lactobacillus species (L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were identified as possessing gene sequences for proteins predicted to be capable of putrescine production. Finally, we show in a small cross sectional study of 37 women that the BAs putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine are significantly higher in CST IV over CSTs I and III. These data support the hypothesis that BA production is conducted by few vaginal taxa and may be important to the outgrowth of BV-associated (vaginal dysbiosis vaginal bacteria.

  2. A Novel Technique for Anterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse Repair: Anterior Vaginal Wall Darn

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    Osman Köse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study is to introduce a new technique, anterior vaginal wall darn (AVWD, which has not been used before to repair the anterior vaginal wall prolapse, a common problem among women. Materials and Methods. Forty-five women suffering from anterior vaginal wall prolapse were operated on with a new technique. The anterior vaginal wall was detached by sharp and blunt dissection via an incision beginning from the 1 cm proximal aspect of the external meatus extending to the vaginal apex, and the space between the tissues that attach the lateral walls of the vagina to the arcus tendineus fascia pelvis (ATFP was then darned. Preoperation and early postoperation evaluations of the patients were conducted and summarized. Results. Data were collected six months after operation. Cough stress test (CST, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q evaluation, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7, and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6 scores indicated recovery. According to the early postoperation results, all patients were satisfied with the operation. No vaginal mucosal erosion or any other complications were detected. Conclusion. In this initial series, our short-term results suggested that patients with grade II-III anterior vaginal wall prolapsus might be treated successfully with the AVWD method.

  3. Inhalant allergy compounding the chronic vaginitis syndrome: characterization of sensitization patterns, comorbidities and responses to sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoropoulos, Demetrios S; Stockdale, Colleen K; Duquette, Daniel R; Morris, Mary S

    2016-09-01

    To characterize sensitization patterns, diagnoses and comorbidities, and to assess the response of lower genital tract symptoms to sublingual immunotherapy for airborne allergens in a select population of patients with chronic vaginitis. Fifty-two patients referred for allergy evaluation over a 44 month period were studied. Charts were retrospectively reviewed to establish: (1) gynecological diagnoses, (2) allergic-immunological diagnoses, and (3) IgE-mediated sensitivity to airborne allergens on presentation. Patients were contacted at 9-50 months of treatment to assess response to sublingual immunotherapy based on a questionnaire addressing frequency and severity of symptoms and use of medication to control symptoms. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis was identified in 34 (65 %); vulvar vestibulitis syndrome in 12 (23 %); and contact dermatitis in 10 (19 %) patients. Comorbidities included: non-reflux gastrointestinal complaints in 11 (21 %), gastroesophageal reflux in 5 (9 %), migraines in 9 (17 %), chronic non-migrainous headaches in 8 (17 %), and chronic sinusitis in 6 patients (11 %). Asthma was diagnosed in 8 patients (15 %). Oral allergy syndrome was present in 6 (11 %). Most frequent sensitivities were to: ragweed in 33 (63 %), molds in 26 (50 %), dust mites in 23 (44 %), and grass in 12 (23 %) patients. Mono-sensitization was demonstrated for ragweed in 7 (13 %), and for molds, dust mites and grass for 3 (5 %) patients each. Candida sensitization was identified in 15 patients with chronic vaginitis (28 %). Eleven patients with recurrent vulvovaginal diagnosis (32 %) showed Candida sensitization. Response to immunotherapy was generally favorable with pruritus/irritation being more responsive than visceral pain. In a Midwestern referral population, chronic vaginitis compounded by inhalant allergy showed: (1) high incidence rate of recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, (2) Candida IgE-mediated sensitization in less than one-third of

  4. Pregnancy's stronghold on the vaginal microbiome.

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    Marina R S Walther-António

    Full Text Available To assess the vaginal microbiome throughout full-term uncomplicated pregnancy.Vaginal swabs were obtained from twelve pregnant women at 8-week intervals throughout their uncomplicated pregnancies. Patients with symptoms of vaginal infection or with recent antibiotic use were excluded. Swabs were obtained from the posterior fornix and cervix at 8-12, 17-21, 27-31, and 36-38 weeks of gestation. The microbial community was profiled using hypervariable tag sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene, producing approximately 8 million reads on the Illumina MiSeq.Samples were dominated by a single genus, Lactobacillus, and exhibited low species diversity. For a majority of the patients (n = 8, the vaginal microbiome was dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus throughout pregnancy. Two patients showed Lactobacillus iners dominance during the course of pregnancy, and two showed a shift between the first and second trimester from L. crispatus to L. iners dominance. In all of the samples only these two species were identified, and were found at an abundance of higher than 1% in this study. Comparative analyses also showed that the vaginal microbiome during pregnancy is characterized by a marked dominance of Lactobacillus species in both Caucasian and African-American subjects. In addition, our Caucasian subject population clustered by trimester and progressed towards a common attractor while African-American women clustered by subject instead and did not progress towards a common attractor.Our analyses indicate normal pregnancy is characterized by a microbiome that has low diversity and high stability. While Lactobacillus species strongly dominate the vaginal environment during pregnancy across the two studied ethnicities, observed differences between the longitudinal dynamics of the analyzed populations may contribute to divergent risk for pregnancy complications. This helps establish a baseline for investigating the role of the microbiome in

  5. Innate immunity to Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kiyoura

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is not a pathogen in healthy individuals, but can cause severe systemic candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans has various virulence factors and activates the innate immune system. Specifically, C. albicans induces proinflammatory cytokine production in various cell types via many receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs. This microorganism also promotes phagocytosis via CLRs on macrophages. In a previous study, we found that C. albicans induces the production of galectin-3, which is a known CLR that kills C. albicans. This review indicates that the use of mouthwash containing an antimicrobial peptide or protein might be a useful new oral care method for the prevention of oral candidiasis.

  6. Oral yeast colonization in peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients and renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulcan, Aynur; Gulcan, Erim; Keles, Mustafa; Aktas, Esin

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the frequency of oral yeast colonization (OYC) and the risk factors for patients who received continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or hemodialysis (HD) or were renal transplant recipients (RTRs). The patients admitted to the Nephrology Clinic at Ataturk University Medical School from January through April 2013 were included in the study. A questionnaire about risk factors was filled out, and swab cultures were taken from the tongue surface of each participant. OYC was detected in 32.1% of the RTRs, 40% of the HD patients, 20.9% of the CAPD patients, and 18% of the healthy control (HC) group. Of the 42 yeast strains isolated from the renal replacement therapy groups, 26 strains (61.9%) were Candida albicans, nine (21.4%) were Candida glabrata, two (4.7%) were Candida krusei, two (4.7%) were Candida kefyr, one (2.38%) was Candida parapsilosis, and two (4.7%) were Geotrichum candidum. Risk factors for OYC in the RTRs group included antibiotic use and the presence of dental prostheses; however, in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing CAPD, only the presence of dental prostheses was found to be a statistically significant risk factor. Although OYC was mostly detected in patients with chronic kidney disease (undergoing HD, a variety of isolated yeast strains in the RTRs was noted. The rates of OYC and isolated Candida species in CAPD were similar to those of the HC group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fanconi anemia and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Paula Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi Anemia (FA is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by chromosome instability, cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, and increased predisposition to malignancies. We describe here a 28 year-old female with FA and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma treated by radiation therapy alone. The patient developed arm phlebitis, pulmonary fungal infection, and severe rectal bleeding, followed by hypocalcaemia, hypokalemia, vaginal bacterial and fungal infection, with subsequent leg and arm phlebitis, perineal abscess, and sepsis. The patient died 12 weeks later.

  8. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-tao; Zheng, Jin-xin; Yu, Zhi-jian; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Pan, Wei-guang; Yang, Wei-zhi; Wang, Hong-yan; Deng, Qi-wen; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2015-04-01

    Sucrose gel was used to treat bacterial vaginosis in a phase III clinical trial. However, the changes of vaginal flora after treatment were only examined by Nugent score in that clinical trial, While the vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques is characterized by anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, few lactobacilli, and pH levels above 4.6, similar to the microbiota of patients with bacterial vaginosis. This study is aimed to investigate the change of the vaginal microbiota of rehsus macaques after topical use of sucrose gel to reveal more precisely the bacterial population shift after the topical application of sucrose gel. Sixteen rhesus macaques were treated with 0.5 g sucrose gel vaginally and three with 0.5 g of placebo gel. Vaginal swabs were collected daily following treatment. Vaginal pH levels and Nugent scores were recorded. The composition of the vaginal micotbiota was tested by V3∼V4 16S rDNA metagenomic sequencing. Dynamic changes in the Lactobacillus genus were analyzed by qPCR. The vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques are dominated by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, with few lactobacilli and high pH levels above 4.6. After five days' treatment with topical sucrose gel, the component percentage of Lactobacillus in vaginal microbiota increased from 1.31% to 81.59%, while the component percentage of Porphyromonas decreased from 18.60% to 0.43%, Sneathia decreased from 15.09% to 0.89%, Mobiluncus decreased from 8.23% to 0.12%, etc.. The average vaginal pH values of 16 rhesus macaques of the sucrose gel group decreased from 5.4 to 3.89. There were no significant changes in microbiota and vaginal pH observed in the placebo group. Rhesus macaques can be used as animal models of bacterial vaginosis to develop drugs and test treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the topical application of sucrose gel induced the shifting of vaginal flora of rhesus macaques from a BV kind of flora to a lactobacilli-dominating flora. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  9. Prolapso vaginal e uterino em ovelhas Uterine and vaginal prolapse in ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Maíra Bianchi R. Alves; Benesi,Fernando J.; Lilian Gregory; Della Libera, Alice M.M.P.; Sucupira,Maria Cláudia A.; Fábio C. Pogliani; Viviani Gomes

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou realizar um estudo retrospectivo sobre os prolapsos vaginal e uterino em ovelhas atendidas no Serviço de Clínica de Bovinos e Pequenos Ruminantes (CBPR) da FMVZ/USP no período compreendido entre 2000 a 2010, no qual, foram atendidas 56 ovinos com problemas inerentes ao sistema reprodutivo, dessas, 25 apresentaram prolapso vaginal ou uterino (44,6%). O prolapso vaginal total foi o de maior frequência (72%). As ovelhas acometidas, em sua maioria, possuíam idade sup...

  10. Preliminary findings on vaginal epithelial cells and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sahelian zone of Cameroon, in order to assess vaginal cytology and body temperature variations during oestrous cycle. Swabbing was done daily in the vagina, and vaginal smears were stained according to Romanowski method.

  11. Vaginitis: How Many Women Are Affected/at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About 3% of women of childbearing age have trichomoniasis. 4 Many women with vaginal infections have no ... a yeast infection. 15 to 20 women have trichomoniasis. Who gets vaginitis and who is at risk? ...

  12. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or... carbohydrate substrate. (2) The organism Candida quilliermondii is made nonviable and is completely removed...

  13. Candida Pneumonia in Intensive Care Unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Ronny M.; Linssen, Catharina F.; Guion, Nele; van Mook, Walther N.; Bergmans, Dennis C.

    2014-01-01

    It has been questioned if Candida pneumonia exists as a clinical entity. Only histopathology can establish the definite diagnosis. Less invasive diagnostic strategies lack specificity and have been insufficiently validated. Scarcity of this pathomechanism and nonspecific clinical presentation make validation and the development of a clinical algorithm difficult. In the present study, we analyze whether Candida pneumonia exists in our critical care population. We used a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimen database that we have built in a structural diagnostic approach to ventilator-associated pneumonia for more than a decade consisting of 832 samples. Microbiological data were linked to clinical information and available autopsy data. We searched for critically ill patients with respiratory failure with no other microbiological or clinical explanation than exclusive presence of Candida species in BAL fluid. Five cases could be identified with Candida as the likely cause of pneumonia. PMID:25734099

  14. Human genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, T.S.; Johnson, M.D.; Scott, W.K.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W. van der; Perfect, J.R.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Infections with Candida spp. have different manifestations in humans, ranging from mucosal to bloodstream and deep-seated disseminated infections. Immunocompromised patients have increased susceptibility to these types of infections, due to reduced capacity to elicit effective innate or adaptive

  15. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  16. Basic Genetics and Immunology of Candida Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Netea, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Candida infections can cause superficial and invasive disease. Several essential mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these infections were known for some time, such as neutropenia predisposing to invasive disease, and CD4 lymphopenia causing increased susceptibility to mucosal candidiasis.

  17. Candida infection of a prosthetic shoulder joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtman, E.A.

    1983-09-01

    A heroin addict developed a Candida parapsilosis infection in a prosthetic shoulder joint. Radiographs showed loose fragments of cement with prosthetic loosening. The patient was treated with removal of the prosthesis and intravenous amphotericin B followed by oral ketoconazole.

  18. Characterisation of probiotic properties in human vaginal lactobacilli strains

    OpenAIRE

    Hütt, Pirje; Lapp, Eleri; Štšepetova, Jelena; Smidt, Imbi; Taelma, Heleri; Borovkova, Natalja; Oopkaup, Helen; Ahelik, Ave; Rööp, Tiiu; Hoidmets, Dagmar; Samuel, Külli; Salumets, Andreas; Mändar, Reet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vaginal lactobacilli offer protection against recurrent urinary infections, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal candidiasis.Objective: To characterise the isolated vaginal lactobacilli strains for their probiotic properties and to compare their probiotic potential.Methods: The Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal samples by conventional culturing and identified by sequencing of the 16S rDNA fragment. Several functional properties were detected (production of hydrogen pero...

  19. OUTCOME OF INSTRUMENTAL VAGINAL DELIVERIES IN REFERRED CASES

    OpenAIRE

    Prameela; Asha; Prajwal

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Instrumental vaginal deliveries are important procedures. Performed in indicated cases and attending to the well laid criterias will reduce the fetal and maternal morbidity. These assisted instrumental vaginal deliveries help in reducing the caesarean sec tion rate. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and indications of instrumental vaginal deliveries. To know the maternal and fetal outcome in ventouse (vaccum assisted vaginal delivery) and...

  20. Clinical predictors and risk factors for vaginal mesh extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrucharoen, Usah; Ramart, Patkawat; Choi, Judy; Kang, Diana; Kim, Ja-Hong; Raz, Shlomo

    2017-11-24

    Our study aims to enhance the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis in patients with vaginal mesh extrusion following transvaginal mesh placement for pelvic organ prolapse using significant clinical parameters and risk factors. All patients who underwent vaginal mesh removal were retrospectively reviewed from January 2000 to May 2014. Eligible patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of vaginal mesh extrusion. A total of 862 patients, 798 were included. 357 (44.7%) had evidence of vaginal mesh extrusion, and 441 (55.3%) had no evidence of vaginal mesh extrusion. The mean age of the vaginal mesh extrusion group was slightly higher than in the group without vaginal mesh extrusion (58.7 ± 11.2 vs. 56.4 ± 11.5, respectively; p = 0.002). From multivariate analysis, the significant clinical correlations for vaginal mesh extrusion were vaginal bleeding [60 (16.9) vs. 14 (3.2%), p vaginal discharge [45 (12.6) vs. 18 (4.1%), p = 0.001]. The risk factors were multiple mesh implantations [218 (67.06) vs. 175 (39.68%), p vaginal atrophy, both local and systemic hormonal use, smoking status, and hysterectomy status, were not significantly different, as well as the clinical symptoms including dyspareunia, vaginal infection, and symptomatic vaginal bulge. Vaginal bleeding, hispareunia, and vaginal discharge were the most significant clinical predictors for raising suspicion of vaginal mesh extrusion. Multiple mesh implantations were a significant risk factor for extrusion.

  1. Development and Characterization of Nisin Nanoparticles as Potential Alternative for the Recurrent Vaginal Candidiasis Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Letícia Coli Louvisse; Todaro, Valerio; Sathler, Plinio Cunha; da Silva, Luiz Cláudio Rodrigues Pereira; do Carmo, Flávia Almada; Costa, Cleonice Marques; Toma, Helena Keiko; Castro, Helena Carla; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was the development and characterization of nisin-loaded nanoparticles and the evaluation of its potential antifungal activity. Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida sp. considered as one of the major public health problem currently. The discovery of antifungal agents that present a reduced or null resistance of Candida sp. and the development of more efficient drug release mechanisms are necessary for the improvement of candidiasis treatment. Nisin, a bacteriocin commercially available for more than 50 years, exhibits antibacterial action in food products with potential antifungal activity. Among several alternatives used to modulate antifungal activity of bacteriocins, polymeric nanoparticles have received great attention due to an effective drug release control and reduction of therapeutic dose, besides the minimization of adverse effects by the preferential accumulation in specific tissues. The nisin nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsification and solvent evaporation methods. Nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. Antifungal activity was accessed by pour plate method and cell counting using Candida albicans strains. The in vitro release profile and in vitro permeation studies were performed using dialysis bag method and pig vaginal mucosa in Franz diffusion cell, respectively. The results revealed nisin nanoparticles (300 nm) with spherical shape and high loading efficiency (93.88 ± 3.26%). In vitro test results suggest a promising application of these nanosystems as a prophylactic agent in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and other gynecological diseases.

  2. Pathogenic characteristics of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretion preserved under mineral oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Severo Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the pathogenicity of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretion of pregnant and non-pregnant women - stored in mineral oil at the URM Mycology Collection, Department of Mycology, Federal University of Pernambuco - 30 samples belonging to the genera Candida, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, and Kloeckera, were studied regarding their pathogenic characteristics, ability to grow at room temperature (28°C ± 1°C, 37°C, and 42°C for 72 hours, and production of both phospholipase and proteinase. Results showed that all 30 isolates (100% were able to grow at room temperature and 37°C, and that 17 samples (57% were able to grow at 42°C. Evaluation of enzymatic activity showed protease activity in only two isolates (7%, namely C. maritima and C. obtusa. Phospholipase activity was detected in 20 isolates (67% using soy lecithin as substrate at different temperatures. The characterization of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretion and determination of their enzymatic activity may contribute to understanding the epidemiology of vulvovaginitis and assist in the treatment of patients.

  3. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O, Joo Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis.

  4. An audit of instrumental vaginal delivery in Aminu Kano Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Operative vaginal delivery is used to shorten the second stage of labour. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of instrumental vaginal deliveries in a large teaching hospital. Study design and setting: Descriptive study involving 354 women, who either had forceps or vacuum operative vaginal ...

  5. Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidiasis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and clinical features associated with abnormal vaginal discharge and C. albicans infection in pregnant women. METHODS: High vaginal swab samples and data on epidemiological ...

  6. Complete utero vaginal prolapse in a woman with prolapsed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case: A case of irreducible complete utero-vaginal and infected sub-mucous fibroid prolapse, in a 45-year-old grandmultiparous woman, is reported. Bed rest and antibiotics failed to relief edema and infection of the vault. Vaginal myomectomy, followed by interval vaginal hysterectomy, and pelvic floor repair a week later ...

  7. A Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study of Vaginal Carriage of Group B Streptococci (GBS and Escherichia coli in Resource-Poor Settings: Prevalences and Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Cools

    Full Text Available One million neonates die each year in low- and middle-income countries because of neonatal sepsis; group B Streptococcus (GBS and Escherichia coli are the leading causes. In sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological data on vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage, a prerequisite for GBS and E. coli neonatal sepsis, respectively, are scarce but necessary to design and implement prevention strategies. Therefore, we assessed vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage rates and risk factors and the GBS serotype distribution in three sub-Saharan countries.A total of 430 women from Kenya, Rwanda and South Africa were studied cross-sectionally. Vaginal carriage of GBS and E. coli, and GBS serotype were assessed using molecular techniques. Risk factors for carriage were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis.Vaginal carriage rates in reference groups from Kenya and South Africa were 20.2% (95% CI, 13.7-28.7% and 23.1% (95% CI, 16.2-31.9%, respectively for GBS; and 25.0% (95% CI, 17.8-33.9% and 27.1% (95% CI, 19.6-36.2%, respectively for E. coli. GBS serotypes Ia (36.8%, V (26.3% and III (14.0% were most prevalent. Factors independently associated with GBS and E. coli carriage were Candida albicans, an intermediate vaginal microbiome, bacterial vaginosis, recent vaginal intercourse, vaginal washing, cervical ectopy and working as a sex worker. GBS and E. coli carriage were positively associated.Reduced vaginal GBS carriage rates might be accomplished by advocating behavioral changes such as abstinence from sexual intercourse and by avoidance of vaginal washing during late pregnancy. It might be advisable to explore the inclusion of vaginal carriage of C. albicans, GBS, E. coli and of the presence of cervical ectopy in a risk- and/or screening-based administration of antibiotic prophylaxis. Current phase II GBS vaccines (a trivalent vaccine targeting serotypes Ia, Ib, and III, and a conjugate vaccine targeting serotype III would not protect the majority of

  8. Association of microorganisms of reproductive tract of women with vaginal microbiome disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Sklyar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of the microbiome of the reproductive tract of women is quite common and can have significant consequences for the woman and for her sexual partners or to the fetus during pregnancy. The study of vaginal microbiome and biological properties of same microorganisms is a necessary step for choice the treatment strategy. The aim of research was to analyze qualitative and quantitative composition of microbiome of the vagina of women using the test-system Femoflor-16 and to study the ability of staphylococci strains to biofilm-formation. Using molecular genetic methods for detecting of microorganisms disorders of vaginal microbiome was confirmed in 92.7% of the surveyed women. It our study, 21 (41.2% cases of dysbiosis were found to accompany infectious diseases. Candida spp., Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma (urealyticum + parvum showed overwhelming. Most of the pathogens detected were a monoinfection (71%, with two-agent associations accounting for only 29% of the cases. The predominant associations of opportunistic bacteria, detected during disorders of vaginal microbiome, were Gardnerella vaginalis + Prevotella bivia + Porphyromonas spp. that found in 50.9% of patients and Megasphaera spp. + Veillonella spp. + Dialister spp. – found in 34.5% of patients. Among cases of monoinfection the most often found opportunistic pathogens were Eubacterium spp. – 50.9% of cases and Staphylococcus spp. – 49.1% of cases: 92.6% of these were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis and 7.4% – as Staphylococcus saprophyticus. 44% of S. epidermidis strains were able to form biofilm. None of S. saprophyticus strains was film-forming.

  9. Relationship among vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of female pelvic floor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa S; Hirakawa, Humberto S; Oliveira, Ana B; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The proper evaluation of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) is essential for choosing the correct treatment. Currently, there is no gold standard for the assessment of female PFM function. To determine the correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the female PFM. This cross-sectional study evaluated 80 women between 18 and 35 years of age who were nulliparous and had no pelvic floor dysfunction. PFM function was assessed based on digital palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic activity, bilateral diameter of the bulbocavernosus muscles and the amount of bladder neck movement during voluntary PFM contraction using transperineal bi-dimensional ultrasound. The Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis (ppalpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the PFM in nulliparous women. The strong correlation between digital palpation and PFM contraction pressure indicated that perineometry could easily be replaced by PFM digital palpation in the absence of equipment.

  10. Analysis of the in vitro adherence of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans Análise da aderência in vitro de Streptococcus mutans e Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicler de Sant'Anna Vitor Barbieri

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro adherence capacity of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. Adherence assays were conducted on dental surfaces and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Extracted human teeth were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans or Candida albicans and with both species simultaneously, and incubated at 37ºC for 21 days. Bacterial inocula had been obtained from saliva samples of children that had been colonized by both organisms. ATCC reference strains were used as controls. SEM analyses showed that the biofilm that covered the entire analyzed dental surface was more homogeneous inoculated with the two microorganisms simultaneously than with each species separately. In a second experiment, carried out with isolates that had shown the highest adherence the isolates were tested for adherence to high-density polyethylene substrates. The potentialization of the adherence capacity of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans when in association was confirmed.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a capacidade de aderência in vitro de Streptococcus mutans e Candida albicans. Ensaios de aderência foram realizados in vitro na superfície dentária, com posterior análise por Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (M.E.V.. Dentes humanos extraídos foram inoculados com Streptococcus mutans e Candida albicans, além de ambas espécies em conjunto, e foram incubados a 37ºC por 21 dias. Os inóculos eram provenientes de amostras salivares de crianças colonizadas por ambos microrganismos. Como controles foram utilizadas linhagens de referência ATCC dos dois microrganismos. A análise por M.E.V. mostrou a formação de um biofilme que cobriu toda a superfície dentária analisada de forma mais homogênea quando incubados juntos do que separadamente. Um segundo experimento foi desenvolvido utilizando isolados mostrando maior aderência dos experimentos anteriores e cortes de polietileno

  11. [Prolapse surgery. With abdominal or vaginal meshes?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertzer, H; Schneider, P; Thelen, P; Ringert, R H; Strauß, A

    2012-09-01

    In prolapse surgery several surgical techniques are available. The different open, laparoscopic and vaginal approaches are distinguished by distinct success and relapse rates and operation-specific complications. A safe and optimal therapeutic pelvic floor surgery should be based on the three support levels according to DeLancy and be individually adjusted for every patient. The vaginal approach may be used for all kinds of female genital prolapse and is a comparatively less invasive technique with a short time of convalescence. Apart from stress incontinence there is no need for synthetic meshes in primary approaches and excellent results with low complication and relapse rates can be achieved. An uncritical application of synthetic material is to be avoided in vaginal repair at all times. Abdominal surgical techniques, both open and laparoscopic, present their strengths in the therapeutic approach to level 1 defects or stress incontinence. They provide excellent functional and anatomical corrections and low relapse rates. Abdominally inserted meshes have lower complication rates than vaginal ones.

  12. Predictors of vaginal delivery in nulliparous mothers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nulliparity is an obstetric high-risk group whose labor, compared with multiparae, are more likely to develop labor abnormalities that requires intervention. The aim of this report is todetermine factors that influence vaginal delivery in nulliparae. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was ...

  13. Vaginal plethysmography in women with dyspareunia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouda, JC; Hartman, Petra M; Bakker, Riksta M; Bakker, JO; van de Wiel, HBM; Schultz, WCMW

    We investigated by means of vaginal plethysmography the extent to which the genital reactions of women with dyspareunia (N = 18) differed from those of women without dyspareunia (N = 16) during sexual arousal. In addition, we used questionnaires to investigate whether the genital reaction was

  14. Vaginal Lacerations from Consensual I