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Sample records for vaginae ante partum

  1. Analysis of ante-partum maternal morbidity in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Nitai; Islam, M Ataharul; Chowdhury, Rafiqul Islam; Bari, Wasimul

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a prospective study of maternal morbidity during the ante-partum period in rural areas of Bangladesh. The data came from a survey of Maternal Morbidity in Bangladesh, conducted by the Bangladesh Institute of Research for Promotion of Essential and Reproductive Health and Technologies (BIRPERHT) during the period from November 1992 to December 1993. Since then no such national level survey has been conducted in Bangladesh. This paper employs multiple-decrement life table technique, a convenient way of analysing the risks of different types of disease conditions that women experience during the antenatal period for different age categories. The high-risk complications such as ante-partum haemorrhage, excessive vomiting, fits/convulsion and oedema were considered in this study. In this study a cause specific model was applied to explore the differences in the risks exerted at different ages of reproductive life attributable to some selected complications of pregnancy. The results of this study indicate that women of age 25-29 years are less susceptible to most of the selected life-threatening and high-risk complications during pregnancy such as haemorrhage, fits/convulsion and oedema. However, younger women (age or = 30 years) are at greater risk of haemorrhage, fits/convulsion and oedema.

  2. Untersuchungen zur Involution der Vagina and Zervix beim Rind post partum unter Berücksichtigung der Zervix als Geburtshindernis

    OpenAIRE

    Wehrend, Axel

    2002-01-01

    Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es die physiologische Involution der Zervix im Vergleich zur Vagina beim Rind während der ersten zehn Tage post partum zu charakterisieren. Weiterhin sollte durch klinische Untersuchungen an Kühen nach Dystokie und einer retrospektiven Datenauswertung von Schwergeburten unterschiedlicher Tierarten der Anteil zervikal bedingter Geburtsstockungen im Interspeziesvergleich analysiert und Einflussfaktoren auf das Auftreten dieser Dystokieform sowie Störungen in der...

  3. Ante partum depression and husband’s mental problem increased risk maternity blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Ismail

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternity blues disorder (MB is common, and it is usually undiagnosed. This study to identify several risk factors related to MB. Subjects were pregnant women who had antenatal and delivery at the Persahabatan Hospital (RSP Jakarta from 1 November 1999 to 15 August 2001. Consecutive sampling and was followed-up until two-week postpartum. Those who ever had psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders were excluded. MB and ante partum depression (APD detected by using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Husband’s mental status based on Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90 respectively. Among 580 subjects, 25% suffering from MB. Compared with those who did not have APD, those who experienced it had more than three-fold increased risk to be MB [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.57; 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.54;5.03]. Those who had not healthy baby on the first 5 days afterbirth than who had healthy baby had twice increased risk to be MB (aHR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.34 ; 3.66. Who had husband with problem in mental health had 1.9 increased risk to be MB (aHR = 1.91; 95% CI = 1.36 ; 2.68. Stress during pregnancy had 1.6 increased risk to be MB (aHR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.14 ; 2.25. To control MB, special attention should be paid to women who had APD history, who had unhealthy baby on 5 first days afterbirth, who had husbands’ mental health problems, and who had stress during pregnancy. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:74-80Keywords: ante partum, maternity blues, depression, mental problem

  4. Socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors of ante-partum fetal death in a tertiary care hospital in Dhaka City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, A K; Sultana, N; Chowdhury, S; Azim, E

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the socio-demographic profile and to identify the risk factors of ante-partum fetal death which occurs after the age of viability of fetus. This prospective observational study was conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of Ad-din Women Medical College Hospital from June 2009 to July 2010. A total of 14,015 pregnant patients were admitted in the study place after the age of viability, which was taken as 28 weeks of gestation for our facilities. Eighty-three (0.59%) of them were identified as intrauterine fetal death. Assessment of maternal socio-demographic characteristics and maternal-fetal risk factors were evaluated with a semi structured questionnaire which was pre-tested before executing in this study. Majority (81.92%, n=68) of the patients were below 30 years of age, 78.31% belonged to middle socioeconomic group. Almost 58% women had education below secondary school certificate (SSC) level and 28.91% took regular antenatal checkup. About 61.45% patients were multi-gravida. Most (59.04%) ante-partum deaths were identified below 32 weeks of pregnancy. Out of 83 patients, maternal risk factors were identified in 41(49.59%) cases where fetal risk factors were found in 16(19.27%) cases; no risk factors could be determined in rests. Hypertension (48.78%), diabetes (21.95%), hyperpyrexia (17.3%), abruptio placentae (4.88%) and UTI (7.36%) were identified as maternal factors; and congenital anomaly (37.5%), Rh incompatibility (37.5%), multiple pregnancy (12.5%) and post-maturity (12.5%) were the fetal risk factors. Here, proximal biological risk factors are most important in ante-partum fetal deaths. More investigations and facilities are needed to explain the causes of ante-partum deaths.

  5. ANT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Duim, René; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór

    2017-01-01

    Ten years ago actor-network theory (ANT) entered this journal. To illustrate how the relational ontology and sensibilities of ANT lend themselves to particular kinds of research, we first interrogate the main controversies as a way to open up and discuss the main premises of ANT. These debates...... concern the status and agency of objects and non-humans, ANT’s denial of the explanatory power of social structures, and the political implications of ANT. Second we present ANT’s relevance for tourism studies and discuss what ANT ‘does’ in practice. After summarizing a decade of relations between ANT...... and tourism, we conclude by tracing three future trajectories of how we have ‘moved away with’ ANT into new areas of discovery....

  6. Post-partum acute kidney injury

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    Naresh Pahwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the risk factors, course of hospital stay and mortality rate among women with post-partum acute kidney injury (AKI, we studied (of 752 patients with AKI admitted to a tertiary care center during the study period between November 2009 and August 2012 27 (3.59% women with post-partum AKI. The data regarding age, parity, cause of renal failure, course of hospital stay and requirement of dialysis were recorded. Sepsis was the major cause (70.3% of post-partum AKI. Other causes included disseminated intravascular coagulation (55.5%, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (40.7%, ante- and post-partum hemorrhage (40.7% and 22.2% and hemolytic anemia and elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count syndrome (29.6%; most patients had more than one cause of AKI. We found a very high prevalence (18.5% of cortical necrosis in our study patients. A significant correlation was also found between the creatinine level on admission and the period of onset of disease after delivery. In conclusion, several factors are involved in causing post-partum AKI in our population, and sepsis was the most common of them.

  7. [Post-partum thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Celestino; Alves, Marta; Delgado, Luís; Medina, J Luís

    2009-01-01

    In the post-partum period the immune alterations are associated with the multiple autoimmune diseases relapse. After birth, immune-tolerance variation slowly disappear, and is observed a return to a normal state - after an exacerbation period - of autoimmune reactivity, during which a great increase in T cells and autoantibodies is observed. In this period - 3 to 9 months after birth - the thyroid autoimmune disease relapses or reappears. The reactivation of the immune system in the post-partum period unchains an acute phase of celular destruction which characterizes the post-partum thyroiditis.

  8. Dangers of the vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit-Hallahmi, B

    1985-12-01

    Beliefs, myths, and literary expressions of men's fear of female genitals are reviewed. Both clinical evidence and folklore provide evidence that men imagine female genitals not only as a source of pleasure and attraction, but also as a source of danger in a very physical sense. The vagina dentata myth has many versions, including some modern ones, and its message is always the same: an awesome danger emanating from a woman's body. The prevalence of such feelings in folklore and in literature is noted.

  9. Antibiotic susceptibility of Atopobium vaginae

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    Verschraegen Gerda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were found to be highly resistant to metronidazole and susceptible for clindamycin, two antibiotics preferred for the treatment of BV. Methods Nine strains of Atopobium vaginae, four strains of Gardnerella vaginalis, two strains of Lactobacillus iners and one strain each of Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents using the Etest. Results All nine strains of A. vaginae were highly resistant to nalidixic acid and colistin while being inhibited by low concentrations of clindamycin (range: G. vaginalis strains were also susceptible for clindamycin ( 256 μg/ml but susceptible to clindamycin (0.023 – 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion Clindamycin has higher activity against G. vaginalis and A. vaginae than metronidazole, but not all A. vaginae isolates are metronidazole resistant, as seemed to be a straightforward conclusion from previous studies on a more limited number of strains.

  10. Vesicouterine fistula and blind vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M.; Hameed, S.; Asif, S.

    2003-01-01

    A case of vesicouterine fistula with blind vagina following cesarean section for obstructed labor is presented. It was surgically treated by fistulectomy, cervicoplasty and maintenance of bladder and cervical potency by catheterization. Intrauterine synechiae formation was prevented by copper T insertion and oral contraceptive pills. The patient is making uneventful a symptomatic progress planning to conceive. (author)

  11. Prevalence and associated risk factors of ante-partum hemorrhage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-09

    Oct 9, 2011 ... A total of 2,056 pregnant women, who had any kind of maternal complications, were approached and .... information on bleeding collected by patient recall during ..... Arnold DL, Williams MA, Miller RS, Qiu C, Sorensen TK.

  12. Obstructed uteri with a cervix and vagina.

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    Wright, Kelly Nicole; Okpala, Ogochukwu; Laufer, Marc R

    2011-01-01

    To describe a rare anomaly of the female reproductive tract and review the embryology associated with the defect. Case report and review of the literature. Major academic medical center. A 14-year-old girl with two hemiuteri lacking any communication with a single normal midline cervix and vagina. Diagnostic laparoscopy with chromopertubation to identify the anomaly and subsequent bilateral supracervical hemihysterectomies. Incidence, pathogenesis, fertility implications, and treatment options for patients with congenital defects in the upper vagina, cervix, and uterus. Based on classic embryology, the lower vagina forms from the urogenital sinus while the upper vagina, cervix, and uterus form from the müllerian ducts. If a cervix is present, then the upper vagina and uterus are also usually present and should communicate. This anomaly cannot be fully explained by traditional embryologic developmental theory. It is likely that an insult occurred between 9 weeks, when the uterovaginal canal is formed, and 12 weeks, when the müllerian ducts fuse. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Post partum depression: future perspectives].

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    Pinna, Martina; Zompo, Maria Del

    2012-01-01

    Post partum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric illness approximately affecting 10-20% of women after childbirth. The objective of this work is to update our knowledge of PPD giving particular emphasis to etiopathogenetic hypotheses. An accurate search of the literature on this topic was conducted using free dedicated websites such as PubMed. The most recent studies reveal that PPD is a complex disease, whose pathogenesis is not yet clarified, determined by a mix of genetic, biological and environmental factors. Genetic studies have shown a possible involvement of polymorphisms of genes coding for serotonin transporter, 5HT2A and 5HT2C receptors, HMCN1 and METTL13 genes, D2 receptor and GABAA receptor (GABAAR). The involvement of these systems might provide an explanation of the relations among genetic alterations, hormonal fluctuations in the post partum, changes in neurotransmission and mood fluctuations typical of PPD. The results obtained so far are not exhaustive. However, there is a substantial evidence showing that patients with PPD may have a high genetic vulnerability, although we have not been able yet to pinpoint a specific biological marker of the disease. Recent research is focusing on the δ subunit of GABAAR and the possible role of selective agonists of this subunit, such as gaboxadol, in the treatment of PPD.

  14. Imaging of the vagina and vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Luis Ronan Marquez Ferreira de; Szejnfeld, Jacob; Signorini Filho, Roney Cesar; Marques, Renato Moretti; Nicolau, Sergio Mancini; Goldman, Suzan Menasce

    2006-01-01

    In gynecological daily practices, the vulva and vagina are examined during physical examination, however there are situations where this is not possible or it is needed to determine the extension of an injury through imaging methods. The magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent cross-sectional modality for evaluation the alterations of vulva and vagina due its multiplanar evaluation and high tecidual contrast. Other cross-sectional modalities are ultrasound and enhanced computed tomography. This paper intends to give an overview of vaginal and vulvar pathology that can be identified by the radiologist. (author)

  15. Foreign bodies retained in the vagina: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Smiti; Singhal, Savita Rani; Marya, Ashima

    2006-04-01

    Foreign bodies have been found in the vagina in a variety of forms. A 3-year-old girl had a variety of foreign bodies in her vagina. One should always think of foreign bodies in the vagina in cases of vaginal discharge in childhood.

  16. Lactobacillus-deficient vaginal microbiota dominate post-partum women in rural Malawi.

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    Doyle, Ronan; Gondwe, Austridia; Fan, Yue-Mei; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Klein, Nigel; Harris, Kathryn

    2018-01-05

    The bacterial community found in the vagina is an important determinant of a woman's health and disease. A healthy vaginal microbiota is associated with a lower species richness and high proportions of one of a number of different Lactobacillus spp.. When disrupted the resulting abnormal vaginal microbiota is associated with a number of disease states and poor pregnancy outcomes. Studies up until now have concentrated on relatively small numbers of American and European populations which may not capture the full complexity of the community, nor adequately predict what constitutes a healthy microbiota in all populations. In this study we sampled and characterised the vaginal microbiota from a cohort of 1107 women in rural Malawi found on vaginal swabs taken post-partum. We found a population dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and devoid of the most common vaginal Lactobacillus species, even if the vagina was sampled over a year post-partum. The Lactobacillus -deficient anaerobic community commonly labelled community state type (CST) 4 could be sub-divided into four further communities. A Lactobacillus iners dominated vaginal microbiota became more common the longer after delivery the vagina was sampled, but G. vaginalis remained the dominant organism. These results outline the difficulty in all-encompassing definitions of what a healthy or abnormal vaginal microbiota is post-partum. Previous identification of community state types and associations between bacterial species, bacterial vaginosis and adverse birth outcomes may not represent the complex heterogeneity of the microbiota present. Importance A bacterial community in the vaginal tract that is dominated by small number of bacterial Lactobacillus species and when they are not present, there is a greater incidence of inflammatory conditions and adverse birth outcomes. A switch to a vaginal bacterial community lacking in Lactobacillus species is common after pregnancy. In this study we characterised the vaginal

  17. Uterus didelphys associated with unilateral imperforate vagina.

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    Gilliland, B; Dyck, F

    1976-07-01

    Two cases of uterus didelphys associated with unilateral imperforate vagina are reported with a review of the literature. In all cases investigated, ipsilateral renal agenesis was found on the affected side. A summary of the embryologic development of the female reproductive tract is included, as well as a possible explanation for this rare anomaly. The authors describe their proposed method of management to achieve freedom from symptoms and maintenance of a relatively intact reproductive tract.

  18. the occurrence of post partum anoestrus in bonsmara cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    duration of post partum anoestrus than gain in body mass. Post pactum ... and Bos Taurus cattle to improve fertility and milk pro- duction in high .... The occurrence of post partum anoestrus in beef cows under ranching conditions. Proc.

  19. Revisiting old vaginal topics: conversion of the Müllerian vagina and origin of the "sinus" vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal development has been a longstanding controversy, which hampers studies on vaginal diseases as well as cervical and uterine diseases. Most concerns center on: why is the vaginal epithelium different from the uterine epithelium; and where does the vagina originate from? It is commonly held that the rodent vagina has a dual origin: the cranial part is derived from the Mullerian duct (Mullerian vagina) and the caudal part derived from the urogenital sinus (sinus vagina). This concept was deduced from morphological observations. However, it cannot explain the difference between the Mullerian vagina and the uterus. Moreover, accumulating new data from genetic and molecular studies contradicts the urogenital sinus origin of the sinus vagina. The present review summarizes previous morphological observations and new findings from genetic and molecular studies, and addresses molecular mechanisms underlying the origin and organogenesis of the vagina in rodents. It provides evidence to show that the whole vagina is derived the Mullerian duct. BMP4 reshapes the intermediate mesoderm-derived Mullerian duct into the vaginal primordium. The latter thus exhibits different features from the uterus, including the stratified squamous epithelium and insensitivity to anti-Mullerian hormone. The sinus vagina is formed by extrinsic BMP4-mediated caudal extension of the Mullerian duct. The present review thus shows how a century of controversy over the origin and organogenesis of the vagina has been resolved. This new understanding will provide additional insight into genetic diseases and tumors of the female reproductive tract.

  20. PRIMIPARA POST PARTUM DEPRESSION DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

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    Esha Pradnyana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and the first child birth is an influential complex event for a mother, which is where everything including phsycal and psyological aspects. This change can make mother psyological disorder, that can lead into depression after childbearing that call post childbearing depression or post partum depression. A wide review at 59 study make a result that 13% among primipara can suffer post partum depression 12 weeks after childbearing. Estabilishmet of this diagnosis, besides from history and symptoms, and can be supported through test Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale( EPDS . Patient with post partum depression, given treatment with antidepressant drug. Breastfeeding is not only to reduce stress for the mother, but also reduce the level of stress on a baby when his mother suffered depression

  1. [Hypertension and pregnancy: Post-partum period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugon-Rodin, Justine; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    Post-partum period is associated with specific characteristics in women with gestational disorders or preeclampsia. For breastfeeding women, the choice of antihypertensive treatment should take into account the impact on child health. The impact of breastfeeding on health mother must be also discussed. Moreover, for lactation inhibition, bromocriptine should not be used, especially in the context of gestational disorders. In post-partum period, the best contraceptive strategy is only-progestin contraception or non-hormonal contraceptives use. However, this choice will depend on the stabilization or normalization of blood pressure in early post-partum period. Finally, several consultations should be suggested: an information and announcement to explain the consequences of these gestational disorders and organize their multidisciplinary management and follow-up. A preconceptional consultation takes its place to anticipate potential recurrent preeclampsia or gestational hypertension and to schedule a future pregnancy in optimal conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. [Risk factors in post partum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Monica; Battaglia, Eliana; Massimino, Marta; Aguglia, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    It is commonly believed that pregnancy is a time of good mental health. However it has been observed, until recently, that many pregnant women, above all in post partum period, manifest depressive symptoms like sadness, social withdrawal and lack of motivation. The consequences are enormous, for mother mental health and for the psychical development of the baby. It becomes therefore necessary to screening and to precociously intervene on these pathological conditions and thanks also to the suitable knowledge of the risk factors for the potential development of depression post partum.

  3. [Unusual leukoencephalopathy of post-partum].

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    Hsaini, Y; Karouache, A; Bourazza, A

    2011-08-01

    Neurologic complications of post-partum are serious and usually secondary to eclampsia or stroke. We here report a 26-year-old female who presented with severe headaches, blurred vision, and repeated generalized seizures secondary to posterior reversible encephalopathy that occurred after a caesarean section for fetal death in utero. Outcome was favourable. Although uncommon, this neurologic complication of the post-partum should be discussed in the presence of any sign of encephalopathy occurring in the context of acute hypertension. Copyright © 2010 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Histochemical and histological investigations on the vagina of the beagle she-dog during various functional conditions (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, K H; El Etreby, M F; Günzel, P

    1975-01-01

    Histotopochemistry and histology of vaginal epithelium in female beagles were studied during oestrus, metoestrus-dioestrus, post partum period and at days 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 of pregnancy. During oestrus the epithelium is uniform throughout the whole vagina: it presents itself as a high, uncornified, stratified squamous epithelium with some glycogen and lipid droplets but devoid of leucocytes. The intercellular gaps of the stratum intermedium give strong reactions for ATPase and alkaline phosphatase. The activities of oxidoreductases studied decrease continuously from basal to apical. During gravidity, post partum period and metoestrus-dioestrus distinct morphological and histochemical differences can be stated between the cranial and caudal vaginal portions. Caudal vaginal epithelium outside oestrus remains of stratified squamous type. It exhibits strong mucification during pregnancy. The PAS-positive mucous substances prefer a position in the enlarged intercellular gaps of stratum intermedium and superficiale. During pregnancy the epithelium is relatively rich in acid and completely devoid of alkaline phosphatases. Outside oestrus the epithelium of the cranial vaginal region is a relatively flat, stratified columnar one and contains leucocytes with regularity. Also the cranial vaginal portion undergoes mucification during pregnancy with a maximum about day 33. The mucous material is situated intracellularly and not within the intercellular gaps. Further, larger intraepithelial mucus cysts are observed. Alkaline phosphatase is found during gravidity in the basal region and an adluminal border of the epithelium. The reactions for oxidoreductases are strongest in the columnar cell layer which shows more functional adaptations than the remainder of the epithelium. Histochemical tests for beta-D-glucuronidase and leucine aminopeptidase give negative results in the whole vagina during all different functional stages studied.

  5. Beyond ANT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Till

    2017-01-01

    Actor-Network-Theory (ANT) offers an ‘infra-language’ of the social that allows one to trace social relations very dynamically, while at the same time dissolving human agency, thus providing a flat and de-centred way into sociology. However, ANT struggles with its theoretical design that may lead...... us to reduce agency to causation and to conceptualize actor-networks as homogeneous ontologies of force. This article proposes to regard ANT’s inability to conceptualize reflexivity and the interrelatedness of different ontologies as the fundamental problem of the theory. Drawing on Günther......, it offers an ‘infra-language’ of reflexive relations while maintaining ANT’s de-centred approach. This would enable us to conceptualize actor-networks as non-homogeneous, dynamic and connecting different societal rationales while maintaining the main strengths of ANT....

  6. Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    B. V. Triveni; Salman Mohammed Sheikh; Deepak Shedde

    2014-01-01

    Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinicopathological syndrome associated with various clinical conditions presenting with headache, encephalopathy, seizure and cortical visual disturbances. Radiological findings in PRES are thought to be due to vasogenic edema predominantly in posterior cerebral hemispheres and are reversible with appropriate management. We present a case of post partum PRES,A 29 year old primigravida of 33 weeks 3 days period of gestation who prese...

  7. Recurrent post-partum coronary artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resnic Frederic S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coronary artery dissection is a rare but well-described cause for myocardial infarction during the post-partum period. Dissection of multiple coronary arteries is even less frequent. Here we present a case of recurrent post-partum coronary artery dissections. This unusual presentation poses unique problems for management. A 35 year-old female, gravida 3 para 2, presented with myocardial infarction 9 weeks and 3 days post-partum. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated left anterior descending (LAD dissection but an otherwise normal coronary anatomy. The lesion was treated with four everolimus eluting stents. Initially the patient made an unremarkable recovery until ventricular fibrillation arrest occurred on the following day. Unsynchronized cardioversion restored a normal sinus rhythm and repeat catheterization revealed new right coronary artery (RCA dissection. A wire was passed distally, but it was unclear whether this was through the true or false lumen and no stents could be placed. However, improvement of distal RCA perfusion was noted on angiogram. Despite failure of interventional therapy the patient was therefore treated conservatively. Early operation after myocardial infarction has a significantly elevated risk of mortality and the initial dissection had occurred within 24 hours. This strategy proved successful as follow-up transthoracic echocardiography after four months demonstrated a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction of 55-60% without regional wall motion abnormalities. The patient remained asymptomatic from a cardiac point of view.

  8. Bacteria Isolated from Post-Partum Infections

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    Nahid Arianpour

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken with an aim to determine bacterial species involved in post partum infections and also their abundance in patients admitted to at Khanevadeh hospital. In this study out of three different kinds of postpartum infections (i.e. genital, breast and urinary tract, only genital infection is considered.Materials and Methods: Post partum infection among 6077 patients (inpatients and re-admitted patients of Khanevadeh hospital from 2003 till 2008 was studied in this descriptive study. Samples were collected from patients for laboratory diagnosis to find out the causative organisms.Results: Follow up of mothers after delivery revealed 7.59% (461 patients had post partum infection, out of which 1.03% (63 patients were re-hospitalized. Infection was more often among younger mothers. Bacteria isolated and identified were both aerobic and anaerobic cocci and bacilli, majority of which were normal flora of the site of infection. Though, some pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis,were also the causative agents. The commonest infection was infection at the site of episiotomy. Conclusion: Puerperal infection was detected in of 7.59% mothers. Bacteria isolated were both aerobic and anaerobic cocci and bacilli, majority of which were normal flora. However; some pathogenic bacteria were isolated.

  9. Limbic encephalitis presenting as a post-partum psychiatric condition.

    OpenAIRE

    Gotkine, Marc; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Vincent, Angela; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe a woman who presented with a psychiatric disorder post-partum and subsequently developed seizures and cognitive dysfunction prompting further investigation. A diagnosis of limbic encephalitis (LE) was made and antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) detected. These antibodies are found in many non-paraneoplastic patients with LE. Although antibody-mediated conditions tend to present or relapse post-partum, VGKC-LE in the post-partum period has not b...

  10. Antimicrobial topical agents used in the vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey Tirri, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Vaginally applied antimicrobial agents are widely used in the vagina in women with lower genital tract infections. An 'antimicrobial' is a general term that refers to a group of drugs that are effective against bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa. Topical treatments can be prescribed for a wide variety of vaginal infections. Many bacterial infections, such as bacterial vaginosis, desquamative inflammatory vaginitis or, as some European authors call it, aerobic vaginitis as well as infection with Staphylococcus aureus or group A streptococci, may be treated in this way. Candida vulvovaginitis is a fungal infection that is very amenable to topical treatment. The most common viral infections which can be treated with topical medications are condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex. The most often encountered protozoal vaginitis, which is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, may be susceptible to topical medications, although this infection is treated systemically. This chapter covers the wide variety of commonly used topical antimicrobial agents for these diseases and focuses on the individual therapeutic agents and their clinical efficacy. In addition, potential difficulties that can occur in practice, as well as the usage of these medications in the special setting of pregnancy, are described in this chapter. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Post Partum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, W.; Marth, C.; Bergant, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic birth experiences may lead to serious psychological impairment. Recent studies show that a considerable number of women can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in some cases in a subsyndromal form. Until now, the possibility that postpartum psychological symptoms might be a continuum of a pre-existing disorder in pregnancy has rarely been considered. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the proportion of women who develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth. Materials and Methods: 56 multiparous women were recruited for the study. The diagnosis of PTSD was made according to the criteria for psychological disorders in the DSM-IV (Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). The data were collected in structured interviews in the 30th to 38th week of gestation and in the 6th week post partum. Results: Of the 56 women participating, 52 (93 %) completed the survey. Uncontrolled results showed that 21.15 % of the multiparous women met the full diagnostic PTSD criteria in the 6th week post partum. After the exclusion of all cases already characterised by all criteria or a subsyndromal form of PTSD caused by previous traumatisation, the PTSD rate was below 8 % at 6 weeks postpartum (= incidence rate of PTSD post partum). Conclusions: The present study is the first prospective longitudinal study to demonstrate the occurrence of full criteria PTSD in multiparous women as a result of childbirth after having excluded pre-existing PTSD. The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of PTSD during pregnancy. A number of women report all aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth. PMID:25253905

  12. Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Anne Albers; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Obaid, Hayder

    2015-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a complex clinical condition with vasogenic subcortical oedema caused by hypertension. Oedema is often seen on magnetic resonance imaging. The wide clinical spectrum ranges from headaches to vision loss and even death. Early diagnosis...... and treatment is important for the reversibility of the condition. In this case report we emphasize the importance of blood pressure control in a post-partum woman, who had a rather complicated pregnancy. The symptoms of PRES were not recognized immediately because of failure to use and acknowledge a blood...

  13. Post partum posteriort reversibeltencefalopati-syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Anne Albers; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Obaid, Hayder

    2015-01-01

    and treatment is important for the reversibility of the condition. In this case report we emphasize the importance of blood pressure control in a post-partum woman, who had a rather complicated pregnancy. The symptoms of PRES were not recognized immediately because of failure to use and acknowledge a blood......Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a complex clinical condition with vasogenic subcortical oedema caused by hypertension. Oedema is often seen on magnetic resonance imaging. The wide clinical spectrum ranges from headaches to vision loss and even death. Early diagnosis...

  14. Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Anne Albers; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Obaid, Hayder

    2015-01-01

    and treatment is important for the reversibility of the condition. In this case report we emphasize the importance of blood pressure control in a post-partum woman, who had a rather complicated pregnancy. The symptoms of PRES were not recognized immediately because of failure to use and acknowledge a blood......Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a complex clinical condition with vasogenic subcortical oedema caused by hypertension. Oedema is often seen on magnetic resonance imaging. The wide clinical spectrum ranges from headaches to vision loss and even death. Early diagnosis...

  15. [Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaen, Anne Albers; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Obaid, Hayder; Bülow, Hans Henrik

    2015-11-23

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a complex clinical condition with vasogenic subcortical oedema caused by hypertension. Oedema is often seen on magnetic resonance imaging. The wide clinical spectrum ranges from headaches to vision loss and even death. Early diagnosis and treatment is important for the reversibility of the condition. In this case report we emphasize the importance of blood pressure control in a post-partum woman, who had a rather complicated pregnancy. The symptoms of PRES were not recognized immediately because of failure to use and acknowledge a blood pressure test.

  16. Limbic encephalitis presenting as a post-partum psychiatric condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotkine, Marc; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Vincent, Angela; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi

    2011-09-15

    We describe a woman who presented with a psychiatric disorder post-partum and subsequently developed seizures and cognitive dysfunction prompting further investigation. A diagnosis of limbic encephalitis (LE) was made and antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) detected. These antibodies are found in many non-paraneoplastic patients with LE. Although antibody-mediated conditions tend to present or relapse post-partum, VGKC-LE in the post-partum period has not been described. Case report. Clinical and imaging data were consistent with limbic encephalitis. High titres of anti-VGKC-complex antibodies confirmed the diagnosis of VGKC-LE. The similarities between the psychiatric symptomatology of VGKC-LE and post-partum psychiatric disorders raise the possibility that some instances of post-partum psychiatric conditions are manifestations of immune-mediated, non-paraneoplastic LE. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  18. Studies on post-partum anoestrus in Alentejano beef cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horta, A.E.M.; Vasques, M.I.; Leitao, R.M.; Robalo Silva, J.

    1990-01-01

    Post-partum ovarian activity in Alentejano beef cows maintained on natural pastures was monitored by measuring plasma progesterone levels using the radioimmunoassay method. Post-partum anoestrus was compared in cows calving in two different seasons (winter and summer). Differences between primiparous and multiparous cows, the effect of short term nursing interruption (72 hours by the 20th day post-partum) and the dam's body weight at calving (BWC) were also considered with respect to their influence on the onset of post-partum ovarian activity. Fertility after two breeding seasons of natural mating (April-May) and November-December) was also studied. Post-partum anoestrus was significantly longer in winter calving cows than in those calving in summer, in both multiparous and primiparous cows (73.9 versus 33.1 and 111.1 versus 35.6 days, respectively; P 2 =0.41; P<0.03). Because of a longer post-partum anoestrus, fertility was reduced in cows calving during the winter season compared with those calving in summer in all three years of the study (63.9 versus 76.9%, 57.8 versus 62.9% and 36.5 versus 60.6%, for 1984, 1985 and 1986, respectively). The results presented show that the winter period in Portugal impairs the return to ovarian activity post-partum in this breed. 19 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  19. Perbandingan Kejadian Post Partum Blues pada Ibu Post Partum dengan Persalinan Normal dan Sectio Caesarea

    OpenAIRE

    Miyansaski, Andrew Umaya; -, Misrawati -; Sabrian, Febriana -

    2014-01-01

    Childbirth and section caesarea. This research used comparative study design with cross sectional. Research has been done in outpatient of obstetric of mother and child hospital Andini in Pekanbaru on 56 post partum mothers which was chosen by using purposive sampling technique by considering inclusion criteria. Measurement tools that has been used is questionnaire of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) that has been tested with validity and reliability test. Analysis that was used is...

  20. Post partum occlusion of the hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buecheler, E.; Hagemann, J.; Remmecke, J.; Hamburg Univ.

    1980-01-01

    A case of post partum acute thrombosis of the hepatic artery with infarction of the liver is reported. The prognosis depends on the areas of obstruction, on the early development of a collateral circulation and on the contribution to the blood supply from the portal vein. The diagnosis of liver infarction was made by computed tomography. This was characterised by sharply demarkated hypodense areas, which did not enhance with contrast. An important clue is the lack of increase in density in the liver after intravenous injection of contrast when compared with the increased contrast of the spleen. This finding provided the indication for angiography. This confirmed the diagnosis of acute occlusion and made appropriate treatment possible. (orig.) [de

  1. Prevalence and treatment of post partum urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siv Mørkved

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SUMMARYChildbirth is often considered the main etiological factor in the development of female urinary incontinence(UI. For that reason women in the western countries have been encouraged to engage in post partumpelvic floor muscle (PFM exercise in order to strengthen the pelvic floor. However, the effect of post partumPFM exercise has been sparsely documented. The aim of this article is to review and discuss literaturerelated to prevalence of post partum UI and effect of post partum PFM exercise in the treatment of UI. Thereported prevalence of UI post partum varies from 0.7% to 44%. The variation may be explained bydifferent definitions of UI used in the questionnaires and that the registration of incontinence was done atdifferent intervals after delivery. A few studies have tried to evaluate the effect of post natal PFM exercise.Some have evaluated PFM strength, others the frequency of UI. PFM strength is difficult to measure andthe reliability and validity of the methods used is open to question. Another flaw in some of the previousstudies is the training protocol applied to improve PFM strength. Mørkved and Bø tried to take intoaccount the above mentioned methodological considerations, in a study aiming to evaluate the effect ofpost partum PFM exercise. The results demonstrate that post partum PFM exercise is effective instrengthening the PFM and in the treatment of UI. However, success of PFM exercise is dependent uponboth the training frequency and intensity. This requires a closer follow up of the post partum women, thanthe written information that usually serves this purpose at the present time.Key words  : physiotherapy, pelvic floor muscles, urinary incontinence, post partum exercise, prevalence

  2. Bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina | Okeke | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina exist in the literature; one of the cases had an anterior‑posterior disposition. This form of uterine abnormality is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies and suggests that a complex interplay of events ...

  3. Unusual migration of ventriculo peritoneal distal catheter into vagina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sghavamedin Tavallaee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available VP shunt is one of the most popular methods for ICP reduction and treatment of hydrocephalus. Various complications of this method are not uncommon such as shunt malfunction, infection and unusual migration of distal catheter. I present a case of migration of the peritoneal catheter out of the vagina.

  4. Hormonal profile and body condition scoring in dairy cows during pre partum and post partum periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Vargová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of selected indicators of energy, hormonal profile, body condition score (BCS and their relationships in dairy cows of the Slovak Pied Cattle from 3 weeks before parturition to 9 weeks after. Significant differences were found in the mean values of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA (P P post partum (P P P P P P < 0.05. These data provide evidence that the variations in the concentrations of leptin, ghrelin, and insulin are related to variations in the BCS. Negative correlation between leptin and ghrelin contributes to the argument that leptin negatively regulates ghrelin.

  5. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Vagina in an Adolescent Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Geetha; Rajan, Varun; Soman, Lali V

    2017-12-01

    Gynecologic neoplasms are rare in children and represent only less than 5% of all childhood tumors. Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the female genital tract of children accounts for only 3.5% of the cases. A 16-year-old adolescent presented with a proliferating growth and foul smelling discharge from her vagina, which, on biopsy was diagnosed as RMS. She received chemotherapy and radiation to the primary site. She is alive in remission at 8 years, and with normal menstrual function. RMS of the vagina is a rare, but highly curable tumor in adolescent girls. Any abnormal vaginal bleeding in girls should be promptly investigated using pelvic examination and appropriate imaging. An organ-preserving approach should be considered in these patients. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Post Partum Depression and Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Keshavarzi MD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Risk of depression is particularly high for women during the prenatal period. Various investigators have attempted to establish a link between thyroid function and post partum depression. This study aimed to investigate whether thyroid function differs in women with postpartum depression compared to a control group.Methods: In this case-control study, subjects were selected from Obstetrics & Gynecology and Psychiatric clinics of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Forty eight patients suffering from postpartum depression according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition totally revised (DSM-IV-TR, and 65 normal controls underwent diagnostic evaluation by one trained psychiatrist using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. Then, the demographic questionnaire and the Persian version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS were completed by the participants. Finally, their thyroid functions were assessed. Data analyses were done using the SPSS program 13.Results: No statistically significant differences were observed between thyroid function tests and postpartum depression. According to multiple regression analysis with stepwise method, subjects with lower serum TSH, T3RU, T3 levels, younger age and longer period after delivery tended to have higher EPDS scores (P-value=0.008. Conclusion:The present study reports that those women with postpartum depression had a no greater prevalence of thyroid dysfunction than the control subjects. It seems that thyroid dysfunction should be considered in women with postpartum depression individually, but the role of thyroid as an important cause of this condition is not yet established. This suggests that future studies should concentrate on this concept in postpartum depression.

  7. Ant- and Ant-Colony-Inspired ALife Visual Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Gary; Machado, Penousal

    2015-01-01

    Ant- and ant-colony-inspired ALife art is characterized by the artistic exploration of the emerging collective behavior of computational agents, developed using ants as a metaphor. We present a chronology that documents the emergence and history of such visual art, contextualize ant- and ant-colony-inspired art within generative art practices, and consider how it relates to other ALife art. We survey many of the algorithms that artists have used in this genre, address some of their aims, and explore the relationships between ant- and ant-colony-inspired art and research on ant and ant colony behavior.

  8. KANDIDIASIS VAGINA YANG MENDAPAT TERAPI SISTEMIK DAN TOPIKAL: SEBUAH LAPORAN KASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Made Rendy Sanjaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Kandidiasis vulvovaginitis ialah penyakit jamur candida yang mengenai mukosa vagina danvulva.Penyebabnya yang tersering biasanya adalah candida albicans.Gejala klinis KandidiasisVulvovaginitis ialah gatal didaerah vulva, dan pada yang berat terdapat rasa panas,dispaneuria.lesi eritema, hiperemis dilabia mayora, dan vagina 1/3 bawah. Dilaporkan satu  kasusseorang wanita. berumur 26 tahun dengan keluhan keputihan pada daerah vagina sertamengalami kegatalan dan rasa nyeri terjadi sejak 2 minggu yang lalu. Pada gambaran klinis tampak dinding vagina eritema, erosi dengan secret putih kental. Pada pengecatan gram darisecret mukosa vagina didapatkan leukosit blastopsora dan pseudohifa. Pemerikaan KOH 10%dari sekret vagina didapatkan blastopore dan pesudohifa.Penanganan yang diberikan adalah obatsistemik dengan flukonazol 1x150 mg dosis tunggal dan topical diberikan ketokenazol cream.Prognosis kasus tersebut adalah baik..

  9. [Parental care and post partum depression: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Franca; Carluccio, Giuseppe Mattia; Meuti, Valentina; Piperno, Francesca; Sogos, Carla; Straniero Sergio, Bianca; Nicolis, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The post partum depression (PPD) is a severe risk factor for the emotional and cognitive development of offspring. The Authors describe the relationship between mother with PPD and her two-year old child. The mother repeats patterns of parental care experienced during her own childhood.

  10. Using animal models to study post-partum psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perani, C V; Slattery, D A

    2014-10-01

    The post-partum period represents a time during which all maternal organisms undergo substantial plasticity in a wide variety of systems in order to ensure the well-being of the offspring. Although this time is generally associated with increased calmness and decreased stress responses, for a substantial subset of mothers, this period represents a time of particular risk for the onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, post-partum anxiety, depression and, to a lesser extent, psychosis may develop, and not only affect the well-being of the mother but also place at risk the long-term health of the infant. Although the risk factors for these disorders, as well as normal peripartum-associated adaptations, are well known, the underlying aetiology of post-partum psychiatric disorders remains poorly understood. However, there have been a number of attempts to model these disorders in basic research, which aim to reveal their underlying mechanisms. In the following review, we first discuss known peripartum adaptations and then describe post-partum mood and anxiety disorders, including their risk factors, prevalence and symptoms. Thereafter, we discuss the animal models that have been designed in order to study them and what they have revealed about their aetiology to date. Overall, these studies show that it is feasible to study such complex disorders in animal models, but that more needs to be done in order to increase our knowledge of these severe and debilitating mood and anxiety disorders. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Effective strategies for weight loss in post-partum women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, S.; O'Reilly, S.; Behrens, H.

    2015-01-01

    Post-partum weight loss is critical to preventing and managing obesity in women, but the results from lifestyle interventions are variable and the components associated with successful outcomes are not yet clearly identified. This study aimed to identify lifestyle intervention strategies associated...

  12. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Post-partum Risk and Follow Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poola-Kella, Silpa; Steinman, Rachel A; Mesmar, Bayan; Malek, Rana

    2018-01-31

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at an increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we will discuss postpartum cardiovascular and diabetes risk in women with a history of GDM and different ways to improve postpartum screening. This review involves a comprehensive literature review on gestational diabetes and postpartum risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus as well as post-partum screening methods. Cardiovascular risk post-partum is potentiated by increased inflammatory markers leading to worsening atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events downstream. Decreased insulin sensitivity and β cell compensation, recurrent GDM, maternal factors such as pre and post-partum weight gain and lactation may contribute to T2DM risk. Postpartum glucose testing is essential in screening women as hyperglycemia in pregnancy has long term effects on both cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk on the mother. Long and short term improvement to post-partum glucose testing is essential to decreasing cardiometabolic and diabetes risk in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. An Endocrine Cause of Acute Post-partum Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Bretherton, Ingrid; Pattison, David; Pattison, Sarah; Varadarajan, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    This is a case of acute peri-partum hypertension secondary to Conn's syndrome. The timing of presentation offers a rare insight into the hormonal physiology of pregnancy and its impact on blood pressure regulation. This case highlights the challenges of diagnosing primary hyperaldosteronism in the peripartum period and the high index of suspicion required by the obstetric physician.

  14. An Endocrine Cause of Acute Post-partum Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Ingrid; Pattison, David; Pattison, Sarah; Varadarajan, Suresh

    2013-03-01

    This is a case of acute peri-partum hypertension secondary to Conn's syndrome. The timing of presentation offers a rare insight into the hormonal physiology of pregnancy and its impact on blood pressure regulation. This case highlights the challenges of diagnosing primary hyperaldosteronism in the peripartum period and the high index of suspicion required by the obstetric physician.

  15. Experimental gingivitis during pregnancy and post-partum: immunohistochemical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J. E.; Leene, W.; Palmer-Bouva, C. C.; Abraham-Inpijn, L.

    1993-01-01

    The histoimmunological response of 8 individuals was studied longitudinally in relation to the development of experimental gingivitis during pregnancy and post-partum. At day 0 as well as at day 14 of experimental gingivitis the mean periodontal pocket bleeding index (PPBI) was higher during

  16. Short term post-partum heat stress in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuquay, J. W.; Chapin, L. T.; Brown, W. H.

    1980-06-01

    Since many dairy cows calve during late summer, the objective was to determine if heat stress immediately post-partum would (1) alter metabolism, thus, increasing susceptibility to metabolic disorders, (2) affect lactation and/or (3) affect reproduction. Forty four cows, calving during late summer, were paired with one member of each pair stressed (HS) for the first 10 post-partum days in a hot barn. Controls (CC) were kept in a cooled section of the barn. Plasma drawn weekly for 7 weeks was analyzed in an autoanalyzer for calcium, inor. phosphorus, protein, glucose and cholesterol and by radioimmunoassay for cortisol and progesterone. Ovaries and uteri were palpated weekly. Rectal temperatures were significant higher for HS during the first 10 post-partum days. No significant effects on plasma constituents were observed during the 10-day treatment period. For the 7-week period, glucose and cholesterol were lower in HS, as were cyclic peaks of progesterone and cortisol. Both calcium and inorganic phosphorus remained clinically low for the 7 weeks, but no treatment effects were seen. Uteri of HS involuted more rapidly than the CC. Treatment did not affect reproductive efficiency. Lactation milk yields did not differ, but milk fat percent was lower in HS. Heat stress immediately post-partum altered lipid metabolism, but the animal's compensatory mechanisms prevented reduction in milk production or reproductive efficiency.

  17. Post-partum depression, anxiety and marital satisfaction: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... 1Department of Psychology, ... The first weeks and months postpartum may be associated with emotional upheaval.2 The nursing ... partum depressive symptoms,14,15,16,17 and marital problems ... reported a significant positive association ... satisfaction, and the importance of mental health promotion.

  18. Histologic Anatomy of the Anterior Vagina and Urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloomdoost, Donna; Westermann, Lauren B; Mutema, George; Crisp, Catrina C; Kleeman, Steven D; Pauls, Rachel N

    Vaginal and urethral histology is important to understanding the pathophysiology of the pelvic floor. En bloc removal of 4 female cadaveric pelvises was performed, with 18 to 25 serial sections obtained from each. The vaginal and urethral lengths were divided into distal and proximal sections; urethra was divided into anterior and posterior segments as well. Innervation and vasculature were qualified as small and large and quantified per high-power field. The mean vaginal length was 7.45 cm, and the mean urethral length was 3.38 cm. A distinct vaginal fibromuscular layer was noted, without evidence of a dense sheet of continuous collagen. An epithelial, lamina propria, and muscular layer surrounded the urethral lumen. Adipose and loose fibroconnective tissue separated the urethra from the anterior vagina in 41% of slides. Nerves and vasculature were concentrated in the lamina propria. More small nerves and vessels were grossly seen compared with larger counterparts in both the vagina and urethra. No significant differences in layer thickness, innervation, or vasculature were observed along the vaginal length. The posterior urethra had greater innervation than did the anterior (P = 0.012). The distal posterior urethra had more large vessels than did the proximal posterior urethra (P = 0.03). No other differences were noted in urethral sections. A vaginal fibromuscular layer was confirmed, refuting a true fascia. Innervation and vasculature were quantitatively the same along the anterior vagina. However, the posterior urethra had greater innervation than did anterior and is most innervated proximally. Nerve and vascular histology may relate to pelvic floor disorder etiology.

  19. Pelvic Myxoid Leiomyoma Mass between Vagina and Rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar AlShalabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyomas are the most common pelvic tumors in women. About 20–30% of women older than 35 are affected. Rare conditions of leiomyomas have extrauterine locations. Myxoid degeneration is a rare type of leiomyoma degeneration. We report a case of solid-cystic myxoid leiomyoma in a 53-year-old woman complained of constipation, urinary hesitation, and malodorous vaginal discharge with palpable 17×12 cm mass between vagina and rectum. Regarding the inferior location of the mass, a perineal approach was used to enucleate it. This rare location has not been mentioned before. The woman was finally diagnosed by pathologists which was myxoid leiomyoma.

  20. Pelvic Myxoid Leiomyoma Mass between Vagina and Rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShalabi, Omar; Alahmar, Fadi Obaied; Aljasem, Hazem; Alsaid, Bayan; AlShalabi, Abdulghani

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are the most common pelvic tumors in women. About 20-30% of women older than 35 are affected. Rare conditions of leiomyomas have extrauterine locations. Myxoid degeneration is a rare type of leiomyoma degeneration. We report a case of solid-cystic myxoid leiomyoma in a 53-year-old woman complained of constipation, urinary hesitation, and malodorous vaginal discharge with palpable 17 × 12 cm mass between vagina and rectum. Regarding the inferior location of the mass, a perineal approach was used to enucleate it. This rare location has not been mentioned before. The woman was finally diagnosed by pathologists which was myxoid leiomyoma.

  1. Post-partum reproductive performance of the Icelandic dairy cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldon, J.; Olafsson, T.; Thorsteinsson, T.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to monitor the reproductive performance of Icelandic dairy cow herds with and without histories of fertility problems under normal farming conditions. Artificial inseminations and calvings were recorded, pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation, and progesterone concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay in sequential samples of milk. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals and the concentrations of glucose, urea, calcium and magnesium were determined. Clinical ketosis and low glucose were found in one third of the cows on problem farms. The mean time of first post-partum ovulation was 49 days for cows with ketosis, compared with 34 days for cows free of ketosis. Cows in the normal herds ovulated considerably later than is reported for many other breeds of dairy cows; however, the time of first post-partum AI, the time of conception and the conception rate were similar to those reported for other breeds. The effects of season and herd were statistically significant for the time of first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception; the effect of area was highly significant for the time of ovulation. Progesterone profiles showed that over 50% of the first post-partum ovarian cycles were short and had low progesterone concentrations. Season had significant effects on the length of the interval from calving to first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception, on the conception rate to first AI and consequently on the number of AIs per conception, and on the blood levels of glucose, urea and calcium. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Stability of depressive symptoms over 3 months post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Zarghami, Mehran; Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Lye, Munn-Sann

    2017-02-01

    Prolonged depression during the post-partum period is associated with maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Less attention has been given to factors that predict the persistence of depression beyond the first 3 months post-partum. From a longitudinal cohort of 2279 women who attended Mazandaran's primary health centres in 2009, 478 women with an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of 12 or greater in the third trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Persistently depressed women (depressed at all three occasions: during pregnancy, and at 2 and 12 weeks post-partum) were compared with those without depression to determine demographic, cultural, obstetric and biopsychosocial predictors for persistence of depression. Data were analysed using chi-square test, t-test and logistic regression models. The stability of depression was found in 193 (46.2 %) of 418 depressed cases who were followed up over the study period. Of those mothers who scored more than the threshold of 12 during the third trimester of pregnancy, 277 (66.3%) and 221 (52.9%) had high EPDS at 2 and 12 weeks post-partum. Psychological distress (based upon the General Health Questionnaire), low maternal parental self-efficacy (based upon the Parental Expectation Survey) and perceived social isolation (based upon the Network Orientation Scale) were independent predictors of persistent depression. Fewer depressed mothers in this study were found to recover during the first 3 months after giving birth. Psychosocial factors predicted sustained depression from pregnancy to 3 months post-partum. The findings highlight the significance of support in enhancing maternal mental health. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Radiosterilisation of the vagina in therapeutic doses - does it exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner, G.; Kucera, H.; Weghaupt, K.; Rotter, M.; Vienna Univ.

    1986-01-01

    The endogenous genital flora is a major source of infections of the female genital tract, especially in patients with cervical or endometrial cancer. Until recently the 'radiosterilisation of the vagina', respectively a prophylactic and/or therapeutic effect of irradiation (external highvoltage as well as intracavitary-radium) concerning infections was postulated in the literature. This theory was disproved in a prospective clinical and bacteriological study covering 48 patients with advanced cervical cancer undergoing primary intracavitary radium-irradiation and 38 patients with inoperable endometrical cancer, undergoing primary iridium-192-afterloading. Following intracavitary radium for cervical cancer some typical nosocomial pathogens like Streptococcus faecalis, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus and Pseudomonas were isolated significantly more frequently than before treatment. Likewise, the mean number of aerobic bacterial species increased significantly after irradiation. Also primary Ir-192 (afterloading) irradiation did not alter the frequency of isolation of the resident flora in endometrial cancer patients. Therefore, 'radiosterilisation' of the vagina as result of radiotherapy does not exist. (orig.) [de

  4. Management of radiation injuries of vulva and vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraunholz, I.B.; Schopohl, B.; Boettcher, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Acute and late injuries of vulva and vagina are frequent and potentially serious complications in radiotherapy of gynecologic tumors. They still are reported poorly in literature. Methods: Based on a literature search a survey will be given of the modalities, which are used or recommended for prophylaxis or treatment of these radiation injuries. The principles of the different measures will be discussed with available study results. Results: Hygiene measures and the topical application of antimicrobial or granulation stimulating substances, which is mostly based on long standing clinical experience, are the principles of the treatment of acute reactions of vulva and vagina. The topical use of estrogen, which promotes proliferation of epithelium, is generally described in connection with treatment and prophylaxis of late radiation injuries. As a prophylaxis for the late reaction of vaginal stenosis, vaginal dilatation is recommended in literature. Conclusion: With the exception of a few reports on estrogen, there are no data about the effectiveness of the currently used medical substances. The local application of estrogen as prophylaxis of the acute reactions will therefore be examined in a prospective study. (orig.) [de

  5. Riding with the ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, A. P. M.; Attili-Angelis, D.; Baron, N. C.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Crous, Pedro W.; Pagnocca, F. C.

    Isolates of Teratosphaeriaceae have frequently been found in the integument of attine ants, proving to be common and diverse in this microenvironment. The LSU phylogeny of the ant-isolated strains studied revealed that they cluster in two main lineages. The first was associated with the genus

  6. Primary Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Vagina: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasa N. Bhalodia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of vagina is an extremely rare disease. There have been only 26 previously reported cases in literature. Here, we report a case of primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of vagina. Immunohistochemistry (IHC showed tumor cells positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin, and neuron-specific enolase (NSE.

  7. Definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Steven J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Levenback, Charles; Eifel, Patricia J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome and describe clinical treatment guidelines for patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina treated with definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1970 and 2000, a total of 193 patients were treated with definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The patients' medical records were reviewed to obtain information about patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, as well as outcome and patterns of recurrence. Surviving patients were followed for a median of 137 months. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with differences assessed using log-rank tests. Results: Disease-specific survival (DSS) and pelvic disease control rates correlated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and tumor size. At 5 years, DSS rates were 85% for the 50 patients with Stage I, 78% for the 97 patients with Stage II, and 58% for the 46 patients with Stage III-IVA disease (p = 0.0013). Five-year DSS rates were 82% and 60% for patients with tumors ≤4 cm or >4 cm, respectively (p = 0.0001). At 5 years, pelvic disease control rates were 86% for Stage I, 84% for Stage II, and 71% for Stage III-IVA (p = 0.027). The predominant mode of relapse after definitive radiation therapy was local-regional (68% and 83%, respectively, for patients with stages I-II or III-IVA disease). The incidence of major complications was correlated with FIGO stage; at 5 years, the rates of major complications were 4% for Stage I, 9% for Stage II, and 21% for Stage III-IVA (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes can be achieved with definitive radiation therapy for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina. However, to achieve these results, treatment must be individualized according to the site and size of the tumor at presentation and the response to initial external-beam radiation therapy. Brachytherapy

  8. [Excrement of the meconium and the intra-partum cardiotocogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santeler, P; Hochuli, E

    1976-01-01

    Of 2233 parturients, 170 cases with evidence of meconium during delivery were examined. We tried to establish the correlation between the appearance of meconium and the occurance of contraction induced FHR-decelerations in continuous intra partum monitoring. In addition we purposed to determine, whether the appearing of meconium during labor can be used as a clinical prognosite sign for fetal outcome. Our data support the assumption that the passage of meconium during any stage of labor only represents a sign of potential fetal distress showing the intra partum records pathology FHF-patterns. The appearance of meconium alone -- diagnosed at the time of the entrance of parturients or in an advanced stage of labor -- demands supplemented diagnostic methods for a better interpreting of an actual or compensated fetal distress.

  9. High resolution computed tomography of the post partum pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshaw, D.B.; Hasso, A.N.; Thompson, J.R.; Davidson, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eight volunteer post partum female patients were examined with high resolution computed tomography during the week immediately after delivery. All patients received high dose (40-70 gm) intravenous iodine contrast administration. The scans were examined for pituitary gland height, shape and homogeneity. All of the patients had enlarged glands by the traditional standards (i.e. gland height of 8 mm or greater). The diaphragma sellae in every call bulged upward with a convex domed appearance. The glands were generally inhomogeneous. One gland had a 4 mm focal well defined area of decreased attenuation. Two patients who were studied again months later had glands which had returned to ''normal'' size. The enlarged, upwardly convex pituitary gland appears to be typical and normal for the recently post partum period. (orig.)

  10. Cranial neuroimaging in pregnancy and the post-partum period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, A.M.; Bradley, M.D.; Likeman, M.; Stoodley, N.G.; Renowden, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Several diverse neurological conditions may be seen during pregnancy and the post partum period. These usually require neuroimaging for definitive diagnosis and range from a predisposition to neurovascular abnormalities, such as acute ischaemic stroke and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, through to more specific pregnancy-related conditions, such as eclampsia/posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy and post-partum angiopathy. Additionally, the pregnant patient is predisposed to pituitary disease. It is necessary that the radiologist has an awareness of these conditions to allow swift specific diagnoses or suggest the most appropriate diagnosis when imaging findings are non-specific. We describe epidemiological and radiological features to allow the radiologist to guide the clinician in management, and review guidelines for safe cranial imaging of the pregnant patient

  11. EFEKTIVITAS AROMATERAPI BITTER ORANGE TERHADAP NYERI POST PARTUM SECTIO CAESAREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Utami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgery that causes severe pain physiological response as compared to a normal delivery was called sectio caesarea. The alternative to reduce pain with bitter orange aroma therapy. Bitter orange aroma therapy is to give the effect of reducing the muscle tensions and stress the body as a whole with the goal of keeping the body and mind into a relaxed. This research was aimed to explore the effectiveness of bitter orange aroma therapy for reduction pain in post partum sectio caesarea. The method used this research was quasi experimental with pre test and post test design with control group. The instruments used numeric rating scale to measure pain intensity. The sampling technique used purposive sampling where the quantity of research sample 34 respondents which are divided into 2 groups, namely intervention group and control group. bitter orange aroma therapy carried out for 15 minutes each day for 2 days. The univariate analysis was conducted to show pain distribution and bivariate analysis was conducted by Wicoxon and Mann Whitney. The result show that after bitter orange aroma therapy was applied towards intervered group, it was obtained that mean of respondents category pain was reducing at 3,44 (low pain with the reduction was 1,47 and mean of post partum sectio caesarea pain without given bitter orange aroma therapy in control group was 4,82 (moderate pain with the reduction was 0. The statistic showed up p value (0,000< 0,05 which mean that kneading techniques effective to reduce pain of post partum sectio caesarea. Based on the result, bitter orange aroma therapy can be recommended as nursing intervention of post partum sectio caesarea.

  12. Internal motion of the vagina after hysterectomy for gynaecological cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juergenliemk-Schulz, Ina M.; Toet-Bosma, Malgorzata Z.; Kort, Gerard A.P. de; Schreuder, Henk W.R.; Roesink, Judith M.; Tersteeg, Robbert J.H.A.; Heide, Uulke A. van der

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate position changes of the vagina after hysterectomy for early stage cervical or endometrial cancer and their impact on CTV-PTV margins. We also studied their correlation with surrounding organ filling. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients underwent T2-weighted MR scans before and weekly during the course of their EBRT. The vaginal CTVs and the surrounding organs were delineated. PTV margins were derived from the boundaries of the CTVs in the main directions and correlated with changes in the volumes of organs at risk. Additionally we investigated the impact of margin sizes on CTV coverage. Results: The vaginal CTVs change their position in the pelvis during time with a maximum in anterior-posterior direction. The 95% confidence level was 2.3 cm into the anterior or posterior direction, 1.8 cm to left or right and 1.5 cm towards the cranial. With a homogenous 1.5 cm CTV-PTV margin ≥5% inadequately covered vaginal CTV was seen in only 3.3% of the measurements. This increased to 20.6% with a margin of 1.0 cm. Concerning the impact of organ filling on vaginal position changes we found the only significant correlation with rectal volume and shift of the vagina towards anterior-posterior. Conclusion: To accommodate the changes in the position of the vaginal CTV inhomogeneous PTV margins should be generated with the largest size in the anterior-posterior direction. The position shifts were only weakly related to the volume of the rectum and not at all to the volumes of other parts of the bowel and the bladder.

  13. Radiation-induced morphological changes in the vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheiner, K.; Fidarova, E.; Schmid, M.P.; Sturdza, A.; Kranz, A.; Poetter, R.; Nout, R.A.; Wiebe, E.; Polterauer, S.; Doerr, W.; Medical Univ. of Vienna

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment-induced chronic vaginal changes after definitive radio(chemo)therapy for locally advanced cervical cancer patients are reported as one of the most distressing consequences of treatment, with major impact on quality of life. Although these vaginal changes are regularly documented during gynecological follow-up examinations, the classic radiation morbidity grading scales are not concise in their reporting. The aim of the study was therefore to identify and qualitatively describe, on the basis of vaginoscopies, morphological changes in the vagina after definitive radio(chemo)therapy and to establish a classification system for their detailed and reproducible documentation. Patients and methods: Vaginoscopy with photodocumentation was performed prospectively in 22 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer after definitive radio(chemo)therapy at 3-24 months after end of treatment. All patients were in complete remission and without severe grade 3/4 morbidity outside the vagina. Results: Five morphological parameters, which occurred consistently after treatment, were identified: mucosal pallor, telangiectasia, fragility of the vaginal wall, ulceration, and adhesions/occlusion. The symptoms in general were observed at different time points in individual patients; their quality was independent of the time of assessment. Based on the morphological findings, a comprehensive descriptive and semiquantitative scoring system was developed, which allows for classification of vaginal changes. A photographic atlas to illustrate the morphology of the alterations is presented. Conclusion: Vaginoscopy is an easily applicable, informative, and well-tolerated procedure for the objective assessment of morphological vaginal changes after radio(chemo)therapy and provides comprehensive and detailed information. This allows for precise classification of the severity of individual changes. (orig.)

  14. Sick ants become unsociable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Nicky Peter Maria; Lefevre, T.; Jensen, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Parasites represent a severe threat to social insects, which form high-density colonies of related individuals, and selection should favour host traits that reduce infection risk. Here, using a carpenter ant (Camponotus aethiops) and a generalist insect pathogenic fungus (Metarhizium brunneum), we...... show that infected ants radically change their behaviour over time to reduce the risk of colony infection. Infected individuals (i) performed less social interactions than their uninfected counterparts, (ii) did not interact with brood anymore and (iii) spent most of their time outside the nest from...... day 3 post-infection until death. Furthermore, infected ants displayed an increased aggressiveness towards non-nestmates. Finally, infected ants did not alter their cuticular chemical profile, suggesting that infected individuals do not signal their physiological status to nestmates. Our results...

  15. The enhanced reproduction of cow parent brahman cross post partum with feed supplement multinutrient block medicated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nursyam Andi Syarifuddin; Anis Wahdi

    2011-01-01

    One of the problems in breeding Brahman Cross cattle reproduction efficiency is low due to the length of postpartum anestrus and the high number of services per conception is partly due to the low nutrient content of rations. This study aims to improve the performance of reproductive cows parent Brahman Cross post partum through feeding strategy supplement Multi nutrient Block plus Medicated (MBPM) which starts with the correct parent condition score so that it can accelerate the process appear oestrus post partum then increasing conception rate to minimize the number of service per conception as well as to improve the growth calf produced. This research uses 16 cows parent Brahman Cross post partum not exceeding 90 days comprising 9 tails were given feed supplements MBPM compared with 7 tail not given feed supplements MBPM as control. Research results show that feeding supplements MBPM can enhanced reproductive cow parent Brahman Cross post partum i.e. : maintain parent condition score in early post partum until the occurrence of pregnant, accelerating day 24,8 appear oestrus post partum, number service per conception = 1 and conception rate can reach 60%, maintaining the levels of urea plasma of blood and blood glucose levels within normal limits either at the time of post partum and oestrus post partum. Feeding supplements MBPM on cows parent Brahman Cross post partum can give added daily gain 0,51 kg on calf is suckling. (author)

  16. Demographic, maternal, and infant health correlates of post-partum depression in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Reema R; Abushaikha, Lubna A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional correlational study examined post-partum depression and its relationship with demographic, maternal, and infant health problems in urban Jordanian women. Participants (n = 315) were selected from five maternal child healthcare centers and one major hospital in Amman, Jordan. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to measure post-partum depression within 12 weeks of birth. A number of socio-demographic and health problems were examined for an association with post-partum depression. Results showed that 25% of post-partum women suffered moderate to severe depression and 50% of the sample had mild depression. None of the socio-demographic variables (age, education, employment, income) were significantly related to post-partum depression; however, two obstetric/infant variables (mode of birth and breastfeeding), were significantly associated with post-partum depression. There was a significant association between post-partum depression and 15 health problems of obstetric, gynecologic (i.e. episiotomy pain, infection), and general health conditions (i.e. fatigue, headache). Nurses and midwives need to emphasize post-partum depression screening, follow-up, and proper management of maternal and infant health factors predisposing to post-partum depression rather than merely focusing on women's inherent demographic factors. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina with repeated local recurrences and brain metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Te Lin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma of the vagina, a very rare malignancy, has a notoriously aggressive behavior associated with a high risk of local recurrence and distant metastasis. At present, there are various treatment options for this disease but no standard guideline. We describe a case of a 54-year-old woman with a locally advanced melanoma of the vagina, who underwent radical surgery, biochemotherapy with interferon-α-2b, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and repeat excision of local recurrent lesions and brain metastasis. In conclusion, malignant melanoma of the vagina has a high risk for local recurrence. Repeated local excision followed by biochemotherapy is a tolerable treatment.

  18. The irradiation tolerance dose of the proximal vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, Samuel P.; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the irradiation tolerance level and complication rates of the proximal vagina to combined external irradiation and low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy. Also, the mucosal tolerance for fractionated high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is further projected based on the biological equivalent dose (BED) of LDR for an acceptable complication rate. Materials and methods: Two hundred seventy-four patients with stages I-IV cervical carcinoma treated with irradiation therapy alone from 1987 to 1997 were retrospectively reviewed for radiation-associated late sequelae of the proximal vagina. All patients received LDR brachytherapy and 95% also received external pelvic irradiation. Follow-up ranged from 15 to 126 months (median, 43 months). The proximal vagina mucosa dose from a single ovoid (single source) or from both ovoids plus the tandem (all sources), together with the external irradiation dose, were used to derive the probability of a complication using the maximum likelihood logistic regression technique. The BED based on the linear-quadratic model was used to compute the corresponding tolerance levels for LDR or HDR brachytherapy. Results: Grades 1 and 2 complications occurred in 10.6% of patients and Grade 3 complications occurred in 3.6%. There were no Grade 4 complications. Complications occurred from 3 to 71 months (median, 7 months) after completion of irradiation, with over 60% occurring in the first year. By logistic regression analysis, both the mucosal dose from a single ovoid or that from all sources, combined with the external irradiation dose, demonstrate a statistically significant fit to the dose response complication curves (both with P=0.016). The single source dose was highly correlated with the all source dose with a cross-correlation coefficient 0.93. The all source dose was approximately 1.4 times the single source dose. Over the LDR brachytherapy dose rate range, the complication rate was

  19. Lesson learned and dispelled myths: three-dimensional imaging of the human vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Kurt T; Pretorius, E Scott; Malamud, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    Three-dimensional imaging of the human vagina demonstrates that the cross section can be a "W," rather than an "H," and that intravaginal gel can ascend into the endocervix and presumably into the endometrium.

  20. Carcinoma of vagina 10 or more years following pelvic irradiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pride, G.L.; Buchler, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Gynecologic cancer records of 4,238 patients treated between 1956 and 1974 were reviewed. Sixteen patients developed neoplasia in the cervix or vagina 10 or more years following pelvic irradiation. Three patients had squamous carcinoma in situ; the other 13 patients had invasive squamous cancer involving the upper vagina. Only 1.26 percent of invasive carcinoma of the cervix treated by radiation therapy from 1956 to 1966 presented with a late or recurrent or new primary tumor involving the vagina or cervix 10 or more years after primary treatment. The authors conclude that the risk of developing radiation-induced carcinoma in the upper vagina or cervix following pelvic irradiation is low. Follow-up Pap smears are indicated for all patients treated for cervical or vaginal malignancies by radiation therapy in order to detect vaginal neoplasia as well as recurrent carcinoma of the cervix

  1. Post-partum depression in the community: a qualitative study from rural South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarimuthu, R J S; Ezhilarasu, P; Charles, H; Antonisamy, B; Kurian, S; Jacob, K S

    2010-01-01

    Post-partum depression, although heterogeneous, is often considered a medical disease when viewed from the biomedical perspective. However, recent reports from the Indian subcontinent have documented psychosocial causal factors. This study employed qualitative methodology in a representative sample of women in rural South India. Women in the post-partum period were assessed using the Tamil versions of the Short Explanatory Model Interview, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a semi-structured interview to diagnose ICD 10 depression. Socio-demographic and clinical details were also recorded. Some 137 women were recruited and assessed, of these, 26.3% were diagnosed to have post-partum depression. The following factors were associated with post-partum depression after adjusting for age and education: age less than 20 or over 30 years, schooling less than five years, thoughts of aborting current pregnancy, unhappy marriage, physical abuse during current pregnancy and after childbirth, husband's use of alcohol, girl child delivered in the absence of living boys and a preference for a boy, low birth weight, and a family history of depression. Post-partum depression was also associated with an increased number of causal models of illness, a number of non-medical models, treatment models and non-medical treatment models. Many social and cultural factors have a major impact on post-partum depression. Post-partum depression, when viewed from a biomedical framework, fails to acknowledge the role of context in the production of emotional distress in the post-partum period.

  2. Vaginal DNA vaccination against infectious diseases transmitted through the vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takanori; Takashima, Yuuki; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-06-01

    There is an urgent need for the development of vaccines against genital virus infections that are transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, including the HIV and HPV. In general, the surface of female genital mucosa, including vaginal mucosa, is the most common site of initiation of these infections. Thus, it is becoming clear that successful vaccines must induce both cellular and humoral immune responses in both the local genital tract and systemically. We believe that a strong vaginal immune response could be obtained by inducing strong gene expression of antigen-coding DNA in the local targeted tissue. In order to improve transfection efficiency in the vagina, it is important that methods allowing breakthrough of the various barriers, such as the epithelial layer, cellular and nuclear membrane, are developed. Therefore, systems providing less invasive and more effective delivery into the subepithelial layer are required. In this review, we will introduce our studies into efficient vaginal DNA vaccination methods, focusing on the effects of the menstrual cycle, utilization of the combination of functional peptides, and use of a needle-free injector.

  3. Normal bacterial flora from vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Nava, Sunny; Boscán-Ocando, Julio; Nava, Jexenia

    2011-02-01

    In order to describe the normal bacterial flora in vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows, 51 healthy multiparous cows, at least 90-day postpartum, were selected. Duplicated swabs (N = 102) were taken from the vaginal fornix of cows to perform aerobic and anaerobic cultures as well as conventional biochemical tests. Out of 102 swabs, bacterial growth was obtained in 55 (53.9%) while the remaining 47 (46.1%) did not exhibited any bacterial growth. Of the 55 bacterial growths, 23 (41.8%) were aerobic whereas 32 (58.1%) were anaerobic. Likewise, 29 (52.72%) of bacterial growths were pure and 26 (47.27%) were mixed. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, Gram positive bacteria were predominant (81.82% and 73.08%, respectively) over Gram negative bacteria (18.18% and 26.92%, respectively). Isolated bacteria were Arcanobacterium pyogenes (22.92%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.63%), Staphylococcus coagulase negative (17.71%), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (6.25%), Bacteroides spp. (13.54%), and Peptostreptococcus spp. (7.29%). In conclusion, normal vaginal bacterial flora of Criollo Limonero cows was predominantly Gram positive and included A. pyogenes, S. aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. rhusiopathiae, Bacteroides spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. In Criollo Limonero cattle, adaptive aspects such as development of humoral and physical mechanisms for defense, and bacterial adaptation to host deserve research attention.

  4. Congenital absence of the vagina with a functioning uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Yasuo; Naito, Mariko; Noda, Yoichi; Ozasa, Hiroshi; Mori, Takahide

    1986-01-01

    A functioning uterus may be present in 5 to 10 % of the patients with congenital absence of the vagina. The proper treatment for these patients depends on accurate pre-operative diagnosis on whether or not a cervix is present, because the mode of operation should be selected according to the type of abnormality. Ultrasonography or X-ray CT scan will not always be useful to answer this question. We encountered a 15-year-old female with cyclic lower abdominal pain and the failure of onset of menstruation. The external genitalia were normal except for the absence of the vaginal opening. Ultrasonography and X-ray CT scan revealed the presence of both uterine corpus and hematocolpos, but no definite findings were obtained on the integrity of the cervix. By using NMR-CT scan, we found a hematocolpos, properly developed uterine cervix and corpus above it. We treated the patient by preserving the uterine function and the potential for pregnancy in the future. NMR-CT scan seems more useful in some cases for diagnosis of pelvic mass than ultrasonography and X-ray CT scan. (author)

  5. Anatomic and histological characteristics of vagina reconstructed by McIndoe method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarski Jefta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Congenital absence of vagina is known from ancient times of Greek. According to the literature data, incidence is 1/4 000 to 1/20 000. Treatment of this anomaly includes non-operative and operative procedures. McIndoe procedure uses split skin graft by Thiersch. The aim of this study was to establish anatomic and histological characteristics of vagina reconstructed by McIndoe method in Mayer Küster-Rockitansky Hauser (MKRH syndrome and compare them with normal vagina. Methods. The study included 21 patients of 18 and more years with congenital anomaly known as aplasio vaginae within the Mayer Küster-Rockitansky Hauser syndrome. The patients were operated on by the plastic surgeon using the McIndoe method. The study was a retrospective review of the data from the history of the disease, objective and gynecological examination and cytological analysis of native preparations of vaginal stain (Papanicolau. Comparatively, 21 females of 18 and more years with normal vaginas were also studied. All the subjects were divided into the groups R (reconstructed and C (control and the subgroups according to age up to 30 years (1 R, 1C, from 30 to 50 (2R, 2C, and over 50 (3R, 3C. Statistical data processing was performed by using the Student's t-test and Mann-Writney U-test. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The results show that there are differences in the depth and the wideness of reconstructed vagina, but the obtained values are still in the range of normal ones. Cytological differences between a reconstructed and the normal vagina were found. Conclusion. A reconstructed vagina is smaller than the normal one regarding depth and width, but within the range of normal values. A split skin graft used in the reconstruction, keeps its own cytological, i.e. histological and, so, biological characteristics.

  6. Contrast vaginography is more accurate than the radiopaque rod for localization of the vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggenraad, Ruud G.; Coerkamp, Emile G.; Tamminga, Reinder I.; Wiersma, Tjeerd G.; Sorge, Adriaan A. von

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the radiopaque vaginal rod method with contrast vaginography in localization of the vagina. Methods and Materials: In 25 female patients who needed pelvic radiotherapy, both our standard localization procedure using the vaginal rod and a localization procedure using contrast vaginography were performed. As a rod can change the position of the vagina, contrast vaginography was considered to display the true anatomic position of the vagina. The corresponding rod and nonrod X-rays of each patient were compared. The distance from the true vaginal apex to the displaced vaginal apex (= the top of the rod) was measured in the sagittal plane. This distance was called the inaccuracy of the rod method. Furthermore, the size of the vaginal vault was measured using the contrast vaginography. Results: The median inaccuracy of the rod method was 13 mm (range 2 to 24 mm). The maximal width of the vagina ranged from 24 to 68 mm in the frontal plane (median 39 mm) and from 3 to 22 mm in the sagittal plane (median 10 mm). Conclusion: The rod method is not accurate to localize the vagina. Furthermore, the rod gives no information on the actual size of the vaginal vault. Contrast vaginography is the method of choice to localize the vagina.

  7. Post-partum anaphylaxis: universal but successful management protocol should not deter appreciation of underlying etio-pathogenesis plethora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Rubens, Andrew; Marjanovic, Milos

    2012-03-30

    Post-partum Anaphylaxis in mothers is extremely rare and has been reported secondary to initiation of the breast-feeding. However, we hereby report the occurrence of post-partum anaphylaxis in a post-partum patient in the absence of the initiated breast-feeding.

  8. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Samantha R.; Prichard, Allan S.; Maerz, Noah L.; Prichard, Austin P.; Endres, Elizabeth L.; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E.; Akins, Matthew S.; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver. PMID:28922379

  9. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha R Weaver

    Full Text Available Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver.

  10. Commentary: Warring ants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 27; Issue 2. Commentary: Warring ants: Lessons from Lanchester's laws of combat? Renee M Borges. Volume 27 Issue 2 March 2002 pp 75-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/027/02/0075-0078 ...

  11. Antílope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Anderson Martinho Moçambique

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Essa espécie de antílope só é encontrada em território angolano, sendo assim um símbolo nacional. Segundo a mitologia africana é símbolo de vivacidade, velocidade e beleza - Angola.

  12. Antílope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Anderson Martinho Moçambique

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Essa espécie de antílope só é encontrada em território angolano, sendo assim um símbolo nacional. Segundo a mitologia africana é símbolo de vivacidade, velocidade e beleza - Angola.

  13. Fire Ant Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... venom in a fire ant sting will kill bacteria and some of your skin cells. This results in the formation of a blister that fills with a cloudy white material in about 24 hours. While this looks like a pus-filled lesion that should be drained, ...

  14. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    -ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. METHODS: "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT...

  15. Ant Colony Optimization for Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ast, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication

  16. Exclusive radiotherapy for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crevoisier, Renaud de; Sanfilippo, Nicholas; Gerbaulet, Alain; Morice, Philippe; Pomel, Christophe; Castaigne, Damiene; Pautier, Patricia; Lhomme, Catherine; Duvillard, Pierre; Haie-meder, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze results of external beam therapy (EBT) with brachytherapy (BT) for primary vaginal squamous cell carcinoma (PVSCC). Materials and methods: From 1970 to 2001, 91 patients were included. FIGO stages were: I (29%), II (38%), III (29%) and IVa (4%). EBT delivered a median total dose of 50 Gy to the pelvis. BT was performed with a customized intra-vaginal applicator and in 36% of applications combined endocavitary and interstitial BT. ICRU Report 38 parameters were reported. Results: The 5-year cause specific survival (CSS) rates were: 83% for stage I, 76% for stage II, 52% for stage III, and 2 of the 4 stage IVa patients died 9 and 36 months after treatment. The 5-year pelvis control rates were: 79% for stage I and II and 62% for stage III. Recurrences as a first event were local only in 68% of cases, nodal only in 10%, metastatic only in 13% and combined in 9%. In multivariate analysis: stage (I and II versus II and IV), response to EBT (evaluated at BT), and the number of BT applications were statistically significant for CSS. Grade 2-3 toxicities were as follows (Franco-Italian Glossary): rectum (n = 3), sigmoid colon and small bowel (n = 8), bladder (n = 5), ureter (n = 4) and vagina (n = 13). Anterior location of the tumor increased bladder toxicity (p = 0.01) and total reference air kerma was higher in patients who experienced grade 2-3 urinary or digestive toxicity (p = 0.03). Conclusion: EBT with BT is an effective treatment for patients with stage I-II PVSCC. The incidence and severity of late toxicity were relatively low. Recent advances in the treatment of cervix carcinoma emphasize the need for concomitant radio-chemotherapy in stages III-IV and the use of MRI for treatment planning

  17. [Diversity of Lactobacillus in vagina of vulvovaginal candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-07

    To investigate the Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of vulvovaginal candidiasis and to assess the prevalence of each Lactobacillus species in vulvovaginal candidiasis. 154 vaginal samples were analyzed, 92 of which were from fertile healthy women, and 62 of which were from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis; and species-specific PCR showed the prevalence of each Lactobacillus species Species-specific PCR was used to investigate the prevalence of each Lactobacillus species in healthy Chinese women and the women with vulvovaginal candidiasis. In women with vulvovaginal candidiasis: L. iners (6.5%), L. cripatus (79.0%), L. gasseri (37.1%), L. jensenii (74.2%), L. acidophilus (16.1%), L. brevis (19.4%), L. plantarum (1.6%), L. johnsonii (51.6%), L. fermentum (8.1%), L. salivarius (9.7%), L. reuter (1.6%), L. paracasei (8.1%), L. delbrueckii (3. 2% ) ; More than two different Lactobacillus species coexisted in 98% of women with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and no anyone species existed in 2% of them; In fertile women: L. iners (82.6%), L. cripatus (70.7%), L. gasseri (67.4%), L. jensenii (40.2%), L. acidophilus (39.1%), L. brevis (23.9%), L. plantarum (5.4%), L. rhamnosus (1.1%), L. paracasei (1.1%), L. reuter (1.1%) i, L. johnsonii (3.3%), L. fermentum (2.2%), L. salivarius (2.2%); More than two different Lactobacillus species coexisted in 97% of fertile women, and only one species existed in 3% of fertile women. Species of lactobacillus in women with vulvovaginal candidiasis did not significantly reduced compared with healthy women. Lactobacillus inert may be a marker of the change of vaginal microenvironment; Lactobacillus crispatus is a dominant lactobacillus in the vaginal of fertile healthy women, pregnant women and women with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  18. Changes of progesterone levels in the milk of dairy cows in post-partum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongpeng, Li

    1985-06-01

    Progesterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in the last milk of seven dairy cows in 5-75 days post-partum. The progesterone levels were from 0.1 to 1.5 ng/ml and averaged 0.4 +- 0.2 ng/ml for the last milk of the seven cows. A range of 0.3 to 0.7 ng/ml for average progesterone levels of the seven cows can be estimated. Two ovarian cycle activities in post-partum of cow No. 43 were observed and a ovulation on 15-20 days post-partum was revealed. The peak value after 20 days post-partum was 3.0 ng/ml. The progesterone level after peak value was declined, and reached to about 0.2 ng/ml on 35 days post-partum. The changes of ovarian activities were exhibited again in 35-55 days post-partum. The progesterone levels of cow No. 43 were lower in luteal phase oestrous cycles post-partum than that from the other cows in normal luteal phase oestrous cycles.

  19. Sensibility of vagina reconstructed by McIndoe method in Mayer-Küster-Rokitansky-Hauser syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesanović Svetlana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Congenital absence of vagina is a failure present in Mayer-Küster-Rokitansky-Hauser syndrome. Treatment of this anomaly includes nonoperative and operative procedures. McIndoe procedure uses split skin graft by Thiersch. The aim of this study was to determine sensitivity (touch, warmness, coldness of a vagina reconstructed by McIndoe method in Mayer-Küster-Rokitansky-Hauser syndrome and compare it with the normal vagina. Methods. A total of 21 female persons with reconstructed vagina by McIndoe method and 21 female persons with normal vagina were observed. All female persons were divided into groups and subgroups (according to age. Sensibility to touch, warmness and coldness were examined, applying VonFrey's esthesiometer and termoesthesiometer for warmness and coldness in three regions of vagina (enter, middle wall, bothom. The number of positive answers was registrated by touching the mucosa regions for five seconds, five times. Results. The obtained results showed that female patients with a reconstructed vagina by McIndoe method, felt touch at the middle part of wall and in the bottom of vagina better than patients with normal one. Also, the first ones felt warmness at the middle part of wall and coldness in the bottom of vagina, better than the patients with normal vagina. Other results showed no difference in sensibility between reconstructed and normal vagina. Conclusion. Various types of sensibility (touch, warmness, coldness are better or the same in vaginas reconstructed by McIndoe method, in comparison with normal ones. This could be explained by the fact that skin grafts are capable of recovering sensibility.

  20. Predictors of post-partum stress in Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Chun; Hung, Chich-Hsiu

    2016-01-01

    The post-partum period is a stressful time of change, particularly for immigrant women, but, to the best of the present authors' knowledge, the subject has not been explored. This study aimed to examine immigrant women's post-partum stress, depression, and levels of social support, and to determine the predictors of post-partum stress for Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used. In this descriptive survey, 208 Vietnamese immigrant women were telephone interviewed by a trained Vietnamese research assistant during one of their 6 weeks post-partum. Data were collected through telephone interviews using three questionnaires, including the Hung Postpartum Stress Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Social Support Scale. The result shows that Vietnamese women had low level post-partum stress scores. Participants' family support rated higher than friend support. The incidence of depression was 0.5%. Social support, number of post-partum days, and family income were found to be predictors for post-partum stress, accounting for 26.6% of the variance. The Vietnamese immigrant women experienced significant stress regarding their maternal roles and received most of their support from their families rather than from friends. Nurses caring for this cohort should therefore consider these factors in order to help them cope with their post-partum stress. Healthcare providers should offer available resources to these immigrant women and their spouses during this critical period in their lives. For instance, antenatal education classes could be provided to help immigrant women manage and overcome post-partum issues. © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  1. The role of melatonin in post-partum psychosis and depression associated with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, George

    2010-11-01

    Recent data has highlighted the association of a bipolar disorder (BD) with an increased risk of post-partum psychosis and depression. It is suggested that genetic- and environmental-induced decrease in the levels of melatonin in BD contributes to post-partum disorders. Melatonin may also have some efficacy in the treatment of BD, especially in decreasing the side-effects associated with lithium and the neuroleptics. It is proposed that the optimization of melatonin levels, perhaps in conjunction with optimized vitamin D3 level, would decrease post-partum psychosis and depression associated with BD.

  2. Urinary incontinence and weight changes during pregnancy and post partum: a pending challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Viñaspre Hernández, Regina; Rubio Aranda, Encarnación; Tomás Aznar, Concepción

    2013-12-01

    to analyse the association between urinary incontinence and maternal weight, and its variations in pregnancy and post partum. observational study of a cohort of women from the start of pregnancy until six months post partum. Hospital San Pedro in La Rioja, Spain. 402 pregnant women without urinary incontinence at the start of pregnancy. the dependent variable was urinary incontinence, assessed using the Urogenital Distress Inventory-Short Form questionnaire. The main independent variables were body mass index (BMI) at the first antenatal visit and six months post partum, weight gain during pregnancy, postpartum weight loss, and weight retained from the start of pregnancy to six months post partum. The association between urinary incontinence and the main independent variables was measured using Student's t-test. Three simple logistic regression models were used to assess the strength of this association, one for each of the independent variables that showed a significant association with urinary incontinence (p<0.05), and three multiple regression models that included the possible variable effect modifiers were also used. At the start of pregnancy, 20.1% of the women were overweight and 8.7% were obese. Six months post partum, 30.3% of the women were overweight and 11.4% were obese. The mean (±standard deviation) retained weight was 2 (±3.1) kg. Postpartum urinary incontinence was associated with BMI at six months post partum, postpartum weight loss and retained weight at six months post partum (p<0.05). The association of urinary incontinence with these variables was significant, and remained stable in both simple and multiple regression analyses with BMI at six months post partum [odds ratio (OR) 1.09 versus 1.08], weight loss from delivery to six months post partum (OR 0.88 versus 0.88), and retained weight from the beginning of pregnancy until six months post partum (OR 1.23 versus 1.19). high BMI and weight retention at six months post partum increase the

  3. Spontaneous parasitic leiomyoma in a post-partum woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Mana; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Shozu, Makio

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of spontaneous parasitic leiomyoma in a 30-year-old post-partum woman. A subserosal leiomyoma had been noted at the first trimester screening, and she had experienced persistent abdominal pain during her previous pregnancy. She was referred to hospital with severe abdominal pain at 7 months after delivery. We detected a homogenous solid tumor that resembled the subserosal leiomyoma but was completely detached from the uterus. On laparoscopy the vascularization of the tumor was supplied from the omentum, which was tightly adherent to the tumor. Histopathologically, the tumor was surrounded by a fibrous vascular capsule, and broadly hyalinized and partially calcified, consistent with a degenerated uterine leiomyoma. Detachment of a pedunculated subserosal leiomyoma from the uterus following adhesion to other pelvic structures throughout pregnancy may result in a parasitic leiomyoma, a rare subtype of uterine leiomyoma. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Low back pain post partum - A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-23

    Sacral stress fracture is an unusual source of low back pain and can be easily confused with a number of other clinical conditions seen in physiotherapy clinics. The purpose of this case report is to describe the case of a patient presenting with low back pain post partum illustrating pertinent aspects of differential diagnosis and issues of management. A 31 year old female presented complaining of low back pain since the birth of her second child 11 months earlier. Subjective and objective examination led the Therapist to consider a diagnosis of sacral stress fracture. This diagnosis was confirmed by MRI. Three months after presenting to physiotherapy the patient was pain free and had returned to all aspects of her daily life without any difficulties. Clinicians must be aware of the less common pathologies in any hypotheses development. A careful history and physical examination and broad hypotheses generation will ensure that patients are accurately diagnosed and receive appropriate and effective treatments.

  5. Runtime analysis of the 1-ANT ant colony optimizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Neumann, Frank; Sudholt, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The runtime analysis of randomized search heuristics is a growing field where, in the last two decades, many rigorous results have been obtained. First runtime analyses of ant colony optimization (ACO) have been conducted only recently. In these studies simple ACO algorithms such as the 1-ANT...... that give us a more detailed impression of the 1-ANT’s performance. Furthermore, the experiments also deal with the question whether using many ant solutions in one iteration can decrease the total runtime....

  6. Retroperitoneal duplication cyst with a fistulous tract to the vagina: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmar, Gilad A; Lotze, Peter M; Fisher, Hilaire W

    2012-01-01

    To describe a rare case of a retroperitoneal duplication cyst that fistulized to the vagina. Case description and discussion of a patient found to have an intestinal duplication cyst. A patient presented for a laparoscopic hysterectomy because of menorrhagia and a fibroid uterus. She also complained of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and a vaginal discharge. A retroperitoneal intestinal duplication cyst that fistulized to the vagina and caused her recurrent UTIs was identified. Surgical resection of the cyst resolved her complaint of recurrent UTIs. Retroperitoneal intestinal duplication cysts are rare congenital anomalies with vague clinical manifestations. The finding of a fistulous communication to the vagina originating from such a structure can be associated with recurrent UTIs.

  7. The metapleural gland of ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-01-01

    The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions......-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG...... is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional...

  8. Bakri balloon as a uterus preserving treatment of uncontrollable haemorrhage one month post-partum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnici, Mia; Markauskas, Algirdas; Munk, Torben

    2014-01-01

    In this case Bakri balloon was used to stop haemorrhage one month post-partum. The case introduces the use of this device outside usual indications. A 27-year-old woman was admitted several times with vaginal bleeding after caesarean section. She was treated pharmacologically and with curettage. ....... One month post-partum hysteroscopic removal of placental tissue was done. During this uncontrollable haemorrhage occurred and hysterectomy was considered. An attempt to save the uterus with Bakri balloon was made succesfully....

  9. Dukungan Social dan Kecenderungan Depresi Post Partum pada Ibu Primipara di Daerah Gempa Bantul

    OpenAIRE

    Urbayatun, Siti

    2010-01-01

    This research examined a correlation between Social Support and Post Partum Depression. Quantitatif analytical test was done by application of SPSS 15.00 for Windows software. The subject of this research were 60 primipara mother at RB Bina Sehat and RSKIA Ummi Khasanah, Bantul, Yogyakarta. The result of this research indicates that: There was significantly negative correlation between Social Support and Post Partum Depression. (r = -0.545, p= 0.00, p

  10. Hospitales seguros ante desastres

    OpenAIRE

    Celso Vladimir Bambaren Alatrista; María Del Socorro Alatrista Gutierrez

    2007-01-01

    Entre 1982 a 2005 se registraron daños en 1 143 establecimientos de salud en el Perú, generalmente debido a sismos, lluvias e inundaciones. Los daños en los servicios de salud producen la interrupción de la atención de la población y de los programas de salud, así como generan un gran gasto para la rehabilitación y reconstrucción. Por ello, se requiere proteger a los establecimientos de salud y desarrollar una política de hospitales seguros ante desastres que incluya medidas para prevenir o r...

  11. La vivienda ante emergencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arq. María Eugenia Gonzàlez Chipont

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo propone analizar la evolución de la vivienda como respuesta ante emergencias desde principios del siglo XX hasta nuestros días. La secuencia de casos a analizar no sigue una cronología estricta sino que se organiza en función de un creciente grado de complejidad. Comienza con los aportes fundamentales de la vivienda mínima del movimiento moderno, con un fuerte acento en lo tecnológico, para ir profundizando, mientras avanzamos en el siglo, en los aspectos sociales de la arquitectura. Sin intentar oponer lo tecnológico y lo social, la estructura propuesta expresa un enriquecimiento de la cuestión técnica conforme se van ampliando sus objetivos sociales. Mientras los requerimientos tecnológicos como la inmediatez y la masividad de la respuesta, permanecen a lo largo del tiempo, la vivienda ante emergencias puede plantearse objetivos sociales cada vez más profundos. Los casos fueron elegidos a partir de autores renombrados de la Historia de la Arquitectura partiendo de ejemplos cercanos a la génesis del movimiento moderno para acercarnos cada vez más hacia el contexto actual de Latinoamérica. Se logra así un barrido geográfco pero principalmente cultural: desde las fuentes de la modernidad, bajo el paradigma sólido de la industrialización, hasta la inestabilidad de la ciudad posindustrial latinoamericana

  12. Dextroamphetamine sulfate provided quick relief of severe post-partum depression that was recalcitrant to standard antidepressants and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Jaffe, A

    2017-01-01

    To determine if dextroamphetamine sulfate could improve symptoms of post-partum depression. A woman with severe post-partum depression that was resistant to standard antidepressant therapy and psychotherapy was treated with dextroamphetamine sulfate extended release capsules 15 mg/day. A quick and complete abrogation of the depression ensued along with improvement of migraine headaches, insomnia, and chronic fatigue. Dextr6amphetamine sulfate should be considered as a treatment modality for post-partum depression.

  13. Bacterial Flora of the Vagina and Cervix in Non-pregnant Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative comparative study of the bacterial flora of the vagina and cervix of 90 non-pregnant women of reproductive age (18 35 years) Calabar was undertaken. The study revealed that both aerobic and microaerophili organism as well as the strictly anaerobic bacteria constitute the microflora of the lower genital of this ...

  14. Congenital abnormality of the vagina complicated by haemato-pyocolpos in a 1-year labrador retriever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonge, S; Romussi, S; Grieco, V; Luvoni, G C

    2015-06-01

    A 1-year-old female Labrador retriever was referred with a few days history of haematic-like vulvar discharge. Physical examination, vaginal inspection and palpation did not reveal any remarkable finding. Transabdominal ultrasound showed echogenic fluid accumulation in the vagina suggesting haemato-pyocolpos. An exploratory laparotomy was performed: a well-delimited ectasic vagina was identified. Ovariohysterectomy and partial vaginectomy and vaginoplasty were performed to spay the bitch and to remove the ectasic vagina. Post-operative recovery and 12-month follow-up were uneventful. Clinical, morphological and histological findings were consistent with a congenital abnormality of the muscular layer of the vagina complicated by haemato-pyocolpos. The disorganization of the vaginal tunica muscularis may have acted as locus minoris resistentiae in the vaginal wall. The organ was dilated and atonic due to the gradual accumulation of physiological fluids complicated by an overgrowth of genital bacteria. This congenital disorder has to be taken into account as differential diagnosis of haemato-pyocolpos with vaginal discharge in young bitches. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Distinct functions and regulation of epithelial progesterone receptor in the mouse cervix, vagina, and uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Fabiola F; Son, Jieun; Hewitt, Sylvia C; Jang, Eunjung; Lydon, John P; Korach, Kenneth S; Chung, Sang-Hyuk

    2016-04-05

    While the function of progesterone receptor (PR) has been studied in the mouse vagina and uterus, its regulation and function in the cervix has not been described. We selectively deleted epithelial PR in the female reproductive tracts using the Cre/LoxP recombination system. We found that epithelial PR was required for induction of apoptosis and suppression of cell proliferation by progesterone (P4) in the cervical and vaginal epithelium. We also found that epithelial PR was dispensable for P4 to suppress apoptosis and proliferation in the uterine epithelium. PR is encoded by the Pgr gene, which is regulated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) in the female reproductive tracts. Using knock-in mouse models expressing ERα mutants, we determined that the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and AF2 domain of ERα were required for upregulation of Pgr in the cervix and vagina as well as the uterine stroma. The ERα AF1 domain was required for upregulation of Pgr in the vaginal stroma and epithelium and cervical epithelium, but not in the uterine and cervical stroma. ERα DBD, AF1, and AF2 were required for suppression of Pgr in the uterine epithelium, which was mediated by stromal ERα. Epithelial ERα was responsible for upregulation of epithelial Pgr in the cervix and vagina. Our results indicate that regulation and functions of epithelial PR are different in the cervix, vagina, and uterus.

  16. Functional anatomy of vagina muscles in the blood-feeding insect, Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, R G; O'Donnell, M J

    2009-11-01

    The physiology of the muscles associated with the vagina in the blood-feeding insect, Rhodnius prolixus Stal, was investigated with the use of Methylene Blue staining to visualize the anatomy, and a micro force transducer to record spontaneous and neurally-evoked contractions. The vagina is associated with a dorsal muscle and a set of paired lateral muscles. The dorsal muscle extends from the base of the common oviduct to apodemes located laterally on sternite VIII, the first genital segment. The lateral muscles extend from a medially-located apodeme on the posterior edge of sternite VI around each side of the common oviduct to travel posteriorly along the side of the vagina before inserting laterally on apodemes on sternite VIII. The vagina muscles display spontaneous and neurally-evoked contractions that are prolonged but transient. The response to evoked contractions shows that the muscles are innervated by both excitatory and inhibitory motor axons. The degree of tension generated by evoked contractions is dependent on the frequency of stimulation with maximal tension being generated at 20-30Hz. This tension, which often exceeds 400mg, is transient and returns to a baseline within 1 to 2min during continuous stimulation. These results, which are the first to describe this chamber in this well-studied insect, are discussed with respect to the act of egg laying.

  17. Post-partum hemorrhage in women with rare bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvandi, Flora; Menegatti, Marzia; Siboni, Simona Maria

    2011-02-01

    Post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) accounts for a substantial fraction of maternal deaths in the general population. Among all women, however, those affected with rare bleeding disorders (RBDs) represent a particular group since to usual bleeding symptoms, they are likely to experience bleedings associated to obstetrical and gynaecological problems. Pregnancy and childbirth, two important stages in the life of a woman, pose a special clinical challenge in women with RBDs, since information about these issues are really scarce and limited to few case reports. These data show that all women with RBDs, except for FXI deficiency, have to be considered potentially at risk for developing PPH, therefore they should be monitored carefully during and immediately after pregnancy. The implication is that women with bleeding disorders may require prophylaxis and/or close observation for several weeks and should be followed by a multidisciplinary team including expertises such as laboratory haematologist, obstetrician-gynaecologist, anaesthesiologist, family physician, and laboratory technician. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Maternal attachment patterns and personality in post partum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Franca; Baglioni, Valentina; Ciolli, Paola; De Bei, Francesco; Di Lorenzo, Flavia; Ferracuti, Stefano; Giacchetti, Nicoletta; Marini, Isabella; Meuti, Valentina; Motta, Paola; Roma, Paolo; Zaccagni, Michela; Williams, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of post partum depression (PPD) in a sample of Roman women, and the role of socio-demographic variables, personality structure and maternal attachment patterns, in order to identify primary and secondary prevention strategies. Data were collected in two phases. During the third trimester of pregnancy, a sample of 453 women completed a socio-demographic data sheet and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Among the patients scoring 12 or more at EPDS, 15 entered the second phase of the study and completed SCID-II and Adult Attachment Interview. PPD diagnosis was confirmed by the SCID-I. The study group was compared with a control group. Among the 453 women who were evaluated, 92 (20.3%) scored ≥12 at EPDS, 39 has been enrolled and 15 entered the study. Presence of depressive symptoms was associated with: complications in pregnancy, previous psychiatric disorders, family and marital conflicts. 66.6% of depressed mothers showed more than one diagnosis on Axis II (particularly avoidant/dependent + borderline or histrionic + dependent). The AAI showed a prevalence of insecure (33.3%) and unresolved/disorganized (46.6%) attachment pattern in the clinical group. Our results suggest that psychological factors such as personality structure and attachment patterns are not only involved in post natal affective disorders, but have a key role in the onset and development of PPD.

  19. [Early post-partum discharges: benefits, disadvantages and implementation methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkane, N

    2015-02-01

    Early post-partum discharges (EPD) are a hot topic. Already widely practised in many European countries this procedure, was promoted by the government for a decade, requested by representatives of Midwive organisations, desired by some patients, but also criticized by the Academy of Medicine. Well organized and with an obligatory control and follow-up, EPD could help with the management of the shortage of maternity beds and hence increase the satisfaction of the patients. The procedure could even be a way to effectively implement a town-hospital network, something, which has many other benefits. However this procedure is not without potential dangers: lower quality of care, financial risks for the department, and especially a significant increase of the workload of the hospital staff. The main objective of this paper is to detail the benefits and disadvantages of EPD for maternities and to propose an organizational basis if EPD is the procedure of choice. A participatory methodology is essential when using this procedure, due to the important participation of different categories of staff involved in hospital discharge (administrative, medical and paramedical staff) and to exclude complications when certain specifications are not followed or misunderstood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Pest repellent properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    of ant pheromones may be sufficient to repel pest insects from ant territories. The study of ant semiochemicals is in its infancy, yet, evidence for their potential use in pest management is starting to build up. Pheromones from four of five tested ant species have been shown to deter herbivorous insect...... prey and competing ant species are also deterred by ant deposits, whereas ant symbionts may be attracted to them. Based on these promising initial findings, it seems advisable to further elucidate the signaling properties of ant pheromones and to test and develop their use in future pest management....

  1. The influence of psychological factors on post-partum weight retention at 9 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Joanne; King, Ross; Skouteris, Helen

    2014-11-01

    Post-partum weight retention (PWR) has been identified as a critical pathway for long-term overweight and obesity. In recent years, psychological factors have been demonstrated to play a key role in contributing to and maintaining PWR. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between post-partum psychological distress and PWR at 9 months, after controlling for maternal weight factors, sleep quality, sociocontextual influences, and maternal behaviours. Pregnant women (N = 126) completed a series of questionnaires at multiple time points from early pregnancy until 9 months post-partum. Hierarchical regression indicated that gestational weight gain, shorter duration (6 months or less) of breastfeeding, and post-partum body dissatisfaction at 3 and 6 months are associated with higher PWR at 9 months; stress, depression, and anxiety had minimal influence. Interventions aimed at preventing excessive PWR should specifically target the prevention of body dissatisfaction and excessive weight gain during pregnancy. What is already known on this subject? Post-partum weight retention (PWR) is a critical pathway for long-term overweight and obesity. Causes of PWR are complex and multifactorial. There is increasing evidence that psychological factors play a key role in predicting high PWR. What does this study add? Post-partum body dissatisfaction at 3 and 6 months is associated with PWR at 9 months post-birth. Post-partum depression, stress and anxiety have less influence on PWR at 9 months. Interventions aimed at preventing excessive PWR should target body dissatisfaction. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among post-partum mothers in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Rajendra Kumar; Khatri, Resham Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Khanal, Vishnu; Sharma, Vidya Dev; Gartoula, Ritu Prasad

    2015-03-31

    Post-partum depression is a common complication of women after childbirth. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptoms among post-partum mothers attending a child immunization clinic at a maternity hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 346 post-partum mothers at six to ten weeks after delivery using systematic random sampling. Mothers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to screen for depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the association of post-partum depressive symptoms with socio-demographic and maternal factors. The prevalence of post-partum depressive symptoms among mothers was 30%. Mothers aged 20 to 29 years were less likely to have depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.21-0.76) compared to older mothers. Similarly, mothers with a history of pregnancy-induced health problems were more likely to have depressive symptoms (aOR = 2.16; CI: 1.00-4.66) and subjective feelings of stress (aOR = 3.86; CI: 1.84-4.66) than mothers who did not. The number of post-partum mothers experiencing depressive symptoms was high; almost one-third of the participants reported having them. Pregnancy-induced health problems and subjective feelings of stress during pregnancy in the post-partum period were found to be associated with depressive symptoms among these women. Screening of depressive symptoms should be included in routine antenatal and postnatal care services for early identification and prevention.

  3. Hospitales seguros ante desastres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Vladimir Bambaren Alatrista

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1982 a 2005 se registraron daños en 1 143 establecimientos de salud en el Perú, generalmente debido a sismos, lluvias e inundaciones. Los daños en los servicios de salud producen la interrupción de la atención de la población y de los programas de salud, así como generan un gran gasto para la rehabilitación y reconstrucción. Por ello, se requiere proteger a los establecimientos de salud y desarrollar una política de hospitales seguros ante desastres que incluya medidas para prevenir o reducción de la vulnerabilidad estructural, no estructural y funcional en los nuevos establecimientos y en los existentes.(Rev Med Hered 2007;18:149-154.

  4. Exogenous estradiol enhances apoptosis in regressing post-partum rat corpora lutea possibly mediated by prolactin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telleria Carlos M

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In pregnant rats, structural luteal regression takes place after parturition and is associated with cell death by apoptosis. We have recently shown that the hormonal environment is responsible for the fate of the corpora lutea (CL. Changing the levels of circulating hormones in post-partum rats, either by injecting androgen, progesterone, or by allowing dams to suckle, was coupled with a delay in the onset of apoptosis in the CL. The objectives of the present investigation were: i to examine the effect of exogenous estradiol on apoptosis of the rat CL during post-partum luteal regression; and ii to evaluate the post-partum luteal expression of the estrogen receptor (ER genes. Methods In a first experiment, rats after parturition were separated from their pups and injected daily with vehicle or estradiol benzoate for 4 days. On day 4 post-partum, animals were sacrificed, blood samples were taken to determine serum concentrations of hormones, and the ovaries were isolated to study apoptosis in situ. In a second experiment, non-lactating rats after parturition received vehicle, estradiol benzoate or estradiol benzoate plus bromoergocryptine for 4 days, and their CL were isolated and used to study apoptosis ex vivo. In a third experiment, we obtained CL from rats on day 15 of pregnancy and from non-lactating rats on day 4 post-partum, and studied the expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs encoding the ERalpha and ERbeta genes. Results Exogenous administration of estradiol benzoate induced an increase in the number of apoptotic cells within the CL on day 4 post-partum when compared with animals receiving vehicle alone. Animals treated with the estrogen had higher serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, with no changes in serum androstenedione. Administration of bromoergocryptine blocked the increase in serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, and DNA fragmentation induced by the estrogen treatment. ERalpha and

  5. Role of Some Hormones and Blood Components during Pregnancy and Post Partum Periods in Baladi Cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessim, M.Z.

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was carried out on seven native Baladi pregnant cows similar in age and on the second parity during last stage of pregnancy as detected by rectal palpation test, during December (mild climate) and continued until calving during January and February (postpartum). Blood sample from each cow was taken at three weeks before calving and three weeks after calving to determine blood plasma levels of progesterone, estradiol, total T 3 , cortisol and parathormone hormone and other biochemical parameters, such calcium phosphorus, triglycerides, ALT and AST. The maximum temperature humidity index (THI) during December and January was 70 THI and 73 THI, respectively. A comparison was done between pre-partum and post-partum of the same group to estimate biological changes after calving. Results indicated an increase (p 3 , Phosphorus, AST and triglycerides (p<0.05) post-partum. While, it induced a decrease (p<0.01) in progesterone, cortisol , parathormone hormones, calcium and ALT level. Negative correlation was observed between calcium and phosphorus in both pre-partum and post-partum

  6. Catatonic features noted in patients with post-partum mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jiun-Yang; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, distribution of psychiatric diagnoses, and treatment responses of patients with post-partum mental illness at an emergency unit at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung in Taiwan. During a 1 year period a total of 636 Taiwanese women received psychiatric consultation on their visits to the emergency room. Fifteen of these were noted to have post-partum mental illnesses. All subjects were followed up for a minimum of 3-6 months. The prevalence of patients with post-partum mental illness at an emergency unit at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung was 2.4% (15/636). The distribution of psychiatric diagnoses according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) criteria included eight cases of major depressive disorders (53.3%), three cases of bipolar I disorder (20%), three cases of schizophrenia (20%), and one case of psychotic disorder due to a general medical condition (6.7%). Four subjects manifested catatonic features. Of these four, three had complete remission in catatonic symptoms after receiving intramuscular injection of lorazepam. The fourth subject died of multiple medical diseases. The treatment results suggest that most of the clinical presentations in patients with post-partum mental illness could be relieved by antipsychotics, mood stabilizers or antidepressants. In addition, it was found that intramuscular injection of lorazepam was also effective in patients with catatonic features and post-partum depression or psychosis.

  7. Prevalence rates and socioeconomic characteristics of post-partum depression in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Emese; Molnar, Peter; Pal, Attila; Orvos, Hajnalka

    2011-01-30

    The rapid socioeconomic transition in post-communist Hungary adversely affected the overall morbidity and mortality rates in the 1990s. Prevalence data on depressive disorders from the region are still scarce, however. This study reports the findings of the first epidemiological survey, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), on the prevalence of post-partum depression and the associated risk factors in Hungary. A total of 1030 mothers who delivered their babies between May and July 1999 in 16 counties in Hungary were screened for depressive symptoms 3-26 weeks post-partum. The survey found that 10.81% of the sample was above the cut-off score of 13, and the EPDS detected post-partum depressive symptoms with 76% (95% confidence interval (CI)=60.5-87.1) sensitivity and 92% (95% CI=90.5-94.1) specificity. In addition, 24 socio-demographic, socio-psychiatric data and personal and obstetric variables were surveyed. Results of a hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that depression of the mother during pregnancy was the strongest predictor of depressive symptoms post-partum. Depression before pregnancy, housing conditions, marital relationship status and family history of alcohol problems were also identified as predictors for post-partum depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of steroids in the development of post-partum mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskova, Andrea; Jirak, Roman; Mikesova, Michaela; Adamcova, Karolina; Fartakova, Zdenka; Horakova, Vladimira; Koucky, Michal; Hill, Martin; Hruskovicova, Hana; Starka, Luboslav; Duskova, Michaela; Parizek, Antonin

    2014-09-01

    Unfavorable post-partum changes to mental well-being affect more than half of all women, and are a risk to the health of both mother and baby. Their effects place strains on health and social systems. Currently, no generally accepted theory exists of the causes and mechanisms of post-partum mental disorders. Literature search up to 2012, using PubMed and search words: neuroactive steroids, post-partum mental disorders, depression, corticotropin-releasing hormone and estrogens. There are several theories for post-partum depression. One is that autoimmune diseases are involved. Others revolve around genes responsible or that lead to increased disposition to the disorder. It is likely however that the process is associated with the separation of the placenta and the fetal zone of fetal adrenal gland, the main sources of corticotropin-releasing hormone and sexual and neuroactive steroids during pregnancy, and the ability of the receptor system to adapt to these changes. The central nervous system is able to produce neurosteroids, but the drop in levels of peripheral steroids likely leads to a sudden deficit in neuroinhibitory steroids modulating ionotropic receptors in the brain. Post-partum depression is a multifactorial disease with unknown etiology. It is probably associated with sudden changes in the production of hormones influencing the nervous system, and on the other hand the ability of the receptor system to adapt to these changes. When the relative changes in concentrations of hormones, rather than their absolute levels, is likely more important.

  9. [Severe post-partum hemorrhage: descriptive study at the Robert-Debré Hospital maternity ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyal, F; Deffarges, J; Luton, D; Blot, P; Oury, J F; Sibony, O

    2002-06-01

    To analyze the prevalence, cause, treatment, and risk factors of severe post-partum hemorrhage (transfusion, surgery, radiology) observed at the maternity ward of the Robert-Debré Hospital, Paris. Method. This retrospective cohort was collected from a database including 19182 deliveries from 1992 to 1998. The entire medical file was reviewed in cases of severe hemorrhage. The prevalence of severe post-partum hemorrhage was 23 per 10,000 deliveries (44 patients). Transfusion was performed in 44/44 and hysterectomy in 3/44. Three patients were transferred to the intensive care unit. There were no deaths. At multivariate analysis, risk factors for severe post-partum hemorrhage were: abnormal placental insertion (OR=7.2; 95CI: 2.18-18.3), cesarean (OR=5.8; 95CI: 2.9-11.6), multiple pregnancy (OR=3.2; 95CI: 1.3-7.8), prematurity (OR=3, 95CI: 1.5-6.2), hypertension (OR=2.9; 95CI: 1.3-6.3). Twenty-six percent of the patients had no risk factors. The prevalence of severe pot-partum hemorrhage is low in our experience. The methodology used for this retrospective cohort does not enable an explanation. Intensive obstetrical care is necessary in case of abnormal placenta insertion. In 10 out of 44 cases, severe post-partum hemorrhage occurred in a context of insufficient monitoring, late or erroneous diagnosis, or incorrect treatment.

  10. Dry period management and optimization of post-partum reproductive management in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumen, A; Keskin, A; Yilmazbas-Mecitoglu, G; Karakaya, E; Wiltbank, Mc

    2011-09-01

    Dry period and early post-partum management are decisive factors for fertility in lactating dairy cows. Previous studies have shown that decreased dry matter intake (DMI) and increased non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) negatively affect fertility and subsequent milk production. The traditional dry period decreases DMI prior to parturition, resulting in a decrease in energy intake. A negative energy balance increases NEFA concentration, and increased NEFA may impair the immune system, especially by decreasing neutrophil function prior to parturition. Earlier studies have shown that post-partum health disorders, including retained placenta and metritis, were correlated with periparturient neutrophil function. In addition, decreased DMI is also linked to a reduced body condition score (BCS) in dairy cows. These events in the periparturient period negatively affect fertility. Some manipulation, such as shortening the dry period, may be a solution to increased DMI in the periparturient period, preventing post-partum disorders and subsequent fertility issues. This article aims to explain the effects of shortening the dry period on reproduction and early post-partum treatments to improve fertility. In addition, timed artificial insemination protocols will be discussed for use during the post-partum period to improve fertility in dairy cows. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effectiveness of rectal misoprostol in cessation of Post Partum Haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreen, S.; Baqai, S.; Iftikhar, S.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of rectal misoprostol in management of Post Partum Haemorrhage in third stage of labour. Study Design: Interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Gynaecology and obstetrics department at PNS Shifa Hospital Karachi, from Sep 2012 to Mar 2013. Material and Methods: All singleton and multiple pregnancies of gestation 37-42 weeks, who presented in labour room to deliver and had prolonged second stage of labour (n=112) were enrolled in the study. Patients, who were having coagulopathy, abruption, placenta previa, and allergy to prostaglandins were excluded from the study. Third stage was managed actively according to hospital standard routine. Hemoglobin was measured at the time of admission and repeated after delivery in patients having PPH. Blood was estimated by weighing all gauzes and packs. If blood loss more than 500ml one hour after delivery and all traumatic causes and retained placenta were excluded, 600 mu g (3 tablets) of misoprostol were given per rectally, which were inserted up to a digit depth. After one hour total amount of blood loss was calculated. The data were then entered in a proforma and analyzed. Results: Majority (44.6%) of the women were 26-33 years of age, 8.9% had PPH with fall in hemoglobin by 1.5-2 gms/dl. Ninety percent of the patients responded to rectal misoprostol. Conclusion: Active management of third stage of labour has a definite role in the preventive of PPH. Rectal administration of misoprostol should be considered for control of PPH in low resource settings like ours as it was found effective in the study. (author)

  12. Post-Partum Depression Effect on Child Health and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Rezai Abhari, Farideh; Zarghami, Mehran

    2017-02-01

    While studies have shown the disastrous effects of post-partum depression (PPD) on children's behaviors, there is relatively lack of reliable data in Asian countries. This study examined the relative significance of maternal PPD in children's developmental disabilities at age four. In a longitudinal study design (2009), 1801 pregnant women attending in primary health centers of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran provided self-reports of depression from two to twelve postpartum weeks using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Approximately four years later, the women experiencing PPD and twice as the ones who did not experience this disorder were considered as case (N=204) and control (N=467) groups. The association between maternal depression at different times and childhood developmental disabilities based on Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and other health problems reported by the child were analyzed using two-sample t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression models. The presence of PPD only was not a predictor of child's developmental disabilities at age four. Childhood developmental disabilities in communication, gross motor and personal-social domains of ASQ were associated with the current and concurrent maternal depressive symptoms (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.16-5.78; OR=4.34, 95% CI=2.10-8.96; OR=5.66, 95% CI=1.94-16.54 and OR=3.35, 95% CI=1.31-8.58; OR=4.15, 95% CI=2.72-13.87; OR=6.17, 95% CI=1.95-19.53 respectively). PPD, the current depressive symptoms, and depression at both occasions were associated with more health problems in children. Childhood developmental disabilities in some domains of ASQ were significantly related to the maternal depression chronicity or recurrence. Also, child's difficulties were more prevalent in association with maternal depression regardless of onset time.

  13. Post-Partum Depression Effect on Child Health and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Abdollahi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While studies have shown the disastrous effects of post-partum depression (PPD on children's behaviors, there is relatively lack of reliable data in Asian countries. This study examined the relative significance of maternal PPD in children's developmental disabilities at age four. In a longitudinal study design (2009, 1801 pregnant women attending in primary health centers of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran provided self-reports of depression from two to twelve postpartum weeks using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Approximately four years later, the women experiencing PPD and twice as the ones who did not experience this disorder were considered as case (N=204 and control (N=467 groups. The association between maternal depression at different times and childhood developmental disabilities based on Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ and other health problems reported by the child were analyzed using two-sample t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression models. The presence of PPD only was not a predictor of child's developmental disabilities at age four. Childhood developmental disabilities in communication, gross motor and personal-social domains of ASQ were associated with the current and concurrent maternal depressive symptoms (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.16-5.78; OR=4.34, 95% CI=2.10-8.96; OR=5.66, 95% CI=1.94-16.54 and OR=3.35, 95% CI=1.31-8.58; OR=4.15, 95% CI=2.72-13.87; OR=6.17, 95% CI=1.95-19.53 respectively. PPD, the current depressive symptoms, and depression at both occasions were associated with more health problems in children. Childhood developmental disabilities in some domains of ASQ were significantly related to the maternal depression chronicity or recurrence. Also, child's difficulties were more prevalent in association with maternal depression regardless of onset time.

  14. Foreign body in the vagina of a four-year-old-girl: a childish prank or sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhavar, Nahid; Teimoori, Batool; Ghasemi, Marzie

    2014-06-01

    Foreign body in the vagina is a common cause of vaginal discharge, which may be either purulent or hemorrhagic. This problem may produce symptoms or be asymptomatic for long periods of time and may result from ignorance, accident, malice, psychotic tendencies, attempts at sexual stimulation or sexual abuse. The current report presents the case of a girl that had inserted a foreign body in her vagina probably due to childish prank. The clinicians should always think of foreign bodies in the vagina in cases of chronic, antibiotic resistant vaginal discharge and lower abdominal pain especially in young girls.

  15. A cellular automata model for ant trails

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was inves- tigated using ... the literature, it was considered in the model that (i) ant colony consists of two kinds of ants, good- ... ponents without a central controller [8].

  16. Does prenatal care benefit maternal health? A study of post-partum maternal care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Bradley; Chan, Yun-Shan; Chen, Chin-Shyan

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on prenatal care focus on its effects on infant health, while studying less about the effects on maternal health. Using the Longitudinal Health Insurance claims data in Taiwan in a recursive bivariate probit model, this study examines the impact of adequate prenatal care on the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization during the first 6 months after birth. The results show that adequate prenatal care significantly reduces the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization among women who have had vaginal delivery by 43.8%. This finding suggests that the benefits of prenatal care may have been underestimated among women with vaginal delivery. Timely and adequate prenatal care not only creates a positive impact on infant health, but also yields significant benefits for post-partum maternal health. However, we do not find similar benefits of prenatal care for women undergoing a cesarean section. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ANT, tourism and situated globality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; van der Duim, René

    2015-01-01

    viable descriptions of the collective condition of humans and more-than-humans in the Anthropocene. Also and moving past a merely descriptive approach, it discusses it as a useful tool to engage with the situated globalities which come into being through the socio-spatial coupling of tourism......In recent years Actor-network theory (ANT) has increasingly been felt in the field of tourism studies (Van der Duim, Ren, & Jóhannesson, 2012). An important implication of the meeting between ANT and tourism studies is the notion of tourism being described as a heterogeneous assemblage of what we...... are used to define as the separate spheres of nature and culture. This paper explores and relates the central tenets of ANT in tourism with regard to the concept of the Anthropocene. It presents the ANT approach as a flat and object-oriented ontology and methodology and explores its potentials to carve out...

  18. Efektifitas Skala Edinburgh dan Skala Beck dalam Mendeteksi Risiko Depresi Post Partum di Rumah Sakit Umum Prof. DR. Margono Soekarjo Purwokerto

    OpenAIRE

    Latifah, Lutfatul; Hartati

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Edinburgh post partum depression scale (EPDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale to detect risk of post partum depression. This study utilized survey with quantitative approach. Of 25 patients were chosen with purposive sampling method. The criteria of sample was post partum mother who admitted at Margono Soekardjo hospital in the sixth days. The assessment of post partum mother was evaluated directly to the target population ...

  19. Cognitive factors and post-partum depression: What is the influence of general personality traits, rumination, maternal self-esteem, and alexithymia?

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Anne; Luminet, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to assess the impact of cognitive factors on post-partum depression (PPD) symptoms. Because most of the literature data concern the immediate post-partum period or the first year post-partum, we notably sought to assess the longer term impact of cognitive factors on the symptoms of PPD. METHODS: Two studies were performed. In a pilot study, 1-month post-partum, 63 women filled out a sociodemographic information sheet and completed the abbreviated, revised Eysenck...

  20. One year follow-up of post-partum-onset depression: the role of depressive symptom severity and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguz, Faruk; Akman, Cemal; Sahingoz, Mine; Kaya, Nazmiye; Kucur, Rahim

    2009-06-01

    Long-term follow-up and risk factors of persistent post-partum depression (PPD) are fairly unknown compared with its prevalence in the developing countries. In this study, we did a follow-up measure of PPD and examined the factors, which were associated with PPD 1-year post-partum. Our sample comprised of 34 women. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh post-natal depression scale (EPDS) 6 weeks post-partum, and women with scores >12 on this scale was categorised as depressed. Personality disorders were determined at the same occasion by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R personality disorders (SCID-II). One year post-partum EPDS was completed. The rate of PPD 1-year post-partum was 32.4%, and it was unrelated to age at assessment, primiparity, number of children, employment status, economical status and educational level. Women depressed 1-year post-partum had significantly higher basal scores of EPDS and more often also a diagnosis of any axis II disorder; and specifically dependent and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. In our sample, the predictors of 1-year post-partum PPD were having higher basal score of EPDS and the existence of a personality disorder. This study suggests that women with PPD, scoring high in the EPDS scale 6 weeks post-partum and having a personality disorder, run a higher risk for depression at 1-year follow-up.

  1. Ants Orase kultuurisõnum

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    26. jaanuaril toimub Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilises Raamatukogus seminar silmapaistvast Eesti teadlasest ja tõlkijast Ants Orasest. Esinevad kirjandusteadlased Tallinna Ülikoolist, Tartu Ülikoolist ja Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumist. Avaettekandeks on sõna Oklahoma Ülikooli professoril Vincent B. Leitchil, kes oli Ants Orase viimaseks juhendatavaks doktorandiks. Seminari korraldavad Tallinna Ülikool ja Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum. Vt ka Postimees, 26, jaan., lk. 18

  2. [Risks factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality in pre-term infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeballos Sarrato, Susana; Villar Castro, Sonia; Ramos Navarro, Cristina; Zeballos Sarrato, Gonzalo; Sánchez Luna, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Pre-term delivery is one of the leading causes of foetal and perinatal mortality. However, perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal death in preterm deliveries have not been well studied. To analyse foetal mortality and perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality in pregnancies of less than 32 weeks gestational age. The study included all preterm deliveries between 22 and 31 +1 weeks gestational age (WGA), born in a tertiary-referral hospital, over a period of 7 years (2008-2014). A logistic regression model was used to identify perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality (foetal malformations and chromosomal abnormalities were excluded). During the study period, the overall foetal mortality was 63.1% (106/168) (≥22 weeks of gestation) occurred in pregnancies of less than 32 WGA. A total of 882 deliveries between 22 and 31+6 weeks of gestation were included for analysis. The rate of foetal mortality was 11.3% (100/882). The rate of intra-partum foetal death was 2.6% (23/882), with 78.2% (18/23) of these cases occurring in hospitalised pregnancies. It was found that Assisted Reproductive Techniques, abnormal foetal ultrasound, no administration of antenatal steroids, lower gestational age, and small for gestational age, were independent risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality. This study showed that there is a significant percentage intra-partum foetal mortality in infants between 22 and 31+6 WGA. The analysis of intrapartum mortality and risk factors associated with this mortality is of clinical and epidemiological interest to optimise perinatal care and improve survival of preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Determinants of Post - partum contraception practices in urban slums of central Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Davalagi B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The largest proportion of women with an unmet need for contraception is found among those in their first year after childbirth; concentrating efforts to reduce unmet need among these women could have additionally bigger impact on increasing contraceptive use than concentrating on any other group. Aims & Objectives: To know the knowledge & practices of post – partum contraception among mothers in urban slums. Material & Methods: Cross sectional study conducted in urban slums for duration of six months. Study population included mothers in extended post – partum period residing in urban slums. Mothers were interviewed using pre – tested, semi – structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS v 22.0 and, chi square test and logistic regression analysis was employed. P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority of the mothers in our study were in the age group of 20-24 years (46%. Mean age was 21.6 ± 3.1years. Majority of the mothers (56% were Hindus. Mean age of marriage observed was 18.2±2.1years. In the present study, majority (76% had knowledge of post – partum contraceptive methods, but only 17% of the mothers were using contraception. Unmet need for post – partum contraception was found among 49% of mothers. Conclusions: Inspite of being aware, the practice of family planning was very low among post-partum mothers. The study highlights the impact of socio cultural factors like religion, caste, number of living children, duration of marriage and ANC service utilization on post – partum contraception usage among mothers.

  4. Intrinsic and extrinsic carbohydrates in the vagina: A short review on vaginal glycogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Richard; Al-Ghazzewi, Farage H

    2018-06-01

    The reasons for (i) the presence and (ii) mechanisms of utilisation of glycogen by the lactic acid bacteria in the human vaginal tract are not well understood. It is probable that the vaginal epithelia produce both glycogen and α-amylase where the enzyme depolymerises the polysaccharide within the vagina itself. Only these depolymerised residues are then utilised for growth by the lactic acid bacteria. The lactic acid bacteria cannot metabolise the glycogen directly due to their incapacity to produce the α-amylase enzyme. These bacteria may, however, metabolise exogenous carbohydrates (such as prebiotics) selectively for growth effectively. These carbohydrate utilisation issues within the vagina are considered in this short review. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Vitamin D Proliferates Vaginal Epithelium through RhoA Expression in Postmenopausal Atrophic Vagina tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Arum; Lee, Man Ryul; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Kim, Yeon-Suk; Kim, Jun-Mo; Enkhbold, Temuulee; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2017-09-30

    Postmenopausal atrophic vagina (PAV) is the thinning of the walls of the vagina and decreased lugae of the vagina. PAV is caused by decreased estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. However, the harmful effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have resulted in considerable caution in its use. Various estrogen agonist treatment options are available. Vitamin D is influences the regulation of differentiation and proliferation of various cells, especially tissues lining stratified squamous epithelium, such as the vaginal epithelium. In this study, we hypothesized that vitamin D could provide an alternative and a safe treatment option for PAV by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of the vaginal epithelium. Thirty six patients were enrolled in this case-control study. Vitamin D associated proteins in a vitamin D and sex hormone treated vaginal epithelial cell line as well as normal and PAV tissues were measured. To confirm of cell-to-cell junction protein expression, cell line and tissue studies included RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry staining, and immunoblot analyses. The expression of cell-to-cell junction proteins was higher in women with symptoms of atrophic vagina tissue compared to women without the symptoms. Vitamin D stimulated the proliferation of the vaginal epithelium by activating p-RhoA and Erzin through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The results suggest that vitamin D positively regulates cell-to-cell junction by increasing the VDR/p-RhoA/p-Ezrin pathway. This is the first study to verify the relationship of the expression of RhoA and Ezrin proteins in vaginal tissue of PAV.

  6. Verrucous carcinoma of the cervix and vagina treated by radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.D.; Twiggs, L.B.; Okagaki, T.; Adcock, L.L.; Prem, K.A.; Potish, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Seven cases of verrocous carcinoma of the uterine cervix (five) and vagina (two) were reviewed. Four of the five patients managed primarily with radiation therapy have survived a median of 10 years. Of the two patients managed primarily with surgery, one experienced recurrence and was then successfully treated with radiation therapy; the other died of metastatic carcinoma. No anaplastic transformation of lesions or distant metastases occurred in the patients treated with radiation therapy. Human papilloma virus was isolated in two patients

  7. Biomechanical and morphological properties of the multiparous ovine vagina and effect of subsequent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynkevic, Rita; Martins, Pedro; Hympanova, Lucie; Almeida, Henrique; Fernandes, Antonio A; Deprest, Jan

    2017-05-24

    Pelvic floor soft tissues undergo changes during the pregnancy. However, the degree and nature of this process is not completely characterized. This study investigates the effect of subsequent pregnancy on biomechanical and structural properties of ovine vagina. Vaginal wall from virgin, pregnant (in their third pregnancy) and parous (one year after third vaginal delivery) Swifter sheep (n=5 each) was harvested. Samples for biomechanics and histology, were cut in longitudinal axis (proximal and distal regions). Outcome measurements describing Young's modulus, ultimate stress and elongation were obtained from stress-strain curves. For histology samples were stained with Miller's Elastica staining. Collagen, elastin and muscle cells and myofibroblasts contents were estimated, using image processing techniques. Statistical analyses were performed in order to determine significant differences among experimental groups. Significant regional differences were identified. The proximal vagina was stiffer than distal, irrespective the reproductive status. During the pregnancy proximal vagina become more compliant than in parous (+47.45%) or virgin sheep (+64.35%). This coincided with lower collagen (-15 to -21%), higher elastin (+30 to +60%), and more smooth muscle cells (+17 to +37%). Vaginal tissue from parous ewes was weaker than of virgins, coinciding with lower collagen (-10%), higher elastin (+50%), more smooth muscle cells (+20%). It could be proposed that after pregnancy biomechanical properties of vagina do not recover to those of virgins. Since elastin has a significant influence on the compliance of soft tissues and collagen is the main "actor" regarding strength, histological analysis performed in this study justifies the mechanical behavior observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Foreign body in vagina: a cause of persistent vaginal discharge in children

    OpenAIRE

    P. Pallavee; Sunita Samal; P. Sabita

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis and vaginal discharge in pediatric patients, while not uncommon, is commonly believed to be due to such causes as absence of the protective effect on the vaginal mucosa. However, other causes need also to be kept in mind. We report a case of chronic vaginal discharge in a 5 yr old, who had retained a foreign body in her vagina for 6-7 months. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000): 224-225

  9. [Microbiota of urine and vagina of healthy postmenopausal women (a pilot study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naboka, Yu L; Rymashevsky, A N; Kogan, M I; Gudima, I A; Borovleva, O A; Jalagonia, K T; Zarutskiy, S A

    2016-02-01

    Studying microbiota of different urogenital tract habitats in healthy postmenopausal women is of practical importance in deciding on the appropriateness of correction of dysbiotic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the vaginal and urine microbiota of healthy postmenopausal women. The study included 20 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 59,0+/-2,1 years). Duration of menopause in all subjects was more than 8 years. Bacteriological testing of urine and vaginal specimen was carried out on the extended media (15) for cultivating facultative anaerobic bacteria (FAB) and nonclostridial anaerobic bacteria (NAB) and included PCR of midstream morning urine. Among FAB in the urine and vagina dominated coagulase-negative staphylococci and NAB. Bacterial patterns of studied habitats turned out to be similar in many respects. In the urine Megasphaera spp., Veillonella spp., Prevotella spp., Mobiluncus spp., Fusobacterium spp. were found, whereas in the vagina these microorganisms were not present. Cluster analysis revealed no significant differences in the concentration of the same microorganisms isolated from the urine and vagina. When comparing the frequency of microorganism detection in urine by bacteriological method and by PCR, bacterial patterns were identical in 56% of cases.

  10. Spatiotemporal dynamics of androgen signaling underlie sexual differentiation and congenital malformations of the urethra and vagina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkins, Christine E.; Enriquez, Ana B.; Cohn, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital anomalies that affect sexual differentiation of genitourinary organs and secondary sex characters. A common cause of female genital virilization is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in which excess androgen production during development of 46XX females can result in vaginal atresia, masculinization of the urethra, a single urogenital sinus, and clitoral hypertrophy or ambiguous external genitalia. Development of the vagina depends on sexual differentiation of the urogenital sinus ridge, an epithelial thickening that forms where the sex ducts attach to the anterior urethra. In females, the sinus ridge descends posteriorly to allow the vaginal opening to form in the vulva, whereas in males and in females with CAH, androgens inhibit descent of the sinus ridge. The mechanisms that regulate development of the female urethra and vagina are largely unknown. Here we show that the timing and duration of, and the cell population targeted by, androgen signaling determine the position of vaginal attachment to the urethra. Manipulations of androgen signaling in utero reveal a temporal window of development when sinus ridge fate is determined. Cell type-specific genetic deletions of androgen receptor (Ar) identify a subpopulation of mesenchymal cells that regulate sinus ridge morphogenesis. These results reveal a common mechanism that coordinates development of the vagina and feminization of the urethra, which may account for development of a single urogenital sinus in females exposed to excessive androgen during a critical period of prenatal development. PMID:27821748

  11. A case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Kousuke; Akahira, Jun-Ichi; Niikura, Hitoshi; Ito, Kiyoshi; Moriya, Takuya; Murakami, Takashi; Kameoka, Jun-Ichi; Ichinohasama, Ryo; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2004-09-01

    We report the first case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the vagina, the diagnosis of which is supported by genetic and immunophenotypic studies. A 65-year-old, para 2 woman presented to our hospital in July 1997 with a history of prolonged vaginal discharge. Although cytologic examination suggested possible malignancy, a biopsy of the vaginal wall was diagnosed as chronic inflammation. In June 2000, she underwent gynecologic examination because of anuria. Excisional biopsy revealed subepithelial infiltration of atypical lymphoid cells that stained for CD20, CD79a, and BCL-2; stained weakly for IgM; and did not stain for CD3, CD5, CD7, CD10, CD56, CD23, and IgD, suggesting marginal zone B-cell lineage. Monoclonality was detected by Southern blot analysis, and this patient was finally diagnosed as having primary MALT lymphoma of the vagina. She received 3 cycles of chemotherapy (THP-COP) and concurrent radiation to the whole pelvis. The patient is alive and well 40 months after treatment. Because the vagina is one of the mucosa-associated tissues, MALT lymphoma, though rare, must be included in the differential diagnosis of the vaginal neoplasms.

  12. Using Ants as bioindicators: Multiscale Issues in Ant Community Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Andersen

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological patterns and processes are characteristically scale dependent, and research findings often cannot be translated easily from one scale to another. Conservation biology is challenged by a lack of congruence between the spatial scales of ecological research (typically involving small plots and land management (typically involving whole landscapes. Here, I discuss spatial scaling issues as they relate to an understanding of ant communities and, consequently, their use as bioindicators in land management. Our perceptions of fundamental patterns and processes in ant communities depend on scale: taxa that are behaviorally dominant at one scale are not necessarily so at others, functional groups recognized at one scale are often inappropriate for others, and the role of competition in community structure depends on the scale of analysis. Patterns of species richness and composition, and the ability of total richness to be estimated by surrogates, are all also scale dependent. Ant community ecology has a tradition of detailed studies in small plots, but the use of ants as bioindicators requires a predictive understanding of community structure and dynamics at a range of spatial scales. Such an appreciation of ant communities and their most effective use as bioindicators is best served by studies integrating results from plot-scale research with the broad-scale paradigms of biogeography, systematics, and evolutionary biology.

  13. Monoculture of leafcutter ant gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich G Mueller

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Leafcutter ants depend on the cultivation of symbiotic Attamyces fungi for food, which are thought to be grown by the ants in single-strain, clonal monoculture throughout the hundreds to thousands of gardens within a leafcutter nest. Monoculture eliminates cultivar-cultivar competition that would select for competitive fungal traits that are detrimental to the ants, whereas polyculture of several fungi could increase nutritional diversity and disease resistance of genetically variable gardens.Using three experimental approaches, we assessed cultivar diversity within nests of Atta leafcutter ants, which are most likely among all fungus-growing ants to cultivate distinct cultivar genotypes per nest because of the nests' enormous sizes (up to 5000 gardens and extended lifespans (10-20 years. In Atta texana and in A. cephalotes, we resampled nests over a 5-year period to test for persistence of resident cultivar genotypes within each nest, and we tested for genetic differences between fungi from different nest sectors accessed through excavation. In A. texana, we also determined the number of Attamyces cells carried as a starter inoculum by a dispersing queens (minimally several thousand Attamyces cells, and we tested for genetic differences between Attamyces carried by sister queens dispersing from the same nest. Except for mutational variation arising during clonal Attamyces propagation, DNA fingerprinting revealed no evidence for fungal polyculture and no genotype turnover during the 5-year surveys.Atta leafcutter ants can achieve stable, fungal monoculture over many years. Mutational variation emerging within an Attamyces monoculture could provide genetic diversity for symbiont choice (gardening biases of the ants favoring specific mutational variants, an analog of artificial selection.

  14. [Post-partum: Guidelines for clinical practice--Short text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénat, M-V; Sentilhes, L; Battut, A; Benhamou, D; Bydlowski, S; Chantry, A; Deffieux, X; Diers, F; Doret, M; Ducroux-Schouwey, C; Fuchs, F; Gascoin, G; Lebot, C; Marcellin, L; Plu-Bureau, G; Raccah-Tebeka, B; Simon, E; Bréart, G; Marpeau, L

    2015-12-01

    To determine the post-partum management of women and their newborn whatever the mode of delivery. The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. Because breastfeeding is associated with a decrease in neonatal morbidity (lower frequency of cardiovascular diseases, infectious, atopic or infantile obesity) (EL2) and an improvement in the cognitive development of children (EL2), exclusive and extended breastfeeding is recommended (grade B) between 4 to 6 months (Professional consensus). In order to increase the rate of breastfeeding initiation and its duration, it is recommended that health professionals work closely with mothers in their project (grade A) and to promote breastfeeding on demand (grade B). There is no scientific evidence to recommend non-pharmacological measures of inhibition of lactation (Professional consensus). Pharmacological treatments for inhibition of lactation should not be given routinely to women who do not wish to breastfeed (Professional consensus). Because of potentially serious adverse effects, bromocriptin is contraindicated in inhibiting lactation (Professional consensus). For women aware of the risks of pharmacological treatment of inhibition of lactation, lisuride and cabergolin are the preferred drugs (Professional consensus). Whatever the mode of delivery, numeration blood count is not systematically recommended in a general population (Professional consensus). Anemia must be sought only in women with bleeding or symptoms of anemia (Professional consensus). The only treatment of post-dural puncture headache is the blood patch (EL2), it must not be carried out before 48 h (Professional consensus). Women vaccination status and their family is to be assessed in the early post-partum (Professional consensus). Immediate postoperative monitoring after caesarean delivery should be performed in the recovery room, but in exceptional

  15. Pest repelling properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Ants control pests via predation and physical deterrence; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may serve as warning signals to potential prey and other intruders. The presence of ant pheromones may, thus, be sufficient to repel pests from ant territories. This mini-review sh......-review shows that four out of five tested ant species deposit pheromones that repel herbivorous prey from their host plants.......Ants control pests via predation and physical deterrence; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may serve as warning signals to potential prey and other intruders. The presence of ant pheromones may, thus, be sufficient to repel pests from ant territories. This mini...

  16. How ants drop out: ant abundance on tropical mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longino, John T; Branstetter, Michael G; Colwell, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    In tropical wet forests, ants are a large proportion of the animal biomass, but the factors determining abundance are not well understood. We characterized ant abundance in the litter layer of 41 mature wet forest sites spread throughout Central America (Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica) and examined the impact of elevation (as a proxy for temperature) and community species richness. Sites were intentionally chosen to minimize variation in precipitation and seasonality. From sea level to 1500 m ant abundance very gradually declined, community richness declined more rapidly than abundance, and the local frequency of the locally most common species increased. These results suggest that within this elevational zone, density compensation is acting, maintaining high ant abundance as richness declines. In contrast, in sites above 1500 m, ant abundance dropped abruptly to much lower levels. Among these high montane sites, community richness explained much more of the variation in abundance than elevation, and there was no evidence of density compensation. The relative stability of abundance below 1500 m may be caused by opposing effects of temperature on productivity and metabolism. Lower temperatures may decrease productivity and thus the amount of food available for consumers, but slower metabolisms of consumers may allow maintenance of higher biomass at lower resource supply rates. Ant communities at these lower elevations may be highly interactive, the result of continuous habitat presence over geological time. High montane sites may be ephemeral in geological time, resulting in non-interactive communities dominated by historical and stochastic processes. Abundance in these sites may be determined by the number of species that manage to colonize and/or avoid extinction on mountaintops.

  17. How ants drop out: ant abundance on tropical mountains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T Longino

    Full Text Available In tropical wet forests, ants are a large proportion of the animal biomass, but the factors determining abundance are not well understood. We characterized ant abundance in the litter layer of 41 mature wet forest sites spread throughout Central America (Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica and examined the impact of elevation (as a proxy for temperature and community species richness. Sites were intentionally chosen to minimize variation in precipitation and seasonality. From sea level to 1500 m ant abundance very gradually declined, community richness declined more rapidly than abundance, and the local frequency of the locally most common species increased. These results suggest that within this elevational zone, density compensation is acting, maintaining high ant abundance as richness declines. In contrast, in sites above 1500 m, ant abundance dropped abruptly to much lower levels. Among these high montane sites, community richness explained much more of the variation in abundance than elevation, and there was no evidence of density compensation. The relative stability of abundance below 1500 m may be caused by opposing effects of temperature on productivity and metabolism. Lower temperatures may decrease productivity and thus the amount of food available for consumers, but slower metabolisms of consumers may allow maintenance of higher biomass at lower resource supply rates. Ant communities at these lower elevations may be highly interactive, the result of continuous habitat presence over geological time. High montane sites may be ephemeral in geological time, resulting in non-interactive communities dominated by historical and stochastic processes. Abundance in these sites may be determined by the number of species that manage to colonize and/or avoid extinction on mountaintops.

  18. Effectiveness of home visits by mental health nurses for Japanese women with post-partum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Atsuko

    2008-12-01

    Post-partum depression affects 10-13% of Japanese women, but many do not receive appropriate treatment or support. This intervention study evaluated the effectiveness of home visits by mental health nurses for Japanese women with post-partum depression. Eighteen post-partum women met the inclusion criteria and were randomly allocated into the intervention (n = 9) or control (n = 9) group at 1-2 months after giving birth. The intervention group received four weekly home visits by a mental health nurse. Control group participants received usual care. Two women in the intervention group did not complete the study. Depressive symptoms and quality of life were measured at 1 and 6 weeks' postintervention. In addition, participants completed an open-ended questionnaire on satisfaction and meaning derived from the home visits. Women in the intervention group had significant amelioration of depressive symptoms over time and reported positive benefits from the home visits, but there were no statistically significant differences between groups. Significant differences (P post-partum depression. A larger trial is warranted to test this approach to care.

  19. [Post-partum depressive symptoms: Prevalence, risk factors and relationship with quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, R; Feki, I; Gassara, H; Baati, I; Sellami, R; Feki, H; Chaabene, K; Masmoudi, J

    2017-10-01

    The objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence of the post-partum depressive symptomatology in a sample of Tunisian women, to study associated factors and to assess its relationship to quality of life. This is a prospective study carried out in two stages: during the first week (T1), then between sixth and eighth week post-partum (T2). Depressive symptomatology and quality of life were assessed respectively by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale. In the first stage, the prevalence of depressive symptomatology in the total sample (150 women) was 14.7% and was related to age above 35 years, low school level, personal psychiatric history, multiparity, caesarean delivery or forceps in the previous pregnancy and unplanned pregnancy. This prevalence was 19.8% among the 126 women reviewed in T2 and was correlated with the exaggerated sympathetic signs during pregnancy, namely perversion of taste and fatigue. Quality of life was strongly correlated with depressive symptoms in T1 and T2. Post-partum depressive symptoms were common in our sample and were correlated with quality of life. Therapeutic measures should be proposed for women with post-partum depressive symptoms and particularly with several risk factors in order to improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Graviditetsudløst transient osteoporose som årsag til hoftesmerter post partum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Morsel-Carlsen, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) affects pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and shows a pattern of bone marrow oedema. We report a case of TOH post-partum with involvement of both hips in a 34-year-old woman...

  1. Post-partum oestrusgedrag bij zeugen gaat niet gepaard met ovulatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souren, N.Y.P.; Langendijk, P.; Soede, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Sows occasionally show oestrous behaviour within 5 days of farrowing: this is termed post-partum oestrus (PPO). This study investigated the incidence and possible causes of PPO on nine Dutch farms. Lactation records (n = 1374) were used, hack fat thickness was measured (n=25), and ovarian condition

  2. Maternal social support, quality of birth experience, and post-partum depression in primiparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Franca; Castagna, Valeria

    2017-03-01

    Social relationships provide individuals with a general sense of self-worth, psychological wellbeing, as well as allowing them access to resources during stressful periods and transitions in life. Pregnancy is a time of significant life change for every woman. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of social support perceived by mothers during pregnancy on the quality of their birth experience and post-partum depression. A longitudinal study at three different times was carried out on 179 nulliparous pregnant women. Women completed a Maternal Social Support Questionnaire during the third trimester of their pregnancy. Then, on the first day after childbirth, clinical birth indices were collected. Finally, a month after childbirth, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was administered. Post-partum depression was influenced negatively by maternal perceived social support and positively by negative clinical birth indices. In addition to these direct effects, analyses revealed a significant effect of maternal perceived social support on post-partum depression, mediated by the clinical indices considered. Social support perceived by mothers during pregnancy plays a significant role as a protection factor against post-partum depression, both directly and indirectly, reducing the negative clinical aspects of the birth experience.

  3. Changing the risky beliefs of post-partum women about therapeutic sun-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Simone L; Devine, Susan G; Saunders, Vicki L; Smith, Annika D; Buettner, Petra G; Nowak, Madeleine J

    2013-09-01

    Many post-partum women hold risky beliefs about perceived therapeutic benefits of sun-exposure in the post-partum period and infancy. Can a maternity hospital based educational intervention reduce the prevalence of such beliefs among post-partum women? In this outcome evaluation of an interventional study, two groups of healthy post-partum women (hospital inpatients) were interviewed, 1-4 days following delivery. The first cross-section (106 women) was recruited prior to in-services for maternity staff; the second (203 women) was recruited after completion of the in-services. Data were compared between the groups. More pre-intervention than post-intervention women reported they would expose their baby to sunlight to treat suspected jaundice (28.8% vs. 13.3%; p<0.001) or help his/her skin adapt to the sun (10.5% vs. 2.5%; p=0.003); or use sunlight to manage breastfeeding-associated sore/cracked nipples (7.6% vs. 2%; p=0.026). This simple, effective educational intervention could be implemented in programmes for parents, health professionals and students. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immediate post-partum haemorrhage: Epidemiological aspects and maternal prognosis at South N’djamena District Hospital (Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabkika Bray Madoue

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-partum haemorrhage defined as blood loss after delivery over 500mls, affects all countries and is the commonest cause of maternal mortality. It is a frequent obstetric emergency in developing countries. Objective: To identify the causes of post-partum haemorrhage and identify adequate management of immediate post-partum haemorrhage and thus reduce maternal mortality. Patients and methods: This was a prospective and descriptive study of one year from 1st January 2014 to 31stDecember 2014 conducted at South N’Djamena district hospital. Before including a patient in our survey her consent was obtained after explaining to her the need for the survey. All consenting patients with post-partum haemorrhage were included. Data were analyzed using SPSS17.0. Results: We recorded 100 cases of post-partum haemorrhage among 6815 deliveries giving an incidence of 1.47%. The average age of the women was 25.0 years. The majority of deliveries (90% were vaginal. The main cause of immediate post-partum haemorrhage was a third stage of labour bleeding (66% followed by genital lesions (32%. The management was medical (uterotonic drug, fluid replacement and blood transfusion, obstetric (manual removal of placenta or clot, and surgical (suture of lesions, vascular ligature and hysterectomy. There were two maternal deaths (2%. Conclusion: Post-partum haemorrhage is often fatal in our region. Preventive measures and efficient management can help to improve maternal prognosis.

  5. Predicting early post-partum depressive symptoms among older primiparous Japanese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroko; Mori, Emi; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Sakajo, Akiko; Maehara, Kunie; Ozawa, Harumi; Morita, Akiko; Maekawa, Tomoko; Aoki, Kyoko; Makaya, Miyuki; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2015-10-01

    The number of older primiparas is increasing in Japan. These women have been shown to be more vulnerable to post-partum depression. This study aimed to identify factors for predicting post-partum depressive symptoms during hospitalization after childbirth in Japanese primiparas aged 35 years and over. The present authors used the data of 479 primiparas aged 35 years and over from a prospective cohort study. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires on the day before hospital discharge. The questionnaire consisted of: demographics and background information; depressive symptoms; fatigue; maternal confidence and maternal satisfaction; child-care values; physical symptoms; perceptions of daily life during hospitalization; concerns about child care and daily life; and infant feeding. Additionally, vital records data were obtained from the hospitals. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed on the binary outcome variable of depressive symptoms, measured by the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Women who scored 9 or more were considered to be at high risk for post-partum depression. The authors obtained informed consent from all participants and institutional ethics approvals before initiating the study. The following six variables reliably predicted the risk of post-partum depression: emergency cesarean section, lower satisfaction with birth experience, higher physical burden in daily life, long-term complications with the newborn, more concerns about newborn caretaking after discharge, and more concerns about one's own life after discharge. Recognition of women with these factors will help nurses to identify those at risk for developing post-partum depression and to provide appropriate care during hospitalization after childbirth. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  6. Post-partum depressive symptoms and medically assisted conception: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressier, F; Letranchant, A; Cazas, O; Sutter-Dallay, A L; Falissard, B; Hardy, P

    2015-11-01

    Does medically assisted conception increase the risk of post-partum depressive symptoms? Our literature review and meta-analysis showed no increased risk of post-partum depressive symptoms in women after medically assisted conception. Women who conceive with medically assisted conception, which can be considered as a stressful life event, could face an increased risk of depressive symptoms. However, no previous meta-analysis has been performed on the association between medically assisted conception and post-partum depressive symptoms. A systematic review with electronic searches of PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO databases up to December 2014 was conducted to identify articles evaluating post-partum depressive symptoms in women who had benefited from medically assisted conception compared with those with a spontaneous pregnancy. Meta-analyses were also performed on clinically significant post-partum depressive symptoms according to PRISMA guidelines. From 569 references, 492 were excluded on title, 42 on abstract and 17 others on full-text. Therefore, 18 studies were included in the review and 8 in the meta-analysis (2451 women) on clinically significant post-partum depressive symptoms after medically assisted conception compared with a spontaneous pregnancy. A sensitivity meta-analysis on assisted reproductive technologies and spontaneous pregnancy (6 studies, 1773 women) was also performed. The quality of the studies included in the meta-analyses was evaluated using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Statement for observational research. The data were pooled using RevMan software by the Cochrane Collaboration. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed from the results of the χ(2) and I(2) statistics. Biases were assessed with funnel plots and Egger's test. A fixed effects model was used for the meta-analyses because of the low level of heterogeneity between the studies. The systematic review of studies examining

  7. Male parentage in army ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; Schöning, Caspar; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2006-01-01

    of active research in insect sociobiology. Here we present microsatellite data for 176 males from eight colonies of the African army ant Dorylus (Anomma) molestus. Comparison with worker genotypes and inferred queen genotypes from the same colonies show that workers do not or at best very rarely reproduce...

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging features of myxoid leiomyoma of the vagina: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scialpi, Michele; Benagiano, Giuseppe; Frati, Sara; Piscioli, Irene; Barberini, Francesco; Lupattelli, Luciano

    2009-01-01

    We report a rare case of a voluminous vaginal myxoid leiomyoma in a 27-year-old nulliparous woman. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) revealed a mass arising from the vagina, with inhomogeneous signal intensity on spin-echo T1W and T2W images. MRI accurately defined the tissue planes between the lesion and the adjacent structures and suggested its benign nature. The mass was completely resected by means of transvaginal approach and the diagnosis of myxoid leiomyoma was confirmed histologically. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the MRI features of vaginal myxoid leiomyoma

  9. The relative efficacy of HDR and LDR interstitial brachytherapy in squamous cell carcinoma of vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demanes, D. J.; Hsu, I-C.; Lin, S.; Ewing, T.; Rodriguez, R.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: Beginning in 1982 we performed low dose rate (LDR) interstitial template brachytherapy (ISTB) for carcinoma of the vagina. High dose rate (HDR) remote afterloading has been used exclusively since 1991. We compare the results LDR and HDR brachytherapy. Material and Methods: Between 1982 and 1994, 30 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of vagina received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy. The AJCC stage distribution was 3 stage I, 25 stage II, and 2 stage III. The average central pelvic EBRT dose was 35 Gy. Pelvic side wall EBRT doses ranged from 45 to 50.4 Gy. Nineteen patients had LDR treatment; 3 intracavitary brachytherapy (ICB) and 16 ISTB. Eleven patients had HDR treatment; 2 ICB and 9 ISB. The average dose delivered by LDR was 41.2 Gy usually in 2 fractions, and by HDR 32.5 Gy in 6 fractions of 500-550 cGy. Local failures were confirmed pathologically. The absolute survival (AS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared with logrank statistics. Results: The mean follow-up was 77 months for LDR and 23 months for HDR. Local and regional control was achieved in 90% (27/30) of the patients. Three year AS was 84% and RFS was 87%. There was no significant difference between LDR and HDR in AS, RFS or local-regional control, (log rank p=0.85, p=0.12 and p=0.35 respectively). The single HDR local failure presented in a patient with extensive stage II disease who declined ISTB. There were fewer complications following HDR. The 1 case of extensive vaginal necrosis and the 3 cases of rectovaginal fistula that required surgery occurred only with LDR brachytherapy. Discussion: Excellent local and regional control of carcinoma of the vagina can be achieved by administering limited doses of external radiation and brachytherapy. Interstitial template implants are the best means of encompassing paravaginal disease while sparing the adjacent uninvolved normal tissues from high doses of

  10. Pre leukemic granulocytic sarcoma of vagina: a case report with review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshminarasimhan, Srinivasan; Doval, D.C.; Rajashekhar, Usha; Mukherjee, Geethashree; Kannan, V.; Lakshmi Devi; Bapsy, P.P.

    1996-01-01

    Granulocytic sarcoma is an extramedullary tumor of malignant granulocytic progenitor cells, that may precede the onset of acute myeloid leukemia or appear during the leukemic manifestation or blastic crisis of chronic myeloproliferative disorders. A case of granulocytic sarcoma of vagina in a 27 year old woman treated with local radiotherapy is described. After seven months of follow up she developed acute myeloid leukemia. The case has been presented in view of its rarity and discussed in light of the available literature. (author). 13 refs., 1 fig

  11. A cellular automata model for ant trails

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was investigated using one-dimensional cellular automata model. It is known that ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called pheromone, on the substrate. Apart from the studies in the literature, it was considered in the model that ...

  12. Fungal Adaptations to Mutualistic Life with Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini) feed off a fungus they cultivate in a mutualistic symbiosis in underground chambers by providing it substrate they collect outside the colony. The tribe of Attine ants ranges from small colonies of the paleo- and basal Attine species with a few hundred workers that fo...... that the fungus evolved some incredible adaptations to a mutualistic life with the ants....

  13. An Investigation on the Role of Personality Style Vulnerability, Spouse Violence, and Coping Responses in Prediction of Post Partum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حمیده قاسمی

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the role of the vulnerability of personality style, spouse violence and coping responses in prediction of post-partum depression. A sample of 140 pregnant women were recruited. Data collection included two phases. In third trimester of pregnancy, demographic information, vulnerable personality style, spouse violence and coping responses were collected. The second phase was carried out after 2 weeks to 6 months after parturition that the post-partum depression questionnaire was completed. The results demonstrated that 49% of post-partum depression variances can be shown by vulnerability of personality style, spouse violence and coping responses. It seems that one of the most important factors for depression after parturition is vulnerability of personality style. Women with this personality style perceive higher levels of stress and use maladaptive coping responses. So they are more disposed to post-partum depression.

  14. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  15. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  16. Anterior vaginal introitoplasty for an acquired sensation of wide vagina: a case report and new surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrzenski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    A vaginal introital defect case and its symptomatology have never been published before. The objective of this presentation was to describe symptoms associated with an acquired sensation of wide vagina and to present a new surgical treatment for anterior vaginal introital defects. A 42-year-old, Caucasian woman, G4P4013, presented with a sensation of wide vagina at the vaginal opening and a history of colpoperineoplasty, without mesh, for the same condition 4 years prior. Clinical evaluation documented anterior vaginal introital defects and the absence of vaginal site-specific defects. Reconstruction of a vaginal introital defect was completed without complications. Surgical resolution of symptoms and signs of this condition were noted. Anterior vaginal introitoplasty can assist in the management of an acquired sensation of wide vagina.

  17. Laparoscopic hemi-hysterectomy in treatment of a didelphic uterus with a hypoplastic cervix and obstructed hemi-vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudhraa, K; Barbarino, A; Gara, Mohamed Faouzi

    2008-11-01

    Maldevelopment of the Müllerian duct system may result in various urogenital anomalies including didelphic uterus with a hypoplastic cervix and obstructed hemi-vagina. We report a patient with this anomaly who was treated by laparoscopic hemi-hysterectomy and hysteroscopic resection of hemi-vagina. A 16-year-old patient who had complained of vaginal pus-like discharge on and off for 1 year was diagnosed by MRI to have a double uterus with obstructed right hemi-vagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. After hysteroscopic identification of hypoplasia of the right uterine cervix, laparoscopic resection of the right uterus and right fallopian tube and hysteroscopic assisted resection of the vaginal septa were performed successfully. We think that combined laparoscopy and hysteroscopy may be an effective alternative in the management and diagnosis of Mullerian anomalies.

  18. Rapidly growing ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the vagina: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Sunghun; Hwang, Jongyun; Lee, Hyangah; Lee, Jiyeon; Lee, Dongheon

    2011-12-01

    We present a rare case of a very rapidly growing stage IV ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the uterine cervix and vagina without lymph node involvement. A 43-year-old woman visited the hospital with complaints of lower abdominal discomfort and vaginal bleeding over the previous 3 months. Serum levels of tumor marker CA 125 and SCC antigen (TA-4) were normal. On magnetic resonance imaging, a 7.9×9.7cm heterogeneous mass with intermediate signal intensity was observed in the posterior low body of the uterus. Two months ago, a computed tomography scan revealed an approximate 4.5×3.0cm heterogeneously enhanced subserosal mass with internal ill-defined hypodensities. A laparotomy, including a total abdominal hysterectomy with resection of the upper vagina, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection, appendectomy, total omentectomy, and biopsy of rectal serosa was performed. A histological examination revealed poorly differentiated endometrioid ovarian adenocarcinoma with vaginal involvement. The patient had an uncomplicated post-operative course. After discharge, she completed six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel (175mg/m(2)) and carboplatin (300mg/m(2)) and has remained clinically disease-free until June 2010. Epithelial ovarian cancer may grow very rapidly. The frequent measurement of tumor size by ultrasonography may provide important information on detection in a subset of ovarian carcinomas that develop from preexisting, detectable lesions. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Malignant lymphoma of the vagina successfully treated with rituximab, adryamicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine sulfate, and prednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, K; Okamoto, M; Nishida, M; Takai, N; Narahara, H

    2012-01-01

    Primary malignant lymphoma of the vagina is extremely rare. The most common histologic subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We report a case of vaginal DLBCL successfully treated with chemotherapy consisting of rituximab, adryamicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine sulfate, and prednisolone (R-CHOP), followed by pelvic irradiation. A 44-year-old Japanese woman was admitted complaining of atypical genital bleeding and puruloid vaginal discharge. Gynecological examination showed an ulceration of the vaginal wall and a hard mass the size of a goose egg beneath the left vaginal wall, which had infiltrated to the left pelvic wall. The pathological diagnosis based on a punch biopsy taken from the vaginal tumor was non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Based on immunohistochemical study, the tumor was subclassified as activated B-cell type DLBCL. The patient was diagnosed with Ann Arbor Stage IEA DLBCL and Stage III vaginal cancer, according to the International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) classification system. She was successfully treated by six courses of R-CHOP, followed by radiation therapy. The patient is well without evidence of disease 13 months following the initial treatment. Little attention has been paid to the use of rituximab in addition to conventional chemotherapy and the importance of clinical and morphological subgrouping of DLBCL arising in the vagina. The present case indicates that the effects of rituximab on the prognosis of vaginal DLBCL must be evaluated, and that clinical use of immunophenotypic subgrouping should be considered for vaginal DLBCL.

  20. Foreign body in vagina: an uncommon cause of vaginitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinawa, Jm; Obu, Ha; Uwaezuoke, Sn

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in children may result from a variety of causes. A long-standing intra-vaginal foreign body can pose both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in children. Treatment failure may occur because of alteration of the normal vaginal flora. A 6-year-old girl, who lived with her parents, presented with a foul-smelling, blood-stained vaginal discharge as well as dysuria for 2 years. There was no history of sexual abuse. Initial evaluation that excluded gynecologic examination revealed lower abdominal tenderness. Vaginal swab and urine cultures yielded Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to ceftriaxone only. She was commenced on this antibiotic for 2 weeks, but the discharge persisted, necessitating referral to the gynecologist. Examination under anesthesia by the gynecologist revealed shreds of toilet tissue paper extracted from the vagina and slight excoriations on the wall of the vagina. Vaginal foreign body can present with diverse symptoms. It should be considered in any young female patient presenting with recurrent or persistent vaginal discharge.

  1. Common symptoms during pregnancy to predict depression and health status 14 years post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Mohsina; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Callaway, Leonie; Alati, Rosa; Najman, Jake M; Williams, Gail; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2009-03-01

    To examine the prospective association between symptoms commonly experienced during pregnancy and the mental and general health status of women 14 years post partum. Data used were from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a community-based prospective birth cohort study begun in Brisbane, Australia, in 1981. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Data were available for 5118 women. Women who experienced a higher burden of symptoms during pregnancy were at greater risk of becoming depressed and reporting poorer health status 14 years post partum. Women who experienced major problems during pregnancy were 4 times more likely to be depressed and nearly 8 times more likely to report poorer health status 14 years after the index pregnancy compared with women who experienced few problems. Findings suggest that pregnant women who experience common symptoms during pregnancy are likely to experience poorer mental and self-reported general health 14 years after the pregnancy.

  2. An Overview of Risk Factors Associated to Post-partum Depression in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shubham; Mehta, Nidhi

    2014-03-04

    Post partum depression (PPD) is an important complication of child-bearing. It requires urgent interventions as it can have long-term adverse consequences if ignored, for both mother and child. If PPD has to be prevented by a public health intervention, the recognition and timely identification of its risk factors is must. We in this review have tried to synthesize the results of Asian studies examining the risk factors of PPD. Some risk factors, which are unique to Asian culture, have also been identified and discussed. We emphasize on early identification of these risk factors as most of these are modifiable and this can have significant implications in prevention of emergence of post partum depression, a serious health issue of Asian women.

  3. The effects of social, cultural, economical and related factors on post partum psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mitra Safa

    2006-11-01

    Results: Most of the subjects were in the range of 20-30 years old. They were housewives. In most case, they gave birth to a female newborn and the delivery was done in a normal way. Most of the patients declared that they had unplanned pregnancy. 29.6% of the patients had mental disease background. 9.1% had major depression, 5.6% had dysthymic disorder. 18.5% of the subjects had physical disease like UTI, hyper thyroid and seizure. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between post partum psychosis and variables such as age, education, job, and disease background, number of delivery and lack of child acceptance. It is suggested that for prevention of post partum psychosis, there should be a very suitable situation for pregnant mothers. Moreover by planning and designing educational programs, we could provide the proper background for child birth in the family.

  4. An overview of risk factors associated to post-partum depression in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Mehta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Post partum depression (PPD is an important complication of child-bearing. It requires urgent interventions as it can have long-term adverse consequences if ignored, for both mother and child. If PPD has to be prevented by a public health intervention, the recognition and timely identification of its risk factors is must. We in this review have tried to synthesize the results of Asian studies examining the risk factors of PPD. Some risk factors, which are unique to Asian culture, have also been identified and discussed. We emphasize on early identification of these risk factors as most of these are modifiable and this can have significant implications in prevention of emergence of post partum depression, a serious health issue of Asian women.

  5. Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma: a rare cause of quadriplegia in the post-partum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, S; Ali, Z; Rath, G P; Prabhakar, H

    2007-12-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma (SSEH) is a rare cause of neurological deficit in the pregnant and post-partum patients. However, SSEH with associated myelitis presenting as quadriplegia and respiratory paralysis in the post-partum period has never been reported. We report the development of acute onset quadriplegia progressing to respiratory arrest in a 24-yr-old woman 2 weeks after normal vaginal delivery. There was no history suggestive of any coagulopathy (inherited or acquired), eclampsia, pre-existing neurological deficit, or iatrogenic manipulations such as spinal/epidural injections. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a posterior epidural haematoma extending from C4-C7 and areas of signal changes in spinal cord from cervicomedullary junction to D5 level (suggestive of demyelination). We highlight this rare cause of quadriplegia; focusing on the altered dynamics of the epidural vasculature in the peripartum period leading to SSEH.

  6. A Case Report of Cervical Rhabdomyosarcoma with the Complaint of a Mass Protrusion from Vagina with Bleeding and Vaginal Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arab

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Botyroide sarcoma is one of the rhabdomyosarcoma which is usually seen in infant's vagina. However, it rarely originates from uterine cervix. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a heterogenic tumor and it is usually diagnosed in second decade of life.Case Report: The patient was a 17 years old virgin girl with the complaint of a mass protrusion from vagina with bleeding and vaginal discharge. Biopsy samples and immunohistochemistry assessments showed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Surgery combined with chemotherapy, significantly increased the survival of patients with uterine cervical rhabdomyosarcoma. Conclusion: The patient underwent radical hysterectomy with restored ovaries and then combined chemotherapy. In the 9 months follow up recurrence has not been observed yet.

  7. Primary invasive carcinoma of the vagina after Le Fort partial colpocleisis for stage IV pelvic organ prolapse: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moon Kyoung; Kim, Chul Hong; Kim, Yoon Ha

    2011-11-01

    We present here the case report of a postmenopausal woman who complained of recurrent pus-like vaginal discharge and perianal pain 1 year after Le Fort colpocleisis, which was subsequently identified as a primary invasive carcinoma of the vagina. Biopsy confirmed a squamous cell carcinoma in the vagina, and the disease was classified as stage III according to FIGO staging. The patient received pelvic radiotherapy. This case emphasizes that differential diagnosis of recurrent vaginal discharge that presents remote from obliterative procedure for pelvic organ prolapse should consider not only pyometra, but also other causes.

  8. Health and economic burden of post-partum Staphylococcus aureus breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch-Elliman, Westyn; Lee, Grace M; Golen, Toni H; Gold, Howard S; Baldini, Linda M; Wright, Sharon B

    2013-01-01

    To determine the health and economic burdens of post-partum Staphylococcus aureus breast abscess. We conducted a matched cohort study (N = 216) in a population of pregnant women (N = 32,770) who delivered at our center during the study period from 10/1/03-9/30/10. Data were extracted from hospital databases, or via chart review if unavailable electronically. We compared cases of S. aureus breast abscess to controls matched by delivery date to compare health services utilization and mean attributable medical costs in 2012 United States dollars using Medicare and hospital-based estimates. We also evaluated whether resource utilization and health care costs differed between cases with methicillin-resistant and -susceptible S. aureus isolates. Fifty-four cases of culture-confirmed post-partum S. aureus breast abscess were identified. Breastfeeding cessation (41%), milk fistula (11.1%) and hospital readmission (50%) occurred frequently among case patients. Breast abscess case patients had high rates of health services utilization compared to controls, including high rates of imaging and drainage procedures. The mean attributable cost of post-partum S. aureus breast abscess ranged from $2,340-$4,012, depending on the methods and data sources used. Mean attributable costs were not significantly higher among methicillin-resistant vs. -susceptible S. aureus cases. Post-partum S. aureus breast abscess is associated with worse health and economic outcomes for women and their infants, including high rates of breastfeeding cessation. Future study is needed to determine the optimal treatment and prevention of these infections.

  9. Health and economic burden of post-partum Staphylococcus aureus breast abscess.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westyn Branch-Elliman

    Full Text Available To determine the health and economic burdens of post-partum Staphylococcus aureus breast abscess.We conducted a matched cohort study (N = 216 in a population of pregnant women (N = 32,770 who delivered at our center during the study period from 10/1/03-9/30/10. Data were extracted from hospital databases, or via chart review if unavailable electronically. We compared cases of S. aureus breast abscess to controls matched by delivery date to compare health services utilization and mean attributable medical costs in 2012 United States dollars using Medicare and hospital-based estimates. We also evaluated whether resource utilization and health care costs differed between cases with methicillin-resistant and -susceptible S. aureus isolates.Fifty-four cases of culture-confirmed post-partum S. aureus breast abscess were identified. Breastfeeding cessation (41%, milk fistula (11.1% and hospital readmission (50% occurred frequently among case patients. Breast abscess case patients had high rates of health services utilization compared to controls, including high rates of imaging and drainage procedures. The mean attributable cost of post-partum S. aureus breast abscess ranged from $2,340-$4,012, depending on the methods and data sources used. Mean attributable costs were not significantly higher among methicillin-resistant vs. -susceptible S. aureus cases.Post-partum S. aureus breast abscess is associated with worse health and economic outcomes for women and their infants, including high rates of breastfeeding cessation. Future study is needed to determine the optimal treatment and prevention of these infections.

  10. Intravenous iron vs blood for acute post-partum anaemia (IIBAPPA): a prospective randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Seng; Gupta, Sarika; Curnow, Jennifer; Gidaszewski, Beata; Khajehei, Marjan; Diplock, Hayley

    2017-12-19

    Acute post-partum anaemia can be associated with significant morbidity including a predisposition for postnatal depression. Lack of clear practice guidelines means a number of women are treated with multiple blood transfusions. Intravenous iron has the potential to limit the need for multiple blood transfusions but its role in the post-partum setting is unclear. IIBAPPA is a multi-centre randomised non-inferiority trial. Women with a primary post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) >1000 mL and resultant haemoglobin (Hb) 5.5-8.0 g/dL after resuscitation with ongoing symptomatic anaemia who are otherwise stable (no active bleeding) are eligible to participate. Patients with sepsis or conditions necessitating rapid Hb restoration are excluded. Eligible participants are randomised to receive a blood transfusion or a single dose of intravenous iron polymaltose calculated using the Ganzoni formula. Primary outcome measures include Hb, Ferritin and C-Reactive Protein levels on Day 7. Secondary outcomes evaluate (i) Hb, Ferritin and CRP levels on Day 14, 28, (ii) anaemia symptoms on Day 0, 7, 14 and 28 using structured health related quality of life questionnaires, (iii) treatment safety by assessing adverse reactions and infection endpoints and (iv) the quantitative impact of anaemia on breast feeding quality using a hospital designed questionnaire. If equivalence in Hb and ferritin levels, symptom scores and safety endpoints is demonstrated, intravenous iron may become the preferred treatment for women with acute post-partum anaemia to minimise transfusion reactions and costs. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615001370594 on 16th December, 2015 (prospective approval).

  11. Development of a prenatal psychosocial screening tool for post-partum depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila; Wall, Jennifer; Forbes, Kaitlin; Kingston, Dawn; Kehler, Heather; Vekved, Monica; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-07-01

    Post-partum depression (PPD) is the most common complication of pregnancy in developed countries, affecting 10-15% of new mothers. There has been a shift in thinking less in terms of PPD per se to a broader consideration of poor mental health, including anxiety after giving birth. Some risk factors for poor mental health in the post-partum period can be identified prenatally; however prenatal screening tools developed to date have had poor sensitivity and specificity. The objective of this study was to develop a screening tool that identifies women at risk of distress, operationalized by elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety in the post-partum period using information collected in the prenatal period. Using data from the All Our Babies Study, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women living in Calgary, Alberta (N = 1578), we developed an integer score-based prediction rule for the prevalence of PPD, as defined as scoring 10 or higher on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 4-months postpartum. The best fit model included known risk factors for PPD: depression and stress in late pregnancy, history of abuse, and poor relationship quality with partner. Comparison of the screening tool with the EPDS in late pregnancy showed that our tool had significantly better performance for sensitivity. Further validation of our tool was seen in its utility for identifying elevated symptoms of postpartum anxiety. This research heeds the call for further development and validation work using psychosocial factors identified prenatally for identifying poor mental health in the post-partum period. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Perbandingan Nilai Fleksibilitas Tubuh Ibu Post Partum Yang Melakukan Dan Tidak Melakukan Senam Pilates

    OpenAIRE

    Prabandani, Dyah Ayu; Laksono, Budi

    2016-01-01

    Latar Belakang : Mengukur nilai fleksibilitas tubuh adalah salah satu cara untuk mengetahui tingkat kelenturan tubuh seorang ibu, yang dapat berpengaruh terhadap ruang gerak sendi. Pada ibu post partum akan mengalami beberapa Perubahan seperti pengendoran otot dan bertambahnya berat badan yang dapat berpengaruh terhadap ruang gerak sendi. Senam pilates merupakan jenis senam yang populer di Indonesia yang menonjolkan stretching sehingga melatih kelenturan tubuh.Tujuan Penelitian : Membuktikan ...

  13. Acute Lung Injury Complicating Blood Transfusion in Post-Partum Hemorrhage: Incidence and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Teofili, Luciana; Bianchi, Maria; Zanfini, Bruno A.; Catarci, Stefano; Sicuranza, Rossella; Spartano, Serena; Zini, Gina; Draisci, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Background. We retrospectively investigated the incidence and risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) among patients transfused for post-partum hemorrhage (PPH).  Methods. We identified a series of 71 consecutive patients with PPH requiring the urgent transfusion of three or more red blood cell (RBC) units, with or without fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet (PLT) transfusion. Clinical records were then retrieved and examined for respiratory distress events. Accor...

  14. A CLINICAL EVALUATION OF POST-PARTUM DEPRESSION IN COASTAL KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annappa Shetty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Psychological mood changes, depression is very common in Post-partum period ranging from mild and transient “baby blues” experienced by 50-80% of women to postpartum Psychosis which affects 1% of women. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of different factors with Post-Partum depression in coastal Karnataka region, (Karwar. MATERIAL & METHODS  A Prospective study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, KAIMS, Karwar, Karnataka.  A total one thousand patients 4-7 Post-partum days were selected and interrogated using Edinburgh Postnatal depression scale (EPDS. Socio-demographic factors (age, Parity, literacy, socio-economic status, marital status and family structure, history of psychiatric disorders and abuse, mode of delivery and the obstetric outcome were recorded. The results were analysed statistically using Chi-square chart. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND RESULTS: The incidence of PPD was 22%. Significant association of PPD was seen with low socio-economic status group (P<005, poor literacy (P<0.001, nuclear family structure (P<0.05, single mother (P<0.001, past history of abuse (P<0.05 and poor obstetric outcome (P<0.001. CONCLUSION This study provides useful information about the prevalence of PPD and the association of socio economic, cultural practices prevalent in coastal Karnataka with PPD.

  15. Faktor Risiko yang Mempengaruhi Lama Penyembuhan Luka Perineum pada Ibu Post Partum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anur Rohmin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Perineal trauma is an injury that occurs in the perineum during delivery and it happened  70% among woman who labors vaginally. The perineal wound was healed when the wound is to be dry, no redness, no swelling, tissue fused and cured ≤7 days post-partum. The aim of this study to find out the influenced factors of the length perineal wound healing in post partum mothers. This study carried in 10th March until 11th July 2016. Methode: A  survey analytic design with cross sectional design was used in this study. The samples of this study were 128 post partum. others. Data were analyzed by univariate, bivariate using Chi-square and multiple logistic regression. The results of this study found that mothers who the length of perineum wound ≤ 7 days (62.5% and >7 days (37.5%. Based on bivariate analysis there were a significant relationship between age, early mobilization, parity and kind of wound (p <0.05. Based on the multivariate analysis the most influencing factor was early mobilization (OR 7.613. The suggestion of this study is increasing the awareness of mother to do early mobilization.

  16. Improving non-technical skills (teamwork) in post-partum haemorrhage: A grouped randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Pippa M; Duffy, Shane P; Phillips, Dan

    2017-10-01

    To determine the effect of a decision support technology on teamwork and associated non-technical (NTS) and technical skills when teams manage post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) in the simulated environment. Multidisciplinary (MDT) maternity teams were taught how to manage post partum haemorrhage. They were randomised to the intervention: using a decision support mobile digital platform or a control group. Each team managed a post-partum simulation, which was recorded and reviewed by assessors. Primary outcome measures to assess teams NTS were the validated Global Assessment of Obstetric Team Performance (GAOTP) and Clinical Teamwork Scale (CTS). Secondary outcome measures were the 'friends and family test', technical skills, and the System Usability Scale (SUS). Sample size estimation was calculated by using 80% power 5% significance two tailed test (p1=85% p2=40%) n=34. 38 teams from August 2014-February 2016, were recruited, technical issues with failure of recording equipment meant 4 teams were excluded from teamwork analysis (1 intervention 3 control). Teamwork improved across all domains with the intervention (using a decision support mobile digital platform) p teamwork by 25% using CTS and 22% using GAOTP. Fewer technical skills were missed with the intervention (pteamwork is often cited as the cause of failures in care and we report a usable technology that assists with and improves teamwork during an emergency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of risk factors and demographic features of patients with peri partum cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharieff, S.; Khan, Shah-e-Zaman

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe and identify the demographic features and risk factors for peri partum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Design: A prospective study: The study was conducted at the department of Adult Cardiology, National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Karachi, Pakistan from December 1999 to August 2001. Subjects and Methods: A total of 35 consecutive patients diagnosed to have peri partum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) on echocardiogram were enrolled. Proforma containing demographic characteristics and established risk factors for PPCM was established and filled carefully. The data gathered was analyzed statistically. Results: The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 30.8-6.74 years. Urdu speaking (Mohajir) population was found to be more affected ethnic group (42.9%) Majority of the patients was from lower socio-economic group with poor nutritional status (77%) and multiparous (77.14%). 25.7% had past history of PPCM and 71.4% presented during postpartum period. Mortality at six months was 22.8% while 42.9% had persistent disease and only 34.3% recovered completely. Conclusion: Advanced age, lower economic group with poor nutritional status, multi parity and past history of peri partum cardiomyopathy were identified as risk factors for the development of PPCM, especially among Mohajir population. There was no statistically significant difference between the clinical features and outcome of patients presented first time or with recurrent PPCM. We identified advanced age (>30 years), high LVEDD, and low ejection fraction (EF) at initial presentation as poor prognostic factors. (author)

  18. Dependency and self-criticism in post-partum depression and anxiety: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegen, Nicole; Luyten, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the role of self-criticism and dependency in inpatient post-partum depressed women (n = 55) and non-depressed controls (n = 37) as well as the relationship between both personality dimensions and severity of depression and anxiety. As expected, mothers with post-partum depression showed not only increased levels of depression but also anxiety compared with non-depressed mothers. Furthermore, they had significantly higher levels of self-criticism, but not of dependency. In the post-partum depressed mothers, both personality dimensions were positively associated with severity of depression. However, in non-depressed mothers, self-criticism was positively associated with depression, while there was an inverse relationship between dependency and severity of depression. In both samples, self-criticism, but not dependency, was related to state anxiety. The cross-sectional nature of this study limits the ability to draw causal conclusions. The study was based on self-report and conducted in relatively small samples.

  19. Revolutionizing Remote Exploration with ANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S.; Truszkowski, W.

    2002-05-01

    We are developing the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) architecture based on an insect colony analogue for the cost-effective, efficient, systematic survey of remote or inaccessible areas with multiple object targets, including planetary surface, marine, airborne, and space environments. The mission context is the exploration in the 2020s of the most compelling remaining targets in the solar system: main belt asteroids. Main belt asteroids harbor important clues to Solar System origins and evolution which are central to NASA's goals in Space Science. Asteroids are smaller than planets, but their number is far greater, and their combined surface area likely dwarfs the Earth's. An asteroid survey will dramatically increase our understanding of the local resources available for the Human Exploration and Development of Space. During the mission composition, shape, gravity, and orbit parameters could be returned to Earth for perhaps several thousand asteroids. A survey of this area will rival the great explorations that encircled this globe, opened up the New World, and laid the groundwork for the progress and challenges of the last centuries. The ANTS architecture for a main belt survey consists of a swarm of as many as a thousand or more highly specialized pico-spacecraft that form teams to survey as many as one hundred asteroids a month. Multi-level autonomy is critical for ANTS and the objective of the proposed study is to work through the implications and constraints this entails. ANTS couples biologically inspired autonomic control for basic functions to higher level artificial intelligence that together enable individual spacecraft to operate as specialized, cooperative, social agents. This revolutionary approach postulates highly advanced, but familiar, components integrated and operated in a way that uniquely transcends any evolutionary extrapolation of existing trends and enables thousand-spacecraft missions.

  20. Ant-plant mutualism: a dietary by-product of a tropical ant's macronutrient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcila Hernández, Lina M; Sanders, Jon G; Miller, Gabriel A; Ravenscraft, Alison; Frederickson, Megan E

    2017-12-01

    Many arboreal ants depend on myrmecophytic plants for both food and shelter; in return, these ants defend their host plants against herbivores, which are often insects. Ant-plant and other mutualisms do not necessarily involve the exchange of costly rewards or services; they may instead result from by-product benefits, or positive outcomes that do not entail a cost for one or both partners. Here, we examined whether the plant-ant Allomerus octoarticulatus pays a short-term cost to defend their host plants against herbivores, or whether plant defense is a by-product benefit of ant foraging for insect prey. Because the food offered by ant-plants is usually nitrogen-poor, arboreal ants may balance their diets by consuming insect prey or associating with microbial symbionts to acquire nitrogen, potentially shifting the costs and benefits of plant defense for the ant partner. To determine the effect of ant diet on an ant-plant mutualism, we compared the behavior, morphology, fitness, stable isotope signatures, and gaster microbiomes of A. octoarticulatus ants nesting in Cordia nodosa trees maintained for nearly a year with or without insect herbivores. At the end of the experiment, ants from herbivore exclosures preferred protein-rich baits more than ants in the control (i.e., herbivores present) treatment. Furthermore, workers in the control treatment were heavier than in the herbivore-exclusion treatment, and worker mass predicted reproductive output, suggesting that foraging for insect prey directly increased ant colony fitness. The gaster microbiome of ants was not significantly affected by the herbivore exclusion treatment. We conclude that the defensive behavior of some phytoecious ants is a by-product of their need for external protein sources; thus, the consumption of insect herbivores by ants benefits both the ant colony and the host plant. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Ecosystem services delivered by weaver ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    Weaver ants (Oecopgylla spp.) are increasingly being utilized as efficient biocontrol agents in a number of tropical tree crops, as they prey on pest insects and increase yields. However, recent studies and a review of the literature reveal that a number of other services may derive from the pres......Weaver ants (Oecopgylla spp.) are increasingly being utilized as efficient biocontrol agents in a number of tropical tree crops, as they prey on pest insects and increase yields. However, recent studies and a review of the literature reveal that a number of other services may derive from...... the presence of these ants. First of all, the chemical footprint left by the high density of ants in managed host trees may results in additional benefits. (i) Ant deposits may lead to improved fruit quality, e.g. increased sugar content, (ii) ant deposits may deter important pests (chemical deterrence) from...... crops, and lastly, (iii) ant waste products deposited ias anal spots contain urea that may be taken up by plant leaves and in this way fertilize ant-plants. On top of chemical services, weaver ants have been shown to reduce plant disease incidence via competitive exclusion of other ant species because...

  2. Roadside Survey of Ants on Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Reina L.; Grace, J. Kenneth; Krushelnycky, Paul D.

    2018-01-01

    Hawaii is home to over 60 ant species, including five of the six most damaging invasive ants. Although there have been many surveys of ants in Hawaii, the last island-wide hand-collection survey of ants on Oahu was conducted in 1988–1994. In 2012, a timed hand-collection of ants was made at 44 sites in a systematic, roadside survey throughout Oahu. Ants were identified and species distribution in relation to elevation, precipitation and soil type was analyzed. To assess possible convenience sampling bias, 15 additional sites were sampled further from roads to compare with the samples near roads. Twenty-four species of ants were found and mapped; Pheidole megacephala (F.), Ochetellus glaber (Mayr), and Technomyrmex difficilis Forel were the most frequently encountered ants. For six ant species, a logistic regression was performed with elevation, average annual precipitation, and soil order as explanatory variables. O. glaber was found in areas with lower precipitation around Oahu. Paratrechina longicornis (Latrielle) and Tetramorium simillimum (Smith, F.) were found more often in lower elevations and in areas with the Mollisol soil order. Elevation, precipitation, and soil type were not significant sources of variation for P. megacephala, Plagiolepis alluaudi Emery, and T. difficilis. P. megacephala was associated with fewer mean numbers of ants where it occurred. Ant assemblages near and far from roads did not significantly differ. Many species of ants remain established on Oahu, and recent invaders are spreading throughout the island. Mapping ant distributions contributes to continued documentation and understanding of these pests. PMID:29439503

  3. NON INVASIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT IN POST PARTUM MOTHER WITHEVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikmatur Rohmah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain is a sensation of discomfort that most post-partum mothers complain about, in the case of prolonged pain, the risk of post-partum blues is higher. The usage of evidence based practice method gives a bigger opportunity for nurse and medical attendants to think more critically in making decisions and in performing the appropriate treatment in accordance with the patient's problem and uniqueness. This research aimed to applicate management of non-invasive pain on post partum mother through the approach of evidence based practice. Method: This was a case-study, performed to client Mrs. A P1-1 A0 post sectio caesarea day 1 as there is an indication of suspect cepalo pelvis disproportion secondary arrest. Data were collected at maternity room, dr. Soebandi Regional General Hospital. Using interview, observation, and physical examination. Data analysis was conducted through a descriptive analysis. Result: Through a careful nursing, it is found out that pain location and spreading that generally spotted at the patient’s back during the contraction in the uterus, occurred around the shoulders when evidence-base practice is applied. The basic principle of applying an intervention to non invasive pain based on evidence–base practice are: cutaneous stimulation and distraction, while massaging area was set on the face, while the distraction media was interaction with the baby. Evaluation on evidence –based practice showed that pain is reduced to scale 2, while face and mobilitation become more relaxed. Discussion: Massage was intended to stimulated the production of endorphine and dinorphine that play an important roke to block the pain transmission through the descendent control system. Interaction with the baby was intended to function as a distraction media to dominate the incoming impuls into the ascendant control system,which further may close the gate of the pain transmitter. Both of the interventions were axpected to work

  4. Brexanolone (SAGE-547 injection) in post-partum depression: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanes, Stephen; Colquhoun, Helen; Gunduz-Bruce, Handan; Raines, Shane; Arnold, Ryan; Schacterle, Amy; Doherty, James; Epperson, C Neill; Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Riesenberg, Robert; Hoffmann, Ethan; Rubinow, David; Jonas, Jeffrey; Paul, Steven; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2017-07-29

    Post-partum depression is a serious mood disorder in women that might be triggered by peripartum fluctuations in reproductive hormones. This phase 2 study investigated brexanolone (USAN; formerly SAGE-547 injection), an intravenous formulation of allopregnanolone, a positive allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA A ) receptors, for the treatment of post-partum depression. For this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled self-referred or physician-referred female inpatients (≤6 months post partum) with severe post-partum depression (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D] total score ≥26) in four hospitals in the USA. Eligible women were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computer-generated randomisation program, to receive either a single, continuous intravenous dose of brexanolone or placebo for 60 h. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignments. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in the 17-item HAM-D total score at 60 h, assessed in all randomised patients who started infusion of study drug or placebo and who had a completed baseline HAM-D assessment and at least one post-baseline HAM-D assessment. Patients were followed up until day 30. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02614547. This trial was done between Dec 15, 2015 (first enrolment), and May 19, 2016 (final visit of the last enrolled patient). 21 women were randomly assigned to the brexanolone (n=10) and placebo (n=11) groups. At 60 h, mean reduction in HAM-D total score from baseline was 21·0 points (SE 2·9) in the brexanolone group compared with 8·8 points (SE 2·8) in the placebo group (difference -12·2, 95% CI -20·77 to -3·67; p=0·0075; effect size 1·2). No deaths, serious adverse events, or discontinuations because of adverse events were reported in either group. Four of ten patients in the brexanolone group had adverse events compared with eight of 11 in the placebo group. The most

  5. Ant Larval Demand Reduces Aphid Colony Growth Rates in an Ant-Aphid Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Cook

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ants often form mutualistic interactions with aphids, soliciting honeydew in return for protective services. Under certain circumstances, however, ants will prey upon aphids. In addition, in the presence of ants aphids may increase the quantity or quality of honeydew produced, which is costly. Through these mechanisms, ant attendance can reduce aphid colony growth rates. However, it is unknown whether demand from within the ant colony can affect the ant-aphid interaction. In a factorial experiment, we tested whether the presence of larvae in Lasius niger ant colonies affected the growth rate of Aphis fabae colonies. Other explanatory variables tested were the origin of ant colonies (two separate colonies were used and previous diet (sugar only or sugar and protein. We found that the presence of larvae in the ant colony significantly reduced the growth rate of aphid colonies. Previous diet and colony origin did not affect aphid colony growth rates. Our results suggest that ant colonies balance the flow of two separate resources from aphid colonies- renewable sugars or a protein-rich meal, depending on demand from ant larvae within the nest. Aphid payoffs from the ant-aphid interaction may change on a seasonal basis, as the demand from larvae within the ant colony waxes and wanes.

  6. Reconstruction of the anus, rectovaginal septum, and distal part of the vagina after postirradiation necrosis. Report of a unique case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowacki, M.P.; Towpik, E.

    1988-01-01

    Successful repair of postirradiation total loss of the anal sphincters, rectovaginal septum, and distal part of the vagina is reported. Gracilis muscle flap was used as a substitute sphincter. Part of the muscle was wrapped-up in a split skin graft. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on new application of gracilis muscle and split skin graft in perineal reconstruction

  7. The distribution and diversity of insular ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura-Pascual, Núria; Sanders, Nate; Hui, Cang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To examine the relationship between island characteristics (area, distance to the nearest continent, climate and human population size) and ant species richness, as well as the factors underlying global geographical clustering of native and exotic ant composition on islands. Location: One...... hundred and two islands from 20 island groups around the world. Methods: We used spatial linear models that consider the spatial structure of islands to examine patterns of ant species richness. We also performed modularity analyses to identify clusters of islands hosting a similar suite of species...... and constructed conditional inference trees to assess the characteristics of islands that explain the formation of these island-ant groups. Results: Island area was the best predictor of ant species richness. However, distance to the nearest continent was an important predictor of native ant species richness...

  8. Endometrial stromal sarcoma mimicking submucosal myoma protruding to the vagina: MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, J C W; Hsieh, S C; Lee, R C; Chen, C Y; Cheng, C J; Chan, W P

    2005-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman complained of persistent abnormal vaginal bleeding over ten days. Her intrauterine device had been removed two years before. Soon after, she suffered from menorrhagia and metrorrhagia. An incidental finding of severe anemia was also noted. In this admission, our initial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a well-demarcated mass predominantly in the uterine cavity. The mass was depicted by an isointense signal relative to the myometrium on T1-weighted images, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and slightly heterogeneous enhancement on post-contrast images. The patient refused surgery. After two years, follow-up MRI showed a pedunculated mass protruding into the upper third of the vagina with a stalk connecting to the posterior wall of the uterine cavity, simulating submucosal myoma. Histological diagnosis was compatible with low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma.

  9. Trichobezoar in Vagina: Assessment for Child Sexual Abuse and Diagnostic Result of Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağ, Özlem; Acar, Buğra Han; Öztürk, Şenol; Alşen, Sevay; Ecevit, Çiğdem

    2017-03-01

    Vaginal discharge and bleeding in children require a through and thoughtful evaluation to diagnose the underlying problem including infections, sexual abuse, and vaginal foreign bodies. We report a 6-year-old girl presenting with bloody vaginal discharge, carefully evaluated for sexual abuse, and finally diagnosed as a vaginal foreign body after vaginoscopy. A rolling hair ball was extracted from the vagina and was diagnosed as trichobezoar pathologically without any endo-ecto-mesodermal residual tissue. The hair ball was genetically detected and diagnosed to belong herself by containing no foreign structure. Child sexual abuse was ruled out by forensic interview at CAC and report of forensic science that reported genetic structure belonging to the child. Medicolegal assessment helped in final diagnosis to exclude child sexual abuse. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Paraganglioma of the vagina: a case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tao; Li, Yucong; Jiang, Qingming; Wang, Dong; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal paraganglioma is a rare and unusual tumor occurring in the vaginal wall. It is a solitary primary paraganglioma, especially in atypical sites. Herein, we report an unusual case of a 17-year-old woman who had not experienced vomiting, or hypertension. She was found to have an immobile solid mass in the right side of her vaginal wall. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans revealed a well-defined solid ovoid mass adjacent to the bladder and pelvic floor. Tumor markers were within the normal range. A transient blood pressure increase occurred during the biopsy. After oral administration of antihypertensive drugs, surgery was performed to completely remove the mass. Histopathological examination indicated that it was a paraganglioma of the vagina. Repeat computed tomography examination did not reveal any local recurrence or distant metastasis during the 12-month follow-up period. PMID:24959083

  11. Characterization of multiple antibiotic resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus isolated from pregnant women vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetsa, Bakwena Ashton; Kumar, Ajay; Ateba, Collins Njie

    2018-03-29

    Vagina which is one of the important reservoirs for Staphylococcus and in pregnant women pathogenic strains may infect the child during the birth or by vertical transmission. A total of 68 presumptive Staphylococcus strains isolated from human vagina were found to be gram-positive cocci, and only 32 (47%) isolates were found beta-hemolytic. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) results confirmed 33 isolates belonged to Staphylococcus which consisting of 6 species, i.e., S. aureus (14), S. vitulinus (7), S. epidermidis (4), S cohnii (3), S. equorum (3), and S. succinus (2). Further, the result of antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that large proportions (76%-100%) of the isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics and more often resistant to penicillin (100%), ampicillin (100%), oxacillin (97%), oxytetracycline (97%), vancomycin (97%), rifampin (85%), erythromycin (82%), and streptomycin (76%). In the present study, only the sec enterotoxin gene was detected in four S. aureus strains. DNA fingerprints of the 33 isolates that were generated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR analysis revealed great genetic relatedness of isolates. High prevalence of vaginal colonization with multiple antibiotic-resistant staphylococci among pregnant women was observed which were emerged from the single respective species clones that underwent evolution. The vertical transmission of these multiple antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus species to the infant is possible; therefore, the findings of this study emphasize the need for regular surveillance of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains in pregnant women in this area.

  12. Antígona y la muerte

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Alcolea, Simona Micaela

    2012-01-01

    La ponencia analiza la muerte de Antígona en la obra de Sófocles. Se propone que su suicidio es un acto consciente de voluntad preanunciado a lo largo de toda la obra y no una medida desesperada. Con ese fin se exploran las posibles motivaciones de Antígona para poner fin a su vida. En el análisis se proponen tres respuestas (no necesariamente excluyentes): -Antígona responde a la ética homérica. Está en lucha con Creón, y su suicidio es su golpe de gracia al poder del rey. -Antígona...

  13. Ant-plant symbioses: Stalking the chuyachaqui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D W; McKey, D

    1993-09-01

    According to Quechua-speaking peoples, orchard-like stands ('Supay Chacras') of two Amazonian ant-plant species are cultivated by the devil, or 'Chuyachaqui'. These "devil gardens" offer extreme examples of specializations that have evolved repeatedly in ant-plant associations. Numerous investigations are beginning to disclose the identity of the Chuyachaqui - the forces behind evolutionary specialization in ant-plant symbioses. These developments have important implications for our understanding of modes of coevolution in symbiotic mutualism, remarkable convergent similarities in the form of ant-plant symbioses on different continents, and pronounced intercontinental differences in the diversity and taxonomic composition of associates. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. From Ant Trails to Pedestrian Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schadschneider

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the simulation of pedestrian dynamics inspired by the behaviour of ants in ant trails. Ants communicate by producing a pheromone that can be smelled by other ants. In this model, pedestrians produce a virtual pheromone that influences the motion of others. In this way all interactions are strictly local, and so even large crowds can be simulated very efficiently. Nevertheless, the model is able to reproduce the collective effects observed empirically, eg the formation of lanes in counterflow. As an application, we reproduce a surprising result found in experiments of evacuation from an aircraft.

  15. Microorganisms transported by ants induce changes in floral nectar composition of an ant-pollinated plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega, Clara; Herrera, Carlos M

    2013-04-01

    Interactions between plants and ants abound in nature and have significant consequences for ecosystem functioning. Recently, it has been suggested that nectar-foraging ants transport microorganisms to flowers; more specifically, they transport yeasts, which can potentially consume sugars and alter nectar composition. Therefore, ants could indirectly change nectar sugar profile, an important floral feature involved in the plant-pollinator mutualism. But this novel role for ants has never been tested. We here investigate the effects of nectarivorous ants and their associated yeasts on the floral nectar sugar composition of an ant-pollinated plant. Differences in the nectar sugar composition of ant-excluded and ant-visited flowers were examined in 278 samples by using high-performance liquid-chromatography. The importance of the genetic identity and density of ant-transported basidiomycetous and ascomycetous yeasts on the variation of nectar traits was also evaluated. Ant visitation had significant effects on nectar sugar composition. The nectar of ant-visited flowers contained significantly more fructose, more glucose, and less sucrose than the nectar of ant-excluded flowers, but these effects were context dependent. Nectar changes were correlated with the density of yeast cells in nectar. The magnitude of the effects of ant-transported ascomycetes was much higher than that of basiodiomycetes. Ants and their associated yeasts induce changes in nectar sugar traits, reducing the chemical control of the plant over this important floral trait. The potential relevance of this new role for ants as indirect nectar modifiers is a rich topic for future research into the ecology of ant-flower interactions.

  16. Pollination and facultative ant-association in the African leopard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of extra-floral nectar appears to be recruitment of foraging ants to tend the flowers resulting in a facultative ant-association between the orchid and gregarious ants. Four different ant species were found to forage on A. africana's inflorescences. Ant-tended inflorescences suffered significantly less damage by insects.

  17. Michael Jackson antes del caos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Luciano Nieves

    2015-01-01

    Michael Jackson es un buen ejemplo de cómo utilizar las relaciones públicas para realizar o manipular la imagen de un producto a través de los medios de comunicación. Este ensayo pretende analizar los eventos que tuvieron lugar antes de que el cantante fuera acusado de abuso sexual contra un menor. Dichos eventos formaron parte de un plan muy bien delineado para disminuir los efectos de la inminente crisis que se acercaba. Este trabajo combina la crítica retórica de temas de fantasía con teor...

  18. Viaje Antártico

    OpenAIRE

    Lasa, Gorka

    2017-01-01

    Ah, qué grandiosa sensación esta de poder caminar por los eternos hielos y dejar que mi vista se pierda en el horizonte crepuscular de esta desolada región! Aquellas solitarias islas, lamentos blancos en la distancia, aquellos azules glaciares llorando su neblina de frío y siglos. Al llamado lejano, mi alma se ve arrastrada por los vientos australes. Mítico ensueño que genera en mi imaginación el gran continente antártico. Belleza misteriosa e intimidante de la vastedad casi mágica que envuel...

  19. Memory in pregnancy and post-partum: Item specific and relational encoding processes in recall and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, Pietro; Saraulli, Daniele; Oriolo, Debora; Costanzi, Marco; Zanetti, Humberto; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2016-08-01

    It has been recently proposed that pregnant women would perform memory tasks by focusing more on item-specific processes and less on relational processing, compared to post-partum women (Mickes, Wixted, Shapiro & Scarff, ). The present cross-sectional study tested this hypothesis by directly manipulating the type of encoding employed in the study phase. Pregnant, post-partum and control women either rated the pleasantness of word meaning (which induced item-specific elaboration) or named the semantic category to which they belonged (which induced relational elaboration). Memory for the encoded words was later tested in free recall (which emphasizes relational processing) and in recognition (which emphasizes item-specific processing). In line with Mickes et al.'s () conclusions, pregnant women in the item-specific condition performed worse than post-partum women in the relational condition in free recall, but not in recognition. However, compared to the other two groups, pregnant women also exhibited lower recognition accuracy in the item-specific condition. Overall, these results confirm that pregnant women rely on relational encoding less than post-partum women, but additionally suggest that the former group might use item-specific processes less efficiently than post-partum and control women. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ibuprofen versus acetaminophen as a post-partum analgesic for women with severe pre-eclampsia: randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil-De Gracia, Paulino; Solis, Valentin; Ortega, Nelson

    2017-06-01

    To compare differences in blood pressure levels between patients with severe post-partum pre-eclampsia using ibuprofen or acetaminophen. A randomized controlled trial was made in women with severe pre-eclampsia or superimposed pre-eclampsia after vaginal birth. The patient was randomly selected to receive either 400 mg of ibuprofen every 8 h or 1 g of acetaminophen every 6 h during the post-partum. The primary variable was systolic hypertension ≥150 mmHg and/or diastolic hypertension ≥100 mmHg after the first 24 h post-partum. Secondary variables were the arterial blood pressure readings at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-partum and maternal complications. A total of 113 patients were studied: 56 in the acetaminophen group and 57 in the ibuprofen group. With regard to the primary outcome, more cases were significantly hypertensive in the ibuprofen group (36/57; 63.1%) than in the acetaminophen group (16/56; 28.6%). Severe hypertension (≥160/110 mmHg) was not significantly different between the groups, 14.5% (acetaminophen) and 24.5% (ibuprofen). The levels of arterial blood pressure show a hammock-shaped curve independent of the drug used, however, is more noticeable with ibuprofen. This study shows that ibuprofen significantly elevates blood pressure in women with severe pre-eclampsia during the post-partum period.

  1. Foliar uptake of nitrogen from ant fecal droplets: an overlooked service to ant plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkalski, Christian Alexander Stidsen; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Damgaard, Christian Frølund

    2018-01-01

    and subsequently deposited fecal droplets on the seedlings, coffee leaves showed increased levels of 15N and total N compared to control plants without ants. This was evident for both exposed leaves and leaves covered in plastic bags (i.e. not directly exposed to ants). Thus, N from ant excretions was absorbed...

  2. The evolution of genome size in ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spagna Joseph C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the economic and ecological importance of ants, genomic tools for this family (Formicidae remain woefully scarce. Knowledge of genome size, for example, is a useful and necessary prerequisite for the development of many genomic resources, yet it has been reported for only one ant species (Solenopsis invicta, and the two published estimates for this species differ by 146.7 Mb (0.15 pg. Results Here, we report the genome size for 40 species of ants distributed across 10 of the 20 currently recognized subfamilies, thus making Formicidae the 4th most surveyed insect family and elevating the Hymenoptera to the 5th most surveyed insect order. Our analysis spans much of the ant phylogeny, from the less derived Amblyoponinae and Ponerinae to the more derived Myrmicinae, Formicinae and Dolichoderinae. We include a number of interesting and important taxa, including the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile, Neotropical army ants (genera Eciton and Labidus, trapjaw ants (Odontomachus, fungus-growing ants (Apterostigma, Atta and Sericomyrmex, harvester ants (Messor, Pheidole and Pogonomyrmex, carpenter ants (Camponotus, a fire ant (Solenopsis, and a bulldog ant (Myrmecia. Our results show that ants possess small genomes relative to most other insects, yet genome size varies three-fold across this insect family. Moreover, our data suggest that two whole-genome duplications may have occurred in the ancestors of the modern Ectatomma and Apterostigma. Although some previous studies of other taxa have revealed a relationship between genome size and body size, our phylogenetically-controlled analysis of this correlation did not reveal a significant relationship. Conclusion This is the first analysis of genome size in ants (Formicidae and the first across multiple species of social insects. We show that genome size is a variable trait that can evolve gradually over long time spans, as well as rapidly, through processes that may

  3. Hybrid chaotic ant swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuying; Wen Qiaoyan; Li Lixiang; Peng Haipeng

    2009-01-01

    Chaotic ant swarm optimization (CASO) is a powerful chaos search algorithm that is used to find the global optimum solution in search space. However, the CASO algorithm has some disadvantages, such as lower solution precision and longer computational time, when solving complex optimization problems. To resolve these problems, an improved CASO, called hybrid chaotic swarm optimization (HCASO), is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm introduces preselection operator and discrete recombination operator into the CASO; meanwhile it replaces the best position found by own and its neighbors' ants with the best position found by preselection operator and discrete recombination operator in evolution equation. Through testing five benchmark functions with large dimensionality, the experimental results show the new method enhances the solution accuracy and stability greatly, as well as reduces the computational time and computer memory significantly when compared to the CASO. In addition, we observe the results can become better with swarm size increasing from the sensitivity study to swarm size. And we gain some relations between problem dimensions and swam size according to scalability study.

  4. Associations of maternal nutrition during pregnancy and post-partum with maternal cognition and caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Ashorn, Ulla; Phuka, John; Maleta, Kenneth; Sadalaki, John; Oaks, Brietta M; Haskell, Marjorie; Allen, Lindsay H; Vosti, Steve A; Ashorn, Per; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2018-04-01

    Pregnant and post-partum women require increased nutrient intake and optimal cognition, which depends on adequate nutrition, to enable reasoning and learning for caregiving. We aimed to assess (a) differences in maternal cognition and caregiving between women in Malawi who received different nutritional supplements, (b) 14 effect modifiers, and (c) associations of cognition and caregiving with biomarkers of iron, Vitamin A, B-vitamin, and fatty acid status. In a randomized controlled trial (n = 869), pregnant women daily received either multiple micronutrients (MMN), 20 g/day lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS), or a control iron/folic acid (IFA) tablet. After delivery, supplementation continued in the MMN and LNS arms, and the IFA control group received placebo until 6 months post-partum, when cognition (n = 712), caregiving behaviour (n = 669), and biomarkers of nutritional status (n = 283) were assessed. In the full group, only one difference was significant: the IFA arm scored 0.22 SD (95% CI [0.01, 0.39], p = .03) higher than the LNS arm in mental rotation. Among subgroups of women with baseline low hemoglobin, poor iron status, or malaria, those who received LNS scored 0.4 to 0.7 SD higher than the IFA arm in verbal fluency. Breastmilk docosahexaenoic acid and Vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with verbal fluency and digit span forward (adjusting for covariates ps < .05). In this population in Malawi, maternal supplementation with MMN or LNS did not positively affect maternal cognition or caregiving. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid and B12 status may be important for post-partum attention and executive function. © 2017 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Perspective on physiological/endocrine and nutritional factors influencing fertility in post-partum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Silvestre, F T; Kim, I H; Staples, C R

    2010-09-01

    Increasing reproductive performance of post-partum lactating dairy cows is a multi-factorial challenge involving disciplines of production medicine, nutrition, physiology and herd management. Systems of programmed timed insemination have been fine-tuned to achieve pregnancy per artificial inseminations (AI) approximating 45%. Systems have optimized follicle development, integrated follicle development with timing of induced corpus luteum regression and fine-tuned sequential timing of induced ovulation and AI. Use of programmes for insemination have identified occurrence of anovulatory ovarian status, body condition, uterine health and seasonal summer stress as factors contributing to reduced herd fertility. Furthermore, programmes of timed insemination provide a platform to evaluate efficacy of nutritional and herd health systems targeted to the transition and post-partum periods. The homeorhetic periparturient period, as cows deal with decreases in dry matter intake, results in a negative energy balance and is associated with a period of immunosuppression. Cows that transition well will cycle earlier and have a greater risk of becoming pregnant earlier post-partum. The innate arms of the immune system (acute and adaptive) are suppressed during the periparturient period. Cows experiencing the sequential complex of disorders such as dystocia, puerperal metritis, metritis, endometritis and subclinical endometritis are subsequently less fertile. Targeted strategies of providing specific nutraceuticals that provide pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., linoleic, eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic, conjugated linoleic acid), sequential glycogenic and lipogenic enrichment of diets, and organic selenium appear to differentially regulate and improve the immune and reproductive systems to benefit an earlier restoration of ovarian activity and increased fertility. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. An Overview of Risk Factors Associated to Post-partum Depression in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Shubham; Mehta, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    Post partum depression (PPD) is an important complication of child-bearing. It requires urgent interventions as it can have long-term adverse consequences if ignored, for both mother and child. If PPD has to be prevented by a public health intervention, the recognition and timely identification of its risk factors is must. We in this review have tried to synthesize the results of Asian studies examining the risk factors of PPD. Some risk factors, which are unique to Asian culture, have also b...

  7. Predictors and incidence of post-partum depression: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Zarghami, Mehran; Azhar, Md Zain; Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Lye, Munn-Sann

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to identify the incidence and the related factors contributing to post-partum depression (PPD) in women in Iran for the first time. A total of 2279 eligible pregnant women from 32-42 weeks of pregnancy to 12 weeks post-partum (2009) who attended primary health centers in Mazandaran province were screened for depression using the Iranian version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Pregnant women free from depression were assessed using validated questionnaires, including the Premenstrual Syndrome Questionnaire, Social Support Appraisal Scale, Network Orientation Scale, General Health Questionnaire, Marital Inventory, Life Events Rating Scale and Parental Expectation Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors of PPD. Of 1801 women who screened negative for depression at 32-42 weeks' gestation, cumulative incidence proportions were 6.7%, 4.3% and 4.5% during 0-2, >2-8 and >8-12 weeks post-partum, respectively. The factors predictive of PPD were: history of depression during the first two trimesters of pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 2.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.59-4.1); psychiatric disorder during pregnancy (OR = 1.08, 95%CI = 1.06-1.11); gestational diabetes (OR = 2.93, 95%CI = 1.46-5.88); recurrent urinary infection (OR = 2.25, 95%CI = 1.44-3.52); unwanted pregnancy (OR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.69-3.7) and low household income (OR = 3.57, 95%CI = 1.49-8.5). The risk was decreased with increasing age (OR = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.84-0.92) and those with high self-efficacy for mothering (OR = 0.7, 95%CI = 0.62-0.78). A high rate of new cases of PPD was identified in Iranian women. A combination of psychological, sociological, obstetric and sociodemographic factors can render mothers vulnerable to post-partum depression. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. [The prevention of depression in pregnancy and the post-partum: when to intervene?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iapichino, Elena; Quartieri Bollani, Marta; Cauli, Gilla; Gala, Costanzo

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the presence of anxious-depressive symptoms and risk factors and discuss the method of intervention used with women in pregnancy and post-partum. The mood of the woman was assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), personality traits with the Vulnerable Personality Style Questionnaire (VPSQ) and social support through the Social Provisions Scale (PPS). 50 women have completed the evaluation. In line with the international literature, the presence of anxiety-depressive symptoms is accompanied by the presence of multiple risk factors, in particular the familiar seems to be a predisposing factor.

  9. Inadvertent intrathecal injection of labetalol in a patient undergoing post-partum tubal ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, P J; Hamza, M S; Ting, P H; Blank, R S; Grubb, C T

    2005-10-01

    After receiving a continuous spinal anesthetic for labor following an inadvertent dural puncture with a 17-gauge epidural needle, a morbidly obese parturient underwent post-partum tubal ligation 12 h after vaginal delivery. The patient received a total of 2 mL of 0.75% hyperbaric bupivacaine for the surgery. In response to moderate hypertension the patient received intravenous labetalol hydrochloride 20 mg. She subsequently was inadvertently administered approximately 15 mg of labetalol through the spinal catheter. The spinal catheter was removed immediately after the procedure. She suffered no apparent adverse neurologic effects.

  10. Graviditetsudløst transient osteoporose som årsag til hoftesmerter post partum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Morsel-Carlsen, Lone

    2014-01-01

    . She was known with undifferentiated spondyloartritis since 2004, which posed a diagnostic challenge. The reported patient was treated conservatively avoiding lactation, weight bearing activities, increased intake of calcium and vitamin D and recovered without further medical treatment.......Transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) affects pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and shows a pattern of bone marrow oedema. We report a case of TOH post-partum with involvement of both hips in a 34-year-old woman...

  11. Cardiomyopathie du péri-partum prise en charge en milieu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiomyopathie du péri-partum prise en charge en milieu Hospitalier Universitaire de Bobo-Dioulasso : aspects thérapeutiques et évolutifs. S. J-B. Tougouma, A.A. Yaméogo, A. Dembélé, G. Kinda, N.V. Yaméogo, G.R.C. Millogo, J.K. Kologo, A. Héma, Y. Kambiré, L. Savadogo, M.S. Ouédraogo, P. Zabsonré ...

  12. The Biochemical Toxin Arsenal from Ant Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Touchard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ants (Formicidae represent a taxonomically diverse group of hymenopterans with over 13,000 extant species, the majority of which inject or spray secretions from a venom gland. The evolutionary success of ants is mostly due to their unique eusociality that has permitted them to develop complex collaborative strategies, partly involving their venom secretions, to defend their nest against predators, microbial pathogens, ant competitors, and to hunt prey. Activities of ant venom include paralytic, cytolytic, haemolytic, allergenic, pro-inflammatory, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and pain-producing pharmacologic activities, while non-toxic functions include roles in chemical communication involving trail and sex pheromones, deterrents, and aggregators. While these diverse activities in ant venoms have until now been largely understudied due to the small venom yield from ants, modern analytical and venomic techniques are beginning to reveal the diversity of toxin structure and function. As such, ant venoms are distinct from other venomous animals, not only rich in linear, dimeric and disulfide-bonded peptides and bioactive proteins, but also other volatile and non-volatile compounds such as alkaloids and hydrocarbons. The present review details the unique structures and pharmacologies of known ant venom proteinaceous and alkaloidal toxins and their potential as a source of novel bioinsecticides and therapeutic agents.

  13. Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! KidsHealth / For Kids / Hey! A ... Me picó una roja o colorada! What's a Fire Ant? There are many different types of fire ...

  14. The Biochemical Toxin Arsenal from Ant Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchard, Axel; Aili, Samira R.; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Escoubas, Pierre; Orivel, Jérôme; Nicholson, Graham M.; Dejean, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Ants (Formicidae) represent a taxonomically diverse group of hymenopterans with over 13,000 extant species, the majority of which inject or spray secretions from a venom gland. The evolutionary success of ants is mostly due to their unique eusociality that has permitted them to develop complex collaborative strategies, partly involving their venom secretions, to defend their nest against predators, microbial pathogens, ant competitors, and to hunt prey. Activities of ant venom include paralytic, cytolytic, haemolytic, allergenic, pro-inflammatory, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and pain-producing pharmacologic activities, while non-toxic functions include roles in chemical communication involving trail and sex pheromones, deterrents, and aggregators. While these diverse activities in ant venoms have until now been largely understudied due to the small venom yield from ants, modern analytical and venomic techniques are beginning to reveal the diversity of toxin structure and function. As such, ant venoms are distinct from other venomous animals, not only rich in linear, dimeric and disulfide-bonded peptides and bioactive proteins, but also other volatile and non-volatile compounds such as alkaloids and hydrocarbons. The present review details the unique structures and pharmacologies of known ant venom proteinaceous and alkaloidal toxins and their potential as a source of novel bioinsecticides and therapeutic agents. PMID:26805882

  15. Ant aggression and evolutionary stability in plant-ant and plant-pollinator mutualistic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oña, L; Lachmann, M

    2011-03-01

    Mutualistic partners derive a benefit from their interaction, but this benefit can come at a cost. This is the case for plant-ant and plant-pollinator mutualistic associations. In exchange for protection from herbivores provided by the resident ants, plants supply various kinds of resources or nests to the ants. Most ant-myrmecophyte mutualisms are horizontally transmitted, and therefore, partners share an interest in growth but not in reproduction. This lack of alignment in fitness interests between plants and ants drives a conflict between them: ants can attack pollinators that cross-fertilize the host plants. Using a mathematical model, we define a threshold in ant aggressiveness determining pollinator survival or elimination on the host plant. In our model we observed that, all else being equal, facultative interactions result in pollinator extinction for lower levels of ant aggressiveness than obligatory interactions. We propose that the capacity to discriminate pollinators from herbivores should not often evolve in ants, and when it does it will be when the plants exhibit limited dispersal in an environment that is not seed saturated so that each seed produced can effectively generate a new offspring or if ants acquire an extra benefit from pollination (e.g. if ants eat fruit). We suggest specific mutualism examples where these hypotheses can be tested empirically. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Robotic-assisted Reconstruction of the Cervix and Vagina by Small Intestinal Submucosa Graft and Fusion of the Hemiuterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Yisong; Hua, Keqin

    To describe our technique of robotic-assisted reconstruction of the cervix and vagina using a small intestinal submucosa (SIS) graft and fusion of the hemiuterus. A step-by-step explanation of the procedure using video. Congenital complete vaginal and cervical atresia is rare. Some patients have urinary system abnormality. No standardized surgical treatment guideline was available, and the performance varies for each patient. We performed a robotic-assisted reconstruction of the cervix and vagina using an SIS graft (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN) and fusion of the hemiuterus for a 12-year-old girl from China diagnosed with congenital vaginal and cervical atresia (U4C4V4). She complained of severe abdominal periodic pain for 2 months. Mammary development and her serum sex hormone were within normal range. The patient has a single kidney. The diagnosis was made according to clinical characteristics, physical examination, and magnetic resonance imaging and classified using the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology /European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESHRE/ESGE) system. There was a hematometra of 7-cm diameter in her pelvis. We constructed a novel vagina by sharp and blunt separation and connected it to the uterine cavity. With the SIS graft, we reconstructed her cervix and vagina, and we fused the hemiuterus to make the uterine cavity spacious. The operating time was 260 minutes, and blood loss was 300 mL. She recovered well after the operation without any complications. After surgery, the patient has had normal menstruation without pain. She insists on wearing the vaginal mold 24 hours per day. The follow-up was 10 months. The length of the vagina was 9 cm and the width was 3 cm. Robotic-assisted reconstruction of the cervix and vagina using an SIS graft and fusion of the hemiuterus is feasible and safety. However, additional studies are required. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. AntStar: Enhancing Optimization Problems by Integrating an Ant System and A⁎ Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, nature-inspired techniques have become valuable to many intelligent systems in different fields of technology and science. Among these techniques, Ant Systems (AS have become a valuable technique for intelligent systems in different fields. AS is a computational system inspired by the foraging behavior of ants and intended to solve practical optimization problems. In this paper, we introduce the AntStar algorithm, which is swarm intelligence based. AntStar enhances the optimization and performance of an AS by integrating the AS and A⁎ algorithm. Applying the AntStar algorithm to the single-source shortest-path problem has been done to ensure the efficiency of the proposed AntStar algorithm. The experimental result of the proposed algorithm illustrated the robustness and accuracy of the AntStar algorithm.

  18. Cryptococcus neoformans carried by Odontomachus bauri ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Santos de Jesus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common causative agent of cryptococcosis worldwide. Although this fungus has been isolated from a variety of organic substrates, several studies suggest that hollow trees constitute an important natural niche for C. neoformans. A previously surveyed hollow of a living pink shower tree (Cassia grandis positive for C. neoformans in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was chosen for further investigation. Odontomachus bauri ants (trap-jaw ants found inside the hollow were collected for evaluation as possible carriers of Cryptococcus spp. Two out of 10 ants were found to carry phenoloxidase-positive colonies identified as C. neoformans molecular types VNI and VNII. The ants may have acted as a mechanical vector of C. neoformans and possibly contributed to the dispersal of the fungi from one substrate to another. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of C. neoformans with ants of the genus Odontomachus.

  19. Recurrence analysis of ant activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Marcel Neves

    Full Text Available In this study, we used recurrence quantification analysis (RQA and recurrence plots (RPs to compare the movement activity of individual workers of three ant species, as well as a gregarious beetle species. RQA and RPs quantify the number and duration of recurrences of a dynamical system, including a detailed quantification of signals that could be stochastic, deterministic, or both. First, we found substantial differences between the activity dynamics of beetles and ants, with the results suggesting that the beetles have quasi-periodic dynamics and the ants do not. Second, workers from different ant species varied with respect to their dynamics, presenting degrees of predictability as well as stochastic signals. Finally, differences were found among minor and major caste of the same (dimorphic ant species. Our results underscore the potential of RQA and RPs in the analysis of complex behavioral patterns, as well as in general inferences on animal behavior and other biological phenomena.

  20. Ants defend aphids against lethal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Charlotte; Agrawal, Anurag A.; Hajek, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    Social insects defend their own colonies and some species also protect their mutualist partners. In mutualisms with aphids, ants typically feed on honeydew produced by aphids and, in turn guard and shelter aphid colonies from insect natural enemies. Here we report that Formica podzolica ants tending milkweed aphids, Aphis asclepiadis, protect aphid colonies from lethal fungal infections caused by an obligate aphid pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis. In field experiments, bodies of fungal-killed aphids were quickly removed from ant-tended aphid colonies. Ant workers were also able to detect infective conidia on the cuticle of living aphids and responded by either removing or grooming these aphids. Our results extend the long-standing view of ants as mutualists and protectors of aphids by demonstrating focused sanitizing and quarantining behaviour that may lead to reduced disease transmission in aphid colonies. PMID:19923138

  1. Persistence of pollination mutualisms in the presence of ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanshi; Wang, Shikun

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers plant-pollinator-ant systems in which the plant-pollinator interaction is mutualistic but ants have both positive and negative effects on plants. The ants also interfere with pollinators by preventing them from accessing plants. While a Beddington-DeAngelis (BD) formula can describe the plant-pollinator interaction, the formula is extended in this paper to characterize the pollination mutualism under the ant interference. Then, a plant-pollinator-ant system with the extended BD functional response is discussed, and global dynamics of the model demonstrate the mechanisms by which pollination mutualism can persist in the presence of ants. When the ant interference is strong, it can result in extinction of pollinators. Moreover, if the ants depend on pollination mutualism for survival, the strong interference could drive pollinators into extinction, which consequently lead to extinction of the ants themselves. When the ant interference is weak, a cooperation between plant-ant and plant-pollinator mutualisms could occur, which promotes survival of both ants and pollinators, especially in the case that ants (respectively, pollinators) cannot survive in the absence of pollinators (respectively, ants). Even when the level of ant interference remains invariant, varying ants' negative effect on plants can result in survival/extinction of both ants and pollinators. Therefore, our results provide an explanation for the persistence of pollination mutualism when there exist ants.

  2. The vagina of women infected with Trichomonas vaginalis has numerous proteinases and antibody to trichomonad proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, J F; Newton, E; Dennis, C; Neale, K A

    1991-12-01

    Patients with trichomoniasis have serum antibody to numerous T. vaginalis cysteine proteinases, indicating that the proteinases are expressed in vivo. It was important, therefore, to examine for the presence of soluble trichomonad proteinases and/or antibody to the proteinases in the vagina of infected women. Vaginal washes (VWs) from 20 women were examined for the presence of proteinases by electrophoresis using acrylamide co-polymerised with gelatin as the indicator system. Antibody to proteinases in VWs was detected by an immunoprecipitation assay involving protein A-bearing Staphylococcus aureus first coated with anti-human immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, which was then added to VWs. For VWs having soluble proteinases, the bacteria were used to determine whether immune complexes between antibody and proteinases were present. VWs without soluble proteinases were incubated with the anti-human IgG treated bacteria before adding to detergent extracts of T. vaginalis. Individual isolates from the patients examined in this study were also analysed by one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis for their proteinase content. Finally, VWs were from patients without any history of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) as well as from individuals having numerous other STDs, including yeast, group B streptococcus, chlamydia, and syphilis. Approximately one-third of patients had soluble proteinases in the VWs; the remaining two-thirds (70%) of patients and normal women had no detectable proteinases in VWs. Half of the patients without soluble proteinases had IgG which, when bound to S. aureus, immunoprecipitated many proteinases from a detergent extract of T. vaginalis. All soluble proteinases and those precipitated from trichomonal extracts were inhibited by inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. Finally, patients having trichomoniasis in addition to numerous other STD agents, including yeast, group B streptococcus, chlamydia, and syphilis did not have soluble proteinases

  3. Michael Jackson antes del caos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luciano Nieves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael Jackson es un buen ejemplo de cómo utilizar las relaciones públicas para realizar o manipular la imagen de un producto a través de los medios de comunicación. Este ensayo pretende analizar los eventos que tuvieron lugar antes de que el cantante fuera acusado de abuso sexual contra un menor. Dichos eventos formaron parte de un plan muy bien delineado para disminuir los efectos de la inminente crisis que se acercaba. Este trabajo combina la crítica retórica de temas de fantasía con teoría de comunicación.

  4. Individual Recognition in Ant Queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Heinze, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Personal relationships are the cornerstone of vertebrate societies, but insect societies are either too large for individual recognition, or their members were assumed to lack the necessary cognitive abilities 1 and 2 . This paradigm has been challenged by the recent discovery that paper wasps...... recognize each other's unique facial color patterns [3] . Individual recognition is advantageous when dominance hierarchies control the partitioning of work and reproduction 2 and 4 . Here, we show that unrelated founding queens of the ant Pachycondyla villosa use chemical cues to recognize each other...... individually. Aggression was significantly lower in pairs of queens that had previously interacted than in pairs with similar social history but no experience with one another. Moreover, subordinates discriminated familiar and unfamiliar dominants in choice experiments in which physical contact, but not odor...

  5. FDTD-ANT User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Martin L.

    1995-01-01

    This manual explains the theory and operation of the finite-difference time domain code FDTD-ANT developed by Analex Corporation at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. This code can be used for solving electromagnetic problems that are electrically small or medium (on the order of 1 to 50 cubic wavelengths). Calculated parameters include transmission line impedance, relative effective permittivity, antenna input impedance, and far-field patterns in both the time and frequency domains. The maximum problem size may be adjusted according to the computer used. This code has been run on the DEC VAX and 486 PC's and on workstations such as the Sun Sparc and the IBM RS/6000.

  6. Cognitive factors and post-partum depression: What is the influence of general personality traits, rumination, maternal self-esteem, and alexithymia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Anne; Luminet, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    The objective was to assess the impact of cognitive factors on post-partum depression (PPD) symptoms. Because most of the literature data concern the immediate post-partum period or the first year post-partum, we notably sought to assess the longer term impact of cognitive factors on the symptoms of PPD. Two studies were performed. In a pilot study, 1-month post-partum, 63 women filled out a sociodemographic information sheet and completed the abbreviated, revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Ruminative Responses Scale, the Maternal Self-Report Inventory, and the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale. In the main study, 124 women additionally completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The main study population was divided into 2 subgroups: women in the first year post-partum (n = 74) and those in the second year post-partum (n = 50). In the pilot study performed 1-month post-partum, brooding rumination and low self-esteem were significant predictors of the PPD symptom intensity. Neuroticism, brooding rumination, and low maternal self-esteem were also significant predictors of the PPD symptoms reported in the first year post-partum. Lastly, ruminative thoughts and alexithymia were significant predictors of the PPD symptoms reported in the second year post-partum. Our results suggest that alexithymia may be an important predictor of the incidence of this condition. The observation of differences in the PPD models as a function of the post-partum period may open up opportunities for developing novel PPD prevention/treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Endocrine evaluation of puberty and post-partum ovarian function in indigenous and imported Brahman cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, H.S.; Ismaya, K.H.; Sulong, A.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to monitor the reproductive performance of Kedah Kelantan (KK) and Brahman cattle maintained under similar environmental and management conditions on commercial farms in Malaysia. This allowed the physiological differences affecting reproductive efficiency to be identified in both pubertal and adult stock. The results revealed that the Brahman breed exhibited a better growth rate but poorer post-partum fertility than the KK. It appears that Brahman cattle require feed supplementation around the time of calving in order to reduce the duration of post-partum anoestrus. Both breeds exhibited late onset of puberty (on average at 25-36 months of age), although some animals initiated sexual activity at a much earlier age; this suggests that better selection as well as nutritional supplementation and possibly endocrine manipulation are necessary management inputs. Although the Brahman shows excellent potential in terms of performance per animal, the greater carrying capacity of the KK and its greater adaptiveness to local conditions indicate that this indigenous animal still has a major role to play in livestock production in Malaysia. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  8. Post partum lymphocytic thyroiditis in North Indian population: a spectrum of thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam; Taneja, Vijay; Bansal, J.K.; Khanna, C.M.; Sharma, Manisha

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty one Indian women from Delhi and surrounding territory were prospectively evaluated to determine the frequency of post-partum thyroiditis upto 12 weeks of postpartum. Thirty one (11.8%) of the 261 cases included in our study developed thyroid disease. Twenty four (77%) of the patients who developed thyroiditis were found to have high titres of thyroid antibodies. Of these 24 patients, 21 (67.7%) tested positive for antimicrosomal antibodies and 17 (54.8%) tested positive for antithyroglobulin antibodies. Patients were found to have a spectrum of thyroid dysfunction. Transient hypothyroidism developed in 17 patients, I patient developed persistent hypothyroidism, 7 had transient thyrotoxicosis and 6 developed euthyroid goiters. Twenty two patients had goiters ranging from grade OB to grade II. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in 20 patients, while 2 had colloid goiter. It is concluded from our study that there is a significant incidence of post partum thyroid disease in the female population representative of North India, and most of the patients (93.5%) develop transient thyroid disorder. (author)

  9. Factors involved in the persistence of stress urinary incontinence from pregnancy to 2 years post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrue, Miren; Diez-Itza, Irene; Ibañez, Larraitz; Paredes, Jone; Murgiondo, Arantzazu; Sarasqueta, Cristina

    2011-12-01

    To identify factors involved in the persistence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) from pregnancy to 2 years post partum. In a longitudinal study at Donostia Hospital, San Sebastián, Spain, 458 primigravid women were recruited from April to October 2007. SUI was diagnosed via the 2002 International Continence Society definition. Severity was assessed via the Incontinence Severity Index, and impact on quality of life via the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire. Means (Student t test and analysis of variance) and percentages (χ(2) and Fisher exact tests) were compared, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with variables that were significant or close to significant in a univariate analysis (Ppregnancy. Incontinence severity was slight or moderate in most cases and the impact on quality of life was low. A higher body mass index (BMI) in pregnant women at term was the only factor found to be associated with persistent SUI (odds ratio 1.19; 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.32). Higher BMI in pregnant women at term was an independent risk factor for the persistence of SUI from pregnancy to 2 years post partum. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Post-partum blues among Korean mothers: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Yoo, Il Young; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to propose the post-partum blues (PPB) model and to estimate the effects of self-esteem, social support, antenatal depression, and stressful events during pregnancy on PPB. Data were collected from 249 women post-partum during their stay in the maternity units of three hospitals in Korea using a self-administered questionnaire. A structural equation modelling approach using the Analysis of Moments Structure program was used to identify the direct and indirect effects of the variables on PPB. The full model had a good fit and accounted for 70.3% of the variance of PPB. Antenatal depression and stressful events during pregnancy had strong direct effects on PPB. Household income showed indirect effects on PPB via self-esteem and antenatal depression. Social support indirectly affected PPB via self-esteem, antenatal depression, and stressful events during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  11. Mother's postnatal stress: an investigation of links to various factors during pregnancy and post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ewa; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2016-12-01

    Higher levels of parental stress have long-term effects on children's health and could lead to dysfunction in the parent-child interaction. Different background factors can be predictors of high parental stress. The aim of this study was to examine parental stress among Swedish women and identify different factors linked to women's parental stress. About 702 women were recruited to a clinical study and followed up six months after birth. Data were collected by two questionnaires, and 279 women completed the Swedish Parental Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ). Less than very good mental health and depressive symptoms after birth were strongly associated with parental stress, and the strongest association was found between post-partum depressive symptoms and high levels of stress in the subscale Incompetence. Multiparity was associated with high stress in two subscales, and lower level of education was a protective factor for stress in nearly all subscales. Depressive symptoms and perceived poor mental health post-partum are the most important factors related to high parental stress. The results point to the importance of identifying and supporting mothers with depressive symptoms, since these women have both mental illness and increased stress. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Post-partum recovery course in patients with gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Yukiko; Takagi, Kenjiro; Itaya, Yukiko; Ono, Yoshihisa; Matsumura, Hideyoshi; Takai, Yasushi; Seki, Hiroyuki

    2014-04-01

    We examined the post-partum recovery course in patients with pre-eclampsia (PE) and gestational hypertension (GH) and evaluated the associated factors. In a retrospective review of 145 patients with GH or PE who gave birth between 1 January 2008 and 30 October 2011 at our institution, there were 125 PE and 20 GH cases. Data collected included the gestational age at initial examination and delivery, delivery mode, time for normalization of blood pressure (BP), and time until resolution of proteinuria in PE patients. Comparisons were made between singleton and multiple pregnancies, onset (early, hypertension and proteinuria, respectively. The time for BP normalization was longer in the early-onset group. The time for resolution of proteinuria was not affected by any factor examined. A post-partum observation period of 12 weeks is acceptable for differentiating PE and GH from chronic hypertension or renal disease. GH severity did not affect the recovery period, but proteinuria severity did. Onset time was a factor influencing the recovery from PE and GH. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Aromaterapi Lavender dapat Menurunkan Intensitas Nyeri Perineum pada Ibu Post Partum

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    Wiwin Widayani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perineals pain affects  woman ability to mobilize so that it can cause complications such as post-partum haemoragik. Trauma to the perineum also cause discomfort and dyspareunia, therefore, perineal pain management is important. Currently the handling used to relieve pain is complementary therapy aromatherapy with essential oils of lavender, because lavender has the properties of anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, and also soothing. Aromatherapy stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete chemical mediators that serve as pain relievers and give rise to feelings of happiness. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of lavender aromatherapy to the perineal pain intensity in post partum women. This study is a quasy experiment pre and post non random control in postpartum women at Bidan Praktik Mandiri in Bandung. Sampling this study using consecutive sampling technique. The data taken using the instrument in the adaptation of a Visual Analog Scale (VAS and analyzed by using the wilcoxon signed rank test. The result is there was a decrease in pain intensity before and after the administration of inhaled lavender aromatherapy (Z=-3.77 with p-value 0.001. Lavender aromatherapy can be a complementary alternative therapy to reduce pain in postpartum women but more research necessary is needed with more respondents.

  14. Phytosterols from Dunaliella tertiolecta Reduce Cell Proliferation in Sheep Fed Flaxseed during Post Partum

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    Maria Giovanna Ciliberti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The post partum period is characterized by immunosuppression and increased disease susceptibility. Both phytosterols from microalga Dunaniella tertiolecta and dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA influence cell proliferation and cytokine release during inflammation. The objective of this paper was the evaluation of the effects of physterols, extracted and purified from D. tertiolecta, on the in vitro immune responses of ewes supplemented with flaxseed during post partum. Twenty Comisana parturient ewes were divided in two balanced groups, and supplemented with flaxseed (FS, 250 g/day or fed with a conventional diet (CON. Blood samples (15 mL were collected for five weeks, starting from lambing, in order to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Stimulated PBMC were treated with a total sterols fraction from D. tertiolecta (TS, a mix of ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol (purified extract, PE, and a mix of acetylated ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol (acetylated purified extract, AcPE, extracted and purified from D. tertiolecta at two concentrations (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL. Results of the experiment demonstrated that n-3 PUFA from flaxseed induced an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile, with an increase of both IL-10, IL-6 and a decrease of IL-1β. TS, PE, and AcPE purified from D. tertiolecta showed an anti-proliferative effect on sheep PBMC regardless their chemical composition and concentration.

  15. Post-partum involution of the canine uterus - gross anatomical and histological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanou, D C; Ververidis, H N; Pourlis, A; Fragkou, I A; Kokoli, A N; Boscos, C M; Taitzoglou, I A; Tzora, A; Nerou, C M; Athanasiou, L; Fthenakis, G C

    2009-07-01

    We aimed to study the normal puerperium in the bitch. Ovariohysterectomy was performed in nine bitches, each at a different day after normal whelping; their genital tract was subject to gross anatomical examination, as well as to histological examination and electron microscopy scanning. Corpora albicans were evenly distributed in the left and right ovaries and placental sites were evenly distributed among left and right uterine horns. Placental sites were initially of dark green to grey colour, later becoming dark brown; their length and height progressively decreased. Height of the myometrium and diameter of the uterine glands progressively decreased. Trophoblast-like cells were consistently observed at the placental sites and on the surface of the interplacental areas, at all time points where hysterectomy had been performed. It is suggested that involution of the canine genital tract can last up to 3 months and is slow. Continuous (up to D84 post-partum) presence of prominent placental sites should be considered a normal feature of canine uterine post-partum involution.

  16. Severe Vaginal Burns in a 5-Year-Old Girl Due to an Alkaline Battery in the Vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Alexander; Klein, Tobias; Vahdad, Mohammad Reza; Boemers, Thomas M; Pohle, Rebecca

    2015-10-01

    The ingestion or insertion of alkaline batteries in the body can cause severe damage to hollow organs. We report here a case of severe vaginal burns in a young patient caused by an alkaline battery. A 5-year-old girl presented to our outpatient department with pelvic pain and vaginal discharge. Further workup suggested the presence of a vaginal foreign body. Under general anesthesia, an alkaline battery was removed from her vagina, which showed severe burns with partial-thickness necrosis. Complete healing was confirmed at 3 months after initial presentation. In this rare case of an alkaline battery present in the vagina of a prepubescent girl, we discuss the available treatment and management options in comparison to similar previously reported cases. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inverted papilloma of the cervix and vagina: report of 2 cases of a rare lesion associated with human papillomavirus 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennell, Claire; Jamison, Jackie; Wells, Michael; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2012-03-01

    We report 2 cases of a lesion that we term inverted papilloma of the lower female genital tract, occurring in the cervix and upper vagina of 60- and 50-year-old women, respectively. Microscopically, the features were similar to those of inverted transitional papilloma of the urinary bladder with interconnecting islands, trabeculae, and solid sheets of bland transitional epithelium with an inverted growth pattern. There were small foci of squamous and glandular differentiation in the cervical case. Linear array human papillomavirus genotyping revealed human papillomavirus type 42 in both cases. Inverted papilloma in the lower female genital tract is extremely rare with, as far as we are aware, only 3 previously reported similar cases in the cervix and none in the vagina. Our results suggest that these neoplasms when occurring in the lower female genital tract may be associated with low-risk human papillomavirus, perhaps specifically human papillomavirus 42. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Case report of live threatening complications due to self insertion of foreign body into the vagina for masturbation purpose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzaka, Bolesław; Kobryń, Andrzej; Niemierko, Maciej; Czaplicki, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    Authors have reported a case report of life threatening complications due to insertion of foreign bodies into the vagina, because of masturbation purpose. In this case subsequently came to perforation of the urinary bladder by the huge calculus that developed over the foreign body, and next to the peritoneum with development peritonitis and acute renal insufficiency with the need of dialysotherapy. After a number of surgical operations, the patient with a definitive percutaneous nephrostomy was discharged.

  19. "Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vagina: HPV Detection, p16INK4A Overexpression and Clinicopathological Correlations"

    OpenAIRE

    Fuste , Victoria; Del Pino , Marta; Perez , Assumpta; Garcia , Angel; Torne , Aureli; Pahisa , Jaume; Ordi , Jaume

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To determine the role of HPV in the pathogenesis of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina (SCCVa), and to evaluate its clinico-pathological significance. Methods: All cases of SCCVa diagnosed over a 15 year period from two hospitals in Barcelona, Spain (n=32) were retrieved. Patients with a history of carcinoma of the cervix diagnosed less than 5 years before were excluded. HPV was detected and typed by PCR using the SPF10 primers. Immunohistochemistry for...

  20. Merkel-like cell distribution in the epithelium of the human vagina. An immunohistochemical and TEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakovičová, Simona; Csöbönyeiová, Mária; Filova, Barbora; Borovský, Miroslav; Maršík, Ladislav; Kvasilová, Alena; Polák, Štefan

    2018-02-16

    Human Merkel cells (MCs) were first described by Friedrich S. Merkel in 1875 and named "Tastzellen" (touch cells). Merkel cells are primarily localized in the basal layer of the epidermis and concentrated in touch-sensitive areas. In our previous work, we reported on the distribution of MCs in the human esophagus, so therefore we chose other parts of the human body to study them. We selected the human vagina, because it has a similar epithelium as the esophagus and plays very important roles in reproduction and sexual pleasure. Due to the fact that there are very few research studies focusing on the innervation of this region, we decided to investigate the occurrence of MCs in the anterior wall of the vagina. The aim of our research was to identify MCs in the stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium of the human vagina in 20 patients. For the identification of Merkel cells by light microscopy, we used antibodies against simple-epithelial cytokeratins (especially anti-cytokeratin 20). We also tried to identify them using transmission electron microscopy. Our investigation confirmed that 10 (50 %) of 20 patients had increased number of predominantly intraepithelial CK20 positive "Merkel-like" cells (MLCs) in the human vaginal epithelium. Subepithelial CK20 positive MLCs were observed in only one patient (5%). We tried to identify them also using transmission electron microscopy. Our investigation detected some unique cells that may be MCs. The purpose of vaginal innervation is still unclear. There are no data available concerning the distribution of MCs in the human vagina, so it would be interesting to study the role of MCs in the vaginal epithelium, in the context of innervation and epithelial biology.

  1. Harnessing ant defence at fruits reduces bruchid seed predation in a symbiotic ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G

    2014-06-22

    In horizontally transmitted mutualisms, mutualists disperse separately and reassemble in each generation with partners genetically unrelated to those in the previous generation. Because of this, there should be no selection on either partner to enhance the other's reproductive output directly. In symbiotic ant-plant mutualisms, myrmecophytic plants host defensive ant colonies, and ants defend the plants from herbivores. Plants and ants disperse separately, and, although ant defence can indirectly increase plant reproduction by reducing folivory, it is unclear whether ants can also directly increase plant reproduction by defending seeds. The neotropical tree Cordia alliodora hosts colonies of Azteca pittieri ants. The trees produce domatia where ants nest at stem nodes and also at the node between the peduncle and the rachides of the infloresence. Unlike the stem domatia, these reproductive domatia senesce after the tree fruits each year. In this study, I show that the tree's resident ant colony moves into these ephemeral reproductive domatia, where they tend honeydew-producing scale insects and patrol the nearby developing fruits. The presence of ants significantly reduced pre-dispersal seed predation by Amblycerus bruchid beetles, thereby directly increasing plant reproductive output.

  2. Collective search by ants in microgravity

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    Stefanie M. Countryman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of collective search is a tradeoff between searching thoroughly and covering as much area as possible. This tradeoff depends on the density of searchers. Solutions to the problem of collective search are currently of much interest in robotics and in the study of distributed algorithms, for example to design ways that without central control robots can use local information to perform search and rescue operations. Ant colonies operate without central control. Because they can perceive only local, mostly chemical and tactile cues, they must search collectively to find resources and to monitor the colony's environment. Examining how ants in diverse environments solve the problem of collective search can elucidate how evolution has led to diverse forms of collective behavior. An experiment on the International Space Station in January 2014 examined how ants (Tetramorium caespitum perform collective search in microgravity. In the ISS experiment, the ants explored a small arena in which a barrier was lowered to increase the area and thus lower ant density. In microgravity, relative to ground controls, ants explored the area less thoroughly and took more convoluted paths. It appears that the difficulty of holding on to the surface interfered with the ants’ ability to search collectively. Ants frequently lost contact with the surface, but showed a remarkable ability to regain contact with the surface.

  3. Ant-lepidopteran associations along African forest edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Azémar, Frédéric; Libert, Michel; Compin, Arthur; Hérault, Bruno; Orivel, Jérôme; Bouyer, Thierry; Corbara, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Working along forest edges, we aimed to determine how some caterpillars can co-exist with territorially dominant arboreal ants (TDAAs) in tropical Africa. We recorded caterpillars from 22 lepidopteran species living in the presence of five TDAA species. Among the defoliator and/or nectarivorous caterpillars that live on tree foliage, the Pyralidae and Nymphalidae use their silk to protect themselves from ant attacks. The Notodontidae and lycaenid Polyommatinae and Theclinae live in direct contact with ants; the Theclinae even reward ants with abundant secretions from their Newcomer gland. Lichen feeders (lycaenid; Poritiinae), protected by long bristles, also live among ants. Some lycaenid Miletinae caterpillars feed on ant-attended membracids, including in the shelters where the ants attend them; Lachnocnema caterpillars use their forelegs to obtain trophallaxis from their host ants. Caterpillars from other species live inside weaver ant nests. Those of the genus Euliphyra (Miletinae) feed on ant prey and brood and can obtain trophallaxis, while those from an Eberidae species only prey on host ant eggs. Eublemma albifascia (Erebidae) caterpillars use their thoracic legs to obtain trophallaxis and trophic eggs from ants. Through transfer bioassays of last instars, we noted that herbivorous caterpillars living in contact with ants were always accepted by alien conspecific ants; this is likely due to an intrinsic appeasing odor. Yet, caterpillars living in ant shelters or ant nests probably acquire cues from their host colonies because they were considered aliens and killed. We conclude that co-evolution with ants occurred similarly in the Heterocera and Rhopalocera.

  4. [Abnormal bacterial colonisation of the vagina and implantation during assisted reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittemer, C; Bettahar-Lebugle, K; Ohl, J; Rongières, C; Viville, S; Nisand, I

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of our treatment of vaginal infection for couples included in an IVF program. Microbiologic screening of vaginal flora and semen has been performed one month prior to in vitro fertilization for 951 couples in 2000. Antibiotic treatment was prescribed in case of positive culture. Positive microbial growths were observed from endocervical and vaginal cultures in 218 women (22.9%). The clinical pregnancy rate was 30.29% in the group of patients without growth and 30.27% in the group with positive microbial growth. The implantation rate was significantly diminished in case of bacterial growth: 14.6 compared to 19.3% (P bacterial species were found at the cervical level: Candida albicans (69 cases), Ureaplasma urealyticum (49 cases), Gardnerella vaginalis (43 cases), Streptococcus B or D (24 cases) and Escherichia coli (22 cases). Positive cultures from both vagina and semen were observed for 77 couples whose clinical pregnancy rate was 19.5 vs 36.2% in case of vaginal infection alone (P <0.01) with a spontaneous miscarriage rate of 46.7 compared to 17.6% (P <0.01). Endocervical microorganisms, even treated with adapted antibiotics, may affect embryonic implantation. Positive culture from both female and male partner may enhance this negative effect. In this case, the best strategy would be to cancel the IVF treatment.

  5. Recurrent paediatric pinworm infection of the vagina as a potential reservoir for Enterobius vermicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, B; Samantray, J C; Kumar, S; Jhamb, R; Singh, A K; Kaur, I R

    2014-09-01

    Enterobius vermicularis infection remains one of the most common parasitic infections, particularly prevalent in children. Enterobiasis, although not usually dangerous, may cause significant morbidity. Elimination of the parasite from a family or an institution often poses problems, either because of an incomplete cure or re-infection. While there have been limited reports of ectopic enterobiasis throughout the world, ours is probably one of the rarest reports of recurrent vaginal E. vermicularis infection in the absence of any gastrointestinal symptoms despite complete treatment. A 4-year-old girl presented with recurrent episodes of vulval itching on 3-4 occasions over 2 years. There was no pruritis ani nor urinary/gastrointestinal complaints. The vulva was inflamed with 4-5 living worms, 6-7 mm in length, emerging from the anterior vaginal fornix, but with no vaginal discharge. Direct microscopic examination of vaginal swabs revealed adult worms of Enterobius but no eggs. Repeated stool samples from the patient, parents and a sibling were negative. The patient was treated orally with 100 mg of mebendazole for 3 days followed by two more courses at 3-week intervals over a period of 3 months. Recurrent vaginal enterobiasis despite complete treatment and in the absence of any gastrointestinal involvement suggests that the vagina is a potential reservoir for E. vermicularis, which supports the theory of rare ectopic enterobiasis through the ascending pathway of the female genital tract.

  6. Nevoid melanoma of the vagina: report of one case diagnosed on thin layer cytological preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascierto Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary melanoma of the vagina is an extremely rare neoplasm with approximately 250 reported cases in the world literature 1234. In its amelanotic variant this lesion may raise several differential diagnostic problems in cytological specimens 5. In this setting, the usage of thin layer cytopathological techniques (Liquid Based Preparations = LBP may enhance the diagnostic sensitivity by permitting immunocytochemical study without having to repeat the sampling procedure. The aim of this paper is to describe the cytomorphological presentation of primary vaginal melanoma on LBP since it has not previously been reported up to now, to our knowledge. Case presentation a 79-y-o female complaining of vulvar itching and yellowish vaginal discharge underwent a complete gynaecological evaluation during which a LBP cytological sample was taken from a suspicious whitish mass protruding into the vaginal lumen. A cytopathological diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma was rendered. The mass was radically excised and the patient was treated with α-Interferon. Conclusion amelanotic melanoma may be successfully diagnosed on LBP cytological preparations. Thin layer preparations may enhance the diagnostic cytomorphological clues to its diagnosis and may permit an adequate immunocytochemical characterization of the neoplasm.

  7. Nevoid melanoma of the vagina: report of one case diagnosed on thin layer cytological preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulciniti, Franco; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Simeone, Ester; Bove, Patrizia; Losito, Simona; Russo, Serena; Gallo, Maria Stella; Greggi, Stefano

    2007-07-03

    Primary melanoma of the vagina is an extremely rare neoplasm with approximately 250 reported cases in the world literature 1234. In its amelanotic variant this lesion may raise several differential diagnostic problems in cytological specimens 5. In this setting, the usage of thin layer cytopathological techniques (Liquid Based Preparations = LBP) may enhance the diagnostic sensitivity by permitting immunocytochemical study without having to repeat the sampling procedure. The aim of this paper is to describe the cytomorphological presentation of primary vaginal melanoma on LBP since it has not previously been reported up to now, to our knowledge. a 79-y-o female complaining of vulvar itching and yellowish vaginal discharge underwent a complete gynaecological evaluation during which a LBP cytological sample was taken from a suspicious whitish mass protruding into the vaginal lumen. A cytopathological diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma was rendered. The mass was radically excised and the patient was treated with alpha-Interferon. amelanotic melanoma may be successfully diagnosed on LBP cytological preparations. Thin layer preparations may enhance the diagnostic cytomorphological clues to its diagnosis and may permit an adequate immunocytochemical characterization of the neoplasm.

  8. Paraganglioma of the vagina: a case report and review of the literature

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    Cai T

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tao Cai,1 Yucong Li,2 Qingming Jiang,3 Dong Wang,2 Yu Huang2 1Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 2Department of Gynecologic Oncology, 3Department of Pathology, Chongqing Cancer Research Institute, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Vaginal paraganglioma is a rare and unusual tumor occurring in the vaginal wall. It is a solitary primary paraganglioma, especially in atypical sites. Herein, we report an unusual case of a 17-year-old woman who had not experienced vomiting, or hypertension. She was found to have an immobile solid mass in the right side of her vaginal wall. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans revealed a well-defined solid ovoid mass adjacent to the bladder and pelvic floor. Tumor markers were within the normal range. A transient blood pressure increase occurred during the biopsy. After oral administration of antihypertensive drugs, surgery was performed to completely remove the mass. Histopathological examination indicated that it was a paraganglioma of the vagina. Repeat computed tomography examination did not reveal any local recurrence or distant metastasis during the 12-month follow-up period. Keywords: vaginal paraganglioma, neuroendocrine tumor, clinical features, treatment

  9. Pemphigus vulgaris localized to the vagina presenting as chronic vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta, K; Munday, P E; Tatnall, F M

    1999-05-01

    Involvement in pemphigus vulgaris of the female genital tract including the vulva, vagina and cervix has previously been described. In all these cases other cutaneous and mucosal sites have also been affected at some time. We describe a case of pemphigus vulgaris which only involved the vaginal mucosa. The patient presented with a persistent vaginal discharge and examination showed extensive vaginal erosions. Histology of vaginal biopsies was non-diagnostic. The recognition that the vaginal changes may represent an immunobullous disease led to further vaginal biopsies on which direct immunofluorescence studies were performed. These biopsies showed IgG and C3 in the intercellular epidermis, suggesting a diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris. During the 3-year period that the patient has been under review there have never been any other cutaneous or mucosal lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first case of pemphigus vulgaris localized exclusively to the vaginal mucosa. There was considerable delay in diagnosis and this case highlights how important it is to recognize that chronic mucosal lesions at genital sites may be caused by immunobullous diseases such as cicatricial pemphigoid and pemphigus, and to institute appropriate investigations.

  10. Aerobic bacteria occurring in the vagina of bitches with reproductive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjurström, L

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective survey was performed of aerobic bacterial species found in the vagina of 203 bitches with genital disorders, e.g. infertility, vaginitis, pyometra and puppy death. Escherichia coli, beta-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus intermedius and Pasteurella multocida were the species most often isolated. From bitches with pyometra E. coli in pure culture was the most frequent isolate. In contrast, the majority of infertile bitches gave rise to mixed cultures, and no specific bacterial species was consistently associated with infertility. Thus, bacterial sampling from infertile bitches was concluded to be of low diagnostic value. Bacterial species isolated from the bitches having vaginitis were present in pure culture in 26.9% of the samples while nonspecific mixed cultures were obtained from 34.6% of the samples from these bitches. E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacterial species from bitches with dead puppies. However, in such cases it is important to relate the vaginal bacterial findings to autopsy findings and the results of bacteriological cultures of the pups.

  11. The result of surgical interventions in women with recurrent prolapse of the vagina posterior segment

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    R. M. Banakhevich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. 44 women with recurrent genital prolapse of the posterior segment of the vagina were examined and treated. Results of different types of synthetic implants were evaluated. Methods and results. 26 patients underwent transvaginal mesh with implant. In 18 patients implant Prolift posterior™ was used. The paper presents the features of the application and possible complications of the use of synthetic implants to correct the fascial defects of the posterior vaginal wall. Intraoperative bleeding after Prolift posterior™ installing were observed in 5.6 % of patients, that was lower than in the control group –7,7% (p<0,05. Extensive subcutaneous hematoma was observed in 88,7% of patients after installation of the Prolift posterior™, in the comparison group – in 15,4% of patients. Wounding anterior rectal wall was observed only in 1 (5,6% case when Prolift posterior™was installed. Conclusion. The analysis of the causes of postoperative complications and their prevention methods proposed. Recurrence after surgery with the use of synthetic materials in the operated segment was not observed.

  12. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of human uterine cervix: exploring the utility of vagina as an internal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Rubina; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Chopra, Supriya; Maheshwari, Amita; Kedar K., Deodhar; Bharat, Rekhi; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-08-01

    In vivo Raman spectroscopy is being projected as a new, noninvasive method for cervical cancer diagnosis. In most of the reported studies, normal areas in the cancerous cervix were used as control. However, in the Indian subcontinent, the majority of cervical cancers are detected at advanced stages, leaving no normal sites for acquiring control spectra. Moreover, vagina and ectocervix are reported to have similar biochemical composition. Thus, in the present study, we have evaluated the feasibility of classifying normal and cancerous conditions in the Indian population and we have also explored the utility of the vagina as an internal control. A total of 228 normal and 181 tumor in vivo Raman spectra were acquired from 93 subjects under clinical supervision. The spectral features in normal conditions suggest the presence of collagen, while DNA and noncollagenous proteins were abundant in tumors. Principal-component linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA) yielded 97% classification efficiency between normal and tumor groups. An analysis of a normal cervix and vaginal controls of cancerous and noncancerous subjects suggests similar spectral features between these groups. PC-LDA of tumor, normal cervix, and vaginal controls further support the utility of the vagina as an internal control. Overall, findings of the study corroborate with earlier studies and facilitate objective, noninvasive, and rapid Raman spectroscopic-based screening/diagnosis of cervical cancers.

  13. Delivery of double singleton pregnancies in a woman with a double uterus, double cervix, and complete septate vagina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jie Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Uterine anomalies involving a double uterus, double cervix, also known as didelphys uterus, and complete septate vagina are rarely seen and have an associated fertility problem. However, artificial reproductive technology with embryo transfers can help solve this fertility challenge. Conception in the uterus in just one side is commonly seen for embryos, which are always transferred through the usually used (dilated vagina. We here present a patient with the above uterine anomaly who conceived with the aid of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer to both uterine cavities under general anesthesia, which resulted in successful double singleton pregnancies with one fetus in each uterus. With intensive prenatal care, the pregnancy course for each fetus was rather uneventful. Although both fetuses were in cephalic presentation, cesarean section was performed at the 39th week of gestation with good outcomes in order to preclude anticipated difficulties if the baby had been delivered through the rarely dilated vagina. However, order of birth between the two fetuses was a crucial decision during the operation.

  14. Phase II trial of cisplatin in advanced or recurrent cancer of the vagina: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, J T; Blessing, J A; Homesley, H D; Berek, J S; Creasman, W T

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-six patients with advanced or recurrent cancer of the vagina no longer amenable to control with surgery and/or radiotherapy were entered into a phase II study of cisplatin 50 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks. Two were deemed ineligible because of a primary site of origin other than vagina. Two were deemed inevaluable, one because of the lack of measurable disease and the other because she never received drug. The remaining 22 included a variety of histologies (16 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 adenosquamous carcinomas, 1 clear cell carcinoma, 1 leiomyosarcoma, and 2 carcinomas not otherwise specified). One complete responder was observed among the 16 patients with squamous cell carcinoma. Adverse effects were tolerable and were essentially those reported in other series. These results suggest that cisplatin has insignificant activity in advanced or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina at least at the dose and schedule tested. No comment can be made regarding the activity of cisplatin in other histologies.

  15. [Co-occurence of indol-producing bacterial strains in the vagina of women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanik, Małgorzata; Martirosian, Gayane; Wojciechowska-Wieja, Anna; Cieślik, Katarzyna; Kaźmierczak, Wojciech

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if cervicitis, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), has an influence on the frequency of occurrence of selected aerobic and anaerobic bacterial strains, connected with etiology of aerobic vaginitis (AV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Indole-producing bacteria have received particular attention due to their possibly inductive role in chronic cervicitis caused by C. trachomatis. The swabs from vagina and cervical canal have been obtained from 122 women (aged 18-40). The presence of C. trachomatis antigen had been detected and diagnosed with the help of direct immunofluorescence, BV with Amesl and Nugent criteria, whereas the AV with Donders criteria. The identification of the bacterial strains isolated from vagina has been performed according to classical microbiological diagnostics. Disruption of vaginal microflora (4-10 in Nugent score) was determined in 11,5% of observed women. AV was diagnosed in 4.5% women with chlamydial cervicitis, BV was diagnosed in 10.9% and 5.45% of these women, on the basis of Amsel and Nugent criteria respectively. Indole-producing bacterial strains connected with BV and AV (Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Propionibacterium acnes, Escherichia coli) have been isolated significantly more often from vagina of women infected with C trachomatis (p = 0.0405, chi2 = 4.20) and these findings confirm co-importance of indole-producing bacterial strains in cervicitis caused by C trachomatis .

  16. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. High post-partum levels of corticosterone given to dams influence postnatal hippocampal cell proliferation and behavior of offspring: A model of post-partum stress and possible depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelte, Susanne; Pawluski, Jodi L; Galea, Liisa A M

    2006-09-01

    Post-partum stress and depression (PPD) have a significant effect on child development and behavior. Depression is associated with hypercortisolism in humans, and the fluctuating levels of hormones, including corticosterone, during pregnancy and the post-partum, may contribute to PPD. The present study was developed to investigate the effects of high-level corticosterone (CORT) post-partum in the mother on postnatal neurogenesis and behavior in the offspring. Sprague-Dawley dams were treated with either CORT (40 mg/kg) or sesame oil injections daily for 26 days beginning the day after giving birth. Dams were tested in the forced swim test (FST) and in the open field test (OFT) on days 24-26 post-partum. Results showed that the dams exposed to CORT expressed "depressive-like" behavior compared to controls, with decreased struggling behavior and increased immobility in the FST. To investigate the effects of treatment on hippocampal postnatal cell proliferation and survival in the offspring, males and females from treated dams were injected with BrdU (50 mg/kg) on postnatal day 21 and perfused either 24 h (cell proliferation) or 21 days (cell survival) later. Furthermore, male and female offspring from each litter were tested in adulthood on various behavioral tests, including the forced swim test, open field test, resistance to capture test and elevated plus maze. Intriguingly, male, but not female, offspring of CORT-treated dams exhibited decreased postnatal cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. Both male and female offspring of CORT-treated dams showed higher resistance to capture and greater locomotor activity as assessed in the open field test. As high levels of CORT may be a characteristic of stress and/or depression, these findings support a model of 'CORT-induced' post-partum stress and possibly depression and demonstrate that the offspring of affected dams can exhibit changes in postnatal neurogenesis and behavior in adulthood.

  18. Predictors of depressive symptoms in older Japanese primiparas at 1 month post-partum: A risk-stratified analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroko; Mori, Emi; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Sakajo, Akiko; Maehara, Kunie; Ozawa, Harumi; Morita, Akiko; Maekawa, Tomoko; Aoki, Kyoko; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Older maternal age has become more common in Japan. Studies suggest that older maternal age and primiparity are associated with post-partum depression. The present study aimed to identify predictors of post-partum depression in older Japanese primiparas at 1 month post-partum. Participants were 479 primiparas aged 35 years and over, drawn from a prospective cohort study. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires. Depression was measured with the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was conducted on binary outcome variables of depression at 1 month post-partum, along with a stratified analysis based on the risk status of depression. Five predictors were identified: (i) the depression score during hospital stay; (ii) financial burden; (iii) dissatisfaction with appraisal support; (iv) physical burden in daily life; and (v) concerns about infant caretaking. Stratified analysis identified dissatisfaction with instrumental support in the low-risk group, and the Child-care Value Scale score as unique predictors in the high-risk group. These results highlight the importance of early assessment of depressive symptoms and the provision of continuous care. © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  19. Which mothers receive a post partum home visit in Queensland, Australia? A cross-sectional retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Wendy; Miller, Yvette

    2015-06-01

    Although home visiting in the early post partum period appears to have increased, there are limited data defining which women receive a visit and none that include Queensland. We aimed to investigate patterns of post partum home visiting in the public and private sectors in Queensland. Data were collected via a retrospective cross-sectional survey of women birthing in Queensland between 1 February and 31 May 2010 at 4 months post partum (n = 6948). Logistic regression was used to assess associations between receiving a home visit and sociodemographic, clinical and hospital variables. Analyses were stratified by public and private birthing sector because of significant differences between sectors. Public sector women were more likely to receive a visit from a nurse or midwife (from the hospital or child health sector) within 10 days of hospital discharge (67.2%) than private sector women (7.2%). Length of hospital stay was associated with home visiting in both sectors. Some vulnerable subpopulations in both sectors were more likely to be visited, whereas others were not. Home visiting in Queensland varies markedly between the public and private sector and is less common in some vulnerable populations. Further consideration to improving the equity of community post partum care in Queensland is needed.

  20. Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the vagina. Diagnosis and multimodal treatment of a rare tumor and analysis of worldwide experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Iris; Jacobs, Volker R.; Bogner, Gerhard; Staudach, Alfons; Koch, Horst; Wolfrum-Ristau, Pia; Schausberger, Christiane; Fischer, Thorsten [Paracelsus Medical University (PMU), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/GYN), Salzburg (Austria); Kametriser, Gerhard; Sedlmayer, Felix [Paracelsus Medical University (PMU), Department of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2016-09-15

    Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the vagina is an extremely rare tumor of the female genital tract, with only a few cases reported so far worldwide. Consequently, there is no established standard treatment and limited knowledge about the prognosis and biologic behavior of vaginal mesonephric adenocarcinoma. This report documents a new case of vaginal mesonephric adenocarcinoma diagnosed in a 54-year-old woman, and analyzes this in the context of all previously published cases. MRI demonstrated that the 2.5 x 1.8 cm tumor of the vaginal wall was invading urethra and bladder. Following surgical excision, histologic analysis determined mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the vagina, stage pT2 R1. In order to avoid the mutilating extended surgery which would be required to reach R0 and considerable impairment of quality of life, adjuvant radiochemotherapy was administered with external radiation and brachytherapy, including 5 cycles of cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) for radiosensitization. After 4 years of continuous oncologic follow-up, the patient is alive and clinically free of disease. In this case it was shown that adjuvant radiochemotherapy with radiation and brachytherapy was effective to manage the surgical R1 situation and maintain the patient's life quality. More published cases reports are needed to gradually substantiate optimal treatment strategies. (orig.) [German] Das mesonephrische Adenokarzinom der Vagina ist ein aeusserst seltener Tumor des weiblichen Genitaltrakts. In der internationalen Literatur finden sich nur wenig gut dokumentierte Faelle. Das biologische Verhaltensmuster dieses Tumors und dessen Prognose sind weitgehend unbekannt. In diesem Bericht wird ein neuer Fall einer 54-jaehrigen Frau mit einem mesonephrischen Adenokarzinom der Vagina vorgestellt und unter Beruecksichtigung aller bisher publizierten Faelle analysiert. Bei dem 2,5 x 1,8 cm grossen Tumor der Vaginalwand zeigte sich in der Magnetresonanztomographie eine Infiltration der Urethra und

  1. What do myrmecophagous geckos eat when ants are not available ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like other Pristurus species, P. samhaensis on Samha and P. sokotranus on Socotra were highly myrmecophagous (76.7% and 38.6% ants, respectively). However, ants were absent from the diet of P. samhaensis on Darsa. In contrast to the rich native ant fauna of the other islands, only one ant species was reported for ...

  2. Ants as tools in sustainable agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    1. With an expanding human population placing increasing pressure on the environment, agriculture needs sustainable production that can match conventional methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) is more sustainable, but not necessarily as efficient as conventional non-sustainable measures. 2...... in multiple crops. Their efficiency is comparable to chemical pesticides or higher, while at lower costs. They provide a rare example of documented efficient conservation biological control. 3. Weaver ants share beneficial traits with almost 13 000 other ant species and are unlikely to be unique...... of agricultural systems, this review emphasizes the potential of managing ants to achieve sustainable pest management solutions. The synthesis suggests future directions and may catalyse a research agenda on the utilization of ants, not only against arthropod pests, but also against weeds and plant diseases...

  3. Kunstikriitik Ants Juske sai doktoriks / Neeme Korv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korv, Neeme, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    Tartu Kõrgema Kunstikooli rektor Ants Juske kaitses 7. veebruaril Tallinnas Kunstiakadeemias edukalt doktoriväitekirja, juhendajaks oli professor Boris Bernštein ning oponeerisid doktor Altti Kuusamo Soomest ja professor Peeter Tulviste

  4. Fungal enzymes in the attine ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    the more basal attine genera use substrates such as flowers, plant debris, small twigs, insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide...... or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Fungal enzymes that degrade plant cell walls may have functionally co-evolved with the ants in this scenario. We explore this hypothesis with direct measurements of enzyme activity in fungus gardens in 12 species across 8 genera spanning the entire phylogeny...... and diversity of life-styles within the attine clade. We find significant differences in enzyme activity between different genera and life-styles of the ants. How these findings relate to attine ant coevolution and crop optimization are discussed....

  5. [Maternal care after vaginal delivery and management of complications in immediate post-partum--Guidelines for clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E-G; Laffon, M

    2015-12-01

    To provide recommendations on maternal care after vaginal delivery, and management of complications in immediate post-partum period. Bibliographic research from the Pubmed database and recommendations issued by the main scientific societies, and assignment of a level of evidence and a recommendation grade. After a vaginal delivery, monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate, bleeding, uterine involution, genital pain, urination, temperature, transit and signs of phlebitis is recommended (professional consensus). Post-partum Anemia is defined by a hemoglobinpost-partum hypertension or de novo preeclampsia, the prescription rules for antihypertensive treatments and magnesium sulfate are the same as in prenatal period (professional consensus). Oral NSAIDs are effective for perineal pain and uterine involution (EL2). In case of broken down perineal wounds following childbirth, there is no argument in favor of suturing or not suturing, however the suturing is to be preferred for large dehisced perineal wounds (professional consensus). Infection of perineal scar justifies an oral broad-spectrum antibiotics, in addition to local nursing (professional consensus). In case of obstetric anal sphincter injuries, an antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended (grade B). Hygiene advice should be given to all women who had an episiotomy or a perineal tear (professional consensus). The only etiological treatment of post-dural puncture headache is the blood patch (EL2). It must not be carried out before 48 hours (professional consensus). Thromboembolic risk after a vaginal birth is about 1‰ (EL2). The prescription of thromboprophylaxis with LMWH and graduated compression stockings should be based on risk factors (professional consensus). During the immediate post-partum period, complications may be unrecognized or confused with the natural post-partum evolution, which implies a strong vigilance from practitioners. This vigilance is all the more necessary that the maternal residence

  6. Maternal educational level and the risk of persistent post-partum glucose metabolism disorders in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gante, Inês; Ferreira, Ana Carina; Pestana, Gonçalo; Pires, Daniela; Amaral, Njila; Dores, Jorge; do Céu Almeida, Maria; Sandoval, José Luis

    2018-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) occurs in 5-15% of pregnancies, and lower maternal educational attainment has been associated with higher risk of GDM. We aimed to determine if maternal education level is associated with persistent post-partum glucose metabolism disorders in women with GDM. Retrospective cohort study of women with GDM followed in 25 Portuguese health institutions between 2008 and 2012. Educational attainment was categorised into four levels. Prevalence of post-partum glucose metabolism disorders (type 2 diabetes mellitus, increased fasting plasma glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) was compared and adjusted odds ratios calculated controlling for confounders using logistic regression. We included 4490 women diagnosed with GDM. Educational level ranged as follows: 6.8% (n = 307) were at level 1 (≤ 6th grade), 34.6% (n = 1554) at level 2 (6-9th grade), 30.4% (n = 1364) at level 3 (10-12th grade) and 28.2% (n = 1265) at level 4 (≥ university degree). At 6 weeks post-partum re-evaluation, 10.9% (n = 491) had persistent glucose metabolism disorders. Educational levels 1 and 2 had a higher probability of persistent post-partum glucose metabolism disorders when compared to level 4 (OR = 2.37 [1.69;3.32], p women with GDM and associated with lower maternal educational level. Interventions aimed at this risk group may contribute towards a decrease in prevalence of post-partum glucose metabolism disorders.

  7. "We have been working overnight without sleeping": traditional birth attendants' practices and perceptions of post-partum care services in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiti, Gladys R; Kiwara, Angwara D; Mbekenga, Columba K; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2015-02-03

    In many low-income countries, formal post-partum care utilization is much lower than that of skilled delivery and antenatal care. While Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) might play a role in post-partum care, research exploring their attitudes and practices during this period is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore TBAs' practices and perceptions in post-partum care in rural Tanzania. Qualitative in-depth interview data were collected from eight untrained and three trained TBAs. Additionally, five multiparous women who were clients of untrained TBAs were also interviewed. Interviews were conducted in February 2013. Data were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze data. Our study found that TBAs take care of women during post-partum with rituals appreciated by women. They report lacking formal post-partum care training, which makes them ill-equipped to detect and handle post-partum complications. Despite their lack of preparation, they try to provide care for some post-partum complications which could put the health of the woman at risk. TBAs perceive that utilization of hospital-based post-partum services among women was only important for the baby and for managing complications which they cannot handle. They are poorly linked with the health system. This study found that the TBAs conducted close follow-ups and some of their practices were appreciated by women. However, the fact that they were trying to manage certain post-partum complications can put women at risk. These findings point out the need to enhance the communication between TBAs and the formal health system and to increase the quality of the TBA services, especially in terms of prompt referral, through provision of training, mentoring, monitoring and supervision of the TBA services.

  8. Exotic ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Ohio

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov,Kal

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide transfer of plants and animals outside their native ranges is an ever increasing problem for global biodiversity. Ants are no exception and many species have been transported to new locations often with profound negative impacts on local biota. The current study is based on data gathered since the publication of the “Ants of Ohio” in 2005. Here I expand on our knowledge of Ohio’s myrmecofauna by contributing new records, new distributional information and natural history notes. ...

  9. Improving Emergency Management by Modeling Ant Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    perform functions such as nursing the brood or maintaining the nest. The more mature workers will begin to travel outside the nest to perform foraging...small sized ants predominantly act in functional roles such as nurses or transport services within the nest. The larger sizes predominantly function...stages: the founding stage, the ergonomic stage, and the reproductive stage. The founding stage is marked by a queen ant successful mating and laying

  10. Extrafloral nectar fuels ant life in deserts

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda-Rickert, Adriana; Diez, Patricia; Marazzi, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Interactions mediated by extrafloral nectary (EFN)-bearing plants that reward ants with a sweet liquid secretion are well documented in temperate and tropical habitats. However, their distribution and abundance in deserts are poorly known. In this study, we test the predictions that biotic interactions between EFN plants and ants are abundant and common also in arid communities and that EFNs are only functional when new vegetative and reproductive structures are developing. In a seasonal dese...

  11. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A.

    2013-01-01

    guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit......The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated...... parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few...

  12. Toxic industrial deposit remediation by ant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilkova, Veronika; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Toxic industrial deposits are often contaminated by heavy metals and the substrates have low pH values. In such systems, soil development is thus slowed down by high toxicity and acidic conditions which are unfavourable to soil fauna. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) are considered tolerant to heavy metal pollution and are known to increase organic matter content and microbial activity in their nests. Here, we focused on soil remediation caused by three ant species (Formica sanguinea, Lasius niger, and Tetramorium sp.) in an ore-washery sedimentation basin near Chvaletice (Czech Republic). Soil samples were taken from the centre of ant nests and from the nest surroundings (>3 m from nests). Samples were then analyzed for microbial activity and biomass and contents of organic matter and nutrients. As a result, ant species that most influenced soil properties was F. sanguinea as there were higher microbial activity and total nitrogen and ammonia contents in ant nests than in the surrounding soil. We expected such a result because F. sanguinea builds conspicuous large nests and is a carnivorous species that brings substantial amounts of nitrogen in insect prey to their nests. Effects of the other two ant species might be lower because of smaller nests and different feeding habits as they rely mainly on honeydew from aphids or on plant seeds that do not contain much nutrients.

  13. Congestion and communication in confined ant traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Gold, Gregory; Zangwill, Andrew; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2014-03-01

    Many social animals move and communicate within confined spaces. In subterranean fire ants Solenopsis invicta, mobility within crowded nest tunnels is important for resource and information transport. Within confined tunnels, communication and traffic flow are at odds: trafficking ants communicate through tactile interactions while stopped, yet ants that stop to communicate impose physical obstacles on the traffic. We monitor the bi-directional flow of fire ant workers in laboratory tunnels of varied diameter D. The persistence time of communicating ant aggregations, τ, increases approximately linearly with the number of participating ants, n. The sensitivity of traffic flow increases as D decreases and diverges at a minimum diameter, Dc. A cellular automata model incorporating minimal traffic features--excluded volume and communication duration--reproduces features of the experiment. From the model we identify a competition between information transfer and the need to maintain jam-free traffic flow. We show that by balancing information transfer and traffic flow demands, an optimum group strategy exists which maximizes information throughput. We acknowledge funding from NSF PoLS #0957659 and #PHY-1205878.

  14. Fire ants perpetually rebuild sinking towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonekeo, Sulisay; Mlot, Nathan; Monaenkova, Daria; Hu, David L.; Tovey, Craig

    2017-07-01

    In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load. However, unlike the Eiffel tower, the ant tower is built through a process of trial and error, whereby failed portions avalanche until the final shape emerges. High-speed and novel X-ray videography reveal that the tower constantly sinks and is rebuilt, reminiscent of large multicellular systems such as human skin. We combine the behavioural rules that produce rafts on water with measurements of adhesion and attachment strength to model the rate of growth of the tower. The model correctly predicts that the growth rate decreases as the support diameter increases. This work may inspire the design of synthetic swarms capable of building in vertical layers.

  15. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Holistic Sexology and Acupressure Through the Vagina (Hippocratic Pelvic Massage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many gynecological and sexological problems (like urine incontinence, chronic pelvic pains, vulvodynia, and lack of lust, excitement, and orgasm are resistant to standard medical treatment. In our work at the Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine in Copenhagen, we have found that vaginal acupressure, or Hippocratic pelvic massage, can help some of these problems. Technically, it is a very simple procedure as it corresponds to the explorative phase of the standard pelvic examination, supplemented with the patient's report on the feelings it provokes and the processing and integration of these feelings. Sometimes it can be very difficult to control the emotions released by the technique, i.e., regression to earlier traumas from childhood sexual abuse. This review discusses the theory behind vaginal acupressure, ethical aspects, and presentation of a case story. This procedure helped the patient to become present in her pelvis and to integrate old traumas with painful emotions. Holistic gynecology and sexology can help the patient to identify and let go of negative feelings, beliefs, and attitudes related to sex, gender, sexual organs, body, and soul at large. Shame, guilt, helplessness, fear, disgust, anxiety, anger, hatred, and other strong feelings are almost always an important part of a sexual or functional problem as these feelings are “held” by the tissue of the pelvis and sexual organs. Acupressure through the vagina/pelvic massage must be done with great care by an experienced physician, with a third person present, after obtaining consent and the necessary trust of the patient. It must be followed by conversational therapy and further holistic existential processing.

  16. Case of a woman with acromegaly whose presenting complaint was prolonged post-partum amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tomomi; Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Oride, Aki; Moriyama, Masayuki; Kyo, Satoru

    2016-10-01

    We report a case of a woman who was incidentally diagnosed with acromegaly after referral for prolonged post-partum amenorrhea. A 25-year-old woman, gravida 2 para 1, had a normal transvaginal delivery and breastfeeding had been discontinued more than a year after delivery. Thereafter, spontaneous menstruation did not restart and she underwent hormonal therapy. Subsequently, she was referred to our university hospital for prolonged amenorrhea. Hormonal examination revealed severe hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (luteinizing hormone 0.5 mIU/mL, follicle-stimulating hormone amenorrhea, which revealed mass lesions extending from the pituitary fossa to the suprasellar area with similar signal intensity as the gray matter. In addition, bitemporal hemianopsia was observed on campimetry. After further examination, the patient was diagnosed with acromegaly. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Becoming a parent: a model of parents' post-partum experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine de Montigny

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Perceiving oneself as parent is a key challenge during the transition to parenthood. The importance of health professionals in determining perceived efficacy in parents upon the birth of their child is few explored. The objective of this study is to analayze the relations between the first time parents' perceived efficacy and their perceptions of nurses' help-giving and critical events during post-partum period. SAMPLE AND METHOD: One hundred sixty couples participated in a correlational study by completing questionaires after the birth of their first child. RESULTS: A model of parents' postpartum experience was established where nurses' collaboration and help-giving practices contribute directly and indirectly to the parents' perception of control and perceptions of events. They contribute indirectly to parent's perceived self-efficacy. IMPLICATIONS: The help given by health professionals, especially nurses, to parents following the birth of a child makes a major positive difference in the parents' experiences.

  18. Identifying the support needs of fathers affected by post-partum depression: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, N; Duffett-Leger, L; Dennis, C-L; Stewart, M; Tryphonopoulos, P D

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the experiences, support needs, resources, and barriers to support for fathers whose partners had post-partum depression (PPD) in preparation for a larger study. Qualitative methods and community-based research approaches were used in this exploratory/descriptive multi-site study, conducted in New Brunswick and Alberta. Telephone interviews were conducted with a total of 11 fathers in New Brunswick (n= 7) and Alberta (n= 4). Fathers experienced a number of depressive symptoms including: anxiety, lack of time and energy, irritability, feeling sad or down, changes in appetite, and thoughts of harm to self or baby. The most common barriers for fathers were lack of information regarding PPD resources and difficulty seeking support. This pilot study establishes the feasibility of the larger-scale exploration of fathers' experiences in supporting their spouses affected by PPD. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  19. [Isolated severe neurologic disorders in post-partum: posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, A; Benayoun, L; Yver, C; Bruno, O; Mantz, J

    2007-01-01

    Just after Caesarean section for twin pregnancy and feto-pelvic dysproportion, a woman presented severe headaches and arterial hypertension, then blurred vision, then generalised seizures. There were no oedematous syndrome, proteinuria was negative, ASAT were 1.5 N and platelet count was 120,000/mm(3). Cerebral CT-scan was normal. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) was diagnosed on MRI. A second MRI performed at day 9 showed complete regression of cerebral lesions, while patient was taking anti-hypertensive and antiepileptic drugs. PRES has to be evoked in post-partum central neurological symptoms, even in absence of classical sign of pre-eclampsia, like proteinuria. PRES and eclampsia share probably common physiopathological pathways. There management and prognosis seems identical.

  20. Values of Prostaglandin during Pre and Post-Partum and at parturition in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Khattab

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at Mehallet Mousa Animal production Research station, Animal production Research institute- ministry of agriculture, Egypt. This work was carried out on ten late pregnant buffaloes for studying prostaglandin (PG F2α during pre and post partum periods. Blood samples were collected five days prepartum and one week postpartum. Prostaglandin was determined by Elisa (Enzyme-Limked immunosorbant Assay. The results, showed that the plasma prostaglandin levels on day three, two and one prepartum was higher than on day five prepartum. On The day of delivery (0 day a sudden sharp increase in PGF2& con concentration occurred (180.83±4.23 pg/ml followed by a gradual decrease in the plasma concentration. Of PGF2α on day four, five, six and seven postpartum, small respectively.

  1. Post-partum ovarian activity in adult and first-calf dual purpose cows in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, H.; Gatica, A.; Miranda, J.; Matamoros, R.

    1990-01-01

    Progesterone (P 4 ) levels in skin milk were determined in two groups of dual purpose cows from farms in the Department of Escuintla on the south coast of Guatemala. Fifteen adult cows (crosses of Criollo with Zebu and Brown Swiss) were selected on the first farm and ten first-calf heifers (crosses of Criollo with Zebu and Holstein) on the second; both groups were considered to be representative of dual purpose livestock (milk and meat producers) in the country. To study the resumption of ovarian activity post-partum, milk samples were taken once a week from 10 days after calving until the first natural service; thereafter, sampling continued twice-weekly for 60 more days when the animals were rectally palpated for pregnancy diagnosis. On farm 1, the mean interval from calving to first rise in P 4 levels indicative of ovarian function was 42±16.7 days; all the study cows were at third calving and resumed cyclicity. On farm 2, only 30% of the study heifers resumed cyclicity and these had an interval from calving to first rise in P 4 of 80±28.9 days; all were at first calving. On farm 1, 73% of cows were served during first oestrus, 13% at second oestrus and 13% at the third. On farm 2, only 30% (3/10) of cows were served at first oestrus; the other 70% did not show signs of ovarian activity during the trial period which lasted until day 129 post-partum. Palpation of the cows 60 days post-service showed that all cows had conceived on farm 1 but only 20% on farm 2. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  2. Luteinizing hormone-follicle stimulating hormone ratio as biological predictor of post-partum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran Pillai, R; Sharon, Leena; Premkumar, Nancy R; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sagili, Haritha; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2017-01-01

    Post-partum depression (PPD) is the common adverse outcome of child bearing which affects the wellbeing of both mother and newborn and has long-term effects. Hence, reliable potential biological tests for early detection of PPD are essential. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were associated with depressive disorders and the present study estimated the levels of serum FSH, LH in postpartum depression and explored them as predictive biomarkers in the development of PPD. In this nested case control study done at a tertiary care hospital in South India, 450 postpartum women were screened at 6th week post-delivery for PPD. Socio-demographic and clinical data were recorded and depressive symptoms were assessed using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Out of 450 subjects screened, 100 women with depressive symptoms were categorized as cases and 100 controls were selected from the remaining subjects matching for age and BMI with cases. Serum levels of FSH and LH were measured using direct competitive immunoassay by chemiluminescene technology. Serum LH/FSH ratio was found to be significantly (p=0.02) low in PPD women when compared to normal postpartum subjects. We also found a significant negative correlation between LH/FSH ratio and EPDS scores. Based on the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cut-off value for serum of LH/FSH levels in predicting postpartum depression was estimated to be 0.22mlU/mL with an AUC of 0.598 (95%CI, 0.291-0.859). Our study demonstrated that low LH/FSH ratio after delivery was associated with increased risk for the development of PPD. Low LH/FSH ratio at six-week post delivery can be used as a robust biochemical predictor of post-partum depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Post-partum depression, anxiety and marital satisfaction: A perspective from Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn I. Odinka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have noted the high prevalence of post-partum depression (PPD and anxiety associated with poor marital satisfaction, albeit amidst a dearth of literature on comorbid PPD and anxiety among women in Nigeria. Objective: The study was aimed to assess the prevalence of PPD and anxiety, and to investigate their relationship with marital satisfaction in low-risk women in Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria. Method: A cross-sectional study of 309 randomly selected nursing mothers at two tertiary health institutions. Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Index of Marital Satisfaction (IMS were used to collect data on demography, anxiety and depression and marital relationship respectively. All statistical tests were performed at a significant level of 0.05. Results: The age range of the respondents was 20–46 years; mean and s.d. was 29.65 and ± 4.87, respectively, and most of them were graduates of tertiary educational institutions (74.1%. The prevalence of post-partum anxiety was 31.1% and of PPD was 33.3%. Marital dissatisfaction was observed in 39.5% (122 of the respondents who were mothers. Those with co-morbid depression and anxiety (22.0% had worse marital dissatisfaction. The strongest correlation with depression and anxiety was item 12 of IMS (‘feel that my partner doesn’t confide in me’. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of marital dissatisfaction, PPD and anxiety among nursing mothers in Enugu, but with low detection rate. The effects of PPD and anxiety on the mother, her marital relationship and her infant make them essential conditions for early diagnosis, prevention and treatments.

  4. Metabolic predictors of post-partum disease and culling risk in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Hesam A; Leblanc, Stephen J; Leslie, Ken E; Duffield, Todd F

    2011-05-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to determine the relationship between serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose and calcium (Ca) with the occurrence of displaced abomasum (DA), clinical ketosis and culling in Holstein cows. Eight hundred and forty-nine cows from 16 farms were sampled weekly for the first 3 weeks post-partum. The cows were under clinical observation from calving until 60 days in milk (DIM) and during this time there were 22 cases of DA, 31 cases of clinical ketosis and 39 cows were culled. Elevated concentrations of BHBA were associated with DA, clinical ketosis and culling. In the first week after calving, cows with serum BHBA ≥1000μmol/L had 13.6 times greater odds of developing DA than cows with lower values. Serum NEFA and BHBA concentrations during week 1 were associated with the subsequent occurrence of clinical ketosis. The odds of clinical ketosis were 6.3 times greater in cows with serum NEFA ≥ 1.0mmol/L in the first week after calving. In addition, cows with BHB ≥1200μmol/L in the first week after calving, were at 4.7 times greater risk of developing clinical ketosis. In the first and second weeks after calving the serum Ca concentration was associated with subsequent culling. In addition, cows with NEFA concentration ≥ 1.0mmol/L were 3.6 times more likely to be culled within the following 2 months. The study indicated that early post-partum serum BHBA, NEFA and Ca concentrations have potential as indicators of disease and culling risk in dairy cows. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Falling caesarean section rate and improving intra-partum outcomes: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Pina; Zaher, Summia; Penketh, Richard; Cherian, Sobha; Collis, Rachel E; Sanders, Julia; Bhal, Kiron

    2018-02-19

    To evaluate caesarean section (CS) rates and moderate to severe hypoxaemic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) rates with other core intra-partum outcomes following reconfiguration of maternity services in Cardiff, South Wales, UK. Cohort study of births from 2006 to 2015. A University tertiary referral centre for foetal and maternal medicine with 6000 births/year, University Hospital of Wales, United Kingdom. Data relating to births from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2015 were extracted from the computerized maternity database on a yearly basis. Case notes of all mothers and babies for the same duration were hand searched for documentation of HIE. HIE data was also collected prospectively by neonatologist (SC) and obstetrician (PA). Incidence of caesarean section births, babies with moderate to severe HIE, instrumental vaginal births, obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) associated with instrumental delivery, and major post-partum haemorrhage (MPPH) of 2500 mL or more. During this 10-year period, a downward trend in emergency CS rate was seen from 15.6% in 2006 to 10.5% in 2015, reducing total CS rate from 25.5% in 2006 to 21.2% in 2015. A downward trend in the incidence of moderate and severe HIE was seen over the same period. There was an increase in operative vaginal births (OVB) from 12.8% to 15%. The rate of spontaneous vaginal births (SVB) remained stable. The incidence of OASIS remained constant and MPPH rate has fallen. Following amalgamation of two medium sized obstetric units and the opening of a Midwifery Led Unit (MLU), core intrapartum outcomes have improved. Contributing factors are the introduction of regular multidisciplinary training with enhanced team working, compulsory education for obstetricians and midwives on cardiotocograph (CTG) interpretation, increased consultant presence on delivery suite, robust risk management systems and broad multidisciplinary agreement on clinical guidelines promoting vaginal birth.

  6. Towards 2015: post-partum haemorrhage in sub-Saharan Africa still on the rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpemba, Faraja; Kampo, Sylvanus; Zhang, Xinyu

    2014-03-01

    To review literature from 1996-2012 relating to factors associating with the persistent maternal mortality rate (MMR) caused by post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) in sub-Saharan Africa. One woman dies every seven minutes, at the same time, one-quarter of all maternal death worldwide is being caused by PPH. The aim of United Nations Fifth Millennium Development Goal 5 is to lower MMR by three quarters between 1990-2015. Narrative literature review. Study articles from 1996-2012 were searched in electronic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane, PubMED, Google's scholar and manual searches. Combinations of the following search words were used: post-partum haemorrhage/bleeding, sub-Saharan Africa/rural areas, antenatal/obstetric care/maternal mortality/skilled care at birth/maternity care/health survey. 125 article abstracts were read, and 50 full articles used in this review. Every day about 800 women died due to birth complications in 2010: of the 800 maternal deaths worldwide, 440 occurred in sub-Saharan Africa with PPH being the main cause. Common causes of PPH are related to failure of the healthcare system, inaccurate estimation of blood loss after delivery and lack of skills to prevent and manage PPH. Special attention is needed with emphasis on regular attendance of antenatal clinic, proper information concerning pregnancy and delivery, skills to accurate estimate blood loss, and prevention and management of PPH. PPH is the leading cause of MMR in areas where essential care and skilled health attendants are limited. Basic Emergency Obstetric Care and arrangements for timely referral to the big hospital with facilities must be practiced everywhere. This review may help to remind health workers and the government that maternal mortality due to PPH is still higher and more interventions are needed. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation in pregnancy and in the post-partum period: The health care professionals' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Felix; Hopewell, Sarah; Sinclair, Lesley; McCaughan, Dorothy; McKell, Jennifer; Bauld, Linda

    2018-05-15

    Health care professionals and the health care environment play a central role in protecting pregnant and post-partum women and their infants from smoking-related harms. This study aimed to better understand the health professional's perspective on how interactions between women, health care professionals, and the environment influence how smoking is managed. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Data were from 48 health care staff involved in antenatal or post-partum care at two UK sites, including midwives, obstetricians, health visitors, GPs, pharmacists, service commissioners, and Stop Smoking Service (SSS) advisors and managers. Thematic analysis was guided by a social-ecological framework (SEF). Themes were divided across three SEF levels and represented factors connected to the management of smoking in the health care context and the beliefs and behaviour of pregnant or post-partum smokers. Organizational level: Service reconfigurations, 'last resort' nicotine replacement therapy prescribing policies, and non-mandatory training were largely negative factors. There were mixed views on opt-out referral pathways and positive views on carbon monoxide monitoring. Interpersonal level: Protection of client-professional relationships often inhibited frank discussions about smoking, and weak interservice relationships affected SSS referral motivation and quality. Individual level: Professionals felt community midwives had primary responsibility for managing smoking, although midwives felt underskilled doing this. Midwives' perceived priority for addressing smoking was influenced by the demands from unrelated organizational initiatives. Opportunities to improve clinical support for pregnant smokers exist at organizational, interservice, and health care professional levels. Interactions between levels reflect the importance of simultaneously addressing different level-specific barriers to smoking cessation in pregnancy. Statement of contribution What is already

  8. Early one-stage surgical reconstruction of the extremely high vagina in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoe, P K; Gustafson, M L

    1994-02-01

    High vaginal atresia is a very rare anomaly seen in the most severely masculinized females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. These children have a foreshortened vagina conjoining the urogenital sinus proximal to the external urethral sphincter. In the past, they have undergone early clitoral recession and labioscrotal reduction, followed by vaginal pull-through at 2 to 4 years of age. Cumulative experience with repair of this anomaly has led us to attempt earlier one-stage intervention and to develop techniques that circumvent previously encountered vaginal stenoses. One-stage reconstruction of three older children (ages 2 to 9 years) involved: closure of the urethrovaginal fistula, mobilization of the vagina from the rectum and urethra, use of bilateral buttock flaps to augment the anterior vaginal wall, augmentation of the posterior wall with an inverted perineal U flap, clitoral recession, and advancement of labioscrotal and clitoral shaft flaps inferiorly to create labia majora and minora (respectively). The introiti were quite capacious after employing such flaps, did not require postoperative dilatation, and were free of strictures or urethrovaginal fistulae during long-term follow-up. Three younger patients were seen for initial evaluation at 8 to 12 months of age, when early one-stage reconstruction was undertaken. Paradoxically, these repairs were technically less difficult and did not require buttock flap augmentation because an island of anterior perineal skin could be rotated in to reach the anterior vaginal wall. A nerve stimulator was used to identify the external urethral sphincter, while the vagina was aggressively mobilized and advanced forward beyond the site of fistula closure on the urethra to avert formation of a urethro-vaginal fistula.2 +

  9. Fetal topographical anatomy of the female urethra and descending vagina: a histological study of the early human fetal urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Hiroshi; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Verdugo-López, Samuel; Murakami, Gen; Matsubara, Akio

    2011-12-20

    Which parts of the male urethra correspond to the female urethra? To resolve this question, we need to understand fetal topographical changes in the urethra, its external sphincter and vagina. The vagina joins the mid-course of the primitive urethra and, later "descends" to the vaginal vestibulum. We examined histological sections of 14 female and 4 male mid-term fetuses. The inferior end of the vagina was consistently embedded in the posterior wall of the urethra at 9-12 weeks. The supero-inferior level of the vaginal merging was lower in larger fetuses. Thus, the sequential variation in levels appeared to reflect the process of vaginal descent. However, in spite of penetration of the vaginal end into the posterior urethral wall, we found no sign of destruction of the urethral wall after vaginal descent in the low-merging types. Before vaginal descent, the female external sphincter extended posterolaterally around the urethra. The vaginal descent is classically regarded as a relative topographical change, but it is likely to be a result of elongation of the proximal urethra in the superior side of the vaginal merging. Conversely, the distal urethra is likely to be incorporated into the vaginal vestibulum by 15 weeks. During these processes, most of the female external sphincter seems to be expelled from the original anterior position into the vestibular wall as the urethrovaginal sphincter. The adult female urethra seems to correspond to the male prostatic urethra superior to the prostatic colliculus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The distribution of weaver ant pheromones on host trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The visible anal spots deposited by Oecophylla smaragdina ants have been suggested to deter ant prey, affect interspecific competition and facilitate mutualists and parasites in tracking down Oecophylla ants. I measured the density of anal spots on host trees with and without ants and tested for ...... to leaves. Also there was a positive correlation between spot density and the likelihood of being detected by ants. Anal spots may thus function as reliable cues to interacting species and be an important factor in shaping the community around Oecophylla colonies.......The visible anal spots deposited by Oecophylla smaragdina ants have been suggested to deter ant prey, affect interspecific competition and facilitate mutualists and parasites in tracking down Oecophylla ants. I measured the density of anal spots on host trees with and without ants and tested...... for correlations between spot density, ant activity and the likelihood of being detected by an ant. Spots were only found on trees with ants. On ant-trees, spots were distributed throughout the trees but with higher densities in areas with high ant activity and pheromone densities were higher on twigs compared...

  11. Genital sanguineous discharge in prepuberty: a case of mullerian papilloma of vagina in a nine-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumini, Stefano; Carinci, Silvia; Anzellotti, Maria Teresa; Chiesa, Pier Luigi Lelli; Rossi, Carlo; Stuppia, Liborio; Bertelloni, Silvano; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2010-08-01

    Vaginal bleeding in prepuberty is an alarming symptom that must be carefully investigated. Among quite common causes of genital sanguineous discharge, there are rarer conditions responsible for bleeding at this age like Mullerian papilloma of the genital tract. In this report, we describe a case of Mullerian papilloma of the vagina in a 9-year-old girl. We believe in the importance of a correct clinical setting and histological definition to avoid wrong diagnosis and consequent inadequate treatments. Mullerian papilloma, a benign tumor, can in fact be treated only with local excision.

  12. Vulvovaginectomy and neo-urethrostomy for the treatment of haemangiosarcoma of the vulva and vagina : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Hill

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginectomy and neo-urethrostomy were performed in a 9-year-old German shepherd dog following a diagnosis of infiltrative vulvar and vestibulovaginal haemangiosarcoma. The dog was presented for intermittent vulvar haemorrhage over a 3-month period. On examination the vulva and vestibulovagina were distended and firm. Vaginal discharge and fine needle aspiration cytology detected anaplastic cells. Haemangiosarcoma was diagnosed on biopsy. A new urethral opening was created in the floor of the vagina allowing resection of the vulva and caudal vestibulovagina. Urinary continence was preserved and healing was without complications.

  13. Fuzzy Rules for Ant Based Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new intelligent technique for semisupervised data clustering problem that combines the Ant System (AS algorithm with the fuzzy c-means (FCM clustering algorithm. Our proposed approach, called F-ASClass algorithm, is a distributed algorithm inspired by foraging behavior observed in ant colonyT. The ability of ants to find the shortest path forms the basis of our proposed approach. In the first step, several colonies of cooperating entities, called artificial ants, are used to find shortest paths in a complete graph that we called graph-data. The number of colonies used in F-ASClass is equal to the number of clusters in dataset. Hence, the partition matrix of dataset founded by artificial ants is given in the second step, to the fuzzy c-means technique in order to assign unclassified objects generated in the first step. The proposed approach is tested on artificial and real datasets, and its performance is compared with those of K-means, K-medoid, and FCM algorithms. Experimental section shows that F-ASClass performs better according to the error rate classification, accuracy, and separation index.

  14. Dosimetric evaluation of a combination of brachytherapy applicators for uterine cervix cancer with involvement of the distal vagina; Avaliacao dosimetrica de uma combinacao de aplicadores para braquiterapia de tumores do colo uterino com acometimento da porcao distal da vagina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Roger Guilherme Rodrigues [Real e Benemerita Sociedade Portuguesa de Beneficencia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia Estereotactica; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Stuart, Silvia Radwanski; Rubo, Rodrigo Augusto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail: handrade@hcnet.usp.br; Seraide, Rodrigo Migotto [Centro de Oncologia Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate an alternative brachytherapy technique for uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina, without increasing the risk of toxicity. Materials And Methods: Theoretical study comparing three different high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy applicators: intrauterine tandem and vaginal cylinder (TC); tandem/ring applicator combined with vaginal cylinder (TR+C); and a virtual applicator combining both the tandem/ring and vaginal cylinder in a single device (TRC). Prescribed doses were 7 Gy at point A, and 5 Gy on the surface or at a 5 mm depth of the vaginal mucosa. Doses delivered to the rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon were kept below the tolerance limits. Volumes covered by the isodoses, respectively, 50% (V50), 100% (V100), 150% (V150) and 200% (V200) were compared. Results: Both the combined TR+C and TRC presented a better dose distribution as compared with the TC applicator. The TR+C dose distribution was similar to the TRC dose, with V150 and V200 being about 50% higher for TR+C (within the cylinder). Conclusion: Combined TR+C in a two-time single application may represent an alternative therapy technique for patients affected by uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina. (author)

  15. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Hunter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1 breastfeeding initiation, (2 early post-partum breastfeeding, (3 breastfeeding plan, (4 post-partum breastfeeding support and (5 breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported questionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67 of mothers received helped from their husband or partner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79 of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-partum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations.

  16. Kin-informative recognition cues in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehring, Volker; Evison, Sophie E F; Santorelli, Lorenzo A

    2011-01-01

    behaviour is thought to be rare in one of the classic examples of cooperation--social insect colonies--because the colony-level costs of individual selfishness select against cues that would allow workers to recognize their closest relatives. In accord with this, previous studies of wasps and ants have...... found little or no kin information in recognition cues. Here, we test the hypothesis that social insects do not have kin-informative recognition cues by investigating the recognition cues and relatedness of workers from four colonies of the ant Acromyrmex octospinosus. Contrary to the theoretical...... prediction, we show that the cuticular hydrocarbons of ant workers in all four colonies are informative enough to allow full-sisters to be distinguished from half-sisters with a high accuracy. These results contradict the hypothesis of non-heritable recognition cues and suggest that there is more potential...

  17. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2004-01-01

    quantified and they tend to be similar in related species. Here we compare the mating strategies of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior and its recently derived social parasite Acromyrmex insinuator, which is also its closest relative 2 (see Fig. 1 ). We find that although the host queens mate with up......A parasitic ant has abandoned the multiple mating habit of the queens of its related host. Multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread among animal groups, particularly insects 1 . But the factors that maintain it and underlie its evolution are hard to verify because benefits and costs are not easily...... to a dozen different males, the social parasite mates only singly. This rapid and surprising reversion to single mating in a socially parasitic ant indicates that the costs of polyandry are probably specific to a free-living lifestyle....

  18. The worldwide expansion of the Argentine ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Valerie; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Giraud, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the number of successful establishments of the invasive Argentine ant outside native range and to see whether introduced supercolonies have resulted from single or multiple introductions. We also compared the genetic diversity of native versus introduced...... supercolonies to assess the size of the propagules (i.e. the number of founding individuals) at the origin of the introduced supercolonies. Location Global. Methods We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and microsatellite loci to study 39 supercolonies of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile covering both......) and secondary introductions (from sites with established invasive supercolonies) were important in the global expansion of the Argentine ant. In combination with the similar social organization of colonies in the native and introduced range, this indicates that invasiveness did not evolve recently as a unique...

  19. Desert ants learn vibration and magnetic landmarks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Buehlmann

    Full Text Available The desert ants Cataglyphis navigate not only by path integration but also by using visual and olfactory landmarks to pinpoint the nest entrance. Here we show that Cataglyphis noda can additionally use magnetic and vibrational landmarks as nest-defining cues. The magnetic field may typically provide directional rather than positional information, and vibrational signals so far have been shown to be involved in social behavior. Thus it remains questionable if magnetic and vibration landmarks are usually provided by the ants' habitat as nest-defining cues. However, our results point to the flexibility of the ants' navigational system, which even makes use of cues that are probably most often sensed in a different context.

  20. In first-time mothers, post-partum depressive symptom prospectively predict symptoms of post-traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Golan; Herishanu-Gilutz, Shirley; Holcberg, Gershon; Kofman, Ora

    2015-11-01

    Symptoms of both depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are prevalent among first-time mothers following birth. However, the direction of the association between the two types of symptoms is unclear. Ninety six first-time mothers giving birth via vaginal delivery (N=38), emergency C-Section (N=27) and planned C-Section (N=21) were assessed for depression and PTSD twice: Six weeks post-partum and six-weeks later. Cross-lagged Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analyses revealed a prospective effect of depressive symptoms on PTSD symptoms. No moderating factors were identified. A relatively modest sample size and only two assessment waves. An early detection and intervention with symptoms of post-partum depression might also prevent the development of PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Color vision abnormality as the sole manifestation of posterior reversible encephalopathy due to post-partum HELLP syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hironori; Matsubara, Teppei; Makino, Shinji; Horie, Kenji; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2017-03-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is associated with several symptoms; of those, visual acuity loss, light oversensitivity (photophobia), and light flashes (photopsia) are known as PRES-related eye symptoms. We report a post-partum woman with PRES associated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome (HELLP), in whom color vision abnormality (achromatopsia) was the sole manifestation. Cesarean section was performed at 28 weeks due to headache, epigastralgia, and severe hypertension. HELLP became evident after delivery. On post-partum day 1, she complained of achromatopsia, stating: "all things look brownish-gray". Ophthalmologic examination was normal, but brain magnetic resonance imaging showed occipital lobe lesions, indicative of PRES, and, interestingly, also color vision center (area V4) lesions, suggesting that the achromatopsia had been caused by brain damage. It may be prudent to question HELLP patients concerning achromatopsia. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. A case report of spontaneous rupture of a renal angiomyolipoma in a post-partum 21-year-old patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucky, Marc A; Shingler, Simon N; Stephenson, Richard N

    2009-10-01

    Renal angiomyolipomas (AML) are benign tumours containing vascular, smooth muscle and fatty elements. The majority of renal AML run an asymptomatic, benign course. The main associated complication is that of retro-peritoneal or intra-tumoural haemorrhage. Treatment options include conservative management versus interventional procedures such as total or partial nephrectomy, cryotherapy or embolization. We describe a case of symptomatic, spontaneous rupture of AML in the immediate post-partum period of a patient treated under our care. This case highlights the presentation in the form of an acute abdomen in the immediate post-partum period. This is important as acute abdomen following delivery can be attributed to a number of other causes. It also demonstrates that further complications of renal angiomyolipoma rupture can arise, emphasising the importance of post treatment vigilance for signs of infection, further haemorrhage and post embolic events.

  3. Studies on the post-partum ovarian activity of dairy cattle under different feeding regimes in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrin, J.; Villalba, P.; Guerron, E.; Zurita, E.

    1990-01-01

    In order to monitor ovarian activity in post-partum dairy cows in the Cayambe Valley, Ecuador, 164 cows from three farms were studied. Milk progesterone concentrations (analysed by RIA) and additional data on livestock management, nutritional status and health were compiled. Farms were classified mainly according to nutritional and management status; the better the nutritional status of the cows the sooner they resumed oestrous activity (28.3-31.6 days post-partum). The duration of the first oestrous cycle was found to be variable, 18.0 to 20.4 days. Thirty-one per cent of the study cows did not conceive during the course of the trial and the mean calving interval of those that calved was 426 days. The high incidence of hypofunctional ovaries was a cause for concern on one farm. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Differences in total and allergen specific IgE during pregnancy compared with 1 month and 1 year post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lee M; Ownby, Dennis R; Wegienka, Ganesa R; Peterson, Edward L; Woodcroft, Kimberly J; Joseph, Christine L; Johnson, Christine C

    2009-10-01

    Pregnancy alters the function of many body systems, including the immune system. However, little is known regarding the effect of pregnancy on maternal IgE levels or atopy. To determine whether pregnancy consistently influences serum levels of total or allergen specific IgE. Blood samples were obtained from 764 women during the third trimester of pregnancy and 1 month post partum. A third sample was obtained from 106 of these women 1 year post partum. Samples were analyzed for total and specific IgE to 8 regionally common allergens using a commercially available system. Sensitization was defined as an allergen specific IgE level of 0.35 kU of allergen per liter or higher to any allergen. Total IgE increased significantly post partum, both at 1 month (40.36 vs 35.37 IU/mL intrapartum; P = .001) and at 1 year (44.97 vs 37.00 IU/mL intrapartum; P = .005). Allergen specific IgE decreased significantly at 1 month for cat, dog, ragweed, timothy grass, and egg (P = .001 to P = .02) but not for dust mite, cockroach, or Alternaria (P = .15 to P = .90). Similar patterns of change in total and specific IgE were seen at 1 year. However, on average, only 3.5% of participants changed sensitization status to the individual allergens studied during the 1 year of observation. Compared with intrapartum levels, total IgE levels increased significantly at 1 month and 1 year post partum. Conversely, at the same time points, IgE levels specific for common allergens significantly declined to most but not all allergens. Few women changed their sensitization status over 1 year.

  5. Ant-plants and fungi: a new threeway symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defossez, Emmanuel; Selosse, Marc-André; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Mondolot, Laurence; Faccio, Antonella; Djieto-Lordon, Champlain; McKey, Doyle; Blatrix, Rumsaïs

    2009-06-01

    Symbioses between plants and fungi, fungi and ants, and ants and plants all play important roles in ecosystems. Symbioses involving all three partners appear to be rare. Here, we describe a novel tripartite symbiosis in which ants and a fungus inhabit domatia of an ant-plant, and present evidence that such interactions are widespread. We investigated 139 individuals of the African ant-plant Leonardoxa africana for occurrence of fungus. Behaviour of mutualist ants toward the fungus within domatia was observed using a video camera fitted with an endoscope. Fungi were identified by sequencing a fragment of their ribosomal DNA. Fungi were always present in domatia occupied by mutualist ants but never in domatia occupied by opportunistic or parasitic ants. Ants appear to favour the propagation, removal and maintenance of the fungus. Similar fungi were associated with other ant-plants in Cameroon. All belong to the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales; those from L. africana formed a monophyletic clade. These new plant-ant-fungus associations seem to be specific, as demonstrated within Leonardoxa and as suggested by fungal phyletic identities. Such tripartite associations are widespread in African ant-plants but have long been overlooked. Taking fungal partners into account will greatly enhance our understanding of symbiotic ant-plant mutualisms.

  6. Ants of the Peloponnese, Greece (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiec Lech

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates to material obtained during two field trips to the Peloponnese in 2013 and 2016. With the inclusion of some hitherto unpublished ant material, it gives new records from a total of 92 sampling localities. 129 species (including morphospecies not attributed to any known taxon of ants have been recorded from the Peloponnese (southern Greece, 27 of which have been recorded from this region for the first time. Lasius reginae and 5 other morphospecies attributed only to species complexes are new to Greece.

  7. Image Edge Tracking via Ant Colony Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruowei; Wu, Hongkun; Liu, Shilong; Rahman, M. A.; Liu, Sanchi; Kwok, Ngai Ming

    2018-04-01

    A good edge plot should use continuous thin lines to describe the complete contour of the captured object. However, the detection of weak edges is a challenging task because of the associated low pixel intensities. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) has been employed by many researchers to address this problem. The algorithm is a meta-heuristic method developed by mimicking the natural behaviour of ants. It uses iterative searches to find the optimal solution that cannot be found via traditional optimization approaches. In this work, ACO is employed to track and repair broken edges obtained via conventional Sobel edge detector to produced a result with more connected edges.

  8. Innate immunity in the vagina (Part II): Anti-HIV activity and antiviral content of human vaginal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mickey V; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Rossoll, Richard M; Wira, Charles R

    2014-07-01

    Whether the concentrations of antiviral proteins, and anti-HIV activity, within human vaginal secretions change across the menstrual cycle is unknown. Using a menstrual cup, vaginal secretions from pre-menopausal women were recovered at the proliferative (d6-8), mid-cycle (d13-15), and secretory (d21-23) stages of the menstrual cycle. Antiviral protein concentration was determined by ELISA, and anti-HIV activity assessed using the TZM-bl reporter cell line. CCL20, RANTES, elafin, HBD2, SDF-1α, and IL-8 levels were detectable in the secretions. Vaginal secretions had anti-HIV activity against specific clade B strains of HIV, with significant inhibition of IIIB and increased infectivity of transmitted/founder CH077.t. No significant differences in either antiviral protein concentration or anti-HIV activity with respect to menstrual cycle stage were measured, but marked differences were observed in both parameters over the course of the cycle between different women and in consecutive cycles from the same woman. The vagina contains a complement of antiviral proteins. The variation in anti-HIV activity demonstrates that immune protection in the vagina is not constant. Intra- and interindividual variations suggest that factors in addition to sex hormones influence antiviral protection. Lastly, the menstrual cup is a new model for recovering undiluted vaginal secretions from women throughout their reproductive life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Immunity in the Vagina (Part II): Anti-HIV Activity and Antiviral Content of Human Vaginal Secretions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mickey V.; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Rossoll, Richard M.; Wira, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Whether the concentrations of antiviral proteins, and anti-HIV activity, within human vaginal secretions changes across the menstrual cycle is unknown. Method of Study Using a menstrual cup, vaginal secretions from premenopausal women were recovered at the proliferative (d6–8), mid-cycle (d13–15) and secretory (d21–23) stages of the menstrual cycle. Antiviral protein concentration was determined by ELISA, and anti-HIV activity assessed using the TZM-bl reporter cell line. Results CCL20, RANTES, elafin, HBD2, SDF-1α and IL-8 levels were detectable in the secretions. Vaginal secretions had anti-HIV activity against specific clade B strains of HIV, with significant inhibition of IIIB and increased infectivity of transmitted/founder CH077.t. No significant differences in either antiviral protein concentration or anti-HIV activity with respect to menstrual cycle stage were measured, but marked differences were observed in both parameters over the course of the cycle between different women, and in consecutive cycles from the same woman. Conclusion The vagina contains a complement of antiviral proteins. The variation in anti-HIV activity demonstrates that immune protection in the vagina is not constant. Intra- and inter-individual variations suggest that factors in addition to sex hormones influence antiviral protection. Lastly, the menstrual cup is a new model for recovering undiluted vaginal secretions from women throughout their reproductive life. PMID:24806967

  10. Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the vagina. Diagnosis and multimodal treatment of a rare tumor and analysis of worldwide experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Iris; Jacobs, Volker R.; Bogner, Gerhard; Staudach, Alfons; Koch, Horst; Wolfrum-Ristau, Pia; Schausberger, Christiane; Fischer, Thorsten; Kametriser, Gerhard; Sedlmayer, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the vagina is an extremely rare tumor of the female genital tract, with only a few cases reported so far worldwide. Consequently, there is no established standard treatment and limited knowledge about the prognosis and biologic behavior of vaginal mesonephric adenocarcinoma. This report documents a new case of vaginal mesonephric adenocarcinoma diagnosed in a 54-year-old woman, and analyzes this in the context of all previously published cases. MRI demonstrated that the 2.5 x 1.8 cm tumor of the vaginal wall was invading urethra and bladder. Following surgical excision, histologic analysis determined mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the vagina, stage pT2 R1. In order to avoid the mutilating extended surgery which would be required to reach R0 and considerable impairment of quality of life, adjuvant radiochemotherapy was administered with external radiation and brachytherapy, including 5 cycles of cisplatin (40 mg/m 2 ) for radiosensitization. After 4 years of continuous oncologic follow-up, the patient is alive and clinically free of disease. In this case it was shown that adjuvant radiochemotherapy with radiation and brachytherapy was effective to manage the surgical R1 situation and maintain the patient's life quality. More published cases reports are needed to gradually substantiate optimal treatment strategies. (orig.) [de

  11. Dosimetric evaluation of a combination of brachytherapy applicators for uterine cervix cancer with involvement of the distal vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Roger Guilherme Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate an alternative brachytherapy technique for uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina, without increasing the risk of toxicity. Materials And Methods: Theoretical study comparing three different high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy applicators: intrauterine tandem and vaginal cylinder (TC); tandem/ring applicator combined with vaginal cylinder (TR+C); and a virtual applicator combining both the tandem/ring and vaginal cylinder in a single device (TRC). Prescribed doses were 7 Gy at point A, and 5 Gy on the surface or at a 5 mm depth of the vaginal mucosa. Doses delivered to the rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon were kept below the tolerance limits. Volumes covered by the isodoses, respectively, 50% (V50), 100% (V100), 150% (V150) and 200% (V200) were compared. Results: Both the combined TR+C and TRC presented a better dose distribution as compared with the TC applicator. The TR+C dose distribution was similar to the TRC dose, with V150 and V200 being about 50% higher for TR+C (within the cylinder). Conclusion: Combined TR+C in a two-time single application may represent an alternative therapy technique for patients affected by uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina. (author)

  12. Differentiating maternal fatigue and depressive symptoms at six months and four years post partum: Considerations for assessment, diagnosis and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; Gartland, Deirdre; Woolhouse, Hannah; Brown, Stephanie

    2015-02-01

    fatigue and depressive symptoms are common among women in the postpartum period, and it has been proposed that fatigue is a risk factor for later depression. To progress this research, there is a need to clarify the conceptual and measurement issue of whether these two sets of symptoms are distinct constructs. There is also a need to determine whether they are distinct constructs beyond the postnatal period. The aim of the study was to assess the construct and discriminant validity of fatigue and depressive symptoms as measured by the SF-36 Vitality subscale (SF-36) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at six months and at four years post partum. data from over 1000 women participating in the Maternal Health Study, a longitudinal study of women׳s physical and psychological health and recovery after childbirth were used. confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-factor model of fatigue and depressive symptoms represented as distinct but related constructs was a better fit to the data than a one-factor model of fatigue and depression sharing the same underlying construct at both six months and four years post partum. this study provides empirical evidence that maternal fatigue and depression in the first year after having a baby and at four years post partum are best understood as separate psychological constructs or experiences. The findings have important implications for clinical practice, in particular underlining the importance of differentiating tiredness from depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychosocial risk factors and treatment of new onset and recurrent depression during the post-partum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Pirjo; Hintikka, Jukka

    2017-07-01

    When developing maternity care services, it is important to know how psychosocial factors affect the course of post-partum depression (PPD), and how depressed mothers are treated. The aim of this study is to assess how adverse childhood experiences, poor present support and violence, and low socioeconomic status (SES) associate with PPD, specifically in new onset and recurrent post-partum depression. The second aim is to assess the treatment received for PPD. This is a cross-sectional study. The study group comprises 104 mothers with a current episode of PPD, and a control group of 104 mothers without an episode. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders was used for data collection. Psychosocial risk factors, treatment issues, and the course of depression were assessed with a structured self-report questionnaire. In age-adjusted multivariate analyses, adverse childhood experiences, a low level of present support in close relationships, and a poor SES were associated significantly with PPD. Childhood adversity was associated with both new onset and recurrent depression. Nevertheless, a low level of support and a poor SES were also associated with recurrent depression. A quarter of mothers with a major depressive episode in the post-partum period attended psychiatric services. In mothers with new onset depression, the proportion was only 5%. There is an urgent need to develop the diagnostics of depression in maternity care services. An awareness of psychosocial risk factors might help in this. More depressed mothers should be referred to psychiatric services.

  14. [Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and cerebrovascular constriction syndrome in the differential diagnosis of post-partum headaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz López, N; Cano Hernández, B; Balbás Álvarez, S

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum headache can be due to many causes. In a patient with previous epidural analgesia, the headache can be attributed to post-dural puncture headache, even if the symptoms are not typical of this clinical entity. We report a case of a post-partum with accidental dural tap during the insertion of an epidural catheter for labour analgesia, and who referred to headaches in the third post-partum day. Initially, a post-dural puncture headache was suspected, but the subsequent onset of seizures and visual impairment meant that the diagnosis had to be reconsidered. In this case report, the clinical and pathophysiological features of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, as well as the differential diagnosis of post-partum headaches are described. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of the reproductive behavior of dairy cows, post-partum, by means of radio immunoassay (RIA) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, Patricio; Guerron, Edwin

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of this trial was to determine the post-partum ovaric activity in dairy cattle recently introduced in the Ecuadorian subtropic. On this trial, progesterone levels in milk of 114 post-partum cows from 6 different farms were determined. The progesterone level in milk was analyzed by RIA and the milk sampling was done according to established protocol. Additional data about management, nutritional condition and health of the animals were also taken in each farm. In the Santo Domingo valley, the ovaries of post-partum cows, with a good nutritious diet, start functioning after 54.21 days with a range of 10 to 161. The duration of the first oestral cycle was 24.07 with the range of 6 to 29 days. Fifty six cows (49.12 percent) remained pregnant up to the end of the trial and the average of interval calving was 409. 95 - 115. 69 days. In the area, there is high incidence of ovaric hypofunctions ( 30.70 percent) and return of anoestrus ( 14.03 percent). heats of the cows were observed ( 62.90 percent) by the farmers, but they were determined by progesterone levels, through RIA technique

  16. Changes in lymphocyte subsets during pregnancy and post-partum in cases of beginning eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnert, M; Schmidt, S

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the present retrospective study was to examine the peripheral blood lymphocytes for expression of phenotypic and activation markers concerning the development of hypertension in pregnancy. 16 women (aged 25-43 years; mean 35.1) developing hypertension in the third trimester (week 25-34) have had blood samples taken in the first (post-partum, The control group consisted of 16 age-matched pregnant healthy women, who underwent the same regime. All blood samples were taken in the morning, stored at room temperature and stained within 6 hours and measured within 24 hours. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance between both groups was done with multiple comparison according to Dunn. Comparing both groups, the total white cell count was significantly increased in all pregnancies and post-partum. In case of hypertension in pregnancy the cell numbers of suppressor/cytotoxic (CD 8+) and CD 56(+)-activated T cells showed a significant increase in the first trimester (< 14 weeks) [p < 0.05] and decreased thereafter to normal values. In the second trimester (week 14-23) helper/inducer lymphocytes and CD 56+/CD 3+ lymphocytes decreased in case of pre-ecclampsia and cytotoxic lymphocytes elevated [p < 0.05]. In the third trimester (week 24-35) there was no difference in both study groups and in late pregnancy (week 36-termination) there were only small differences without statistical significance. Within 1 week postnatal the value of Il-2 receptor T lymphocytes decreased in the group of pre-eclampsia in comparison to normal pregnancies [p < 0.05]. Regarding the major changes in activated T cells in both study groups no specific pattern of lymphocyte subsets in case of pre-eclampsia could be found in comparison to healthy pregnant women. Further investigations should focus on functional activation and/or suppression of the cellular immune system. Perhaps this could lead to a screening test for pre-eclampsia in future, which is non-invasive for the patient and economic for

  17. Oecophylla smaragdina food conversion efficiency: prospects for ant farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2011-01-01

    can be combined with the use of the ants in biological control programmes in tropical plantations where pest insects are converted into ant biomass. To assess the cost-benefits of ant farming based on artificial feeding, food consumption and food conversion efficiency (ECI) of Oecophylla smaragdina......Oecophylla ants are sold at high prices on several commercial markets as a human delicacy, as pet food or as traditional medicine. Currently markets are supplied by ants collected from the wild; however, an increasing interest in ant farming exists as all harvest is easily sold and as ant farming...... selling prices these efficiencies led to rates of return from 1.52 to 4.56, respectively, if: (i) protein is supplied from commercial products; or (ii) alternatively supplied from free sources such as insects and kitchen waste. These results suggest that Oecophylla ant farming may become highly profitable...

  18. Hybrid Bee Ant Colony Algorithm for Effective Load Balancing And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    Ant Colony algorithm is used in this hybrid Bee Ant Colony algorithm to solve load balancing issues ... Genetic Algorithm (MO-GA) for dynamic job scheduling that .... Information Networking and Applications Workshops. [7]. M. Dorigo & T.

  19. The use of weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) in tropical agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2011-01-01

    by the consumed pest insects, can be harvested and utilised for nutrition as they are tasty and high in proteins, vitamins and minerals. Thus, plantations may function as ant farms and in addition to plant production also hosts the production of edible animal protein. In this setup harmful pest insects are turned...... farming as a way forward to solve an increasing future demand for protein. Weaver ant farming may build on natural food collected by the ants or alternatively be boosted by feeding the ant colonies actively with protein and sugar. In both cases, when ant biocontrol is combined with ant farming......, the environmental cost of protein production may fall even lower than for other insects as the ants feed on pests that would otherwise reduce the plant yield and since the farming area is simultaneously in use for plant production. In this presentation I provide data showing (i) how the harvest of ants can...

  20. Dealing with water deficit in Atta ant colonies: large ants scout for water while small ants transport it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Da-Silva

    2012-07-01

    Leafcutter ants (Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Forel 1908 have an elaborate social organization, complete with caste divisions. Activities carried out by specialist groups contribute to the overall success and survival of the colony when it is confronted with environmental challenges such as dehydration. Ants detect variations in humidity inside the nest and react by activating several types of behavior that enhance water uptake and decrease water loss, but it is not clear whether or not a single caste collects water regardless of the cost of bringing this resource back to the colony. Accordingly, we investigated water collection activities in three colonies of Atta sexdens rubropilosa experimentally exposed to water stress. Specifically, we analyzed whether or not the same ant caste foraged for water, regardless of the absolute energetic cost (distance of transporting this resource back to the colony. Our experimental design offered water sources at 0 m, 1 m and 10 m from the nest. We studied the body size of ants near the water sources from the initial offer of water (time  =  0 to 120 min, and tested for specialization. We observed a reduction in the average size and variance of ants that corroborated the specialization hypothesis. Although the temporal course of specialization changed with distance, the final outcome was similar among distances. Thus, we conclude that, for this species, a specialist (our use of the word “specialist” does not mean exclusive task force is responsible for collecting water, regardless of the cost of transporting water back to the colony.

  1. High frequency of human papillomavirus detection in the vagina before first vaginal intercourse among females enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, Marcia L; Weaver, Bree; Tu, Wanzhu; Tong, Yan; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Brown, Darron R

    2013-03-15

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is believed to be primarily sexually transmitted. Few studies have documented the detection of HPV in the vagina before first vaginal intercourse. We used a longitudinally followed cohort of adolescent females without prior vaginal intercourse to examine the frequency of detection of vaginal HPV and the association between first reported HPV detection and noncoital sexual behaviors. HPV was detected in 45.5% of subjects (10 of 22) before first vaginal sex. Seven of these 10 subjects reported noncoital behaviors that, in part, might have explained genital transmission. HPV can be detected in the vagina before first sexual intercourse, highlighting the need for early vaccination.

  2. Extended phenotype: nematodes turn ants into bird-dispersed fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D P; Kronauer, D J C; Boomsma, J J

    2008-01-01

    A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs.......A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs....

  3. Definitive radiotherapy for carcinoma of the vagina: outcome and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyle, Valerian; Zagars, Gunar K.; Wheeler, James A.; Wharton, J. Taylor; Delclos, Luis

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Primary carcinoma of the vagina is an uncommon tumor. Because of the long-standing interest in this disease at our institution a substantial number of patients with this disease has been accumulated, and this retrospective review was performed to define disease outcome, to delineate significant prognostic factors, and to provide treatment guidelines. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review of 301 patients with vaginal carcinoma (271 with squamous cell and 30 with adenocarcinoma) who received definitive radiotherapy between 1953 and 1991. Prognostic factors for outcome (local control, pelvic control, metastatic relapse, survival, and complications) were evaluated using univariate and multivariate techniques. Results: Patients disease was staged using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) system, and stages were distributed as follows: 0, 37 (12%); I, 65 (22%); II, 122 (40%); III, 60 (20%); and, IVA, 17 (6%). Treatment varied according to stage, with brachytherapy predominating for early disease but external beam playing a prominent role for more advanced disease. Patients with in situ disease received brachytherapy alone or transvaginal orthovoltage irradiation. For Stage I, brachytherapy alone was used in 25, external beam and brachytherapy in 38, and transvaginal alone in 2. For Stage II, brachytherapy alone was used in 20, external and brachytherapy in 66, and external irradiation alone in 36. For Stage III, external and brachytherapy was used in 15, and external alone in 45. Two patients with Stage IVA received brachytherapy alone, 10 received a combination of external and brachytherapy, and 6 received external irradiation alone. Total doses ranged from 10 to 154 Gy (mean 74.7 Gy, median 70.0 Gy), but only 18 (6%) received less than 55 Gy. At a median follow-up of 13 years, the 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, and 25-year survival rates were 60%, 49%, 38%, 29%, and 23%, respectively. Beyond 5 years the survival rates relative

  4. Histrionicotoxin alkaloids finally detected in an ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Tappey H.; Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Spande, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Workers of the ant Carebarella bicolor collected in Panama were found to have two major poison-frog alkaloids, cis- and trans-fused decahydroquinolines (DHQs) of the 269AB type, four minor 269AB isomers, two minor 269B isomers, and three isomers of DHQ 271D. For the first time in an ant, however......) sp., were found to have a very similar DHQ complex but failed to show HTXs. Several new DHQ alkaloids of MW 271 (named in the frog as 271G) are reported from the above ants that have both m/z 202 and 204 as major fragment ions, unlike the spectrum seen for the poison-frog alkaloid 271D, which has...... only an m/z 204 base peak. Found also for the first time in skin extracts from the comparison frog Oophaga granulifera of Costa Rica is a trace DHQ of MW 273. It is coded as 273F in the frog; a different isomer is found in the ant....

  5. Ants, rodents and seed predation in Proteaceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... their nests extremely rapidly. One benefit of the ant-plant interaction may be seed escape ... (odourless to humans when dry) household glue or, b) placing seed in a Petri dish ... the layout of exclosures was completed. Response was not as.

  6. The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line Vej; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its ra...

  7. The ejaculatory biology of leafcutter ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Boer, Susanne; Stürup, Marlene; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2015-01-01

    understanding of the fundamental biology of ejaculate production, transfer and physiological function remains extremely limited. We studied the ejaculation process in the leafcutter ant Atta colombica and found that it starts with the appearance of a clear pre-ejaculatory fluid (PEF) at the tip...

  8. Mating, hybridisation and introgression in Lasius ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, van der T.M.; Pedersen, J.S.; Boomsma, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reviews have shown that hybridisation among ant species is likely to be more common than previously appreciated. but that documented cases of introgression remain rare. After molecular phylogenetic work had shown that European Lasius niger (LINNAEUS, 1758) and L. psammophilus SEIFERT, 1992

  9. Ants recognize foes and not friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Fernando J.; Nehring, Volker; Jørgensen, Charlotte G.; Nielsen, John; Galizia, C. Giovanni; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Discriminating among individuals and rejecting non-group members is essential for the evolution and stability of animal societies. Ants are good models for studying recognition mechanisms, because they are typically very efficient in discriminating ‘friends’ (nest-mates) from ‘foes’ (non-nest-mates). Recognition in ants involves multicomponent cues encoded in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Here, we tested whether workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus herculeanus use the presence and/or absence of cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate between nest-mates and non-nest-mates. We supplemented the cuticular profile with synthetic hydrocarbons mixed to liquid food and then assessed behavioural responses using two different bioassays. Our results show that (i) the presence, but not the absence, of an additional hydrocarbon elicited aggression and that (ii) among the three classes of hydrocarbons tested (unbranched, mono-methylated and dimethylated alkanes; for mono-methylated alkanes, we present a new synthetic pathway), only the dimethylated alkane was effective in eliciting aggression. Our results suggest that carpenter ants use a fundamentally different mechanism for nest-mate recognition than previously thought. They do not specifically recognize nest-mates, but rather recognize and reject non-nest-mates bearing odour cues that are novel to their own colony cuticular hydrocarbon profile. This begs for a reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying recognition systems in social insects. PMID:19364750

  10. Recognition of social identity in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Nick; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the identity of others, from the individual to the group level, is a hallmark of society. Ants, and other social insects, have evolved advanced societies characterized by efficient social recognition systems. Colony identity is mediated by colony specific signature mixtures, a blend...

  11. Plasmodium parasitaemia among pregnant women attending ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ante-Natal Clinic at Military Hospital Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria using the Standard parasitological technique. Venous blood was collected from 200 pregnant women, both thick and thin blood films were made on clean greese-free glass slide and stained with 10% Giemsa stains diluted with 7.2 buffered water for ...

  12. Operant conditioning in the ant Myrmica sabuleti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, M C

    2004-11-30

    Operant conditioning could be obtained in the ant Myrmica sabuleti by presenting to the workers, during a six-day period, an apparatus containing either sugared water or meat as a reward. The conditioning obtained using sugared water as a reward was short lasting. A reconditioning was more persistent and lasted four hours. The ants' response was very precise, since they exhibited it only in front of an apparatus identical to that used during the training phase. Operant conditioning obtained using meat as a reward was more pronounced than that obtained by using sugared water, probably because meat is more valuable as a reward than sugar for the species studied, which is essentially a carnivorous one. Such a conditioning was rather persistent. Indeed, a first operant conditioning obtained by using meat as a reward could still be detected after seven hours, and a reconditioning was still significant after eight hours. One day after this eight-hour period without rewarding the ants, the response was higher again and a further day later, it was still significant. Since the operant conditioning is easy to perform and quantify and since the ants' response is very precise, such a conditioning can be used for further studying M. sabuleti workers' visual perception.

  13. A global database of ant species abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Heloise; Dunn, Rob R.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Grossman, Blair F.; Photakis, Manoli; Abril, Silvia; Agosti, Donat; Andersen, Alan N.; Angulo, Elena; Armbrecht, Ingre; Arnan, Xavier; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Bishop, Tom R.; Boulay, Raphael; Bruhl, Carsten; Castracani, Cristina; Cerda, Xim; Del Toro, Israel; Delsinne, Thibaut; Diaz, Mireia; Donoso, David A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Enriquez, Martha L.; Fayle, Tom M.; Feener Jr., Donald H.; Fisher, Brian L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitpatrick, Matthew C.; Gomez, Cristanto; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Gove, Aaron; Grasso, Donato A.; Groc, Sarah; Guenard, Benoit; Gunawardene, Nihara; Heterick, Brian; Hoffmann, Benjamin; Janda, Milan; Jenkins, Clinton; Kaspari, Michael; Klimes, Petr; Lach, Lori; Laeger, Thomas; Lattke, John; Leponce, Maurice; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Longino, John; Lucky, Andrea; Luke, Sarah H.; Majer, Jonathan; McGlynn, Terrence P.; Menke, Sean; Mezger, Dirk; Mori, Alessandra; Moses, Jimmy; Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Pacheco, Renata; Paknia, Omid; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Pfeiffer, Martin; Philpott, Stacy M.; Resasco, Julian; Retana, Javier; Silva, Rogerio R.; Sorger, Magdalena D.; Souza, Jorge; Suarez, Andrew V.; Tista, Melanie; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Vonshak, Merav; Weiser, Michael D.; Yates, Michelle; Parr, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    What forces structure ecological assemblages? A key limitation to general insights about assemblage structure is the availability of data that are collected at a small spatial grain (local assemblages) and a large spatial extent (global coverage). Here, we present published and unpublished data from 51,388 ant abundance and occurrence records of more than 2693 species and 7953 morphospecies from local assemblages collected at 4212 locations around the world. Ants were selected because they are diverse and abundant globally, comprise a large fraction of animal biomass in most terrestrial communities, and are key contributors to a range of ecosystem functions. Data were collected between 1949 and 2014, and include, for each geo-referenced sampling site, both the identity of the ants collected and details of sampling design, habitat type and degree of disturbance. The aim of compiling this dataset was to provide comprehensive species abundance data in order to test relationships between assemblage structure and environmental and biogeographic factors. Data were collected using a variety of standardised methods, such as pitfall and Winkler traps, and will be valuable for studies investigating large-scale forces structuring local assemblages. Understanding such relationships is particularly critical under current rates of global change. We encourage authors holding additional data on systematically collected ant assemblages, especially those in dry and cold, and remote areas, to contact us and contribute their data to this growing dataset.

  14. Progesterone profiles and post-partum fertility in dairy cattle in southern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, J.E.; Gatica, R.; Tapia, P.

    1990-01-01

    Milk samples were taken at weekly intervals from 77 dairy cows on days 23, 30, 37, 43 and 50 post-partum (pp) in order to monitor ovarian activity through progesterone concentration measurement. Skim milk samples were assayed for progesterone by radioimmunoassay using kits provided through the FAO and IAEA. Oestrus, clinical examinations, treatments, artificial insemination and pregnancy diagnosis were recorded. The profiles of progesterone concentration and oestrus occurrence combined with behavioural and clinical data indicated that the study cows were in the following reproductive states: I - normal, 38%; II - 'silent' oestrus, 12%; III - prolonged luteal activity, 13%; IV - irregular cyclic activity, 23%; and V - anoestrus, 13%. After artificial insemination, 89% (25/28) of normal, 77% (7/9) of silent oestrus, 50% (5/10) of prolonged luteal activity, 82% (14/17) of irregular cyclic activity and 80% (8/10) of anoestrous cows eventually became pregnant either with or without hormone treatment. With the exception of the anoestrous group, these results seem to support the idea that once a week sampling for progesterone over a seven week period pp is sufficient to monitor the ovarian activity and predict the fertility of a dairy herd. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Diagnosis of post-partum ovarian vein thrombophlebitis by color Doppler ultrasonography: about 10 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, J R; Poulain, P; Renaud-Giono, A; Darnault, J P; Proudhon, J F; Grall, J Y; Mocquet, P Y

    1997-09-01

    Post-partum ovarian vein thrombosis is often overlooked or mistaken for other complications such as endometritis. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a very good diagnostic method when properly indicated and correctly interpreted according to clinical data. This study reports ten cases that were retrospectively studied, during which color Doppler ultrasonography was used. The clinical signs and the results are reviewed. The lesions were clearly visualized in eight of the ten cases; one of the two failures resulted from a methodological fault (uninterpretable result); the other one was due to the lack of experience of the operator and nonrecognition of the clinical signs. Thrombosis appears as a hypoechogenic and tubular image. This type of examination is particularly indicated in the presence of certain clinical signs that were observed in our cases: fever and iliac pain are the main precursor signs, often associated with abdominal meteorism and slow digestive transit; provoked cul-de-sac pain during vaginal probing was the only constant sign, sometimes associated with painful swelling.

  16. Pregnancy Intention and Post-partum Depressive Affect in Louisiana Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Elizabeth Y; Ma, Ping; Dunaway, Lauren Futrell; Theall, Katherine P

    2016-05-01

    Postpartum depression is associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes for both the mother and infant. This study examines the relationship between a mother and/or her partner's pregnancy intentions and reported post-partum depressive symptoms (PPDs). Using Louisiana pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system, 2000-2003, a secondary cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 5549 mothers, stratified by race, who delivered a singleton, live birth and whose infant was still alive at the time of the survey. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted, taking into account the complex survey design. In multivariable models, unwanted pregnancies were associated with severe PPDs (aOR 1.76, 95 % CI 1.23-2.53). Furthermore, the association between husbands/partners' who did not want or care about the pregnancy and mild PPDs remained for White women (aOR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.02-1.69); while among Black women, neither parent's pregnancy intention were associated with mild or severe PPDs. This study supports existing research demonstrating the association between pregnancy intention and PPDs. This study contributes to the limited information on the role that partner pregnancy intention plays on maternal mental health outcomes, however further discussion is needed on the impact of this role across races. Findings can be used in programs aiming to reduce adverse mental health outcomes among high-risk mothers.

  17. Psychological health of men with partners who have post-partum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah L; Bushnell, John A; Collings, Sunny C; Purdie, Gordon L

    2006-08-01

    To compare the psychological health of men with partners who have post-partum depression (PPD; index group) with that of men with partners without PPD (comparison group). Using a cross-sectional survey, psychological symptoms and disturbances of index group men (n = 58) and comparison group men (n = 116) were compared. Validated self-report measures were used to assess five key areas of mental health: depression, anxiety, non-specific psychological impairment, aggression and alcohol use. Index group men had more symptoms of depression, aggression and non-specific psychological impairment, and had higher rates of depressive disorder, non-specific psychological problems and problem fatigue than comparison group men. Index group men were also more likely to have three or more comorbid psychological disturbances. There was no difference between the groups on measures of anxiety and alcohol use. Although many men in the postnatal period experience a variety of mental health problems, those who have a partner with PPD are themselves at increased risk for experiencing psychological symptoms and disturbances. Differentiation of psychological syndromes is important; higher rates of depressive disorder, non-specific psychological problems and problem fatigue were found, but rates of anxiety disorder and hazardous alcohol use did not differ between the groups. More attention from health professionals to men's mental health in the postnatal period may be beneficial to the entire family system.

  18. Swedish women's food habits during pregnancy up to six months post-partum: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Anna Lena; Isaksson, Ulf; Sandström, Herbert; Lundqvist, Anette; Hörnell, Agneta; Hamberg, Katarina

    2016-06-01

    Diet influences the health of the foetus and the woman during pregnancy and later in life. It is therefore important to investigate pregnant women's food habits. The aim of this study was to describe women's food habits during pregnancy and up to six months post-partum. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (VIP-FFQ) was distributed to 163 pregnant women on five occasions during and after pregnancy. Data were analysed using Friedman's ANOVA and a Bonferroni post-hoc test. Food habits in relation to the National Food Agency's (NFA) food index. The pregnant women's diets were inadequate according to the NFA food index. A tendency towards an even poorer diet after delivery was identified, something which was related to an increased intake of discretionary food, e.g. sweets, cakes, cookies, crisps, ice cream, and decreased intake of fruit and vegetable. The alcohol consumption was low throughout. The food habits during pregnancy were inadequate compared to recommendations and these habits became unhealthier after delivery. These suggest that dietary counselling needs to be more effective and continued into the lactating period. An increased focus should be given to healthy eating from the life course perspective, not just focus on effects on the foetus and pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of degeneration of uterine adenomyosis during pregnancy and post-partum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Hiroto; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Usui, Rie; Kijima, Shigeyoshi; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2018-03-08

    Degeneration of adenomyosis during pregnancy and the post-partum period is very rare. A 42-year-old Japanese parous woman with four normal-term deliveries, who presented with abdominal pain and fever at 22 weeks of gestation with transient increases of the white blood cell count and C-reactive protein, demonstrated sustained inflammation after cesarean section at 29 weeks of gestation due to the occurrence of gestational hypertension with late deceleration. The noncontrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 22 weeks demonstrated a poorly demarcated hypointense area at the posterior uterine wall on T1- and T2-weighted imaging. The 2nd MRI 2 weeks after the cesarean section showed hypointensity on a T1-weighted image and hyperintensity on a T2-weighted image, allowing confirmation of the diagnosis of degeneration of adenomyosis. Repeated MRIs were clinically useful to diagnose the degeneration of adenomyosis. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Dextromethorphan Reduces Postoperative Pain of Post Partum Tubal Ligation under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Manochehrian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Postoperative pain has harmful effects in many systems. Dextromethorphan reduces postoperative pain in post partum tubal ligation under general anesthesia. Materials & Methods: In this research 40 patients with ASA class I and II in double blind randomized clinical trial were studied in two groups. 90 minutes before surgery the patients received 90 mg dextromethorphan or placebo (oral. The patients induced general anesthesia with thiopental (5mg/kg, fentanyl 1.5 g/kg and succinylcholin(1-1.5 mg/kg and maintenance with halothane and N2O 50%. Patients were observed studied for analgesic requirement, nausea, vomiting, urinary retention and respiratory depression in recovery and 2,4,8 and 24 hours after surgery. Results: There was no significant difference in age, education, . . . Pain in recovery, 2 and 4 hours after surgery in dextromethorphan was less than placebo group. The analgesic requirement (pethidine in dextromethophan was less than placebo group.Conclusion: Administration of 90 mg dextromethorphan 90 minutes before the surgery under GA reduces pain in recovery time , 2 and 4 hours after the surgery.

  1. Post partum depression and the psychosocial predictors in first-time fathers from northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin-Ping; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Wei, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Chun-Li; Porr, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    there is growing evidence that fathers also experience post partum depression (PPD). However, paternal PPD has been less studied than maternal PPD. Very few studies have investigated PPD in first-time fathers from northwestern China. the purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence and predictors of depressive symptoms in first-time fathers from northwestern China. a longitudinal study was conducted involving 180 couples who were assessed at three time periods: 3 days, 2 weeks and 6 weeks after childbirth. Self-reported questionnaires including Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC), and Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale (KMSS) were administered to all participants during each time period. after childbirth 35 (21.1%) of the fathers at 3 days, 32 (20.4%) at 2 weeks and 20 (13.6%) at 6 weeks, indicated that they suffered from PPD. Paternal parental sense of competence, paternal marital satisfaction, and maternal depressive symptoms were among the main predictors for paternal PPD. the study results suggest that paternal PPD is a significant public health concern. Health professionals should focus attention on the psychological health among new fathers during the postpartum period; and, the psychosocial predictors should be considered and incorporated into clinical assessment and intervention of paternal PPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on the environmental implications of ants (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of ants associated wh two synanthropcenvironments in Awka was carried out in 2008 using pitfall and bait traps. The study yelded a total of 561 ants wth 409 obtaned from the hemisynanthrophic environment while 192 ants were collected from the endophilic environment. The percentage occurrence, total dstribution ...

  3. Dynamics of an ant-plant-pollinator model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanshi; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Nathaniel Holland, J.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we consider plant-pollinator-ant systems in which plant-pollinator interaction and plant-ant interaction are both mutualistic, but there also exists interference of pollinators by ants. The plant-pollinator interaction can be described by a Beddington-DeAngelis formula, so we extend the formula to characterize plant-pollinator mutualisms, including the interference by ants, and form a plant-pollinator-ant model. Using dynamical systems theory, we show uniform persistence of the model. Moreover, we demonstrate conditions under which boundary equilibria are globally asymptotically stable. The dynamics exhibit mechanisms by which the three species could coexist when ants interfere with pollinators. We define a threshold in ant interference. When ant interference is strong, it can drive plant-pollinator mutualisms to extinction. Furthermore, if the ants depend on pollination mutualism for their persistence, then sufficiently strong ant interference could lead to their own extinction as well. Yet, when ant interference is weak, plant-ant and plant-pollinator mutualisms can promote the persistence of one another.

  4. Ants Orasest ja Anne Lange monograafiast / Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talvet, Jüri, 1945-

    2005-01-01

    Arvustus: Oras, Ants. Luulekool. I, Apoloogia / koostajad Hando Runnel ja Jaak Rähesoo. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2003 ; Oras, Ants. Luulekool II, Meistriklass. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2004 ; Lange, Anne. Ants Oras : [kirjandusteadlane, -kriitik ja tõlkija (1900-1982)]. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2004

  5. Are ant feces nutrients for plants? A metabolomics approach to elucidate the nutritional effects on plants hosting weaver ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidkjær, Nanna Hjort; Wollenweber, Bernd; Gislum, René

    2015-01-01

    Weaver ants (genus Oecophylla) are tropical carnivorous ant species living in high numbers in the canopies of trees. The ants excrete copious amounts of fecal matter on leaf surfaces, and these feces may provide nutrients to host trees. This hypothesis is supported by studies of ant......-plant interactions involving other ant species that have demonstrated the transfer of nutrients from ants to plants. In this 7-months study, a GC–MS-based metabolomics approach along with an analysis of total nitrogen and carbon levels was used to study metabolic changes in ant-hosting Coffea arabica plants compared...... with control plants. The results showed elevated levels of total nitrogen, amino acids, fatty acids, caffeine, and secondary metabolites of the phenylpropanoid pathway in leaves from ant-hosting plants. Minor effects were observed for sugars, whereas little or no effect was observed for organic acids, despite...

  6. Plant lock and ant key: pairwise coevolution of an exclusion filter in an ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouat, C; Garcia, N; Andary, C; McKey, D

    2001-10-22

    Although observations suggest pairwise coevolution in specific ant-plant symbioses, coevolutionary processes have rarely been demonstrated. We report on, what is to the authors' knowledge, the strongest evidence yet for reciprocal adaptation of morphological characters in a species-specific ant-plant mutualism. The plant character is the prostoma, which is a small unlignified organ at the apex of the domatia in which symbiotic ants excavate an entrance hole. Each myrmecophyte in the genus Leonardoxa has evolved a prostoma with a different shape. By performing precise measurements on the prostomata of three related myrmecophytes, on their specific associated ants and on the entrance holes excavated by symbiotic ants at the prostomata, we showed that correspondence of the plant and ant traits forms a morphological and behavioural filter. We have strong evidence for coevolution between the dimensions and shape of the symbiotic ants and the prostoma in one of the three ant-Leonardoxa associations.

  7. Physical health after childbirth and maternal depression in the first 12 months post partum: results of an Australian nulliparous pregnancy cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Hannah; Gartland, Deirdre; Perlen, Susan; Donath, Susan; Brown, Stephanie J

    2014-03-01

    to investigate the relationship between maternal physical health problems and depressive symptoms in the first year after childbirth. prospective pregnancy cohort study. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 1507 nulliparous women. women were recruited from six public hospitals between six and 24 weeks gestation. Written questionnaires were completed at recruitment and at three, six and 12 months post partum. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); standardised measures of urinary and faecal incontinence, a checklist of symptoms for other physical health problems. overall, 16.1% of women reported depressive symptoms during the first 12 months post partum, with point prevalence at three, six and 12 months post partum of 6.9%, 8.8% and 7.8% respectively. The most commonly reported physical health problems in the first three months were tiredness (67%), back pain (47%), breast problems (37%), painful perineum (30%), and urinary incontinence (29%). Compared with women reporting 0-2 health problems in the first three months post partum, women reporting 5 or more health problems had a six-fold increase in likelihood of reporting concurrent depressive symptoms at three months post partum (Adjusted OR=6.69, 95% CI=3.0-15.0) and a three-fold increase in likelihood of reporting subsequent depressive symptoms at 6-12 months post partum (Adjusted OR=3.43, 95% CI 2.1-5.5). poor physical health in the early postnatal period is associated with poorer mental health throughout the first 12 months post partum. Early intervention to promote maternal mental health should incorporate assessment and intervention to address common postnatal physical health problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interactive effects of soil-dwelling ants, ant mounds and simulated grazing on local plant community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, G.F.; Olff, H.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between aboveground vertebrate herbivores and subterranean yellow meadow ants (Lasius flavus) can drive plant community patterns in grassland ecosystems. Here, we study the relative importance of the presence of ants (L. flavus) and ant mounds under different simulated grazing regimes

  9. Edge detection in digital images using Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is an optimization algorithm inspired by the behavior of real ant colonies to approximate the solutions of difficult optimization problems. In this paper, ACO is introduced to tackle the image edge detection problem. The proposed approach is based on the distribution of ants on an image; ants try to find possible edges by using a state transition function. Experimental results show that the proposed method compared to standard edge detectors is less sensitive to Gaussian noise and gives finer details and thinner edges when compared to earlier ant-based approaches.

  10. MHC class II+ (HLA-DP-like) cells in the cow reproductive tract: II. Immunolocalization of MHC class II+ cells in oviduct and vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, U; Kum, S; Sandikçi, M; Eren, V; Ilhan, F

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and examine the distribution of major frequency MHC II+ cells in the oviduct and vagina of cows during the oestrous and dioestrus phases. Right oviduct (ampulla, isthmus) and vaginal samples taken from a total of twenty seven multiparous cows were used. Tissue samples were processed to obtain both cryostat and paraffin sections. Sections were stained immunocytochemically using StreptABC method using a specific monoclonal antibody to MHC II+ cell population. Intra-epithelial and subepithelial areas along with lamina propria, muscularis mucosae and serosa of both ampulla and isthmus and intra-epithelial/subepithelial areas and mucosae of vagina were examined for the presence of MHC II+ cells. The density of immune positive cells was determined using a subjective scoring system. MHC II+ cells were demonstrated in all areas examined in both oestrus and dioestrus. In oestrus, the density of MHC II+ cells decreased in subepithelial areas (in between the epithelial cells and the basal membrane) of isthmus, whereas the density of immune positive cells was increased in muscularis mucosae of isthmus (P < 0.05), lamina propria and muscularis mucosae of ampulla (P < 0.05) as well as in the mucosae of vagina (P vagina increases in the majority of areas examined due to the effect of oestrogen.

  11. Vaginal reconstruction with sigmoid colon in patients with congenital absence of vagina and menses retention: a report of treatment experience in 22 young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Shulan; Wang, Mingqian

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the surgical feasibility, sexual satisfaction and complications of vaginal reconstruction with sigmoid colon in patients with congenital absence of vagina and menses retention. Retrospective analysis of surgical techniques and long-term postoperative follow-up was performed for 22 patients who underwent vaginal reconstruction with sigmoid colon at a single hospital between 1977 and 2011 to treat congenital absence of vagina with menses retention. All patients achieved satisfactory sexual function after marriage. No patients experienced enterospastic abdominal pain during sexual intercourse. The neovaginas accommodated two or more fingers and had depths >10 cm. The mucous membranes were soft and flexible, and secretions of the sigmoid mucosa provided adequate and acceptable lubrication. No patient required vaginal stents, and none developed vaginal stenosis or reported pain with vaginal expansion. Fifteen of the 22 patients underwent hysterectomies due to cervical agenesis; seven retained their uterus and had onset of normal menses postoperatively. Two patients became pregnant 1 year after marriage; one achieved 38-week gestation, underwent cesarean section due to premature rupture of membranes, and delivered a healthy boy. The other experienced natural incomplete abortion and underwent curettage at her local hospital. This study confirms that sigmoid colon vaginal reconstruction is a good choice for treating congenital absence of vagina and menses retention and results in the closest approximation to the physical function of a normal female vagina. Reproductive ability can be retained in many cases for patients with a well-developed uterus and cervix.

  12. Characterization of microbial communities found in the human vagina by analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of 16S rRNA genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, MJL; Post, E; Davis, CC; Forney, LJ

    2005-01-01

    To define and monitor the structure of microbial communities found in the human vagina, a cultivation-independent approach based on analyses of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes was developed and validated. Sixteen bacterial strains commonly found in the

  13. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Giulio

    Full Text Available Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen. Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants.

  14. The interactions of ants with their biotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Renner, Susanne S

    2017-03-15

    This s pecial feature results from the symposium 'Ants 2016: ant interactions with their biotic environments' held in Munich in May 2016 and deals with the interactions between ants and other insects, plants, microbes and fungi, studied at micro- and macroevolutionary levels with a wide range of approaches, from field ecology to next-generation sequencing, chemical ecology and molecular genetics. In this paper, we review key aspects of these biotic interactions to provide background information for the papers of this s pecial feature After listing the major types of biotic interactions that ants engage in, we present a brief overview of ant/ant communication, ant/plant interactions, ant/fungus symbioses, and recent insights about ants and their endosymbionts. Using a large molecular clock-dated Formicidae phylogeny, we map the evolutionary origins of different ant clades' interactions with plants, fungi and hemiptera. Ants' biotic interactions provide ideal systems to address fundamental ecological and evolutionary questions about mutualism, coevolution, adaptation and animal communication. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Ant species confer different partner benefits on two neotropical myrmecophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Megan E

    2005-04-01

    The dynamics of mutualistic interactions involving more than a single pair of species depend on the relative costs and benefits of interaction among alternative partners. The neotropical myrmecophytes Cordia nodosa and Duroia hirsuta associate with several species of obligately symbiotic ants. I compared the ant partners of Cordia and Duroia with respect to two benefits known to be important in ant-myrmecophyte interactions: protection against herbivores provided by ants, and protection against encroaching vegetation provided by ants. Azteca spp., Myrmelachista schumanni, and Allomerus octoarticulatus demerarae ants all provide the leaves of Cordia and Duroia some protection against herbivores. However, Azteca and Allomerus provide more protection than does Myrmelachista to the leaves of their host plants. Although Allomerus protects the leaves of its hosts, plants occupied by Allomerus suffer more attacks by herbivores to their stems than do plants occupied by other ants. Relative to Azteca or Allomerus, Myrmelachista ants provide better protection against encroaching vegetation, increasing canopy openness over their host plants. These differences in benefits among the ant partners of Cordia and Duroia are reflected in the effect of each ant species on host plant size, growth rate, and reproduction. The results of this study show how mutualistic ant partners can differ with respect to both the magnitude and type of benefits they provide to the same species of myrmecophytic host.

  16. Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P Flanagan

    Full Text Available Argentine ants (Linepithema humile live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.

  17. Host ant independent oviposition in the parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Matthias A; Nash, David Richard

    2010-01-01

    to host-ant nests and non-host-ant nests, and the number and position of eggs attached were assessed. Our results show no evidence for host-ant-based oviposition in M. alcon, but support an oviposition strategy based on plant characteristics. This suggests that careful management of host-ant distribution......Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host......-ant-dependent oviposition in this and other Maculinea species have, however, shown equivocal results, leading to a long-term controversy over support for this hypothesis. We therefore conducted a controlled field experiment to study the egg-laying behaviour of M. alcon. Matched potted Gentiana plants were set out close...

  18. Exploring with PAM: Prospecting ANTS Missions for Solar System Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm), a large (1000 member) swarm of nano to picoclass (10 to 1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft, are being developed as a NASA advanced mission concept. ANTS, based on a hierarchical insect social order, use an evolvable, self-similar, hierarchical neural system in which individual spacecraft represent the highest level nodes. ANTS uses swarm intelligence attained through collective, cooperative interactions of the nodes at all levels of the system. At the highest levels this can take the form of cooperative, collective behavior among the individual spacecraft in a very large constellation. The ANTS neural architecture is designed for totally autonomous operation of complex systems including spacecraft constellations. The ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) concept has a number of possible applications. A version of ANTS designed for surveying and determining the resource potential of the asteroid belt, called PAM (Prospecting ANTS Mission), is examined here.

  19. Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Tatiana P; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M; Moses, Melanie E; Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.

  20. Using pleometrosis (multiple queens) and pupae transplantation to boost weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) colony growth in ant nurseries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Peng, Renkang

    2011-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are increasingly being used for biocontrol and are targeted for future production of insect protein in ant farms. An efficient production of live ant colonies may facilitate the utilization of these ants but the production of mature colonies is hampered by the long...... and no transplantation. Thus, in ant nurseries the use of multiple queens during nest founding as well as transplantation of pupae from foreign colonies may be utilised to decrease the time it takes to produce a colony ready for implementation....

  1. Effect of restricted suckling upon post-partum reproductive activity in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Barbella, S.F.; Martinez Guillen, N.D.; Combellas, J.B. de; Rondon Morales, Z.

    1990-01-01

    The post-partum reproductive performance of adult West African ewes of proven fertility was studied to assess the beneficial effect of both 14 and 18 h restricted nursing or early weaning (35 days post-lambing) on the resumption of ovarian function and conception rate at first oestrus. Although the interval from lambing to first oestrus and/or conception in the 14 h nursing (55.13±11.03 days), 18 h nursing (65.00±15.65 days) and control (59.00±13.48 days) groups did not differ, the percentage of ewes that showed oestrus (90, 60 and 50% respectively) favoured the treatment with the shortest nursing time. When lambs were weaned early, the interval from lambing to oestrus (61.40±16.50 days) did not differ significantly from that for the 14 h nursing ewes (70.10±19.37 days) but tended to be lower than for the controls (94.25±62.38 days). Since differences in response were assumed to be dependent on body condition of the individual ewes at the time of lambing, and body weight changes of the dams after lambing were correlated with progesterone hormone, plasma proteins, glucose and free fatty acids, it was assumed that the beneficial effects of the treatments on the reproductive parameters were due to the partition of nutrients towards restoration of body reserves and subsequently to the secretion of progesterone. (author). 27 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Antenatal dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and early post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Rachel; Hill, Briony; Jacka, Felice N; O'Neil, Adrienne; Skouteris, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal depression is a debilitating disorder experienced during pregnancy and/or the first year post-partum. Recently, maternal dietary intake during pregnancy has emerged as a possible area of intervention for the prevention of mental disorders in women and their offspring. However, the relationship between antenatal diet quality and perinatal depressive symptoms remains poorly understood. The current study explored the predictive role of antenatal diet quality for antenatal and post-natal depressive symptoms. Pregnant women (n = 167) were recruited between February 2010 and December 2011. Women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at time 1 [T1, mean weeks gestation = 16.70, standard deviation (SD) = 0.91], time 2 (T2, mean weeks gestation = 32.89, SD = 0.89) and time 3 (T3, mean weeks post-partum = 13.51, SD = 1.97) and a food frequency questionnaire at T1 and T2. Diet quality was determined by extracting dietary patterns via principal components analysis. Two dietary patterns were identified: 'healthy' (including fruit, vegetables, fish and whole grains) and 'unhealthy' (including sweets, refined grains, high-energy drinks and fast foods). Associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were investigated by path analyses. While both 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' path models showed good fit, only one significant association consistent with study hypotheses was found, an 'unhealthy' diet was associated with increased depressive symptoms at 32 weeks gestation. Given that this association was cross-sectional, it was not possible to make any firm conclusions about the predictive nature of either dietary patterns or depressive symptoms. Dietary intervention studies or larger prospective studies are therefore recommended. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Acute lung injury complicating blood transfusion in post-partum hemorrhage: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teofili, Luciana; Bianchi, Maria; Zanfini, Bruno A; Catarci, Stefano; Sicuranza, Rossella; Spartano, Serena; Zini, Gina; Draisci, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    We retrospectively investigated the incidence and risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) among patients transfused for post-partum hemorrhage (PPH). We identified a series of 71 consecutive patients with PPH requiring the urgent transfusion of three or more red blood cell (RBC) units, with or without transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and/or platelets (PLT). Clinical records were then retrieved and examined for respiratory distress events. According to the 2004 consensus definition, cases of new-onset hypoxemia, within 6 hours after transfusion, with bilateral pulmonary changes, in the absence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema were identified as TRALI. If an alternative risk factor for acute lung injury was present, possible TRALI was diagnosed. Thirteen cases of TRALI and 1 case of possible TRALI were identified (overall incidence 19.7%). At univariate analysis, patients with TRALI received higher number of RBC, PLT and FFP units and had a longer postpartum hospitalization. Among the diseases occurring in pregnancy- and various pre-existing comorbidities, only gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, significantly increased the risk to develop TRALI (p = 0.006). At multivariate analysis including both transfusion- and patient-related risk factors, pregnancy-related, hypertensive disorders were confirmed to be the only predictors for TRALI, with an odds ratio of 27.7 ( 95% CI 1.27-604.3, p=0.034). Patients suffering from PPH represent a high-risk population for TRALI. The patients with gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, not receiving anti-hypertensive therapy, have the highest risk. Therefore, a careful monitoring of these patients after transfusions is recommended.

  4. Cardiovascular System during the Post Partum State in Women with a History of Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Caroline S.; Gooch, Linda; Flotta, Deborah; Lykins, David; Powers, Robert W.; Landsittel, Douglas; Roberts, James M.; Shroff, Sanjeev G.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesis In subjects with previous preeclampsia, differences in cardiovascular and/or blood biochemical parameters are present in the non-pregnant state and that a simultaneous assessment of multiple derived indices better differentiates between women with or without prior preeclampsia. We examined 18 prior preeclamptic and 50 prior uncomplicated pregnancies, ~16 months post partum. Cardiovascular assessment included: (1) systemic hemodynamics and mechanics (Doppler echocardiography, tonometry, oscillometric sphygmomanometry) (2) endothelial function (plethysmography) (3) left ventricular properties (echocardiography), and (4) blood biochemical analyses. Compared to women with prior uncomplicated pregnancies, prior preeclamptics had higher mean (80±1 vs. 86±3 mmHg, P=0.04) and diastolic (64±1 vs. 68±2 mmHg; P=0.04) pressures and total vascular resistance (1562±37 vs. 1784±114 dyne•s/cm5; P=0.03). Systolic blood pressure, arterial compliance, and left ventricular properties were not different. While heart-to-femoral pulse wave velocity was not different, heart-to-brachial pulse wave velocity tended to be faster in prior preeclamptics (374±8 vs. 404±20 cm/s; P=0.06). Stress-induced increase in forearm blood flow was less in prior preeclamptics (245±21% vs. 136±22%; P=0.01), indicating impaired endothelial function. No significant differences were observed in markers of endothelial activation, dyslipidemia, or oxidative stress; prior preeclamptics tended to have higher glucose level (58.7±1.9 vs. 95±5.2 mg/dl; P=0.06). Logistic regression analysis indicated that a simultaneous evaluation of multiple derived indices better discriminated between the two groups. The differences in the prior preeclamptic group are in directions known to be associated with greater cardiovascular disease risk later in life. PMID:21606389

  5. Optic disc detection using ant colony optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcy A.; Monteiro, Fernando C.

    2012-09-01

    The retinal fundus images are used in the treatment and diagnosis of several eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. This paper proposes a new method to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically, due to the fact that the knowledge of the OD location is essential to the automatic analysis of retinal images. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behaviour of some ant species that has been applied in image processing for edge detection. Recently, the ACO was used in fundus images to detect edges, and therefore, to segment the OD and other anatomical retinal structures. We present an algorithm for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the Gabor wavelet transform, entropy and ACO algorithm. Forty images of the retina from DRIVE database were used to evaluate the performance of our method.

  6. A global database of ant species abundances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibb, H.; Dunn, R. R.; Sanders, N. J.; Grossman, B. F.; Photakis, M.; Abril, S.; Agosti, D.; Andersen, A. N.; Angulo, E.; Armbrecht, I.; Arnan, X.; Baccaro, F. B.; Bishop, T. R.; Boulay, R.; Brühl, C.; Castracani, C.; Cerdá, X.; Del Toro, I.; Delsinne, T.; Diaz, M.; Donoso, D. A.; Ellison, A. M.; Enríquez, M. L.; Fayle, Tom Maurice; Feener, D. H.; Fisher, B. L.; Fisher, R. N.; Fitzpatrick, M. C.; Gómez, C.; Gotelli, N. J.; Gove, A.; Grasso, D. A.; Groc, S.; Guenard, B.; Gunawardene, N.; Heterick, B.; Hoffmann, B.; Janda, Milan; Jenkins, C.; Kaspari, M.; Klimeš, Petr; Lach, L.; Laeger, T.; Lattke, J.; Leponce, M.; Lessard, J.-P.; Longino, J.; Lucky, A.; Luke, S. H.; Majer, J.; McGlynn, T. P.; Menke, S.; Mezger, D.; Mori, A.; Moses, Jimmy; Munyai, T. C.; Pacheco, R.; Paknia, O.; Pearce-Duvet, J.; Pfeiffer, M.; Philpott, S. M.; Resasco, J.; Retana, J.; Silva, R. R.; Sorger, M. D.; Souza, J.; Suarez, A.; Tista, M.; Vasconcelos, H. L.; Vonshak, M.; Weisser, M. D.; Yates, M.; Parr, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 3 (2017), s. 883-884 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G; GA ČR GAP505/12/2467; GA ČR GPP505/12/P875 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : abundance * ants * database Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.809, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ecy.1682/abstract

  7. Public goods dilemma in asexual ant societies

    OpenAIRE

    Dobata, Shigeto; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2013-01-01

    This study reports experimental evidence for the “public goods dilemma” between cooperators and cheaters in an asexual ant society, in which cheating is always more rewarding for individuals but cooperation at the cost of individual fitness leads to better performance of groups. Although this dilemma provides the basic principle of social evolution, its experimental demonstration with underlying genetics and fitness evaluation for both cooperators and cheaters still lacks in societies other t...

  8. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  9. Precision Rescue Behavior in North American Ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Taylor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Altruistic behavior, in which one individual provides aid to another at some cost to itself, is well documented. However, some species engage in a form of altruism, called rescue, that places the altruist in immediate danger. Here we investigate one such example, namely rescuing victims captured by predators. In a field experiment with two North American ant species, Tetramorium sp. E and Prenolepis imparis, individuals were held in artificial snares simulating capture. T. sp. E, but not P. imparis, exhibited digging, pulling, and snare biting, the latter precisely targeted to the object binding the victim. These results are the first to document precision rescue in a North American ant species; moreover, unlike rescue in other ants, T. sp. E rescues conspecifics from different colonies, mirroring their atypical social behavior, namely the lack of aggression between non-nestmate (heterocolonial conspecifics. In a second, observational study designed to demonstrate rescue from an actual predator, T. sp. E victims were dropped into an antlion's pit and the behavior of a single rescuer was observed. Results showed that T. sp. E not only attempted to release the victim, but also risked attacking the predator, suggesting that precision rescue may play an important role in this species' antipredator behavior.

  10. El periodista, ante la espiral de silencio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Fermín Galindo Arranz

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La percepción de la profesión periodística y de su influencia cambia mucho a lo largo del tiempo, de las coyunturas históricas y de los diferentes países y sociedades en los que desempeñan su labor. En un contexto mundial, la gravedad de las situaciones de riesgo periodístico se encuadran en situaciones políticas, económicas o sociales también conflictivas; es entonces cuando se suele reproducir con facilidad en la opinión pública el fenómeno de la espiral del silencio, ante el que inevitablemente se sitúa el periodista. Por definición, el trabajo del periodista consiste en ser portavoz de las novedades que se producen, en dar informaciones y emitir opiniones en la esfera pública, se tiene que situar, por tanto, de forma individual y notoriamente pública ante los fenómenos de espiral de silencio que puedan producirse en la opinión pública. Antonio Tabucchi nos presenta en su novela "Sostiene Pereira" un ejemplo magnífico del dilema del periodista ante este tipo de situaciones.

  11. Recognition of social identity in ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick eBos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the identity of others, from the individual to the group level, is a hallmark of society. Ants, and other social insects, have evolved advanced societies characterized by efficient social recognition systems. Colony identity is mediated by colony specific signature mixtures, a blend of hydrocarbons present on the cuticle of every individual (the label. Recognition occurs when an ant encounters another individual, and compares the label it perceives to an internal representation of its own colony odor (the template. A mismatch between label and template leads to rejection of the encountered individual. Although advances have been made in our understanding of how the label is produced and acquired, contradictory evidence exists about information processing of recognition cues. Here, we review the literature on template acquisition in ants and address how and when the template is formed, where in the nervous system it is localized, and the possible role of learning. We combine seemingly contradictory evidence in to a novel, parsimonious theory for the information processing of nestmate recognition cues.

  12. Effectiveness of a facebook-delivered physical activity intervention for post-partum women: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernot, Jocelyn; Olds, Tim; Lewis, Lucy K; Maher, Carol

    2013-05-29

    Physical activity is reduced during the post-partum period. Facebook is frequently used by Australian mothers, and offers flexibility, high levels of engagement and the ability to disseminate information and advice via social contacts. The Mums Step it Up Program is a newly developed 50 day team-based physical activity intervention delivered via a Facebook app. The program involves post-partum women working in teams of 4-8 friends aiming to achieve 10,000 steps per day measured by a pedometer. Women are encouraged to use the app to log their daily steps and undertake social and supportive interactions with their friends and other participants. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program. A sample of 126 women up to 12 months post-partum will be recruited through community-based health and family services. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of three groups: control, pedometer only and the Mums Step it Up Program. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome (objective physical activity) and the secondary outcomes (sleep quality and quantity, depressive symptoms, weight and quality of life) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program compared with the control and pedometer only groups. Analyses will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat-basis using random effects mixed modeling. The effect of theorized mediators (physical activity attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control) will also be examined. This study will provide information about the potential of a Facebook app for the delivery of health behavior interventions. If this intervention proves to be effective it will be released on a mass scale and promoted to the general public. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12613000069752.

  13. Maternal-foetal attachment independently predicts the quality of maternal-infant bonding and post-partum psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Eleonora; Palagini, Laura; Bacci, Olivia; Borri, Chiara; Teristi, Valentina; Corezzi, Camilla; Faraoni, Sara; Antonelli, Paolo; Cargioli, Claudio; Banti, Susanna; Perugi, Giulio; Mauri, Mauro

    2017-08-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of maternal antenatal attachment and post-partum psychopathology, maternal-infant bonding, while checking for antenatal psychopathology, for lifetime psychiatric diagnosis and for the known risk factors for peripartum depression. One hundred and six women recruited at the first month of pregnancy (T0) were evaluated with the structured interview for DSM-IV TR (SCID-I) to assess the presence of lifetime psychiatric diagnosis and with the Perinatal Depression Predictor Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). At the sixth month of pregnancy (T1) and at the first month post-partum (T2), all patients were evaluated with the PDPI-R, the EPDS, the STAI, at T1, with the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS), and at T2 with the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (MPAS). Multivariate regression analyses showed that maternal-foetal attachment was the variable most significantly associated with postnatal symptoms of depression and anxiety and with quality of maternal-infant attachment. The logistic regression analyses showed that antenatal attachment may predict postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms (respectively, OR: 0.83 - IC [0.74 - 0.95], p = .005, OR: 0.88 - IC [0.79 - 0.98], p = .02), and the quality of maternal postnatal attachment (OR: 1.17 - IC [1.08 - 1.27], p depression, the sociodemographic variables and lifetime psychiatric diagnosis. The quality of maternal-foetal bonding may independently predict the quality of maternal-infant attachment and post-partum depressive and anxiety symptoms. A comprehensive assessment of maternal risk factors for perinatal psychopathology during pregnancy should include the evaluation of antenatal attachment that could be modifiable by specific interventions promoting the quality of maternal bonding.

  14. The impact of maternal post-partum depression on the language development of children at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, L A; Silva, R A; Godoy, R; Jansen, K; Matos, M B; Tavares Pinheiro, K A; Pinheiro, R T

    2012-05-01

    Language is one of the most important acquisitions made during childhood. Before verbal language, a child develops a range of skills and behaviours that allow the child to acquire all communication skills. Factors such as environmental factors, socio-economic status and interaction with parents can affect the acquisition of vocabulary in children. Post-partum depression can negatively affect the first interactions with the child and, consequently, the emotional, social and cognitive development of the child. To analyse the effect of the duration of the mother's depression on the language development of children at 12 months old. This was a longitudinal study. The participants of this study were mothers who had received prenatal care from the Brazilian National System of Public Health in Pelotas city, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The mothers were interviewed at two different time points: from 30 to 90 days after delivery and at 12 months after delivery; the children were also evaluated at this later time point. To diagnose maternal depression, we used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and to assess child development, we used the language scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. We followed 296 dyads. Maternal depression at both time points (post partum and at 12 months) was significantly associated with the language development of infants at 12 months of age. This impact was accentuated when related to the duration of the disorder. Older women and women with more than two children were more likely to have children with poorer language development, while women who were the primary caregiver had children with higher scores on the language test. The findings indicate that maternal age, parity, primary caregiver status and duration of post-partum depression are associated with the language development of the child. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Risk factors for suicide attempt in pregnancy and the post-partum period in women with serious mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressier, Florence; Guillard, Virginie; Cazas, Odile; Falissard, Bruno; Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine M-C; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health concern worldwide, and mental disorders have been identified as a main risk factor. Suicide is also one of the leading causes of perinatal maternal mortality, but very few studies have focused on suicide attempts (SA) in the perinatal period. This work aims to assess risk factors associated with SA in pregnancy and in the post-partum period in women with mental health disorders. Women (n = 1439) with psychiatric disorders jointly admitted with their infant to 16 psychiatric Mother-Baby Units over 10 years (2001-2010) were assessed retrospectively for the occurrence of SA in pregnancy or the postpartum period. Multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the independent impact of maternal sociodemographic characteristics, history of childhood maltreatment and abuse, current mental illness and pregnancy data on SA in pregnancy and/or postpartum. One hundred and fifty-four women (11.68%) attempted suicide: 49 in pregnancy (3.71%) and 105 (7.97%) in the post-partum period. SA in pregnancy was related to alcohol use (OR = 2.37[1.02-5.53]; p = 0.04) and smoking during pregnancy (OR = 1.87[1.01-3.49]; p = 0.04) and also to a history of miscarriage (OR = 2.29[1.18-4.41]; p = 0.01). SA in the post-partum period was associated with major depressive episode (OR = 2.72[1.40-5.26]; p = 0.003) or recurrent depression (OR = 4.12[2.25-7.51], p depression in the perinatal period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Position in the second stage of labour and de novo onset of post-partum urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serati, Maurizio; Di Dedda, Maria Carmela; Bogani, Giorgio; Sorice, Paola; Cromi, Antonella; Uccella, Stefano; Lapenna, Martina; Soligo, Marco; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the maternal position at the time of delivery on the onset of de novo symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI) in the post-partum period. This prospective study evaluated the data of consecutive women undergoing labour and delivery, between January 2014 and July 2014. We included only women with a singleton pregnancy undergoing vaginal delivery. During the study period, patients chose to deliver in the position that they considered the most comfortable. The onset of UI was evaluated according to the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-sf). Overall, 716 primiparous women were included in the study. Sixty women refused the 12-week post-partum interview (8.4%). Women were divided in two groups: 296 women (45.1%) who chose an upright position during delivery (group 1) and 360 women (54.9%) who chose a supine position (group 2). Group 1 had a significantly lower episiotomy rate, but a higher rate of greater than second degree perineal tears. In group 1 we found a significantly lower rate of de novo UI (40.5% vs 48.9%, p = 0.03) and in particular of stress urinary incontinence. Via multivariate analysis, birth position was the only factor correlating with the occurrence of urinary incontinence in the post-partum period (OR: 1.52; 95%CI: 1.06, 2.18; p = 0.02). Upright positions at delivery are related to a lower episiotomy rate and a higher rate of greater than second degree perineal tears. Supine positions are an independent risk factor for the onset of de novo UI.

  17. Risk of maternal mortality in women with severe anaemia during pregnancy and post partum: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnavi Daru, MBBS

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Anaemia affects as many as half of all pregnant women in low-income and middle-income countries, but the burden of disease and associated maternal mortality are not robustly quantified. We aimed to assess the association between severe anaemia and maternal death with data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on maternal and newborn health. Methods: We used multilevel and propensity score regression analyses to establish the relation between severe anaemia and maternal death in 359 health facilities in 29 countries across Latin America, Africa, the Western Pacific, eastern Mediterranean, and southeast Asia. Severe anaemia was defined as antenatal or postnatal haemoglobin concentrations of less than 70 g/L in a blood sample obtained before death. Maternal death was defined as death any time after admission until the seventh day post partum or discharge. In regression analyses, we adjusted for post-partum haemorrhage, general anaesthesia, admission to intensive care, sepsis, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, thrombocytopenia, shock, massive transfusion, severe oliguria, failure to form clots, and severe acidosis as confounding variables. These variables were used to develop the propensity score. Findings: 312 281 women admitted in labour or with ectopic pregnancies were included in the adjusted multilevel logistic analysis, and 12 470 were included in the propensity score regression analysis. The adjusted odds ratio for maternal death in women with severe anaemia compared with those without severe anaemia was 2·36 (95% CI 1·60–3·48. In the propensity score analysis, severe anaemia was also associated with maternal death (adjusted odds ratio 1·86 [95% CI 1·39–2·49]. Interpretation: Prevention and treatment of anaemia during pregnancy and post partum should remain a global public health and research priority. Funding: Barts and the London Charity.

  18. Use of radioimmunoassay technique for the determination of post-partum ovaric activity in high and low milk production in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, P.; Paneluisa, S.; Arcos, E.

    1993-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to determinate the post-partum ovarian activity in milking cows of high and low production in one farm of ecuadorian highland. For this experiment was necessary to use 48 animals between second and sith calving, the milk samples were collected according one pre-stablished protocol and the same was: one sample 5th or 6th days, twice a week until the cows were pregnacy and 180 days after parturitium if the cow is open. Additional data were compiled in each farm and both the results of the progesterone by RIA were used to determinate the diferents reproductive parameters in the post-partum of the cows. The most of reproductives parameters in the post-partum of the cows in the both group didn't have significance but the conception rate, services per conception, number of pregnacy cows and percentaje of non visibles heats had one high significance between the treatments

  19. The invasive ant, Solenopsis invicta, reduces herpetofauna richness and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.; Slater, J.; Wiggers, E.

    2017-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles are declining globally. One potential cause of this decline includes impacts resulting from co-occurrence with non-native red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Although a growing body of anecdotal and observational evidence from laboratory experiments supports this hypothesis, there remains a lack of field scale manipulations testing the effect of fire ants on reptile and amphibian communities. We addressed this gap by measuring reptile and amphibian (“herpetofauna”) community response to successful fire ant reductions over the course of 2 years following hydramethylnon application to five 100–200 ha plots in southeastern coastal South Carolina. By assessing changes in relative abundance and species richness of herpetofauna in response to fire ant reductions, we were able to assess whether some species were particularly vulnerable to fire ant presence, and whether this sensitivity manifested at the community level. We found that herpetofauna abundance and species richness responded positively to fire ant reductions. Our results document that even moderate populations of red imported fire ants decrease both the abundance and diversity of herpetofauna. Given global herpetofauna population declines and continued spread of fire ants, there is urgency to understand the impacts of fire ants beyond anecdotal and singles species studies. Our results provides the first community level investigation addressing these dynamics, by manipulating fire ant abundance to reveal a response in herpetofauna species abundance and richness.

  20. Predaceous ants, beach replenishment, and nest placement by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterer, James K; Wood, Lawrence D; Johnson, Chris; Krahe, Holly; Fitchett, Stephanie

    2007-10-01

    Ants known for attacking and killing hatchling birds and reptiles include the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren), tropical fire ant [Solenopsis geminata (Fabr.)], and little fire ant [Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger)]. We tested whether sea turtle nest placement influenced exposure to predaceous ants. In 2000 and 2001, we surveyed ants along a Florida beach where green turtles (Chelonia mydas L.), leatherbacks (Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli), and loggerheads (Caretta caretta L.) nest. Part of the beach was artificially replenished between our two surveys. As a result, mean beach width experienced by nesting turtles differed greatly between the two nesting seasons. We surveyed 1,548 sea turtle nests (2000: 909 nests; 2001: 639 nests) and found 22 ant species. S. invicta was by far the most common species (on 431 nests); S. geminata and W. auropunctata were uncommon (on 3 and 16 nests, respectively). In 2000, 62.5% of nests had ants present (35.9% with S. invicta), but in 2001, only 30.5% of the nests had ants present (16.4% with S. invicta). Turtle nests closer to dune vegetation had significantly greater exposure to ants. Differences in ant presence on turtle nests between years and among turtle species were closely related to differences in nest placement relative to dune vegetation. Beach replenishment significantly lowered exposure of nests to ants because on the wider beaches turtles nested farther from the dune vegetation. Selective pressures on nesting sea turtles are altered both by the presence of predaceous ants and the practice of beach replenishment.

  1. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachelle M. M.; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A.; Jones, Tappey H.; Nash, David R.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies. PMID:24019482

  2. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachelle M M; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A; Jones, Tappey H; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2013-09-24

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

  3. When invasive ants meet: effects of outbreeding on queen performance in the tramp ant Cardiocondyla itsukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jürgen; Frohschammer, Sabine; Bernadou, Abel

    2017-08-18

    Most disturbed habitats in the tropics and subtropics harbor numerous species of invasive ants, and occasionally the same species has been introduced repeatedly from multiple geographical sources. We examined how experimental crossbreeding between sexuals from different populations affects the fitness of queens of the tramp ant Cardiocondyla itsukii, which is widely distributed in Asia and the Pacific Islands. Eggs laid by queens that mated with nestmate males had a higher hatching rate than eggs laid by queens mated to males from neighboring (Hawaii × Kauai) or distant introduced populations (Hawaii/Kauai × Okinawa). Furthermore, inbreeding queens had a longer lifespan and produced a less female-biased offspring sex ratio than queens from allopatric mating. This suggests that the genetic divergence between different source populations may already be so large that in case of multiple invasions eventual crossbreeding might negatively affect the fitness of tramp ants. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Supplemental fish oil does not alter immune competence or the pathophysiological response to an intramammary infusion of endotoxin in peri-partum multiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, Michael A; Gomes, Rodrigo C; DePeters, Edward J

    2009-05-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of supplementing the diet with fish oil during the peri-partum period on the immune competence and the pathophysiological response to a lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis challenge. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=30) were completely randomized to one of two treatments at 3 weeks pre-partum. Treatments differed only in the source of supplemental lipid and included either Energy Booster or fish oil. Treatment diets were fed from -21 d relative to expected date of parturition until 10 d post partum. Treatments were fed as a bolus prior to the a.m. feeding. The dose of lipid during the pre-partum period was 250 g/d, whereas the amount of lipid supplemented post partum was adjusted to the level of intake, approximately 0.92% of the previous day's dry matter intake. Ex-vivo analyses of immune competence were measured including the antimicrobial activity of whole blood against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Candida albicans as well as the production of interferon-gamma by peripheral blood mononuclear cultures. At 7 days in milk cows were infused with 100 microg of Esch. coli lipopolysaccharide into one rear quarter. Supplementing fish oil increased plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, but had no affect on the proportions of arachidonic acid at calving. Fish oil did not influence the production of interferon-gamma or the antimicrobial activity of whole blood against any of the microorganisms. Furthermore, fish oil had no ameliorative effect on either the local or the systemic acute phase response following an intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge in early lactating Holstein cows. Supplementing fish oil in the diet of peri-partum cows will not protect them from deleterious effects of an excessive acute phase response.

  5. Relationships between antenatal and postnatal care and post-partum modern contraceptive use: evidence from population surveys in Kenya and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Mai; Hotchkiss, David

    2013-01-04

    It is often assumed, with little supportive, empirical evidence, that women who use maternal health care are more likely than those who do not to use modern contraceptives. This study aims to add to the existing literature on associations between the use of antenatal (ANC) and post-natal care (PNC) and post-partum modern contraceptives. Data come from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in Kenya (2008-09) and Zambia (2007). Study samples include women who had a live birth within five years before the survey (3,667 in Kenya and 3,587 in Zambia). Multivariate proportional hazard models were used to examine the associations between the intensity of ANC and PNC service use and a woman's adoption of modern contraceptives after a recent live birth. Tests of exogeneity confirmed that the intensity of ANC and PNC service use and post-partum modern contraceptive practice were not influenced by common unobserved factors. Cox proportional hazard models showed significant associations between the service intensity of ANC and PNC and post-partum modern contraceptive use in both countries. This relationship is largely due to ANC services; no significant associations were observed between PNC service intensity and post-partum FP practice. While the lack of associations between PNC and post-partum FP use may be due to the limited measure of PNC service intensity, the study highlights a window of opportunity to promote the use of modern contraceptives after childbirth through ANC service delivery. Depending on the availability of data, further research should take into account community- and facility-level factors that may influence modern contraceptive use in examining associations between ANC and PNC use and post-partum FP practice.

  6. Relationships between antenatal and postnatal care and post-partum modern contraceptive use: evidence from population surveys in Kenya and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Mai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is often assumed, with little supportive, empirical evidence, that women who use maternal health care are more likely than those who do not to use modern contraceptives. This study aims to add to the existing literature on associations between the use of antenatal (ANC and post-natal care (PNC and post-partum modern contraceptives. Methods Data come from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS in Kenya (2008–09 and Zambia (2007. Study samples include women who had a live birth within five years before the survey (3,667 in Kenya and 3,587 in Zambia. Multivariate proportional hazard models were used to examine the associations between the intensity of ANC and PNC service use and a woman’s adoption of modern contraceptives after a recent live birth. Results Tests of exogeneity confirmed that the intensity of ANC and PNC service use and post-partum modern contraceptive practice were not influenced by common unobserved factors. Cox proportional hazard models showed significant associations between the service intensity of ANC and PNC and post-partum modern contraceptive use in both countries. This relationship is largely due to ANC services; no significant associations were observed between PNC service intensity and post-partum FP practice. Conclusions While the lack of associations between PNC and post-partum FP use may be due to the limited measure of PNC service intensity, the study highlights a window of opportunity to promote the use of modern contraceptives after childbirth through ANC service delivery. Depending on the availability of data, further research should take into account community- and facility-level factors that may influence modern contraceptive use in examining associations between ANC and PNC use and post-partum FP practice.

  7. Food source quality and ant dominance hierarchy influence the outcomes of ant-plant interactions in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Flores, Rocío Vianey; Aguirre, Armando; Anjos, Diego V.; Neves, Frederico S.; Campos, Ricardo I.; Dáttilo, Wesley

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we conducted a series of experiments in a population of Vachellia constricta (Fabaceae) in the arid Tehuacan-Cuicatláan valley, Mexico, in order to evaluate if the food source quality and ant dominance hierarchy influence the outcomes of ant-plant interactions. Using an experiment with artificial nectaries, we observed that ants foraging on food sources with higher concentration of sugar are quicker in finding and attacking potential herbivorous insects. More specifically, we found that the same ant species may increase their defence effectiveness according to the quality of food available. These findings indicate that ant effectiveness in plant protection is context-dependent and may vary according to specific individual characteristics of plants. In addition, we showed that competitively superior ant species tend to dominate plants in periods with high nectar activity, emphasizing the role of the dominance hierarchy structuring ant-plant interactions. However, when high sugar food sources were experimentally available ad libitum, the nocturnal and competitively superior ant species, Camponotus atriceps, did not dominate the artificial nectaries during the day possibly due to limitation of its thermal tolerance. Therefore, temporal niche partitioning may be allowing the coexistence of two dominant ant species (Camponotus rubritorax during the day and C. atriceps at night) on V. constricta. Our findings indicate that the quality of the food source, and temporal shifts in ant dominance are key factors which structure the biotic plant defences in an arid environment.

  8. Just follow your nose: homing by olfactory cues in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Kathrin

    2012-04-01

    How is an ant-equipped with a brain that barely exceeds the size of a pinhead-capable of achieving navigational marvels? Even though evidences suggest that navigation is a multimodal process, ants heavily depend on olfactory cues-of pheromonal and non-pheromonal nature-for foraging and orientation. Recent studies have directed their attention to the efficiency of pheromone trail networks. Advances in neurophysiological techniques make it possible to investigate trail pheromone processing in the ant's brain. In addition to relying on pheromone odours, ants also make use of volatiles emanating from the nest surroundings. Deposited in the vicinity of the nest, these home-range markings help the ants to home after a foraging run. Furthermore, olfactory landmarks associated with the nest enhance ants' homing abilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ant tending influences soldier production in a social aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingleton, A W; Foster, W A

    2000-09-22

    The aphid Pseudoregma sundanica (Van der Goot) (Homoptera: Aphididae) has two defence strategies. It is obligatorily tended by various species of ant and also produces sterile soldiers. We investigated how they allocate their investment in these two strategies. We measured the size, number of soldiers, number and species of tending ant, and number and species of predators in P. sundanica populations. We found that the level of ant tending correlated negatively with soldier investment in P. sundanica. The species of tending ant also influenced soldier investment. We excluded ants from aphid populations and recorded changes in population size and structure over four weeks. Ant exclusion led to population decline and extinction. At the same time, surviving populations showed a significant increase in soldier investment. The data demonstrate that social aphids can adjust their investment in soldiers in direct response to environmental change.

  10. [Unwanted adolescent pregnancy and post-partum utilization of contraceptive methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Urquiza, Rosa María; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo; García-Barrios, Cecilia; González, Dolores; Walker, Dylis

    2003-01-01

    To describe the proportion of unwanted pregnancies among all pregnant adolescents, its association with sociodemographic characteristics, and the use of post-partum contraceptive methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 220 women between 13 and 19 years of age, in two semi-urban municipalities of the State of Morelos, Mexico, interviewed between 1992 and 1994. Women were interviewed at home, six to twelve weeks after their delivery date. Women were asked whether they had wanted their last pregnancy, and about knowledge and use of contraceptive methods after delivery. Adolescent pregnancies accounted for 17% of all births registered in these two municipalities. Among all adolescent mother 22.73% reported that their pregnancy had not been wanted. A positive association was found between the lack of access to health services provided by public medical insurance systems (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social IMSS and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado ISSSTE) and unwanted pregnancy (adjusted OR = 3.03, 95% CI (1.31, 7.) An association was also found between living in an urban community (adjusted OR = 2.16, 95% CI (1.08, 4.33) and an unwanted pregnancy. Among all adolescent mothers, 91.3% were familiar with "the pill" as a contraceptive method; 84.72% knew about the IUD, and 63.68% knew about the condom. However, only 35% of them were actually using an effective contraceptive method six weeks after delivery. No difference in frequency of contraceptive use was found among the adolescent mothers, according to whether they wanted their last pregnancy. Only 43.39% of mothers who delivered at hospitals or health centers were using an effective contraceptive method. These findings suggest that there is a great potential for family planning programs to target adolescents, and that the use of contraceptive methods after delivery should be promoted among adolescent mothers, especially those lacking access to public medical

  11. Patterns of ovarian and oestrous activity and induction of cyclic activity during the post-partum period in Egyptian buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboul-Ela, M.B.; Shafie, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    This report covers three studies. In the first study, ovarian and oestrous activity were monitored in 47 buffaloes for 90 days following parturition. Failure to resume ovarian cyclicity after calving was found to be the main reason for the delay in conception. High incidence of ovulatory anoestrus (64%) constitutes also a major problem in Egyptian buffaloes. In the second study, buffaloes with inactive ovaries were treated at 90 days post-partum with either GnRH or progesterone, given either intravaginally (PRID) or orally (CAP). Both GnRH and PRID were effective in inducing ovulation but GnRH administration was followed by a high incidence of silent ovulation. Within the 35 days following treatment, about 50% of the PRID treated animals got in calf vs. 44 and 22% for GnRH and CAP treated animals, respectively. In the third study, buffaloes were treated with either 6 or 12μg GnRH at either 7 or 15 days post-partum. GnRH treatment resulted in significant reductions in the intervals from calving to first ovulation, first detected oestrus and time to first rise in serum progesterone concentration (> 1 ng/mL). (author). 26 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  12. Consuming fire ants reduces northern bobwhite survival and weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.

  13. Cercomacra and related antbirds (Aves, Formicariidae as army ant followers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin O. Willis

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Cercomacra and Schistocichla antbirds (Formicariidae favor dense foliage and seldom follow army ants for flushed prey, since the ants move through open forest understory as well as through dense zones. Two other lineages, the Drymophila-Hypocnemis lineage (of dense woodland understory and the Formicivora lineage (of dense bushes in dry or semiopen zones, also cannot follow ants regularly through open forest understory.

  14. Do herbivores eavesdrop on ant chemical communication to avoid predation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Gonthier

    Full Text Available Strong effects of predator chemical cues on prey are common in aquatic and marine ecosystems, but are thought to be rare in terrestrial systems and specifically for arthropods. For ants, herbivores are hypothesized to eavesdrop on ant chemical communication and thereby avoid predation or confrontation. Here I tested the effect of ant chemical cues on herbivore choice and herbivory. Using Margaridisa sp. flea beetles and leaves from the host tree (Conostegia xalapensis, I performed paired-leaf choice feeding experiments. Coating leaves with crushed ant liquids (Azteca instabilis, exposing leaves to ant patrolling prior to choice tests (A. instabilis and Camponotus textor and comparing leaves from trees with and without A. instabilis nests resulted in more herbivores and herbivory on control (no ant-treatment relative to ant-treatment leaves. In contrast to A. instabilis and C. textor, leaves previously patrolled by Solenopsis geminata had no difference in beetle number and damage compared to control leaves. Altering the time A. instabilis patrolled treatment leaves prior to choice tests (0-, 5-, 30-, 90-, 180-min. revealed treatment effects were only statistically significant after 90- and 180-min. of prior leaf exposure. This study suggests, for two ecologically important and taxonomically diverse genera (Azteca and Camponotus, ant chemical cues have important effects on herbivores and that these effects may be widespread across the ant family. It suggests that the effect of chemical cues on herbivores may only appear after substantial previous ant activity has occurred on plant tissues. Furthermore, it supports the hypothesis that herbivores use ant chemical communication to avoid predation or confrontation with ants.

  15. A Theoretic Basis for IS? The Contribution of ANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Underwood

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Representation is a key issue of IS design and operation that is often ignored. Actor-network theory (ANT, a semiotic theory of stakeholders, provides a way of dealing with representation. Combining aspects of ANT and Foucault's discourse theory allows us to include concepts as actors and promises a flexible and durable foundation for IS practice, but ANT itself indicates that the search for a purely theoretical foundation for IS is misguided.

  16. Symptoms associated with the DSM IV diagnosis of depression in pregnancy and post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Martin; Marks, Maureen N; Pinard, Claudia; Taylor, Alyx; von Castelberg, Brida; Künzli, Hansjörg; Glover, Vivette

    2009-06-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum may affect symptoms of depression. However it has not yet been tested how the symptoms used for the DSM IV diagnosis of depression discriminate depressed from non depressed women perinatally. A modified version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV (SCID interview) was used that allowed assessment of all associated DSM IV symptoms of depression with depressed and non depressed women in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Loss of appetite was not associated with depression either ante or postnatally. The antenatal symptom pattern was different from the postnatal. The sensitivity of the symptoms ranged from 0.7% to 51.6%, and specificity from 61.3% to 99.1%. The best discriminating symptoms were motor retardation/agitation and concentration antenatally, and motor retardation/agitation, concentration and fatigue postnatally. Depression in pregnancy and postpartum depression show significantly different symptom profiles. Appetite is not suitable for the diagnosis of depression in the perinatal period.

  17. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper-Bui, L.M. [Department of Environmental Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Kwok, E.S.C. [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Buchholz, B.A., E-mail: buchholz2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Rust, M.K. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Eastmond, D.A. [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Vogel, J.S. [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of {sup 14}C-sucrose, {sup 14}C-hydramethylnon, and {sup 14}C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  18. Improved Ant Colony Clustering Algorithm and Its Performance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Clustering analysis is used in many disciplines and applications; it is an important tool that descriptively identifies homogeneous groups of objects based on attribute values. The ant colony clustering algorithm is a swarm-intelligent method used for clustering problems that is inspired by the behavior of ant colonies that cluster their corpses and sort their larvae. A new abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm using a data combination mechanism is proposed to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy of the ant colony clustering algorithm. The abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm is used to cluster benchmark problems, and its performance is compared with the ant colony clustering algorithm and other methods used in existing literature. Based on similar computational difficulties and complexities, the results show that the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm produces results that are not only more accurate but also more efficiently determined than the ant colony clustering algorithm and the other methods. Thus, the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm can be used for efficient multivariate data clustering. PMID:26839533

  19. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper-Bui, L.M.; Kwok, E.S.C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Rust, M.K.; Eastmond, D.A.; Vogel, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14 C-sucrose, 14 C-hydramethylnon, and 14 C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  20. Disease dynamics in a specialized parasite of ant societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Breum; Ferrari, Matthew; Evans, Harry C.

    2012-01-01

    Coevolution between ant colonies and their rare specialized parasites are intriguing, because lethal infections of workers may correspond to tolerable chronic diseases of colonies, but the parasite adaptations that allow stable coexistence with ants are virtually unknown. We explore the trade......-offs experienced by Ophiocordyceps parasites manipulating ants into dying in nearby graveyards. We used field data from Brazil and Thailand to parameterize and fit a model for the growth rate of graveyards. We show that parasite pressure is much lower than the abundance of ant cadavers suggests...

  1. Signals can trump rewards in attracting seed-dispersing ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M Turner

    Full Text Available Both rewards and signals are important in mutualisms. In myrmecochory, or seed dispersal by ants, the benefits to plants are relatively well studied, but less is known about why ants pick up and move seeds. We examined seed dispersal by the ant Aphaenogaster rudis of four co-occurring species of plants, and tested whether morphology, chemical signaling, or the nutritional quality of fatty seed appendages called elaiosomes influenced dispersal rates. In removal trials, ants quickly collected diaspores (seeds plus elaiosomes of Asarum canadense, Trillium grandiflorum, and Sanguinaria canadensis, but largely neglected those of T. erectum. This discrepancy was not explained by differences in the bulk cost-benefit ratio, as assessed by the ratio of seed to elaiosome mass. We also provisioned colonies with diaspores from one of these four plant species or no diaspores as a control. Colonies performed best when fed S. canadensis diaspores, worst when fed T. grandiflorum, and intermediately when fed A. canadense, T. erectum, or no diaspores. Thus, the nutritional rewards in elaiosomes affected colony performance, but did not completely predict seed removal. Instead, high levels of oleic acid in T. grandiflorum elaiosomes may explain why ants disperse these diaspores even though they reduce ant colony performance. We show for the first time that different elaiosome-bearing plants provide rewards of different quality to ant colonies, but also that ants appear unable to accurately assess reward quality when encountering seeds. Instead, we suggest that signals can trump rewards as attractants of ants to seeds.

  2. The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Cremer

    Full Text Available It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus. We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus relies on a combination of parasite-release following introduction and pre-adaptations in mating system, body-size, queen number and recognition efficiency that evolved long before introduction. Our results challenge the notion that supercolonial organization is an inevitable consequence of low genetic variation for chemical recognition cues in small invasive founder populations. We infer that low variation and limited volatility in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles already existed in the native range in combination with low dispersal and a highly viscous population structure. Human transport to relatively disturbed urban areas thus became the decisive factor to induce parasite release, a well established general promoter of invasiveness in non-social animals and plants, but understudied in invasive social insects.

  3. The Evolution of Invasiveness in Garden Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line V.; Drijfhout, Falko P.; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C.; Steiner, Florian M.; Seifert, Bernhard; Hughes, David P.; Schulz, Andreas; Petersen, Klaus S.; Konrad, Heino; Stauffer, Christian; Kiran, Kadri; Espadaler, Xavier; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Aktaç, Nihat; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Jones, Graeme R.; Nash, David R.; Pedersen, Jes S.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus. We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus relies on a combination of parasite-release following introduction and pre-adaptations in mating system, body-size, queen number and recognition efficiency that evolved long before introduction. Our results challenge the notion that supercolonial organization is an inevitable consequence of low genetic variation for chemical recognition cues in small invasive founder populations. We infer that low variation and limited volatility in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles already existed in the native range in combination with low dispersal and a highly viscous population structure. Human transport to relatively disturbed urban areas thus became the decisive factor to induce parasite release, a well established general promoter of invasiveness in non-social animals and plants, but understudied in invasive social insects. PMID:19050762

  4. [Syagrus romanzoffiana (Arecaceae) seed utilization by ants in a secondary forest in South Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda R; Begnini, Romualdo M; Klier, Vinícius A; Scherer, Karla Z; Lopes, Benedito C; Castellani, Tânia T

    2009-01-01

    Ants can nest in a wide variety of substracts. This paper shows Syagrus romanzoffiana seed utilization by ants in an Atlantic secondary forest. We report 29 seeds occupied by small-bodied ants, with 27 of them showing at least two ant development stages. Although a large number of seeds were sampled, a low level of ant occupation was observed.

  5. Relative effects of disturbance on red imported fire ants and native ant species in a longleaf pine ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuble, Katharine L.; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Carroll, C. Ronald

    2011-01-01

    and cases in which non-native species become established in intact (lacking extensive anthropogenic soil disturbance) communities and subsequently diminish the abundance and richness of native species is challenging on the basis of observation alone. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta......), an invasive species that occurs throughout much of the southeastern United States, is such an example. Rather than competitively displacing native species, fire ants may become established only in disturbed areas in which native species richness and abundance are already reduced. We used insecticide to reduce......, the abundance of native ants increased to levels comparable to those in control plots after 1 year. Our findings suggest that factors other than large reductions in ant abundance and species density (number of species per unit area) may affect the establishment of fire ants and that the response of native ants...

  6. La escritura como espada ante el machismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rottoli, Sofía

    2016-01-01

    Cuando se trata de expresar una postura que abarque una temática demasiado amplia o controversial, recurrir a la escritura puede ser una buena opción de abordaje. Sobre todo cuando son discusiones que llevan años de vigencia. Las luchas feministas ante la violencia de género no son una excepción. Sus discusiones siempre tuvieron presencia en diversos campos, uno de ellos es la ya mencionada escritura. Centro de Investigación en Lectura y Escritura (CILE)

  7. Ecology: 'Devil's gardens' bedevilled by ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Megan E; Greene, Michael J; Gordon, Deborah M

    2005-09-22

    'Devil's gardens' are large stands of trees in the Amazonian rainforest that consist almost entirely of a single species, Duroia hirsuta, and, according to local legend, are cultivated by an evil forest spirit. Here we show that the ant Myrmelachista schumanni, which nests in D. hirsuta stems, creates devil's gardens by poisoning all plants except its host plants with formic acid. By killing these other plants, M. schumanni provides its colonies with abundant nest sites--a long-lasting benefit as colonies can live for 800 years.

  8. Ante-natal ionising radiation and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This editorial comments on the latest reports of the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancer (now based on Birmingham). With 14759 pairs, the latest survey is over 10-fold larger than the 1958 report and the calculation of fatal childhood cancer rate at one case in 990 ante-natal radiographic examinations is rather larger than the early estimates, in spite of the fetal radiation dose having been halved and the cure rate for childhood leukemia being much improved. Comments are made on the comparisons with bomb survivors, and on the much increased fatal cancer incidence after first trimester radiography. (UK)

  9. Ant Systems for a Dynamic TSP - Ants Caught in a Traffic Jam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyckelhof, C.J.; Dorigo, M.; Caro Di, G.; Snoek, M.; Sampels, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a new Ants System approach to a dynamic Travelling Salesman Problem. Here the travel times between the cities are subject to change. To handle this dynamism several ways of adapting the pheromone matrix both locally and globally are considered. We show that the strategy of

  10. Nectar Theft and Floral Ant-Repellence: A Link between Nectar Volume and Ant-Repellent Traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Gavin; Willmer, Pat

    2012-01-01

    As flower visitors, ants rarely benefit a plant. They are poor pollinators, and can also disrupt pollination by deterring other flower visitors, or by stealing nectar. Some plant species therefore possess floral ant-repelling traits. But why do particular species have such traits when others do not? In a dry forest in Costa Rica, of 49 plant species around a third were ant-repellent at very close proximity to a common generalist ant species, usually via repellent pollen. Repellence was positively correlated with the presence of large nectar volumes. Repellent traits affected ant species differently, some influencing the behaviour of just a few species and others producing more generalised ant-repellence. Our results suggest that ant-repellent floral traits may often not be pleiotropic, but instead could have been selected for as a defence against ant thieves in plant species that invest in large volumes of nectar. This conclusion highlights to the importance of research into the cost of nectar production in future studies into ant-flower interactions. PMID:22952793

  11. Partial incompatibility between ants and symbiotic fungi in two sympatric species of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, A N; Rehner, S A; Boomsma, J J

    2001-10-01

    We investigate the nature and duration of incompatibility between certain combinations of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants and symbiotic fungi, taken from sympatric colonies of the same or a related species. Ant-fungus incompatibility appeared to be largely independent of the ant species involved, but could be explained partly by genetic differences among the fungus cultivars. Following current theoretical considerations, we develop a hypothesis, originally proposed by S. A. Frank, that the observed incompatibilities are ultimately due to competitive interactions between genetically different fungal lineages, and we predict that the ants should have evolved mechanisms to prevent such competition between cultivars within a single garden. This requires that the ants are able to recognize unfamiliar fungi, and we show that this is indeed the case. Amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping further shows that the two sympatric Acromyrmex species share each other's major lineages of cultivar, confirming that horizontal transfer does occasionally take place. We argue and provide some evidence that chemical substances produced by the fungus garden may mediate recognition of alien fungi by the ants. We show that incompatibility between ants and transplanted, genetically different cultivars is indeed due to active killing of the novel cultivar by the ants. This incompatibility disappears when ants are force-fed the novel cultivar for about a week, a result that is consistent with our hypothesis of recognition induced by the resident fungus and eventual replacement of incompatibility compounds during force-feeding.

  12. The importance of ants in cave ecology, with new records and behavioral observations of ants in Arizona caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Pape

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes. A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these habitats and their contained resources by individual ant colonies. Documentation of Neivamyrmex sp. preying on cave-inhabiting arthropods is reported here for the first time. Observations of hypogeic army ants in caves suggests they may not penetrate to great vertical depth in search of prey, but can be persistent occupants in relatively shallow, horizontal sections of caves where they may prey on endemic cave animals. First cave records for ten ant species are reported from Arizona caves. These include two species of Neivamyrmex (N. nigrescens Cresson and Neivamyrmex sp.; Formicidae: Dorylinae, four myrmicines (Pheidole portalensis Wilson, Pheidole cf. porcula Wheeler, Solenopsis aurea Wheeler and Stenamma sp. Westwood, one dolichoderine (Forelius keiferi Wheeler and three formicines (Lasius arizonicus Wheeler, L. sitiens Wilson, and Camponotus sp. Mayr.

  13. ANT tuner retrofit for LEB cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, L.; Goren, Y.; Kwiatkowski, S.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes a ferrite tuner design for the LEB cavity that utilizes techniques for bonding ferrite to metallic cooling plates that is utilized in the high-power rf and microwave industry. A test tuner was designed to fit into the existing LEB-built magnet and onto the Grimm LEB Cavity. It will require a new vacuum window in order to attain maximal tuning range and high voltage capability and a new center conductor of longer length and a different vacuum window connection than the Grimm center conductor. However, the new center conductor will be essentially identical to the Grimm center conductor in its basic construction and in the way it connects to the stand for support. The tuner is mechanically very similar to high-power stacked circulators built by ANT of Germany and was designed according to ANT's established engineering and design criteria and SSC LEB tuning and power requirements. The tuner design incorporates thin tiles of ferrite glued using a high-radiation-resistance epoxy to copper-plated stainless steel cooling plates of thickness 6.5 mm with water cooling channels inside the plates. The cooling plates constitute 16 pie-shaped segments arranged in a disk. They are electrically isolated from each other to suppress eddy currents. Five of these disks are arranged in parallel with high-pressure rf contacts between the plates at the outer radius. The end walls are slotted copper-plated stainless steel of thickness 3 mm

  14. Loading pattern optimization using ant colony algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoareau, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Electricite de France (EDF) operates 58 nuclear power plants (NPP), of the Pressurized Water Reactor type. The loading pattern optimization of these NPP is currently done by EDF expert engineers. Within this framework, EDF R and D has developed automatic optimization tools that assist the experts. LOOP is an industrial tool, developed by EDF R and D and based on a simulated annealing algorithm. In order to improve the results of such automatic tools, new optimization methods have to be tested. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms are recent methods that have given very good results on combinatorial optimization problems. In order to evaluate the performance of such methods on loading pattern optimization, direct comparisons between LOOP and a mock-up based on the Max-Min Ant System algorithm (a particular variant of ACO algorithms) were made on realistic test-cases. It is shown that the results obtained by the ACO mock-up are very similar to those of LOOP. Future research will consist in improving these encouraging results by using parallelization and by hybridizing the ACO algorithm with local search procedures. (author)

  15. Ant Foraging Behavior for Job Shop Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahad Diyana Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is a new algorithm approach, inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants. It has frequently been applied to many optimization problems and one such problem is in solving the job shop problem (JSP. The JSP is a finite set of jobs processed on a finite set of machine where once a job initiates processing on a given machine, it must complete processing and uninterrupted. In solving the Job Shop Scheduling problem, the process is measure by the amount of time required in completing a job known as a makespan and minimizing the makespan is the main objective of this study. In this paper, we developed an ACO algorithm to minimize the makespan. A real set of problems from a metal company in Johor bahru, producing 20 parts with jobs involving the process of clinching, tapping and power press respectively. The result from this study shows that the proposed ACO heuristics managed to produce a god result in a short time.

  16. The effect of diet and opponent size on aggressive interactions involving caribbean crazy ants (Nylanderia fulva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C Horn

    Full Text Available Biotic interactions are often important in the establishment and spread of invasive species. In particular, competition between introduced and native species can strongly influence the distribution and spread of exotic species and in some cases competition among introduced species can be important. The Caribbean crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva, was recently introduced to the Gulf Coast of Texas, and appears to be spreading inland. It has been hypothesized that competition with the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, may be an important factor in the spread of crazy ants. We investigated the potential of interspecific competition among these two introduced ants by measuring interspecific aggression between Caribbean crazy ant workers and workers of Solenopsis invicta. Specifically, we examined the effect of body size and diet on individual-level aggressive interactions among crazy ant workers and fire ants. We found that differences in diet did not alter interactions between crazy ant workers from different nests, but carbohydrate level did play an important role in antagonistic interactions with fire ants: crazy ants on low sugar diets were more aggressive and less likely to be killed in aggressive encounters with fire ants. We found that large fire ants engaged in fewer fights with crazy ants than small fire ants, but fire ant size affected neither fire ant nor crazy ant mortality. Overall, crazy ants experienced higher mortality than fire ants after aggressive encounters. Our findings suggest that fire ant workers might outcompete crazy ant workers on an individual level, providing some biotic resistance to crazy ant range expansion. However, this resistance may be overcome by crazy ants that have a restricted sugar intake, which may occur when crazy ants are excluded from resources by fire ants.

  17. Cavitating lung disease due to concomitant drug resistant tuberculosis and invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis in a post-partum patient: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Animesh; Suri, J C; Sen, M K; Chakrabarti, S; Gupta, Ayush; Capoor, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Many disorders can present as cavitating lesions in the lung. In this case report, a case of mixed infection with drug resistant tuberculosis and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a post-partum patient has been presented. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Innate immunity in the vagina (part I): estradiol inhibits HBD2 and elafin secretion by human vaginal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mickey V; Fahey, John V; Rossoll, Richard M; Wira, Charles R

    2013-05-01

    Vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) are the first line of defense against incoming pathogens in the female reproductive tract. Their ability to produce the anti-HIV molecules elafin and HBD2 under hormonal stimulation is unknown. Vaginal epithelial cells were recovered using a menstrual cup and cultured overnight prior to treatment with estradiol (E₂), progesterone (P₄) or a panel of selective estrogen response modulators (SERMs). Conditioned media were recovered and analyzed for protein concentration and anti-HIV activity. E₂ significantly decreased the secretion of HBD2 and elafin by VEC over 48 hrs, while P4 and the SERMs (tamoxifen, PHTTP, ICI or Y134) had no effect. VEC conditioned media from E₂ -treated cells had no anti-HIV activity, while that from E₂ /P₄ -treated cells significantly inhibited HIV-BaL infection. The menstrual cup allows for effective recovery of primary VEC. Their production of HBD2 and elafin is sensitive to E₂, suggesting that innate immune protection varies in the vagina across the menstrual cycle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Increased diversity of fungal flora in the vagina of patients with recurrent vaginal candidiasis and allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Renyong; Zheng, Nengneng; Lu, Haifeng; Yin, Hongfang; Yao, Jinmei; Chen, Yu

    2012-11-01

    Recurrent vaginal candidiasis (RVC) is considered to be a hypersensitivity disorder that is associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) in immune deficiencies; however, whether or not the composition of the vaginal fungal flora in patients with AR and RVC is altered and if such alterations in patients with AR are associated with the development of RVC remain unclear. In the present study, a cultivation-independent method with the 18S rRNA gene clone library was used to analyze the diversity and composition of the vaginal fungal flora in patients with AR and RVC and to explore the association. Three fungal phyla (Ascomycotae, 22 out of 28; Basidiomycetes, 5 out of 28; and Oomycetes, 1 out of 28) were identified from groups of healthy volunteers, patients with AR, patients with RVC, and patients with RVC complicated by AR, including 28 phylotypes of fungal flora (10, 15, 17, and 21 phylotypes for each group, respectively). The predominant genera of fungi identified in the vagina included Candida, uncultured fungi, and Dothideomycetes. An increased proportion of Candida albicans accompanied with decreased proportions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and uncultured fungi was observed in patients with AR or RVC (P vaginal fungal diversity in patients with AR or RVC was significantly higher compared with healthy volunteers (P vaginal fungal flora in patients with AR and RVC and indicated that disturbed vaginal fungal flora in patients with AR might be correlated with disease progression in patients with RVC.

  20. Rapidly disintegrating vagina retentive cream suppositories of progesterone: development, patient satisfaction and in vitro/in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendas, Ehab Rasmy; Basalious, Emad B

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to develop novel vagina retentive cream suppositories (VRCS) of progesterone having rapid disintegration and good vaginal retention. VRCS of progesterone were prepared using oil in water (o/w) emulsion of mineral oil or theobroma oil in hard fat and compared with conventional vaginal suppositories (CVS) prepared by hard fat. VRCS formulations were tested for content uniformity, disintegration, melting range, in vitro release and stability studies. The most stable formulation (VRCS I) was subjected to scaling-up manufacturing and patients' satisfaction test. The rapid disintegration, good retentive properties are applicable through the inclusion of emulsified theobroma oil rather than hydrophilic surfactant into the hard fat bases. The release profile of progesterone from VRCS I showed a biphasic pattern due to the formation of progesterone reservoir in the emulsified theobroma oil. All volunteers involved in patients' satisfaction test showed high satisfactory response to the tested formulation (VRCS). The in vivo pharmacokinetic study suggests that VRCS of progesterone provided higher rate and extent of absorption compared to hard fat based suppositories. Our results proposed that emulsified theobroma oil could be promising to solve the problems of poor patients' satisfaction and variability of drug absorption associated with hard fat suppositories.

  1. Aphid egg protection by ants: a novel aspect of the mutualism between the tree-feeding aphid Stomaphis hirukawai and its attendant ant Lasius productus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kenji; Yashiro, Toshihisa

    2006-10-01

    Aphids often form mutualistic associations with ants, in which the aphids provide the ants with honeydew and the ants defend the aphids from predators. In this paper, we report aphid egg protection by ants as a novel aspect of the deeply interdependent relationship between a tree-feeding aphid and its attendant ant. The ant Lasius productus harbours oviparous females, males, and eggs of the hinoki cypress-feeding aphid Stomaphis hirukawai in its nests in winter. We investigated the behaviour of ants kept with aphid eggs in petri dishes to examine whether the ants recognise the aphid eggs and tend them or only provide a refuge for the aphids. Workers carried almost all of the aphid eggs into the nest within 24 h. The ants indiscriminately tended aphid eggs collected from their own colonies and those from other ant colonies. The ants cleaned the eggs and piled them up in the nest, and egg tending by ants dramatically increased aphid egg survival rates. Starving the ants showed no significant effect on aphid egg survivorship. Without ants, aphid eggs were rapidly killed by fungi. These results suggested that grooming by the ants protected the aphid eggs, at least, against pathogenic fungi. This hygienic service afforded by the ants seems indispensable for egg survival of these aphids in an environment rich in potentially pathogenic microorganisms.

  2. Differential expression of oestrogen receptor isoforms and androgen receptor in the normal vulva and vagina compared with vulval lichen sclerosus and chronic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A H; Guzail, M; Al-Azzawi, F

    2008-02-01

    Although the expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) alpha isoform and androgen receptor (AR) has been examined in vulval lichen sclerosus (VLS), the distribution pattern of ERalpha, ERbeta and AR has not been described in chronic atrophic vaginitis nor correlated with markers of proliferation (Ki-67) in either of these diseased tissues. To measure the levels and distribution of ERalpha, ERbeta and AR immunoreactivity in relation to Ki-67 in normal and diseased vulva and vagina. The expression of ERalpha, ERbeta and AR in relation to the proliferation marker Ki-67 in VLS, squamous hyperplasia of the vulva and chronic atrophic vaginitis was determined by immunohistomorphometric analysis and compared with that in normal vulva and vagina. VLS showed similar ERalpha and ERbeta expression in the 'epidermal' and 'dermal' tissue layers to that of normal vulvae, whereas AR expression appeared to be absent in most cases. ERbeta and Ki-67 expression was correlated with ERalpha expression but only in the 'fibrovascular' layer of the vulva. ERalpha expression was absent from the 'fibromuscular' layer of diseased vulvae, while ERbeta expression was absent in normal tissues but was highly expressed in diseased vulvae. ERalpha expression was significantly correlated with AR expression in the fibrovascular layer of the vagina and inversely correlated with Ki-67 staining in the parabasal cells of the epidermis in patients with chronic atrophic vaginitis. These data suggest that ER expression and levels may be implicated in the aetiopathology of VLS and chronic atrophic vaginitis.

  3. Current and potential ant impacts in the Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Lloyd L.; Krushelnycky, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, ants are a powerful ecological force, and they appear to be dominant components of animal communities of many tropical and temperate ecosystems in terms of biomass and numbers of individuals (Bluthgen et al. 2000). For example, ants comprise up to 94% of arthropod individuals in fogging samples taken from diverse lowland tropical rainforest canopies, and 86% of the biomass (Davidson et al. 2003). The majority of these ant species and individuals obtain carbohydrates either from extrafloral nectaries or from sap-feeding Hemiptera that pass carbohydrate-rich “honeydew” to attending ants while concentrating nitrogen (N) from N-poor plant sap (Davidson et al. 2003). Honeydew and nectar represent key resources for arboreal ant species, although most ant species are at least partly carnivorous or scavengers (Bluthgen et al. 2004). In contrast to most of the terrestrial world, the biotas of many Pacific islands evolved without ants. Whereas endemic ant species are found in New Zealand (ca. 10 spp.), Tonga (ca. 10 spp.), and Samoa (ca. 12 spp.), other islands of Polynesia and parts of Micronesia likely lack native ants (Wilson and Taylor 1967, Wetterer 2002, Wetterer and Vargo 2003). About 20 Indo-Australian and western Pacific ant species range to the east and north of Samoa, but it is unclear how many of these were transported there by humans at some time (Wilson and Taylor 1967). Most of the remainder of the ant species currently found on Pacific islands are widespread species that fall in the category of “tramp species,” dispersed by recent human commerce and generally closely tied to human activity and urban areas (Wilson and Taylor 1967, McGlynn 1999). In Pacific island situations, some of these tramp ant species are able to thrive beyond areas of human activity. Relatively few ant species have been successful invaders of native communities on continents, and these include most of the species that pose the greatest problems for Pacific islands

  4. PP108. Post-partum evaluation of the blood pressure and the kidney function in pre-eclamptic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechère-Bertschi, A; Montillier, P; Boulvain, M; Wuerzner, G; Gaspoz, J-M; Burnier, M; Irion, O P

    2012-07-01

    Recent data have shown that preeclampsia is not just a disease of pregnancy that resolves with delivery. Preeclampsia may be considered a 'risk marker' for later-life diseases, including cardiovascular and renal diseases and the metabolic syndrome. We aimed a longitudinal prospective study to analyze the renal abnormalities in the post-partum. We studied 127 post-preeclamptic women at 6 weeks post-partum. Twenty-four hour urine collection, ambulatory blood pressure and renal function were evaluated. The mean age (±SD) was 32±6years, BMI was 29.4±5.7, the race distribution was Caucasian 69%, Hispanic 14%, Black 12% and Orient 5%. Ten % were active smokers, 10% have been suffering from gestational diabetes. The mean duration of the pregnancy was 36 weeks 3/7±4. Our results show that the prevalence of hypertension defined by office blood pressure ⩾140/90 mmHg or ongoing antihypertensive treatment was 35%. The daytime ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM) was 122±16/85±11 mmHg, heart rate 84±8, and 111±20/75±11 mmHg at nighttime.Sixteen % had a daytime ABPM ⩾135/85mmHg corresponding to the definition of ambulatory hypertension. Ultrasensitive CRP was 4.9±5.1mg/ml, of them 31% had a frank elevation of the CRP >4. The glomerular filtration rate evaluated by the Gault-Cockroft equation showed a hyperfiltration with a mean value of 150±42ml/min. Eleven% had a decreased GFR post-partum period, women having suffered from a pre-eclampsia display many cardiovascular risk factors with a high prevalence of hypertension, microalbuminuria, renal hyperfiltration and elevated CRP. These women should be carefully screened, and sub-groups with the higher risk have to be targeted for prevention and treatment, and close follow-up. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Myometrial cavernous hemangioma with pulmonary thromboembolism in a post-partum woman: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavsar Tapan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus are rare benign vascular lesions. Nine cases of diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the gravid uterus have been reported, most of which diffusely involved the myometrium. These vascular malformations are clinically significant, and may cause pronounced bleeding resulting in maternal or fetal demise. Thrombosis of cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus has been previously reported. We here report the first case in which a thrombosed cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium resulted in a fatal pulmonary embolism in a post-partum woman. Case presentation A 25-year-old obese African-American woman who had one pregnancy and was delivered of twins by cesarean section was admitted 1 week after the successful delivery. The 12-day clinical course included ventilator-dependent respiratory failure, systemic hypertension, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the sputum, leukocytosis and asystole. A transabdominal ultrasound examination showed heterogeneous thickened and irregular products in the endometrial canal. The laboratory values were relevant for an increased prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, ferritin and a decrease in hemoglobin. The clinical cause of death was cited as acute respiratory distress syndrome. At autopsy, a 400g spongy, hemorrhagic uterus with multiple cystic spaces measuring approximately 0.5 × 0.4cm filled with thrombi within the myometrium was identified. Immunohistological examination with a CD31 stain for vascular endothelium associated antigen confirmed several endothelium-lined vessels, some of which contained thrombi. These histological features were consistent with cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium. A histological examination of the lungs revealed multiple fresh thromboemboli in small- and medium-sized pulmonary arteries in the right upper and lower lobes without organization, but with adjacent areas of fresh hemorrhagic infarction

  6. Myometrial cavernous hemangioma with pulmonary thromboembolism in a post-partum woman: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Tapan; Wurzel, John; Duker, Nahum

    2012-11-23

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus are rare benign vascular lesions. Nine cases of diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the gravid uterus have been reported, most of which diffusely involved the myometrium. These vascular malformations are clinically significant, and may cause pronounced bleeding resulting in maternal or fetal demise. Thrombosis of cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus has been previously reported. We here report the first case in which a thrombosed cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium resulted in a fatal pulmonary embolism in a post-partum woman. A 25-year-old obese African-American woman who had one pregnancy and was delivered of twins by cesarean section was admitted 1 week after the successful delivery. The 12-day clinical course included ventilator-dependent respiratory failure, systemic hypertension, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the sputum, leukocytosis and asystole. A transabdominal ultrasound examination showed heterogeneous thickened and irregular products in the endometrial canal. The laboratory values were relevant for an increased prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, ferritin and a decrease in hemoglobin. The clinical cause of death was cited as acute respiratory distress syndrome. At autopsy, a 400g spongy, hemorrhagic uterus with multiple cystic spaces measuring approximately 0.5 × 0.4cm filled with thrombi within the myometrium was identified. Immunohistological examination with a CD31 stain for vascular endothelium associated antigen confirmed several endothelium-lined vessels, some of which contained thrombi. These histological features were consistent with cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium. A histological examination of the lungs revealed multiple fresh thromboemboli in small- and medium-sized pulmonary arteries in the right upper and lower lobes without organization, but with adjacent areas of fresh hemorrhagic infarction. This case underscores the importance of a high index of suspicion in

  7. Risk of maternal mortality in women with severe anaemia during pregnancy and post partum: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daru, Jahnavi; Zamora, Javier; Fernández-Félix, Borja M; Vogel, Joshua; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Morisaki, Naho; Tunçalp, Özge; Torloni, Maria Regina; Mittal, Suneeta; Jayaratne, Kapila; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Togoobaatar, Ganchimeg; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Khan, Khalid S

    2018-05-01

    Anaemia affects as many as half of all pregnant women in low-income and middle-income countries, but the burden of disease and associated maternal mortality are not robustly quantified. We aimed to assess the association between severe anaemia and maternal death with data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on maternal and newborn health. We used multilevel and propensity score regression analyses to establish the relation between severe anaemia and maternal death in 359 health facilities in 29 countries across Latin America, Africa, the Western Pacific, eastern Mediterranean, and southeast Asia. Severe anaemia was defined as antenatal or postnatal haemoglobin concentrations of less than 70 g/L in a blood sample obtained before death. Maternal death was defined as death any time after admission until the seventh day post partum or discharge. In regression analyses, we adjusted for post-partum haemorrhage, general anaesthesia, admission to intensive care, sepsis, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, thrombocytopenia, shock, massive transfusion, severe oliguria, failure to form clots, and severe acidosis as confounding variables. These variables were used to develop the propensity score. 312 281 women admitted in labour or with ectopic pregnancies were included in the adjusted multilevel logistic analysis, and 12 470 were included in the propensity score regression analysis. The adjusted odds ratio for maternal death in women with severe anaemia compared with those without severe anaemia was 2·36 (95% CI 1·60-3·48). In the propensity score analysis, severe anaemia was also associated with maternal death (adjusted odds ratio 1·86 [95% CI 1·39-2·49]). Prevention and treatment of anaemia during pregnancy and post partum should remain a global public health and research priority. Barts and the London Charity. Copyright This is an Open Access article published under the CC BY 3.0 IGO license which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium

  8. Ultrastructure of antennal sensillae of the samsum ant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Black ant (Samsum), Pachycodyla sennarrensis, stings and injects venom and inflicts allergy (a rare clinical problem) due to its local and systemic reaction, which is considered as a health hazard amongst Saudi society. Thus, black ant is a source of serious concern for the government and experts as well.

  9. Development of a Bait System for the Pharaoh's Ant, Monomorium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infestation of the Pharaoh's ant, Monomorium pharaonis L. is widespread and, sometimes, very serious in homes, hospitals, restaurants, factories, etc. People are helpless because effective baited traps are not available locally, and little has been done locally to develop effective control strategies for these ants.

  10. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary species checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of. Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya, is presented. The species list is based on specimens sampled from 1999 until 2009, which are deposited in the ant collection of the Zoological Research Museum Koenig, Bonn, Germany, and the Natural History ...

  11. Ant species richness of fynbos and forest ecosystems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ant fauna in fynbos and forest habitats in the southern Cape are compared. There is no significant difference in ant species richness between the two undisturbed habitat types, and the only two species common to both are Acantholepis capensis and Camponotus maculatus. The degree of Hakea sericea infestation in ...

  12. Volatile chemicals in glands of the carpenter ant, Camponotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volatile chemicals in glands of the carpenter ant, Camponotus arminius. J.M. Brand, L.V. Mabinya, E.D. Morgan. Abstract. Camponotus arminius is a large black carpenter ant that occurs in tropical and sub-tropical Africa and has extensive foraging trails both in trees and on the ground. Analysis of excised mandibular glands ...

  13. Novel Phialophora species from leaf-cutting ants (tribe Attini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attili-Angelis, D.; Duarte, A.P.M.; Pagnocca, F.C.; Nagamoto, N.S.; de Vries, M.; Stielow, J.B.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Ants in the tribe Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) maintain a 50 million-year-old lifestyle of co-evolution with symbiotic basidiomycetous fungi which they cultivate as essential source of nutrition. However, other microorganisms have been reported from ant habitats indicating a higher diversity of

  14. Why do house-hunting ants recruit in both directions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planqué, R.; Dechaume-Moncharmont, F.-X.; Franks, N.R.; Kovacs, T.; Marshall, J.A.R.

    2007-01-01

    To perform tasks, organisms often use multiple procedures. Explaining the breadth of such behavioural repertoires is not always straightforward. During house hunting, colonies of Temnothorax albipennis ants use a range of behaviours to organise their emigrations. In particular, the ants use tandem

  15. Tracing the rise of ants - out of the ground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lucky

    Full Text Available The evolution of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae is increasingly well-understood due to recent phylogenetic analyses, along with estimates of divergence times and diversification rates. Yet, leading hypotheses regarding the ancestral habitat of ants conflict with new findings that early ant lineages are cryptic and subterranean. Where the ants evolved, in respect to habitat, and how habitat shifts took place over time have not been formally tested. Here, we reconstruct the habitat transitions of crown-group ants through time, focusing on where they nest and forage (in the canopy, litter, or soil. Based on ancestral character reconstructions, we show that in contrast to the current consensus based on verbal arguments that ants evolved in tropical leaf litter, the soil is supported as the ancestral stratum of all ants. We also find subsequent movements up into the litter and, in some cases, into the canopy. Given the global importance of ants, because of their diversity, ecological influence and status as the most successful eusocial lineage on Earth, understanding the early evolution of this lineage provides insight into the factors that made this group so successful today.

  16. In vitro studies of ante-mortem proliferation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, W.H.; Withers, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Using K562 human erythroblastoid cells, it was concluded that dose fractionation has no discrepant effect on the ante-mortem proliferation kinetics of doomed cells as opposed to clonogenic cell survival and that effects on ante-mortem proliferation kinetics cannot be solely responsible for the differences in fractionation response between early and late responding tissues. (UK)

  17. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal...

  18. Life-Histories of Sub-Arctic Ants

    OpenAIRE

    Heinze, Jürgen

    1993-01-01

    Ant species belonging to seven genera occur in habitats near the tree line in the Northern Hemisphere. An analysis of colony founding strategies suggests that in addition to physiological cold resistance, behavioral and sociometric adaptations might be important for survival and propagation of ants in subarctic biomes.

  19. Studies of laboulbeniales (Fungi, Ascomycota) on myrmica ants (II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haelewaters, Danny; Boer, Peter; Gort, Gerrit; Noordijk, Jinze

    2015-01-01

    One group of important insect parasites are the Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota), microscopic fungi that live attached to the exterior of their hosts, mainly beetles, but also mites, millipedes, earwigs, and ants. Rickia wasmannii is a common fungus in Europe and is limited to the ant genus Myrmica

  20. ADAPTIVE ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION BASED GRADIENT FOR EDGE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febri Liantoni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is a nature-inspired optimization algorithm which is motivated by ants foraging behavior. Due to its favorable advantages, ACO has been widely used to solve several NP-hard problems, including edge detection. Since ACO initially distributes ants at random, it may cause imbalance ant distribution which later affects path discovery process. In this paper an adaptive ACO is proposed to optimize edge detection by adaptively distributing ant according to gradient analysis. Ants are adaptively distributed according to gradient ratio of each image regions. Region which has bigger gradient ratio, will have bigger number of ant distribution. Experiments are conducted using images from various datasets. Precision and recall are used to quantitatively evaluate performance of the proposed algorithm. Precision and recall of adaptive ACO reaches 76.98 % and 96.8 %. Whereas highest precision and recall for standard ACO are 69.74 % and 74.85 %. Experimental results show that the adaptive ACO outperforms standard ACO which randomly distributes ants.

  1. Patterns of male parentage in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Boomsma, JJ

    2003-01-01

    Ant queens from eight species, covering three genera of lower and two genera of higher attine ants, have exclusively or predominantly single mating. The ensuing full-sib colonies thus have a strong potential reproductive conflict between the queen and the workers over male production...

  2. Odorous house ants (Tapinoma sessile as back-seat drivers of localized ant decline in urban habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Salyer

    Full Text Available Invasive species and habitat disturbance threaten biodiversity worldwide by modifying ecosystem performance and displacing native organisms. Similar homogenization impacts manifest locally when urbanization forces native species to relocate or reinvade perpetually altered habitat. This study investigated correlations between ant richness and abundance in response to urbanization and the nearby presence of invasive ant species, odorous house ants (Tapinoma sessile, within its native region. Surveying localized ant composition within natural, semi-natural, and urban habitat supported efforts to determine whether T. sessile appear to be primary (drivers threats as instigators or secondary (passengers threats as inheritors of indigenous ant decline. Sampling 180 sites, evenly split between all habitats with and without T. sessile present, yielded 45 total species. Although urbanization and T. sessile presence factors were significantly linked to ant decline, their interaction correlated to the greatest reduction of total ant richness (74% and abundance (81%. Total richness appeared to decrease from 27 species to 18 when natural habitat is urbanized and from 18 species to 7 with T. sessile present in urban plots. Odorous house ant presence minimally influenced ant communities within natural and semi-natural habitat, highlighting the importance of habitat alteration and T. sessile presence interactions. Results suggest urbanization releases T. sessile from unknown constraints by decreasing ant richness and competition. Within urban environment, T. sessile are pre-adapted to quickly exploit new resources and grow to supercolony strength wherein T. sessile drive adjacent biodiversity loss. Odorous house ants act as passengers and drivers of ecological change throughout different phases of urban 'invasion'. This progression through surviving habitat alteration, exploiting new resources, thriving, and further reducing interspecific competition supports a

  3. Weaver Ants to Control Fruit Fly Damage to Tanzanian Mangoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina

    in Australia and West Africa. In this study, small scale farmers did not think weaver ants protected their mangoes from fruit flies. Observational studies confirmed the farmers’ views. No volatile compounds, likely to be responsible for the weaver ants’ deterrent effect, were identified. This study focused...... mangoes varied a lot with zero infestation in some fruits and more than 100 pupae emerging from other fruits, indicating that other factors than the presence of weaver ants affect the fruit flies’ decision on where to oviposit. It was not uncommon for farmers to place newly harvested mangoes below mango...... not shown to be effectively deterring fruit flies, there is no great motivation for farmers to adopt weaver ants. Assuming the weaver ants could be managed in a way that made weaver ants deter fruit flies effectively there are still some economic aspects which should be studied further. It is necessary...

  4. Behind every great ant, there is a great gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Sapountzis, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    on the potential contribution of the ants’ gut symbionts. This issue of Molecular Ecology contains a study by Anderson et al. (2012), who take a comparative approach to explore the link between trophic levels and ant microbiomes, specifically, to address three main questions: (i) Do closely related herbivorous...... conserved gut microbiomes, suggesting symbiont functions that directly relate to dietary preference of the ant host. These findings suggest an ecological role of gut symbionts in ants, for example, in metabolism and/or protection, and the comparative approach taken supports a model of co-evolution between...... ant species and specific core symbiont microbiomes. This study, thereby, highlights the omnipresence and importance of gut symbioses—also in the Hymenoptera—and suggests that these hitherto overlooked microbes likely have contributed to the ecological success of the ants....

  5. Endophytic fungi reduce leaf-cutting ant damage to seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittleston, L. S.; Brockmann, F.; Wcislo, W.; Van Bael, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Our study examines how the mutualism between Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants and their cultivated fungus is influenced by the presence of diverse foliar endophytic fungi (endophytes) at high densities in tropical leaf tissues. We conducted laboratory choice trials in which ant colonies chose between Cordia alliodora seedlings with high (Ehigh) or low (Elow) densities of endophytes. The Ehigh seedlings contained 5.5 times higher endophyte content and a greater diversity of fungal morphospecies than the Elow treatment, and endophyte content was not correlated with leaf toughness or thickness. Leaf-cutting ants cut over 2.5 times the leaf area from Elow relative to Ehigh seedlings and had a tendency to recruit more ants to Elow plants. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants may incur costs from cutting and processing leaves with high endophyte loads, which could impact Neotropical forests by causing variable damage rates within plant communities. PMID:20610420

  6. Egg-laying butterflies distinguish predaceous ants by sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendoya, Sebastián F; Freitas, André V L; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2009-07-01

    Information about predation risks is critical for herbivorous insects, and natural selection favors their ability to detect predators before oviposition and to select enemy-free foliage when offspring mortality risk is high. Food plants are selected by ovipositing butterflies, and offspring survival frequently varies among plants because of variation in the presence of predators. Eunica bechina butterflies oviposit on Caryocar brasiliense, an ant-defended plant. Experiments with dried Camponotus and Cephalotes ants pinned to leaves revealed that butterflies use ant size and form as visual cues to avoid ovipositing on plant parts occupied by ants more likely to kill larval offspring. Presence of sap-sucking bugs did not affect butterfly oviposition. This is the first demonstration that visual recognition of predators can mediate egg-laying decisions by an insect herbivore and that an insect will discriminate among different species of potential predators. This unusual behavioral capability permits specialization on a risky, ant-defended food plant.

  7. ANT International chemistry update and best practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, F.; Odar, S.; Venz, H.; Kysela, J.; Ruehle, W.; Riess, R.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing number of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in various countries. Their chemistry practices are different due to the variety of designs and experiences while in the past the view was more monolithic. This is allowing a very rich experience that is extremely difficult to fully be aware of. ANT International is now collecting and evaluating these data as well as related R and D Information. This allows interested parties to have an easier access to the various sources of information. The chemistry experts associated to ANT International have been gathering a comprehensive detailed view of: The numerous laboratory data gained all over the world during the past decades; The extensive plant operating experiences with various types of chemistry strategies, crosschecked for various types of reactors designs and materials; An experienced international knowledge able to give the comprehensive overview that young engineers now in charge of many other activities are unable to fully cover. This paper gives the core conclusions of the detailed ANT International reports and results that have recently been gathered in the area of chemistry. It particularly covers: The primary water chemistry and its relation with radionuclides, dose rates and fuel behaviour; The secondary water chemistry focusing on its rationale selection depending on materials, design and other constraints; The start up and shutdown chemistry with it large variety of practices hardly understandable even for some experts; and, The maintenance remedies such as decontamination, steam generator cleaning and its alternate options. Various types of Reactor designs (PWR, VVER, BWR, CANDU®) are considered. The different materials, for example the impact of steam generator tubing and its evolution on the secondary water chemistry rationale or on the radioactivity built-up in the primary coolant, are described. The ways to improve the plant operation with a long term reliability as well as the most

  8. The regulation of ant colony foraging activity without spatial information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Prabhakar

    Full Text Available Many dynamical networks, such as the ones that produce the collective behavior of social insects, operate without any central control, instead arising from local interactions among individuals. A well-studied example is the formation of recruitment trails in ant colonies, but many ant species do not use pheromone trails. We present a model of the regulation of foraging by harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex barbatus colonies. This species forages for scattered seeds that one ant can retrieve on its own, so there is no need for spatial information such as pheromone trails that lead ants to specific locations. Previous work shows that colony foraging activity, the rate at which ants go out to search individually for seeds, is regulated in response to current food availability throughout the colony's foraging area. Ants use the rate of brief antennal contacts inside the nest between foragers returning with food and outgoing foragers available to leave the nest on the next foraging trip. Here we present a feedback-based algorithm that captures the main features of data from field experiments in which the rate of returning foragers was manipulated. The algorithm draws on our finding that the distribution of intervals between successive ants returning to the nest is a Poisson process. We fitted the parameter that estimates the effect of each returning forager on the rate at which outgoing foragers leave the nest. We found that correlations between observed rates of returning foragers and simulated rates of outgoing foragers, using our model, were similar to those in the data. Our simple stochastic model shows how the regulation of ant colony foraging can operate without spatial information, describing a process at the level of individual ants that predicts the overall foraging activity of the colony.

  9. Studies on post-partum reproductive performance of Hereford beef cows in Uruguay with the aid of progesterone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavestany, D.; Cardozo, W.; Tagle, R.; Gama, S.; Lanzzeri, S.; Perdigon, F.

    1990-01-01

    A trial was undertaken on Hereford beef cows to determine the length of their post-partum (pp) anoestrous periods under traditional conditions of feeding and management in Uruguay. Three subsequent trials to shorten pp anoestrus involving early weaning (at 40 days pp), temporary weaning for 72 hours (at 45 days), and temporary weaning for 24 hours combined with GnRH, were run in different parts of Uruguay under different soil and pasture conditions. No treatment differences were found, but cows on improved pastures had shorter pp anoestrous periods (74, 99 and 102 days for the three trials respectively) and higher pregnancy rates (80%, 46% and 55% respectively). It was concluded that the main cause of low reproductive efficiency was poor nutrition and that, under such conditions, no treatment to shorten the pp anoestrus would ever be expected to be successful. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Comparison between the Health Belief Model and Subjective Expected Utility Theory: predicting incontinence prevention behaviour in post-partum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, M; Chase, J

    1996-08-01

    A small-scale study was undertaken to test the relative predictive power of the Health Belief Model and Subjective Expected Utility Theory for the uptake of a behaviour (pelvic floor exercises) to reduce post-partum urinary incontinence in primigravida females. A structured questionnaire was used to gather data relevant to both models from a sample antenatal and postnatal primigravida women. Questions examined the perceived probability of becoming incontinent, the perceived (dis)utility of incontinence, the perceived probability of pelvic floor exercises preventing future urinary incontinence, the costs and benefits of performing pelvic floor exercises and sources of information and knowledge about incontinence. Multiple regression analysis focused on whether or not respondents intended to perform pelvic floor exercises and the factors influencing their decisions. Aggregated data were analysed to compare the Health Belief Model and Subjective Expected Utility Theory directly.

  11. Post-Partum Depression, Personality, and Cognitive-Emotional Factors: A Longitudinal Study on Spanish Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Marín-Morales, Dolores; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier; Velasco Furlong, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, our purpose was to examine whether personality and cognitive factors could be related to post-partum depression (PPD), mediated by anxiety, in Spanish women. Women were evaluated for personality and cognitive factors after the first trimester, for anxiety in the third trimester, and for PPD 4 months after childbirth. A structural equation model revealed that personality and cognitive factors were associated with anxiety and PPD as predictors. Neuroticism and extroversion proved to be the most relevant factors. Conscientiousness was associated with pregnancy anxiety. Pregnancy anxiety appeared as an independent predictor of PPD. The model presented here includes personality and cognitive and emotional factors as predictors of PPD. Comprehensive care for pregnant women should contemplate assessment and intervention on all these aspects. Special focus should be on cognitive factors and emotional regulation strategies, so as to minimize the risk of later development of emotional disorders during puerperal phases.

  12. THE EFFECT OF Anredera cordifolia (Ten. Steenis SUPPLEMENTATION ON UTERINE INVOLUTION PROCESS EVALUATED BY OESTRUS POST PARTUM BEHAVIOR AND FERNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Purwasih

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Anrederacordifolia (Ten. Steenissupplementation on uterine involution process in rabbit. The research design applied was completelyrandomized design with 4 treatments and 3 replications (T0 = without Anredera cordifoliasupplementation; TI = Anredera cordifolia supplemented two days before parturition; T2 = Anrederacordifolia supplemented two days after parturition; T3 = Anredera cordifolia supplemented two daysbefore until two days after parturition. The results showed that Anredera cordifolia (Ten. Steenissupplementation could accelerate post partum oestrus in does that were characterized by post partumoestrus behavior, ferning of saliva and cervical mucus. The best treatment was T3, that was four daysAnredera cordifolia supplementation that was administered at 0.45 g/kg of body weight/day. Furtherresearch was needed to find an optimal dose of Anredera cordifolia (Ten. Steenis on uterine involution.

  13. High dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated acids during pregnancy and prevalence of post-partum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Camilla M M; Kac, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies suggest association between low concentrations of omega-3 family fatty acids and greater risk for post-partum depression (PPD). The objective was to investigate the effect of unbalanced dietary intake of omega-6/omega-3 ratio >9:1 in the prevalence for PPD. The study comprises a prospective cohort with four waves of follow-up during pregnancy and one following delivery. PPD was evaluated according to the Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale (PPD ≥ 11) in 106 puerperae between 2005 and 2007, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Independent variables included socio-demographic, obstetric, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and dietary intake data, which were obtained by means of a food frequency questionnaire in the first trimester of pregnancy. Statistical analysis involved calculation of PPD prevalence and multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. PPD prevalence amounted to 26.4% [n = 28; confidence interval (CI) 95%: 18.0-34.8], and higher prevalences of PPD were observed in women who consumed an omega-6/omega-3 ratio >9:1 (60.0%) and in those with pre-pregnancy BMI <18.5 kg/m(2) (66.7%). These variables held as factors associated to PPD in the multivariate model, elevating the chances of occurrence of the outcome in 2.50 (CI 95%: 1.21-5.14) and 4.01 times (CI 95%: 1.96-8.20), respectively. Analyses were adjusted for age, schooling, pre-pregnancy BMI, lipids consumption and time elapsed since delivery. It verified an association between omega-6/omega-3 ratio above 9:1, the levels recommended by the Institute of Medicine, and the prevalence of PPD. These results add to the evidence regarding the importance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the regulation of mental health mechanisms. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. EFFECT OF SHEARING DURING PREGNANCY ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE POST-PARTUM PERIOD OF EWES ON EXTENSIVE HUSBANDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Marques Guyoti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of shearing during pregnancy has been described as a tool for improving productivity in sheep and for minimizing perinatal mortality in lambs through the increase of fetal development. This study assessed the effect of shearing around 74 days of gestation on the productive performance of ewes and lambs during the first month of life. Forty Corriedale ewes were inseminated in autumn in Southern Brazil. All ewes were kept together at the same pasture under extensive husbandry conditions. The ewes were randomly separated into two treatment groups: twenty animals were completely sheared at 74 ± 6 days of pregnancy, and twenty were kept without sheared during pregnancy, composing the control group. Ewes and their lambs were evaluated at three different times during the experiment: at birth, between 15 and 21 days post-partum and between 22 and 45 days post-partum. Ewes had their body condition score, body weight, placental weight, milk production and serum concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate measured, while lambs had hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma lactate and glucose, as well as body weight at birth and until wean determined. Values of hematocrit and hemoglobin were lower and body weight at birth and at wean was higher in the group of lambs born from sheared ewes. Placenta weight was higher in sheared ewes. Body condition score and beta-hydroxybutyrate showed no differences between groups. Milk production of sheared ewes (1.26 L/day was higher than in control group (0.93 L/day. Shearing ewes at 74 days of pregnancy was efficient for the better development of lambs at post-birth, reducing perinatal mortality rates.

  15. The benefits of paid maternity leave for mothers' post-partum health and wellbeing: Evidence from an Australian evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Belinda; Strazdins, Lyndall; Martin, Bill

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigates the health effects of the introduction of a near universal paid parental leave (PPL) scheme in Australia, representing a natural social policy experiment. Along with gender equity and workforce engagement, a goal of the scheme (18 weeks leave at the minimum wage rate) was to enhance the health and wellbeing of mothers and babies. Although there is evidence that leave, especially paid leave, can benefit mothers' health post-partum, the potential health benefits of implementing a nationwide scheme have rarely been investigated. The data come from two cross-sectional surveys of mothers (matched on their eligibility for paid parental leave), 2347 mother's surveyed pre-PPL and 3268 post-PPL. We investigated the scheme's health benefits for mothers, and the extent this varied by pre-birth employment conditions and job characteristics. Overall, we observed better mental and physical health among mothers after the introduction of PPL, although the effects were small. Post-PPL mothers on casual (insecure) contracts before birth had significantly better mental health than their pre-PPL counterparts, suggesting that the scheme delivered health benefits to mothers who were relatively disadvantaged. However, mothers on permanent contracts and in managerial or professional occupations also had significantly better mental and physical health in the post-PPL group. These mothers were more likely to combine the Government sponsored leave with additional, paid, employer benefits, enabling a longer paid leave package post-partum. Overall, the study provides evidence that introducing paid maternity leave universally delivers health benefits to mothers. However the modest 18 week PPL provision did little to redress health inequalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Beliefs and practices during pregnancy, post-partum and in the first days of an infant's life in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Claudia; Pol, Sreymom; Suon, Kamsan; Neou, Leakhena; Day, Nicholas P J; Parker, Michael; Kingori, Patricia

    2017-04-12

    The aim of this study was to record the beliefs, practices during pregnancy, post-partum and in the first few days of an infant's life, held by a cross section of the community in rural Cambodia to determine beneficial community interventions to improve early neonatal health. Qualitative study design with data generated from semi structured interviews (SSI) and focus group discussions (FGD). Data were analysed by thematic content analysis, with an a priori coding structure developed using available relevant literature. Further reading of the transcripts permitted additional coding to be performed in vivo. This study was conducted in two locations, firstly the Angkor Hospital for Children and secondarily in five villages in Sotnikum, Siem Reap Province, Cambodia. A total of 20 participants underwent a SSIs (15 in hospital and five in the community) and six (three in hospital and three in the community; a total of 58 participants) FGDs were conducted. Harmful practices that occurred in the past (for example: discarding colostrum and putting mud on the umbilical stump) were not described as being practiced. Village elders did not enforce traditional views. Parents could describe signs of illness and felt responsible to seek care for their child even if other family members disagreed, however participants were unaware of the signs or danger of neonatal jaundice. Cost of transportation was the major barrier to healthcare that was identified. In the population examined, traditional practices in late pregnancy and the post-partum period were no longer commonly performed. However, jaundice, a potentially serious neonatal condition, was not recognised. Community neonatal interventions should be tailored to the populations existing practice and knowledge.

  17. Immune defense in leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, Sophie A O; Broch, Jens F; Marín, Hermogenes Fernández

    2011-01-01

    To ameliorate the impact of disease, social insects combine individual innate immune defenses with collective social defenses. This implies that there are different levels of selection acting on investment in immunity, each with their own trade-offs. We present the results of a cross......-fostering experiment designed to address the influences of genotype and social rearing environment upon individual and social immune defenses. We used a multiply mating leaf-cutting ant, enabling us to test for patriline effects within a colony, as well as cross-colony matriline effects. The worker's father influenced...... both individual innate immunity (constitutive antibacterial activity) and the size of the metapleural gland, which secretes antimicrobial compounds and functions in individual and social defense, indicating multiple mating could have important consequences for both defense types. However, the primarily...

  18. Ex-ante Evaluation von Investitionsalternativen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Müller

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag zeigt, wie mit Hilfe der Methode der agentenbasierten Modellierung und Simulation (ABMS ein Beitrag zur ex-ante Policy-Beratung geleistet werden kann. Anhand eines exemplarischen Anwendungsfalls, der VISIBLE Simulationsumgebung („Virtual Simulation Lab for the Analysis of Investments in Learning and Education“, diskutieren wir die Konsequenzen unterschiedlicher Kooperationsförderinstrumente für Wissensdiffusionsprozesse in Netzwerken am Beispiel der Region Heilbronn-Franken. Die Simulationsergebnisse zeigen, dass die strukturelle Konfiguration eines regionalen Innovationssystems eine zentrale Bedeutung für die Gestaltung von Kooperationsfördermaßnahmen hat und dass Interventionen, die darauf abzielen, Wissenstransfer zwischen den Akteuren anzuregen, genau die entgegengesetzten Wirkungen entfalten können.

  19. Swarm controlled emergence for ant clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheidler, Alexander; Merkle, Daniel; Middendorf, Martin

    2013-01-01

    .g. moving robots, and clustering algorithms. Design/methodology/approach: Different types of control agents for that ant clustering model are designed by introducing slight changes to the behavioural rules of the normal agents. The clustering behaviour of the resulting swarms is investigated by extensive...... for future research to investigate the application of the method in other swarm systems. Swarm controlled emergence might be applied to control emergent effects in computing systems that consist of many autonomous components which make decentralized decisions based on local information. Practical...... simulation studies. Findings: It is shown that complex behavior can emerge in systems with two types of agents (normal agents and control agents). For a particular behavior of the control agents, an interesting swarm size dependent effect was found. The behaviour prevents clustering when the number...

  20. Discrimination Behavior in the Supercolonial Pharaoh Ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontieri, Luigi

    The majority of eusocial insect species live in small, kin structured colonies that are mutually aggressive and rarely interact. By contrast, a restricted group of ant species show a peculiar social organization called unicoloniality, where colonies can grow to vast networks of geographically...... and genetic distance between colony pairs, further confirming the important role of endogenous cues in the nestmate recognition of this species. The third chapter presents a methodological study on the best procedures for identifying chemical compounds used for nestmate recognition in social insects. We first...... evaluated the power of different combinations of data transformation and chemical distance calculation in differentiating between true nestmate recognition (NMR) cues and other compounds. We found that particular combinations of statistical procedures are more effective in differentiating NMR cues from...

  1. Reconstruction of the pelvic floor and the vagina after total pelvic exenteration using the transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartinen, Ilkka S; Vuento, Maarit H; Hyöty, Marja K; Kallio, Jukka; Kuokkanen, Hannu O

    2015-01-01

    Total pelvic exenteration (TPE) is a rare operation in which the pelvic contents are removed entirely. Several options for pelvic floor and vaginal reconstruction have been described including transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) or deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps. The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap has been introduced for breast reconstruction as a free flap. We adopted the pedicled TMG flap for reconstructions after TPE. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this method in the literature. Between November 2011 and February 2014, 12 patients underwent TPE and reconstruction with unilateral (six patients) or bilateral (six patients) pedicled TMG flaps. Five patients underwent vaginal reconstruction with bilateral TMG flaps. We describe the operative procedure and the outcome of the operation in these patients. The total mean operative times for TPE with or without vaginal reconstruction were 467 ± 12 and 386 ± 59 min, respectively. The TMG flaps had enough vascular tissue and mobility for reconstructing the TPE defects. There was distal edge necrosis in one out of 18 flaps, while the rest survived completely. During the follow-up, complete wound healing with no signs of weakening of the pelvic floor was observed in all cases. Soft-tissue reconstructions are needed to reduce complications associated with TPE, to secure the pelvic floor and to reconstruct the vagina in select patients. The TMG flap is a logical flap choice that does not lead to functional deficits, complicate the abdominal ostomies or weaken the abdominal wall. It reduces the length of operation compared to that of abdominal flaps. IV, therapeutic. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Entomopathogens Isolated from Invasive Ants and Tests of Their Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Miori de Zarzuela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some ant species cause severe ecological and health impact in urban areas. Many attempts have been tested to control such species, although they do not always succeed. Biological control is an alternative to chemical control and has gained great prominence in research, and fungi and nematodes are among the successful organisms controlling insects. This study aimed to clarify some questions regarding the biological control of ants. Invasive ant species in Brazil had their nests evaluated for the presence of entomopathogens. Isolated entomopathogens were later applied in colonies of Monomorium floricola under laboratory conditions to evaluate their effectiveness and the behavior of the ant colonies after treatment. The entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Steinernema sp. and the fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Paecilomyces sp. were isolated from the invasive ant nests. M. floricola colonies treated with Steinernema sp. and Heterorhabditis sp. showed a higher mortality of workers than control. The fungus Beauveria bassiana caused higher mortality of M. floricola workers. However, no colony reduction or elimination was observed in any treatment. The defensive behaviors of ants, such as grooming behavior and colony budding, must be considered when using fungi and nematodes for biological control of ants.

  3. The diversity of microorganisms associated with Acromyrmex leafcutter ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boomsma Jacobus J

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular biological techniques are dramatically changing our view of microbial diversity in almost any environment that has so far been investigated. This study presents a systematic survey of the microbial diversity associated with a population of Acromyrmex leafcutter ants. In contrast to previous studies on social insects, which targeted specific groups of symbionts occurring in the gut (termites, Tetraponera ants or in specialised cells (Camponotus ants the objective of our present study was to do a total screening of all possible micro-organisms that can be found inside the bodies of these leafcutter ants. Results We amplified, cloned and sequenced SSU rRNA encoding gene fragments from 9 microbial groups known to have insect-associated representatives, and show that: (1 representatives of 5 out of 9 tested groups are present, (2 mostly several strains per group are present, adding up to a total of 33 different taxa. We present the microbial taxa associated with Acromymex ants in a phylogenetic context (using sequences from GenBank to assess and illustrate to which known microorganisms they are closely related. The observed microbial diversity is discussed in the light of present knowledge on the evolutionary history of Acromyrmex leafcutter ants and their known mutualistic and parasitic symbionts. Conclusions The major merits of the screening approach documented here is its high sensitivity and specificity, which allowed us to identify several microorganisms that are promising candidates for further study of their interactions with Acromyrmex leafcutter ants or their gardens.

  4. USING ANT COMMUNITIES FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM HEALTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Michael Paller, M; Eric Nelson, E

    2007-01-12

    Ecosystem health with its near infinite number of variables is difficult to measure, and there are many opinions as to which variables are most important, most easily measured, and most robust, Bioassessment avoids the controversy of choosing which physical and chemical parameters to measure because it uses responses of a community of organisms that integrate all aspects of the system in question. A variety of bioassessment methods have been successfully applied to aquatic ecosystems using fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Terrestrial biotic index methods are less developed than those for aquatic systems and we are seeking to address this problem here. This study had as its objective to examine the baseline differences in ant communities at different seral stages from clear cut back to mature pine plantation as a precursor to developing a bioassessment protocol. Comparative sampling was conducted at four seral stages; clearcut, 5 year, 15 year and mature pine plantation stands. Soil and vegetation data were collected at each site. All ants collected were preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol and identified to genus. Analysis of the ant data indicates that ants respond strongly to the habitat changes that accompany ecological succession in managed pine forests and that individual genera as well as ant community structure can be used as an indicator of successional change. Ants exhibited relatively high diversity in both early and mature seral stages. High ant diversity in the mature seral stages was likely related to conditions on the forest floor which favored litter dwelling and cool climate specialists.

  5. Interactions Increase Forager Availability and Activity in Harvester Ants.

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    Evlyn Pless

    Full Text Available Social insect colonies use interactions among workers to regulate collective behavior. Harvester ant foragers interact in a chamber just inside the nest entrance, here called the 'entrance chamber'. Previous studies of the activation of foragers in red harvester ants show that an outgoing forager inside the nest experiences an increase in brief antennal contacts before it leaves the nest to forage. Here we compare the interaction rate experienced by foragers that left the nest and ants that did not. We found that ants in the entrance chamber that leave the nest to forage experienced more interactions than ants that descend to the deeper nest without foraging. Additionally, we found that the availability of foragers in the entrance chamber is associated with the rate of forager return. An increase in the rate of forager return leads to an increase in the rate at which ants descend to the deeper nest, which then stimulates more ants to ascend into the entrance chamber. Thus a higher rate of forager return leads to more available foragers in the entrance chamber. The highest density of interactions occurs near the nest entrance and the entrances of the tunnels from the entrance chamber to the deeper nest. Local interactions with returning foragers regulate both the activation of waiting foragers and the number of foragers available to be activated.

  6. Competitive assembly of South Pacific invasive ant communities

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    Sarty Megan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relative importance of chance and determinism in structuring ecological communities has been debated for nearly a century. Evidence for determinism or assembly rules is often evaluated with null models that randomize the occurrence of species in particular locales. However, analyses of the presence or absence of species ignores the potential influence of species abundances, which have long been considered of major importance on community structure. Here, we test for community assembly rules in ant communities on small islands of the Tokelau archipelago using both presence-absence and abundance data. We conducted three sets of analyses on two spatial scales using three years of sampling data from 39 plots on 11 islands. Results First, traditional null model tests showed support for negative species co-occurrence patterns among plots within islands, but not among islands. A plausible explanation for this result is that analyses at larger spatial scales merge heterogeneous habitats that have considerable effects on species occurrences. Second, analyses of ant abundances showed that samples with high ant abundances had fewer species than expected by chance, both within and among islands. One ant species, the invasive yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes, appeared to have a particularly strong effect on community structure correlated with its abundance. Third, abundances of most ant species were inversely correlated with the abundances of all other ants at both spatial scales. This result is consistent with competition theory, which predicts species distributions are affected by diffuse competition with suites of co-occurring species. Conclusion Our results support a pluralistic explanation for ant species abundances and assembly. Both stochastic and deterministic processes interact to determine ant community assembly, though abundance patterns clearly drive the deterministic patterns in this community. These deterministic

  7. Tranexamic acid for treatment of women with post-partum haemorrhage in Nigeria and Pakistan: a cost-effectiveness analysis of data from the WOMAN trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bernadette; Miners, Alec; Shakur, Haleema; Roberts, Ian

    2018-02-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia account for almost 85% of global maternal deaths from post-partum haemorrhage. Early administration of tranexamic acid, within 3 h of giving birth, was shown to reduce the risk of death due to bleeding in women with post-partum haemorrhage in the World Maternal Antifibrinolytic (WOMAN) trial. We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of early administration of tranexamic acid for treatment of post-partum haemorrhage. For this economic evaluation we developed a decision model to assess the cost-effectiveness of the addition of tranexamic acid to usual care for treatment of women with post-partum haemorrhage in Nigeria and Pakistan. We used data from the WOMAN trial to inform model parameters, supplemented by estimates from the literature. We estimated costs (calculated in 2016 US$), life-years, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) with and without tranexamic acid, calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and compared these to threshold values in each country. Costs were assessed from the health-care provider perspective and discounted at 3% per year in the base case analysis. We did a series of one-way sensitivity analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to assess the robustness of the results to parameter uncertainty. Early treatment of post-partum haemorrhage with tranexamic acid generated an average gain of 0·18 QALYs at an additional cost of $37·12 per patient in Nigeria and an average gain of 0·08 QALYs at an additional cost of $6·55 per patient in Pakistan. The base case ICER results were $208 per QALY in Nigeria and $83 per QALY in Pakistan. These ICERs were below the lower bound of the cost-effectiveness threshold range in both countries. The ICERs were most sensitive to uncertainty in parameter inputs for the relative risk of death due to bleeding with tranexamic acid, the discount rate, the cost of the drug, and the baseline probability of death due to bleeding. Early treatment of post-partum

  8. Evolution of Fungal enzymes in the attine ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    The attine ant symbiosis is characterized by ancient but varying degrees of diffuse co-evolution between the ants and their fungal cultivars. Domesticated fungi became dependent on vertical transmission by queens and the ant colonies came to rely on their symbiotic fungus for food and thus...... as garden substrate, whereas the more basal genera use leaf litter, insect feces and insect carcasses. We hypothesized that enzyme activity of fungal symbionts has co-evolved with substrate use and we measured enzyme activities of fungus gardens in the field to test this, focusing particularly on plant...... essential for the symbiosis in general, but have contributed specifically to the evolution of the symbiosis....

  9. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...... into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted...

  10. Warehouse stocking optimization based on dynamic ant colony genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaoxu

    2018-04-01

    In view of the various orders of FAW (First Automotive Works) International Logistics Co., Ltd., the SLP method is used to optimize the layout of the warehousing units in the enterprise, thus the warehouse logistics is optimized and the external processing speed of the order is improved. In addition, the relevant intelligent algorithms for optimizing the stocking route problem are analyzed. The ant colony algorithm and genetic algorithm which have good applicability are emphatically studied. The parameters of ant colony algorithm are optimized by genetic algorithm, which improves the performance of ant colony algorithm. A typical path optimization problem model is taken as an example to prove the effectiveness of parameter optimization.

  11. Ant colony algorithm for clustering in portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subekti, R.; Sari, E. R.; Kusumawati, R.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to describe portfolio optimization using clustering methods with ant colony approach. Two stock portfolios of LQ45 Indonesia is proposed based on the cluster results obtained from ant colony optimization (ACO). The first portfolio consists of assets with ant colony displacement opportunities beyond the defined probability limits of the researcher, where the weight of each asset is determined by mean-variance method. The second portfolio consists of two assets with the assumption that each asset is a cluster formed from ACO. The first portfolio has a better performance compared to the second portfolio seen from the Sharpe index.

  12. Automating ActionScript Projects with Eclipse and Ant

    CERN Document Server

    Koning, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Automating repetitive programming tasks is easier than many Flash/AS3 developers think. With the Ant build tool, the Eclipse IDE, and this concise guide, you can set up your own "ultimate development machine" to code, compile, debug, and deploy projects faster. You'll also get started with versioning systems, such as Subversion and Git. Create a consistent workflow for multiple machines, or even complete departments, with the help of extensive Ant code samples. If you want to work smarter and take your skills to a new level, this book will get you on the road to automation-with Ant. Set up y

  13. The invasion biology and sociogenetics of pharaoh ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anna Mosegaard

    Social insect colonies perform a number of tasks affecting the environments they live in. Some unintentionally introduced species have attracted the attention of scientists and general public alike when causing a number of changes to the composition and functioning of ecosystems. Such ?invaders...... laboratory lineages, thus building the foundation for future research on the species. In addition, I have started a selection experiment (still ongoing in collaboration with Dr. T. Linksvayer) using pharaoh ants, which is the first time artificial selection is attempted in an ant species. Pharaoh ants have...

  14. Evaluation of the clinical effect of an on-line course for community nurses on post-partum emotional distress: a community-based longitudinal time-series quasi-experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Marga; Orlygsdottir, Brynja; Elvarsson, Bjarki Thor

    2012-09-01

    About 14% of Icelandic women suffer post-partum from frequent depressive symptoms, and of those, 12% also report a high degree of parenting stress. Education of nurses and midwives on post-partum distress is crucial in reducing its degree. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical effect of an on-line course for community nurses on post-partum emotional distress. A community-based, longitudinal, time-series quasi-experiment was conducted in four stages from 2001 to 2005. Mothers attending 16 health centres throughout Iceland and scoring ≥ 12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at the 9th week post-partum were eligible to participate. Health centres were divided into experimental (EHC) and control centres (CHC), and control centres were crossed over to experimental centres the following year and new control centres recruited. Nurses at EHC attended an on-line course on post-partum emotional distress. Participating mothers answered the EPDS; the Parenting Stress Index/Short form and the Fatigue Scale. Nursing diagnoses and interventions were recorded at all study centres. Of the women who were eligible (n = 163), 57% (n = 93) participated. At baseline, 9 weeks post-partum, there were no significant differences between groups of women in the rate of depressive symptoms, fatigue or parenting stress. Women in all groups improved on all distress indicators over time; however, those from the EHC improved statistically and clinically significantly more on depressive symptoms than those from the CHC. Documentation of particular nursing diagnoses and interventions was significantly more frequent at the EHC, but referrals to specialists were significantly less frequent. On-line education for nurses on post-partum emotional distress is feasible and is related to improvement in post-partum depressive symptoms. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. Symbiotic mutualism with a community of opportunistic ants: protection, competition, and ant occupancy of the myrmecophyte Barteria nigritana (Passifloraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Dejean, Alain; Gibernau, Marc; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; McKey, Doyle

    2004-10-01

    Barteria nigritana is a myrmecophyte tree of Lower Guinea coastal vegetation. Unlike the more specialised B. fistulosa, which harbours a single host-specific mutualistic ant, B. nigritana is associated with several opportunistic ants. Such symbiotic, yet opportunistic, ant-plant associations have been little studied. On 113 clumps of B. nigritana, we censused ant associates and herbivores and compared herbivory on plants occupied by different ants. In addition to these correlative data, protection conferred by different ant species was compared by herbivore-placement experiments. Identity of ant associate changed predictably over plant ontogeny. Pheidole megacephala was restricted to very small plants; saplings were occupied by either Oecophylla longinoda or Crematogaster sp., and the latter species was the sole occupant of larger trees. Damage by caterpillars of the nymphalid butterfly Acraea zetes accounted for much of the herbivory to leaves. Ant species differed in the protection provided to hosts. While P. megacephala provided no significant protection, plants occupied by O. longinoda and Crematogaster sp. suffered less damage than did unoccupied plants or those occupied by P. megacephala. Furthermore, O. longinoda provided more effective protection than did Crematogaster sp. Herbivore-placement experiments confirmed these results. Workers of O. longinoda killed or removed all larval instars of A. zetes. Crematogaster preyed on only the two first larval instars, and P. megacephala preyed mainly on eggs, only rarely attacking the two first larval instars. Opportunistic ants provided significant protection to this relatively unspecialised myrmecophyte. The usual associate of mature trees was not the species that provided most protection.

  16. Selenium exposure results in reduced reproduction in an invasive ant species and altered competitive behavior for a native ant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Riva, Deborah G.; Trumble, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Competitive ability and numerical dominance are important factors contributing to the ability of invasive ant species to establish and expand their ranges in new habitats. However, few studies have investigated the impact of environmental contamination on competitive behavior in ants as a potential factor influencing dynamics between invasive and native ant species. Here we investigated the widespread contaminant selenium to investigate its potential influence on invasion by the exotic Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, through effects on reproduction and competitive behavior. For the fecundity experiment, treatments were provided to Argentine ant colonies via to sugar water solutions containing one of three concentrations of selenium (0, 5 and 10 μg Se mL −1 ) that fall within the range found in soil and plants growing in contaminated areas. Competition experiments included both the Argentine ant and the native Dorymyrmex bicolor to determine the impact of selenium exposure (0 or 15 μg Se mL −1 ) on exploitation- and interference-competition between ant species. The results of the fecundity experiment revealed that selenium negatively impacted queen survival and brood production of Argentine ants. Viability of the developing brood was also affected in that offspring reached adulthood only in colonies that were not given selenium, whereas those in treated colonies died in their larval stages. Selenium exposure did not alter direct competitive behaviors for either species, but selenium exposure contributed to an increased bait discovery time for D. bicolor. Our results suggest that environmental toxins may not only pose problems for native ant species, but may also serve as a potential obstacle for establishment among exotic species. - Highlights: • Argentine ant colonies exposed to selenium had reduced fecundity compared to unexposed colonies. • Viability of offspring was negatively impacted by selenium. • Queen survival was reduced in colonies

  17. The introduction history of invasive garden ants in Europe: integrating genetic, chemical and behavioural approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig, Line; Drijfhout, Falko; Kronauer, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus, is the most recently detected pest ant and the first known invasive ant able to become established and thrive in the temperate regions of Eurasia. In this study, we aim to reconstruct the invasion history of this ant in Europe analysing 14 po...

  18. Stealthy invaders: the biology of Cardiocondyla tramp ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinze, J.; Cremer, Sylvia; Eckl, N.

    2006-01-01

    Many invasive ant species, such as the Argentine ant or the red imported fire ant, have huge colonies with thousands of mass-foraging workers, which quickly monopolise resources and therefore represent a considerable threat to the native ant fauna. Cardiocondyla obscurior and several other specie...

  19. FMR measurements in fire ants: evidence of magnetic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, Darci M.S.; Acosta-Avalos, Daniel; El-Jaick, Lea J.; Cunha, Alexandra D.M.; Malheiros, Maria G.; Wajnberg, Eliane [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Linhares, Marilia P. [Centro de Ciencias do Estado, do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-01-01

    Based on the behavioral and the localization of iron-containing tissue fire ants were examined by EPR for magnetic material. Results suggest the presence of magnetite particles. (author) 12 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Disease dynamics in a specialized parasite of ant societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra B Andersen

    Full Text Available Coevolution between ant colonies and their rare specialized parasites are intriguing, because lethal infections of workers may correspond to tolerable chronic diseases of colonies, but the parasite adaptations that allow stable coexistence with ants are virtually unknown. We explore the trade-offs experienced by Ophiocordyceps parasites manipulating ants into dying in nearby graveyards. We used field data from Brazil and Thailand to parameterize and fit a model for the growth rate of graveyards. We show that parasite pressure is much lower than the abundance of ant cadavers suggests and that hyperparasites often castrate Ophiocordyceps. However, once fruiting bodies become sexually mature they appear robust. Such parasite life-history traits are consistent with iteroparity--a reproductive strategy rarely considered in fungi. We discuss how tropical habitats with high biodiversity of hyperparasites and high spore mortality has likely been crucial for the evolution and maintenance of iteroparity in parasites with low dispersal potential.