WorldWideScience

Sample records for vacuum uv region

  1. UV and vacuum-UV biological spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Amando Siuiti

    1996-01-01

    Full text. Synchrotron radiation has been used as light source in the UV and VUV region for the study of many biological systems. In the time domain, measurements are made that allow the observation of dynamics and kinetics of biomolecules like proteins and peptides, using the fluorescent properties of either intrinsic or extrinsic probes. Optical activity of groups inside biomolecules allows the use of circular dichroism techniques to generate structural information and to follow processes like protein folding. Confocal scanning of synchrotron light generates microscopy resolution below 100 nm, allowing the creation of high quality three dimensional images of biological samples, and the collection of fluorescence originated from microvolumes inside the samples. We propose a station at LNLS for these three techniques: time-resolved fluorescence, circular dischroism and confocal microscopy, using UV and VUV light. (author)

  2. Thin walls in regions with vacuum energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garfinkle, D [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA). Dept. of Physics; Vuille, C [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Prescott, AZ (USA). Dept. of Math/Physical Science

    1989-12-01

    The motion of a thin wall is treated in the case where the regions on either side of the wall have vacuum energy. This treatment generalises previous results involving domain walls in vacuum and also previous results involving the properties of false vacuum bubbles. The equation of state for a domain wall is{tau} = {sigma} where {tau} is the tension in the wall and {sigma} is the energy density. We consider the motion of a more general class of walls having equation of state {tau}{Gamma}{sigma} with 0{le}{Gamma}{le}1. Spherically symmetric and planar symmetric walls are examined. We also find the global structure of the wall spacetime. (author).

  3. High Resolution Spectroscopy in the Divertor and Edge Regions of Alcator-C Mode and Measurement of Radiative Transfer in Vacuum-UV Line Emission from Magnetic Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, Hans R.

    2005-01-01

    Spectroscopic diagnostics were carried out both at MIT and at the University of Maryland. At MIT, measurements were made of toroidal flow velocities in the mid-plane of the inner and outer scrape-off layers (SOL) of Alcator C-Mod plasmas, using a high-resolution spectrograph. Subsequently, the MIT/Alcator procedures based upon visible spectroscopy were transferred to the new Maryland centrifugal experiment (MCX). In a further effort towards data refinement, we expanded the hydrogen measurements from the n approaches to 2 Balmer series in the visible to the n approaches to 1 Lyman series in the vacuum-ultraviolet (vuv) spectral region. Recent results were presented at APS Division of Plasma Physics meetings and published in Physics of Plasmas in 2004 and 2005. Further details can be found in the annual progress reports to the Department of Energy

  4. Investigation of vacuum deposited hybrid coatings of protic organic UV absorbers embedded in a silica matrix used for the UV protection of Polycarbonate glazing

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, C.; Schulz, U.; Mühlig, C.; Kaiser, N.; Tünnermann, A.

    2016-01-01

    A study of vacuum-deposited organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for UV protection of polycarbonate is presented. UV-absorbing compounds, which are commonly used for polycarbonate, were embedded in a silica matrix by thermal co-evaporation under high vacuum. In addition to the optical properties of the coatings, the influence of the silica network on the organic UV absorber and the stability of the intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) are discussed. A model is presented to show the interaction be...

  5. Vacuum UV Polarization Spectroscopy of p-Terphenyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning

    2018-01-01

    functional theory(TD–DFT) procedures TD–CAM-B3LYP, TD–LC-wPBE, and TD–wB97XD are insimilar qualitative agreement with the observed partial absorbance curvesthroughout the investigated spectral regions, while TD–B3LYP fails to predictqualitatively the spectrum of p-terphenylin the region above 40000 cm–1 (250...

  6. Enzymatic quantification of strand breaks of DNA induced by vacuum-UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takashi

    1986-01-01

    Hind3 digested plasmid DNA dried on an aluminum plate was irradiated by vacuum-UV at 160 and 195 nm using a synchrotron irradiation system. A change induced in the DNA, presumably a single strand break, was quantified by the aid of the strand break-derived stimulation of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase activity. The end group of strand breaks so induced was recognized by the enzyme as effectively as that by DNase 1 treatment, suggesting a nicking as the major lesion inflicted on the DNA. The fluence (UV) dependent stimulation of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase activity was much higher upon 160 nm irradiation than upon 195 nm irradiation. (Auth.)

  7. Semi-automated high-efficiency reflectivity chamber for vacuum UV measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, James; Fleming, Brian; Renninger, Nicholas; Egan, Arika

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the design and theory of operation for a semi-automated reflectivity chamber for ultraviolet optimized optics. A graphical user interface designed in LabVIEW controls the stages, interfaces with the detector system, takes semi-autonomous measurements, and monitors the system in case of error. Samples and an optical photodiode sit on an optics plate mounted to a rotation stage in the middle of the vacuum chamber. The optics plate rotates the samples and diode between an incident and reflected position to measure the absolute reflectivity of the samples at wavelengths limited by the monochromator operational bandpass of 70 nm to 550 nm. A collimating parabolic mirror on a fine steering tip-tilt motor enables beam steering for detector peak-ups. This chamber is designed to take measurements rapidly and with minimal oversight, increasing lab efficiency for high cadence and high accuracy vacuum UV reflectivity measurements.

  8. Single-strand breaks in supercoiled DNA induced by vacuum-UV radiation in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Mitsuo; Hieda, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Ito, Atsushi; Ito, Takashi

    1986-09-01

    The induction of single-strand breaks in the DNA of plasmid pBR 322 by vacuum-UV radiation above 145 nm in aqueous solutions was studied in relation to the production of OH-radicals in water. The similarity and dissimilarity were examined on the wavelength dependence between the two effects. The maximum of single strand breaks at 150 nm could be explained by the action of OH-radicals derived from direct water photolysis: the maximum at 180 nm remains unexplained. There was no indication that the direct absorption of photon by the DNA molecule plays an important role in the production of single-strand breaks.

  9. Single-strand breaks in supercoiled DNA induced by vacuum-UV radiation in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Mitsuo; Hieda, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Ito, Atsushi; Ito, Takashi

    1986-01-01

    The induction of single-strand breaks in the DNA of plasmid pBR 322 by vacuum-UV radiation above 145 nm in aqueous solutions was studied in relation to the production of OH-radicals in water. The similarity and dissimilarity were examined on the wavelength dependence between the two effects. The maximum of single strand breaks at 150 nm could be explained by the action of OH-radicals derived from direct water photolysis: the maximum at 180 nm remains unexplained. There was no indication that the direct absorption of photon by the DNA molecule plays an important role in the production of single-strand breaks. (author)

  10. A vacuum-UV laser-induced fluorescence experiment for measurement of rotationally and vibrationally excited H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankan, P.; Heil, S.B.S.; Mazouffre, S.; Engeln, R.; Schram, D.C.; Doebele, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental setup is built to detect spatially resolved rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules via laser-induced fluorescence. To excite the hydrogen molecules, laser radiation is produced in the vacuum UV part of the spectrum. The laser radiation is tunable between 120 nm and 230 nm and has a bandwith of 0.15 cm -1 . The wavelength of the laser radiation is calibrated by simultaneous recording of the two-photon laser induced fluorescence spectrum of nitric oxide. The excited hydrogen populations are calibrated on the basis of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements. A population distribution is measured in the shock region of a pure hydrogen plasma expansion. The higher rotational levels (J>5) show overpopulation compared to a Boltzmann distribution determined from the lower rotational levels (J≤5)

  11. Time-of-flight spectroscopy of metastable photodissociation fragments in vacuum-UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, C.H.; Welge, K.H.

    1974-01-01

    Photofragment time-of-flight experiments carried out at photon energies > approximately 11.8eV (1050A) is reported. Processes of the kind AB+hν→A*+B have been investigated where A* is an electronically excited species in a metastable state that can be detected by Auger electron emission from metal surfaces. The present work has been concerned with the identification of dissociation processes from N 2 O, CO 2 , and OCS, measurement of recoil energies and, for the first time, also angular dependent experiments. One objective of the work was to further explore the potential of such studies in the vacuum uv. Their feasibility was demonstrated previously in preliminary experiments

  12. A vacuum-UV laser-induced fluorescence experiment for measurement of rotationally and vibrationally excited H2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vankan, P.J.W.; Heil, S.B.S.; Mazouffre, S.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Döbele, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental setup is built to detect spatially resolved rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules via laser-induced fluorescence. To excite the hydrogen molecules, laser radiation is produced in the vacuum UV part of the spectrum. The laser radiation is tunable between 120 nm and 230 nm and has

  13. Luminescence of Ce3+ at two different sites in ?-Sr2P2O7 under vacuum ultraviolet-UV and x-ray excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, D.; Han, B.; Chen, W.; Liang, H.; Su, Q.; Dorenbos, P.; Huang, Y.; Gao, Z.; Tao, Y.

    2010-01-01

    A series of Ce3+ doped ?-Sr2?2xCexNaxP2O7 phosphor compounds has been prepared using a high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. The luminescence properties under vacuum ultraviolet-UV and x-ray excitation were studied. Luminescence spectra reveal three UV-emitting peaks at about 310, 330,

  14. UV Observations of Atomic Oxygen in the Cusp Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, B.; Lessard, M.; Dymond, K.; Kenward, D. R.; Lynch, K. A.; Clemmons, J. H.; Hecht, J. H.; Hysell, D. L.; Crowley, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Rocket Experiment for Neutral Upwelling (RENU) 2 launched into the dayside cusp on 13 December, 2015. The sounding rocket payload carried a comprehensive suite of particle, field, and remote sensing instruments to characterize the thermosphere in a region where pockets of enhanced neutral density have been detected [Lühr et al, 2004]. An ultraviolet photomultiplier tube (UV PMT) was oriented to look along the magnetic field line and remotely detect neutral atomic oxygen (OI) above the payload. The UV PMT measured a clear enhancement as the payload descended through a poleward moving auroral form, an indicator of structure in both altitude and latitude. Context for the UV PMT measurement is provided by the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Imager (SSULI) instrument on the Defense Meteorological Space Program (DMSP) satellite, which also measured OI as it passed through the cusp. UV tomography of SSULI observations produces a two-dimensional cross-section of volumetric emission rates in the high-latitude thermosphere prior to the RENU 2 flight. The volume emission rate may then be inverted to produce a profile of neutral density in the thermosphere. A similar technique is used to interpret the UV PMT measurement and determine structure in the thermosphere as RENU 2 descended through the cusp.

  15. Vacuum UV spectroscopy of armor erosion from plasma gun disruption simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockett, P.D.; Gahl, J.M.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Arkhipov, K.; Bakhtin, V.; Toporkov, D.; Ovchinnokov, I.; Kuznetsov, V.E.; Titov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Extensive simulations of tokamak disruptions have provided a picture of material erosion that is limited by the transfer of energy from the incident plasma to the armor solid surface through a dense vapor shield. Two transmission grating vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrographs were designed and utilized to study the plasma-material interface in plasma gun simulation experiments. Target materials included POCO graphite, ATJ graphite, boron nitride and plasma-sprayed tungsten. Detailed spectra were recorded with a spatial resolution of ca. 0.7mm resolution on VIKA at Efremov and on 2MK-200 at Troitsk. Time-resolved data with 40-200ns resolution were then recorded along with the same spatial resolution on 2MK-200. The VIKA plasma gun directly illuminated a target with a high-intensity plasma pulse of 2-100MJm -2 with low-energy ions of ca. 100eV. The 2MK-200 plasma gun illuminated the target via a magnetic cusp that permitted only deuterium to pass with energies of ca. 1keV, but which produced a fairly low intensity of 2MJm -2 . Power densities on target ranged from 10 7 to 10 8 Wcm -2 . Emitted spectra were recorded from 15 to 450A over a distance from 0 to 7cm above the armor target surface. The data from both plasma gun facilities demonstrated that the hottest plasma region was sitting several millimeters above the armor tile surface. This apparently constituted the absorption region, which confirmed past computer simulations. Spectra indicated both the species and ionization level that were being ablated from the target, demonstrating impurity content, and showing plasma ablation velocity. Graphite samples clearly showed CV lines as well as impurity lines from O V and O VI. The BN tiles produced textbook examples of BIV and BV, and extensive NIV, V and VI lines. These are being compared with radiation-hydrodynamic calculations. (orig.)

  16. Effects of photoirradiation in UV and VUV regions during plasma exposure to polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Ken; Setsuhara, Yuichi; Takenaka, Kosuke; Shiratani, Masaharu; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between photons irradiated from Ar-O 2 mixture plasmas and polymer surfaces were investigated on the basis of depth analyses of chemical bonding states in the nano-surface layer of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films via hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HXPES) and conventional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The PET films were exposed to photons from the Ar-O 2 mixture plasmas by covering the PET samples with MgF 2 and quartz windows as optical filters for evaluation of photoirradiation effects in ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) regions. The HXPES results indicated that the degradation of the chemical bonding states due to photoirradiation in regions was insignificant in deeper regions up to about 50 nm from the surface. Whereas, conventional XPS analysis showed that C-O bond, O=C-O bond and C=O bond increased after photoirradiation in UV and VUV regions. These results suggest that the increase in oxygen functionalities (C-O bond, O=C-O bond and C=O bond) may be attributed to chemical reactions and/or terminations of scissed bonds via photodecompositions of the polymer with oxygen and/or OH species (oxygen molecules and radicals during plasma exposure and/or oxygen molecules and moisture after taking the PET samples out of the plasma reactor to the ambient air) in the vicinity of the sample surface.

  17. A comparison of UV cross-linking and vacuum baking for nucleic acid immobilization and retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.; Gebhardt, J.S.; Linkkila, L.; Walsh, K.

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of UV cross-linking and in vacuo baking for the immobilization and retention of DNA to various solid supports was investigated. Optimal immobilization treatments for supported and unsupported nitrocellulose and nylon membranes were: UV cross-linking at 254 nm with an exposure of 120 milliJoules/cm 2 , or baking in vacuo for two hours at 80 degrees C. UV-immobilized nitrocellulose-based membranes showed no increase in sensitivity when compared to baked membranes. An increase in sensitivity was observed for UV-immobilized nylon membranes as compared with baked nylon membranes in some instances, although this varied within lots of the membranes tested. Repeated strippings and heterologous reprobings resulted in loss of target DNA from UV-immobilized nylon membranes as compared to baked nylon membranes. Loss of target DNA from UV-immobilized nitrocellulose-based membranes due to repeated strippings and reprobings was even more pronounced. In vacuo baking of supported and unsupported nitrocellulose and nylon membranes was more effective for immobilization, and more importantly, for retention of target DNA through many reprobings of the same blot

  18. The effect of the operation modes of a gas discharge low-pressure amalgam lamp on the intensity of generation of 185 nm UV vacuum radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute of High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Drozdov, L. A., E-mail: lit@npo.lit.ru; Kostyuchenko, S. V.; Sokolov, D. V. [ZAO LIT (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, N. N.; Sobur, D. A., E-mail: soburda@gmail.com [Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    The effect of the discharge current, mercury vapor pressure, and the inert gas pressure on the intensity and efficiency of the 185 nm line generation are considered. The spectra of the UV radiation (vacuum ultraviolet) transmission by protective coatings from the oxides of rare earth metals and aluminum are investigated.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of free-standing, high-line-density transmission gratings for the vacuum UV to soft X-ray range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, S.J.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Vratzov, B.; Huang, Qiushi; Bijkerk, Frederik; Boller, Klaus J.

    2015-01-01

    We present state-of-the-art high resolution transmission gratings, applicable for spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and the soft X-ray (SRX) wavelength range, fabricated with a novel process using ultraviolet based nano imprint lithography (UV-NIL). Free-standing, high-line-density

  20. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    on high-arctic vegetation. They supplement previous investigations from the Arctic focussing on other variables like growth etc., which have reported no or minor plant responses to UV-B, and clearly indicates that UV-B radiation is an important factor affecting plant life at high-arctic Zackenberg......Depletion of the ozone layer and the consequent increase in solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) may impact living conditions for arctic plants significantly. In order to evaluate how the prevailing UV-B fluxes affect the heath ecosystem at Zackenberg (74°30'N, 20°30'W) and other high......-arctic regions, manipulation experiments with various set-ups have been performed. Activation of plant defence mechanisms by production of UV-B absorbing compounds was significant in ambient UV-B in comparison to a filter treatment reducing the UV-B radiation. Despite the UV-B screening response, ambient UV...

  1. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer and the consequent increase in solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) may impact living conditions for arctic plants significantly. In order to evaluate how the prevailing UV-B fluxes affect the heath ecosystem at Zackenberg (74°30'N, 20°30'W) and other high......-arctic regions, manipulation experiments with various set-ups have been performed. Activation of plant defence mechanisms by production of UV-B absorbing compounds was significant in ambient UV-B in comparison to a filter treatment reducing the UV-B radiation. Despite the UV-B screening response, ambient UV...... (mycorrhiza) or in the biomass of microbes in the soil of the root zone. However, the composition of the soil microbial community was different in the soils under ambient and reduced UV radiation after three treatment years. These results provide new insight into the negative impact of current UV-B fluxes...

  2. The SMM UV observations of Active Region 5395

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stephen A.; Gurman, Joseph B.

    1989-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter (UVSP) on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft was used extensively to study the spatial morphology and time variability of solar active regions in the far UV (at approx. wavelength of 1370 A) since July 1985. The normal spatial resolution of UVSP observations in this 2nd-order mode is 10 sec., and the highest temporal resolution is 64 milliseconds. To make a full-field, 4 min. by 4 min. image this wavelength using 5 sec. raster steps takes about 3 minutes. UVSP can also make observations of the Sun at approx. wavelength of 2790 with 3 sec. spatial resolution when operated in its 1st-order mode; a full-field image at this wavelength (a so-called SNEW image) takes about 8 minutes. UVSP made thousands of observations (mostly in 2nd-order) of AR 5395 during its transit across the visible solar hemisphere (from 7 to 19 March, inclusive). During this period, UVSP's duty cycle for observing AR 5395 was roughly 40 percent, with the remaining 60 percent of the time being fairly evenly divided between aeronomy studies of the Earth's atmosphere and dead time due to Earth occultation of the Sun. UVSP observed many of the flares tagged to AR 5395, including 26 GOES M-level flares and 3 X-level flares, one of which produced so much UV emission that the safety software of UVSP turned off the detector to avoid damage due to saturation. Images and light curves of some of the more spectacular of the AR 5395 events are presented.

  3. Antireflective bilayer coatings based on Al2O3 film for UV region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marszałek Konstanty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bilayer antireflective coatings consisting of aluminium oxide Al2O3/MgF2 and Al2O3/SiO2 are presented in this paper. Oxide films were deposited by means of e-gun evaporation in vacuum of 5 × 10-3 Pa in the presence of oxygen, and magnesium fluoride was prepared by thermal evaporation on heated optical lenses made from quartz glass (Corning HPFS. Substrate temperature was maintained at 250 _C during the deposition. Thickness and deposition rate were controlled with a thickness measuring system Inficon XTC/2. The experimental results of the optical measurements carried out during and after the deposition process have been presented. Physical thickness measurements were made during the deposition process and resulted in 44 nm/52 nm for Al2O3/MgF2 and 44 nm/50 nm for Al2O3/SiO2 system. Optimization was carried out for ultraviolet region with minimum of reflectance at 300 nm. The influence of post deposition annealing on the crystal structure was determined by X-ray measurements. In the range from ultraviolet to the beginning of visible region, the reflectance of both systems decreased and reached minimum at 290 nm. The value of reflectance at this point, for the coating Al2O3/MgF2 was equal to R290nm = 0.6 % and for Al2O3/SiO2R290nm = 1.1 %. Despite the difference between these values both are sufficient for applications in the UV optical systems for medicine and UV laser technology.

  4. A database of astrophysical interest covering the UV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biemont, E.; Quinet, P.; University of Mons-Hainaut

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Our knowledge of the spectra of the rare-earths is still very poor due to the fragmentary laboratory analyses on the one hand and to the complexity of the configurations involving unfilled 4f shells on the other hand. The aim of the database DREAM is to supply the astrophysicists and the physicists with accurate atomic data (wave- lengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths, radiative lifetimes) of neutral, singly or multiply ionized lanthanides. Calculations of atomic structures and spectra in heavy ions like the lanthanides are frequently the only way to obtain the large amount of atomic data required by astrophysics, particularly for the analysis of the spectra of chemically peculiar stars. Such calculations, extremely complex, need to be tested by comparisons with experiment in order to deduce some information about their predictive power. For that reason, we have systematically compared the results obtained with our theoretical models (HFR approach including core-polarisation effects) with new lifetime measurements carried out with time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence laser techniques (collaboration with the Lund Laser Center in Sweden). The database DREAM (Database on Rare-Earths at Mons University) contains presently data for over 60 000 transitions and is continuously updated. The different tables, which cover the UV, the visible and near infrared regions, are located on the web page: http://www.umh.ac.be/ astro/dream.shtm. Up to now data are tabulated for the following ions : La III, Ce II, Ce III, Pr II, Pr III, Nd II, Nd III, Sm II, Sm III, Eu III, Gd III, Tb III, Dy III, Ho III, Er II, Er III, Tm II, Tm III, Yb II, Yb III, Yb IV, Lu I, Lu II and Lu III. Some information is also provided for Th III. All the references (about 40 papers), summarizing and discussing the new experimental and theoretical results obtained during the past few years, are given on this web site. Some specific examples of the results obtained will be discussed at

  5. Ion pair formation in the vacuum ultraviolet region of NO studied by negative ion imaging spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikosaka, Y.; Kaneyasu, T.; Shigemasa, E.

    2007-01-01

    The pair formation of positive and negative fragment ions has been studied in the vacuum ultraviolet region of NO, with negative ion imaging spectroscopy. The negative ion yield curve obtained in the photon energy region of 19-25 eV exhibits many structures which are absent from the photoabsorption spectrum in the same region. The partial yields and asymmetry parameters associated with the dissociations into individual ion pair limits have been extracted from the negative ion images observed. On the basis of these quantities, the assignments for the structures exhibited on the negative ion yield curve are given and the dynamical properties on the ion pair dissociation are discussed

  6. Calibration technique for radiation measurements in vacuum ultraviolet - soft x-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizui, Jun-ichi

    1986-05-01

    This is a collection of the papers presented at the workshop on ''Calibration Technique for Radiation Measurements in Vacuum Ultraviolet - Soft X-ray Region'' held at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, on December 19 - 20, 1985, under the Collaborating Research Program at the Institute. The following topics were discussed at the workshop: the needs for the calibration of plasma diagnostic devices, present status of the calibration technique, use of the Synchrotron Orbit Radiations for radiometry, and others. (author)

  7. Side- and end-illumination of polymer optical fibers in the UV region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Hanns-S.; Jungling, B.; Klein, Karl-Friedrich; Poisel, Hans

    2003-07-01

    Since more than 2 decades, the polymer optical fiber (POF) based on PMMA is well known. A lot of applications were studied and initiated: in addition to data transmission, the automotive, lighting and sensor applications are of main interest. Due to the spectral attenuation and applications, light-sources like broadband metal-halide lamps and halogen lamps, or LEDs and laser-diodes are mainly used. Due to improvement in manufacturing of the standard step-index POF, the variations of the spectral attenuation in the blue region have been reduced. Therefore, the losses are acceptable for short-length applications in the UV-A region. Using different light-sources like high-power Xenon-lamp, deuterium-lamp or UV-LEDs, the UV-damage is an important factor. In addition to the basic attenuation, the UV-induced losses will be determined by experiment, in the interesting UV-A region. The higher flexibilty of the thick-core POF is superior in comparison to silica or glass fibers with the same outer diameter. Therefore, the bending losses in the UV-region are important, too. For special applications in the medical field, side-illuminating fibers are highly accepted. The axial and spectral dependence on the lateral radiation pattern will be described, using a very thick fiber.

  8. Spectrograms of the JT-60 plasmas in the vacuum ultraviolet region (wavelength region 15 ∼ 1360 A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Hirotaka; Sugie, Tatsuo; Sakasai, Akira; Koide, Yoshihiko; Nishino, Nobuhiro; Akaoka, Nobuo

    1988-07-01

    Spectrograms in the vacuum ultraviolet region have been obtained by a 3 m grazing incidence spectrograph in order to study impurity behaviors in JT-60 plasma. The spectrograms have been investigated in the first OH experiments, High-Ti mode experiments, and the experiments that were carried out after the replacement of 40 % of the first wall of the vacuum vessel with graphite tiles. In the first OH experiments, the spectrogram which covered the wavelength region of 15 ∼ 1360 A was obtained, and spectral lines of oxygen, carbon, and titanium were identified. In High-Ti mode experiments, the spectrogram which covered the wavelength region of 17 ∼ 77 A was obtained, and spectral lines of highly ionized molybdenum were identified in addition to those of oxygen, carbon, and titanium. In the experiments after the replacement of the first wall, the spectrogram which covered the wavelength region of 15 ∼ 55 A was obtained, and it was found clearly that the metallic impurities decreased. (author)

  9. Extensive reduction of surface UV radiation since 1750 in world's populated regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Kvalevåg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human activity influences a wide range of components that affect the surface UV radiation levels, among them ozone at high latitudes. We calculate the effect of human-induced changes in the surface erythemally weighted ultra-violet radiation (UV-E since 1750. We compare results from a radiative transfer model to surface UV-E radiation for year 2000 derived by satellite observations (from Total Ozone Mapping Spectroradiometer and to ground based measurements at 14 sites. The model correlates well with the observations; the correlation coefficients are 0.97 and 0.98 for satellite and ground based measurements, respectively. In addition to the effect of changes in ozone, we also investigate the effect of changes in SO2, NO2, the direct and indirect effects of aerosols, albedo changes and aviation-induced contrails and cirrus. The results show an increase of surface UV-E in polar regions, most strongly in the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, our study also shows an extensive surface UV-E reduction over most land areas; a reduction up to 20% since 1750 is found in some industrialized regions. This reduction in UV-E over the industrial period is particularly large in highly populated regions.

  10. Deep UV Luminosity Functions at the Infall Region of the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, D. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Salim, S.; Smith, R.; Jenkins, L.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Ferguson, H.

    2011-01-01

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest UV luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to M(sub uv) = -10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes (alpha approximately equal to -1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parametrization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of alpha approximately equal to -1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than alpha = -1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star forming galaxies show a turnover at M(sub UV) approximately equal to -14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M(sub *) = 10(sup 8) solar mass. A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  11. Very high resolution UV and X-ray spectroscopy and imagery of solar active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M.; Brown, W. A.; Haisch, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    A scientific investigation of the physics of the solar atmosphere, which uses the techniques of high resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy and high resolution UV imagery, is described. The experiments were conducted during a series of three sounding rocket flights. All three flights yielded excellent images in the UV range, showing unprecedented spatial resolution. The second flight recorded the X-ray spectrum of a solar flare, and the third that of an active region. A normal incidence multi-layer mirror was used during the third flight to make the first astronomical X-ray observations using this new technique.

  12. One color multi-photon ionization of the Gadolinium atom in near UV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Tae; Yi, Jong Hoon; Lhee, Yong Joo; Lee, Jong Min

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the states of the gadolinium atom in near ultra-violet (UV) region (∼410 nm) using single photon excitation using resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS). Around 70 transitions among observed 180 single color multi-photon ionization signals have been assigned. Most of the multi-photon processes of the assigned ion signals are through single photon resonant three photon ionization and through two photon resonant three photon ionization. (author)

  13. Results of the IRIS UV Burst Survey, Part I: Active Regions Tracked Limb to Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, C. A.; DeLuca, E.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from the first phase of an effort to thoroughly characterize UV bursts within the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) data catalogue. The observational signatures of these phenomena include dramatically intensified and broadened NUV/FUV emission line profiles with absorption features from cool metallic ions. These properties suggest that UV bursts originate from plasma at transition region temperatures (≥ 80,000 K) which is deeply embedded in the cool lower chromosphere ( 5,000 K). Rigorously characterizing the energetic and dynamical properties of UV bursts is crucial since they have considerable potential to heat active region chromospheres and could provide critical constraints for models of magnetic reconnection in these regions. The survey first focuses on IRIS observations of active regions tracked from limb to limb. All observations consist of large field-of-view raster scans of 320 or 400 steps each, which allow for widespread detection of many burst profiles at the expense of having limited short-term time evolution information. We detect bursts efficiently by applying a semi-automated single-Gaussian fitting technique to Si IV 1393.8 Å emission profiles that isolates the distinct burst population in a 4-D parameter space. The robust sample of NUV/FUV burst spectra allows for precise constraints of properties critical for modeling reconnection in the chromosphere, including outflow kinetic energy, density estimates from intensity ratios of Si IV 1402.8 Å and O IV 1401.2 Å emission lines, and coincident measures of emission in other wavelengths. We also track burst properties throughout the lifetimes of their host active regions, noting changes in detection rate and preferential location as the active regions evolve. Finally, the tracked active region observations provide a unique opportunity to investigate line-of-sight effects on observed UV burst spectral properties, particularly the strength of Ni II 1393.3 Å absorption

  14. Calculations in the tokamak vacuum region: δWυ and diagnostic capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chance, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The calculational methods used for the magnetic energy, δW v , in the vacuum region surrounding tokamak plasmas permit a natural extension to more general toroidal configurations, and also for calculating useful ancillary quantities like the simulation of the Mirnov-loop measurements, and the eddy currents generated in the conducting materials outside the plasma discharge. The generalizations include the capabilities for topologically spherical shells, and toroidally symmetric unlinked (with respect to the plasma discharge) solid conductors. The former was motivated by spheromak-like configurations, and the latter for simulating the segmented shell of PBX-M. The collocation method and Green's second identity is used for solving ∇ 2 χ = 0 for the magnetic scalar potential. This lends itself readily to incorporating the necessary boundary conditions, and once χ is known on the surfaces, a second application of Green's identity enables the simulation of the Mirnov-loop measurements. The eddy currents on the surface of the conductors, K c , is given by n x ∇χ. This is useful for visualizing the proposed coil currents needed for stabilizing the external kink modes by feedback mechanisms, and also for estimating the stresses in the shell due to disruptions, etc. The code is modular and can be easily interfaced to various stability codes like the PEST, NOVA, GATO, etc. system of codes, or can be used in a stand-alone mode for diagnostic purposes. Details of the numerical method and results are presented. These include the efficient treatment of the singularities inherently present in the Green's function method

  15. Cusp/cleft region as observed by the Viking UV imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbe, G.P.; Murphree, J.S.; Cogger, L.L.; Woch, J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors report data taken by the Viking satellite at mid-altitudes (11,000-13,000 km) during northern hemispheric crossings of the cusp/cleft region. Particle signatures were used to divide the region into different categories. Data was looked at from the ultraviolet imager and particle diagnostics, when available. The authors discuss in detail two cases of crossing the cusp/cleft region, in order to look at the dynamics of a specific event, as opposed to other data analyses which have used large data sets to acquire good statistics, but which can thereby obscure dynamics of the actual events. Particle data were taken by the electron spectrometer ESP 1 and the ion spectrometer PISP 1/2. They looked at the spectral range 0.01 to 40 keV. The UV imager recorded 1 sec exposures of the auroral distribution once per minute. The data shows instantaneous observations of emissions, and does so for a narrow path swept by the satellite. Data indicate that the entire region is not a homogeneous region, but rather a very dynamic object. Conclusions include that the emissions observed are located at the footprint of the cleft region. The cusp region is located poleward of the region with continuous emission. The emission is observed to remain at a constant magnetic latitude during the period with IMF data, though B z swung 8nT during a 30 minute period

  16. Effect of UV-B radiation on UV absorbing compounds and pigments of moss and lichen of Schirmacher oasis region, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J; Gautam, S; Bhushan Pant, A

    2012-12-22

    The survival of Antarctic flora under ozone depletion depends on their ability to acclimate against increasing UV—B radiation by employing photo protective mechanisms either by avoiding or repairing UV—B damage. A fifteen days experiment was designed to study moss (Bryum argenteum) and lichen (Umbilicaria aprina) under natural UV—B exposure and under UV filter frames at the Maitri region of Schirmacher oasis, East Antarctica. Changes in UV absorbing compounds, phenolics, carotenoids and chlorophyll content were studied for continuous fifteen days and significant changes were observed in the UV exposed plants of B. argenteum and U. aprina. The change in the UV absorbing compounds was more significant in B. argenteum (P<0.0001) than U. aprina (P<0.0002). The change in phenolic contents and total carotenoid content was significant (P<0.0001) in both B. argenteum and lichen U. aprina indicating that the increase in UV absorbing compounds, phenolic contents and total carotenoid content act as a protective mechanism against the deleterious effect of UV—B radiations.

  17. Most Uv-Induced Reciprocal Translocations in SORDARIA MACROSPORA Occur in or near Centromere Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblon, G; Zickler, D; Lebilcot, S

    1986-02-01

    In fungi, translocations can be identified and classified by the patterns of ascospore abortion in asci from crosses of rearrangement x normal sequence. Previous studies of UV-induced rearrangements in Sordaria macrospora revealed that a major class (called type III) appeared to be reciprocal translocations that were anomalous in producing an unexpected class of asci with four aborted ascospores in bbbbaaaa linear sequence (b = black; a = abortive). The present study shows that the anomalous type III rearrangements are, in fact, reciprocal translocations having both breakpoints within or adjacent to centromeres and that bbbbaaaa asci result from 3:1 disjunction from the translocation quadrivalent.-Electron microscopic observations of synaptonemal complexes enable centromeres to be visualized. Lengths of synaptonemal complexes lateral elements in translocation quadrivalents accurately reflect chromosome arm lengths, enabling breakpoints to be located reliably in centromere regions. All genetic data are consistent with the behavior expected of translocations with breakpoints at centromeres.-Two-thirds of the UV-induced reciprocal translocations are of this type. Certain centromere regions are involved preferentially. Among 73 type-III translocations, there were but 13 of the 21 possible chromosome combinations and 20 of the 42 possible combinations of chromosome arms.

  18. UV spectroscopy. Ch. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Eugene S.

    1991-01-01

    The use of synchrotron radiation (SR) in the ultraviolet (UV) region by biophysics and biophysical chemists continues to increase as access improves and as awareness of its unique combination of properties grows. SR is continuously tunable, intense (even in the UV region), and pulsed. Pulse characteristics are comparable to those of picosecond lasers, but have the advantage of being independent of wavelength. Drawbacks are the continuous, but slow, decay of intensity arising from loss of particles in the ring, and the intrinsic limitation in pulse repetition rate. The particular combination of features that makes SR a superior light source depends upon the application. Spectroscopic techniques based on absorption and some techniques based on emission exploit its intensity and continuous tunability; time resolved techniques make use of its pulse characteristics. This chapter is a status report on two of the major biological applications of UV SR, circular dichroism and time-resolved fluorescence, covering mainly the published literature of the last five years. For the present purpose, the term UV is understood to include the vacuum ultraviolet region to 100 nm. (author). 83 refs.; 4 figs.; 6 tabs

  19. Measurements and estimation of the columnar optical depth of tropospheric aerosols in the UV spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Cachorro

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available We report values of the columnar tropospheric aerosol optical depth at UV wavelengths based on experimental measurements of the direct spectral irradiances carried out by a commercial spectroradiometer (Li1800 of Licor company covering the range from 300–1100 nm at two stations with different climate characteristics in Spain. The first station is located in a rural site in north central Spain with continental climate. The data extend from March to the end of October of 1995. The other station is a coastal site in the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Spain of maritime climate type. This study is mainly focused on the capability of estimating aerosol optical depth values in the UV region based on the extracted information in the visible and near infrared ranges. A first method has been used based on the Ångström turbidity parameters. However, since this method requires detailed spectral information, a second method has also been used, based on the correlation between wavelengths. A correlation has been established between the experimental aerosol optical depth values at 350 nm and 500 nm wavelengths. Although the type of aerosol seems to be the key factor that determines the quality of these estimations, the evaluation of the associated error is necessary to know the behaviour of these estimations in each area of study.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; transmission and scattering of radiation; troposphere – composition and chemistry

  20. Measurements and estimation of the columnar optical depth of tropospheric aerosols in the UV spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Cachorro

    Full Text Available We report values of the columnar tropospheric aerosol optical depth at UV wavelengths based on experimental measurements of the direct spectral irradiances carried out by a commercial spectroradiometer (Li1800 of Licor company covering the range from 300–1100 nm at two stations with different climate characteristics in Spain. The first station is located in a rural site in north central Spain with continental climate. The data extend from March to the end of October of 1995. The other station is a coastal site in the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Spain of maritime climate type. This study is mainly focused on the capability of estimating aerosol optical depth values in the UV region based on the extracted information in the visible and near infrared ranges. A first method has been used based on the Ångström turbidity parameters. However, since this method requires detailed spectral information, a second method has also been used, based on the correlation between wavelengths. A correlation has been established between the experimental aerosol optical depth values at 350 nm and 500 nm wavelengths. Although the type of aerosol seems to be the key factor that determines the quality of these estimations, the evaluation of the associated error is necessary to know the behaviour of these estimations in each area of study.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; transmission and scattering of radiation; troposphere – composition and chemistry

  1. Region-selective electroless gold plating on polycarbonate sheets by UV-patterning in combination with silver activating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Qinghua [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Zijin' gang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Chen Hengwu, E-mail: hwchen@zju.edu.c [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Zijin' gang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang Yi [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Zijin' gang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2010-02-28

    A simple, time- and cost-effective approach for region-selective metalization of polycarbonate (PC) surface has been established by combining photoresist-free UV-patterning with tin- and amine-free silver activating and electroless gold plating. The surface of PC sheets was exposed to the UV lights emitted from a low-pressure mercury lamp through a photomask, the micro pattern on the mask being transferred to the PC surface due to the photochemical generation of carboxyl groups on the UV-exposed region. The UV-exposed PC sheets were then treated with an ammoniacal AgNO{sub 3} solution, so that the silver ions were chemisorbed by the photochemically generated carboxyl groups. When the Ag{sup +}-adsorbed PC sheet was immersed into an electroless gold plating bath, shiny gold film quickly deposited on the UV-exposed region, resulting in the formation of a micro gold devices on the PC surface. The whole plating process including UV-exposure, surface activating and gold plating can be completed in about 3-4 h. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (ATR-FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were employed to trace the surface change during the plating process. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Scotch-tape test were employed to characterize the electrochemical properties and adhesion strength of the prepared micro gold devices, respectively. The prepared micro gold electrodes were demonstrated for amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide.

  2. NARROW-LINE-WIDTH UV BURSTS IN THE TRANSITION REGION ABOVE SUNSPOTS OBSERVED BY IRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Zhenyong; Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Li, Bo; Madjarska, Maria S.; Fu, Hui; Mou, Chaozhou; Xie, Haixia, E-mail: z.huang@sdu.edu.cn, E-mail: xld@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, 264209 Shandong (China)

    2016-10-01

    Various small-scale structures abound in the solar atmosphere above active regions, playing an important role in the dynamics and evolution therein. We report on a new class of small-scale transition region structures in active regions, characterized by strong emissions but extremely narrow Si iv line profiles as found in observations taken with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Tentatively named as narrow-line-width UV bursts (NUBs), these structures are located above sunspots and comprise one or multiple compact bright cores at sub-arcsecond scales. We found six NUBs in two data sets (a raster and a sit-and-stare data set). Among these, four events are short-lived with a duration of ∼10 minutes, while two last for more than 36 minutes. All NUBs have Doppler shifts of 15–18 km s{sup −1}, while the NUB found in sit-and-stare data possesses an additional component at ∼50 km s{sup −1} found only in the C ii and Mg ii lines. Given that these events are found to play a role in the local dynamics, it is important to further investigate the physical mechanisms that generate these phenomena and their role in the mass transport in sunspots.

  3. A Fourier transform spectrometer without a beam splitter for the vacuum ultraviolet range: From the optical design to the first UV spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, N; Joyeux, D; Phalippou, D; Rodier, J C; Polack, F; Vervloet, M; Nahon, L

    2009-04-01

    We describe a Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer designed to operate down to 60 nm (20 eV) on a synchrotron radiation beamline for high resolution absorption spectrometry. As far as we know, such an instrument is not available below 140 nm mainly because manufacturing accurate and efficient beam splitters remains a major problem at these wavelengths, especially if a wide bandwidth operation is desired. In order to overcome this difficulty, we developed an interferometer based on wave front division instead of amplitude division. It relies on a modified Fresnel bimirror configuration that requires only flat mirrors. The instrument provides path difference scanning through the translation of one reflector. During the scanning, the moving reflector is controlled by an optical system that keeps its direction constant within a tolerable value and provides an accurate interferometric measurement of the path difference variation. Therefore, a regular interferogram sampling is obtained, producing a nominal spectral impulse response and an accurate spectral calibration. The first results presented in this paper show a measured spectral resolution of delta(sigma)=0.33 cm-1 (interval between spectral samples). This was obtained with a sampling interval of 29 nm (path difference) and 512 K samples from a one-sided interferogram using a cosine FT. Such a sampling interval should allow the recording of large bandwidth spectra down to lambda=58 nm with an ultimate resolving power of 500,000 at this wavelength. In order to check the instrument performances, we first recorded an interferogram from a He-Ne stabilized laser. This provided the actual spectral impulse function, which was found to be fully satisfactory. The determination of the impulse response distortion and of the noise on the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral range provided accurate information in the sampling error profile over a typical scan. Finally, the instrument has been moved to the SU5 undulator

  4. Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemski, Leon; Cremers, David A.; Benelli, Katharine; Khoo, Cynthia; Harris, Ronny D.

    2005-01-01

    Several elements important to planetary geology (e.g. Br, C, Cl, P, S) and the human exploration of Mars (e.g. toxic elements such as As) have strong emission lines in the purge and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region (100-200 nm). This spectral region has not been extensively studied for space applications using geological samples. We studied emissions from the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) plasma in this region using a sample chamber filled with 7 torr (930 Pa) of CO 2 to simulate the Martian atmosphere. Pressures down to 0.02 torr were also used to evaluate the effect of the residual CO 2 on the spectra and to begin investigating the use of VUV-LIBS for airless bodies such as asteroids and the Moon. Spectra were recorded using a 0.3-m vacuum spectrometer with an intensified CCD (ICCD) camera. The effects of time delay and laser energy on LIBS detection at reduced pressure were examined. The effect of ambient CO 2 on the detection of C in soil was also evaluated. Lines useful for the spectrochemical analysis of As, Br, C, Cl, P, and S were determined and calibration curves were prepared for these elements. Although LIBS is being developed for stand-off analysis at many meters distance, the experiments reported here were aimed at in-situ (close-up) analysis

  5. Spectro-polarimetric observation in UV with CLASP to probe the chromosphere and transition region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Ryouhei; Ishikawa, Ryohko; Winebarger, Amy R.; Auchère, Frédéric; Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Narukage, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Ken; Bando, Takamasa; Katsukawa, Yukio; Kubo, Masahito; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Giono, Gabriel; Hara, Hirohisa; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Sakao, Taro; Tsuneta, Saku; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Goto, Motoshi; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; De Pontieu, Bart; Casini, Roberto; Manso Sainz, Rafael; Asensio Ramos, Andres; Stepan, Jiri; Belluzzi, Luca; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-05-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is a NASA sounding-rocket experiment that was performed in White Sands in the US on September 3, 2015. During its 5-minute ballistic flight, CLASP successfully made the first spectro-polarimetric observation in the Lyman-alpha line (121.57 nm) originating in the chromosphere and transition region. Since the Lyman-alpha polarization is sensitive to magnetic field of 10-100 G by the Hanle effect, we aim to infer the magnetic field information in such upper solar atmosphere with this experiment.The obtained CLASP data showed that the Lyman-alpha scattering polarization is about a few percent in the wings and the order of 0.1% in the core near the solar limb, as it had been theoretically predicted, and that both polarization signals have a conspicuous spatio-temporal variability. CLASP also observed another upper-chromospheric line, Si III (120.65 nm), whose critical field strength for the Hanle effect is 290 G, and showed a measurable scattering polarization of a few % in this line. The polarization properties of the Si III line could facilitate the interpretation of the scattering polarization observed in the Lyman-alpha line.In this presentation, we would like to show how the upper chromosphere and transition region are seen in the polarization of these UV lines and discuss the possible source of these complicated polarization signals.

  6. Very high resolution UV and x-ray spectroscopy and imagery of solar active regions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, M.; Brown, W.A.; Haisch, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    A scientific investigation of the physics of the solar atmosphere, which uses the techniques of high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy and high resolution UV imagery, is described. The experiments were conducted during a series of three sounding rocket flights. All three flights yielded excellent images in the UV range, showing unprecedented spatial resolution. The second flight recorded the x-ray spectrum of a solar flare, and the third that of an active region. A normal incidence multi-layer mirror was used during the third flight to make the first astronomical x-ray observations using this new technique

  7. Vacuum isostatic micro/macro molding of PTFE materials for laser beam shaping in environmental applications: large scale UV laser water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd; Ohar, Orest

    2009-08-01

    Accessibility to fresh clean water has determined the location and survival of civilizations throughout the ages [1]. The tangible economic value of water is demonstrated by industry's need for water in fields such as semiconductor, food and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Economic stability for all sectors of industry depends on access to reliable volumes of good quality water. As can be seen on television a nation's economy is seriously affected by water shortages through drought or mismanagement and as such those water resources must therefore be managed both for the public interest and the economic future. For over 50 years ultraviolet water purification has been the mainstay technology for water treatment, killing potential microbiological agents in water for leisure activities such as swimming pools to large scale waste water treatment facilities where the UV light photo-oxidizes various pollutants and contaminants. Well tailored to the task, UV provides a cost effective way to reduce the use of chemicals in sanitization and anti-biological applications. Predominantly based on low pressure Hg UV discharge lamps, the system is plagued with lifetime issues (~1 year normal operation), the last ten years has shown that the technology continues to advance and larger scale systems are turning to more advanced lamp designs and evaluating solidstate UV light sources and more powerful laser sources. One of the issues facing the treatment of water with UV lasers is an appropriate means of delivering laser light efficiently over larger volumes or cross sections of water. This paper examines the potential advantages of laser beam shaping components made from isostatically micro molding microstructured PTFE materials for integration into large scale water purification and sterilization systems, for both lamps and laser sources. Applying a unique patented fabrication method engineers can form micro and macro scale diffractive, holographic and faceted reflective structures

  8. Electronic excitation of some silicium compounds in the vacuum ultravi olet region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocco, M.L.M.

    1986-01-01

    Angle-resolved electron energy-loss spectra have been measured for the tetramethylsilane, trimethylchlorosilane and dimethyldichloresilane molecules in the 5 - 300 eV energy range. The spectra have been obtained at 1 KeV incident energy, with an energy resolution of about 0.5 eV (valense region) and 0.8 eV (inner-shell region). Both the valence and core-level excitation bands can be as associated to transitions to Rydber and valence states. No dipole-allowed transition has been observed in the spectra measured in the angular range of 1 to 9 degrees (valence region) and 3 to 7 degrees (inner-shell region). (Author) [pt

  9. Long-Term Variability of UV Irradiance in the Moscow Region according to Measurement and Modeling Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarova, N. E.; Pastukhova, A. S.; Galin, V. Ya.; Smyshlyaev, S. P.

    2018-03-01

    We have found distinct long-period changes in erythemal UV radiation ( Q er) characterized by a pronounced decrease at the end of the 1970s and a statistically significant positive trend of more than 5%/10 years since 1979 over the territory of the Moscow region according to the measurements and reconstruction model. The positive Q er trend is shown to be associated mainly with a decrease in the effective cloud amount and total ozone content (TOC). Due to these variations, UV resources have significantly changed in spring for the population with the most vulnerable skin type I, which means a transition from the UV optimum to UV moderate excess conditions. The simulation experiments using the INM-RSHU chemistry climate model (CCM) for several scenarios with and without anthropogenic factors have revealed that the variations in the anthropogenic emissions of halogens have the most significant impact on the variability of TOC and Q er. Among natural factors, noticeable effects are observed due to volcanic aerosol. The calculations of the cloud transmittance of Q er are generally consistent with the measurements; however, they do not reproduce the observed value of the positive trend.

  10. Remote sensing of auroral E region plasma structures by radio, radar, and UV techniques at solar minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.; Valladares, C.E.; Basu, S.; Eastes, R.; Huffman, R.E.; Daniell, R.E.; Chaturvedi, P.K.; Livingston, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The unique capability of the Polar BEAR satellite to simultaneously image auroral luminosities at multiple ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and to remote sense large-scale (hundreds to tens of kilometers) and small-scale (kilometers to hundreds of meters) plasma density structures with its multifrequency beacon package is utilized to probe the auroral E region in the vicinity of the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) facility near Sondrestrom. In particular, we present coordinated observations on two nights obtained during the sunspot minimum (sunspot number < 10) January-February 1987 period when good spatial and temporal conjunction was obtained between Polar BEAR overflights and Sondrestrom ISR measurements. With careful coordinated observations we were able to confirm that the energetic particle precipitation responsible for the UV emissions causes the electron density increases in the E region. The integrations up to the topside of these ISR electron density profiles were consistent with the total electron content (TEC) measured by the Polar BEAR satellite. An electron transport model was utilized to determine quantitatively the electron density profiles which could be produced by the particle precipitation, which also produced multiple UV emissions measured by the imager; these profiles were found to be in good agreement with the observed ISR profiles in the E region. This outer scale size is also consistent with the measured phase to amplitude scintillation ratio. An estimate of the linear growth rate of the gradient-drift instability in the E region shows that these plasma density irregularities could have been generated by this process. The mutual consistency of these different sets of measurements provides confidence in the ability of the different techniques to remote sense large- and small-scale plasma density structures in the E region at least during sunspot minimum when the convection-dominated high-latitude F region is fairly weak. 56 refs., 16 figs

  11. [Effect of UV-B radiation on release of nitrogen and phosphorus from leaf litter in subtropical region in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin-Zhang; Zhang, Hui-Ling; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-Quan

    2012-02-01

    The release of nitrogen and phosphorus from leaf litter of six representative species, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Pinus massoniana, Schima superba, Cinnamanun camphora, Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Castanopsis eyeri, was investigated with litterbag method under ambient and reduced UV-B radiation (22.1% below ambient) treatments in subtropical region. The results showed that, the N dynamics exhibited three patterns: immobilization, mineralization-immobilization and mineralization-immobilization-mineralization. P dynamics also exhibited three different patterns: mineralization, immobilization-mineralization-immobilization and no large change. Compared with ambient treatment, the reduced treatment significantly delayed the N release from C. eyeri and P release from both C. glanca and C. eyeri (Plitter decomposition. The C: P ratios can partly explain the P dynamics during decomposition. The more works need to be done to better understand the role of UV-B radiation in the forest ecosystem in humid subtropical China under global environment change.

  12. The absolute photoionization cross sections of helium, neon, argon and krypton in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.B.; Marr, G.V.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment has been set up at the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Facility to make absolute absorption cross section measurements over a wide range of photon energies. New data are reported for helium, neon, argon and krypton over the range 340 to 40 A which are believed to be reliable to +- 5%. A critical evaluation of published cross section data has been carried out to produce best value data from the ionization thresholds throughout the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray region. Agreement with theoretical calculations on helium is demonstrated to be within +- 2 to 3% from threshold down to the double ionization threshold at 79 eV. Comparison with recent calculations of photoionization cross sections has shown that the effect of electron correlations is significant for the heavier inert gases. Contrary to previous claims, the position of the M shell maximum in krypton is located at 184 +- 10 eV in good agreement with r.p.a.e. calculations. Oscillator strength sum rules have been examined and their moments calculated. Discrepancies developing towards the heavier inert gases suggests a decrease in polarizabilities and other atomic factors from those predicted by Hartree-Fock calculations. (author)

  13. Stabilization of He2(A(sup 3)Sigma(sub u)(+)) molecules in liquid helium by optical pumping for vacuum UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmuidzinas, J. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A technique is disclosed for achieving large populations of metastable spin-aligned He2(a 3 Sigma u +) molecules in superfluid helium to obtain lasing in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength regime around 0.0800 micron m by electronically exciting liquid (superfluid) helium with a comparatively low-current electron beam and spin aligning the metastable molecules by means of optical pumping with a modestly-powered (100mW) circularly-polarized continuous wave laser operating at, for example, 0.9096 or 0.4650 micron m. Once a high concentration of spin-aligned He2 (a 3 Sigma u +) is achieved with lifetimes of a few milliseconds, a strong microwave signal destroys the spin alignment and induces a quick collisional transition of He2 (a 3 Sigma u +) molecules to the a 1 Sigma u + state and thereby a lasing transition to the X 1 Sigma g + state.

  14. Antireflective bilayer coatings based on Al2O3 film for UV region

    OpenAIRE

    Marszałek Konstanty; Winkowski Paweł; Marszałek Marta

    2015-01-01

    Bilayer antireflective coatings consisting of aluminium oxide Al2O3/MgF2 and Al2O3/SiO2 are presented in this paper. Oxide films were deposited by means of e-gun evaporation in vacuum of 5 × 10-3 Pa in the presence of oxygen, and magnesium fluoride was prepared by thermal evaporation on heated optical lenses made from quartz glass (Corning HPFS). Substrate temperature was maintained at 250 _C during the deposition. Thickness and deposition rate were controlled with a thickness measuring syste...

  15. Identification of a large genomic region in UV-irradiated human cells which has fewer cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers than most genomic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, G.J.; Deiss-Tolbert, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Size separation after UV-endonuclease digestion of DNA from UV-irradiated human cells using denaturing conditions fractionates the genome based on cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer content. We have examined the largest molecules available (50-80 kb; about 5% of the DNA) after fractionation and those of average size (5-15 kb) for content of some specific genes. We find that the largest molecules are not a representative sampling of the genome. Three contiguous genes located in a G+C-rich isochore (tyrosine hydroxylase, insulin, insulin-like growth factor II) have concentrations two to three times greater in the largest molecules. This shows that this genomic region has fewer pyrimidine dimers than most other genomic regions. In contrast, the β-actin genomic region, which has a similar G+C content, has an equal concentration in both fractions as do the p53 and β-globin genomic regions, which are A+T-rich. These data show that DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers occurs with different probabilities in specific isochores. Part of the reason may be the relative G-C content, but other factors must play a significant role. We also report that the transcriptionally inactive insulin region is repaired at the genome-overall rate in normal cells and is not repaired in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C cells. (author)

  16. Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Nano-particles Embedded in Dielectric Medium for UV region: Numerical Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hilli, S. M.; Willander, M.

    2006-01-01

    Zinc oxide nano-particles have been used by cosmetic industry for many years because they are extensively used as agents to attenuate (absorb and/or scatter) the ultraviolet radiation. In the most UV-attenuating agent is formulated in which the metal oxide nano-particles are incorporated into liquid media or polymer media are manufactured, such as sunscreens and skin care cosmetics. In this paper we study the wavelength dependence on the particle size (r eff = 10-100 nm) by solving the scattering problem of hexagonal ZnO particle for different shapes (plate, equal ratio, column) using the discrete dipole approximation method to find the absorption, scattering, and extinction efficiencies for the UV region (30-400 nm). A new modified hexagonal shape is introduced to determine the scattering problem and it is assumed in this study that the wavelength is comparable to the particle size. From these results, we conclude that the optimum particle radius to block the UV radiation is between r eff = 40-80 nm

  17. Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Nano-particles Embedded in Dielectric Medium for UV region: Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilli, S. M.; Willander, M.

    2006-02-01

    Zinc oxide nano-particles have been used by cosmetic industry for many years because they are extensively used as agents to attenuate (absorb and/or scatter) the ultraviolet radiation. In the most UV-attenuating agent is formulated in which the metal oxide nano-particles are incorporated into liquid media or polymer media are manufactured, such as sunscreens and skin care cosmetics. In this paper we study the wavelength dependence on the particle size ( r eff = 10-100 nm) by solving the scattering problem of hexagonal ZnO particle for different shapes (plate, equal ratio, column) using the discrete dipole approximation method to find the absorption, scattering, and extinction efficiencies for the UV region (30-400 nm). A new modified hexagonal shape is introduced to determine the scattering problem and it is assumed in this study that the wavelength is comparable to the particle size. From these results, we conclude that the optimum particle radius to block the UV radiation is between r eff = 40-80 nm.

  18. Photoluminescence of Eu{sup 2+}-doped CaMgSi{sub 2x}O{sub 6+2x} (1.00{<=}x{<=}1.20) phosphors in UV-VUV region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiya [Department of Materials Science, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Yuhua [Department of Materials Science, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: wyh@lzu.edu.cn

    2008-03-15

    Alkaline-earth silicate phosphors CaMgSi{sub 2x}O{sub 6+2x}:Eu{sup 2+} (1.00{<=}x{<=}1.20) were prepared by traditional solid-state reaction. The phosphors showed an intense blue emission centered around 453 nm, with both 254 and 147 nm excitations. The host absorption below 200 nm in the excitation spectra consisted of two bands around 160 and 190 nm. The band around 160 nm was ascertained to be associated with the SiO{sub 4}-tetrahedra and MgO{sub 6}-polyhedra, and that around 190 nm was due to the CaO{sub 8}-polyhedra or some impurities. The incorporation of excess Si of less than 15% would not lead to formation of impurities and the results indicated that an appropriate Si excess could improve the Photoluminescence (PL) intensity in both ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) regions.

  19. Photoluminescence of Eu2+-doped CaMgSi2xO6+2x (1.00≤x≤1.20) phosphors in UV-VUV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiya; Wang Yuhua

    2008-01-01

    Alkaline-earth silicate phosphors CaMgSi 2x O 6+2x :Eu 2+ (1.00≤x≤1.20) were prepared by traditional solid-state reaction. The phosphors showed an intense blue emission centered around 453 nm, with both 254 and 147 nm excitations. The host absorption below 200 nm in the excitation spectra consisted of two bands around 160 and 190 nm. The band around 160 nm was ascertained to be associated with the SiO 4 -tetrahedra and MgO 6 -polyhedra, and that around 190 nm was due to the CaO 8 -polyhedra or some impurities. The incorporation of excess Si of less than 15% would not lead to formation of impurities and the results indicated that an appropriate Si excess could improve the Photoluminescence (PL) intensity in both ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) regions

  20. TiO_2/WO_3 photoactive bilayers in the UV-Vis light region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilaki, E.; Vernardou, D.; Kenanakis, G.; Katsarakis, N.; Vamvakaki, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, photoactive bilayered films consisting of anatase TiO_2 and monoclinic WO_3 were synthesized by a sol-gel route. Titanium isopropoxide and tungsten hexachloride were used as metal precursors and deposition was achieved by spin-coating on Corning glass substrates. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, UV-Vis, and Raman spectroscopy, as well as field emission scanning electron microscopy. The prepared immobilized catalysts were tested for their photocatalytic performance by the decolorization of methylene blue in aqueous matrices, under UV-Vis light irradiation. The annealing process influenced the crystallinity of the bilayered films, while the concentration of the tungsten precursor solution and the position of the tungsten trioxide layer further affected their photocatalytic performance. In particular, the photocatalytic performance of the bilayered films was optimized at a concentration of 0.1 M of the WO_3 precursor solution, when deposited as an overlying layer on TiO_2 by two annealing steps (∝76% methylene blue decolorization in 300 min of irradiation versus ∝59% in the case of a bare TiO_2 film). In general, the coupled layer catalysts exhibited superior photoactivity compared to that of bare TiO_2 films with WO_3 acting as an electron trap, resulting, therefore, in a more efficient electron-hole separation and inhibiting their recombination. (orig.)

  1. Characteristics of three-grid type modulated Bayard-Alpert ionization gauge in ultra high vacuum region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaji, Toru; Urano, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    In Bayard-Alpert (B-A) ionization gauges widely used as total pressure-measuring gauges, the collector current is expressed as the sum of ion current Ii and soft X-ray photoelectron current Ix, if noise current is composed of only Ix. Ii and Ix are proportional to emission current Ie, respectively, and the pressure Px = α/S at which Ie is equal to Ix is called X-ray limit pressure, where α is X-ray current generating rate, and S is sensitivity coefficient. Therefore, it is necessary to make α smaller, and at the same time, to make S larger in order to reduce Px. But actually, the noise current is not composed of Ix only. Thereupon, the collector current other than true ion current in the lump is expressed as In, then the measuring limit pressure can be improved by epsilon n/kappa fold, where epsilon n and kappa are modulation coefficients of In and Ii, respectively. The authors have studied the three concentric cylindrical grid type modulated B-A gauge, and presently are working to try to make epsilon n smaller, putting the emphasis on holding the electric field around the collector constant. By the detailed consideration on the noise current of this gauge, it can be expected that the gauge holds linearity down to considerably low pressure region, but there are many problems to verify it. Thus this gauge is expected to be developed further as the gauges for ultra-high vacuum application. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. C-terminal region of the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 initiates signaling through interaction with the COP1 protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloix, Catherine; Kaiserli, Eirini; Heilmann, Monika; Baxter, Katherine J.; Brown, Bobby A.; O’Hara, Andrew; Smith, Brian O.; Christie, John M.; Jenkins, Gareth I.

    2012-01-01

    UV-B light initiates photomorphogenic responses in plants. Arabidopsis UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) specifically mediates these responses by functioning as a UV-B photoreceptor. UV-B exposure converts UVR8 from a dimer to a monomer, stimulates the rapid accumulation of UVR8 in the nucleus, where it binds to chromatin, and induces interaction of UVR8 with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), which functions with UVR8 to control photomorphogenic UV-B responses. Although the crystal structure of UVR8 reveals the basis of photoreception, it does not show how UVR8 initiates signaling through interaction with COP1. Here we report that a region of 27 amino acids from the C terminus of UVR8 (C27) mediates the interaction with COP1. The C27 region is necessary for UVR8 function in the regulation of gene expression and hypocotyl growth suppression in Arabidopsis. However, UVR8 lacking C27 still undergoes UV-B–induced monomerization in both yeast and plant protein extracts, accumulates in the nucleus in response to UV-B, and interacts with chromatin at the UVR8-regulated ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) gene. The UV-B–dependent interaction of UVR8 and COP1 is reproduced in yeast cells and we show that C27 is both necessary and sufficient for the interaction of UVR8 with the WD40 domain of COP1. Furthermore, we show that C27 interacts in yeast with the REPRESSOR OF UV-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS proteins, RUP1 and RUP2, which are negative regulators of UVR8 function. Hence the C27 region has a key role in UVR8 function. PMID:22988111

  3. Vacuum Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  4. Wide band antireflective coatings Al2O3 / HfO2 / MgF2 for UV region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkowski, P.; Marszałek, Konstanty W.

    2013-07-01

    Deposition technology of the three layers antireflective coatings consists of hafnium compound are presented in this paper. Oxide films were deposited by means of e-gun evaporation in vacuum of 5x10-5 mbar in presence of oxygen and fluoride films by thermal evaporation. Substrate temperature was 250°C. Coatings were deposited onto optical lenses made from quartz glass (Corning HPFS). Thickness and deposition rate were controlled by thickness measuring system Inficon XTC/2. Simulations leading to optimization of thickness and experimental results of optical measurements carried during and after deposition process were presented. Physical thickness measurements were made during deposition process and were equal to 43 nm/74 nm/51 nm for Al2O3 / HfO2 / MgF2 respectively. Optimization was carried out for ultraviolet region from 230nm to the beginning of visible region 400 nm. In this region the average reflectance of the antireflective coating was less than 0.5% in the whole range of application.

  5. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two-part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validation of the developed OSATS scale for vac...

  6. Vacuum mechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

    1989-01-01

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

  7. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  8. Vacuum Ultraviolet Single-Photon Postionization of Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Chen Hsu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultraviolet (UV laser desorption and vacuum UV single-photon (VUV SP postionization were performed to ionize and successfully analyze 20 common amino acids. The analytical merit and efficiency of the ionization was compared with those of conventional UV matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (UV-MALDI. A VUV light source (118 nm was generated from the ninth harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, and the photon number was determined to be larger than 1012 for each laser pulse in the ionization region. In general, the detection sensitivity of VUV-SP-postionization was 10–100 times higher than that of conventional UV-MALDI. In particular, the ion signal from VUV-SP-postionization was considerably larger than that from UV-MALDI for analytes with low proton affinity such as glycine. However, some fragmentation of intact ions was observed in VUV-SP-postionization. Quantitative analysis performed using a glycine/histidine mixture and tryptophan/phenylalanine mixture revealed that the dynamic range of VUV-SP-postionization was one order of magnitude larger than that of UV-MALDI, indicating that VUV-SP-postionization is suitable for the quantitative analysis of amino acids.

  9. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry of tetrahydrothiophene and sulfolane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scala, A.A.; Colon, I.

    1979-01-01

    The vacuum uv photolysis of tetrahydrothiophene (THT) involves the breaking of the S to α-C bond. Besides ethylene, C 3 H 6 and 1,3-butadiene are also formed. Photolyses of THT, tetrahydrofuran, and pyrrolidine are similar. The vacuum uv photolysis of tetramethylene sulfone (sulfolane) was also studied; products are SO 2 , cyclobutane, 1-butene, and ethylene. No cis-2-butene was observed

  10. 20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

    CERN Document Server

    Pantelia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

  11. On the anomaly of the far UV extinction law in the 30 Doradus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koornneef, J.

    1976-01-01

    Area-integrated ultraviolet observations made with the Netherlands Astronomical Satellite (ANS), of about 800 fields in a 0.7 square degree region around the giant HII region 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud are discussed. The five-channel ANS photometric system is shown to be information redundant in the present application; the observations can therefore be discussed in terms of only two parameters: visual brightness and a temperature parameter (colour). A colour-brightness diagram is presented for about 600 fields with good quality measurements with the conclusion that most of the spread in colour is caused by differential extinction. By various independent methods it was found that the 2200 A-feature is deficient by a factor of three on a logarithmic scale relative to the average galactic extinction law

  12. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skurat, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of vacuum UV radiation (wavelength range from 1 to 200 nm) with polymers is interesting for fundamental and applied sciences. This interest is stimulated by various reasons: - Wide applications of polymeric materials in semiconductor technology, where they are used as photoresist materials in combination with VUV light sources (lasers, excimer lamps, synchrotron radiation and others). - Polymers are widely used as spacecraft materials in the last 20 years. On near-Earth orbits, the polymeric materials of spacecraft surfaces are destroyed by solar radiation. - VUV radiation is one of the components of gas discharge plasmas, which are used for treatment of polymer, with the aim of modifying their surface properties. The main features of interaction of VUV radiation with polymers are discussed. The spectra of intrinsic absorption of saturated polymers (polyethylene, polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene and others) are situated mainly in the VUV region. The photochemistry of polymers in the VUV region is very different from their photochemistry at wavelengths longer than 200 nm, where the absorption spectra belong to impurities and polymer defects. The polymer photochemistry in the VUV region is wavelength-dependent. At wavelengths longer than about 140 nm, the main role is played by transformations of primary-formed singlet excited molecules. At shorter wavelengths the role of photoionization increases progressively and the main features of VUV photolysis become similar to the picture of radiolysis, with significant contributions of charge pairs and triplet excited molecules. Very important features of VUV light absorption in polymers are high absorption coefficients. Because of this, the surface layers absorb large doses of energy. This leads to very profound transformation of material on the polymer surface. In particular for polymers which are considered destroyed by radiation (for example, perfluoropolymers), this leads to VUV-induced erosion

  13. Degradation effects of the active region in UV-C light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Johannes; Haefke, Joscha; Ruschel, Jan; Brendel, Moritz; Rass, Jens; Kolbe, Tim; Knauer, Arne; Weyers, Markus; Einfeldt, Sven; Guttmann, Martin; Kuhn, Christian; Enslin, Johannes; Wernicke, Tim; Kneissl, Michael

    2018-03-01

    An extensive analysis of the degradation characteristics of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes emitting around 265 nm is presented. The optical power of LEDs stressed at a constant dc current of 100 mA (current density = 67 A/cm2 and heatsink temperature = 20 °C) decreased to about 58% of its initial value after 250 h of operation. The origin of this degradation effect has been studied using capacitance-voltage and photocurrent spectroscopy measurements conducted before and after aging. The overall device capacitance decreased, which indicates a reduction of the net charges within the space-charge region of the pn-junction during operation. In parallel, the photocurrent at excitation energies between 3.8 eV and 4.5 eV and the photocurrent induced by band-to-band absorption in the quantum barriers at 5.25 eV increased during operation. The latter effect can be explained by a reduction of the donor concentration in the active region of the device. This effect could be attributed to the compensation of donors by the activation or diffusion of acceptors, such as magnesium dopants or group-III vacancies, in the pn-junction space-charge region. The results are consistent with the observed reduction in optical power since deep level acceptors can also act as non-radiative recombination centers.

  14. Au nanostructure-decorated TiO2 nanowires exhibiting photoactivity across entire UV-visible region for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Ying-Chih; Wang, Gongming; Chang, Kao-Der; Ling, Yichuan; Lin, Yin-Kai; Fitzmorris, Bob C; Liu, Chia-Ming; Lu, Xihong; Tong, Yexiang; Zhang, Jin Z; Hsu, Yung-Jung; Li, Yat

    2013-08-14

    Here we demonstrate that the photoactivity of Au-decorated TiO2 electrodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation can be effectively enhanced in the entire UV-visible region from 300 to 800 nm by manipulating the shape of the decorated Au nanostructures. The samples were prepared by carefully depositing Au nanoparticles (NPs), Au nanorods (NRs), and a mixture of Au NPs and NRs on the surface of TiO2 nanowire arrays. As compared with bare TiO2, Au NP-decorated TiO2 nanowire electrodes exhibited significantly enhanced photoactivity in both the UV and visible regions. For Au NR-decorated TiO2 electrodes, the photoactivity enhancement was, however, observed in the visible region only, with the largest photocurrent generation achieved at 710 nm. Significantly, TiO2 nanowires deposited with a mixture of Au NPs and NRs showed enhanced photoactivity in the entire UV-visible region. Monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency measurements indicated that excitation of surface plasmon resonance of Au is responsible for the enhanced photoactivity of Au nanostructure-decorated TiO2 nanowires. Photovoltage experiment showed that the enhanced photoactivity of Au NP-decorated TiO2 in the UV region was attributable to the effective surface passivation of Au NPs. Furthermore, 3D finite-difference time domain simulation was performed to investigate the electrical field amplification at the interface between Au nanostructures and TiO2 upon SPR excitation. The results suggested that the enhanced photoactivity of Au NP-decorated TiO2 in the UV region was partially due to the increased optical absorption of TiO2 associated with SPR electrical field amplification. The current study could provide a new paradigm for designing plasmonic metal/semiconductor composite systems to effectively harvest the entire UV-visible light for solar fuel production.

  15. Cosmic vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernin, Artur D

    2001-01-01

    Recent observational studies of distant supernovae have suggested the existence of cosmic vacuum whose energy density exceeds the total density of all the other energy components in the Universe. The vacuum produces the field of antigravity that causes the cosmological expansion to accelerate. It is this accelerated expansion that has been discovered in the observations. The discovery of cosmic vacuum radically changes our current understanding of the present state of the Universe. It also poses new challenges to both cosmology and fundamental physics. Why is the density of vacuum what it is? Why do the densities of the cosmic energy components differ in exact value but agree in order of magnitude? On the other hand, the discovery made at large cosmological distances of hundreds and thousands Mpc provides new insights into the dynamics of the nearby Universe, the motions of galaxies in the local volume of 10 - 20 Mpc where the cosmological expansion was originally discovered. (reviews of topical problems)

  16. Cosmic vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernin, Artur D [P.K. Shternberg State Astronomical Institute at the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-11-30

    Recent observational studies of distant supernovae have suggested the existence of cosmic vacuum whose energy density exceeds the total density of all the other energy components in the Universe. The vacuum produces the field of antigravity that causes the cosmological expansion to accelerate. It is this accelerated expansion that has been discovered in the observations. The discovery of cosmic vacuum radically changes our current understanding of the present state of the Universe. It also poses new challenges to both cosmology and fundamental physics. Why is the density of vacuum what it is? Why do the densities of the cosmic energy components differ in exact value but agree in order of magnitude? On the other hand, the discovery made at large cosmological distances of hundreds and thousands Mpc provides new insights into the dynamics of the nearby Universe, the motions of galaxies in the local volume of 10 - 20 Mpc where the cosmological expansion was originally discovered. (reviews of topical problems)

  17. Exploring the Inner Acceleration Region of Solar Wind: A Study Based on Coronagraphic UV and Visible Light Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemporad, A.

    2017-09-01

    This work combined coronagraphic visible light (VL) and UV data to provide with an unprecedented view of the inner corona where the nascent solar wind is accelerated. The UV (H I Lyα) and VL (polarized brightness) images (reconstructed with SOHO/UVCS, LASCO, and Mauna Loa data) have been analyzed with the Doppler dimming technique to provide for the first time daily 2D images of the radial wind speed between 1 and 6 R ⊙ over 1 month of observations. Results show that both polar and equatorial regions are characterized at the base of the corona by plasma outflows at speeds > 100 km s-1. The plasma is then decelerated within ˜1.5 R ⊙ at the poles and ˜2.0 R ⊙ at the equator, where local minima of the expansion speeds are reached, and gently reaccelerated higher up, reaching speeds typical of fast and slow wind components. The mass flux is highly variable with latitude and time at the equator and more uniform and stable over the poles. The polar flow is asymmetric, with speeds above the south pole lower than those above the north pole. A correlation (anticorrelation) between the wind speed and its density is found below (above) ˜1.8 R ⊙. The 2D distribution of forces responsible for deceleration and reacceleration of solar wind is provided and interpreted in terms of Alfvén waves. These results provide a possible connection between small-scale outflows reported with other instruments at the base of the corona and bulk wind flows measured higher up.

  18. Vacuum gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, B.D.; Priestland, C.R.D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to vacuum gauges, particularly of the type known as Penning gauges, which are cold cathode ionisation gauges, in which a magnetic field is used to lengthen the electron path and thereby increase the number of ions produced. (author)

  19. R&D ERL: Vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the {approx}10{sup -9} torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2{sup o}K is reduced to low 10{sup -11} torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The

  20. R and D ERL: Vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the ∼10 -9 torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2 o K is reduced to low 10 -11 torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The cryostat vacuum thermally

  1. Separate photosensitizers mediate degradation of the 32-kDa photosystem II reaction center protein in the visible and UV spectral regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, B.M.; Gaba, V.; Canaani, O.; Malkin, S.; Mattoo, A.K.; Edelman, M.

    1989-01-01

    A component of the photosystem II reaction center, the 32-kDa protein, is rapidly turned over in the light. The mechanism of its light-dependent metabolism is largely unknown. We quantified the rate of 32-kDa protein degradation over a broad spectral range (UV, visible, and far red). The quantum yield for degradation was highest in the UVB (280-320 nm) region. Spectral evidence demonstrates two distinctly different photosensitizers for 32-kDa protein degradation. The data implicate the bulk photosynthetic pigments (primarily chlorophyll) in the visible and far red regions, and plastoquinone (in one or more of its redox states) in the UV region. A significant portion of 32-kDa protein degradation in sunlight is attributed to UVB irradiance

  2. Reconstruction of erythemal UV-doses for two stations in Austria: a comparison between alpine and urban regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Rieder

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the reconstruction of past UV-doses for two stations in Austria, Hoher Sonnblick and Vienna, using a physical radiation transfer model. The method uses the modeled UV-dose under clear-sky conditions, cloud modification factors and a correction factor as input variables. To identify the influence of temporal resolution of input data and modification factors, an ensemble of four different modelling approaches was calculated, each with hourly or daily resolution. This is especially important because we found no other study describing the influence of the temporal resolution of input data on model performance. Following the results of the statistical analysis of the evaluation period the model with the highest temporal resolution (HMC was chosen for the reconstruction of UV-doses. A good agreement between modelled and measured values of erythemally effective UV-doses was found at both stations. In relation to the reference period 1976–1985 an increase in the erythemal UV-dose in Vienna of 11% is visible in the period 1986–1995 and an increase of 17% in the period 1996–2005 can be seen. At Hoher Sonnblick the corresponding increase is 2% and 9%. For the different seasons the strongest increase in erythemal UV-dose has been found for winter and spring season at both stations. Further the influences of total ozone and cloudiness on changes in erythemal UV-doses were analyzed. This analysis showed for both stations, that changes in total ozone had a larger influence on erythemal UV-doses than changes in cloudiness.

  3. UV lamp for photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, M.J.B.; Landers, R.; Sundaram, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    An UV lamp and a differential pumping system which enables to couple the lamp to an ultra-high vacuum chamber (10 -9 torr) without using windows, are described. The differential between the pressure inside the discharge chamber and the one in de UHV region, which is of 10 8 -10 9 , is achieved with two pumping states separated by pyrex capillaries having an internal diameter of 0.6 mm. In the first stage, a mechanical pump (10 -3 torr) is used; in the second stage, a diffusor pump with a cryogenic trap (N 2 liq - 10 -7 torr) is employed. The lamp produces, when used with high purity He, narrow lines almost clear at 21.2 eV and 40.8 eV, depending on the discharge chamber pressure, thus eliminating the need of a monochromator. As a high voltage source (3 KV), a commercial unit with a good current control was used, ensuring UV beam stability - an essential characteristic for this lamp if it is employed for photoelectron excitation of crystalline samples. (C.L.B.) [pt

  4. Photochemistry of Fe:H2O Adducts in Argon Matrixes: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study in the Mid-IR and UV-Visible Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguin, Vincent; Mascetti, Joëlle; Simon, Aude; Ben Amor, Nadia; Aupetit, Christian; Latournerie, Sandra; Noble, Jennifer A

    2018-01-18

    The photochemistry of Fe:H 2 O adducts is of interest in fields as diverse as catalysis and astrochemistry. Industrially, iron can be used as a catalyst to convert H 2 O to H 2 , whereas in the interstellar medium it may be an important component of dust grains, influencing the chemistry on their icy surfaces. This study consisted of the deposition and spectral characterization of binary systems of atomic iron with H 2 O in cryogenic argon matrixes. In this way, we were able to obtain information about the interaction of the two species; we observed the formation of adducts of iron monomers and dimers with water molecules in the mid-IR and UV-visible spectral domains. Upon irradiation with a UV radiation source, the iron species were inserted into the water molecules to form HFeOH and HFe 2 OH, leading in some cases to the formation of FeO possibly accompanied by the production of H 2 . DFT and correlated multireference wave function calculations confirmed our attributions. This combination of IR and UV-visible spectroscopy with theoretical calculations allowed us to determine, for the first time, the spectral characteristics of iron adducts and their photoproducts in the UV-visible and in the OH stretching region of the mid-IR domain.

  5. Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plogmaker, Stefan; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Rensmo, Haakan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Linusson, Per [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Eland, John H. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Baker, Neville [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of {approx}8 to {approx}120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

  6. Optical constants and dispersion equations of lecithin, cholesterol, fucose, and chloroform: measurements in vacuum-ultraviolet to visible wavelength regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, M.; Nir, S.; Heller, J.M. Jr.; Painter, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    The optical constants, n and k, of solutions of lecithin, cholesterol, and fucose and of the solvent chloroform were measured for the spectral region 1348 to 6407 A by a reflectance method. Absorption peaks were found in chloroform at about 1393 and 1631 A and were attributed, respectively, to sigma → sigma/sup */ electron transitions at the C--H and C--Cl bonds and an n → sigma/sup */ electron transition at the C--Cl bond. A procedure for the determination of the optical constants of a solute from those of the solution and solvent is developed and applied. The procedure is also applied to calculate the optical constants of a solution from those of the components. From the values of the optical constants, dispersion equation parameters and van der Waals parameters were calculated for the compounds. The static electronic polarizabilities of the substances studies were found to depend little (less than 6%) on the concentration of solution used in the measurement. Values of polarizabilities obtained agreed closely with those obtained by the addition of bond polarizabilities

  7. Investigation of the vacuum ultraviolet fluorescence of gaseous xenon under optical excitation in an extended wavelength region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodmann, R.; Zimmerer, G.; Hamburg Univ.; Hahn, U.

    1976-02-01

    The fluorescence of Xe at a pressure of 10 Torr has been excited by monochromatic light in the wavelength region from 1,040 A to 1,500 A. Besides the well known first and second continuum additional emission bands appear at 1,192 A and 1,300 A. They are ascribed to an atomic transition 5d(3/2) 1 → 1 S 0 and a molecular transition O + sub(u)(6s'(1/2) + 1 S 0 ) → O + sub(g)( 1 S 0 + 1 S 0 ). The excitation spectra of the first and second continuum yield high fluorescence efficiency if higher Rydberg states are excited. Excitation of the first resonance line of Xe results in a low fluorescence intensity. Obviously the formation of highly excited molecules Xe** and intramolecular relaxation play an important role for the population of the vibrationally relaxed excited states (O + sub(u), 1sub(u)) of the Xe* 2 molecule. (orig.) [de

  8. Calculation of spectral shifts in UV-visible region and photoresponsive behaviour of fluorinated liquid crystals: Effect of solvent and substituent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi Praveen, P. [Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory, Post-Graduate Department of Physics, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada 520 008, A.P. (India); Ojha, Durga P., E-mail: durga_ojha@hotmail.com [Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory, Post-Graduate Department of Physics, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada 520 008, A.P. (India)

    2012-08-15

    The photoresponsive behaviour of fluorinated liquid crystals p-phenylene-4-methoxy benzoate-4-trifluoromethylbenzoate (FLUORO1), and 4-propyloxyphenyl-4-(4-trifluoromethylbenzoyloxy) benzoate (FLUORO2) has been systematically investigated using the CNDO/S + CI and INDO/S + CI methods. These methods have been employed to calculate/analyze the spectral shifts, and absorbance measurements in UV-visible region of the systems. The electronic transitions, absorption wavelength, HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital), and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) energies have been calculated. Further, ultraviolet (UV) stability of the molecules has been discussed in the light of absorption wavelength and electronic transition oscillator strength (f). The effect of different solvent media and substituents on transition energies, oscillator strength, and other absorption parameters have also been reported. The present article provides valuable information regarding enhancing the UV stability of molecules by marinating their conductivity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strongest bands of FLUORO molecules can be assigned as {pi} {yields} {pi}{sup Asterisk-Operator} transitions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small red-shift indicates a weak exciton coupling of chromophores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No n {yields} {pi}{sup Asterisk-Operator} transition occurs due to the rigidity of the ring system of the molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HOMO, LUMO, and E{sub g} values have been found to be independent of solvent effect.

  9. Vacuum type D initial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Parrado Gómez-Lobo, Alfonso

    2016-09-01

    A vacuum type D initial data set is a vacuum initial data set of the Einstein field equations whose data development contains a region where the space–time is of Petrov type D. In this paper we give a systematic characterisation of a vacuum type D initial data set. By systematic we mean that the only quantities involved are those appearing in the vacuum constraints, namely the first fundamental form (Riemannian metric) and the second fundamental form. Our characterisation is a set of conditions consisting of the vacuum constraints and some additional differential equations for the first and second fundamental forms These conditions can be regarded as a system of partial differential equations on a Riemannian manifold and the solutions of the system contain all possible regular vacuum type D initial data sets. As an application we particularise our conditions for the case of vacuum data whose data development is a subset of the Kerr solution. This has applications in the formulation of the nonlinear stability problem of the Kerr black hole.

  10. Leybold vacuum handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, K; Diels, Kurt

    1966-01-01

    Leybold Vacuum Handbook presents a collection of data sets that are essential for numerical calculation of vacuum plants and vacuum processes. The title first covers vacuum physics, which includes gas kinetics, flow phenomena, vacuum gauges, and vapor removal. Next, the selection presents data on vacuum, high vacuum process technology, and gas desorption and gettering. The text also deals with materials, vapor pressure, boiling and melting points, and gas permeability. The book will be of great interest to engineers and technicians that deals with vacuum related technologies.

  11. TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3} photoactive bilayers in the UV-Vis light region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilaki, E. [University of Crete, Department of Chemistry, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Engineering, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Vernardou, D. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Engineering, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Kenanakis, G.; Katsarakis, N. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Engineering, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Vassilika Vouton, P.O. Box 1385, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Vamvakaki, M. [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Vassilika Vouton, P.O. Box 1385, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); University of Crete, Department of Materials Science and Technology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2017-04-15

    In this work, photoactive bilayered films consisting of anatase TiO{sub 2} and monoclinic WO{sub 3} were synthesized by a sol-gel route. Titanium isopropoxide and tungsten hexachloride were used as metal precursors and deposition was achieved by spin-coating on Corning glass substrates. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, UV-Vis, and Raman spectroscopy, as well as field emission scanning electron microscopy. The prepared immobilized catalysts were tested for their photocatalytic performance by the decolorization of methylene blue in aqueous matrices, under UV-Vis light irradiation. The annealing process influenced the crystallinity of the bilayered films, while the concentration of the tungsten precursor solution and the position of the tungsten trioxide layer further affected their photocatalytic performance. In particular, the photocatalytic performance of the bilayered films was optimized at a concentration of 0.1 M of the WO{sub 3} precursor solution, when deposited as an overlying layer on TiO{sub 2} by two annealing steps (∝76% methylene blue decolorization in 300 min of irradiation versus ∝59% in the case of a bare TiO{sub 2} film). In general, the coupled layer catalysts exhibited superior photoactivity compared to that of bare TiO{sub 2} films with WO{sub 3} acting as an electron trap, resulting, therefore, in a more efficient electron-hole separation and inhibiting their recombination. (orig.)

  12. Vacuum system for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, O.

    1995-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is planned at CERN will be housed in the tunnel of the Large Electron Positron collider (LEP) and will store two counter-rotating proton beams with energies of up to 7 TeV in a 27 km accelerator/storage ring with superconducting magnets. The vacuum system for the LHC will be at cryogenic temperatures (between 1.9 and 20 K) and will be exposed to synchrotron radiation emitted by the protons. A stringent limitation on the vacuum is given by the energy deposition in the superconducting coils of the magnets due to nuclear scattering of the protons on residual gas molecules because this may provoke a quench. This effect imposes an upper limit to a local region of increased gas density (e.g. a leak), while considerations of beam lifetime (100 h) will determine more stringent requirements on the average gas density. The proton beam creates ions from the residual gas which may strike the vacuum chamber with sufficient energy to lead to a pressure 'run-away' when the net ion induced desorption yield exceeds a stable limit. These dynamic pressure effects will be limited to an acceptable level by installing a perforated 'beam screen' which shields the cryopumped gas molecules at 1.9 K from synchrotron radiation and which also absorbs the synchrotron radiation power at a higher and, therefore, thermodynamically more efficient temperature. (author)

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of sandwiched ZnO@Ag@Cu2O nanorod films: the distinct role of Ag NPs in the visible light and UV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Shoutian; Wang, Yingying; Wang, Benyang; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Guoliang

    2015-01-01

    Sandwiched ZnO@Ag@Cu 2 O nanorod films were synthesized by successive electrodeposition, magnetron sputtering and the second electrodeposition. The as-synthesized composites were characterized by x-ray diffraction patterns, field emission scanning electron microscopy, low- and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and a UV–vis spectrophotometer. Their photocatalytic performance was estimated by the degradation of a methyl orange solution under UV or visible-light irradiation, respectively. In the visible region, due to localized surface plasmon resonance absorption of Ag NPs, ZnO@Ag@Cu 2 O showed a significantly enhanced photocatalytic performance. The enhancement factor of Ag NPs on the catalytic performance of ZnO@Ag@Cu 2 O was estimated as a function of the Cu 2 O deposition time, and the corresponding enhancement mechanism was also evaluated by the monochromatic photocatalytic experiment and discrete dipole approximation simulation. In the UV region, due to the formation of a Schottky junction (e.g. Ag/ZnO, Ag/Cu 2 O), a limited enhanced photocatalytic performance was also realized for ZnO@Ag@Cu 2 O photocatalysts. (paper)

  14. Analysis of dust and marine aerosol optical depth spectral-curvature information in the UV to SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) wavelength regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, N. T.; Smirnov, A.; Eck, T. F.; Sakerin, S.; Kabanov, D.

    2005-12-01

    Traditional sunphotometry in the UV, visible and very NIR (Near Infrared) spectral regions is weighted, in terms of spectral information content, towards sub-micron (fine mode) particles. Sunphotometry in the NIR and SWIR increases the diversity and information content of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements for supermicron (coarse mode) particles. Two data sets representing dust aerosols from the UAE (United Arab Emirates) region and marine aerosols from the northern, tropical and southern Atlantic Ocean were analyzed in terms of their spectral curvature diversity and information content. The former data set was acquired using NIR-enhanced CIMEL sunphotometers (340, 340, 380, 440, 500, 670, 870, 1020, 1640 nm) as part of the August to October, 2004 UAE2 field campaign while the latter data set was acquired using an automated Russian UV to SWIR SP-5 sunphotometer (339, 423, 438, 484, 552, 633, 677, 777, 869, 1241, 1560, 2148, 4000 nm) as part of a October/December 2004 cruise campaign in the northern, tropical and south Atlantic Ocean. A Microtops hand-held sunphotometer was also employed to acquire VIS to NIR AOD spectra during the latter field campaign. Results will be presented in terms of robust micro-physical and spectral curvature parameters which characterize super-micron aerosols and, in a more general sense, in terms of what universal/fundamental optical inferences can be drawn from the two disperse data sets.

  15. MEA vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroo, R.; Schwebke, H.; Heine, E.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes construction and operation of the MEA vacuum system of NIKHEF (Netherlands). First, the klystron vacuum system, beam transport system, diode pump and a triode pump are described. Next, the isolation valve and the fast valves of the vacuum system are considered. Measuring instruments, vacuum system commands and messages of failures are treated in the last chapter. (G.J.P.)

  16. Vacuum system for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the proposed vacuum system for the planned ISABELLE storage rings with respect to acceptability and practicality from the vacuum viewport. A comparison is made between the proposed vacuum system and the vacuum system at the CERN ISR, and some comments on various design and operational parameters are made

  17. Approximated calculation of the vacuum wave function and vacuum energy of the LGT with RPA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Ping

    2004-01-01

    The coupled cluster method is improved with the random phase approximation (RPA) to calculate vacuum wave function and vacuum energy of 2 + 1 - D SU(2) lattice gauge theory. In this calculating, the trial wave function composes of single-hollow graphs. The calculated results of vacuum wave functions show very good scaling behaviors at weak coupling region l/g 2 >1.2 from the third order to the sixth order, and the vacuum energy obtained with RPA method is lower than the vacuum energy obtained without RPA method, which means that this method is a more efficient one

  18. Study of the absorption and energy transfer processes in inorganic luminescent materials in the UV and VUV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayolet, A.

    1995-01-01

    In order to find a green emitting phosphor showing high quantum efficiency and a short decay time which can be used in the color Plasma Display Panels developed by Thomson-TTE-TIV company, a VUV spectrophotometer built at IPN Orsay, using the synchrotron radiation from the SUPER-ACO storage ring as an excitation source, allow us the simultaneous recording of the luminescence excitation and diffuse reflectivity spectra of the inorganic compounds in the UV-VUV range. In addition, this experimental set-up enable us to determine the luminescence quantum efficiency of phosphors in the whole energy range of investigation. The chemical synthesis of rare-earth ortho-- and metaborate and rare-earth ortho- and metaphosphate doped with trivalent lanthanide ions cerium, praseodymium, europium and terbium have been made. The energy variation of the thresholds of the luminescence excitation mechanisms in function of the nature and the structure of the host matrix is discussed. We have determined the influence of the nephelauxetic effect and the crystal field intensity on the energy of the f-d inter-configuration transitions. The variation of the luminescence quantum efficiency of the dopant ion is interpreted through the 'impurity bound exciton' model. The systematic comparison of the cerium and terbium trivalent ions spectroscopic properties in the Y(AG)G host lattice series stands to reason that the self-ionized state of the luminescent center plays an important role in the rate of the non radiative relaxation. It is the redox power of the host matrix which imposes to the luminescent center, the energy of this state. (author)

  19. The vacuum chamber in the interaction region of particle colliders a historical study and developments implementations in the LHCb experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Knaster, J R; Gamez-Mejias, L

    2004-01-01

    The history of particle colliders begins in the early 60's when an idea previously patented by R. Wideroe in 1953 is constructed. The design of the vacuum chamber in their experimental area became essential as it was the rst physical barrier that the particles to be detected needed to traverse. The interaction of the products of the collisions with the vacuum chamber structural materials, hindered the identification of the significative events. This Thesis analyses the historical evolution of the experimental vacuum chambers and summarizes the technical criteria that are to be fulfilled. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) presently under construction at CERN is the last generation of particle colliders. Four big experiments will be in operation (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb) in the LHC with diferent physics objectives. In particular, LHCb will be devoted to the study of CP violation and the design of its vacuum chamber is the scope of this Thesis. Physics simulations with an initial design consisting of a conical ...

  20. Vacuum-assisted delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000514.htm Vacuum-assisted delivery To use the sharing features on this page, ... through the birth canal. When is Vacuum-assisted Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is fully dilated ( ...

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis and luminescent properties of LnPO4:Tb,Bi (Ln=La,Gd) phosphors under UV/VUV excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuhua; Wu Chunfang; Wei Jie

    2007-01-01

    Monoclinic LnPO 4 :Tb,Bi (Ln=La,Gd) phosphors were prepared by hydrothermal reaction and their luminescent properties under ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation were investigated. LaPO 4 :Tb,Bi phosphor and GdPO 4 :Tb phosphor showed the strongest emission intensity under 254 and 147 nm excitation, respectively, because of the different energy transfer models. In UV region, Bi 3+ absorbed most energy then transferred to Tb 3+ , but in VUV region it was the host which absorbed most energy and transferred to Tb 3+

  2. Vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectrophotometer using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsu, K.; Yonehara, R.; Gekko, K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is powerful for analyzing the structure of optically active materials such as biopolymers. However, no commercial CD spectrophotometer is capable of measuring the CD in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region below 190 nm because of technical difficulties involved in the light source, optical device, and sample cell. CD measurements extended to the VUV region can provide more detailed and new information on the structure of biopolymers based on the higher energy transition of chromophores such as hydroxyl and acetal groups. We have constructed a VUVCD spectrophotometer to measure the CD spectra of biomaterials in aqueous solutions in the 310-140 nm wavelength region under a high vacuum, using a small-scale SR source (0.7 GeV) at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center (HiSOR). All optical devices of the spectrophotometer were set up under a high vacuum (10 -6 Torr), to avoid the absorption of light by air and water vapor. The SR light is separated into two orthogonal linearly polarized light beams by a linear polarizer and then modulated to circularly polarized light at 50 kHz by a photo-elastic modulator (PEM). In order to control PEM accurately and to stabilize the lock-in amplifier under a high vacuum, we used the optical servo-control system. Also, an assembled-type MgF 2 cell with a temperature-control unit was constructed using a Peltier thermoelectric element. Its path length can be adjusted by various Tefron spacers in the range from 1.3 to 50 μm and its temperature can be controlled within an accuracy of ± 1 deg C in the range from -30 to 70 deg C. The performance of the spectrophotometer and MgF 2 cell constructed was tested by monitoring the CD spectra of ammonium d-camphor-10-sulfonate (ACS), D- and L-isomers of amino acids. These obtained results demonstrate that the optical system and the sample cell constructed normally operate under a high vacuum to provide useful information on the structure analysis of

  3. CUVE - Cubesat UV Experiment: Unveil Venus' UV Absorber with Cubesat UV Mapping Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, V.; Aslam, S.; D'Aversa, E.; Glaze, L.; Gorius, N.; Hewagama, T.; Ignatiev, N.; Piccioni, G.

    2017-09-01

    Our Venus mission concept Cubesat UV Experiment (CUVE) is one of ten proposals selected for funding by the NASA PSDS3 Program - Planetary Science Deep Space SmallSat Studies. CUVE concept is to insert a CubeSat spacecraft into a Venusian orbit and perform remote sensing of the UV spectral region using a high spectral resolution point spectrometer to resolve UV molecular bands, observe nightglow, and characterize the unidentified main UV absorber. The UV spectrometer is complemented by an imaging UV camera with multiple bands in the UV absorber main band range for contextual imaging. CUVE Science Objectives are: the nature of the "Unknown" UV-absorber; the abundances and distributions of SO2 and SO at and above Venus's cloud tops and their correlation with the UV absorber; the atmospheric dynamics at the cloud tops, structure of upper clouds and wind measurements from cloud-tracking; the nightglow emissions: NO, CO, O2. This mission will therefore be an excellent platform to study Venus' cloud top atmospheric properties where the UV absorption drives the planet's energy balance. CUVE would complement past, current and future Venus missions with conventional spacecraft, and address critical science questions cost effectively.

  4. Effects of vacuum ultraviolet radiation on deoxyoligonucleotides in solids in the wavelength region around and above ionization potential -with special reference to the chain scission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takashi; Saito, Mikio

    1991-01-01

    Photoproducts arising from exposure of deoxyoligonucleotides of adenine, d(pA) n (n = 2 ∼ 5), as solids to vacuum-u.v. radiation at the wavelengths around and above ionization potential were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. The main decomposition products were identified as adenine and all possible oligonucleotide and mononucleotide components for k satisfying n - k ≥ 1. These results and previous findings on the related compounds were discussed with special reference to the rules on the induction of chain scission by superexcitation. (author)

  5. Isotope shift studies in the spectra of gadolinium in UV region and term shifts of high even levels of Gd I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.M.; Venugopalan, A.; Ahmad, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Isotope shift Δσ( 156 Gd- 160 Gd) is reported in 70 spectral lines of neutral gadolinium atom (Gd I) in the 3290-3920 A region providing isotope shift data in UV lines of Gd I spectrum for the first time. The measurements were carried out on a photoelectric recording Fabry-Perot Spectrometer using highly enriched isotopic samples of gadolinium. Term isotope shifts ΔT( 156 Gd- 160 Gd) have been evaluated for 48 high lying even parity energy levels of Gd I using this data; new ΔT values have been obtained for 24 levels. Electronic configurations 4f 7 5d6s6p, 4f 7 5d 2 6p and 4f 8 5d6s assigned earlier to these even levels have been either confirmed or configuration mixing pointed out in some of these levels. Probable assignment of 4f 8 5d6s configuration to 8 even levels between 32930 and 35500 cm -1 have been confirmed. (orig.)

  6. Melting the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1998-01-01

    Results presented at the Quark Matter 97 conference, held in December in Tsukuba, Japan, have provided new insights into the confinement of quarks in matter. The current physics paradigm is that the inertial masses of protons and neutrons, and hence of practically all of the matter around us, originate in the zero-point energy caused by the confinement of quarks inside the small volume of the nucleon. Today, 25 years after Harald Fritzsch, Heinrich Leutwyler and Murray Gell-Mann proposed quantum chromodynamics (QCD) as a means for understanding strongly interacting particles such as nucleons and mesons, our understanding of strong interactions and quark confinement remains incomplete. Quarks and the gluons that bind them together have a ''colour'' charge that may be red, green or blue. But quarks are seen in particles that are white: baryons such as protons and neutrons consist of three quarks with different colour charges, while mesons consist of a quark and an antiquark, and again the colour charge cancels out. To prove that confinement arises from quark-gluon fluctuations in the vacuum that quantum theories dictate exists today, we need to find a way of freeing the colour charge of quarks. Experiments must therefore ''melt'' the vacuum to deconfine quarks and the colour charge. By colliding nuclei at high energies, we hope to produce regions of space filled with free quarks and gluons. This deconfined phase is known as the quark-gluon plasma. At the Tsukuba meeting, Scott Pratt of Michigan State University in the US discussed measurements that show that the hot dense state of matter created in these collisions exists for only 2x10 -23 s. So does the quark gluon plasma exist? No-one doubts that it did at one time, before the vacuum froze into its current state about 20 into the life of the universe, causing the nucleons to form as we know them today. The issue is whether we can recreate this early stage of the universe in laboratory experiments. And if we did

  7. Magnetically induced vacuum decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Shesheng

    2003-01-01

    We study the fermionic vacuum energy of vacua with and without application of an external magnetic field. The energetic difference of two vacua leads to the vacuum decaying and the vacuum energy being released. In the context of quantum field theories, we discuss why and how the vacuum energy can be released by spontaneous photon emission and/or paramagnetically screening the external magnetic field. In addition, we quantitatively compute the vacuum energy released, the paramagnetic screening effect, and the rate and spectrum of spontaneous photon emission. The possibilities of experimentally detecting such an effect of vacuum-energy release and that this effect accounts for the anomalous x-ray pulsar are discussed

  8. Extreme UV index and solar exposures at Plateau Rosà (3500 m a.s.l.) in Valle d’Aosta Region, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casale, Giuseppe R. [Sapienza Università di Roma, Department of Physics, p.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Siani, Anna Maria, E-mail: annamaria.siani@uniroma1.it [Sapienza Università di Roma, Department of Physics, p.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Diémoz, Henri [Sapienza Università di Roma, Department of Physics, p.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy); ARPA Valle d' Aosta (Aosta Valley Regional Environmental Protection Agency), Saint-Christophe-Aosta (Italy); Agnesod, Giovanni [ARPA Valle d' Aosta (Aosta Valley Regional Environmental Protection Agency), Saint-Christophe-Aosta (Italy); Parisi, Alfio V. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350 Australia (Australia); Colosimo, Alfredo [Sapienza Università di Roma, Department SAIMLAL, Via A. Borelli 50, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess personal exposures of skiers at the Alpine site of Plateau Rosà (45.9°N, 7.7°E, 3500 m a.s.l.), in the Valle d'Aosta region, Italy. The campaign was carried out on July 12th, 2011 during the summer ski season. A peak UVI value of 12.3, among the highest in Europe, was recorded on that day. Personal exposures (PE) were quantified using both polysulphone (PS) and poly-dimethyl phenylene oxide (PPO) dosimeters attached vertically to the cap because it is representative of the vertically oriented face of skiers. Exposure ratio (ER) defined as the ratio between PE and the corresponding ambient dose (i.e. erythemally weighted dose received by a horizontal surface) measured by a broad-band radiometer during the same exposure time of the subjects, was used to compare the results with previous studies. Skin color was also measured on the inner upper arm and on the cheek and differences in ITA (Individual Typology Angle) and a* (redness) values before and after exposure, were statistically analyzed. During the exposure period, the median PE (with PS) was 1.47 kJ m{sup −2} and that obtained by PPO was 1.15 kJ m{sup −2}. The median of the ERs was 0.65 (min: 0.50, max: 0.83) considering the cumulative PS exposure and 0.46 (min: 0.29, max: 0.95) for PPO. An increase in ITAs on the exposed site (i.e. the skin became lighter) was observed after exposure. These results indicate that: a) for some skiers, the exposures were similar to those received on the horizontal plane; and b) the targeted population showed exposures above the occupational threshold limit value (TLV) defined by ICNIRP; c) the use of physical sunscreens which tend to leave a white cast, might have reduced skin color change. Nevertheless possible visible sun-induced skin-color changes could be observed after longer time intervals after exposure. - Highlights: • PS and PPO dosimeters measure UV exposures over short/prolonged periods, respectively. • Large UV

  9. Extreme UV index and solar exposures at Plateau Rosà (3500 m a.s.l.) in Valle d’Aosta Region, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casale, Giuseppe R.; Siani, Anna Maria; Diémoz, Henri; Agnesod, Giovanni; Parisi, Alfio V.; Colosimo, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess personal exposures of skiers at the Alpine site of Plateau Rosà (45.9°N, 7.7°E, 3500 m a.s.l.), in the Valle d'Aosta region, Italy. The campaign was carried out on July 12th, 2011 during the summer ski season. A peak UVI value of 12.3, among the highest in Europe, was recorded on that day. Personal exposures (PE) were quantified using both polysulphone (PS) and poly-dimethyl phenylene oxide (PPO) dosimeters attached vertically to the cap because it is representative of the vertically oriented face of skiers. Exposure ratio (ER) defined as the ratio between PE and the corresponding ambient dose (i.e. erythemally weighted dose received by a horizontal surface) measured by a broad-band radiometer during the same exposure time of the subjects, was used to compare the results with previous studies. Skin color was also measured on the inner upper arm and on the cheek and differences in ITA (Individual Typology Angle) and a* (redness) values before and after exposure, were statistically analyzed. During the exposure period, the median PE (with PS) was 1.47 kJ m −2 and that obtained by PPO was 1.15 kJ m −2 . The median of the ERs was 0.65 (min: 0.50, max: 0.83) considering the cumulative PS exposure and 0.46 (min: 0.29, max: 0.95) for PPO. An increase in ITAs on the exposed site (i.e. the skin became lighter) was observed after exposure. These results indicate that: a) for some skiers, the exposures were similar to those received on the horizontal plane; and b) the targeted population showed exposures above the occupational threshold limit value (TLV) defined by ICNIRP; c) the use of physical sunscreens which tend to leave a white cast, might have reduced skin color change. Nevertheless possible visible sun-induced skin-color changes could be observed after longer time intervals after exposure. - Highlights: • PS and PPO dosimeters measure UV exposures over short/prolonged periods, respectively. • Large UV exposures of

  10. Gravitation and vacuum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevikyan, R.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents equations that describe particles with spins s = 0, 1/2, 1 completely and which also describe 2s + 2 limiting fields as E → ∞. It is shown that the ordinary Hilbert-Einstein action for the gravitation field must be augmented by the action for the Bose vacuum field. This means that one must introduce in the gravitational equations a cosmological term proportional to the square of the strength of the Bose vacuum field. It is shown that the theory of gravitation describes three realities: matter, field, and vacuum field. A new form of matter--the vacuum field--is introduced into field theory

  11. DC photogun vacuum characterization through photocathode lifetime studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcy Stutzman; Joseph Grames; Matt Poelker; Kenneth Surles-Law; Philip Adderley

    2007-01-01

    Excellent vacuum is essential for long photocathode lifetimes in DC high voltage photoelectron guns. Vacuum Research at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has focused on characterizing the existing vacuum systems at the CEBAF polarized photoinjector and on quantifying improvements for new systems. Vacuum chamber preprocessing, full activation of NEG pumps and NEG coating the chamber walls should improve the vacuum within the electron gun, however, pressure measurement is difficult at pressures approaching the extreme-high-vacuum (XHV) region and extractor gauge readings are not significantly different between the improved and original systems. The ultimate test of vacuum in a DC high voltage photogun is the photocathode lifetime, which is limited by the ionization and back-bombardment of residual gasses. Discussion will include our new load-locked gun design as well as lifetime measurements in both our operational and new photo-guns, and the correlations between measured vacuum and lifetimes will be investigated

  12. Plasma instability of a vacuum arc centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hole, M.J.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Simpson, S.W.; Del Bosco, E.

    2002-01-01

    Ever since conception of the vacuum arc centrifuge in 1980, periodic fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential have been observed in Langmuir probe measurements in the rotation region of a vacuum arc centrifuge. In this work we develop a linearized theoretical model to describe a range of instabilities in the vacuum arc centrifuge plasma column, and then test the validity of the description through comparison with experiment. We conclude that the observed instability is a 'universal' instability, driven by the density gradient, in a plasma with finite conductivity

  13. Some aspects of vacuum ultraviolet radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Damany, Nicole; Vodar, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Some Aspects of Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics presents some data on the state of research in vacuum ultraviolet radiation in association with areas of physics. Organized into four parts, this book begins by elucidating the optical properties of solids in the vacuum ultraviolet region (v.u.v.), particularly the specific methods of determination of optical constants in v.u.v., the properties of metals, and those of ionic insulators. Part II deals with molecular spectroscopy, with emphasis on the spectra of diatomic and simple polyatomic molecules, paraffins, and condensed phases. Part III

  14. Vacuum polarization and Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Shohreh

    Quantum gravity is one of the interesting fields in contemporary physics which is still in progress. The purpose of quantum gravity is to present a quantum description for spacetime at 10-33cm or find the 'quanta' of gravitational interaction.. At present, the most viable theory to describe gravitational interaction is general relativity which is a classical theory. Semi-classical quantum gravity or quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an approximation to a full quantum theory of gravity. This approximation considers gravity as a classical field and matter fields are quantized. One interesting phenomena in semi-classical quantum gravity is Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation was derived by Stephen Hawking as a thermal emission of particles from the black hole horizon. In this thesis we obtain the spectrum of Hawking radiation using a new method. Vacuum is defined as the possible lowest energy state which is filled with pairs of virtual particle-antiparticle. Vacuum polarization is a consequence of pair creation in the presence of an external field such as an electromagnetic or gravitational field. Vacuum polarization in the vicinity of a black hole horizon can be interpreted as the cause of the emission from black holes known as Hawking radiation. In this thesis we try to obtain the Hawking spectrum using this approach. We re-examine vacuum polarization of a scalar field in a quasi-local volume that includes the horizon. We study the interaction of a scalar field with the background gravitational field of the black hole in the desired quasi-local region. The quasi-local volume is a hollow cylinder enclosed by two membranes, one inside the horizon and one outside the horizon. The net rate of particle emission can be obtained as the difference of the vacuum polarization from the outer boundary and inner boundary of the cylinder. Thus we found a new method to derive Hawking emission which is unitary and well defined in quantum field theory.

  15. Insulation vacuum and beam vacuum overpressure release

    CERN Document Server

    Parma, V

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that the incident of 19th September caused a high pressure build-up inside the cryostat insulation vacuum which the existing overpressure devices could not contain. As a result, high longitudinal forces acting on the insulation vacuum barriers developed and broke the floor and the floor fixations of the SSS with vacuum barriers. The consequent large longitudinal displacements of the SSS damaged chains of adjacent dipole cryo-magnets. Estimates of the helium mass flow and the pressure build- up experienced in the incident are presented together with the pressure build-up for an even more hazardous event, the Maximum Credible Incident (MCI). The strategy of limiting the maximum pressure by the installation of addition pressure relieve devices is presented and discussed. Both beam vacuum lines were ruptured during the incident in sector 3-4 giving rise to both mechanical damage and pollution of the system. The sequence, causes and effects of this damage will be briefly reviewed. We will then an...

  16. Modern vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Austin

    2005-01-01

    Modern Vacuum Physics presents the principles and practices of vacuum science and technology along with a number of applications in research and industrial production. The first half of the book builds a foundation in gases and vapors under rarefied conditions, The second half presents examples of the analysis of representative systems and describes some of the exciting developments in which vacuum plays an important role. The final chapter addresses practical matters, such as materials, components, and leak detection. Throughout the book, the author''s explanations are presented in terms of first principles and basic physics, augmented by illustrative worked examples and numerous figures.

  17. Evaporation under vacuum condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Satoshi; Shibata, Yuki; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Toda, Saburo; Takase, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2000-01-01

    In nuclear fusion reactor design, an event of water coolant ingress into its vacuum vessel is now being considered as one of the most probable accidents. In this report, the evaporation under vacuum condition is evaluated by using the evaporation model we have developed. The results show that shock-wave by the evaporation occurs whose behavior strongly depends on the initial conditions of vacuum. And in the case of lower initial pressure and temperature, the surface temp finally becomes higher than other conditions. (author)

  18. Helical type vacuum container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, Kimio.

    1989-01-01

    Helical type vacuum containers in the prior art lack in considerations for thermal expansion stresses to helical coils, and there is a possibility of coil ruptures. The object of the present invention is to avoid the rupture of helical coils wound around the outer surface of a vacuum container against heat expansion if any. That is, bellows or heat expansion absorbing means are disposed to a cross section of a helical type vacuum container. With such a constitution, thermal expansion of helical coils per se due to temperature elevation of the coils during electric supply can be absorbed by expansion of the bellows or absorption of the heat expansion absorbing means. Further, this can be attained by arranging shear pins in the direction perpendicular to the bellows axis so that the bellows are not distorted when the helical coils are wound around the helical type vacuum container. (I.S.)

  19. Vacuum considerations: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blechschmidt, D.; Halama, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the efforts of a vacuum systems study group of the workshop on a Heavy Ion Demonstration Experiment (HIDE) for heavy ion fusion. An inadequate knowledge of cross-sections prevents a more concrete vacuum system design. Experiments leading to trustworthy numbers for charge exchange, stripping and capture cross-sections are badly needed and should start as soon as possible. In linacs, beam loss will be almost directly proportional to the pressure inside the tanks. The tanks should, therefore, be built in such a way that they can be baked-out in situ to improve their vacuum, especially if the cross-sections turn out to be higher than anticipated. Using standard UHV techniques and existing pumps, an even lower pressure can be achieved. The vacuum system design for circular machines will be very difficult, and in some cases, beyond the present state-of-the-art

  20. Handbook of vacuum technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive, standard work has been updated to remain an important resource for all those needing detailed knowledge of the theory and applications of vacuum technology. With many numerical examples and illustrations to visualize the theoretical issues.

  1. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  2. Vacuum mechatronics first international workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinski, S.E.; Shirazi, M.; Hackwood, S.; Beni, G. (eds.) (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: proposed epitaxial thin film growth in the ultra-vacuum of space; particle monitoring and control in vacuum processing equipment; electrostatic dust collector for use in vacuum systems; materials evaluation of an electrically noisy vacuum slip ring assembly; an overview of lubrication and associated materials for vacuum service; the usage of lubricants in a vacuum environment; guidelines and practical applications for lubrication in vacuum; recent development in leak detector and calibrator designs; the durability of ballscrews for ultrahigh vacuum; vacuum-compatible robot for self-contained manufacturing systems; the design, fabrication, and assembly of an advanced vacuum robotics system for space payload calibration; design criteria for mechanisms used in space; and concepts and requirements for semiconductor multiprocess integration in vacuum. These papers are indexed separately elsewhere.

  3. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller

  4. Ultra high vacuum technology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    A short introduction for some basic facts and equations. Subsquently, discussion about: Building blocks of an ultrahigh vacuum system - Various types of pumps required to reach uhv and methods to reduce these effects - Outgassing phenomena induced by the presence of a particle beam and the most common methods to reduce these effects It will be given some practical examples from existing CERN accelerators and discuss the novel features of the future LHC vacuum system.

  5. A Planck Vacuum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.

  6. An ultrahigh vacuum monochromator for photophysics beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshi Raja Rao, P.; Padmanabhan, Saraswathy; Raja Sekhar, B.N.; Shastri, Aparna; Khan, H.A.; Sinha, A.K.

    2000-08-01

    The photophysics beamline designed for carrying out photoabsorption and fluorescence studies using the 450 MeV Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), INDUS-1, uses a 1 metre monochromator as premonochromator for monochromatising the continuum. An ultra high vacuum compatible monochromator in Seya-Namioka mount has been designed and fabricated indigenously. The monochromator was assembled and tested for its performance. Wavelength scanning mechanism was tested for its reproducibility and the monochromator was tested for its resolution using UV and VUV sources. An average spectral resolution of 2.5 A was achieved using a 1200 gr/mm grating. A wavelength repeatability of ± 1A was obtained. An ultra high vacuum of 2 X 10 -8 mbar was also achieved in the monochromator. Details of fabrication, assembly and testing are presented in this report. (author)

  7. Permanent hydrophilic modification of polypropylene and poly(vinyl alcohol) films by vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte, Guilherme Kretzmann [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Avenida Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Charles, German [Centro de Química Aplicada (CEQUIMAP), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Unversidad Nacional de Córdoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Edificio de Ciencias II, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5000 (Argentina); Strumia, Miriam Cristina [Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, IPQA-Conicet, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Edificio de Ciencias II, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5000 (Argentina); Weibel, Daniel Eduardo, E-mail: danielw@iq.ufrgs.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Avenida Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Polypropylene and Poly(vinyl alcohol) were surface modified by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation. • The hydrophilicity of the treated films was permanent and resisted aging for several months. • Grafting of styrene monomer was only observed in the VUV irradiated regions. • The obtained results showed the potential in the use of VUV treatment for surface modification and processing of polymers which lack chromophores in the UV region. - Abstract: Polypropylene (PP) and Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) both synthetics polymers but one of them biodegradable, were surface modified by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation. After VUV irradiation in an inert nitrogen atmosphere, the films were exposed to oxygen gas. The treated films were characterized by water contact angle measurements (WCA), optical profilometry, FTIR-ATR, XPS, UPS and NEXAFS techniques. PP and PVA VUV-treated films reached superhydrophilic conditions (WCAs <10°) in about 30 min of irradiation under our experimental conditions. It was observed that when the WCAs reached about 35–40° the hydrophilicity was permanent in both polymers. These results contrasted with typical plasma treatments were a rapid hydrophobic recovery with aging time is usually observed. UPS and XPS data showed the presence of new functionalities on the PP and PVA surfaces that were assigned to COO, C=O, C−O and C=C functional groups. Finally, grafting of styrene (ST) as a typical monomer was tested on PP films. It was confirmed that only in the VUV irradiated region an efficient grafting of ST or polymerized ST was found. Outside the irradiated regions no ST grafted was observed. Our results showed the potential use of VUV treatment for surface modification and processing of polymers which lack chromophores in the UV region.

  8. Vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy of CH2Cl2 and CD2Cl2 in the energy region 50,000-95,000 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Anuvab; Singh, Param Jeet; Shastri, Aparna; Jagatap, B. N.

    2014-12-01

    A consolidated study of the VUV absorption spectra of CH2Cl2 and CD2Cl2 in the 50,000-95,000 cm-1 region using synchrotron radiation is presented. Rydberg series and vibronic analysis are carried out and supported by quantum chemical calculations. The broad absorption band of CH2Cl2 in the region 50,000-60,000 cm-1 is attributed to the valence states 11B2, 11B1 and 11A1. Most of the bands in the 60,000-95,000 cm-1 region are fitted to Rydberg series of ns, np and nd type converging to the first four ionization potentials 11.320, 11.357, 12.152 and 12.271 eV of CH2Cl2 arising from excitation of an electron from one of the four outermost Cl non-bonding orbitals (2b1, 3b2, 1a2 and 4a1). Vertical excited states of CH2Cl2 calculated using TDDFT are correlated with experimentally observed electronic states based on the symmetries of the initial and final MOs involved in a transition. A few Rydberg transitions viz. 2b1→5s, 4p, 5p, 6p; 3b2→4p, 5p; 1a2→4p are accompanied by vibronic features. Observed vibronic bands are assigned mainly to the CCl symmetric stretch (ν3‧) mode with smaller contributions from the CH symmetric stretch (ν1‧), CH2 bend (ν2‧) and CH2 wag (ν8‧) modes. Assignments are corroborated by comparison with the VUV absorption spectrum of the deuterated isotopologue CD2Cl2, reported here for the first time. The high underlying intensities seen in several sub-regions are explained by valence or valence-Rydberg mixed type transitions predicted with high oscillator strengths by the TDDFT calculations.

  9. Vacuum leak test technique of JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminaga, Atsushi; Arai, Takashi; Kodama, Kozo; Sasaki, Noboru; Saidoh, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    Since a vacuum vessel of JT-60 is very large (167 m 3 ) and is combined with many components, such as magnetic coils, neutral beam injection systems and RF heating systems, etc., the position of leak testing exceeds 700. The two kind of techniques for vacuum leak test used in JT-60 has been described. Firstly the probe helium gas can be fed remotely in the three-dimensionally sectioned 54 regions of the JT-60 torus. The leak test was very rapidly performed by using this method. Secondly the helium detector system has been modified by the additional installation of the cryopump, which reduced the background level of the deuterium gas. The sensitivity of vacuum leak test with the cryopump was two orders of magnitude larger than that of without it. The examples of the performed vacuum leak test are stated. The vacuum leaks during experiments were 9 times. They were caused by thermal strain and plasma discharge. The vacuum leaks just after maintenance are 36 times which mainly caused by mis-installation. (author)

  10. Vacuum electron acceleration by coherent dipole radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troha, A.L.; Van Meter, J.R.; Landahl, E.C.; Alvis, R.M.; Hartemann, F.V.; Troha, A.L.; Van Meter, J.R.; Landahl, E.C.; Alvis, R.M.; Li, K.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Hartemann, F.V.; Unterberg, Z.A.; Kerman, A.K.

    1999-01-01

    The validity of the concept of laser-driven vacuum acceleration has been questioned, based on an extrapolation of the well-known Lawson-Woodward theorem, which stipulates that plane electromagnetic waves cannot accelerate charged particles in vacuum. To formally demonstrate that electrons can indeed be accelerated in vacuum by focusing or diffracting electromagnetic waves, the interaction between a point charge and coherent dipole radiation is studied in detail. The corresponding four-potential exactly satisfies both Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz gauge condition everywhere, and is analytically tractable. It is found that in the far-field region, where the field distribution closely approximates that of a plane wave, we recover the Lawson-Woodward result, while net acceleration is obtained in the near-field region. The scaling of the energy gain with wave-front curvature and wave amplitude is studied systematically. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  11. Vacuum arc anode phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs is presented. Discussed in succession are: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during and after the anode spot forms; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. The dominant mechanism controlling the transition of the vacuum arc into the anode spot mode appears to depend upon the electrode geometry, the electrode material, and the current waveform of the particular vacuum arc being considered. Either magnetic constriction in the gap plasma or gross anode melting can trigger the transition; indeed, a combination of the two is a common cause of anode spot formation

  12. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I.

    2013-12-16

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the source has grown, so also have the operational characteristics been improved in a variety of different ways. Here we review the principles, design, and performance of vacuum arc ion sources.

  13. Vacuum fusion of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohr, J.A.

    1957-01-01

    After having outlined that vacuum fusion and moulding of uranium and of its alloys have some technical and economic benefits (vacuum operations avoid uranium oxidation and result in some purification; precision moulding avoids machining, chip production and chemical reprocessing of these chips; direct production of the desired shape is possible by precision moulding), this report presents the uranium fusion unit (its low pressure enclosure and pumping device, the crucible-mould assembly, and the MF supply device). The author describes the different steps of cast production, and briefly comments the obtained results

  14. Baryogenesis in false vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta [KEK Theory Center, IPNS, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi [Kanazawa University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2017-09-15

    The null result in the LHC may indicate that the standard model is not drastically modified up to very high scales, such as the GUT/string scale. Having this in the mind, we suggest a novel leptogenesis scenario realized in the false vacuum of the Higgs field. If the Higgs field develops a large vacuum expectation value in the early universe, a lepton number violating process is enhanced, which we use for baryogenesis. To demonstrate the scenario, several models are discussed. For example, we show that the observed baryon asymmetry is successfully generated in the standard model with higher-dimensional operators. (orig.)

  15. Vacuum considerations summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The vacuum system for Heavy Ion Fusion machines can be divided according to pressure into 4 parts: (a) Ion Sources; (b) Linear Accelerators; (c) Circular Accelerators, Accumulators and Storage Rings; and (d) Reactors. Since ion sources will need rather conventional pumping arrangements and reactors will operate with greater pressures, depending on their mode of operation, only items b and c will be treated in this report. In particular, the vacuum system design will be suggested for the machines proposed by various scenarios arrived at during the workshop. High mass numbers will be assumed

  16. Handbook of vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    1964-01-01

    Handbook of Vacuum Physics, Volume 3: Technology is a handbook of vacuum physics, with emphasis on the properties of miscellaneous materials such as mica, oils, greases, waxes, and rubber. Accurate modern tables of physical constants, properties of materials, laboratory techniques, and properties of commercial pumps, gauges, and leak detectors are presented. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with a discussion on pump oils, divided into rotary pump oils and vapor pump oils. The next chapter deals with the properties and applications of greases, including outgassing and vapor pr

  17. Vacuum phonon tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A; Roy, Ajit K

    2010-10-15

    Field-induced phonon tunneling, a previously unknown mechanism of interfacial thermal transport, has been revealed by ultrahigh vacuum inelastic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Using thermally broadened Fermi-Dirac distribution in the STM tip as in situ atomic-scale thermometer we found that thermal vibrations of the last tip atom are effectively transmitted to sample surface despite few angstroms wide vacuum gap. We show that phonon tunneling is driven by interfacial electric field and thermally vibrating image charges, and its rate is enhanced by surface electron-phonon interaction.

  18. Polarized vacuum ultraviolet and X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, J.A.R.

    1978-01-01

    The most intense source of polarized vacuum UV and X-radiation is synchrotron radiation, which exhibits a degree of partially polarized light between about 80-100%. However, the radiation transmitted by vacuum UV monochromators can also be highly polarized. The Seya-Namioka type of monochromator can produce partially polarized radiation between 50-80%. For certain experiments it is necessary to know the degree of polarisation of the radiation being used. Also, when synchrotron radiation and a monochromator are combined the polarization characteristic of both should be known in order to make full use of these polarization properties. The polarizing effect on monochromators (i.e. diffraction gratings) have been measured at the Seya angle and at grazing angles for various spectral orders. The author presents the first experimental evidence that the reciprocity law holds for polarization by reflection where the angle of incidence and diffraction are unequal. These results are reviewed along with the techniques for measuring the degree of polarization. (Auth.)

  19. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  20. Cryogenic vacuum pump design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, A.J.; Lessard, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a review of the problems and tradeoffs involved in cryogenic vacuum pump analysis, design and manufacture. Particular attention is paid to the several issues unique to cryopumps, e.g., radiation loading, adsorption of noncondensible gases, and regeneration. A general algorithm for cryopump design is also proposed. 12 references

  1. ISR vacuum system

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Some of the most important components of the vacuum system are shown. At the left, the rectangular box is a sputter-ion pump inside its bake-out oven. The assembly in the centre includes a sector valve, three roughing valves, a turbomolecular pump, a rotary backing pump and auxiliary equipment. At the right, the small elbow houses a Bayard-

  2. ISR vacuum system

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    A pressure of 5 x 10-11 Torr has been obtained repreatedly in this pilot section of the ISR vacuum system. The pilot section is 45 m long is pumped by 9 sputter-ion pumps pf 350 l/s pumping speed, and is baked out at 200 degrees C before each pump down.

  3. LEP Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This is a cut-out of a LEP vacuum chamber for dipole magnets showing the beam channel and the pumping channel with the getter (NEG) strip and its insulating supports. A water pipe connected to the cooling channel can also be seen at the back.The lead radiation shield lining is also shown. See also 8305563X.

  4. Vacuum distilling vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reik, H

    1928-12-27

    Vacuum distilling vessel for mineral oil and the like, characterized by the ring-form or polyconal stiffeners arranged inside, suitably eccentric to the casing, being held at a distance from the casing by connecting members of such a height that in the resulting space if necessary can be arranged vapor-distributing pipes and a complete removal of the residue is possible.

  5. Scroll vacuum pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Etsuo; Suganami, Takuya; Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Kitora, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Sakuei; Fujii, Kosaburo

    1988-02-25

    An effort is made to apply a scroll machine to development of a vacuum pump. In view of mechanical simplification and load patterns, the vacuum pump uses a rotating mechanism to produce paired vortices rotating around each center. Chip seal and atmospheric pressure are utilized for axial gap sealing while a spring and atmospheric pressure for the radial gap sealing. In both gaps, the sealing direction is stationary relative to the environment during rotation, making it much easier to achieve effective sealing as compared to oscillating pumps. Since the compression ratio is high in vacuum pumps, a zero top clearance form is adopted for the central portion of vortices and an gas release valve is installed in the rotating axis. A compact Oldham coupling with a small inertia force is installed behind the vortices to maintain the required phase relations between the vortices. These improvements result in a vacuum of 1 Pa for dry operation and 10/sup -2/ Pa for oil flooded operation of a single-stage scroll machine at 1800 rpm. (5 figs, 1 tab, 4 refs)

  6. On Lovelock vacuum solution

    OpenAIRE

    Dadhich, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    We show that the asymptotic large $r$ limit of all Lovelock vacuum and electrovac solutions with $\\Lambda$ is always the Einstein solution in $d \\geq 2n+1$ dimensions. It is completely free of the order $n$ of the Lovelock polynomial indicating universal asymptotic behaviour.

  7. The fate of the Higgs vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burda, Philipp [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Moss, Ian G. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University,Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-06

    We have recently suggested that tiny black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of the metastable Higgs vacuum. Previous results applied only to the nucleation of thin-wall bubbles, and covered a very small region of parameter space. This paper considers bubbles of arbitrary profile and reaches the same conclusion: black holes seed rapid vacuum decay. Seeded and unseeded nucleation rates are compared, and the gravitational back reaction of the bubbles is taken into account. The evolution of the bubble interior is described for the unseeded nucleation. Results are presented for the renormalisation group improved Standard Model Higgs potential, and a simple effective model representing new physics.

  8. The fate of the Higgs vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently suggested that tiny black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of the metastable Higgs vacuum. Previous results applied only to the nucleation of thin-wall bubbles, and covered a very small region of parameter space. This paper considers bubbles of arbitrary profile and reaches the same conclusion: black holes seed rapid vacuum decay. Seeded and unseeded nucleation rates are compared, and the gravitational back reaction of the bubbles is taken into account. The evolution of the bubble interior is described for the unseeded nucleation. Results are presented for the renormalisation group improved Standard Model Higgs potential, and a simple effective model representing new physics.

  9. DUST ATTENUATION OF THE NEBULAR REGIONS OF z ∼ 2 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: INSIGHT FROM UV, IR, AND EMISSION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Barros, S.; Reddy, N.; Shivaei, I., E-mail: stephane.debarros@oabo.inaf.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We use a sample of 149 spectroscopically confirmed UV-selected galaxies at z ∼ 2 to investigate the relative dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and the nebular emission lines. For each galaxy in the sample, at least one rest-frame optical emission line (Hα/[N ii] λ6583 or [O iii] λ5007) measurement has been taken from the litterature, and 41 galaxies have additional Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm observations that are used to infer infrared luminosities. We use a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code that predicts nebular line strengths when fitting the stellar populations of galaxies in our sample, and we perform comparisons between the predictions of our models and the observed/derived physical quantities. We find that on average our code is able to reproduce all the physical quantities (e.g., UV β slopes, infrared luminosities, emission line fluxes), but we need to apply a higher dust correction to the nebular emission compared to the stellar emission for the largest star formation rate (SFR) (log SFR/M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} > 1.82, Salpeter initial mass function). We find a correlation between SFR and the difference in nebular and stellar color excesses, which could resolve the discrepant results regarding nebular dust correction at z ∼ 2 from previous studies.

  10. Electronic excitation of carbonyl sulphide (COS) by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and electron-impact spectroscopy in the energy region from 4 to 11 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limão-Vieira, P., E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Ferreira da Silva, F.; Almeida, D. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Mogi, D. [Development and Marketing Department, New Products Development Division, Kanto Denka, Kogyo Co., Ltd., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0063 (Japan); Tanioka, T. [Shibukawa Development Research Laboratory, New Products Development Division, Kanto Denka Kogyo Co., Ltd., Shibukawa City, Gunma 377-8513 (Japan); Mason, N. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Hoffmann, S. V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Århus C (Denmark); Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J. [Départment de Chimie, Université de Liège, Institut de Chimie-Bât. B6C, allée de la Chimie 3, B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium)

    2015-02-14

    The electronic state spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide, COS, has been investigated using high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the energy range of 4.0–10.8 eV. The spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature. Vibronic structure has been observed, notably in the low energy absorption dipole forbidden band assigned to the (4π←3π) ({sup 1}Δ←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) transition, with a new weak transition assigned to ({sup 1}Σ{sup −}←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) reported here for the first time. The absolute optical oscillator strengths are determined for ground state to {sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π transitions. Based on our recent measurements of differential cross sections for the optically allowed ({sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π) transitions of COS by electron impact, the optical oscillator strength f{sub 0} value and integral cross sections (ICSs) are derived by applying a generalized oscillator strength analysis. Subsequently, ICSs predicted by the scaling are confirmed down to 60 eV in the intermediate energy region. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of carbonyl sulphide in the upper stratosphere (20–50 km)

  11. High current vacuum closing switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgachev, G.I.; Maslennikov, D.D.; Romanov, A.S.; Ushakov, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a powerful pulsed closing vacuum switch for high current commutation consisting of series of the vacuum diodes with near 1 mm gaps having closing time determined by the gaps shortening with the near-electrode plasmas [ru

  12. 10 October 2013 - D. Braun First Deputy Minister for Regional Development, Czech Republic, P. Styczeń Deputy Minister of Transport, Construction and Maritime Economy, Republic of Poland and F. Palko State Secretary, Ministry of Transport, Construction and Regional Development, Slovak Republic visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group Leader J. M. Jimenez and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    10 October 2013 - D. Braun First Deputy Minister for Regional Development, Czech Republic, P. Styczeń Deputy Minister of Transport, Construction and Maritime Economy, Republic of Poland and F. Palko State Secretary, Ministry of Transport, Construction and Regional Development, Slovak Republic visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group Leader J. M. Jimenez and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer

  13. The symmetries of the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, H.

    1985-01-01

    The vacuum equation of state required by cosmological inflation is taken seriously as a general property of the cosmological vacuum. This correctly restricts the class of theories which admit inflation. A model of such a vacuum is presented that leads naturally to the cosmological principle. (Author) [pt

  14. Scintillation properties of Nd{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}, and Er{sup 3+} doped LuF{sub 3} scintillators in the vacuum ultra violet region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Takayuki, E-mail: yanagida@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kawaguchi, Noriaki [Tokuyama Corporation Ltd., Shibuya 3-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8383 Japan (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Fukuda, Kentaro [Tokuyama Corporation Ltd., Shibuya 3-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8383 Japan (Japan); Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Futami, Yoshisuke; Yokota, Yuui [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Taniue, Kojiro [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwakecho, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Sekiya, Hiroyuki [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Hida, 506-1205 (Japan); Kubo, Hidetoshi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwakecho, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Tanimori, Toru [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwakecho, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan)

    2011-12-11

    In order to develop novel vacuum ultra violet (VUV) emitting scintillators, we grew Nd 0.5%, Tm 0.5%, and Er 0.5% doped LuF{sub 3} scintillators by the {mu}-pulling down method, because LuF{sub 3} has a very wide band gap and Nd{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}, and Er{sup 3+} luminescence centers show fast and intense 5d-4f emission in VUV region. Transmittance and X-ray induced radioluminescence were studied in these three samples using our original spectrometer made by Bunkou-Keiki company. In the VUV region, transmittance of 20-60% was achieved for all the samples. The emission peaks appeared at approximately 180, 165, and 164 nm for Nd{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}, and Er{sup 3+} doped LuF{sub 3}, respectively. Using PMT R8778 (Hamamatsu), we measured their light yields under {sup 241}Am {alpha}-ray excitation. Compared with Nd:LaF{sub 3} scintillator, which has 33 photoelectrons/5.5 MeV {alpha}, Nd:LuF{sub 3} and Tm:LuF{sub 3} showed 900{+-}90 and 170{+-}20 ph/5.5 MeV-{alpha}, respectively. Only for the Nd doped one, we can detect {sup 137}Cs 662 keV {gamma}-ray photoabsorption peak and the light yield of 1200{+-}120 ph/MeV was measured. We also investigated their decay time profiles by picosecond pulse X-ray equipped streak camera, and the main decay component of Nd:LuF{sub 3} turned out to be 7.63 ns.

  15. UV SEDs of early-type cluster galaxies: a new look at the UV upturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S. S.; Bremer, M. N.; Phillipps, S.; De Propris, R.

    2018-05-01

    Using GALEX, Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT), and optical photometry, we explore the prevalence and strength of the Ultraviolet (UV) upturn in the spectra of quiescent early-type galaxies in several nearby clusters. Even for galaxies with completely passive optical colours, there is a large spread in vacuum UV colour consistent with almost all having some UV upturn component. Combining GALEX and UVOT data below 3000 Å, we generate for the first time comparatively detailed UV spectral energy distributions for Coma cluster galaxies. Fitting the UV upturn component with a blackbody, 26 of these show a range of characteristic temperatures (10 000-21 000K) for the UV upturn population. Assuming a single temperature to explain GALEX-optical colours could underestimate the fraction of galaxies with UV upturns and mis-classify some as systems with residual star formation. The UV upturn phenomenon is not an exclusive feature found only in giant galaxies; we identify galaxies with similar (or even bluer) FUV - V colours to the giants with upturns over a range of fainter luminosities. The temperature and strength of the UV upturn are correlated with galaxy mass. Under the plausible hypothesis that the sources of the UV upturn are blue horizontal branch stars, the most likely mechanism for this is the presence of a substantial (between 4 per cent and 20 per cent) Helium-rich (Y > 0.3) population of stars in these galaxies, potentially formed at z ˜ 4 and certainly at z > 2; this plausibly sets a lower limit of {˜ } {0.3- 0.8} × 10^{10} M⊙ to the in situ stellar mass of ˜L* galaxies at this redshift.

  16. Nonperturbative QED vacuum birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, V.I.; Dolgaya, E.E.; Sokolov, V.A. [Physics Department, Moscow State University,Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-19

    In this paper we represent nonperturbative calculation for one-loop Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) vacuum birefringence in presence of strong magnetic field. The dispersion relations for electromagnetic wave propagating in strong magnetic field point to retention of vacuum birefringence even in case when the field strength greatly exceeds Sauter-Schwinger limit. This gives a possibility to extend some predictions of perturbative QED such as electromagnetic waves delay in pulsars neighbourhood or wave polarization state changing (tested in PVLAS) to arbitrary magnetic field values. Such expansion is especially important in astrophysics because magnetic fields of some pulsars and magnetars greatly exceed quantum magnetic field limit, so the estimates of perturbative QED effects in this case require clarification.

  17. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  18. Compact vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  19. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  20. Temperature control in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1986-01-01

    The patent concerns a method for controlling the temperature of silicon wafers (or samples), during ion beam treatment of the wafers, in a vacuum. The apparatus and method are described for irradiation and temperature control of the samples. The wafers are mounted on a drum which is rotated through the ion beam, and are additionally heated by infra-red lamps to achieve the desired temperature. (U.K.)

  1. Electroweak vacuum geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepora, N.; Kibble, T.

    1999-01-01

    We analyse symmetry breaking in the Weinberg-Salam model paying particular attention to the underlying geometry of the theory. In this context we find two natural metrics upon the vacuum manifold: an isotropic metric associated with the scalar sector, and a squashed metric associated with the gauge sector. Physically, the interplay between these metrics gives rise to many of the non-perturbative features of Weinberg-Salam theory. (author)

  2. Vacuum inhomogeneous cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanquin, J.-L.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents some results concerning the vacuum cosmological models which admit a 2-dimensional Abelian group of isometries: classifications of these space-times based on the topological nature of their space-like hypersurfaces and on their time evolution, analysis of the asymptotical behaviours at spatial infinity for hyperbolical models as well as in the neighbourhood of the singularity for the models possessing a time singularity during their evolution. (Auth.)

  3. ELETTRA vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, M.; Daclon, F.; Giacuzzo, F.; Miertusova, J.; Pradal, F.; Kersevan, R.

    1993-01-01

    Elettra is a third-generation synchrotron light source which is being built especially for the use of high brilliance radiation from insertion devices and bending magnets. The UHV conditions in a storage ring lead to a longer beam lifetime - one of the most important criterion. The Elettra vacuum system presents some pecularities which cannot be found in any already existing machine. The final version of bending magnet vacuum chamber is presented. After chemical and thermal conditioning the specific outgassing rate of about 1.5e-12 Torr. liters sec -1 cm -2 was obtained. A microprocessor-controlled system has been developed to perform bake-out at the uniform temperature. The etched-foil type heaters are glued to the chamber and Microtherm insulation is used. UHV pumps based on standard triode sputter-ion pumps were modified with ST 707 NEG (Non Evaporable Getter) modules. A special installation enables the resistive activation of getters and significantly increases pumping speed for hydrogen and other residual gases (except methane and argon). All these technological innovations improve vacuum conditions in Elettra storage ring and consequently also the other parameters of the light source

  4. PARAFFIN SEPARATION VACUUM DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A. Abdulrahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulated column performance curves were constructed for existing paraffin separation vacuum distillation column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company/Baiji-Iraq. The variables considered in this study are the thermodynamic model option, top vacuum pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed temperature, feed composition & reflux ratio. Also simulated columns profiles for the temperature, vapor & liquid flow rates composition were constructed. Four different thermodynamic model options (SRK, TSRK, PR, and ESSO were used, affecting the results within 1-25% variation for the most cases.The simulated results show that about 2% to 8 % of paraffin (C10, C11, C12, & C13 present at the bottom stream which may cause a problem in the LAB plant. The major variations were noticed for the top temperature & the  paraffin weight fractions at bottom section with top vacuum pressure. The bottom temperature above 240 oC is not recommended because the total bottom flow rate decreases sharply, where as  the weight fraction of paraffins decrease slightly. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with CHEMCAD

  5. Anomalous vacuum expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.

    1986-01-01

    The anomalous vacuum expectation value is defined as the expectation value of a quantity that vanishes by means of the field equations. Although this value is expected to vanish in quantum systems, regularization in general produces a finite value of this quantity. Calculation of this anomalous vacuum expectation value can be carried out in the general framework of field theory. The result is derived by subtraction of divergences and by zeta-function regularization. Various anomalies are included in these anomalous vacuum expectation values. This method is useful for deriving not only the conformal, chiral, and gravitational anomalies but also the supercurrent anomaly. The supercurrent anomaly is obtained in the case of N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four, six, and ten dimensions. The original form of the energy-momentum tensor and the supercurrent have anomalies in their conservation laws. But the modification of these quantities to be equivalent to the original one on-shell causes no anomaly in their conservation laws and gives rise to anomalous traces

  6. Mean Annual UV-B Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is the most energetic part of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface (wavelength region is 280 to 315 nm), and it has been shown to...

  7. Plasma-assisted cleaning of extreme UV optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolgov, Alexandr Alexeevich

    2018-01-01

    Plasma-assisted cleaning of extreme UV optics EUV-induced surface plasma chemistry of photo-active agents The next generation of photolithography, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, makes use of 13.5 nm radiation. The ionizing photon flux, and vacuum requirements create a challenging operating

  8. Vacuum pumping concepts for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homeyer, W.G.

    1980-09-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) poses unique vacuum pumping requirements due to its large size and long burn characteristics. These requirements include torus vacuum pumping initially and between burns and pumping of neutralized gas from divertor collector chambers. It was found that the requirements could be met by compound cryopumps in which molecular sieve 5A is used as the cryosorbent. The pumps, ducts, and vacuum valves required are large but fit with other ETF components and do not require major advances in vacuum pumping technology. Several additional design, analytical, and experimental studies were identified as needed to optimize designs and provide better design definition for the ETF vacuum pumping systems

  9. Entangled de Sitter from stringy axionic Bell pair I. An analysis using Bunch-Davies vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Panda, Sudhakar

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we study the quantum entanglement and compute entanglement entropy in de Sitter space for a bipartite quantum field theory driven by an axion originating from Type IIB string compactification on a Calabi-Yau three fold (CY 3 ) and in the presence of an NS5 brane. For this computation, we consider a spherical surface S 2 , which divides the spatial slice of de Sitter (dS 4 ) into exterior and interior sub-regions. We also consider the initial choice of vacuum to be Bunch-Davies state. First we derive the solution of the wave function of the axion in a hyperbolic open chart by constructing a suitable basis for Bunch-Davies vacuum state using Bogoliubov transformation. We then derive the expression for density matrix by tracing over the exterior region. This allows us to compute the entanglement entropy and Renyi entropy in 3 + 1 dimension. Furthermore, we quantify the UV-finite contribution of the entanglement entropy which contain the physics of long range quantum correlations of our expanding universe. Finally, our analysis complements the necessary condition for generating non-vanishing entanglement entropy in primordial cosmology due to the axion. (orig.)

  10. Entangled de Sitter from stringy axionic Bell pair I. An analysis using Bunch-Davies vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Sayantan [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India); Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mumbai (India); Panda, Sudhakar [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India); National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India)

    2018-01-15

    In this work, we study the quantum entanglement and compute entanglement entropy in de Sitter space for a bipartite quantum field theory driven by an axion originating from Type IIB string compactification on a Calabi-Yau three fold (CY{sup 3}) and in the presence of an NS5 brane. For this computation, we consider a spherical surface S{sup 2}, which divides the spatial slice of de Sitter (dS{sub 4}) into exterior and interior sub-regions. We also consider the initial choice of vacuum to be Bunch-Davies state. First we derive the solution of the wave function of the axion in a hyperbolic open chart by constructing a suitable basis for Bunch-Davies vacuum state using Bogoliubov transformation. We then derive the expression for density matrix by tracing over the exterior region. This allows us to compute the entanglement entropy and Renyi entropy in 3 + 1 dimension. Furthermore, we quantify the UV-finite contribution of the entanglement entropy which contain the physics of long range quantum correlations of our expanding universe. Finally, our analysis complements the necessary condition for generating non-vanishing entanglement entropy in primordial cosmology due to the axion. (orig.)

  11. Índice UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Información general sobre el Índice UV que proporciona un pronóstico del riesgo esperado de sobreexposición a la radiación ultravioleta (UV) del sol. El índice UV va acompañado de recomendaciones para protegerse del sol.

  12. uv dye lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumov, G.A.; Fadeev, V.V.; Khokhlov, R.V.; Simonov, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    The most important property of visible dye lasers, that is, continuous wavelength tuning, stimulated the search for dyes capable to lase in uv. They were found in 1968. Now the need for tunable uv lasers for applications in spectroscopy, photochemistry, isotope separation, remote air and sea probing, etc. is clearly seen. A review of some recent advances in uv dye lasers is reviewed

  13. Determining the source region of auroral emissions in the prenoon oval using coordinated Polar BEAR UV-imaging and DMSP particle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Patrick T.; Meng, CHING-I.; Huffman, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The Polar Beacon Experiment and Auroral Research (Polar BEAR) satellite included the capability for imaging the dayside auroral oval in full sunlight at several wavelengths. Particle observations from the DMSP F7 satellite during dayside auroral oval crossings are compared with approximately simultaneous Polar BEAR 1356-A images to determine the magnetospheric source region of the dayside auroral oval. The source region is determined from the DMSP particle data, according to recent work concerning the classification and identification of precipitation source regions. The close DMSP/Polar BEAR coincidences all occur when the former satellite is located between 0945 and 1000 MLT. Instances of auroral arcs mapping to each of several different regions, including the boundary plasma sheet, the low-latitude boundary layer, and the plasma mantle were found. It was determined that about half the time the most prominent auroral arcs are located at the interfaces between distinct plasma regions, at least at the local time studied here.

  14. The UV Survey Mission Concept, CETUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara; and the CETUS Team

    2018-01-01

    In March 2017, NASA selected CETUS for study of a Probe-class mission concept. W. Danchi is the CETUS PI, and S. Heap is the Science PI. CETUS is primarily a UV survey telescope to complement survey telescopes of the 2020’s including E-ROSITA, Subaru Hyper Suprime Cam and Prime-Focus Spectrograph, WFIRST, and the Square Kilometer Array. CETUS comprises a 1.5-m wide-field telescope and three science instruments: a wide-field (1045” on a side) far-UV and near-UV camera; a similarly wide-field near-UV multi-object spectrograph utilizing a next-generation micro-shutter array; and a single-object spectrograph with options of spectral region (far-UV or near-UV) and spectral resolving power (2,000 or 40,000). The survey instruments will operate simultaneously thereby producing wide-field images in the near-UV and far-UV and a spectrogram containing near-UV spectra of up to 100 sources free of spectral overlap and astronomical background. ln concert with other survey telescopes, CETUS will focus on understanding galaxy evolution at cosmic noon (z~1-2).

  15. Development and Measurement of Strain Free RF Photoinjector Vacuum Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Biedron, Sandra G

    2004-01-01

    RF photoinjectors produce the highest brightness electron bunches only under nearly ideal illumination by a drive laser. The vacuum window used to introduce the laser beam is an essential element that may potentially degrade any distribution, making it difficult or impossible to know the actual uniformity achieved at the cathode. Because of the necessity to obtain ultrahigh vacuum near the photoinjector, some restrictions are imposed on the fabrication technology available to manufacture distortion-free windows. At the UV wavelengths commonly used for photoinjectors, it is challenging to measure and eliminate degradation caused by vacuum windows. Here, we discuss the initial laser-based measurements of a strain-free, coated, UHV window manufactured by Insulator Seal in collaboration with members of Brookhaven and Argonne National Laboratories.

  16. The solar UV environment and bacterial spore UV resistance: considerations for Earth-to-Mars transport by natural processes and human spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Setlow, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The environment in space and on planets such as Mars can be lethal to microorganisms because of the high vacuum and high solar radiation flux, in particular UV radiation, in such environments. Spores of various Bacillus species are among the organisms most resistant to the lethal effects of high vacuum and UV radiation, and as a consequence are of major concern for planetary contamination via unmanned spacecraft or even natural processes. This review focuses on the spores of various Bacillus species: (i) their mechanisms of UV resistance; (ii) their survival in unmanned spacecraft, space flight and simulated space flight and Martian conditions; (iii) the UV flux in space and on Mars; (iv) factors affecting spore survival in such high UV flux environments.

  17. The solar UV environment and bacterial spore UV resistance: considerations for Earth-to-Mars transport by natural processes and human spaceflight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Setlow, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The environment in space and on planets such as Mars can be lethal to microorganisms because of the high vacuum and high solar radiation flux, in particular UV radiation, in such environments. Spores of various Bacillus species are among the organisms most resistant to the lethal effects of high vacuum and UV radiation, and as a consequence are of major concern for planetary contamination via unmanned spacecraft or even natural processes. This review focuses on the spores of various Bacillus species: (i) their mechanisms of UV resistance; (ii) their survival in unmanned spacecraft, space flight and simulated space flight and Martian conditions; (iii) the UV flux in space and on Mars; (iv) factors affecting spore survival in such high UV flux environments

  18. The solar UV environment and bacterial spore UV resistance: considerations for Earth-to-Mars transport by natural processes and human spaceflight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, Wayne L. [Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Mail Code UF-1, Building M6-1025/SLSL, Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899 (United States)]. E-mail: WLN@ufl.edu; Schuerger, Andrew C. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Mail Code UF-1, Space Life Sciences Laboratory, Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899 (United States)]. E-mail: acschuerger@ifas.ufl.edu; Setlow, Peter [Department of Molecular, Microbial and Structural Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030 (United States)]. E-mail: setlow@nso2.uchc.edu

    2005-04-01

    The environment in space and on planets such as Mars can be lethal to microorganisms because of the high vacuum and high solar radiation flux, in particular UV radiation, in such environments. Spores of various Bacillus species are among the organisms most resistant to the lethal effects of high vacuum and UV radiation, and as a consequence are of major concern for planetary contamination via unmanned spacecraft or even natural processes. This review focuses on the spores of various Bacillus species: (i) their mechanisms of UV resistance; (ii) their survival in unmanned spacecraft, space flight and simulated space flight and Martian conditions; (iii) the UV flux in space and on Mars; (iv) factors affecting spore survival in such high UV flux environments.

  19. The vacuum platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes GridPP’s Vacuum Platform for managing virtual machines (VMs), which has been used to run production workloads for WLCG and other HEP experiments. The platform provides a uniform interface between VMs and the sites they run at, whether the site is organised as an Infrastructure-as-a-Service cloud system such as OpenStack, or an Infrastructure-as-a-Client system such as Vac. The paper describes our experience in using this platform, in developing and operating VM lifecycle managers Vac and Vcycle, and in interacting with VMs provided by LHCb, ATLAS, ALICE, CMS, and the GridPP DIRAC service to run production workloads.

  20. Determining the source region of auroral emissions in the prenoon oval using coordinated Polar BEAR UV-imaging and DMSP particle measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, P.T.; Meng, C.I.; Huffman, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    The Polar Beacon Experiment and Auroral Research (Polar BEAR) satellite included the capability for imaging the dayside auroral oval in full sunlight at several wavelengths. The authors compare particle observations from the DMSP F7 satellite during dayside auroral oval crossings with approximately simultaneous Polar BEAR 1,356-angstrom images to determine the magnetospheric source region of the dayside auroral oval. The source region is determined from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) particle data, according to recent work concerning the classification and identification of precipitation source regions. The close DMSP/Polar BEAR coincidences all occur when the former satellite is located between 0945 and 1,000 MLT. The authors found instances of auroral arcs mapping to each of several different regions, including the boundary plasma sheet, the low-latitude boundary layer, and the plasma mantle. However, the results indicate that about half the time the most prominent auroral arcs are located at the interfaces between distinct plasma regions, at least at the local time studied here

  1. Changing MFTF vacuum environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolies, D.; Valby, L.

    1982-12-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) vacuum vessel will be about 60m long and 10m in diameter at the widest point. The allowable operating densities range from 2 x 10 9 to 5 x 10 10 particles per cc. The maximum leak rate of 10 - 6 tl/sec is dominated during operation by the deliberately injected cold gas of 250 tl/sec. This gas is pumped by over 1000 square meters of cryopanels, external sorption pumps and getters. The design and requirements have changed radically over the past several years, and they are still not in final form. The vacuum system design has also changed, but more slowly and less radically. This paper discusses the engineering effort necessary to meet these stringent and changing requirements. Much of the analysis of the internal systems has been carried out using a 3-D Monte Carlo computer code, which can estimate time dependent operational pressures. This code and its use will also be described

  2. Of vacuum and gas

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A new LHCb programme is delving into uncharted waters for the LHC: exploring how protons interact with noble gases inside the machine pipe. While, at first glance, it may sound risky for the overall quality of the vacuum in the machine, the procedure is safe and potentially very rich in rewards. The results could uncover the high-energy helium-proton cross-section (with all the implications thereof), explore new boundaries of the quark-gluon plasma and much more.   As the beam passes through LHCb, interactions with neon gas allow the experiment to measure the full beam profile. In this diagram, beam 1 (blue) and beam 2 (red) are measured by the surrounding VELO detector. It all begins with luminosity. In 2011, LHCb set out to further improve its notoriously precise measurements of the beam profile, using the so-called Beam-Gas Imaging (BGI) method. BGI does exactly what it says on the tin: a small amount of gas is inserted into the vacuum, increasing the rate of collisions around the interaction ...

  3. LHC vacuum system

    CERN Document Server

    Gröbner, Oswald

    1999-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, now in the advanced construction phase at CERN, comprises two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7-TeV energy. The machine is housed in the existing LEP tunnel with a circumference of 26.7 km and requires a bending magnetic field of 8.4 T with 14-m long superconducting magnets. The beam vacuum chambers comprise the inner 'cold bore' walls of the magnets. These magnets operate at 1.9 K, and thus serve as very good cryo-pumps. In order to reduce the cryogenic power consumption, both the heat load from synchrotron radiation emitted by the proton beams and the resistive power dissipation by the beam image currents have to be absorbed on a 'beam screen', which operates between 5 and 20 K and is inserted inside the vacuum chamber. The design of this beam screen represents a technological challenge in view of the numerous and often conflicting requirements and the very tight mechanical tolerances imposed. The synchrotron radiation produces strong outgassing from the...

  4. Electroweak vacuum stability and finite quadratic radiative corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masina, Isabella [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica e Scienze della Terra; INFN, Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Southern Denmark Univ., Odense (Denmark). CP3-Origins; Southern Denmark Univ., Odense (Denmark). DIAS; Nardini, Germano [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Quiros, Mariano [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); IFAE-IAB, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    If the Standard Model (SM) is an effective theory, as currently believed, it is valid up to some energy scale Λ to which the Higgs vacuum expectation value is sensitive throughout radiative quadratic terms. The latter ones destabilize the electroweak vacuum and generate the SM hierarchy problem. For a given perturbative Ultraviolet (UV) completion, the SM cutoff can be computed in terms of fundamental parameters. If the UV mass spectrum involves several scales the cutoff is not unique and each SM sector has its own UV cutoff Λ{sub i}. We have performed this calculation assuming the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is the SM UV completion. As a result, from the SM point of view, the quadratic corrections to the Higgs mass are equivalent to finite threshold contributions. For the measured values of the top quark and Higgs masses, and depending on the values of the different cutoffs Λ{sub i}, these contributions can cancel even at renormalization scales as low as multi-TeV, unlike the case of a single cutoff where the cancellation only occurs at Planckian energies, a result originally obtained by Veltman. From the MSSM point of view, the requirement of stability of the electroweak minimum under radiative corrections is incorporated into the matching conditions and provides an extra constraint on the Focus Point solution to the little hierarchy problem in the MSSM. These matching conditions can be employed for precise calculations of the Higgs sector in scenarios with heavy supersymmetric fields.

  5. Particle contamination in vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martignac, J.; Bonin, B.; Henriot, C.; Poupeau, J.P.; Koltchakian, I.; Kocic, D.; Herbeaux, Ch.; Marx, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Many vacuum devices, like RF cavities, are sensitive to particle contamination. This fact has motivated a considerable effort of cleanliness from the SRF community. The present paper reports the first results of a general study trying to identify the most contaminating steps during assembly and vacuum operation of the cavity. The steps investigated here are gasket assembly, evacuation and venting of the vacuum system, and operation of sputter ion pumps. (author)

  6. Vacuum guidelines for ISA insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Vacuum requirements place design restrictions on the ISA insertions. The vacuum tube diameter, given a distance L between pumps, is determined by the desorption of molecules from the wall under the impact of ions created by the beam, whereas the thickness of the tube must be sufficient to prevent collapse. In addition, the entire vacuum chamber must be able to be baked out at approximately 200 0 C

  7. Particle contamination in vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martignac, J.; Bonin, B.; Henriot, C.; Poupeau, J.P.; Koltchakian, I.; Kocic, D.; Herbeaux, Ch.; Marx, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Many vacuum devices, like RF cavities, are sensitive to particle contamination. This fact has motivated a considerable effort of cleanliness from the SRF community. The first results of a general study trying to identify the most contaminating steps during assembly and vacuum operation of the cavity is reported. The steps investigated here are gasket assembly, evacuation and venting of the vacuum system, and operation of sputter ion pumps. (author)

  8. Big Bang or vacuum fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Ya.B.

    1980-01-01

    Some general properties of vacuum fluctuations in quantum field theory are described. The connection between the ''energy dominance'' of the energy density of vacuum fluctuations in curved space-time and the presence of singularity is discussed. It is pointed out that a de-Sitter space-time (with the energy density of the vacuum fluctuations in the Einstein equations) that matches the expanding Friedman solution may describe the history of the Universe before the Big Bang. (P.L.)

  9. Spectral dependence of some UV-B and UV-C responses of Tetrahymena pyriformis irradiated with dye laser generated UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, John; Colley, Ed; Wheeler, John; Kentucky Univ., Lexington

    1987-01-01

    We have generated UV-B and UV-C radiations using a flashlamp driven tunable dye laser combined with frequency doubling crystals. Using this novel UV source, we have investigated lethality and its modification by growth phase, photoreactivation and caffeine in Tetrahymena pyriformis at 254 nm and from 260-315 nm in 5 nm steps. From the observed responses we have constructed action spectra for lethality, with or without caffeine (a repair inhibitor) and under conditions of photoreactivation. We have also estimated quantum efficiencies for these responses. Our observations suggest that complex changes in response occur at several wavelengths over the UV-C and UV-B regions. (author)

  10. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burda, Philipp [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline Street North,Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Moss, Ian G. annd [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University,Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-24

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  11. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G. annd

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  12. PDX vacuum vessel stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.

    1975-01-01

    A stress analysis of PDX vacuum vessel is described and the summary of results is presented. The vacuum vessel is treated as a toroidal shell of revolution subjected to an internal vacuum. The critical buckling pressure is calculated. The effects of the geometrical discontinuity at the juncture of toroidal shell head and cylindrical outside wall, and the concavity of the cylindrical wall are examined. An effect of the poloidal field coil supports and the vessel outside supports on the stress distribution in the vacuum vessel is determined. A method evaluating the influence of circular ports in the vessel wall on the stress level in the vessel is outlined

  13. Vacuum leak detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jr., David

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting leakage in a vacuum system involves a moisture trap chamber connected to the vacuum system and to a pressure gauge. Moisture in the trap chamber is captured by freezing or by a moisture adsorbent to reduce the residual water vapor pressure therein to a negligible amount. The pressure gauge is then read to determine whether the vacuum system is leaky. By directing a stream of carbon dioxide or helium at potentially leaky parts of the vacuum system, the apparatus can be used with supplemental means to locate leaks.

  14. Vacuum science, technology, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Naik, Pramod K

    2018-01-01

    Vacuum plays an important role in science and technology. The study of interaction of charged particles, neutrals and radiation with each other and with solid surfaces requires a vacuum environment for reliable investigations. Vacuum has contributed immensely to advancements made in nuclear science, space, metallurgy, electrical/electronic technology, chemical engineering, transportation, robotics and many other fields. This book is intended to assist students, scientists, technicians and engineers to understand the basics of vacuum science and technology for application in their projects. The fundamental theories, concepts, devices, applications, and key inventions are discussed.

  15. Surge-damping vacuum valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, J.C.; Kelley, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    A valve for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system is described. The surge-damping mechanism consists of a slotted, spring-loaded disk adjacent to the valve's vacuum port (the flow passage to the vacuum roughing pump). Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into a sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the gas flow path to narrow slots in the disk's periphery. The increased flow damps out the flow surge. When pressure is equalized on both sides of the valve, the spring load moves the disk away from the port to restore full flow conductance through the valve

  16. Absolute UV and VUV emission in the 110-400 nm region from 13.56 MHz driven hollow slot microplasmas operating in open air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A; Yalin, A P; Surla, V; Stan, O; Hoshimiya, K; Yu, Z; Littlefield, Eric; Collins, G J

    2004-01-01

    We present absolute optical emission spectra in the 110-400 nm regions from radio-frequency-driven (13.56 MHz) hollow slot microplasmas operating in open air at atmospheric pressure. The term microplasma in our research refers to inter-electrode separation (100-600 μm) only, as electrode lengths are scalable from 1 to 30 cm. This creates an extended slot plasma and an associated afterglow plume as described herein. Spectra are presented for gas flows through the microelectrodes of argon and helium with small admixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen into open air. The spectra are discussed in terms of species origin and magnitude of the dominant emission lines. Atomic O and N lines dominate the 110-200 nm region, whereas, in the 200-400 nm region, NO, N 2 , N 2 + and NH molecular lines are strongest. The role of the N 2 A 3 Σ u state in the open air microplasmas is discussed and the second positive system of molecular nitrogen (N 2 (C 3 Π g -B 3 Π g )), is used to measure the rotational (gas) temperature. Finally, we compare the efficiency and magnitude of light emission from the open air microplasmas with values attainable from commercial sealed mercury lamps in the UVB and UVC regions

  17. Shiva and Argus target diagnostics vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaros, S.S.; Mayo, S.E.; Campbell, D.; Holeman, D.

    1978-09-01

    The normal operation of LLL's Argus and Shiva laser irradiation facilities demand a main vacuum system for the target chamber and a separate local vacuum system for each of the larger appendage dianostics. This paper will describe the Argus and Shiva main vacuum systems, their respective auxiliary vacuum systems and the individual diagnostics with their respective special vacuum requirements and subsequent vacuum systems. Our latest approach to automatic computer-controlled vacuum systems will be presented

  18. Exposure to solar UV in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K; Leszczynski, K; Visuri, R; Ylianttila, L [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Exceptionally low total ozone, up to 40 % below the normal level, was measured over Northern Europe during winter and spring in 1992 and 1993. In 1993 the depletion persisted up to the end of May, resulting in a significant increase in biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The increases were significantly smaller in 1992 and 1994 than in 1993. A special interest in Northern Europe is the effect of high reflection of UV from the snow. The period from the mid March to the mid May is critical in Northern Finland, because in that time the UV radiation is intense enough to cause significant biological effects, and the UV enhancing snow still covers the ground. Moreover, there is some evidence of increasing springtime depletions of ozone over Arctic regions. In this study the increase of UV exposure associated with the ozone depletions was examined with measurements and theoretical calculations. The measurements were carried out with spectroradiometrically calibrated Solar Light Model 500 and 501 UV radiometers which measure the erythemally effective UV doses and dose rates. The theoretical UV doses and dose rates were computed with the clear sky model of Green

  19. Exposure to solar UV in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, K.; Visuri, R.; Ylianttila, L. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Exceptionally low total ozone, up to 40 % below the normal level, was measured over Northern Europe during winter and spring in 1992 and 1993. In 1993 the depletion persisted up to the end of May, resulting in a significant increase in biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The increases were significantly smaller in 1992 and 1994 than in 1993. A special interest in Northern Europe is the effect of high reflection of UV from the snow. The period from the mid March to the mid May is critical in Northern Finland, because in that time the UV radiation is intense enough to cause significant biological effects, and the UV enhancing snow still covers the ground. Moreover, there is some evidence of increasing springtime depletions of ozone over Arctic regions. In this study the increase of UV exposure associated with the ozone depletions was examined with measurements and theoretical calculations. The measurements were carried out with spectroradiometrically calibrated Solar Light Model 500 and 501 UV radiometers which measure the erythemally effective UV doses and dose rates. The theoretical UV doses and dose rates were computed with the clear sky model of Green

  20. Investigation of HNCO isomer formation in ice mantles by UV and thermal processing: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Escobar, A.; Giuliano, B. M.; Caro, G. M. Muñoz; Cernicharo, J. [Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Marcelino, N., E-mail: bgiuliano@cab.inta-csic.es [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    Current gas-phase models do not account for the abundances of HNCO isomers detected in various environments, suggesting their formation in icy grain mantles. We attempted to study a formation channel of HNCO and its possible isomers by vacuum-UV photoprocessing of interstellar ice analogs containing H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, CO, HCN, CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} followed by warm-up under astrophysically relevant conditions. Only the H{sub 2}O:NH{sub 3}:CO and H{sub 2}O:HCN ice mixtures led to the production of HNCO species. The possible isomerization of HNCO to its higher energy tautomers following irradiation or due to ice warm-up has been scrutinized. The photochemistry and thermal chemistry of H{sub 2}O:NH{sub 3}:CO and H{sub 2}O:HCN ices were simulated using the Interstellar Astrochemistry Chamber, a state-of-the-art ultra-high-vacuum setup. The ice was monitored in situ by Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy in transmittance. A quadrupole mass spectrometer detected the desorption of the molecules in the gas phase. UV photoprocessing of H{sub 2}O:NH{sub 3}:CO and H{sub 2}O:HCN ices lead to the formation of OCN{sup –} as a main product in the solid state and a minor amount of HNCO. The second isomer HOCN has been tentatively identified. Despite its low efficiency, the formation of HNCO and the HOCN isomers by UV photoprocessing of realistic simulated ice mantles might explain the observed abundances of these species in photodissociation regions, hot cores, and dark clouds.

  1. Continuous vacuum processing system for quartz crystal resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, R.J.; Hafner, E.

    1979-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum continuous cycle quartz crystal fabrication facility has been developed that assures an essentially contamination-free environment throughout the final manufacturing steps of the crystal unit. The system consists of five essentially tubular vacuum chambers that are interconnected through gate valves. The unplated crystal resonators, mounted in ceramic flatback frames and loaded on carrier trays, enter the vacuum system through an entrance air lock, are UV/ozone cleaned, baked at 300 0 C, plated to frequency, thermocompression sealed, and exit as completed crystal units through an exit air lock, while the bake, plate and seal chambers remain under continuous vacuum permanently. In-line conveyor belts are used, in conjunction with balanced vacuum manipulators, to move the resonator components to the various work stations. Unique high density, highly directional nozzle beam evaporation sources, capable of long term operation without reloading, are used for electroding the resonators simultaneously on both sides. The design goal for the system is a production rate of 200 units per 8 hour day; it is adaptable to automatic operation

  2. The relation between radio flux density and ionizing ultra-violet flux for HII regions and supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison between the Parkes radio surveys (Filipović et al 1995 and Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV surveys (Smith et al. 1987 of the Large Magellanic Clouds (LMC. We have found 72 sources in common in the LMC which are known HII regions (52 and supernova remnants (SNRs (19. Some of these radio sources are associated with two or more UV stellar associations. A comparison of the radio flux densities and ionizing UV flux for HII regions shows a very good correlation, as expected from theory. Many of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs SNRs are embedded in HII regions, so there is also a relation between radio and UV which we attribute to the surrounding HII regions.

  3. Computing the hadronic vacuum polarization function by analytic continuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xu [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan); Hashimoto, Shoji [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan); The Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba (Japan). School of High Energy Accelerator Science; Hotzel, Grit [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Petschlies, Marcus [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Renner, Dru B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-07-15

    We propose a method to compute the hadronic vacuum polarization function on the lattice at continuous values of photon momenta bridging between the space-like and time-like regions. We provide two independent derivations of this method showing that it leads to the desired hadronic vacuum polarization function in Minkowski space-time. We show with the example of the leading- order QCD correction to the muon anomalous magnetic moment that this approach can provide a valuable alternative method for calculations of physical quantities where the hadronic vacuum polarization function enters.

  4. Late time properties of a decaying false vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanowski, K.

    2014-01-01

    The false vacuum states are unstable and they decay by tunneling. Some of them may survive up to times when their survival probability has a non-exponential form. At times much latter than the transition time, when contributions to the survival probability of its exponential and non-exponential parts are comparable, the survival probability as a function of time t has an inverse power-like form. We show that at this time region the instantaneous energy of the false vacuum states tends to the energy of the true vacuum state as 1/t 2 for t → ∞. (author)

  5. Comets in UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, B.; Sachkov, M.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.; Vallejo, J. C.; Kanev, E.; Dorofeeva, V.

    2018-04-01

    Comets are important "eyewitnesses" of Solar System formation and evolution. Important tests to determine the chemical composition and to study the physical processes in cometary nuclei and coma need data in the UV range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Comprehensive and complete studies require additional ground-based observations and in situ experiments. We briefly review observations of comets in the ultraviolet (UV) and discuss the prospects of UV observations of comets and exocomets with space-borne instruments. A special reference is made to the World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) project.

  6. Accelerator vacuum system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivokon', V.V.; Kobets, A.F.; Shvetsov, V.A.; Sivokon', L.V.

    1980-01-01

    Some elements of vacuum systems are investigated. Considerable attention has been given to the investigation into peculiarities in pumping out of a ionoguide for transportation of an accelerated charged particles beam the spread of which often attains a considerable length. The number of pumps over the ionoguide length is experimentally determined. It is shown that as a result of ionoguide warm-up the pumping out time is considerably reduced maximum permissible pressure is decreased by two orders and lesser rate of pump pumping out is required. The investigations have shown that when operating the ionoguide there is no necessity in setting up seals between the ionoguide and magnetodischarged pump. The causes of the phenomenon in which the pressure near the pump is greater than in the end of the ionoguide, are impurities carried in by the pump into the ionoguide volume and the pumping out capacity of the pressure converter

  7. Decay of the de Sitter vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul R.; Mottola, Emil; Sanders, Dillon H.

    2018-03-01

    The decay rate of the Bunch-Davies state of a massive scalar field in the expanding flat spatial sections of de Sitter space is determined by an analysis of the particle pair creation process in real time. The Feynman definition of particle and antiparticle Fourier mode solutions of the scalar wave equation and their adiabatic phase analytically continued to the complexified time domain show conclusively that the Bunch-Davies state is not the vacuum state at late times. The closely analogous creation of charged particle pairs in a uniform electric field is reviewed and Schwinger's result for the vacuum decay rate is recovered by this same real time analysis. The vacuum decay rate in each case is also calculated by switching the background field on adiabatically, allowing it to act for a very long time, and then adiabatically switching it off again. In both the uniform electric field and de Sitter cases, the particles created while the field is switched on are verified to be real, in the sense that they persist in the final asymptotic flat zero-field region. In the de Sitter case, there is an interesting residual dependence of the rate on how the de Sitter phase is ended, indicating a greater sensitivity to spatial boundary conditions. The electric current of the created particles in the E -field case and their energy density and pressure in the de Sitter case are also computed, and the magnitude of their backreaction effects on the background field estimated. Possible consequences of the Hubble scale instability of the de Sitter vacuum for cosmology, vacuum dark energy, and the cosmological "constant" problem are discussed.

  8. Transmission of UV-irradiance into nectarine fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanke, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    With the global depletion of the ozone layer, leaves and fruits are increasingly exposed to UV-irradiance on the tree. Some fruits are additionally exposed postharvest to artificial germicidal W-irradiance, leading to a cumulative effect. This paper examines the transmission of UV-light (200-400 nm) by the peel of ripe nectarine fruit using UV/VIS spectrophotometry to aid understanding of UV-effects and assess the sensitivity of the peel to UV wavelengths. Yellow peel of nectarine fruit transmitted less than 0.1 % in the UV-C range of 220 to 280 nm. With longer wavelenghts, UV-light transmission increased slowly from 0.4 % at 284 nm to 1.6 % at 320 nm and, in the UV-A region, progressively from 1.9 % at 330 nm to a maximum of 13 % of incident irradiance at 400 nm. Red peel of nectarine fruit transmitted less than 0.1 % of UV-C and UV-B light, but up to 0.9 % of incident UV-A light at 400 nm. Conversely, UV-absorption of nectarine peel decreased with longer wavelengths. Hence, fruit parenchyma is more affected by UV-irradiance at wavelengths above ca. 280 nm and underneath yellow than underneath red peel

  9. Changes in UV absorption of sunscreens after UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarras-Wahlberg, N.; Stenhagen, G.; Larkö, O.; Rosén, A.; Wennberg, A.-M.; Wennerström, O.

    2000-03-01

    In the present investigation we have studied the change in the absorption spectrum of some photoactive organic species in sunscreens after UVA and UVB irradiation in a dose normally encountered during a full day in the sun. The absorbance of 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate was reduced significantly, while 3-(4-methylbenzyliden)camphor seemed to be rather stable. The benzophenones studied seemed to be relatively stable. In the case of 4-tert.butyl-4´-methoxy-dibenzoylmethane there was a rapid decrease in the UVA absorption leading to unsatisfactory protection in the UVA region. 4-Isopropyl-dibenzoylmethane also lost most of its UV protective capacity after irradiation with UVA. UVB seemed to have a minor effect on all the samples. The present study including gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis indicates that some of the photoactive organic species commonly used today in sunscreens are unstable following UV irradiation.

  10. UV spectra, bombs, and the solar atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Judge, Philip G.

    2015-01-01

    A recent analysis of UV data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph {\\em IRIS} reports plasma "bombs" with temperatures near \\hot{} within the solar photosphere. This is a curious result, firstly because most bomb plasma pressures $p$ (the largest reported case exceeds $10^3$ dyn~cm$^{-2}$) fall well below photospheric pressures ($> 7\\times10^3$), and secondly, UV radiation cannot easily escape from the photosphere. In the present paper the {\\em IRIS} data is independently analyzed. I...

  11. Vacuum strings in FRW models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, C C; Oattes, L M; Starkman, G D

    1988-01-01

    The authors find that vacuum string solutions cannot be embedded in an FRW model in the spirit of the swiss cheese model for inhomogeneities. Since all standard lensing calculations rely implicitly on the Swiss Cheese model, this result indicates that the previous lensing results for the vacuum string may be in error.

  12. The realm of the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, D.; Wanzenberg, R.

    1992-01-01

    The spacelike asymptotic structure of physical states in local quantum theory is analysed. It is shown that this structure can be described in terms of a vacuum state if the theory satisfies a condition of timelike asymptotic abelianess. Theories which violate this condition can have an involved asymptotic vacuum structure as is illustrated by a simple example. (orig.)

  13. Vacuum Technology for Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiggiato, P

    2013-01-01

    The basic notions of vacuum technology for ion sources are presented, with emphasis on pressure profile calculation and choice of pumping technique. A Monte Carlo code (Molflow+) for the evaluation of conductances and the vacuum-electrical analogy for the calculation of time-dependent pressure variations are introduced. The specific case of the Linac4 H - source is reviewed. (author)

  14. ULTRARAPID VACUUM-MICROWAVE HISTOPROCESSING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOK, LP; BOON, ME

    A novel histoprocessing method for paraffin sections is presented in which the combination of vacuum and microwave exposure is the key element. By exploiting the decrease in boiling temperature under vacuum, the liquid molecules in the tissues have been successfully extracted and exchanged at

  15. Detecting leaks in vacuum bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    Small leaks in vacuum bag can be readily detected by eye, using simple chemical reaction: combination of ammonia and acetic acid vapors to produce cloudy white smoke. Technique has been successfully used to test seam integrity and to identify minute pinholes in vacuum bag used in assembly of ceramic-tile heat shield for Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  16. Vacuum Technology for Superconducting Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiggiato, P [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    The basic notions of vacuum technology for superconducting applications are presented, with an emphasis on mass and heat transport in free molecular regimes. The working principles and practical details of turbomolecular pumps and cryopumps are introduced. The specific case of the Large Hadron Collider’s cryogenic vacuum system is briefly reviewed.

  17. Vacuum Alignment with more Flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We study the alignment of the vacuum in gauge theories with $N_f$ Dirac fermions transforming according to a complex representation of the gauge group. The alignment of the vacuum is produced by adding a small mass perturbation to the theory. We study in detail the $N_f=2,3$ and $4$ case. For $N_...

  18. UV exposure in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias; Soballa, Martin; Korn, Manfred

    2003-08-01

    There is increasing knowledge about the hazards of solar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to humans. Although people spend a significant time in cars, data on UV exposure during traveling are lacking. The aim of this study was to obtain basic information on personal UV exposure in cars. UV transmission of car glass samples, windscreen, side and back windows and sunroof, was determined. UV exposure of passengers was evaluated in seven German middle-class cars, fitted with three different types of car windows. UV doses were measured with open or closed windows/sunroof of Mercedes-Benz E 220 T, E 320, and S 500, and in an open convertible car (Mercedes-Benz CLK). Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters (Viospor) were attached to the front, vertex, cheeks, upper arms, forearms and thighs of 'adult' and 'child' dummies. UV wavelengths longer than >335 nm were transmitted through car windows, and UV irradiation >380 nm was transmitted through compound glass windscreens. There was some variation in the spectral transmission of side windows according to the type of glass. On the arms, UV exposure was 3-4% of ambient radiation when the car windows were shut, and 25-31% of ambient radiation when the windows were open. In the open convertible car, the relative personal doses reached 62% of ambient radiation. The car glass types examined offer substantial protection against short-wave UV radiation. Professional drivers should keep car windows closed on sunny days to reduce occupational UV exposure. In individuals with polymorphic light eruption, produced by long-wave UVA, additional protection by plastic films, clothes or sunscreens appears necessary.

  19. Denitrogenation model for vacuum tank degasser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobinath, R.; Vetrivel Murugan, R.

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen in steel is both beneficial and detrimental depending on grade of steel and its application. To get desired low nitrogen during vacuum degassing process, VD parameters namely vacuum level, argon flow rate and holding time has to optimized depending upon initial nitrogen level. In this work a mathematical model to simulate nitrogen removal in tank degasser is developed and how various VD parameters affects nitrogen removal is studied. Ladle water model studies with bottom purging have shown two distinct flow regions, namely the plume region and the outside plume region. The two regions are treated as two separate reactors exchanging mass between them and complete mixing is assumed in both the reactors. In the plume region, transfer of nitrogen to single bubble is simulated. At the gas-liquid metal interface (bubble interface) thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed and the transfer of nitrogen from bulk liquid metal in the plume region to the gas-metal interface is obtained using mass transport principles. The model predicts variation of Nitrogen content in both the reactors with time. The model is validated with industrial process and the predicted results were found to have fair agreement with the measured results.

  20. The AGS Booster vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hseuh, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. The design pressure of low 10 -11 mbar is required to minimize beam loss of the partially stripped heavy ions. To remove contaminants and to reduce outgassing, the vacuum chambers and the components located in them will be chemically cleaned, vacuum fired, baked then treated with nitric oxide. The vacuum sector will be insitu baked to a minimum of 200 degree C and pumped by the combination of sputter ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. This paper describes the design and the processing of this ultra high vacuum system, and the performance of some half-cell vacuum chambers. 9 refs., 7 figs

  1. Cosmology with decaying vacuum energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freese, K.; Adams, F.; Frieman, J.; Mottola, E.

    1987-09-01

    Motivated by recent attempts to solve the cosmological constant problem, we examine the observational consequences of a vacuum energy density which decays in time. For all times later than t ∼ 1 sec, the ratio of the vacuum to the total energy density of the universe must be small. Although the vacuum cannot provide the ''missing mass'' required to close the universe today, its presence earlier in the history of the universe could have important consequences. We discuss restrictions on the vacuum energy arising from primordial nucleosynthesis, the microwave and gamma ray background spectra, and galaxy formation. A small vacuum component at the era of nucleosynthesis, 0.01 5, but in some cases would severely distort the microwave spectrum. 9 refs., 3 figs

  2. Vacuum transitions in dual models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashnev, A.I.; Volkov, D.V.; Zheltukhin, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The investigation is continued of the spontaneous vacuum transition problem in the Neview-Schwartz dual model (NSDM). It is shown that vacuum transitions allow disclosing of supplementary degeneration in the resonance state spectrum. The dual amplitudes possess an internal structure corresponding to the presence of an infinite number of quarks with increasing masses and retained charges. The Adler principle holds. Analytic continuation on the constant of induced vacuum transitions makes it possible to establish the existence of spontaneous vacuum transitions in the NSDM. The consequence of this fact is the exact SU(2) symmetry of π, rho meson trajectories and the Higgs mechanism in the model. In this case the ratios of masses of particles leading trajectories are analogous to those obtained in the current algebra. It is shown that in the NSDM there arises chiral SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1) x U(1) x ... symmetry resulting from spontaneous vacuum transitions

  3. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    CERN Document Server

    Davier, M; Malaescu, B; Zhang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle–antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e− annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingre...

  4. UV-induced effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebsch, M.; Spielmann, H.; Pape, W.; Krul, C.; Deguercy, A.; Eskes, C.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Regulatory requirements: According to the current Notes for Guidance of the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP), cosmetic ingredients and mixtures of ingredients absorbing UV light (in particular UV filter chemicals used, for example, to ensure the light

  5. UV dose-effect relationships and current protection exposure standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.S.; Campbell, G.W.

    1982-04-01

    In this paper we have attempted to quantify the health effects in man of uv-radiation exposure of wavelengths from 240 nm to 320 nm. Exposure to uv in this region could result in the formation of skin cancer or premature aging in man. The induction of cancer by uv radiation results from changes in genetic material. We have used the DNA action spectrum coupled with the uv skin cancer data available in the literature to derive the dose-effect relationships. The results are compared against the current uv protection standards

  6. UV Irradiance Enhancements by Scattering of Solar Radiation from Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Feister

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scattering of solar radiation by clouds can reduce or enhance solar global irradiance compared to cloudless-sky irradiance at the Earth’s surface. Cloud effects to global irradiance can be described by Cloud Modification Factors (CMF. Depending on strength and duration, irradiance enhancements affect the energy balance of the surface and gain of solar power for electric energy generation. In the ultraviolet region, they increase the risk for damage to living organisms. Wavelength-dependent CMFs have been shown to reach 1.5 even in the UV-B region at low altitudes. Ground-based solar radiation measurements in the high Andes region at altitudes up to 5917 m a.s.l showed cloud-induced irradiance enhancements. While UV-A enhancements were explained by cloud scattering, both radiation scattering from clouds and Negative Ozone Anomalies (NOA have been discussed to have caused short-time enhancement of UV-B irradiance. Based on scenarios using published CMF and additional spectroradiometric measurements at a low-altitude site, the contribution of cloud scattering to the UV-B irradiance enhancement in the Andes region has been estimated. The range of UV index estimates converted from measured UV-B and UV-A irradiance and modeled cloudless-sky ratios UV-B/erythemal UV is compatible with an earlier estimate of an extreme UV index value of 43 derived for the high Andes.

  7. Parametric resonance in quantum electrodynamics vacuum birefringence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arza, Ariel; Elias, Ricardo Gabriel

    2018-05-01

    Vacuum magnetic birefringence is one of the most interesting nonlinear phenomena in quantum electrodynamics because it is a pure photon-photon result of the theory and it directly signalizes the violation of the classical superposition principle of electromagnetic fields in the full quantum theory. We perform analytical and numerical calculations when an electromagnetic wave interacts with an oscillating external magnetic field. We find that in an ideal cavity, when the external field frequency is around the electromagnetic wave frequency, the normal and parallel components of the wave suffer parametric resonance at different rates, producing a vacuum birefringence effect growing in time. We also study the case where there is no cavity and the oscillating magnetic field is spatially localized in a region of length L . In both cases we find also a rotation of the elliptical axis.

  8. Design of the MFTF external vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    As a result of major experiment success in the LLL mirror program on start-up and stabilization of plasmas in minimum-B magnetic geometry, a Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is under construction. Completion is scheduled for September, 1981. MFTF will be used to bridge the gap between present day small mirror experiments and future fusion-reactor activity based on magnetic mirrors. The focal point of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility is the 35 foot diameter by 60 foot long vacuum vessel which encloses the superconducting magnets. High vacuum conditions in the vessel are required to establish and maintain a plasma, and to create and deliver energetic neutral atoms to heat the plasma at the central region

  9. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  10. Uses of the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrlich, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Three problems in quantum field theory are analyzed. Each presents the vacuum in a different role. The connections among these significant roles are discussed in Chapter I. Chapter II contains a calculation of the zero-point energy in the Kaluza-Klein model. The zero-point fluctuations induce a potential which makes the compact dimensional contract. The effective potential is seen to be the four-dimensional version of the Casimir effect. Chapter III contains a Monte Carlo study of asymptotic freedom scales in lattice QCD. Two versions of SU(2) gauge theory, having different representations of the gauge group, are compared. A new method is used to calculate the ratio of scale parameters of the two theories. The method directly uses the weak-coupling behavior of the theories. The Monte-Carlo results are compared with perturbative calculations on the lattice, one of which is presented. They are in good agreement. Chapter IV applies the hypothesis of dimensional reduction to five-dimensional SU(2) and four-dimensional SO(3) lattice gauge theories. New analytic results for the strong- and weak-coupling limits are derived. Monte Carlo calculations show dimensional reduction in the strong coupling phases of both theories. At the phase transition, the two theories show a similar loss of dimensional reduction. An external source of random flux does not induce dimensional reduction where it is not already present

  11. Changing MFTF vacuum environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolies, D.; Valby, L.

    1982-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) vaccum vessel will be about 60m long and 10m in diameter at the widest point. The allowable operating densities range from 2 x 10 9 to 5 x 10 10 particles per cc. The maximum leak rate of 10 -6 tl/sec is dominated during operation by the deliberately injected cold gas of 250 tl/sec. This gas is pumped by over 1000 square meters of cryopanels, external sorbtion pumps and getters. The design and requirements have changed radically over the past several years, and they are still not in final form. The vacuum system design has also changed, but more slowly and less radically. This paper discusses the engineering effort necessary to meet these stringent and changing requirements. Much of the analysis of the internal systems has been carried out using a 3-D Monte Carlo computer code, which can estimate time dependent operational pressures. This code and its use will also be described

  12. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Koji; Imura, Yasuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide constituted method for easily performing baking of vacuum vessel, using short-circuiting segments. Constitution: At the time of baking, one turn circuit is formed by the vacuum vessel and short-circuiting segments, and current transformer converting the one turn circuit into a secondary circuit by the primary coil and iron core is formed, and the vacuum vessel is Joule heated by an induction current from the primary coil. After completion of baking, the short-circuiting segments are removed. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Vacuum system for HIMAC synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, M.; Sudou, M.; Sato, K.

    1994-01-01

    HIMAC synchrotrons are now under construction, which require vacuum chambers of large aperture and high vacuum of about 10 -9 torr. Wide thin wall vacuum chamber of 0.3 mm thickness reinforced with ribs has been developed as the chamber at dipole magnet. We have just now started to evacuate the lower ring. The obtained average value was about 5x10 -8 torr with turbo-molecular and sputter ion pumps, and 1.1x10 -9 torr after baking. (author)

  14. The localized quantum vacuum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoman, D

    2008-01-01

    A model for the localized quantum vacuum is proposed in which the zero-point energy (ZPE) of the quantum electromagnetic field originates in energy- and momentum-conserving transitions of material systems from their ground state to an unstable state with negative energy. These transitions are accompanied by emissions and re-absorptions of real photons, which generate a localized quantum vacuum in the neighborhood of material systems. The model could help resolve the cosmological paradox associated with the ZPE of electromagnetic fields, while reclaiming quantum effects associated with quantum vacuum such as the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift. It also offers a new insight into the Zitterbewegung of material particles

  15. The localized quantum vacuum field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragoman, D [Physics Department, University of Bucharest, PO Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: danieladragoman@yahoo.com

    2008-03-15

    A model for the localized quantum vacuum is proposed in which the zero-point energy (ZPE) of the quantum electromagnetic field originates in energy- and momentum-conserving transitions of material systems from their ground state to an unstable state with negative energy. These transitions are accompanied by emissions and re-absorptions of real photons, which generate a localized quantum vacuum in the neighborhood of material systems. The model could help resolve the cosmological paradox associated with the ZPE of electromagnetic fields, while reclaiming quantum effects associated with quantum vacuum such as the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift. It also offers a new insight into the Zitterbewegung of material particles.

  16. Resistor cooling in a vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crittenden, R.; Krider, J.

    1987-01-01

    This note describes thermal measurements which were done on a resistor operating both in air at one atmosphere pressure and in a vacuum of a few milliTorr. The motivation for this measurement was our interest in operating a BGO crystal-photomultiplier tube-base assembly in a vacuum, as a synchrotron radiation detector to tag electrons in the MT beam. We wished to determine what fraction of the total resistor power was dissipated by convection in air, in order to know whether there would be excessive heating of the detector assembly in a vacuum. 3 figs

  17. Experimental tests of vacuum energy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    While the current vacuum energy of the Universe is very small, in our standard cosmological picture it has been much larger at earlier epochs. We try to address the question of what are possible ways to try to experimentally verify this. One direction is to look for systems where vacuum energy constitutes a non-negligible fraction of the total energy, and study the properties of those. Another possibility is to focus on the epochs around cosmic phase transitions, when the vacuum energy is of the same order as the total energy. Along these lines we investigate properties of neutron stars and the imprint of phase transitions on primordial gravitational waves.

  18. Time-resolved photoelectron imaging using a femtosecond UV laser and a VUV free-electron laser

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, S. Y.; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Fuji, Takao; Nishizawa, Kiyoshi; Horio, Takuya; Mizuno, Tomoya; Kohguchi, Hiroshi; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    A time-resolved photoelectron imaging using a femtosecond ultraviolet (UV) laser and a vacuum UV freeelectron laser is presented. Ultrafast internal conversion and intersystem crossing in pyrazine in a supersonic molecular beam were clearly observed in the time profiles of photoioinzation intensity and time-dependent photoelectron images.

  19. Patterning of nanoparticulate transparent conductive ITO films using UV light irradiation and UV laser beam writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solieman, A.; Moharram, A.H.; Aegerter, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film is one of the most widely used as transparent conductive electrodes in all forms of flat panel display (FPD) and microelectronic devices. Suspension of already crystalline conductive ITO nanoparticles fully dispersed in alcohol was spun, after modifying with coupling agent, on glass substrates. The low cost, simple and versatile traditional photolithography process without complication of the photoresist layer was used for patterning ITO films. Using of UV light irradiation through mask and direct UV laser beam writing resulted in an accurate linear, sharp edge and very smooth patterns. Irradiated ITO film showed a high transparency (∼85%) in the visible region. The electrical sheet resistance decrease with increasing time of exposure to UV light and UV laser. Only 5 min UV light irradiation is enough to decrease the electrical sheet resistance down to 5 kΩ□.

  20. UV disinfection of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipperud, E.; Johansen; Myhrstad, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    UV radiation has been found to have advantages over chloration for the disinfection of water. New regulations for dietary conditions on Norwegian ships introduced in 1974 led to increased use of UV disinfection, and this has in the following years spread to waterworks. The present article is based on a study to determine possible limitation. The nature of the injuries to the microorganisms is first discussed, together with repair mechanisms. A table is given showing the energy required for 90 and 100 percent inactivation of a number of microorganisms. Some other factors affecting UV inactivation are briefly mentioned. (JIW)

  1. Distribution of a vacuum charge near supercharged nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, A.B.; Popov, V.S.; Voskresenskij, D.N.; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental'noj Fiziki)

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of a vacuum charge near super-critical nuclei (Ze 2 > > 1) is found. The calculation is performed in the Thomas - Fermi approximation extended to the relativistic case. The characteristic parameter in the present problem is Ze 3 approximately Z/1600. For Ze 3 approximately 1 the total charge of the vacuum shell becomes comparable to the nuclear charge Z. The relativistic Thomas - Fermi equation for the vacuum shell of a supercritical atom is solved analytically for two extreme cases, Ze 3 3 > > 1. In the intermediate region, Ze 3 approximately 1, the equation is solved numerically. The Thomas - Fermi equation for a neutral atom (in which not only the vacuum but external electron shells as well are filled up) and also the equation in which allowance is made for exchange and correlation corrections (relativistic generalization of the Thomas -Fermi - Dirac equation) are also considered

  2. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola ME; Brown T; Heitzenroeder P; Malinowski F; Reiersen W; Sutton L; Goranson P; Nelson B; Cole M; Manuel M; McCorkle D.

    2005-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120 o vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1-inch of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120 o vessel segments are formed by welding two 60 o segments together. Each 60 o segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8-inch (20.3 cm) wide spacer ''spool pieces''. The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10 -6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02(micro), and its contours must be within 0.188-inch (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006

  3. Particle creation during vacuum decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubakov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The hamiltonian approach is developed with regard to the problem of particle creation during the tunneling process, leading to the decay of the false vacuum in quantum field theory. It is shown that, to the lowest order in (h/2π), the particle creation is described by the euclidean Schroedinger equation in an external field of a bounce. A technique for solving this equation is developed in an analogy to the Bogoliubov transformation technique, in the theory of particle creation in the presence of classical background fields. The technique is illustrated by two examples, namely, the particle creation during homogeneous vacuum decay and during the tunneling process leading to the materialization of the thin-wall bubble of a new vacuum in the metastable one. The curious phenomenon of intensive particle annihilation during vacuum decay is discussed and explicitly illustrated within the former example. The non-unitary extension of the Bogoliubov u, v transformations is described in the appendix. (orig.)

  4. Vacuum in intensive gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinian, S.G.

    1977-12-01

    The behaviour of vacuum in a covariantly constant Yang-Mills field is considered. The expressions for the effective Lagrangian in an intensive field representing the asymptotic freedom of the theory are found

  5. Diamond-based photoconductors for deep UV detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducci, A.; Bruzzi, M.; De Sio, A.; Donato, M.G.; Faggio, G.; Marinelli, M.; Messina, G.; Milani, E.; Morgada, M.E.; Pace, E.; Pucella, G.; Santangelo, S.; Scoccia, M.; Scuderi, S.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2006-01-01

    This work reports on the development and characterization of bi-dimensional deep-UV sensor arrays based on synthetic diamond to address the requirements of space-born astrophysical experiments. The material was synthesized at the University of Rome 'Tor Vergata' where both heteroepitaxial polycrystalline diamond films and homoepitaxial single-crystal diamonds are grown using a tubular MWCVD reactor. The quality of chemical vapour deposited diamond was characterized by cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy and thermally stimulated currents. Then, suitable samples were selected and used to fabricate photoconductive single-pixel and 2D array devices by evaporating metal contacts on the growth surface. The electro-optical characterization of the devices was carried out in a wide spectral region, ranging from 120 to 2400 nm. A deuterium lamp and a 0.5 m vacuum monochromator were used to measure the detector responsivity under continuous monochromatic irradiation in the 120-250 nm spectral range, while an optical parametric oscillator tunable laser producing 5 ns pulses was used as light source from 210 up to 2400 nm. Time response, signal-to-noise ratio, responsivity and visible rejection factor were evaluated and the results are hereafter summarized

  6. Vacuum production; Produccion de vacio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, J. L. de

    2010-07-01

    Since the advent of ultra high vacuum in 1958 has been a great demand for new as means of production and to meet the process needs to be done: industry heavy, high technology and space research areas, large accelerator systems particles or nuclear fusion. In this paper we explore the modern media production: dry vacuum pumps, turbo pumps, pump status diffusion ion pumps and cryopumps. (Author)

  7. Development of vacuum brazing furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Yedle, Kamlesh; Jain, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    In joining of components where welding process is not possible brazing processes are employed. Value added components, high quality RF systems, UHV components of high energy accelerators, carbide tools etc. are produced using different types of brazing methods. Furnace brazing under vacuum atmosphere is the most popular and well accepted method for production of the above mentioned components and systems. For carrying out vacuum brazing successfully it is essential to have a vacuum brazing furnace with latest features of modern vacuum brazing technology. A vacuum brazing furnace has been developed and installed for carrying out brazing of components of copper, stainless steel and components made of dissimilar metals/materials. The above furnace has been designed to accommodate jobs of 700mm diameter x 2000mm long sizes with job weight of 500kgs up to a maximum temperature of 1250 degC at a vacuum of 5 x 10 -5 Torr. Oil diffusion pumping system with a combination of rotary and mechanical booster pump have been employed for obtaining vacuum. Molybdenum heating elements, radiation shield of molybdenum and Stainless Steel Grade 304 have been used. The above furnace is computer controlled with manual over ride facility. PLC and Pentium PC are integrated together to maneuver steps of operation and safety interlocks of the system. Closed loop water supply provides cooling to the system. The installation of the above system is in final stage of completion and it will be ready for use in next few months time. This paper presents insights of design and fabrication of a modern vacuum brazing furnace and its sub-system. (author)

  8. Vacuum energy from noncommutative models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignemi, S.; Samsarov, A.

    2018-04-01

    The vacuum energy is computed for a scalar field in a noncommutative background in several models of noncommutative geometry. One may expect that the noncommutativity introduces a natural cutoff on the ultraviolet divergences of field theory. Our calculations show however that this depends on the particular model considered: in some cases the divergences are suppressed and the vacuum energy is only logarithmically divergent, in other cases they are stronger than in the commutative theory.

  9. ITER diagnostic system: Vacuum interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, K.M.; Udintsev, V.S.; Hughes, S.; Walker, C.I.; Andrew, P.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L.; Drevon, J.M.; Encheva, A.; Kashchuk, Y.; Maquet, Ph.; Pearce, R.; Taylor, N.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostics play an essential role for the successful operation of the ITER tokamak. They provide the means to observe control and to measure plasma during the operation of ITER tokamak. The components of the diagnostic system in the ITER tokamak will be installed in the vacuum vessel, in the cryostat, in the upper, equatorial and divertor ports, in the divertor cassettes and racks, as well as in various buildings. Diagnostic components that are placed in a high radiation environment are expected to operate for the life of ITER. There are approx. 45 diagnostic systems located on ITER. Some diagnostics incorporate direct or independently pumped extensions to maintain their necessary vacuum conditions. They require a base pressure less than 10 −7 Pa, irrespective of plasma operation, and a leak rate of less than 10 −10 Pa m 3 s −1 . In all the cases it is essential to maintain the ITER closed fuel cycle. These directly coupled diagnostic systems are an integral part of the ITER vacuum containment and are therefore subject to the same design requirements for tritium and active gas confinement, for all normal and accidental conditions. All the diagnostics, whether or not pumped, incorporate penetration of the vacuum boundary (i.e. window assembly, vacuum feedthrough etc.) and demountable joints. Monitored guard volumes are provided for all elements of the vacuum boundary that are judged to be vulnerable by virtue of their construction, material, load specification etc. Standard arrangements are made for their construction and for the monitoring, evacuating and leak testing of these volumes. Diagnostic systems are incorporated at more than 20 ports on ITER. This paper will describe typical and particular arrangements of pumped diagnostic and monitored guard volume. The status of the diagnostic vacuum systems, which are at the start of their detailed design, will be outlined and the specific features of the vacuum systems in ports and extensions will be described

  10. ITER diagnostic system: Vacuum interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, K.M., E-mail: Kaushal.Patel@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Udintsev, V.S.; Hughes, S.; Walker, C.I.; Andrew, P.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Drevon, J.M. [Bertin Technologies, BP 22, 13762 Aix-en Provence cedex 3 (France); Encheva, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Kashchuk, Y. [Institution “PROJECT CENTER ITER”, 1, Akademika Kurchatova pl., Moscow (Russian Federation); Maquet, Ph. [Bertin Technologies, BP 22, 13762 Aix-en Provence cedex 3 (France); Pearce, R.; Taylor, N.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Diagnostics play an essential role for the successful operation of the ITER tokamak. They provide the means to observe control and to measure plasma during the operation of ITER tokamak. The components of the diagnostic system in the ITER tokamak will be installed in the vacuum vessel, in the cryostat, in the upper, equatorial and divertor ports, in the divertor cassettes and racks, as well as in various buildings. Diagnostic components that are placed in a high radiation environment are expected to operate for the life of ITER. There are approx. 45 diagnostic systems located on ITER. Some diagnostics incorporate direct or independently pumped extensions to maintain their necessary vacuum conditions. They require a base pressure less than 10{sup −7} Pa, irrespective of plasma operation, and a leak rate of less than 10{sup −10} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup −1}. In all the cases it is essential to maintain the ITER closed fuel cycle. These directly coupled diagnostic systems are an integral part of the ITER vacuum containment and are therefore subject to the same design requirements for tritium and active gas confinement, for all normal and accidental conditions. All the diagnostics, whether or not pumped, incorporate penetration of the vacuum boundary (i.e. window assembly, vacuum feedthrough etc.) and demountable joints. Monitored guard volumes are provided for all elements of the vacuum boundary that are judged to be vulnerable by virtue of their construction, material, load specification etc. Standard arrangements are made for their construction and for the monitoring, evacuating and leak testing of these volumes. Diagnostic systems are incorporated at more than 20 ports on ITER. This paper will describe typical and particular arrangements of pumped diagnostic and monitored guard volume. The status of the diagnostic vacuum systems, which are at the start of their detailed design, will be outlined and the specific features of the vacuum systems in ports and extensions

  11. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10 -5 to 10 -11 Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components

  12. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Onozuka, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru.

    1997-01-01

    Heat of inner walls of a vacuum vessel that receive radiation heat from plasmas by way of first walls is removed by a cooling medium flowing in channels for cooling the inner walls. Nuclear heat generation of constitutional materials of the vacuum vessel caused by fast neutrons and γ rays is removed by a cooling medium flowing in cooling channels disposed in the vacuum vessel. Since the heat from plasmas and the nuclear heat generation are removed separately, the amount of the cooling medium flowing in the channels for cooling inner walls is increased for cooling a great amount of heat from plasmas while the amount of the cooling medium flowing in the channels for cooling the inside of the vacuum vessel is reduced for cooling the small amount of nuclear heat generation. Since the amount of the cooling medium can thus be optimized, the capacity of the facilities for circulating the cooling medium can be reduced. In addition, since the channels for cooling the inner walls and the channels of cooling medium formed in the vacuum vessel are disposed to the inner walls of the vacuum vessel on the side opposite to plasmas, integrity of the channels relative to leakage of the cooling medium can be ensured. (N.H.)

  13. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Kurita, Gen-ichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Onozuka, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru

    1997-07-31

    Heat of inner walls of a vacuum vessel that receive radiation heat from plasmas by way of first walls is removed by a cooling medium flowing in channels for cooling the inner walls. Nuclear heat generation of constitutional materials of the vacuum vessel caused by fast neutrons and {gamma} rays is removed by a cooling medium flowing in cooling channels disposed in the vacuum vessel. Since the heat from plasmas and the nuclear heat generation are removed separately, the amount of the cooling medium flowing in the channels for cooling inner walls is increased for cooling a great amount of heat from plasmas while the amount of the cooling medium flowing in the channels for cooling the inside of the vacuum vessel is reduced for cooling the small amount of nuclear heat generation. Since the amount of the cooling medium can thus be optimized, the capacity of the facilities for circulating the cooling medium can be reduced. In addition, since the channels for cooling the inner walls and the channels of cooling medium formed in the vacuum vessel are disposed to the inner walls of the vacuum vessel on the side opposite to plasmas, integrity of the channels relative to leakage of the cooling medium can be ensured. (N.H.)

  14. UV-fs-LA-ICP-MS Analysis of CO2-Rich Fluid Inclusions in a Frozen State: Example from the Dahu Au-Mo Deposit, Xiaoqinling Region, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed technique of ultraviolet femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (UV-fs-LA-ICP-MS combined with a freezing cell is expected to improve the analysis of CO2-rich fluid inclusions by decreasing their internal pressure and avoiding the common problem of uncontrolled explosive fluid release on ablation. Here, we report the application of this technique through the case study of CO2-rich fluid inclusions from the quartz vein-style Au-Mo deposit of Dahu in the Xiaoqinling region of central China. The concentrations of Li, B, Na, Al, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Te, Cs, Ba, Au, Pb, and Bi were analyzed in 124 (not all for Al and Ca fluid inclusions, which have low to moderate salinity and multiphase composition (liquid H2O + liquid CO2  ± vapor CO2  ± solids. The Dahu fluids are dominated by Na and K. The concentrations of Mo are always below the detection limit from 0.005 to 2 ppm (excluding values obtained from fluid inclusions with accidentally trapped solids. The Dahu ore fluids differ from metamorphic fluids in compositions and most likely represent two separate pulses of spent fluids evolved from an unexposed and oxidized magmatic system. The UV-fs-LA-ICP-MS analysis of fluid inclusions in a frozen state improves the overpressure problem of CO2-rich fluid inclusions during laser ablation. The transformation of gaseous and liquid CO2 into the solid state leads to a significant decline in the internal pressure of the fluid inclusions, while femtosecond laser pulses generate a minimal heat input in the sample and thus maintain the frozen state during ablation. Transient signals of CO2-rich fluid inclusions obtained in this study typically had one or multiple peaks lasting for more than 15 seconds, without an initial short signal spike as obtained by ns-LA-ICP-MS analysis of CO2-rich fluid inclusions at room temperature.

  15. Biological effects of N+ ion implantation and UV radiation on streptomyces albus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jian; Dai Guifu

    2005-01-01

    The results of both 30 keV N + ion implantation and UV irradiation of Streptomyces albus showed complicate biological effects. The 'saddle shape' pattern of the dose-dependent curve formed by N + ion implantation with low energy was studied, and it proved that vacuum was not the reason, and the fact, the 'saddle shape' curve may be regarded as a HRS/IRR (hyper-radiosensitivity/increased radiaoresistance) effect caused by low dose irradiation. But Streptomyces albus UV irradiated after vacuum treatment only showed IRR effect or hormesis (survival rate >100%). The streptomycin resistance mutation of Streptomyces albus caused by low energy N + ion implantation and UV irradiation was also studied. the results showed that UV radiation is one effective means for streptomyces albus breeding. (authors)

  16. Ultraviolet/visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic investigations of organic–inorganic hybrid layers for UV protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Präfke, Christiane, E-mail: christiane.praefke@iof.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Optical Coatings Department, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena (Germany); Schulz, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.schulz@iof.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Optical Coatings Department, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Kaiser, Norbert, E-mail: norbert.kaiser@iof.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Optical Coatings Department, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Tünnermann, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.tuennermann@iof.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Optical Coatings Department, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    A study of vacuum-deposited organic–inorganic hybrid coatings for ultraviolet (UV) protection of polycarbonate is presented. For this purpose, UV-absorbing organic molecules were embedded in a silica matrix by thermal co-evaporation. Typical UV absorbers, namely a benzotriazole, a hydroxyphenyltriazine, and a cyanoacrylate, were used as organic materials. The hybrid layers were investigated by means of ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) concerning their UV/VIS absorption properties and the influence of the silica network on the organic molecules. The porosity and silica–organic interactions are discussed with reference to the infrared spectra. UV irradiation experiments were carried out to demonstrate the UV protection ability of the hybrid layers. Hybrid layers containing the hydroxyphenyltriazine compound showed the best results. - Highlights: ► Vacuum deposited organic–inorganic UV protective coatings for polycarbonate ► Thermal co-evaporation of organic UV absorbing compounds with silica ► Matrix materials and the absorber concentration influence the absorption behavior. ► The coatings on PC show improved UV stability under artificial irradiation. ► The hydroxyphenyltriazine–silica layer shows best UV protection results.

  17. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Nagashima, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masaru; Onozuka, Masaki.

    1997-01-01

    A vacuum vessel main body and structural members at the inside and the outside of the vacuum vessel main body are constituted by structural materials activated by irradiation of neutrons from plasmas such as stainless steels. Shielding members comprising tungsten or molybdenum are disposed on the surface of the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members of the inside and the outside of the main body. The shielding members have a function also as first walls or a seat member for the first walls. Armor tiles may be disposed to the shielding members. The shielding members and the armor tiles are secured to a securing seat member disposed, for example, to an inner plate of the vacuum vessel main body by bolts. Since the shielding members are disposed, it is not necessary to constitute the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members at the inside and the outside thereof by using a low activation material which is less activated, such as a titanium alloy. (I.N.)

  18. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Nagashima, Keisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Masaru; Onozuka, Masaki

    1997-07-11

    A vacuum vessel main body and structural members at the inside and the outside of the vacuum vessel main body are constituted by structural materials activated by irradiation of neutrons from plasmas such as stainless steels. Shielding members comprising tungsten or molybdenum are disposed on the surface of the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members of the inside and the outside of the main body. The shielding members have a function also as first walls or a seat member for the first walls. Armor tiles may be disposed to the shielding members. The shielding members and the armor tiles are secured to a securing seat member disposed, for example, to an inner plate of the vacuum vessel main body by bolts. Since the shielding members are disposed, it is not necessary to constitute the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members at the inside and the outside thereof by using a low activation material which is less activated, such as a titanium alloy. (I.N.)

  19. Solar UV radiation variations and their stratospheric and climatic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, R. F.; Heath, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    Nimbus-7 SBUV measurements of the short-term solar UV variations caused by solar rotation and active-region evolution have determined the amplitude and wavelength dependence for the active-region component of solar UV variations. Intermediate-term variations lasting several months are associated with rounds of major new active regions. The UV flux stays near the peak value during the current solar cycle variation for more than two years and peaks about two years later than the sunspot number. Nimbus-7 measurements have observed the concurrent stratospheric ozone variations caused by solar UV variations. There is now no doubt that solar UV variations are an important cause of short- and long-term stratospheric variations, but the strength of the coupling to the troposphere and to climate has not yet been proven.

  20. Luminescent properties of (Y,Gd)BO3:Bi3+,RE3+ (RE=Eu, Tb) phosphor under VUV/UV excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xiaoqing; Im, Seoung-Jae; Jang, Sang-Hun; Kim, Young-Mo; Park, Hyoung-Bin; Son, Seung-Hyun; Hatanaka, Hidekazu; Kim, Gi-Young; Kim, Seul-Gi

    2006-01-01

    Bi 3+ - and RE 3+ -co-doped (Y,Gd)BO 3 phosphors were prepared and their luminescent properties under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)/UV excitation were investigated. Strong red emission for (Y,Gd)BO 3 :Bi 3+ ,Eu 3+ and strong green emission for (Y,Gd)BO 3 :Bi 3+ ,Tb 3+ are observed under VUV excitation from 147 to 200 nm with a much broader excitation region than that of single Eu 3+ -doped or Tb 3+ -doped (Y,Gd)BO 3 phosphor. Strong emissions are also observed under UV excitation around 265 nm where as nearly no luminescence is observed for single Eu 3+ -doped or Tb 3+ -doped (Y,Gd)BO 3 . The luminescence enhancement of Bi 3+ - and RE 3+ -co-doped (Y,Gd)BO 3 phosphors is due to energy transfer from Bi 3+ ion to Eu 3+ or Tb 3+ ion not only in the VUV region but also in the UV region. Besides, host sensitization competition between Bi 3+ and Eu 3+ or Tb 3+ is also observed. The investigated phosphors may be preferable for devices with a VUV light 147-200 nm as an excitation source such as PDP or mercury-free fluorescent lamp

  1. Carbon nanotubes based vacuum gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyk, N. N.; Il'in, O. I.; Il'ina, M. V.; Fedotov, A. A.; Klimin, V. S.; Ageev, O. A.

    2017-11-01

    We have created an ionization type Vacuum gauge with sensor element based on an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Obtained asymmetrical current-voltage characteristics at different voltage polarity on the electrode with the CNTs. It was found that when applying a negative potential on an electrode with the CNTs, the current in the gap is higher than at a positive potential. In the pressure range of 1 ÷ 103 Torr vacuum gauge sensitivity was 6 mV/Torr (at a current of 4.5·10-5 A) and in the range of 10-5 ÷ 1 Torr was 10 mV/Torr (at a current of 1.3·10-5 A). It is shown that the energy efficiency of vacuum gauge can be increased in the case where electrode with CNT operates as an emitter of electrons.

  2. Magnetically enhanced vacuum arc thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keidar, Michael; Schein, Jochen; Wilson, Kristi; Gerhan, Andrew; Au, Michael; Tang, Benjamin; Idzkowski, Luke; Krishnan, Mahadevan; Beilis, Isak I

    2005-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model of the vacuum arc thruster and its plume is described. Primarily an effect of the magnetic field on the plume expansion and plasma generation is considered. Two particular examples are investigated, namely the magnetically enhanced co-axial vacuum arc thruster (MVAT) and the vacuum arc thruster with ring electrodes (RVAT). It is found that the magnetic field significantly decreases the plasma plume radial expansion under typical conditions. Predicted plasma density profiles in the plume of the MVAT are compared with experimental profiles, and generally a good agreement is found. In the case of the RVAT the influence of the magnetic field leads to plasma jet deceleration, which explains the non-monotonic dependence of the ion current density, on an axial magnetic field observed experimentally

  3. Magnetically enhanced vacuum arc thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keidar, Michael [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 MI (United States); Schein, Jochen [Alameda Applied Science Corporation, San Leandro, CA 94577 (United States); Wilson, Kristi [Alameda Applied Science Corporation, San Leandro, CA 94577 (United States); Gerhan, Andrew [Alameda Applied Science Corporation, San Leandro, CA 94577 (United States); Au, Michael [Alameda Applied Science Corporation, San Leandro, CA 94577 (United States); Tang, Benjamin [Alameda Applied Science Corporation, San Leandro, CA 94577 (United States); Idzkowski, Luke [Alameda Applied Science Corporation, San Leandro, CA 94577 (United States); Krishnan, Mahadevan [Alameda Applied Science Corporation, San Leandro, CA 94577 (United States); Beilis, Isak I [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2005-11-01

    A hydrodynamic model of the vacuum arc thruster and its plume is described. Primarily an effect of the magnetic field on the plume expansion and plasma generation is considered. Two particular examples are investigated, namely the magnetically enhanced co-axial vacuum arc thruster (MVAT) and the vacuum arc thruster with ring electrodes (RVAT). It is found that the magnetic field significantly decreases the plasma plume radial expansion under typical conditions. Predicted plasma density profiles in the plume of the MVAT are compared with experimental profiles, and generally a good agreement is found. In the case of the RVAT the influence of the magnetic field leads to plasma jet deceleration, which explains the non-monotonic dependence of the ion current density, on an axial magnetic field observed experimentally.

  4. Microbial survival of space vacuum and extreme ultraviolet irradiation: strain isolation and analysis during a rocket flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffary, Roya; Nandakumar, Renu; Spencer, Dennis; Robb, Frank T; Davila, Joseph M; Swartz, Marvin; Ofman, Leon; Thomas, Roger J; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2002-09-24

    We have recovered new isolates from hot springs, in Yellowstone National Park and the Kamchatka Peninsula, after gamma-irradiation and exposure to high vacuum (10(-6) Pa) of the water and sediment samples. The resistance to desiccation and ionizing radiation of one of the isolates, Bacillus sp. strain PS3D, was compared to that of the mesophilic bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans, a species well known for its extraordinary resistance to desiccation and high doses of ionizing radiation. Survival of these two microorganisms was determined in real and simulated space conditions, including exposure to extreme UV radiation (10-100 nm) during a rocket flight. We found that up to 15 days of desiccation alone had little effect on the viability of either bacterium. In contrast, exposure to space vacuum ( approximately 10(-6) Pa) decreased cell survival by two and four orders of magnitude for Bacillus sp. strain PS3D and D. radiodurans, respectively. Simultaneous exposure to space vacuum and extreme UV radiation further decreased the survival of both organisms, compared to unirradiated controls. This is the first report on the isolated effect of extreme UV at 30 nm on cell survival. Extreme UV can only be transmitted through high vacuum, therefore its penetration into the cells may only be superficial, suggesting that in contrast to near UV, membrane proteins rather than DNA were damaged by the radiation.

  5. Vacuum foil insulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, J.P.; Sabolcik, R.E.; Svedberg, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    In a multifoil thermal insulation package having a plurality of concentric cylindrical cups, means are provided for reducing heat loss from the penetration region which extends through the cups. At least one cup includes an integral skirt extending from one end of the cup to intersection with the penetration means. Assembly of the insulation package with the skirted cup is facilitated by splitting the cup to allow it to be opened up and fitted around the other cups during assembly. The insulation is for an implantable nuclear powered artificial heart

  6. Ultraviolet /UV/ sensitive phosphors for silicon imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehmann, W.; Cowens, M. W.; Butner, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The fluorescence properties of UV sensitive organic phosphors and the radiometric properties of phosphor coated silicon detectors in the VUV, UV, and visible wavelengths are described. With evaporated films of coronene and liumogen, effective quantum efficiencies of up to 20% have been achieved on silicon photodiodes in the vacuum UV. With thin films of methylmethacrylate (acrylic), which are doped with organic laser dyes and deposited from solution, detector quantum efficiencies of the order of 15% for wavelengths of 120-165 nm and of 40% for wavelengths above 190 nm have been obtained. The phosphor coatings also act as antireflection coatings and thereby enhance the response of coated devices throughout the visible and near IR.

  7. Quantum electrodynamics with unstable vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, E.S. (P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow (USSR)); Gitman, D.M. (Moscow Inst. of Radio Engineering Electronics and Automation (USSR)); Shvartsman, Sh.M. (Tomsk State Pedagogical Inst. (USSR))

    1991-01-01

    Intense external fields destabilize vacuum inducing the creation of particle pairs. In this book the formalism of quantum electrodynamics (QED), using a special perturbation theory with matrix propagators, is systematically analyzed for such systems. The developed approach is, however, general for any quantum field with unstable vacuum. The authors propose solutions for real pair-creating fields. They discuss the general form for the causal function and many other Green's functions, as well as methods for finding them. Analogies to the optical theorem and rules for computing total probabilities are given, as are solutions for non-Abelian theories. (orig.).

  8. QED vacuum loops and inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, H.M. [Brown University, Department of Physics, Providence, RI (United States); Gabellini, Y. [UMR 6618 CNRS, Institut Non Lineaire de Nice, Valbonne (France)

    2015-03-01

    A QED-based model of a new version of vacuum energy has recently been suggested, which leads to a simple, finite, one parameter representation of dark energy. An elementary, obvious, but perhaps radical generalization is then able to describe both dark energy and inflation in the same framework of vacuum energy. One further, obvious generalization then leads to a relation between inflation and the big bang, to the automatic inclusion of dark matter, and to a possible understanding of the birth (and death) of a universe. (orig.)

  9. QED vacuum loops and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, H.M.; Gabellini, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A QED-based model of a new version of vacuum energy has recently been suggested, which leads to a simple, finite, one parameter representation of dark energy. An elementary, obvious, but perhaps radical generalization is then able to describe both dark energy and inflation in the same framework of vacuum energy. One further, obvious generalization then leads to a relation between inflation and the big bang, to the automatic inclusion of dark matter, and to a possible understanding of the birth (and death) of a universe. (orig.)

  10. AlN ceramics as a detector for UV exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinkler, L.; Berzina, B.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Christensen, P.; Palcevskis, E.

    1999-01-01

    AlN-Y 2 O 3 ceramics is proposed for application in the field of UV detection and dosimetry. Both thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals from the material have been studied after exposure to UV light. AlN-Y 2 O 3 ceramics demonstrates very high sensitivity to UV light over a broad spectral region. The TL is characterized by a linear dose dependence over a large range. The fading rate of the UV-induced TL and OSL signals on storage at room temperature is lower than in the case of exposure to ionizing irradiation. (au)

  11. Radiative flux calculations at UV and visible wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Grant, K.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    A radiative transfer model to calculate the short wavelength fluxes at altitudes between 0 and 80 km has been developed at LLNL. The wavelength range extends from 175--735 nm. This spectral range covers the UV-B wavelength region, 250--350 nm, with sufficient resolution to allow comparison of UV-B measurements with theoretical predictions. Validation studies for the model have been made for both UV-B ground radiation calculations and tropospheric solar radiative forcing calculations for various ozone distributions. These studies indicate that the model produces results which agree well with respect to existing UV calculations from other published models

  12. UV photoprocessing of NH3 ice: photon-induced desorption mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Doménech, R.; Cruz-Díaz, G. A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.

    2018-01-01

    Ice mantles detected on the surface of dust grains towards the coldest regions of the interstellar medium can be photoprocessed by the secondary ultraviolet (UV) field present in dense cloud interiors. In this work, we present UV-irradiation experiments under astrophysically relevant conditions of pure NH3 ice samples in an ultra-high vacuum chamber where solid samples were deposited on to a substrate at 8 K. The ice analogues were subsequently photoprocessed with a microwave-discharged hydrogen-flow lamp. The induced radiation and photochemistry led to the production of H2, N2 and N2H4. In addition, photodesorption to the gas phase of the original ice component, NH3, and two of the three detected photoproducts, H2 and N2, was observed thanks to a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS). Calibration of the QMS allowed quantification of the photodesorption yields, leading to Ypd (NH3) = 2.1^{+2.1}_{-1.0} × 10-3 molecules/{incident photon}, which remained constant during the whole experiments, while photodesorption of H2 and N2 increased with fluence, pointing towards an indirect photodesorption mechanism involving energy transfer for these species. Photodesorption yield of N2 molecules after a fluence equivalent to that experienced by ice mantles in space was similar to that of the NH3 molecules (Ypd (N2) = 1.7^{+1.7}_{-0.9} × 10-3 molecules/{incident photon}).

  13. UV Deprivation Influences Social UV Preference in Juvenile Sticklebacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda Modarressie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Social aggregations occur in many different animal taxa and mainly result from non-random assortment. Investigating factors that shape and maintain the composition of social aggregations are among others a main topic for understanding ecological speciation processes. Aggregation decisions are mediated by olfactory and visual cues, which in many animals are extended into the UV part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Here, we were interested in developmental plasticity of social preferences with respect to UV radiation in aquatic organisms. Specifically, we tested whether different lighting environments with respect to UV wavelengths during early life stages influence the shoaling preference in juvenile threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus. Family (full-sibling groups were split and reared under UV-lacking (UV- and UV-present (UV+ lighting conditions. Subsequent shoal choice experiments, in which test fish from both rearing conditions could simultaneously choose between a shoal seen behind a UV-blocking (UV- and a shoal seen behind a UV-transmitting (UV+ filter, revealed a significant effect of lighting condition during rearing on association preference. Test fish that had been deprived of UV spent significantly more time near the UV- shoal compared to the test fish reared under full-spectrum lighting conditions. The results are discussed with respect to plasticity of the visual system and environmental lighting conditions.

  14. UV line emission of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, H.

    1982-01-01

    General characteristics of emission line spectra from symbiotic stars are outlined. Data from some special line ratios in the 1000 A - 3000 A range, and others connecting the visual and the far UV lines are presented, and their application to symbiotic stars is discussed. Integrated fractional abundances for ions easily observed in the far UV are given to facilitate abundance determinations for nebular conditions. It is found that the physical conditions of the regions emitting the emission line spectra differ considerably among different symbiotic stars. (Auth.)

  15. Using analytic continuation for the hadronic vacuum polarization computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xu; Hashimoto, Shoji; Hotzel, Grit; Jansen, Karl; Petschlies, Marcus; B, Renner Dru

    2014-11-01

    We present two examples of applications of the analytic continuation method for computing the hadronic vacuum polarization function in space- and time-like momentum regions. These examples are the Adler function and the leading order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment. We comment on the feasibility of the analytic continuation method and provide an outlook for possible further applications.

  16. Gases and vacua handbook of vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, A H

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Vacuum Physics, Volume 1: Gases and Vacua provides information on the many aspects of vacuum technology, from material on the quantum theoretical aspects of the complex semi-conductors used for thermionic and photo-electric emission to data on the performance of commercially available pumps, gauges, and high-vacuum materials. The handbook satisfies the need of workers using vacuum apparatuses or works on the diverse applications of high-vacuum technology in research and industry. The book is a compilation of long articles prepared by experts in vacuum technology. Sufficient theoret

  17. The Source of the Quantum Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantum vacuum consists of virtual particles randomly appearing and disappearing in free space. Ordinarily the wavenumber (or frequency spectrum of the zero-point fields for these virtual particles is assumed to be unbounded. The unbounded nature of the spectrum leads in turn to an infinite energy density for the quantum vacuum and an infinite renormalization mass for the free particle. This paper argues that there is a more fundamental vacuum state, the Planck vacuum, from which the quantum vacuum emerges and that the “graininess” of this more fundamental vacuum state truncates the wavenumber spectrum and leads to a finite energy density and a finite renormalization mass.

  18. The Source of the Quantum Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantum vacuum consists of virtual particles randomly appearing and disappearing in free space. Ordinarily the wavenumber (or frequency spectrum of the zero-point fields for these virtual particles is assumed to be unbounded. The unbounded nature of the spectrum leads in turn to an infinite energy density for the quantum vacuum and an infinite renormalization mass for the free particle. This paper argues that there is a more fundamental vacuum state, the Planck vacuum, from which the quantum vacuum emerges and that the "graininess" of this more fundamental vacuum state truncates the wavenumber spectrum and leads to a finite energy density and a finite renormalization mass.

  19. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David K.

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  20. Investigations of Pulsed Vacuum Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-10

    Violet Spectra of Hot Sparks in Hh’Iacua, ’ ?hys. Rev., Vol. 12, p. 167, (1913). 31A Maitland , "Spark CondiiIoning Equation for Olane ElectrodesI-in...Appl. Phys., Vol. 1, 1291 G. Thecohilus, K. Srivastava, and R. ’ ian Heeswi.k, ’tn-situ Observation of !Microparticles in a Vacuum-Tnsulated Gap Using

  1. PC driven integrated vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curuia, M.; Culcer, M.; Brandea, I.; Anghel, M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a integrated vacuum system which was designed and manufactured in our institute. The main parts of this system are the power supply unit for turbo-melecular pumps and the vacuummeter. Both parts of the system are driven by means of a personal computer using a serial communication, according to the RS 232 hardware standard.(author)

  2. Vacuum therapy for chronic wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Leonidovna Zaytseva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wound in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the most urgent problems of modern diabetology and surgery. Numberof patients suffering from different types of chronic wounds follows increase in DM incidence. Vacuum therapy is a novel perspectivemethod of topical treatment for non-healing chronic wounds of various etiology. Current review addresses experimental and clinicalevidence for this method.

  3. Filling the vacuum at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Last month, the Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings (VSC) group was tasked with an unusually delicate operation in the LHCb experiment cavern: removing the LHC beam pipe while keeping the sensitive Vertex Locator vacuum vessel (VELO) completely isolated from the action.   The VSC group seal off the VELO beam pipe with a flange. Image: Gloria Corti. LHCb’s VELO detector is one of the crown jewels of the experiment. With detector elements surrounded by a vacuum, it gets as close as 5 cm from the beam. Fantastic for physics, but difficult for all-important access. “Because of the sensitivity of the VELO detector and its proximity to the beam, the collaboration decided not to bake (see box) its portion of the beam pipe,” says Giulia Lanza (TE-VSC-LBV), the expert in charge of the beam vacuum operation. “Our group was therefore asked to remove the rest of the LHC beam pipe while keeping the VELO portion of the pipe completely isolated. This work...

  4. A UV-Vis photoacoustic spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Joseph R; Mathews, L Dalila; Smith, Geoffrey D

    2014-06-17

    A novel photoacoustic spectrophotometer (PAS) for the measurement of gas-phase and aerosol absorption over the UV-visible region of the spectrum is described. Light from a broadband Hg arc lamp is filtered in eight separate bands from 300 to 700 nm using bandpass interference filters (centered at 301 nm, 314 nm, 364 nm, 405 nm, 436 nm, 546 nm, 578 and 687 nm) and modulated with an optical chopper before entering the photoacoustic cell. All wavelength bands feature a 20-s detection limit of better than 3.0 Mm(-1) with the exception of the lower-intensity 687 nm band for which it is 10.2 Mm(-1). Validation measurements of gas-phase acetone and nigrosin aerosol absorption cross sections at several wavelengths demonstrate agreement to within 10% with those measured previously (for acetone) and those predicted by Mie theory (for nigrosin). The PAS instrument is used to measure the UV-visible absorption spectrum of ambient aerosol demonstrating a dramatic increase in the UV region with absorption increasing by 300% from 405 to 301 nm. This type of measurement throughout the UV-visible region and free from artifacts associated with filter-based methods has not been possible previously, and we demonstrate its promise for classifying and quantifying different types of light-absorbing ambient particles.

  5. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  6. Molecular density modulation type ultrahigh vacuum gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikoshi, Gen-ichi; Komada, Kazutaka; Mizuno, Hajime

    1978-01-01

    When pressure is measured in ultrahigh vacuum region, with an ionization gauge one of the causes producing the measuring limit is its dark current due to so-called soft X-ray effect and ion desorption. A kind of the modulation gauge provided with a modulation electrode is described in this paper. If a plate is vibrating perpendicularly to its surface in the sufficiently low pressure gas to satisfy molecular conditions (molecular density n), the molecular density in the space in front of the plate is expected to vary with time, affected by the vibration of the plate. When the vacuum gauge is placed in this space, the modulated current is proportional to pressure P, which is not related to the current due to soft X-ray effect and ion desorption. The other cause of determining the pressure-measuring limit is noises, among which only the noise coherent with the vibration of the plate affects the measurement. To avoid the induced current by this type of noise, it is considered to use the pulse-counting technique using an electron multiplier. It is anticipated that the induced currents generated from electrical noises and mechanical vibrations can be avoided almost completely by this method. As a result, the theoretical measuring limit may be estimated at approximately 5 x 10 -13 Torr, if the mean residence time in the collision of molecules with the plate is assumed to be 1 sec, the sensitivity of the vacuum gauge S is 20 Torr -1 , electron current Ie is 2 x 10 -3 A and modulation coefficient m is 3 x 10 -3 . (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Mechanisms of uv mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, C.W.; Christensen, R.; Schwartz, A.

    1982-01-01

    The uv mutagenesis in yeast depends on the function of the RAD6 locus, a gene that is also responsible for a substantial fraction of wild-type resistance, suggesting that this eukaryote may possess a misrepair mechanism analogous to that proposed for Escherichia coli. The molecular mechanism responsible for RAD6 repair or recovery is not yet known, but it is different from either excision or recombination-dependent repair, processes carried out by the other two main repair pathways in yeast. RAD6-dependent mutagenesis has been found to have the following characteristics. It is associated at best with only a small fraction of RAD6-dependent repair, the majority of the sensitivity of rad6 mutants being due to their lack of nonmutagenic repair. SRS2 metabolic suppressors restore a substantial fraction of uv resistance to rad6 mutants but do not restore their uv mutability. Strains containing mutations at loci (rev, umr) that are probably more directly involved in mutagenesis are only mildly sensitive, and there is a poor correlation between their sensitivity and mutational deficiency. The uv mutagenesis appears to require a large number of gene functions, perhaps ten or more. Where examined in detail, these genes have been found to be concerned in the production of only a specific range of mutational events, not all of them. Mating experiments have shown that a substantial fraction, probably 40% or more, of uv-induced mutations are untargeted, that is, occur in lesion-free regions of DNA. The uv irradiation, therefore, produces a general reduction in the normally high fidelity with which DNA is replicated on undamaged templates. It does not appear to be necessary for the causal lesion to be present in the same chromosome as the mutation it induces. The reduction in fidelity may be the consequence of the production of a diffusible factor in uv-irradiated cells, but definite evidence supporting this proposal has not yet been obtained

  8. Regulating vacuum pump speed with feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludington, D.C.; Aneshansley, D.J.; Pellerin, R.; Guo, F.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable energy is wasted by the vacuum pump/motor on dairy farms. The output capacity (m 3 /min or cfm) of the vacuum pump always exceeds the capacity needed to milk cows and wash pipelines. Vacuum pumps run at full speed and load regardless of actual need for air. Excess air is admitted through a controller. Energy can be saved from electrical demand reduced by regulating vacuum pump speed according to air based on air usage. An adjustable speed drive (ASD) on the motor and controlled based upon air usage, can reduce the energy used by the vacuum pump. However, the ASD unit tested could not maintain vacuum levels within generally accepted guidelines when air usage changed. Adding a high vacuum reserve and a dual vacuum controller between the vacuum pump and the milking pipeline brought vacuum stability within guidelines. The ASD/dual vacuum system can reduce energy consumption and demand by at least 50 percent during milking and provide better vacuum stability than conventional systems. Tests were not run during washing cycles. Using 1990 costs and only the energy saved during milking, the simple payback on investment in new equipment for a 5 hp motor, speed controller and vacuum regulator would be about 5 years

  9. Compactified vacuum in ten dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurmser, D.

    1987-01-01

    Since the 1920's, theories which unify gravity with the other fundamental forces have called for more than the four observed dimensions of space-time. According to such a theory, the vacuum consists of flat four-dimensional space-time described by the Minkowski metric M 4 and a compactified space B. The dimensions of B are small, and the space can only be observed at distance scales smaller than the present experimental limit. These theories have had serious difficulties. The equations of gravity severely restrict the possible choices for the space B. The allowed spaces are complicated and difficult to study. The vacuum is furthermore unstable in the sense that a small perturbation causes the compactified dimensions to expand indefinitely. There is an addition a semi-classical argument which implies that the compactified vacuum by annihilated by virtual black holes. It follows that a universe with compactified extra dimensions could not have survived to the present. These results were derived by applying the equations of general relativity to spaces of more than four dimensions. The form of these equations was assumed to be unchanged by an increase in the number of dimensions. The authors illustrate the effect of such terms by considering the example B = S 6 where S 6 is the six-dimensional sphere. Only when the extra terms are included is this choice of the compactified space allowed. He explore the effect of a small perturbation on such a vacuum. The ten-dimensional spherically symmetric potential is examined, and I determine conditions under which the formation of virtual black holes is forbidden. The examples M 4 x S 6 is still plagued by the semi-classical instability, but this result does not hold in general. The requirement that virtual black holes be forbidden provides a test for any theory which predicts a compactified vacuum

  10. Intrinsic measurement errors for the speed of light in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Daniel; Schneiter, Fabienne; Fischer, Uwe R.

    2017-09-01

    The speed of light in vacuum, one of the most important and precisely measured natural constants, is fixed by convention to c=299 792 458 m s-1 . Advanced theories predict possible deviations from this universal value, or even quantum fluctuations of c. Combining arguments from quantum parameter estimation theory and classical general relativity, we here establish rigorously the existence of lower bounds on the uncertainty to which the speed of light in vacuum can be determined in a given region of space-time, subject to several reasonable restrictions. They provide a novel perspective on the experimental falsifiability of predictions for the quantum fluctuations of space-time.

  11. Biobased Nanoparticles for Broadband UV Protection with Photostabilized UV Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayden, D.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412640694; Imhof, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145641600; Velikov, K. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239483472

    2016-01-01

    Sunscreens rely on multiple compounds to provide effective and safe protection against UV radiation. UV filters in sunscreens, in particular, provide broadband UV protection but are heavily linked to adverse health effects due to the generation of carcinogenic skin-damaging reactive oxygen species

  12. Dynamics of holographic vacuum energy in the DGP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xing; Zhu Zonghong; Cai Ronggen

    2008-01-01

    We consider the evolution of the vacuum energy in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model according to the holographic principle under the assumption that the relation linking the IR and UV cutoffs still holds in this scenario. The model is studied when the IR cutoff is chosen to be the Hubble scale H -1 , the particle horizon R ph , and the future event horizon R eh , respectively. The two branches of the DGP model are also taken into account. Through numerical analysis, we find that in the cases of H -1 in the (+) branch and R eh in both branches, the vacuum energy can play the role of dark energy. Moreover, when considering the combination of the vacuum energy and the 5D gravity effect in both branches, the equation of state of the effective dark energy may cross -1, which may lead to the big rip singularity. Besides, we constrain the model with the Type Ia supernovae and baryon oscillation data and find that our model is consistent with current data within 1σ, and that the observations prefer either a pure holographic dark energy or a pure DGP model

  13. Gauge field vacuum structure in geometrical aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopleva, N.P.

    2003-01-01

    Vacuum conception is one of the main conceptions of quantum field theory. Its meaning in classical field theory is also very profound. In this case the vacuum conception is closely connected with ideas of the space-time geometry. The global and local geometrical space-time conceptions lead to different vacuum definitions and therefore to different ways of physical theory construction. Some aspects of the gauge field vacuum structure are analyzed. It is shown that in the gauge field theory the vacuum Einstein equation solutions describe the relativistic vacuum as common vacuum of all gauge fields and its sources. Instantons (both usual and hyperbolical) are regarded as nongravitating matter, because they have zero energy-momentum tensors and correspond to vacuum Einstein equations

  14. Characteristics of the ISABELLE vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggus, J.R.; Edwards, D. Jr.; Halama, H.J.; Herrera, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion is given of the complete vacuum system of ISABELLE, emphasizing those design characteristics dictated by high vacuum, the avoidance of beam current loss, and the reduction of background. The experimental and theoretical justifications for the design are presented

  15. A Note on UV/IR Mixing and Non-Commutative Instanton Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bichl, A A

    2003-01-01

    We estimate the instanton-induced vacuum energy in non-commutative U(1) Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. In the dilute gas approximation, it is found to be plagued by infrared divergences, as a result of UV/IR mixing.

  16. Research on vacuum insulation for cryocables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graneau, P.

    1974-01-01

    Vacuum insulation, as compared with solid insulation, simplifies the construction of both resistive or superconducting cryogenic cables. The common vacuum space in the cable can furnish thermal insulation between the environment and the cryogenic coolant, provide electrical insulation between conductors, and establish thermal isolation between go- and return-coolant streams. The differences between solid and vacuum high voltage insulation are discussed, and research on the design, materials selection, and testing of vacuum insulated cryogenic cables is described

  17. Standardization of UV LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Larason, T. C.; Yoon, H. W.

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally used source spectral-distribution or detector spectral-response based standards cannot be applied for accurate UV LED measurements. Since the CIE standardized rectangular-shape spectral response function for UV measurements cannot be realized with small spectral mismatch when using filtered detectors, the UV measurement errors can be several times ten percent or larger. The UV LEDs produce broadband radiation and both their peaks or spectral bandwidths can change significantly. The detectors used for the measurement of these LEDs also have different spectral bandwidths. In the discussed example, where LEDs with 365 nm peak are applied for fluorescent crack-recognition using liquid penetrant (non-destructive) inspection, the broadband radiometric LED (signal) measurement procedure is standardized. A UV LED irradiance-source was calibrated against an FEL lamp standard to determine its spectral irradiance. The spectral irradiance responsivity of a reference UV meter was also calibrated. The output signal of the reference UV meter was calculated from the spectral irradiance of the UV source and the spectral irradiance responsivity of the reference UV meter. From the output signal, both the integrated irradiance (in the reference plane of the reference meter) and the integrated responsivity of the reference meter were determined. Test UV meters calibrated for integrated responsivity against the reference UV meter, can be used to determine the integrated irradiance from a field UV source. The obtained 5 % (k=2) measurement uncertainty can be decreased when meters with spectral response close to a constant value are selected.

  18. Health hazards of UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, R.

    1994-01-01

    The author describes the effects and health risks of UV exposure. This includes UV effects on the DNS, the eyes, the immune system, and the skin. Finally, recommendations are given for protection against excessive UV exposure on the basis of the IRPA/INIRC guidelines. (orig.) [de

  19. Transverse effects in UV FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, D.W.; Wong, R.K.; Colson, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    In an ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (UV FEL), the electron beam size can be approximately the same as the optical mode size. The performance of a UV FEL is studied including the effect of emittance, betatron focusing, and external focusing of the electron beam on the transverse optical mode. The results are applied to the Industrial Laser Consortium's UV FEL

  20. Chemical and UV Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    The ability to create mutations is an important step towards understanding bacterial physiology and virulence. While targeted approaches are invaluable, the ability to produce genome-wide random mutations can lead to crucial discoveries. Transposon mutagenesis is a useful approach, but many interesting mutations can be missed by these insertions that interrupt coding and noncoding sequences due to the integration of an entire transposon. Chemical mutagenesis and UV-based random mutagenesis are alternate approaches to isolate mutations of interest with the potential of only single nucleotide changes. Once a standard method, difficulty in identifying mutation sites had decreased the popularity of this technique. However, thanks to the recent emergence of economical whole-genome sequencing, this approach to making mutations can once again become a viable option. Therefore, this chapter provides an overview protocol for random mutagenesis using UV light or DNA-damaging chemicals.

  1. Color-magnetic permeability of QCD vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Shigemoto, K

    1980-03-01

    In the very strong background gauge field the QCD true vacuum has been shown to have lower energy than the ''perturbative vacuum.'' The color-magnetic permeability of the QCD true vacuum is then calculated to be 1/2 within the quark-one-loop approximation.

  2. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154.804 Shipping... Systems § 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed under paragraph (b) of this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting paragraph (a)(1) of this section and either paragraph...

  3. UV curable materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, B.G.

    1996-12-01

    Adhesives, coatings, and inks were selected for evaluation based on literature search and possible production applications. A differential photocalorimeter was used to measure degree of cure and allow prediction of optimum processing conditions. UV cure equipment were characterized and the ability to size equipment to specific materials cure needs established. Adhesion tests procedures were developed for the adhesives and solvent resistance testing procedures developed for the coatings and inks.

  4. High aspect ratio silver grid transparent electrodes using UV embossing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jin Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a UV embossing process to fabricate high aspect ratio silver grid transparent electrodes on a polymer film. Transparent electrodes with a high optical transmittance (93 % and low sheet resistance (4.6 Ω/sq were fabricated without any high temperature or vacuum processes. The strong adhesion force between the UV resin and the silver ink enables the fabrication of silver microstructures with an aspect ratio higher than 3. The high aspect ratio results in a low sheet resistance while maintaining a high optical transmittance. Multi-layer transparent electrodes were fabricated by repeating the proposed UV process. Additionally, a large-area of 8-inch touch panel was fabricated with the proposed UV process. The proposed UV process is a relatively simple and low cost process making it suitable for large-area production as well as mass production.

  5. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  6. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  7. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  8. Deflated-Victims of vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure combined with a partial vacuum within chemical plant or refinery tanks can result in some ego-deflating moments. This article will review three catastrophic vessel failures in detail and touch on several other incidents. A 4000-gal acid tank was destroyed by a siphoning action; a well maintained tank truck was destroyed during a routine delivery; and a large, brand new refinery mega-vessel collapsed as the steam within it condensed. Seasoned engineers are aware of the frail nature of tanks and provide safeguards or procedures to limit damages. The purpose of this paper is to ensure this new generation of chemical plant/refinery employees understand the problems of the past and take the necessary precautions to guard against tank damages created by partial vacuum conditions

  9. Mirror Fusion vacuum technology developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10 7 to 10 8 l/s for D 2 , T 2 and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility

  10. Mirror fusion vacuum technology developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10 7 to 10 8 l/s for D 2 , T 2 and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility

  11. Quantum friction across the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebelein, C.

    1998-01-01

    Friction is so ubiquitous that it seems to be almost trivially familiar. The rubbing of two solid surfaces is opposed by a resistance and accompanied by the production of heat. Engineers still dream of perfectly smooth surfaces that can be moved against each other without any friction. However, this dream has now been shattered by John Pendry of Imperial College, London, who has published a theory that shows that even two perfectly smooth surfaces can experience an appreciable friction when moved relative to each other (J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 1997 9 10301-10320). Moreover, the two surfaces he considers are not even in contact but separated by a gap a lattice constant or so wide. The explanation of this lies in what Pendry calls the shearing of the vacuum in the gap. In quantum physics the vacuum is not just empty nothingness; it is full of virtually everything. The vacuum abounds with virtual photons. These zero-point fluctuations cannot normally be seen, but they give the vacuum a structure that manifests itself in a variety of effects (for example, the Casimir effect). A more subtle, yet more familiar, manifestation of these zero-point fluctuations is the van der Waals force. The effect described by Pendry can be understood as a van der Waals interaction between two infinite slabs of dielectric material moving relative to each other. Each slab will be aware of the motion of the other because the virtual photons reflected from the moving surface are Doppler-shifted up or down, depending on the direction of the photon wave vector relative to the motion. Pendry shows that this asymmetry in the exchange of virtual photons can lead to an appreciable effect for materials of reasonably strong dispersion. (author)

  12. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Chng, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  13. Acceleration of plasma into vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, John [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1958-07-01

    The first part of this paper is a discussion of the magnetic acceleration of plasma. The second part contains a description of some experiments which have been performed. In the work reported the intention is: 1. To produce a burst of gas in vacuo; 2. To ionize the gas and heat it to such an extent that it becomes a good electrical conductor. 3. To accelerate the plasma thus produced into vacuum by the use of external time-varying magnetic fields.

  14. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian, E-mail: christian.kurtsiefer@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Chng, Brenda [Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2016-07-25

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  15. Vacuum evaporation of pure metals

    OpenAIRE

    Safarian, Jafar; Engh, Thorvald Abel

    2013-01-01

    Theories on the evaporation of pure substances are reviewed and applied to study vacuum evaporation of pure metals. It is shown that there is good agreement between different theories for weak evaporation, whereas there are differences under intensive evaporation conditions. For weak evaporation, the evaporation coefficient in Hertz-Knudsen equation is 1.66. Vapor velocity as a function of the pressure is calculated applying several theories. If a condensing surface is less than one collision...

  16. Vacuum mammotomy under ultrasound guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luczynska, E.; Kocurek, A.; Pawlik, T.; Aniol, J.; Herman, K.; Skotnicki, P.

    2007-01-01

    Breast ultrasound is a non-invasive method of breast examination. You can use it also for fine needle biopsy, core needle biopsy, vacuum mammotomy and for placing the '' wire '' before open surgical biopsy. 106 patients (105 women and 1 man) aged 20-71 years (mean age 46.9) were treated in Cancer Institute in Cracow by vacuum mammotomy under ultrasound guidance. The lesions found in ultrasonography were divided into three groups: benign lesions (BI RADS II), ambiguous lesions (BI RADS 0, III and IVa), and suspicious lesions (BI RADS IV B, IV C and V). Then lesions were qualified to vacuum mammotomy. According to USG, fibroadenoma or '' fibroadenoma-like '' lesions were found in 75 women, in 6 women complicated cysts, in 6 women cyst with dense fluid (to differentiate with FA), and in 19 patients undefined lesions. Fibroadenoma was confirmed in histopathology in 74% patients among patients with fibroadenoma or '' fibroadenoma-like '' lesions in ultrasound (in others also benign lesions were found). Among lesions undefined after ultrasound examination (total 27 patients) cancer was confirmed in 6 % (DCIS and IDC). In 6 patients with complicated cysts in ultrasound examination, histopathology confirmed fibroadenoma in 4 women, an intraductal lesion in 1 woman and inflamatory process in 1 woman. Also in 6 women with a dense cyst or fibroadenoma seen in ultrasound, histopathology confirmed fibroadenoma in 3 women and fibrosclerosis in 3 women. Any breast lesions undefined or suspicious after ultrasound examination should be verified. The method of verification or kind of operation of the whole lesion (vacuum mammotomy or '' wire '') depends on many factors, for example: lesion localization; lesion size; BI RADS category. (author)

  17. QCD contributions to vacuum polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders, L.J.; Rubinstein, H.R.; Yazaki, S.

    1980-01-01

    We have computed to lowest non-trivial order the perturbative and non-perturbative contributions to the vacuum polarization from all currents up to and including spin 2 ++ . These expressions are important, for example to evaluate QCD sum rules for heavy and light quark systems as shown by Shifman, Vainshtein and Zakharov. Most of the known ones are verified, one slightly changed, and many new ones are displayed. (orig.)

  18. Vacuum vessel for plasma devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masao; Taguchi, Masami.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To permit effective utility of the space in the inner and outer sides of the container wall and also permit repeated assembly for use. Structure: Vacuum vessel wall sections are sealed together by means of welding bellows, and also flange portions formed at the end of the wall sections are coupled together by bolts and are sealed together with a seal ring and a seal cap secured by welding. (Nakamura, S.)

  19. Relaxed plasma-vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.; Lortz, D.; Kaiser, R.

    2001-01-01

    Taylor's theory of relaxed toroidal plasmas (states of lowest energy with fixed total magnetic helicity) is extended to include a vacuum between the plasma and the wall. In the extended variational problem, one prescribes, in addition to the helicity and the magnetic fluxes whose conservation follows from the perfect conductivity of the wall, the fluxes whose conservation follows from the assumption that the plasma-vacuum interface is also perfectly conducting (if the wall is a magnetic surface, then one has the toroidal and the poloidal flux in the vacuum). Vanishing of the first energy variation implies a pressureless free-boundary magnetohydrostatic equilibrium with a Beltrami magnetic field in the plasma, and in general with a surface current in the interface. Positivity of the second variation implies that the equilibrium is stable according to ideal magnetohydrodynamics, that it is a relaxed state according to Taylor's theory if the interface is replaced by a wall, and that the surface current is nonzero (at least if there are no closed magnetic field lines in the interface). The plane slab, with suitable boundary conditions to simulate a genuine torus, is investigated in detail. The relaxed state has the same double symmetry as the vessel if, and only if, the prescribed helicity is in an interval that depends on the prescribed fluxes. This interval is determined in the limit of a thin slab

  20. PC driven integrated vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curuia, Marian; Culcer, Mihai; Brandea, Iulian; Anghel, Mihai

    2001-01-01

    The monitoring of industrial plants by virtual instrumentation represents the most modern trend in the domain of electronic equipment. The integrated vacuum system presented here has several facilities, including the automated data storing of measurement results on hard disk and providing warning messages for operators when the measured parameters are lower or higher upper than the fixed values. The system can also work stand-alone, receiving the commands from the keyboards placed on his front panel but, when it is included in a automation complex system, a remote control from PC is necessary . Both parts of the system, power supply unit for turbo-molecular pump and the vacuum gage, are controlled by an 80C31 microcontroller. Because this microcontroller has a built-in circuitry for a serial communication, we established a serial communication between the PC and the power supply unit for turbo-molecular pump and the vacuum gage, according to the RS-232 hardware standard. As software, after careful evaluation of several options, we chose to develop a hybrid software packing using two different software development tools: LabVIEW, and assembly language. We chose LabVIEW because it is dedicated to data acquisition and communications, containing libraries for data collection, analysis, display and storage. (authors)

  1. Running jobs in the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, A; Stagni, F; Garcia, M Ubeda

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously 'in the vacuum' rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  2. UV Radiation and the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Scott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available UV radiation (UV is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance.

  3. Instability of a Vacuum Arc Centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hole, M.J.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Bosco, E. del; Simpson, S.W.

    2003-01-01

    Ever since conception of the Vacuum Arc Centrifuge (VAC) in 1980, periodic fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential have been observed in Langmuir probe measurements in the rotation region of a VAC. Our theoretical and experimental research suggests that these fluctuations are in fact a pressure-gradient driven drift mode. In this work, we summarise the properties of a theoretical model describing the range of instabilities in the VAC plasma column, present theoretical predictions and compare with detailed experiments conducted on the PCEN centrifuge at the Brazilian National Space Research Institute (INPE). We conclude that the observed instability is a 'universal' instability, driven by the density-gradient, in a plasma with finite conductivity

  4. Collisionless plasma expansion into a vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denavit, J.

    1979-01-01

    Particle simulations of the expansion of a collisionless plasma into vacuum are presented. The cases of a single-electron-temperature plasma and of a two-electron-temperature plasma are considered. The results confirm the existence of an ion front and verify the general features of self-similar solutions behind this front. A cold electron front is clearly observed in the two-electron-temperatures case. The computations also show that for a finite electron-to-ion mass ratio, m/sub e//m/sub i/, the electron thermal velocity in the expansion region is not constant, but decreases approximately linearly with xi 0 -(γ-1) xi/2, and comparison with computer simulation results show that the constant γ-1 is proportional to (Zm/sub e//m/sub i/)atsup 1/2at, where Z is the ion charge number

  5. Structural analysis of the ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannazzaro, G.; Ioki, K.; Johnson, G.; Onozuka, M.; Utin, Y. [ITER Joint Work Site, Garching (Germany); Nelson, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Swanson, J. [USHT, Raytheon, Princeton (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) must withstand a large number of loading conditions including electromagnetic, seismic, operational and upset pressure, thermal and test loads. All of the loading conditions and load combinations have been categorized and classified to permit the allowable stress to be defined in accordance with the recommendations of the ASME code. The most severe loading conditions for the VV are the toroidal field coil fast discharge (TFCFD) and the load combination of seismic and electromagnetic loads due to a plasma vertical instability. The areas of high stress are the regions around the VV and the blanket supports, and the attachment of the ports to the main shell. In all of the loading conditions and load combinations the calculated stresses are below the allowable values. (authors)

  6. Fast space travel by vacuum zero-point field perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froning, H. D. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Forces acting upon an accelerating vehicle that is 'warping' its surrounding space are estimated, using the techniques of computational gas/fluid dynamics. Disturbances corresponding to perturbation of spacetime metric and vacuum zero-point fields by electromagnetic discharges are modeled as changes in the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability characteristics of the vacuum of space. And it is assumed that resistance to acceleration (vehicle inertia) is, in part, a consequence of zero-point radiation pressure field anisotropy in the warped space region surrounding the craft. The paper shows that resistance to vehicle acceleration can be diminished by spacetime warping that increases light propagation speed within the warped region. If sufficient warping is achieved, ship speed is slower than light speed within the region that surrounds it-even if it is moving faster-than-light with respect to earth

  7. CAS CERN Accelerator School vacuum technology. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1999-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the twelfth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Vacuum Technology'. Despite the importance of vacuum technology in the design and operation of particle accelerators at CERN and at the many other accelerators already installed around the world, this was the first time that CAS has organized a course devoted entirely to this topic. Perhaps this reflects the facts that vacuum has become one of the more critical aspects of future accelerators, and that many of the pioneers in the accelerator field are being replaced by new, younger personnel. The lectures start with the basic concepts of the physics and technology of vacuum followed by detailed descriptions of the many different types of gas-pumping devices and methods to measure the pressures achieved. The outgassing characteristics of the different materials used in the construction of vacuum systems and the optimisation of cleaning methods to reduce this outgassing are then explained together with the effects of the residual gases on the particle beams. Then follow chapters on leak detection, materials and vacuum system engineering. Finally, seminars are presented on designing vacuum systems, the history of vacuum devices, the LHC (large hadron collider) vacuum system, vacuum systems for electron storage rings, and quality assurance for vacuum. (orig.)

  8. Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.A.; Dixon, K.D.; Krasa, R.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Trotter, G.R.; Urbin, J.B.

    1993-07-01

    Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation between the male and female pipe sections while maintaining integrity of service. Assemblies using three such joints were built to allow end connection points to be translated through at least 1 meter of horizontal travel while kept in service. Vacuum jacketed sizes built in-house at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are 1-1/2 in. inner pipe size, 3 in. vacuum jacket, and 4 in. inner pipe size, 6 in. vacuum jacket The single wall vacuum service bayonets are in 4 in. and 6 in. pipe sizes. The bayonets have successfully been in active service for over one year

  9. Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.A.; Dixon, K.D.; Krasa, R.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Trotter, G.R.; Urbin, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation between the male and female pipe sections while maintaining integrity of service. Assemblies using three such joints were built to allow end connection points to be translated through at least 1 meter of horizontal travel while kept in service. Vacuum jacketed sizes built in-house at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are 1 1/2 inches inner pipe size, 3 inches vacuum jacket, and 4 inches inner pipe size, 6 inches vacuum jacket. The single wall vacuum service bayonets are in 4 inch and 6 inch pipe sizes. The bayonets have successfully been in active service for over one year

  10. uvsI mutants defective in UV mutagenesis define a fourth epistatic group of uvs genes in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, S K; Kafer, E

    1993-01-01

    Three UV-sensitive mutations of A. nidulans, uvsI, uvsJ and uvsA, were tested for epistatic relationships with members of the previously established groups, here called the "UvsF", "UvsC", and "UvsB" groups. uvsI mutants are defective for spontaneous and induced reversion of certain point mutations and differ also for other properties from previously analyzed uvs types. They are very sensitive to the killing effects of UV-light and 4-NQO (4-nitro-quinoline-N-oxide) but not to MMS (methylmethane sulfonate). When double- and single-mutant uvs strains were compared for sensitivity to these three agents, synergistic or additive effects were found for uvsI with all members of the three groups. The uvsI gene may therefore represent a fourth epistatic group, possibly involved in mutagenic repair. On the other hand, uvsJ was clearly epistatic with members of the UvsF group and fitted well into this group also by phenotype. The uvsA gene was tentatively assigned to the UvsC group. uvsA showed epistatic interactions with uvsC in all tests, and like UvsC-group mutants is UV-sensitive mainly in dividing cells. However, the uvsA mutation does not cause the defects in recombination and UV mutagenesis typical for this group.

  11. The precipitation synthesis of broad-spectrum UV absorber nanoceria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurhasanah, Iis; Sutanto, Heri; Puspaningrum, Nurul Wahyu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of nanoceria as broad-spectrum UV absorber was evaluated. Nanoceria were synthesized by precipitation process from cerium nitrate solution and ammonium hydroxide as precipitant agent. Isopropanol was mixed with water as solvent to prevent hard agglomeration. The structure of resulting nanoceria was characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). The transparency in the visible light and efficiency of protection in UV A region were studied using ultraviolet-visible (UV - Vis) spectrophotometer. The results show that nanoceria possess good tranparency in visible light and high UV light absorption. The critical absorption wavelenght of 368 nm was obtained which is desirable for excellent broad-spectrum protection absorbers. Moreover, analysis of photodegradation nanoceria to methylene blue solution shows poor photocatalytic activity. It indicates that nanoceria suitable for used as UV absorber in personal care products

  12. Elimination of chlorohydrocarbons from water by vacuum UV and UV photolysis in excimer flow-through photoreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenlaender, T.; Baum, G.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that chlorinated hydrocarbons can be eliminated efficiently from water in an excimer flow photoreactor by complete photomineralisation induced by VUV irradiation. The problem of stripping of chlorohydrocarbons can be avoided by carrying out irradiation in a sealed apparatus without external supply of air or ozone. (orig.) [de

  13. Running vacuum cosmological models: linear scalar perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perico, E.L.D. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1371, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tamayo, D.A., E-mail: elduartep@usp.br, E-mail: tamayo@if.usp.br [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-08-01

    In cosmology, phenomenologically motivated expressions for running vacuum are commonly parameterized as linear functions typically denoted by Λ( H {sup 2}) or Λ( R ). Such models assume an equation of state for the vacuum given by P-bar {sub Λ} = - ρ-bar {sub Λ}, relating its background pressure P-bar {sub Λ} with its mean energy density ρ-bar {sub Λ} ≡ Λ/8π G . This equation of state suggests that the vacuum dynamics is due to an interaction with the matter content of the universe. Most of the approaches studying the observational impact of these models only consider the interaction between the vacuum and the transient dominant matter component of the universe. We extend such models by assuming that the running vacuum is the sum of independent contributions, namely ρ-bar {sub Λ} = Σ {sub i} ρ-bar {sub Λ} {sub i} . Each Λ i vacuum component is associated and interacting with one of the i matter components in both the background and perturbation levels. We derive the evolution equations for the linear scalar vacuum and matter perturbations in those two scenarios, and identify the running vacuum imprints on the cosmic microwave background anisotropies as well as on the matter power spectrum. In the Λ( H {sup 2}) scenario the vacuum is coupled with every matter component, whereas the Λ( R ) description only leads to a coupling between vacuum and non-relativistic matter, producing different effects on the matter power spectrum.

  14. Uvs Nuur, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Uvs Nuur Basin in Mongolia and the Russian Federation is the northernmost of the enclosed basins of Central Asia. It takes its name from Uvs Nuur Lake, a large, shallow and very saline lake, very important for migrating birds. Inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, the site is made up of twelve protected areas representing major biomes of eastern Eurasia. The steppe ecosystem supports a rich diversity of birds and the desert is home to a number of rare gerbil, jerboas and the marbled polecat. The mountains are an important refuge for the endangered snow leopard, mountain sheep, and the Asiatic ibex. The image covers an area of 46 x 47.8 km, was acquired on September 4, 2001, and is located near 50.3 degrees north latitude, 90.7 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Vacuum Chambers for LEP sections

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows sections of the LEP vacuum chambers to be installed in the dipole magnets (left) and in the quadrupoles (right). The dipole chamber has three channels: the beam chamber, the pumping duct where the NEG (non-evaporabe getter) is installed and the water channel for cooling (on top in the picture). The pumping duct is connected to the beam chamber through holes in the separating wall. The thick lead lining to shield radiation can also be seen. These chambers were manufactured as extruded aluminium alloy profiles.

  16. Machine for extrusion under vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, A.

    1958-01-01

    In a study of the behaviour of easily oxidised metals during the extrusion process, it is first necessary to find an effective mean of fighting corrosion, since this, even when barely detectable, has an important influence on the validity of the results recorded. The neatest and also the most efficient of all the methods tried consists in creating a vacuum around the test piece. Working on this principle, and at the same time respecting the conventional rules for extrusion tests (loading the sample after stabilisation at the testing temperature, differential measurements of lengthening, etc.) we found it necessary to construct an original machine. (author) [fr

  17. Entanglement in the Bogoliubov vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Meyer, T.; Lewenstein, M.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the entanglement properties of the Bogoliubov vacuum, which is obtained as a second-order approximation to the ground state of an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We work in one- and two-dimensional lattices and study the entanglement between two groups of sites as a function...... of the geometry of the configuration and the strength of the interactions. As our measure of entanglement we use the logarithmic negativity, supplemented by an algorithmic check for bound entanglement where appropiate. The short-range entanglement is found to grow approximately linearly with the group sizes...

  18. UV astronomy throughout the ages: a historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    2018-05-01

    Astronomers have long recognized the critical need for ultraviolet imaging, photometry and spectroscopy of stars, planets, and galaxies, but this need could not be satisfied without access to space and the development of efficient instrumentation. When UV measurements became feasible, first with rockets and then with satellites, major discoveries came rapidly. It is true in the UV spectral region as in all others, that significant increases in sensitivity, spectral resolution, and time domain coverage have led to significant new understanding of astrophysical phenomena. I will describe a selection of these discoveries made in each of three eras: (1) the early history of rocket instrumentation and Copernicus, the first UV satellite, (2) the discovery phase pioneered by the IUE, FUSE and EUVE satellites, and (3) the full flowering of UV astronomy with the successful operation of HST and its many instruments. I will also mention a few areas where future UV instrumentation could lead to new discoveries. This review concentrates on developments in stellar and interstellar UV spectroscopy; the major discoveries in galactic, extragalactic, and solar system research are beyond the scope of this review. The important topic of UV technologies and detectors, which enable the remarkable advances in UV astronomy are also not included in this review.

  19. The responses to supplementary of UV radiation of some temperate meadow species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The growth and development of various meadow species was monitored while growing under enhanced UV-radiation in the natural light environment. Growth responses to supplementary ultraviolet-B (UV-B+A) and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) were compared to the ambient daylight treatment for Bellis perennis, Cardamine pratensis, Cynosurus critatus and Ranunculus ficaria. When the response of ultraviolet A (UV-A) treated plants were compared with those of the UV-B+A, differences were found which varied according to the species and parameter investigated. To further understand the growth responses of the UV-A treatment and their relationship to the UV-B responses polychromatic action spectra in the natural environment was employed B perennis had an action maximum in the UV B (280-315 nm) while C cristatus demonstrates no action in the UV-B but action in the UV-A region (315-400 nm.). To enable further explanation of the effects of elevated UV radiation on the meadow plants Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes and mutants were investigated. A thaliana ecotypes dry weight accumulation was found to respond differently to the UV treatments. UV B+A treatment was found to inhibit dry weight accumulation in most ecotypes. When UV B+A induced inhibition was expressed in terms of ambient growth rate for each ecotype a linear relationship could be derived. The higher the growth rate the more susceptible the ecotype was to UV-B+A inhibition. The pertinence of the UV-A treatment and UV protocol is discussed. It is suggested that UV responses could alter the diversity of the meadow equilibrium

  20. Light Conversion and Scattering in UV Protective Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grancarić Ana Marija

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation in the population. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence 80% of UV-R gets absorbed, whilst in the remaining 20% gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Textile and clothing are the most suitable interface between environment and human body. It can show UV protection, but in most cases it does not provide full sun screening properties. UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fibre, fabric surface and construction, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agent (FWA, UV-B protective agents, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. Based on electronically excited state by energy of UV-R (usually 340-370 nm, the molecules of FWAs show the phenomenon of fluorescence giving to white textiles high whiteness of outstanding brightness by reemitting the energy at the blue region (typically 420-470 nm of the spectrum. By absorbing UV-A radiation, optical brightened fabrics transform this radiation into blue fluorescence, which leads to better UV protection. Natural zeolites are rock-forming, microporous silicate minerals. Applied as nanoparticles to textile surface, it scatters the UV-R resulting in lower UV-A and UV-B transmission. If applied with other UV absorbing agents, e.g. FWAs, synergistic effect occurs. Silicones are inert, synthetic compounds with a variety of forms and uses. It provides a unique soft touch, is very resistant to washing and improves the property of fabric to protect against UV radiation. Therefore, the UV protective properties of cotton fabric achieved by light conversion and scattering was researched in this paper. For that purpose, the stilbene-derived FWAs were applied on cotton fabric in wide concentration

  1. Vacuum systems for the ILC helical undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Malyshev, O B; Clarke, J A; Bailey, I R; Dainton, J B; Malysheva, L I; Barber, D P; Cooke, P; Baynham, E; Bradshaw, T; Brummitt, A; Carr, S; Ivanyushenkov, Y; Rochford, J; Moortgat-Pick, G A

    2007-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) positron source uses a helical undulator to generate polarized photons of ∼10MeV∼10MeV at the first harmonic. Unlike many undulators used in synchrotron radiation sources, the ILC helical undulator vacuum chamber will be bombarded by photons, generated by the undulator, with energies mostly below that of the first harmonic. Achieving the vacuum specification of ∼100nTorr∼100nTorr in a narrow chamber of 4–6mm4–6mm inner diameter, with a long length of 100–200m100–200m, makes the design of the vacuum system challenging. This article describes the vacuum specifications and calculations of the flux and energy of photons irradiating the undulator vacuum chamber and considers possible vacuum system design solutions for two cases: cryogenic and room temperature.

  2. Straw detector: 1 - Vacuum: 0

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The NA62 straw tracker is using pioneering CERN technology to measure charged particles from very rare kaon decays. For the first time, a large straw tracker with a 4.4 m2 coverage will be placed directly into an experiment’s vacuum tank, allowing physicists to measure the direction and momentum of charged particles with extreme precision. NA62 measurements using this technique will help physicists take a clear look at the kaon decay rate, which might be influenced by particles and processes that are not included in the Standard Model.   Straw ends are glued to an aluminium frame, a crucial step in the assembly of a module. The ends are then visually inspected before a leak test is performed.  “Although straw detectors have been around since the 1980s, what makes the NA62 straw trackers different is that they can work under vacuum,” explains Hans Danielsson from the PH-DT group leading the NA62 straw project. Straw detectors are basically small drift cha...

  3. High-vacuum plasma pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorodnov, A.M.; Minajchev, V.E.; Miroshkin, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    The action of an electric-arc high-vacuum pump intended for evacuating the volumes in which the operation processes are followed by a high gas evolution is considered. The operation of the pump is based on the principle of controlling the getter feed according to the gas load and effect of plasma sorbtion pumping. The pump performances are given. The starting pressure is about 5 Pa, the limiting residual pressure is about 5x10 -6 Pa, the pumping out rate of nitrogen in the pressure range 5x10 -5 -5x10 -3 Pa accounts for about 4000 l/s, the power consumption comes to 6 kW. Analyzing the results of the test operation of the pump, it has been concluded that its principal advantages are the high starting pressure, controlled getter feed rate and possibility of pumping out the gases which are usually pumped out with difficulty. The operation reliability of the pump is defined mainly by reliable operation of the ignition system of the vacuum arc [ru

  4. The JET vacuum interspace system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orchard, J.; Scales, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the past JET has suffered from a number of vacuum leaks on components such as bellows, windows and feedthroughs due, in part, to the adverse conditions, including high mechanical forces, which may prevail during plasma operation. Therefore before the recent Tritium experiments on JET it was deemed prudent to manufacture and install items with a secondary containment or interspace in order to minimise the effect of failure of the primary vacuum barrier on both the leak integrity of the machine and the outcome of the experiments. This paper describes the philosophy, logistics, method and implementation of an integrated connection and monitoring system on the 330 interspaces currently in position on the JET machine. Using the JET leak database comparisons are drawn of leak failure rates of the components allied to the number of operational hours, prior to the system being present and after installation and commissioning, and the case of detection compared to the previous situation. An argument is also presented on the feasibility and adaptability of this system to any large complex machine and the benefits to be obtained in reduction of leaks and operational down time. (author)

  5. Gases vacuum dedusting and cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey А. Burov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Represented are the results of operating the ladle degassing vacuum plant (productivity: 120 tons of liquid steel with various dust collectors. The process gases’ cooling and dedusting, obtained in the closed loop buran study, provides opportunity to install a bag filter after that closed loop and its efficient use. Proven is the effectiveness of the cylindrical cyclone replacement with a multichannel (buran dust collector, based on a system of closed-loop (return coupling serially connected curved ducts, where the dusty gas flow rotation axis is vertically positioned. The system of closed-loop serially connected curvilinear channels creates preconditions for the emergence of a negative feedback at the curvilinear gas flow containing transit and circulating flows. These conditions are embodied with circulating flows connecting the in- and outputs of the whole system each channel. The transit flow multiple continuous filtration through the circulating dust layers leads to the formation and accumulation of particles aggregates in the collection chamber. The validity of such a dusty flow control mechanism is confirmed by experimental data obtained in a vacuum chamber. Therefore, replacing one of the two buran’s forevacuum pumps assemblies with the necessary number of curved channels (closed loop is estimated in a promising method.

  6. Effect of UV on building materials in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, A.F.

    1993-01-01

    Building materials can be divided into two main classes; organic or polymeric based and inorganic materials. Inorganic materials are in most cases largely unaffected by UV radiation. Many common polymers have bonds sensitive to radiation in the UV region. Absorption of radiation of these wavelengths will lead to excitation of electrons which can lead to isomerisation, chain scissors, cross linking and free radical formation. It is worth noting that the effects of UV radiation are always acting synergistically with other environmental effects. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Advanced Photon Source accelerator ultrahigh vacuum guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Noonan, J.

    1994-03-01

    In this document the authors summarize the following: (1) an overview of basic concepts of ultrahigh vacuum needed for the APS project, (2) a description of vacuum design and calculations for major parts of APS, including linac, linac waveguide, low energy undulator test line, positron accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron ring, storage ring, and insertion devices, and (3) cleaning procedures of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components presently used at APS

  8. TORE SUPRA vacuum vessel and shield manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blateyron, J.; Lepez, R.

    1984-01-01

    TORE SUPRA vacuum vessel and vacuum chamber shield manufacturing in progress at Jeumont-Schneider consists of three main phases: - Detail engineering and manufacturing fixture construction; - Prototype section manufacturing and process preparation; - Construction of the 6 production modules. The welding techniques adopted, call for three special automatic processes: TIG, MIG and PLASMA welding which guarantee mechanical strength, vacuum tightness and absence of distortion. Production of the modules began July 1984. (author)

  9. Mega-bicone vacuum chamber for ISR intersections

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The cylindrical central part covered the collision region allowing secondary particles emitted at large angle to escape thanks to its very thin wall.The two conical parts are terminated by "transparent" thin windows for letting out forward emitted secondary particles. Vacuum chambers of this shape were made in their thin parts out of 0.3 mm stainless steel or 0.28 mm titanium alloy sheet. See also 7609219, 7609221, 7507132X.

  10. Isotropic extensions of the vacuum solutions in general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Martin-Moruno, Prado [Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand); Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Spacetimes described by spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations are of paramount importance both in astrophysical applications and theoretical considerations. And among those, black holes are highlighted. In vacuum, Birkhoff's theorem and its generalizations to non-asymptotically flat cases uniquely fix the metric as the Schwarzschild, Schwarzschild-de Sitter or Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter geometries, the vacuum solutions of the usual general relativity with zero, positive or negative values for the cosmological constant, respectively. In this work we are mainly interested in black holes in a cosmological environment. Of the two main assumptions of the cosmological principle, homogeneity is lost when compact objects are considered. Nevertheless isotropy is still possible, and we enforce this condition. Within this context, we investigate spatially isotropic solutions close - continuously deformable - to the usual vacuum solutions. We obtain isotropic extensions of the usual spherically symmetric vacuum geometries in general relativity. Exact and perturbative solutions are derived. Maximal extensions are constructed and their causal structures are discussed. The classes of geometries obtained include black holes in compact and non-compact universes, wormholes in the interior region of cosmological horizons, and anti-de Sitter geometries with excess/deficit solid angle. The tools developed here are applicable in more general contexts, with extensions subjected to other constraints. (author)

  11. Development of a novel rf waveguide vacuum valve

    CERN Document Server

    Grudiev, A

    2006-01-01

    The development of a novel rf waveguide vacuum valve is presented. The rf design is based on the use of TE0n modes of circular waveguides. In the device, the TE01 mode at the input is converted into a mixture of several TE0n modes which provide low-loss rf power transmission across the vacuum valve gap, these modes are then converted back into the TE01 mode at the output. There are a number of advantages associated with the absence of surface fields in the region of the valve: • Possibility to use commercially available vacuum valves equipped with two specially designed mode converter sections. • No necessity for an rf contact between these two sections. • Increased potential for high power rf transmission. This technology can be used for all frequencies for which vacuum waveguides are used. In rectangular waveguides, mode converters from the operating mode into the TE01 mode and back again are necessary. Experimental results for the 30 GHz valves developed for the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) a...

  12. Hamiltonian description of toroidal magnetic fields in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, H.R.; Bates, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of vacuum magnetic fields in toroidal geometry has been initiated. Previously, the general form of the magnetic scalar potential for fields regular at the poloidal axis was given. Here, these results have been expanded to obtain the magnetic scalar potential in a vacuum region that may surround a toroidal current distribution. Using this generalized magnetic scalar potential in conjunction with Boozer's canonical representation of a magnetic field, a field-line Hamiltonian for nonaxisymmetric vacuum fields has been derived. These fields axe being examined using a novel, open-quotes time-dependentclose quotes perturbation theory, which permits the iterative construction of invariants associated with magnetic field-line Hamiltonians that consist of an axisymmetric zeroth-order term, plus a nonaxisymmetric perturbation. By choosing appropriate independent variables, an explicit constructive procedure is developed which involves only a single canonical transformation. Such invariants are of interest because they provide a means of investigating the topology of magnetic field lines. Our objective is to elucidate the existence of magnetic surfaces for nonaxisymmetric vacuum configurations, as well as to provide an approach for studying the onset of stochastic behavior

  13. Epidermal UV-A absorbance and whole-leaf flavonoid composition in pea respond more to solar blue light than to solar UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siipola, Sari M; Kotilainen, Titta; Sipari, Nina; Morales, Luis O; Lindfors, Anders V; Robson, T Matthew; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    Plants synthesize phenolic compounds in response to certain environmental signals or stresses. One large group of phenolics, flavonoids, is considered particularly responsive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, here we demonstrate that solar blue light stimulates flavonoid biosynthesis in the absence of UV-A and UV-B radiation. We grew pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Meteor) outdoors, in Finland during the summer, under five types of filters differing in their spectral transmittance. These filters were used to (1) attenuate UV-B; (2) attenuate UV-B and UV-A radiation signals that extend into the visible region of the solar spectrum. Furthermore, solar blue light instead of solar UV-B radiation can be the main regulator of phenolic compound accumulation in plants that germinate and develop outdoors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. LASER PROCESSING ON SINGLE CRYSTALS BY UV PULSE LASER

    OpenAIRE

    龍見, 雅美; 佐々木, 徹; 高山, 恭宜

    2009-01-01

    Laser processing by using UV pulsed laser was carried out on single crystal such as sapphire and diamond in order to understand the fundamental laser processing on single crystal. The absorption edges of diamond and sapphire are longer and shorter than the wave length of UV laser, respectively. The processed regions by laser with near threshold power of processing show quite different state in each crystal.

  15. Vacuum technology in the chemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Jorisch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the very successful German edition and a seminar held by the German Engineers` Association (VDI) on a regular basis for years now, this English edition has been thoroughly updated and revised to reflect the latest developments. It supplies in particular the special aspects of vacuum technology, applied vacuum pump types and vacuum engineering in the chemical, pharmaceutical and process industry application-segments. The text includes chapters dedicated to latest European regulations for operating in hazardous zones with vacuum systems, methods for process pressure control and regulati

  16. Development of a vacuum superinsulation panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, H; Seefeldt, D; Nitze, C

    1983-05-01

    After completion of the investigations the vacuum-insulated panel is available as prototype. The aim of the investigations was to optimize and to finalize the vacuum superinsulation system with regard to a pressure-resistant, temperature-resistant thermal insulation of high efficiency. In this connection, particularly investigations with regard to vacuum-tight sealing, compression and evacuation of powder filling as well as special material investigations were performed. The application-specific utilization of the vacuum-insulated panel and the adjustment to special operational conditions can now be started. Application possibilities are at present seen in coverings or linings with high temperature and/or pressure requirements.

  17. Dynamical effects of QCD vacuum structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Erasmo

    1994-01-01

    The role of the QCD vacuum structure in the determination of the properties of states and processes occurring in the confinement regime of QCD is reviewed. The finite range of the vacuum correlations is discussed, and an analytical form is suggested for the correlation functions. The role of the vacuum quantum numbers in the phenomenology of high-energy scattering is reviewed. The vacuum correlation model of non-perturbative QCD is mentioned as a bridge between the fundamental theory and the description of the experiments. (author). 13 refs., 1 fig

  18. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified

  19. Vacuum exhaust duct used for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Nobuo; Kondo, Mitsuaki; Honda, Tsutomu.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a vacuum exhaust duct used for a thermonuclear device. A cylindrical metal liners is lined with a gap to the inside of a vacuum exhaust duct main body. Bellows are connected to both ends of the metal liners and the end of the bellows is welded to the vacuum exhaust duct main body. Futher, a heater is mounted to the metal liner on the side of the vacuum exhaust duct main body, and the metal liner is heated by the heater to conduct baking for the vacuum exhaust duct main body. Accordingly, since there is no requirement for elevating the temperature of the vacuum exhaust duct upon conducting baking, the vacuum exhaust duct scarcely suffers substantial deformation due to heat expansion. Further, there is also no substantial deformation for the bellows disposed between the outer circumference of the vacuum vessel and a portion of a vacuum exhaust duct, so that the durability of the bellows is greatly improved. (I.S.)

  20. Evacuation of the NET vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Parametric calculations of the evacuation process were carried out for the NET-vacuum chamber involving two blanket designs. The results show that with an acceptable vacuum pumping capacity the required start vacuum conditions can be realized within reasonable time. The two blanket concepts do not differ remarkably in their evacuation behaviour. The remaining large pressure differences between the different locations of the vacuum chamber can be reduced if approximately 30% of the total gas flow is extracted from the heads of the blanket replacement ports

  1. Evacuation of the NET vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.

    1986-01-01

    Parametric calculations of the evacuation process were carried out for the NET-vacuum chamber involving two blanket designs. The results show that with an acceptable vacuum pumping capacity the required start vacuum conditions can be realized within reasonable time. The two blanket concepts do not differ remarkably in their evacuation behaviour. The remaining large pressure differences between the different locations of the vacuum chamber can be reduced if approximately 30% of the total gas flow is extracted from the heads of the blanket replacement ports. (author)

  2. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  3. Skin Cancer and UV Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbuk Anita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. The primary cause of skin cancer is long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation and family genetics. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence, 80% of UV-R gets absorbed while in the remaining, 20 % gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Reducing the exposure time to sunlight, using sunscreens and protective textiles are the three ways of UV protection. Most people think that all the clothing will protect them, but it does not provide full sun screening properties. Literature sources claim that only 1/3 of the spring and summer collections tested give off proper UV protection. This is very important during the summer months, when UV index is the highest. Fabric UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fiber, fabric surface, construction, porosity, density, moisture content, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agents, UV-B protective agents (UV absorbers, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For all of these reasons, in the present paper, the results of UV protecting ability according to AS/NZS 4399:1996 will be discussed to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV-R to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose enhancing light conversion and scattering. Additionally, the discrepancy in UV protection was investigated in distilled water as well as Adriatic Sea water.

  4. Plasma modeling of MFTF-B and the sensitivity to vacuum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.D.; Rensink, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) is a large tandem mirror device currently under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The completed facility will consist of a large variety of components. Specifically, the vacuum vessel that houses the magnetic coils is basically a cylindrical vessel 60 m long and 11 m in diameter. The magnetics system consists of some 28 superconducting coils, each of which is located within the main vacuum vessel. Twenty of these coils are relatively simple solenoidal coils, but the remaining eight are of a more complicated design to provide an octupole component to certain regions of the magnetic field. The vacuum system is composed of a rough vacuum chain, used to evacuate the vessel from atmospheric pressure, and a high vacuum system, used to maintain good vacuum conditions during a plasma shot. High vacuum pumping is accomplished primarily by cryogenic panels cooled to 4.5 0 K. The MFTF-B coil set is shown together with typical axial profiles of magnetic field (a), electrostatic potential (b), and plasma density (c). The plasma is divided into nine regions axially, as labelled on the coil set in Figure 1. The central cell, which is completely azimuthally symmetric, contains a large volume plasma that is confined by a combination of the magnetic fields and the electrostatic potentials in the yin-yang cell

  5. Higher-order scalar interactions and SM vacuum stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek; Olszewski, Paweł [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsawul. Hoża 69, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-05-26

    Investigation of the structure of the Standard Model effective potential at very large field strengths opens a window towards new phenomena and can reveal properties of the UV completion of the SM. The map of the lifetimes of the vacua of the SM enhanced by nonrenormalizable scalar couplings has been compiled to show how new interactions modify stability of the electroweak vacuum. Whereas it is possible to stabilize the SM by adding Planck scale suppressed interactions and taking into account running of the new couplings, the generic effect is shortening the lifetime and hence further destabilisation of the SM electroweak vacuum. These findings have been illustrated with phase diagrams of modified SM-like models. It has been demonstrated that stabilisation can be achieved by lowering the suppression scale of higher order operators while picking up such combinations of new couplings, which do not deepen the new minima of the potential. Our results show the dependence of the lifetime of the electroweak minimum on the magnitude of the new couplings, including cases with very small couplings (which means very large effective suppression scale) and couplings vastly different in magnitude (which corresponds to two different suppression scales)

  6. On tadpoles and vacuum redefinitions in String Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudas, E.; Nicolosi, M.; Pradisi, G.; Sagnotti, A.

    2005-01-01

    Tadpoles accompany, in one form or another, all attempts to realize supersymmetry breaking in String Theory, making the present constructions at best incomplete. Whereas these tadpoles are typically large, a closer look at the problem from a perturbative viewpoint has the potential of illuminating at least some of its qualitative features in String Theory. A possible scheme to this effect was proposed long ago by Fischler and Susskind, but incorporating background redefinitions in string amplitudes in a systematic fashion has long proved very difficult. In the first part of this paper, drawing from field theory examples, we thus begin to explore what one can learn by working perturbatively in a 'wrong' vacuum. While unnatural in Field Theory, this procedure presents evident advantages in String Theory, whose definition in curved backgrounds is mostly beyond reach at the present time. At the field theory level, we also identify and characterize some special choices of vacua where tadpole resummations terminate after a few contributions. In the second part we present a notable example where vacuum redefinitions can be dealt with to some extent at the full string level, providing some evidence for a new link between IIB and 0B orientifolds. We finally show that NS-NS tadpoles do not manifest themselves to lowest order in certain classes of string constructions with broken supersymmetry and parallel branes, including brane-antibrane pairs and brane supersymmetry breaking models, that therefore have UV-finite threshold corrections at one loop

  7. Advanced light source vacuum policy and vacuum guidelines for beamlines and experiment endstations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to: (1) Explain the ALS vacuum policy and specifications for beamlines and experiment endstations. (2) Provide guidelines related to ALS vacuum policy to assist in designing beamlines which are in accordance with ALS vacuum policy. This document supersedes LSBL-116. The Advanced Light Source is a third generation synchrotron radiation source whose beam lifetime depends on the quality of the vacuum in the storage ring and the connecting beamlines. The storage ring and most of the beamlines share a common vacuum and are operated under ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions. All endstations and beamline equipment must be operated so as to avoid contamination of beamline components, and must include proper safeguards to protect the storage ring vacuum from an accidental break in the beamline or endstation vacuum systems. The primary gas load during operation is due to thermal desorption and electron/photon induced desorption of contaminants from the interior of the vacuum vessel and its components. The desorption rates are considerably higher for hydrocarbon contamination, thus considerable emphasis is placed on eliminating these sources of contaminants. All vacuum components in a beamline and endstation must meet the ALS vacuum specifications. The vacuum design of both beamlines and endstations must be approved by the ALS Beamline Review Committee (BRC) before vacuum connections to the storage ring are made. The vacuum design is first checked during the Beamline Design Review (BDR) held before construction of the beamline equipment begins. Any deviation from the ALS vacuum specifications must be approved by the BRC prior to installation of the equipment on the ALS floor. Any modification that is incorporated into a vacuum assembly without the written approval of the BRC is done at the user's risk and may lead to rejection of the whole assembly

  8. UV imaging in pharmaceutical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    UV imaging provides spatially and temporally resolved absorbance measurements, which are highly useful in pharmaceutical analysis. Commercial UV imaging instrumentation was originally developed as a detector for separation sciences, but the main use is in the area of in vitro dissolution...

  9. Role of cyclobutane dimers in UV-denaturation of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavil'gel'skij, G.B.; Zuev, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    UV irradiation of double-stranded DNA produces local denatured regions. The evidence presented indicates that these single-stranded regions arise from photoproducts other than pyrimidine dimers. The irradiation of T2 DNA at 8x10 4 erg/mm 2 (254 nm) produces 6-8% thymine dimers, amd Tsub(mel) drops by 12-14 deg C, accompanied by a significant broadening of the transition profile. The kinetics of denatured region formation and lowering Tsub(mel) corresponds to that of formation of crosslinkages and differs markedly from the kinetics of formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Treatment of UV-irradiated DNA with light in the presence of yeast photoreactivating enzyme monomerizes almost all thymine dimers but does not change the Tsub(mel). Local denatured regions are detected in UV-irradiated DNA and are absent from AcPhM-sensibilized DNA, which contains 20-25% thymine dimers, as determined by the accridine orange fluorescence technique. S1 nuclease from Aspergillis oryzae produces single-strand breaks in UV-irradiated DNA of phage PM2 but is not active on AcPhM-treated PM2 DNA, which contains about 50 thymine dimers. It is supposed that the formation of a cyclobutane dimer only weakens the hydrogen bonds in the AT base pair rather than breaks them. Local denatured regions are thought to arise from the accumulation in UV-irradiated DNA (254 nm) of the sufficient number of photoproducts with impaired ability to base pairing

  10. Characterising and testing deep UV LEDs for use in space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollington, D; Baird, J T; Sumner, T J; Wass, P J

    2015-01-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light sources are used to neutralise isolated test masses in highly sensitive space-based gravitational experiments. An example is the LISA Pathfinder charge management system, which uses low-pressure mercury lamps. A future gravitational-wave observatory such as eLISA will use UV light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs), which offer numerous advantages over traditional discharge lamps. Such devices have limited space heritage but are now available from a number of commercial suppliers. Here we report on a test campaign that was carried out to quantify the general properties of three types of commercially available UV LEDs and demonstrate their suitability for use in space. Testing included general electrical and UV output power measurements, spectral stability, pulsed performance and temperature dependence, as well as thermal vacuum, radiation and vibration survivability. (paper)

  11. Characterising and testing deep UV LEDs for use in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollington, D.; Baird, J. T.; Sumner, T. J.; Wass, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light sources are used to neutralise isolated test masses in highly sensitive space-based gravitational experiments. An example is the LISA Pathfinder charge management system, which uses low-pressure mercury lamps. A future gravitational-wave observatory such as eLISA will use UV light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs), which offer numerous advantages over traditional discharge lamps. Such devices have limited space heritage but are now available from a number of commercial suppliers. Here we report on a test campaign that was carried out to quantify the general properties of three types of commercially available UV LEDs and demonstrate their suitability for use in space. Testing included general electrical and UV output power measurements, spectral stability, pulsed performance and temperature dependence, as well as thermal vacuum, radiation and vibration survivability.

  12. Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgley, D.W.; Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on recent experiments which have shown the practicality of using activated carbon (coconut charcoal) at 4K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were satisfactory. The long-term effects of tritium on the charcoal/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL was now known; therefore a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long-term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber. Several charcoal on aluminum test samples were subjected to six months exposure of tritium at approximately 77 K. The tritium was scanned several times with a residual gas analyzer and the speed-capacity performance of the samples was measured before, approximately one-third way through, and after the exposure. Modest effects were noted which would not seriously restrict the use of charcoal as a cryosorber for fusion reactor high-vacuum pumping applications

  13. Progress of ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K., E-mail: Kimihiro.Ioki@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bayon, A. [F4E, c/ Josep Pla, No. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Jun, C.; Levesy, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kim, B.C. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmin, E. [NTC “Sintez”, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pathak, H. [ITER-India, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382025 (India); Preble, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sa, J.W. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► This covers the overall status and progress of the ITER vacuum vessel activities. ► It includes design, R and D, manufacturing and approval process of the regulators. ► The baseline design was completed and now manufacturing designs are on-going. ► R and D includes ISI, dynamic test of keys and lip-seal welding/cutting technology. ► The VV suppliers produced full-scale mock-ups and started VV manufacturing. -- Abstract: Design modifications were implemented in the vacuum vessel (VV) baseline design in 2011–2012 for finalization. The modifications are mostly due to interface components, such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils (IVC). Manufacturing designs are being developed at the domestic agencies (DAs) based on the baseline design. The VV support design was also finalized and tests on scale mock-ups are under preparation. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. Further modifications are required to be consistent with the DAs’ manufacturing designs. Dynamic tests on the inter-modular and stub keys to support the blanket modules are being performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An in-service inspection (ISI) plan has been developed and R and D was launched for ISI. Conceptual design of the VV instrumentation has been developed. The VV baseline design was approved by the agreed notified body (ANB) in accordance with the French Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure.

  14. The physics of ''vacuum'' breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwirzke, F.

    1993-01-01

    Many discharges form small cathode spots which provide such a high energy density that the cathode material explodes into a dense plasma cloud within a very short time. Despite the fundamental importance of cathode spots for the breakdown process and the formation of a discharge, the structure of the cathode spot plasma and the source of the high energy density were not yet well defined. One model, the whisker explosive emission model, assumes that joule heating by field emitted electrons provides the energy. Current densities of j FE = 10 12 - 10 13 A/m 2 would be required. However, the pre-breakdown j FE is self-limiting. The negative space charge caused by j FE in the cathode-anode gap reduces the effective electric field E on the cathode surface. The maximum current density j CL is space charge limited by Child-Langmuir's law. The field emitting spot cannot deliver j CL without turning itself off, since the negative space charge caused by j CL reduces E congruent 0 at the cathode surface. Hence, it must be that the vacuum j FE CL . The development of a current with j > j FE (vacuum) requires that ions exist in front of the electron emitting spot. Ions cannot be emitted from the surface of the field emitting spot, the enhanced electric field would hold them back. The initial ionization must occur in the cathode-anode gap near the electron emitting spot. Ionization of desorbed neutrals provides the mechanism. This ionization process requires considerably less current than the ionization of solid material by joule heating. Field emission and the impact of ions stimulate desorption of weakly bound adsorbates from the surface of the electron emitting spot. The cross section for ionization of the neutrals has a maximum for ∼ 100 eV electrons

  15. Progress of ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, K.; Bayon, A.; Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Jun, C.; Levesy, B.; Kim, B.C.; Kuzmin, E.; Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M.; Pathak, H.; Preble, J.; Sa, J.W.; Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This covers the overall status and progress of the ITER vacuum vessel activities. ► It includes design, R and D, manufacturing and approval process of the regulators. ► The baseline design was completed and now manufacturing designs are on-going. ► R and D includes ISI, dynamic test of keys and lip-seal welding/cutting technology. ► The VV suppliers produced full-scale mock-ups and started VV manufacturing. -- Abstract: Design modifications were implemented in the vacuum vessel (VV) baseline design in 2011–2012 for finalization. The modifications are mostly due to interface components, such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils (IVC). Manufacturing designs are being developed at the domestic agencies (DAs) based on the baseline design. The VV support design was also finalized and tests on scale mock-ups are under preparation. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. Further modifications are required to be consistent with the DAs’ manufacturing designs. Dynamic tests on the inter-modular and stub keys to support the blanket modules are being performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An in-service inspection (ISI) plan has been developed and R and D was launched for ISI. Conceptual design of the VV instrumentation has been developed. The VV baseline design was approved by the agreed notified body (ANB) in accordance with the French Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure

  16. The mechanisms of UV mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehata, Hironobu; Ono, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light induces specific mutations in the cellular and skin genome such as UV-signature and triplet mutations, the mechanism of which has been thought to involve translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) over UV-induced DNA base damage. Two models have been proposed: ''error-free'' bypass of deaminated cytosine-containing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) by DNA polymerase η, and error-prone bypass of CPDs and other UV-induced photolesions by combinations of TLS and replicative DNA polymerases-the latter model has also been known as the two-step model, in which the cooperation of two (or more) DNA polymerases as misinserters and (mis)extenders is assumed. Daylight UV induces a characteristic UV-specific mutation, a UV-signature mutation occurring preferentially at methyl-CpG sites, which is also observed frequently after exposure to either UVB or UVA, but not to UVC. The wavelengths relevant to the mutation are so consistent with the composition of daylight UV that the mutation is called solar-UV signature, highlighting the importance of this type of mutation for creatures with the cytosine-methylated genome that are exposed to the sun in the natural environment. UVA has also been suggested to induce oxidative types of mutation, which would be caused by oxidative DNA damage produced through the oxidative stress after the irradiation. Indeed, UVA produces oxidative DNA damage not only in cells but also in skin, which, however, does not seem sufficient to induce mutations in the normal skin genome. In contrast, it has been demonstrated that UVA exclusively induces the solar-UV signature mutations in vivo through CPD formation. (author)

  17. Deep UV LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Schowalter, Leo

    2014-06-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) photons interact strongly with a broad range of chemical and biological molecules; compact DUV light sources could enable a wide range of applications in chemi/bio-sensing, sterilization, agriculture, and industrial curing. The much shorter wavelength also results in useful characteristics related to optical diffraction (for lithography) and scattering (non-line-of-sight communication). The family of III-N (AlGaInN) compound semiconductors offers a tunable energy gap from infrared to DUV. While InGaN-based blue light emitters have been the primary focus for the obvious application of solid state lighting, there is a growing interest in the development of efficient UV and DUV light-emitting devices. In the past few years we have witnessed an increasing investment from both government and industry sectors to further the state of DUV light-emitting devices. The contributions in Semiconductor Science and Technology 's special issue on DUV devices provide an up-to-date snapshot covering many relevant topics in this field. Given the expected importance of bulk AlN substrate in DUV technology, we are pleased to include a review article by Hartmann et al on the growth of AlN bulk crystal by physical vapour transport. The issue of polarization field within the deep ultraviolet LEDs is examined in the article by Braut et al. Several commercial companies provide useful updates in their development of DUV emitters, including Nichia (Fujioka et al ), Nitride Semiconductors (Muramoto et al ) and Sensor Electronic Technology (Shatalov et al ). We believe these articles will provide an excellent overview of the state of technology. The growth of AlGaN heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy, in contrast to the common organo-metallic vapour phase epitaxy, is discussed by Ivanov et al. Since hexagonal boron nitride (BN) has received much attention as both a UV and a two-dimensional electronic material, we believe it serves readers well to include the

  18. Vacuum System and Modeling for the Materials Plasma Exposure Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumsdaine, Arnold; Meitner, Steve; Graves, Van; Bradley, Craig; Stone, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the science of plasma-material interactions (PMI) is essential for the future development of fusion facilities. The design of divertors and first walls for the next generation of long-pulse fusion facilities, such as a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) or a DEMO, requires significant PMI research and development. In order to meet this need, a new linear plasma facility, the Materials Plasma Exposure Experiment (MPEX) is proposed, which will produce divertor relevant plasma conditions for these next generation facilities. The device will be capable of handling low activation irradiated samples and be able to remove and replace samples without breaking vacuum. A Target Exchange Chamber (TEC) which can be disconnected from the high field environment in order to perform in-situ diagnostics is planned for the facility as well. The vacuum system for MPEX must be carefully designed in order to meet the requirements of the different heating systems, and to provide conditions at the target similar to those expected in a divertor. An automated coupling-decoupling (“autocoupler”) system is designed to create a high vacuum seal, and will allow the TEC to be disconnected without breaking vacuum in either the TEC or the primary plasma materials interaction chamber. This autocoupler, which can be actuated remotely in the presence of the high magnetic fields, has been designed and prototyped, and shows robustness in a variety of conditions. The vacuum system has been modeled using a simplified finite element analysis, and indicates that the design goals for the pressures in key regions of the facility are achievable.

  19. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy R and D. Development of new vacuum ultraviolet area optical materials realizing next generation short wavelength optical lithography; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium energy kenkyu kaihatsu. Jisedai tanhacho hikari lithography wo jitsugensuru shinku shigaiiki kogaku zairyo no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As materials for next generation lithography use optical device using short wavelength light sources such as F{sub 2} and Ar{sub 2}, the development was proceeded with of fluoride monocrystal materials and 12-inch class large/high quality monocrystal production technology. Studies were made in the following five fields: 1) proposal/design of new materials and the heightening of performance: 2) establishment of the large/high quality crystal production method; 3) evaluation of optical properties and elucidation of micro-defect formation mechanism; 4) comprehensive investigational research; 5) study of the evaluation technology by vacuum ultraviolet area pulse light. In 1), for the development of the optimum materials, a lot of materials were tried to be monocrystallized, and the permeability was estimated by measuring the reflectance in the vacuum ultraviolet area. As to LiCaAlF{sub 6}, monocrystal with 1-inch diameter was made by the Bridgman method. In 2), studies were made of conditions for large crystal growth by the pull method, large crystal growth by the Bridgman method, and the structure of production equipment for crystals with larger diameter. (NEDO)

  20. Vacuum state supersymmetry in d=11 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevich, D.V.

    1987-01-01

    Supersymmetry of vacuum state in d=11 supergravity is considered. Proceeding on sufficiently general assumptions relatively superformation parameter only Freud-Rubin type solutions may possess supersymmetries. To obtain this result no restrictions on the form of superformation parameter, supealgebra of vacuum global supersymmetry and the form of boson fields were imposed

  1. VACUUM ASSISTED CLOSURE IN DIABETIC FOOT MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Moganakannan; `Prema; Arun Sundara Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Comparision of vacuum assisted closure vs conventional dressing in management of diabetic foot patients. 30 patients were taken in that 15 underwent vacuum therapy and remaining 15 underwent conventional dressing.They were analysed by the development of granulation tissue and wound healing.The study showed Vac therapy is the best modality for management of diabetic foot patients.

  2. AA, vacuum tank for stochastic precooling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The vaccum tank in which the fast stochastic precooling kicker was installed. It is clad with heating jackets for bake-out to 200 deg C, indispensable for reaching the operational vacuum of 7E-11 Torr. Alain Poncet, responsible for AA vacuum, is looking on. See also 7910268, 8002234.

  3. Quality Management of CERN Vacuum Controls

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniotti, F; Fortescue-Beck, E; Gama, J; Gomes, P; Le Roux, P; Pereira, H F; Pigny, G

    2014-01-01

    The vacuum controls Section (TE-VSC-ICM) is in charge of the monitoring, maintenance and consolidation of the control systems of all accelerators and detectors in CERN; this represents 6 000 instruments distributed along 128 km of vacuum chambers, often of heterogeneous architectures and of diverse

  4. Silicates materials of high vacuum technology

    CERN Document Server

    Espe, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Materials of High Vacuum Technology, Volume 2: Silicates covers silicate insulators of special importance to vacuum technology. The book discusses the manufacture, composition, and physical and chemical properties of technical glasses, quartz glass, quartzware, vycor glass, ceramic materials, mica, and asbestos.

  5. The probability of the false vacuum decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.; Selivanov, K.

    1983-01-01

    The closed expession for the probability of the false vacuum decay in (1+1) dimensions is given. The probability of false vacuum decay is expessed as the product of exponential quasiclassical factor and a functional determinant of the given form. The method for calcutation of this determinant is developed and a complete answer for (1+1) dimensions is given

  6. Cermet insert high voltage holdoff for ceramic/metal vacuum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierna, William F.

    1987-01-01

    An improved metal-to-ceramic seal is provided wherein the ceramic body of the seal contains an integral region of cermet material in electrical contact with the metallic member, e.g., an electrode, of the seal. The seal is useful in high voltage vacuum devices, e.g., vacuum switches, and increases the high-voltage holdoff capabilities of such devices. A method of fabricating such seals is also provided.

  7. Cermet insert high voltage holdoff improvement for ceramic/metal vacuum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierna, W.F.

    1986-03-11

    An improved metal-to-ceramic seal is provided wherein the ceramic body of the seal contains an integral region of cermet material in electrical contact with the metallic member, e.g., an electrode, of the seal. The seal is useful in high voltage vacuum devices, e.g., vacuum switches, and increases the high-voltage holdoff capabilities of such devices. A method of fabricating such seals is also provided.

  8. uvsF RFC1, the large subunit of replication factor C in Aspergillus nidulans, is essential for DNA replication, functions in UV repair and is upregulated in response to MMS-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafer, Etta; Chae, Suhn-Kee

    2008-09-01

    uvsF201 was the first highly UV-sensitive repair-defective mutation isolated in Aspergillus nidulans. It showed epistasis only with postreplication repair mutations, but caused lethal interactions with many other repair-defective strains. Unexpectedly, closest homology of uvsF was found to the large subunit of human DNA replication factor RFC that is essential for DNA replication. Sequencing of the uvsF201 region identified changes at two close base pairs and the corresponding amino acids in the 5'-region of uvsF(RFC1). This viable mutant represents a novel and possibly important type. Additional sequencing of the uvsF region confirmed a mitochondrial ribosomal protein gene, mrpA(L16), closely adjacent, head-to-head with a 0.2kb joint promoter region. MMS-induced transcription of both the genes, but especially uvsF(RFC1), providing evidence for a function in DNA damage response.

  9. A new vacuum for loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, Bianca; Geiller, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We construct a new vacuum and representation for loop quantum gravity. Because the new vacuum is based on BF theory, it is physical for (2+1)-dimensional gravity, and much closer to the spirit of spin foam quantization in general. To construct this new vacuum and the associated representation of quantum observables, we introduce a modified holonomy–flux algebra that is cylindrically consistent with respect to the notion of refinement by time evolution suggested in Dittrich and Steinhaus (2013 arXiv:1311.7565). This supports the proposal for a construction of the physical vacuum made in Dittrich and Steinhaus (2013 arXiv:1311.7565) and Dittrich (2012 New J. Phys. 14 123004), and for (3+1)-dimensional gravity. We expect that the vacuum introduced here will facilitate the extraction of large scale physics and cosmological predictions from loop quantum gravity. (fast track communication)

  10. Vacuum and ultravacuum physics and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bello, Igor

    2018-01-01

    Vacuum technology has enormous impact on human life in many aspects and fields, such as metallurgy, material development and production, food and electronic industry, microelectronics, device fabrication, physics, materials science, space science, engineering, chemistry, technology of low temperature, pharmaceutical industry, and biology. All decorative coatings used in jewelries and various daily products—including shiny decorative papers, the surface finish of watches, and light fixtures—are made using vacuum technological processes. Vacuum analytical techniques and vacuum technologies are pillars of the technological processes, material synthesis, deposition, and material analyses—all of which are used in the development of novel materials, increasing the value of industrial products, controlling the technological processes, and ensuring the high product quality. Based on physical models and calculated examples, the book provides a deeper look inside the vacuum physics and technology.

  11. [Ambulant treatment of wounds by vacuum sealing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, U E; Schmidt, K; Breithaupt, B; Menig, R; Debus, E S; Thiede, A

    2000-01-01

    The treatment of chronic wounds by vacuum sealing as an outpatient procedure is a new method of wound conditioning before closing the defect. The quality of life for the patient in his usual surrounding is maintained. Financial aspects also play a role in this treatment since costs for the health care system can be reduced. Various vacuum pumps, drainages and polymere foams are available and suitable for the outpatient treatment. The most important condition is to regularly check the vacuum. This can performed by the patient, the relatives or nursing staff. The main complication consists in loss of vacuum but technical and local or systemic complications can also appear. Individually applied vacuum dressings (polyvinyl foam, drainage tube and polymere foil) are practical. The ideal pump systems for the outpatient treatment are still not trial.

  12. Maxwell electrodynamics subjected to quantum vacuum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorkyan, A. S.; Gevorkyan, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in the vacuum is considered taking into account quantum fluctuations in the limits of Maxwell-Langevin (ML) equations. For a model of “white noise” fluctuations, using ML equations, a second order partial differential equation is found which describes the quantum distribution of virtual particles in vacuum. It is proved that in order to satisfy observed facts, the Lamb Shift etc, the virtual particles should be quantized in unperturbed vacuum. It is shown that the quantized virtual particles in toto (approximately 86 percent) are condensed on the “ground state” energy level. It is proved that the extension of Maxwell electrodynamics with inclusion of the vacuum quantum field fluctuations may be constructed on a 6D space-time continuum with a 2D compactified subspace. Their influence on the refraction indexes of vacuum is studied.

  13. Mechanics and Physics of Precise Vacuum Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Deulin, E. A; Panfilov, Yu V; Nevshupa, R. A

    2010-01-01

    In this book the Russian expertise in the field of the design of precise vacuum mechanics is summarized. A wide range of physical applications of mechanism design in electronic, optical-electronic, chemical, and aerospace industries is presented in a comprehensible way. Topics treated include the method of microparticles flow regulation and its determination in vacuum equipment and mechanisms of electronics; precise mechanisms of nanoscale precision based on magnetic and electric rheology; precise harmonic rotary and not-coaxial nut-screw linear motion vacuum feedthroughs with technical parameters considered the best in the world; elastically deformed vacuum motion feedthroughs without friction couples usage; the computer system of vacuum mechanisms failure predicting. This English edition incorporates a number of features which should improve its usefulness as a textbook without changing the basic organization or the general philosophy of presentation of the subject matter of the original Russian work. Exper...

  14. Mechanism of the immobilization of surfactants on polymeric surfaces by means of an argon plasma treatment: Influence of UV radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.P.; Spaay, B.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism of the immobilization of the surfactant sodium 10-undecenoate (C11(:)) on poly(ethylene) (PE) by means of an argon plasma treatment has been investigated. In particular, the influence of the vacuum ultraviolet (UV) radiation emitted by the argon plasma on the immobilization was

  15. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  16. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sunglasses Sun Smart UV Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Leer en Español: El ... Aug. 28, 2014 Keep an Eye on Ultraviolet (UV) Safety Eye medical doctors (ophthalmologists) caution us that ...

  17. UV-induced skin damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihashi, M.; Ueda, M.; Budiyanto, A.; Bito, T.; Oka, M.; Fukunaga, M.; Tsuru, K.; Horikawa, T.

    2003-01-01

    Solar radiation induces acute and chronic reactions in human and animal skin. Chronic repeated exposures are the primary cause of benign and malignant skin tumors, including malignant melanoma. Among types of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) radiation is highly mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments compared to ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) radiation. Epidemiological studies suggest that solar UV radiation is responsible for skin tumor development via gene mutations and immunosuppression, and possibly for photoaging. In this review, recent understanding of DNA damage caused by direct UV radiation and by indirect stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA repair mechanisms, particularly nucleotide excision repair of human cells, are discussed. In addition, mutations induced by solar UV radiation in p53, ras and patched genes of non-melanoma skin cancer cells, and the role of ROS as both a promoter in UV-carcinogenesis and an inducer of UV-apoptosis, are described based primarily on the findings reported during the last decade. Furthermore, the effect of UV on immunological reaction in the skin is discussed. Finally, possible prevention of UV-induced skin cancer by feeding or topical use of antioxidants, such as polyphenols, vitamin C, and vitamin E, is discussed

  18. UV survival of human mycoplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeji; Ito, Shoko; Watanabe, Takehiko

    1979-01-01

    The inactivation by ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation of mycoplasma cells of five human strains was monitored by investigating the colony-forming ability. The survival curves of five strains tested indicated that the cells of Mycoplasma buccale only are single and homogenously susceptible to UV light. The effect of the repair inhibitor, caffeine, on the colony-forming ability of UV-irradiated cells was investigated with M. buccale because of its homogeneous susceptibility to UV light. The colony formation of irradiated cells was markedly depressed by post-irradiation treatment with caffeine at concentration that had little or no effect on the colony formation of unirradiated cells. The colony-forming units (CFU) of UV-irradiated cells which were kept in broth without caffeine in the dark increased without a lag as the time in the dark increased. The colony-forming ability of the irradiated cells completely recovered after 3 hr in the dark. However, when irradiated cells were kept in the presence of caffeine, no increase in their CFU was observed. The mode of action of caffeine on UV-irradiated cells closely resembles that described for other organisms which possess dark reactivation systems for UV-induced damage in deoxyribonucleic acid. Thus, the results obtained provide evidence for the existence of a dark repair function in M. buccale. (author)

  19. Influence of Gap Distance on Vacuum Arc Characteristics of Cup Type AMF Electrode in Vacuum Interrupters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shaoyong; Xiu Shixin; Wang Jimei; Shen Zhengchao

    2006-01-01

    The greenhouse effect of SF 6 is a great concern today. The development of high voltage vacuum circuit breakers becomes more important. The vacuum circuit breaker has minimum pollution to the environment. The vacuum interrupter is the key part of a vacuum circuit breaker. The interrupting characteristics in vacuum and arc-controlling technique are the main problems to be solved for a longer gap distance in developing high voltage vacuum interrupters. To understand the vacuum arc characteristics and provide effective technique to control vacuum arc in a long gap distance, the arc mode transition of a cup-type axial magnetic field electrode is observed by a high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) video camera under different gap distances while the arc voltage and arc current are recorded. The controlling ability of the axial magnetic field on vacuum arc obviously decreases when the gap distance is longer than 40 mm. The noise components and mean value of the arc voltage significantly increase. The effective method for controlling the vacuum arc characteristics is provided by long gap distances based on the test results. The test results can be used as a reference to develop high voltage and large capacity vacuum interrupters

  20. Electroweak vacuum instability and renormalized Higgs field vacuum fluctuations in the inflationary universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohri, Kazunori [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Matsui, Hiroki, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: matshiro@post.kek.jp [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we investigated the electroweak vacuum instability during or after inflation. In the inflationary Universe, i.e., de Sitter space, the vacuum field fluctuations < δ φ {sup 2} > enlarge in proportion to the Hubble scale H {sup 2}. Therefore, the large inflationary vacuum fluctuations of the Higgs field < δ φ {sup 2} > are potentially catastrophic to trigger the vacuum transition to the negative-energy Planck-scale vacuum state and cause an immediate collapse of the Universe. However, the vacuum field fluctuations < δ φ {sup 2} >, i.e., the vacuum expectation values have an ultraviolet divergence, and therefore a renormalization is necessary to estimate the physical effects of the vacuum transition. Thus, in this paper, we revisit the electroweak vacuum instability from the perspective of quantum field theory (QFT) in curved space-time, and discuss the dynamical behavior of the homogeneous Higgs field φ determined by the effective potential V {sub eff}( φ ) in curved space-time and the renormalized vacuum fluctuations < δ φ {sup 2} >{sub ren} via adiabatic regularization and point-splitting regularization. We simply suppose that the Higgs field only couples the gravity via the non-minimal Higgs-gravity coupling ξ(μ). In this scenario, the electroweak vacuum stability is inevitably threatened by the dynamical behavior of the homogeneous Higgs field φ, or the formations of AdS domains or bubbles unless the Hubble scale is small enough H < Λ {sub I} .

  1. The uvsI gene of Aspergillus nidulans required for UV-mutagenesis encodes a homolog to REV3, a subunit of the DNA polymerase zeta of yeast involved in translesion DNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K Y; Chae, S K; Han, D M

    1998-07-01

    Defects in the uvsI gene of Aspergillus nidulans resulted in high UV sensitivity and reductions of spontaneous and UV-induced reversion of certain alleles, uvsl;uvsA double mutants exhibited high methyl methane sulfonate (MMS)-sensitivity in contrast to the slight sensitivity of the component single mutants. Using such a double mutant as recipient, a clone complementing uvsI501 has been isolated from a chromosome III specific library. The deduced amino acid sequence from the 1.1-kb sequenced region, a part of the 5.2-kb DNA fragment showing uvsI-complementing activity, had a 62% identity with REV3 of yeast. Disruptants of the cloned gene demonstrated the same level of sensitivity to UV light as uvsI and failed to complement uvsI501 in heterozygous diploids.

  2. Males do not see only red: UV wavelengths and male territorial aggression in the three-spined stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Ingolf P.; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    2008-07-01

    Animal colour signals serve important functions in intraspecific interactions, including species recognition, mate choice and agonistic behaviour. An increasing interest concerns ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, for instance studies on the effect of UV in mating decisions. More recently, some studies also established that UV signals affect intrasexual interactions. We studied the role of UV during aggressive encounters between male three-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus), a species in which UV has an effect on female and male mate choice and shoaling behaviour. To that aim, we compared the aggressive response of a territorial male to male intruders, either seen in UV-including (UV+) or UV-lacking (UV-) conditions. Our prediction was that, if UV wavelengths are used in male-male competition, a territorial male should show less competitive behaviour towards an intruder representing a lower threat, i.e. the one presented without UV light. Male sticklebacks showed significantly lower levels of aggression towards male opponents lacking an UV component to their coloration than male opponents possessing this colour component. Discrimination was not influenced by a difference in brightness between the UV+ and UV- stimuli. Finally, we present some reflectance-spectrophotometrical data of two skin regions (cheek and abdomen) of the experimental males and analysed relationships between colorimetric variables, body variables and behaviour. Our study emphasises that UV visual cues are of importance in different communicational tasks in the three-spined stickleback.

  3. IR emission and UV extinction in two open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackwell, J.A.; Hecht, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent models of interstellar extinction have shown the importance of understanding both the UV and IR properties of interstellar dust grains. IRAS data have shown variations in 60 and 100 micron emissions presumably due to the presence of IR cirrus, while recent observations in the UV by Fitzpatrick and Massa have identified components in the UV extinction curve which vary in different star regions. A Draine and Anderson model connects these results by proposing that different size variations in interstellar grains would cause distinct changes in both the IR emission and the UV extinction. In order to test this model it is necessary to make observations in well defined locations away from peculiar extinction regions. In the infrared this means looking away from the galactic plane so as to limit non-local sources of IR radiation. Two open clusters that are out of the galactic plane and which contain a number of late B and early A stars suitable for UV extinction studies, and whose IRAS data show variations in the 60/100 micron ratio were studied. Based on the Drain and Anderson model, variations were expected in their UV extinction curves that correlate with the IR cirrus emission

  4. Uric acid detection using uv-vis spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norazmi, N.; Rasad, Z. R. Abdul; Mohamad, M.; Manap, H.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this research is to detect uric acid (UA) concentration using Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer in the Ultraviolet (UV) region. Absorption technique was proposed to detect different uric acid concentrations and its UV absorption wavelength. Current practices commonly take a lot of times or require complicated structures for the detection process. By this proposed spectroscopic technique, every concentration can be detected and interpreted into an absorbance value at a constant wavelength peak in the UV region. This is due to the chemical characteristics belong to the uric acid since it has a particular absorption cross-section, σ which can be calculated using Beer’s Lambert law formula. The detection performance was displayed using Spectrasuite sofware. It showed fast time response about 3 seconds. The experiment proved that the concentrations of uric acid were successfully detected using UV-Vis spectrometer at a constant absorption UV wavelength, 294.46 nm in a low time response. Even by an artificial sample of uric acid, it successfully displayed a close value as the ones reported with the use of the medical sample. It is applicable in the medical field and can be implemented in the future for earlier detection of abnormal concentration of uric acid.

  5. Ultra high vacuum systems for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In order to perform controlled, stable, and reproducible experiments, several research areas today require very low pressures. Maybe the most important example is the research that is performed in storage rings and accelerators where the lifetime and stability of particle beams depends critically on the vacuum conditions. Although the vacuum requirements ultimately depend on the kind of experiments that is performed, the studies of more and more rare and exotic species in storage rings and accelerators today pushes the demands on the vacuum conditions towards lower and lower pressures. The final pressure obtained in the vacuum system can often be the key factor for the outcome of an experiment. Pioneering work in vacuum technology has therefore often been performed at storage rings and accelerator facilities around the world. In order to reach pressures in the low UHV regime and lower (below 10 -11 mbar), several aspects have to be considered which implies choosing the proper materials, pumps and vacuum gauges. In the absence of gases inleaking from the outside, the rate of gas entering a vacuum system is determined by the release of molecules adsorbed on the surfaces and the outgassing from the bulk of the vacuum chamber walls. This means that the choice of material and, equally important, the pre treatment of the material, must be such that these rates are minimised. Today the most widely used material for vacuum applications are stainless steel. Besides its many mechanical advantages, it is resistant to corrosion and oxidation. If treated correctly the major gas source in a stainless steel chamber is hydrogen outgassing from the chamber walls. The hydrogen outgassing can be decreased by vacuum firing at 950 deg. C under vacuum. In addition to choosing the right materials the choice of vacuum pumps is important for the final pressure. Since no vacuum pump is capable of taking care of all kinds of gases found in the rest gas at pressures below 10 -11

  6. Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Eric; Philpot, Brian; Trott, Aaron; Lawrence, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC's) large rocket engine test facility requires the use of liquid propellants, including the use of cryogenic fluids like liquid hydrogen as fuel, and liquid oxygen as an oxidizer (gases which have been liquefied at very low temperatures). These fluids require special handling, storage, and transfer technology. The biggest problem associated with transferring cryogenic liquids is product loss due to heat transfer. Vacuum jacketed piping is specifically designed to maintain high thermal efficiency so that cryogenic liquids can be transferred with minimal heat transfer. A vacuum jacketed pipe is essentially two pipes in one. There is an inner carrier pipe, in which the cryogenic liquid is actually transferred, and an outer jacket pipe that supports and seals the vacuum insulation, forming the "vacuum jacket." The integrity of the vacuum jacketed transmission lines that transfer the cryogenic fluid from delivery barges to the test stand must be maintained prior to and during engine testing. To monitor the vacuum in these vacuum jacketed transmission lines, vacuum gauge readings are used. At SSC, vacuum gauge measurements are done on a manual rotation basis with two technicians, each using a handheld instrument. Manual collection of vacuum data is labor intensive and uses valuable personnel time. Additionally, there are times when personnel cannot collect the data in a timely fashion (i.e., when a leak is detected, measurements must be taken more often). Additionally, distribution of this data to all interested parties can be cumbersome. To simplify the vacuum-gauge data collection process, automate the data collection, and decrease the labor costs associated with acquiring these measurements, an automated system that monitors the existing gauges was developed by Invocon, Inc. For this project, Invocon developed a Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System (WIMVSS) that provides the ability to gather vacuum

  7. Beam vacuum system of Brookhaven's muon storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hseuth, H.C.; Snydstrup, L.; Mapes, M.

    1995-01-01

    A storage ring with a circumference of 45 m is being built at Brookhaven to measure the g-2 value of the muons to an accuracy of 0.35 ppm.. The beam vacuum system of the storage ring will operate at 10 -7 Torr and has to be completely non-magnetic. It consists of twelve sector chambers. The chambers are constructed of aluminum and are approximately 3.5 m in length with a rectangular cross-section of 16.5 cm high by 45 cm at the widest point. The design features, fabrication techniques and cleaning methods for these chambers are described. The beam vacuum system will be pumped by forty eight non-magnetic distributed ion pumps with a total pumping speed of over 2000 ell/sec. Monte Carlo simulations of the pressure distribution in the muon storage region are presented

  8. Elastomer seal for a large toroidal vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skellett, S.; Casey, F.; Blake, H.

    1978-07-01

    An aluminium toroidal vacuum chamber for use at 10(-6) torr, whose overall diameter is in the region of 5 metres, was built from 4 component parts which resulted in joint lines in the horizontal and vertical planes crossing each other in 4 places. A viton seal was developed which allows a vacuum tight joint to be made without the need for tightly toleranced fitting of the mating faces and also overcomes the difficulty of ensuring a reliable seal at cross-over joints. Ease of maintenance and repair in situ are important factors of the design. An assembly which presented the geometry of the sealing problem was tested and is described here. Various adhesives for bonding viton were examined for the manufacture of the seal. The most suitable adhesive was found to be Loctite S496, chosen for its bond strength and convenience in use. A device for preparing and bonding the viton in situ is described. (author)

  9. Aerosol effects on UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, P.; Reuder, J.; Schwander, H.

    2000-01-01

    The reduction of erythemally weighted UV-irradiance (given as UV index, UVI) due to aerosols is analyzed by variation of the tropospheric particles in a wide, but realistic range. Varied are amount and composition of the particles and relative humidity and thickness of the mixing layer. The reduction of UVI increases with aerosol optical depth and the UV change is around 10% for a change aerosol optical depth from 0.25 to 0.1 and 0.4 respectively. Since both aerosol absorption and scattering are of relevance, the aerosol effect depends besides total aerosol amount on relative amount of soot and on relative humidity

  10. Studies of aluminium nitride ceramics for application in UV dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Christensen, P.

    2000-01-01

    The study is reported of the ceramic material AlN-Y2O3 as a potential luminescence dosemeter for the detection of UV radiation. Both the thermoluminescence and the optically stimulated luminescence properties of the material have been studied after exposure to UV radiation and compared with those...... of the widely used dosemeter material Al2O3:C. It has been shown that AlN-Y2O3 ceramics exhibit three orders of magnitude higher sensitivity to UV radiation than does Al2O3,:C over a broad spectral region. The thermoluminescence from AlN-Y2O3 is characterised by linear dose dependence over a wide range....... The fading characteristics of the UV-induced thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence signals with storage time at room temperature were found to be a drawback, but still lower than those induced after exposure to ionising radiation....

  11. UV Stellar Distribution Model for the Derivation of Payload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jun Choi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a model calculation of the stellar distribution in a UV and centered at 2175Å corresponding to the well-known bump in the interstellar extinction curve. The stellar distribution model used here is based on the Bahcall-Soneira galaxy model (1980. The source code for model calculation was designed by Brosch (1991 and modified to investigate various designing factors for UV satellite payload. The model predicts UV stellar densities in different sky directions, and its results are compared with the TD-1 star counts for a number of sky regions. From this study, we can determine the field of view, size of optics, angular resolution, and number of stars in one orbit. There will provide the basic constrains in designing a satellite payload for UV observations.

  12. MEDICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF UV RADIATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND, B.M.

    2001-07-26

    Organisms living on the earth are exposed to solar radiation, including its ultraviolet (UV) components (for general reviews, the reader is referred to Smith [1] and Young et al. [2]). UV wavelength regions present in sunlight are frequently designated as UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). In today's solar spectrum, UVA is the principal UV component, with UVB present at much lower levels. Ozone depletion will increase the levels of UVB reaching the biosphere, but the levels of UVA will not be changed significantly [3]. Because of the high efficiency of UVB in producing damage in biological organisms in the laboratory experiments, it has sometimes been assumed that UVA has little or no adverse biological effects. However, accumulating data [4, 5], including action spectra (efficiency of biological damage as a function of wavelength of radiation; see Section 5) for DNA damage in alfalfa seedlings [6], in human skin [7], and for a variety of plant damages (Caldwell, this volume) indicate that UVA can induce damage in DNA in higher organisms. Thus, understanding the differential effects of UVA and UVB wavebands is essential for estimating the biological consequences of stratospheric ozone depletion.

  13. Local effects of the quantum vacuum in Lorentz-violating electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ruiz, A.; Escobar, C. A.

    2017-02-01

    The Casimir effect is one of the most remarkable consequences of the nonzero vacuum energy predicted by quantum field theory. In this paper we use a local approach to study the Lorentz violation effects of the minimal standard model extension on the Casimir force between two parallel conducting plates in the vacuum. Using a perturbative method similar to that used for obtaining the Born series for the scattering amplitudes in quantum mechanics, we compute, at leading order in the Lorentz-violating coefficients, the relevant Green's function which satisfies given boundary conditions. The standard point-splitting technique allow us to express the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor in terms of the Green's function. We discuss its structure in the region between the plates. We compute the renormalized vacuum stress, which is obtained as the difference between the vacuum stress in the presence of the plates and that of the vacuum. The Casimir force is evaluated in an analytical fashion by two methods: by differentiating the renormalized global energy density and by computing the normal-normal component of the renormalized vacuum stress. We compute the local Casimir energy, which is found to diverge as approaching the plates, and we demonstrate that it does not contribute to the observable force.

  14. The influence of vacuum and annealing on the visible luminescence in ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P R, Chithira; Theresa John, Teny, E-mail: teny@goa.bits-pilani.ac.in

    2017-05-15

    The ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by a simple solution based chemical bath deposition method were characterized using different experimental techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were performed in ambient as well as in vacuum conditions. The emission spectra exhibit two bands corresponding to UV emission at 380 nm and a wide visible luminescence centered at 571 nm due to surface defects in ambient conditions. Under vacuum condition, the spectra show a reduction in the intensity of the wide visible luminescence and an enhancement in the UV emission. These nanoparticles were annealed at high temperatures in air. The wide visible luminescence remains at the same intensity in both ambient and in vacuum condition for the annealed samples indicating that some of the surface adsorbed defects are removed due to annealing. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) results reveal the presence of [OH{sup -}] related groups on the surface of the samples. An analysis of the O1s peak in ZnO using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurement confirms the presence of intrinsic defects such as oxygen related vacancies and adsorbed oxygen species in the sample. Our investigation shows that the green emission observed in ZnO samples is primarily due to oxygen vacancies.

  15. The influence of vacuum and annealing on the visible luminescence in ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P R, Chithira; Theresa John, Teny

    2017-01-01

    The ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by a simple solution based chemical bath deposition method were characterized using different experimental techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were performed in ambient as well as in vacuum conditions. The emission spectra exhibit two bands corresponding to UV emission at 380 nm and a wide visible luminescence centered at 571 nm due to surface defects in ambient conditions. Under vacuum condition, the spectra show a reduction in the intensity of the wide visible luminescence and an enhancement in the UV emission. These nanoparticles were annealed at high temperatures in air. The wide visible luminescence remains at the same intensity in both ambient and in vacuum condition for the annealed samples indicating that some of the surface adsorbed defects are removed due to annealing. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) results reveal the presence of [OH - ] related groups on the surface of the samples. An analysis of the O1s peak in ZnO using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurement confirms the presence of intrinsic defects such as oxygen related vacancies and adsorbed oxygen species in the sample. Our investigation shows that the green emission observed in ZnO samples is primarily due to oxygen vacancies.

  16. A fibre-coupled UHV-compatible variable angle reflection-absorption UV/visible spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbing, J. W.; Salter, T. L.; Brown, W. A.; Taj, S.; McCoustra, M. R. S.

    2018-05-01

    We present a novel UV/visible reflection-absorption spectrometer for determining the refractive index, n, and thicknesses, d, of ice films. Knowledge of the refractive index of these films is of particular relevance to the astrochemical community, where they can be used to model radiative transfer and spectra of various regions of space. In order to make these models more accurate, values of n need to be recorded under astronomically relevant conditions, that is, under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and cryogenic cooling. Several design considerations were taken into account to allow UHV compatibility combined with ease of use. The key design feature is a stainless steel rhombus coupled to an external linear drive (z-shift) allowing a variable reflection geometry to be achieved, which is necessary for our analysis. Test data for amorphous benzene ice are presented as a proof of concept, the film thickness, d, was found to vary linearly with surface exposure, and a value for n of 1.43 ± 0.07 was determined.

  17. Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photovoltaic Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Lin, Richeng; Ran, Junxue; Zhang, Zhaojun; Ji, Xu; Huang, Feng

    2018-01-23

    Over the past two decades, solar- and astrophysicists and material scientists have been researching and developing new-generation semiconductor-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detectors with low power consumption and small size for replacing traditional heavy and high-energy-consuming microchannel-detection systems, to study the formation and evolution of stars. However, the most desirable semiconductor-based VUV photovoltaic detector capable of achieving zero power consumption has not yet been achieved. With high-crystallinity multistep epitaxial grown AlN as a VUV-absorbing layer for photogenerated carriers and p-type graphene (with unexpected VUV transmittance >96%) as a transparent electrode to collect excited holes, we constructed a heterojunction device with photovoltaic detection for VUV light. The device exhibits an encouraging VUV photoresponse, high external quantum efficiency (EQE) and extremely fast tempera response (80 ns, 10 4 -10 6 times faster than that of the currently reported VUV photoconductive devices). This work has provided an idea for developing zero power consumption and integrated VUV photovoltaic detectors with ultrafast and high-sensitivity VUV detection capability, which not only allows future spacecraft to operate with longer service time and lower launching cost but also ensures an ultrafast evolution of interstellar objects.

  18. Vacuum control system of VEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R.B.; Bandopadhyay, D.L.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Pal, Sarbajit; Sarkar, D.

    2009-01-01

    As a part of modernization of VEC (Variable Energy Cyclotron), the Vacuum Control System is being upgraded to PLC based automated system from initial Relay based Manual system. EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), a standard open source software tool for designing distributed control system, is chosen for developing the supervisory control software layer, leading towards a unified distributed control architecture of VEC Control System. A Modbus - TCP based IOC (I/O Controller) has been developed to communicate control data to PLC using Ethernet-TCP LAN. Keeping in mind, the operators' familiarity with MS-Windows, a MS-Windows based operator interface is developed using VB6. It is also used to test and evaluate EPICS compatibility to MS Windows. Several MS Windows ActiveX components e.g. text display, image display, alarm window, set-point input etc. have been developed incorporating Channel Access library of EPICS. Use of such components ease the programming complexity and reduce developmental time of the operator interface. The system is in the final phase of commissioning. (author)

  19. Baking results of KSTAR vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. T.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, K. M.; Im, D. S.; Joung, N. Y.; Yang, H. L.; Kim, Y. S.; Kwon, M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is an advanced superconducting tokamak designed to establish a scientific and technological basis for an attractive fusion reactor. The fusion energy in the tokamak device is released through fusion reactions of light atoms such as deuterium or helium in hot plasma state, of which temperature reaches several hundreds of millions Celsius. The high temperature plasma is created in the vacuum vessel that provides ultra high vacuum status. Accordingly, it is most important for the vacuum condition to keep clean not only inner space but also surface of the vacuum vessel to make high quality plasma. There are two methods planned to clean the wall surface of the KSTAR vacuum vessel. One is surface baking and the other is glow discharge cleaning (GDC). To bake the vacuum vessel, De-Ionized (DI) water is heated to 130 .deg. C and circulated in the passage between double walls of the vacuum vessel (VV) in order to bake the surface. The GDC operation uses hydrogen and inert gas discharges. In this paper, general configuration and brief introduction of the baking result will be reported.

  20. Baking results of KSTAR vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. T.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, K. M.; Im, D. S.; Joung, N. Y.; Yang, H. L.; Kim, Y. S.; Kwon, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is an advanced superconducting tokamak designed to establish a scientific and technological basis for an attractive fusion reactor. The fusion energy in the tokamak device is released through fusion reactions of light atoms such as deuterium or helium in hot plasma state, of which temperature reaches several hundreds of millions Celsius. The high temperature plasma is created in the vacuum vessel that provides ultra high vacuum status. Accordingly, it is most important for the vacuum condition to keep clean not only inner space but also surface of the vacuum vessel to make high quality plasma. There are two methods planned to clean the wall surface of the KSTAR vacuum vessel. One is surface baking and the other is glow discharge cleaning (GDC). To bake the vacuum vessel, De-Ionized (DI) water is heated to 130 .deg. C and circulated in the passage between double walls of the vacuum vessel (VV) in order to bake the surface. The GDC operation uses hydrogen and inert gas discharges. In this paper, general configuration and brief introduction of the baking result will be reported

  1. Quark and gluon condensate in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajnshtejn, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.; Shifman, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of quark confinement has been reviewed. The fact that coloured particles in a free state cannot be observed is connected with specific properties of vacuum in quantum chromodynamics. The basic hypothesis consists in the existence of vacuum fields, quark and gluon condensates, which affect the coloured objects. The vacuum transparent relative to noncharged ''white'' states serves as a source of the force acting upon the coloured particles. It has been a sucess to examine strictly the action of the vacuum fields on quarks when the distance between them is relatively small and the force of the vacuum fields on quarks is relatively small too. It is shown that the interaction with the vacuum fields manifests itself earlier than the forces connected with the gluon exchange do. It is assumed that the vacuum condensate of quarks and gluons and its relation to properties of resonances and to the bag model exist in reality. The dispersion sum rules are used for calculating masses and lepton widths of resonances

  2. High Charge State Ions Extracted from Metal Plasmas in the Transition Regime from Vacuum Spark to High Current Vacuum Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, A.

    2008-01-01

    Metal ions were extracted from pulsed discharge plasmas operating in the transition region between vacuum spark (transient high voltage of kV) and vacuum arc (arc voltage ∼ 20 V). At a peak current of about 4 kA, and with a pulse duration of 8 (micro)s, we observed mean ion charges states of about 6 for several cathode materials. In the case of platinum, the highest average charge state was 6.74 with ions of charge states as high as 10 present. For gold we found traces of charge state 11, with the highest average charge state of 7.25. At currents higher than 5 kA, non-metallic contaminations started to dominate the ion beam, preventing further enhancement of the metal charge states

  3. UV/EB curable psa's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The author describe both water-based and 100% solids UV/EB curable PSA's (Pressure Sensitive Adhesives) and their properties. A new acrylate monomer, ethoxylated nonyl phenol acrylate, has great utility in the formulation of water-based PSA's

  4. Characterization of dry globular proteins and protein fibrils by synchrotron radiation vacuum UV circular dichroism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesgaard, Lise W.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Andersen, Christian Beyschau

    2008-01-01

    Circular dichroism using synchrotron radiation (SRCD) can extend the spectral range down to approximately 130 nm for dry proteins, potentially providing new structural information. Using a selection of dried model proteins, including alpha-helical, beta-sheet, and mixed-structure proteins, we...... with previously published theoretical calculations related to pi-orbital transitions. We also show that drying does not lead to large changes in the secondary structure and does not induce orientational artifacts. In combination with principal component analysis, our SRCD data allow us to distinguish between two...... different types of protein fibrils, highlighting that bona fide fibrils formed by lysozyme are structurally more similar to the nonclassical fibrillar aggregates formed by the SerADan peptide than with the amyloid formed by alpha-synuclein. Thus, despite the lack of direct structural conclusions...

  5. Is the Free Vacuum Energy Infinite?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, S. M.; Razmi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Considering the fundamental cutoff applied by the uncertainty relations’ limit on virtual particles’ frequency in the quantum vacuum, it is shown that the vacuum energy density is proportional to the inverse of the fourth power of the dimensional distance of the space under consideration and thus the corresponding vacuum energy automatically regularized to zero value for an infinitely large free space. This can be used in regularizing a number of unwanted infinities that happen in the Casimir effect, the cosmological constant problem, and so on without using already known mathematical (not so reasonable) techniques and tricks

  6. Gases and vacua handbook of vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, A H

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Vacuum Physics, Volume 1: Gases and Vacua presents three major topics, which are the fourth to sixth parts of this volume. These topics are the remarks on units of physical quantities; kinetic theory of gases and gaseous flow; and theory of vacuum diffusion pumps. The first topic aims to present concisely the significance of units of physical quantities, catering the need and interest of those who take measurements and make calculations in different fields of vacuum sciences. The technique and applications of this particular topic are also provided. The second main topic focuses sp

  7. Cold vacuum drying facility site evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In order to transport Multi-Canister Overpacks to the Canister Storage Building they must first undergo the Cold Vacuum Drying process. This puts the design, construction and start-up of the Cold Vacuum Drying facility on the critical path of the K Basin fuel removal schedule. This schedule is driven by a Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone requiring all of the spent nuclear fuel to be removed from the K Basins by December, 1999. This site evaluation is an integral part of the Cold Vacuum Drying design process and must be completed expeditiously in order to stay on track for meeting the milestone

  8. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well

  9. Ultra-high vacuum technology for accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Hilleret, Noël; Strubin, Pierre M

    2002-01-01

    The lectures will start with a review of the basics of vacuum physics required to build Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) systems, such as static and dynamic outgassing. Before reviewing the various pumping and measurement devices, including the most modern one like Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) coatings, an overview of adequate materials to be used in UHV systems will be given together with their treatment (e.g. cleaning procedures and bake out). Practical examples based on existing or future accelerators will be used to illustrate the topics. Finally, a short overview of modern vacuum controls and interlocks will be given.

  10. Vacuum anti-shielding of monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the difficulties in calculating the vacuum polarization, or magnetization, induced in the vacuum by a monopole. The usual Lagrangian formalism and consequent Feynman rules do not apply. Another problem is that the interaction strength between the monopole and a charge is not small (unless it vanishes exactly) because it is quantized to half integer values. Perturbation theory is therefore not applicable. The discussed problems are solved by using the old fashioned method of calculating a vacuum expectation value as a sum over single particle modes

  11. Quark virtuality and QCD vacuum condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lijuan; Ma Weixing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) in the 'rainbow' approximation, the authors investigate the quark virtuality in the vacuum state and quantum-chromodynamics (QCD) vacuum condensates. In particular, authors calculate the local quark vacuum condensate and quark-gluon mixed condensates, and then the virtuality of quark. The calculated quark virtualities are λ u,d 2 =0.7 GeV 2 for u, d quarks, and λ s 2 =1.6 GeV 2 for s quark. The theoretical predictions are consistent with empirical values used in QCD sum rules, and also fit to lattice QCD predictions

  12. Vacuum engineering, calculations, formulas, and solved exercises

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Armand

    1992-01-01

    This book was written with two main objectives in mind-to summarize and organize the vast material of vacuum technology in sets of useful formulas, and to provide a collection of worked out exercises showing how to use these formulas for solving technological problems. It is an ideal reference source for those with little time to devote to a full mathematical treatment of the many problems issued in vacuum practice, but who have a working knowledge of the essentials of vacuum technology, elementary physics, and mathematics. This time saving book employs a problem-solving approach throughout, p

  13. The fine art of preparing a vacuum

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The vacuum chambers, or beam pipes, of the LHC experiments are located right at the interface between the detectors and the accelerator, and are therefore crucial to the LHC project as a whole. In this domain, the ALICE and CMS experiments have just passed an important milestone, with the completion of the first of CMS's two end-cap vacuum chambers, together with the completion and bakeout of an 18-metre section of the ALICE vacuum chamber. These complex projects, for which CERN's AT/VAC Group is responsible, involved dozens of people over a number of years.

  14. Development of a safe ultraviolet camera system to enhance awareness by showing effects of UV radiation and UV protection of the skin (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Wedzinga, Rosaline; van Montfrans, Bibi; Stok, Mirte; Klaessens, John; van der Veen, Albert

    2016-03-01

    The significant increase of skin cancer occurring in the western world is attributed to longer sun expose during leisure time. For prevention, people should become aware of the risks of UV light exposure by showing skin damage and the protective effect of sunscreen with an UV camera. An UV awareness imaging system optimized for 365 nm (UV-A) was develop using consumer components being interactive, safe and mobile. A Sony NEX5t camera was adapted to full spectral range. In addition, UV transparent lenses and filters were selected based on spectral characteristics measured (Schott S8612 and Hoya U-340 filters) to obtain the highest contrast for e.g. melanin spots and wrinkles on the skin. For uniform UV illumination, 2 facial tanner units were adapted with UV 365 nm black light fluorescent tubes. Safety of the UV illumination was determined relative to the sun and with absolute irradiance measurements at the working distance. A maximum exposure time over 15 minutes was calculate according the international safety standards. The UV camera was successfully demonstrated during the Dutch National Skin Cancer day and was well received by dermatologists and participating public. Especially, the 'black paint' effect putting sun screen on the face was dramatic and contributed to the awareness of regions on the face what are likely to be missed applying sunscreen. The UV imaging system shows to be promising for diagnostics and clinical studies in dermatology and potentially in other areas (dentistry and ophthalmology)

  15. UV-radiation and skin cancer dose effect curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, T.; Dahlback, A.; Larsen, S.H.

    1988-08-01

    Norwegian skin cancer data were used in an attempt to arrive at the dose effect relationship for UV-carcinogenesis. The Norwegian population is relatively homogenous with regard to skin type and live in a country where the annual effective UV-dose varies by approximately 40 percent. Four different regions of the country, each with a broadness of 1 o in latitude (approximately 111 km), were selected . The annual effective UV-doses for these regions were calculated assuming normal ozone conditions throughout the year. The incidence of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (mainly basal cell carcinoma) in these regions were considered and compared to the annual UV-doses. For both these types of cancer a quadratic dose effect curve seems to be valid. Depletions of the ozone layer results in larger UV-doses which in turn may yield more skin cancer. The dose effect curves suggest that the incidence rate will increase by an ''amplification factor'' of approximately 2

  16. Study of the absorption and energy transfer processes in inorganic luminescent materials in the UV and VUV region; Etude des processus d`absorption et de transfert d`energie au sein de materiaux inorganiques luminescents dans le domaine UV et VUV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayolet, A

    1995-11-29

    In order to find a green emitting phosphor showing high quantum efficiency and a short decay time which can be used in the color Plasma Display Panels developed by Thomson-TTE-TIV company, a VUV spectrophotometer built at IPN Orsay, using the synchrotron radiation from the SUPER-ACO storage ring as an excitation source, allow us the simultaneous recording of the luminescence excitation and diffuse reflectivity spectra of the inorganic compounds in the UV-VUV range. In addition, this experimental set-up enable us to determine the luminescence quantum efficiency of phosphors in the whole energy range of investigation. The chemical synthesis of rare-earth ortho-- and metaborate and rare-earth ortho- and metaphosphate doped with trivalent lanthanide ions cerium, praseodymium, europium and terbium have been made. The energy variation of the thresholds of the luminescence excitation mechanisms in function of the nature and the structure of the host matrix is discussed. We have determined the influence of the nephelauxetic effect and the crystal field intensity on the energy of the f-d inter-configuration transitions. The variation of the luminescence quantum efficiency of the dopant ion is interpreted through the `impurity bound exciton` model. The systematic comparison of the cerium and terbium trivalent ions spectroscopic properties in the Y(AG)G host lattice series stands to reason that the self-ionized state of the luminescent center plays an important role in the rate of the non radiative relaxation. It is the redox power of the host matrix which imposes to the luminescent center, the energy of this state. (author) 134 refs.

  17. Is there vacuum when there is mass? Vacuum and non-vacuum solutions for massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Massive gravity is a theory which has a tremendous amount of freedom to describe different cosmologies, but at the same time, the various solutions one encounters must fulfil some rather nontrivial constraints. Most of the freedom comes not from the Lagrangian, which contains only a small number of free parameters (typically three depending on counting conventions), but from the fact that one is in principle free to choose the reference metric almost arbitrarily—which effectively introduces a non-denumerable infinity of free parameters. In the current paper, we stress that although changing the reference metric would lead to a different cosmological model, this does not mean that the dynamics of the universe can be entirely divorced from its matter content. That is, while the choice of reference metric certainly influences the evolution of the physically observable foreground metric, the effect of matter cannot be neglected. Indeed the interplay between matter and geometry can be significantly changed in some specific models; effectively since the graviton would be able to curve the spacetime by itself, without the need of matter. Thus, even the set of vacuum solutions for massive gravity can have significant structure. In some cases, the effect of the reference metric could be so strong that no conceivable material content would be able to drastically affect the cosmological evolution. Dedicated to the memory of Professor Pedro F González–Díaz (paper)

  18. Optical Alignment of the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter using Sophisticated Methods to Minimize Activities under Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giono, G.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ishikawa, R.; Narukage, N.; Kano, R.; Kubo, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Bando, T.; Hara, H.; Suematsu, Y.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding-rocket instrument developed at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) as a part of an international collaboration. The in- strument main scientific goal is to achieve polarization measurement of the Lyman-alpha line at 121.56 nm emitted from the solar upper-chromosphere and transition region with an unprecedented 0.1% accuracy. For this purpose, the optics are composed of a Cassegrain telescope coated with a "cold mirror" coating optimized for UV reflection and a dual-channel spectrograph allowing for simultaneous observation of the two orthogonal states of polarization. Although the polarization sensitivity is the most important aspect of the instrument, the spatial and spectral resolutions of the instrument are also crucial to observe the chromospheric features and resolve the Ly- pro les. A precise alignment of the optics is required to ensure the resolutions, but experiments under vacuum conditions are needed since Ly-alpha is absorbed by air, making the alignment experiments difficult. To bypass this issue, we developed methods to align the telescope and the spectrograph separately in visible light. We will explain these methods and present the results for the optical alignment of the CLASP telescope and spectrograph. We will then discuss the combined performances of both parts to derive the expected resolutions of the instrument, and compare them with the flight observations performed on September 3rd 2015.

  19. DNA damage caused by UV- and near UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    1986-01-01

    Much work with mutants deficient in DNA repair has been performed concerning UV-induced DNA damage under the condition where there is no artificial stimulation. In an attempt to infer the effects of solar wavelengths, the outcome of the work is discussed in terms of cellular radiation sensitivity, unscheduled DNA synthesis, and mutation induction, leading to the conclusion that some DNA damage occurs even by irradiation of the shorter wavelength light (270 - 315 nm) and is repaired by excision repair. It has been thought to date that pyrimidine dimer (PD) plays the most important role in UV-induced DNA damage, followed by (6 - 4) photoproducts. As for DNA damage induced by near UV irradiation, the yield of DNA single-strand breaks and of DNA-protein crosslinking, other than PD, is considered. The DNA-protein crosslinking has proved to be induced by irradiation at any wavelength of UV ranging from 260 to 425 nm. Near UV irradiation causes the inhibition of cell proliferation to take place. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Conformation of L-Tyrosine Studied by Fluorescence-Detected UV-UV and IR-UV Double-Resonance Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Ito, Takafumi; Ebata, Takayuki

    2007-01-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence spectrum of jet-cooled L-tyrosine exhibits more than 20 vibronic bands in the 35450-35750 cm-1 region. We attribute these bands to eight conformers by using results of UV-UV hole-burning spectroscopy. These isomers are classified into four groups; each group consists of two rotational isomers that have a similar side-chain conformation but different orientations of the phenolic OH. The splitting of band origins of rotational isomers is 31, 21, 5, and 0 cm-1 for ...

  1. Alternatives of ITER vacuum vessel support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Junji; Kitamura, Kazunori; Araki, Masanori; Ohno, Isamu; Shoji, Teruaki

    2002-07-01

    Optional designs of vacuum vessel (VV) support have been performed for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) to reduce stresses and buckling concern of the flexible plate structure in ITER-FDR. One of the optional designs is hanging type VV support concept that consists of top hanging supports at the top of VV and middle radial stoppers in the middle of outboard VV. The hanging supports are located at the toroidal field (TF) coil inboard top region (R∼5400 mm) using the narrow window space surrounded by a poloidal field coil (PF1) and TF coil. The radial stoppers are located inside TF coil cases in the TF coil outboard middle region (R∼9300 mm). The upper flange connection of the radial stoppers should slide in vertical direction to eliminate thermal stress produced by relative thermal displacement between VV wall and TF coil case. Both supports consist of flexible plates and are mounted on 18 locations in toroidal direction. The radial and toroidal reaction forces are shared with the hanging supports and the radial stoppers. However, the vertical force is sustained by only the hanging supports. The others are compressive type support concept that consists of nine VV supports located in alternate divertor port regions in toroidal direction. Two designs have been performed for the VV support concept. One is mounted on TF inter-coil structures (OIS) and the other is on cryostat ring. The compressive support on TF coil OIS is dependent on TF coil movement but that on cryostat is independent. In the optional designs, the bending stress due to the relative thermal displacement between TF coil and VV is classified to primary stress according to ASME Sec. III NF. The stress due to TF coil displacement is also considered as primary stress. The stress due to non-uniform temperature distribution of the flexible plate is classified to secondary stress. The preliminary structural assessments for the optional designs have been performed for all load

  2. High vacuum tribology of polycrystalline diamond coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polycrystalline diamond coatings; hot filament CVD; high vacuum tribology. 1. Introduction .... is a characteristic of graphite. We mark the (diamond ... coefficient of friction due to changes in substrate temperature. The average coefficient of.

  3. Gravitational collapse and the vacuum energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M

    2014-01-01

    To explain the accelerated expansion of the universe, models with interacting dark components (dark energy and dark matter) have been considered recently in the literature. Generally, the dark energy component is physically interpreted as the vacuum energy of the all fields that fill the universe. As the other side of the same coin, the influence of the vacuum energy on the gravitational collapse is of great interest. We study such collapse adopting different parameterizations for the evolution of the vacuum energy. We discuss the homogeneous collapsing star fluid, that interacts with a vacuum energy component, using the stiff matter case as example. We conclude this work with a discussion of the Cahill-McVittie mass for the collapsed object.

  4. Analytical and numerical tools for vacuum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kersevan, R

    2007-01-01

    Modern particle accelerators have reached a level of sophistication which require a thorough analysis of all their sub-systems. Among the latter, the vacuum system is often a major contributor to the operating performance of a particle accelerator. The vacuum engineer has nowadays a large choice of computational schemes and tools for the correct analysis, design, and engineering of the vacuum system. This paper is a review of the different type of algorithms and methodologies which have been developed and employed in the field since the birth of vacuum technology. The different level of detail between simple back-of-the-envelope calculations and more complex numerical analysis is discussed by means of comparisons. The domain of applicability of each method is discussed, together with its pros and cons.

  5. Exact vacuum energy of orbifold lattice theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, So

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the orbifold lattice theories constructed from supersymmetric Yang-Mills matrix theories (mother theories) with four and eight supercharges. We show that the vacuum energy of these theories does not receive any quantum correction perturbatively

  6. Design of the ZTH vacuum liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, P.P.; Dike, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The current status of the ZTh vacuum liner design is covered by this report. ZTH will be the first experiment to be installed in the CPRF (Confinement Physics Research Facility) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and is scheduled to be operational at the rated current of 4 MA in 1992. The vacuum vessel has a 2.4m major radius and a 40 cm minor radius. Operating parameters which drive the vacuum vessel mechanical design include a 300 C bakeout temperature, an armour support system capable of withstanding 25 kV, a high toroidal resistance, 1250 kPa magnetic loading, a 10 minute cycle time, and high positional accuracy with respect to the conducting shell. The vacuum vessel design features which satisfy the operating parameters are defined

  7. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  8. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

  9. Topology of classical vacuum space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.M.

    2007-04-01

    We present a topological classification of classical vacuum space-time. Assuming the 3-dimensional space allows a global chart, we show that the static vacuum space-time of Einstein's theory can be classified by the knot topology π 3 (S 3 ) = π 3 (S 2 ). Viewing Einstein's theory as a gauge theory of Lorentz group and identifying the gravitational connection as the gauge potential of Lorentz group, we construct all possible vacuum gravitational connections which give a vanishing curvature tensor. With this we show that the vacuum connection has the knot topology, the same topology which describes the multiple vacua of SU(2) gauge theory. We discuss the physical implications of our result in quantum gravity. (author)

  10. 2XIIB vacuum vessel: a unique design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.; Calderon, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror confinement experiment makes unique demands on its vacuum system. The confinement coil set encloses a cavity whose surface is comprised of both simple and compound curves. Within this cavity and at the core of the machine is the operating vacuum which is on the order of 10 -9 Torr. The vacuum container fits inside the cavity, presenting an inside surface suitable for titanium getter pumping and a means of removing the heat load imposed by incandescent sublimator wires. In addition, the cavity is constructed of nonmagnetic and nonconducting materials (nonmetals) to avoid distortion of the pulsed confinement field. It is also isolated from mechanical shocks induced in the machine's main structure when the coils are pulsed. This paper describes the design, construction, and operation of the 2XIIB high-vacuum vessel that has been performing successfully since early 1974

  11. Production of Lunar Oxygen Through Vacuum Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matchett, John

    2006-01-01

    .... The vacuum pyrolysis method of oxygen production from lunar regolith presents a viable option for in situ propellant production because of its simple operation involving limited resources from earth...

  12. Design of the CLIC Quadrupole Vacuum Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider, under study, requires vacuum chambers with a very small aperture, of the order of 8 mm in diameter, and with a length up to around 2 m for the main beam quadrupoles. To keep the very tight geometrical tolerances on the quadrupoles, no bake out is allowed. The main issue is to reach UHV conditions (typically 10-9 mbar static pressure) in a system where the vacuum performance is driven by water outgassing. For this application, a thinwalled stainless steel vacuum chamber with two ante chambers equipped with NEG strips, is proposed. The mechanical design, especially the stability analysis, is shown. The key technologies of the prototype fabrication are given. Vacuum tests are carried out on the prototypes. The test set-up as well as the pumping system conditions are presented.

  13. FRIB driver linac vacuum model and benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    Durickovic, Bojan; Kersevan, Roberto; Machicoane, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a superconducting heavy-ion linear accelerator that is to produce rare isotopes far from stability for low energy nuclear science. In order to achieve this, its driver linac needs to achieve a very high beam current (up to 400 kW beam power), and this requirement makes vacuum levels of critical importance. Vacuum calculations have been carried out to verify that the vacuum system design meets the requirements. The modeling procedure was benchmarked by comparing models of an existing facility against measurements. In this paper, we present an overview of the methods used for FRIB vacuum calculations and simulation results for some interesting sections of the accelerator. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Theorem on axially symmetric gravitational vacuum configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A; Le Denmat, G [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Inst. Henri Poincare

    1977-01-24

    A theorem is proved which asserts the non-existence of axially symmetric gravitational vacuum configurations with non-stationary rotation only. The eventual consequences in black-hole physics are suggested.

  15. Re-circulating linac vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Russell P.; Corlett, John N.; Zholents, Alexander A.

    2003-01-01

    The vacuum system for a proposed 2.5 GeV, 10ΜA recirculating linac synchrotron light source [1] is readily achievable with conventional vacuum hardware and established fabrication processes. Some of the difficult technical challenges associated with synchrotron light source storage rings are sidestepped by the relatively low beam current and short beam lifetime requirements of a re-circulating linac. This minimal lifetime requirement leads directly to relatively high limits on the background gas pressure through much of the facility. The 10ΜA average beam current produces very little synchrotron radiation induced gas desorption and thus the need for an ante-chamber in the vacuum chamber is eliminated. In the arc bend magnets, and the insertion devices, the vacuum chamber dimensions can be selected to balance the coherent synchrotron radiation and resistive wall wakefield effects, while maintaining the modest limits on the gas pressure and minimal outgassing

  16. High Vacuum Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Mays, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are the most suitable for the preparation of polymer samples with well-defined complex macromolecular architectures. Though HVTs require glassblowing skill for designing and making polymerization

  17. Extremely-high vacuum pressure measurement by laser ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, Kiyohide

    1991-01-01

    Laser ionization method has the very high sensitivity for detecting atoms and molecules. Hurst et al. successfully detected a single Cs atom by means of resonance ionization spectroscopy developed by them. Noting this high sensitivity, the authors have attempted to apply the laser ionization method to measure gas pressure, particularly in the range down to extremely high vacuum. At present, hot cathode ionization gauges are used for measuring gas pressure down to ultrahigh vacuum, however, those have a number of disadvantages. The pressure measurement using lasers does not have such disadvantages. The pressure measurement utilizing the laser ionization method is based on the principle that when laser beam is focused through a lens, the amount of atom or molecule ions generated in the focused space region is proportional to gas pressure. In this paper, the experimental results are presented on the nonresonant multiphoton ionization characteristics of various kinds of gases, the ion detection system with high sensitivity and an extremely high vacuum system prepared for the laser ionization experiment. (K.I.)

  18. Chromium depletion from stainless steels during vacuum annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.F.; Hales, R.

    1977-01-01

    During selective chromium oxidation of stainless steels the changes in chromium concentration at the metal surface and in the metal have an important bearing on the overall oxidation performance. It has been proposed that an analogue of chromium behaviour during selective oxidation is obtained from volatilisation of chromium during high temperature vacuum annealing. In the present report the evaporation of chromium from 316 type of steel, vacuum annealed at 1,000 0 C, has been investigated by means of energy dispersive X-ray analysis and by neutron activation analysis. It was established that chromium loss from austenitic stainless steels is rate controlled by interdiffusion in the alloy. As predicted the chromium concentration at the metal surface decreased with increasing vacuum annealing time. The chromium depletion profile in the metal was in good agreement with the previously derived model apart from an anomalous region near the surface. Here the higher resolution of the neutron activation technique indicated a zone within approximately 2μm of the surface where the chromium concentration decreased more steeply than expected. (orig.) [de

  19. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A

    1998-06-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1,115 MeV. At about 5 NeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted ut of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models

  20. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% % to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1115 MeV. At about 5 MeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted out of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models. (authors)

  1. Two-components UV-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullmann, H.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    20 patients with generalized psoriasis were treated with an apparatus containing UV-A- and UV-B-fluorescence tubes to be switched separately. The therapy was started with an UV-A-dose of 12 J/cm 2 daily. After the first week of treatment UV-B in increasing doses was applicated additionally. Clearance was achieved in 80 percent. (orig.) [de

  2. Vacuum-plasma coverings on the aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvetsov, V.D.; Teksin, Eh.K.; Lysyak, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    In the article are considered the perspectives of vacuum-plasma coverings using for engine components protection. The influence of operating factors on the durability of components which has the vacuum-plasma coverings is show.Leads in using the concept of informational parameter of quality.The recommendation about organization of engine with abolished components maintenance by methods of flyable conditions or reliability level are given

  3. The Effect of Forcing on Vacuum Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-Smith, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh; Lowenstein, Ashton

    2018-01-01

    Vacuum radiation has been the subject of theoretical study in both cosmology and condensed matter physics for many decades. Recently there has been impressive progress in experimental realizations as well. Here we study vacuum radiation when a field mode is driven both parametrically and by a classical source. We find that in the Heisenberg picture the field operators of the mode undergo a Bogolyubov transformation combined with a displacement, in the Schr\\"odinger picture the oscillator evol...

  4. Cluster expansion for vacuum confining fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    Colored particle Green functions in vacuum background random fields are written as path integrals. Averaging over random fields is done using the cluster (cumulant) expansion. The existence of a finite correlation length for vacuum background fields is shown to produce the linear confinement, in agreement with the results, obtained with the help of averaged Hamiltonians. A modified form of cluster expansion for nonabelian fields is introduced using the path-ordered cumulants

  5. Vacuum decay in an interacting multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Pérez, S.; Alonso-Serrano, A.; Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.

    2016-08-01

    We examine a new multiverse scenario in which the component universes interact. We focus our attention to the process of "true" vacuum nucleation in the false vacuum within one single element of the multiverse. It is shown that the interactions lead to a collective behavior that might lead, under specific conditions, to a pre-inflationary phase and ensued distinguishable imprints in the comic microwave background radiation.

  6. Vacuum decay in an interacting multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles-Pérez, S. [Centro de Física “Miguel Catalán”, Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estación Ecológica de Biocosmología, Pedro de Alvarado, 14, 06411 Medellín (Spain); Alonso-Serrano, A. [Centro de Física “Miguel Catalán”, Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estación Ecológica de Biocosmología, Pedro de Alvarado, 14, 06411 Medellín (Spain); School of Mathematics and Statistics, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Bastos, C., E-mail: catarina.bastos@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [GoLP, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Bertolami, O. [Departamento de Física e Astronomia and Centro de Física do Porto, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2016-08-10

    We examine a new multiverse scenario in which the component universes interact. We focus our attention to the process of “true” vacuum nucleation in the false vacuum within one single element of the multiverse. It is shown that the interactions lead to a collective behavior that might lead, under specific conditions, to a pre-inflationary phase and ensued distinguishable imprints in the comic microwave background radiation.

  7. Vacuum decay in an interacting multiverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Robles-Pérez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We examine a new multiverse scenario in which the component universes interact. We focus our attention to the process of “true” vacuum nucleation in the false vacuum within one single element of the multiverse. It is shown that the interactions lead to a collective behavior that might lead, under specific conditions, to a pre-inflationary phase and ensued distinguishable imprints in the comic microwave background radiation.

  8. Vacuum decay in an interacting multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles-Pérez, S.; Alonso-Serrano, A.; Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.

    2016-01-01

    We examine a new multiverse scenario in which the component universes interact. We focus our attention to the process of “true” vacuum nucleation in the false vacuum within one single element of the multiverse. It is shown that the interactions lead to a collective behavior that might lead, under specific conditions, to a pre-inflationary phase and ensued distinguishable imprints in the comic microwave background radiation.

  9. On microscopic structure of the QCD vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, D. G.; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Kim, Youngman; Tsukioka, Takuya; Zhang, P. M.

    2018-05-01

    We propose a new class of regular stationary axially symmetric solutions in a pure QCD which correspond to monopole-antimonopole pairs at macroscopic scale. The solutions represent vacuum field configurations which are locally stable against quantum gluon fluctuations in any small space-time vicinity. This implies that the monopole-antimonopole pair can serve as a structural element in microscopic description of QCD vacuum formation.

  10. Constrained potential method for false vacuum decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae-hyeon

    2010-11-01

    A procedure is reported for numerical analysis of false vacuum transition in a model with multiple scalar fields. It is a refined version of the approach by Konstandin and Huber. The alteration makes it possible to tackle a class of problems that was difficult or unsolvable with the original method, i.e. those with a distant or nonexistent true vacuum. An example with an unbounded-from-below direction is presented. (orig.)

  11. Vacuum level effects on gait characteristics for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Greenland, Kasey; Bloswick, Donald; Zhao, Jie; Merryweather, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    The elevated vacuum suspension system has demonstrated unique health benefits for amputees, but the effect of vacuum pressure values on gait characteristics is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated vacuum levels on temporal parameters, kinematics and kinetics for unilateral transtibial amputees. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted in 9 unilateral transtibial amputees walking at a controlled speed with five vacuum levels ranging from 0 to 20inHg, and also in 9 able-bodied subjects walking at self-preferred speed. Repeated ANOVA and Dunnett's t-test were performed to determine the effect of vacuum level and limb for within subject and between groups. The effect of vacuum level significantly affected peak hip external rotation and external knee adduction moment. Maximum braking and propulsive ground reaction forces generally increased for the residual limb and decreased for the intact limb with increasing vacuum. Additionally, the intact limb experienced an increased loading due to gait asymmetry for several variables. There was no systematic vacuum level effect on gait. Higher vacuum levels, such as 15 and 20inHg, were more comfortable and provided some relief to the intact limb, but may also increase the risk of osteoarthritis of the residual limb due to the increased peak external hip and knee adduction moments. Very low vacuum should be avoided because of the negative effects on gait symmetry. A moderate vacuum level at 15inHg is suggested for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. TAUVEX UV imager on the SRG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Noah; Shemi, Amotz; Netzer, Hagai; Blasberger, Avigdor; Topaz, Jeremy M.

    1994-11-01

    The TAUVEX space astronomy experiment to image wide sky areas in the 140 - 280 nm spectral region is part of the SODART telescope complex on SRG, and functions as a separate scientific instrument and as a service system for the spacecraft. The experiment consists of three bore-sighted telescopes with 20 cm diameter Ritchey-Chretien optics. Each telescope is equipped with a four-position filter wheel and can select one of six UV bands in the spectral region of operation. The photon-counting, imaging detectors cover a field of view of 0 degree(s).9, with 80% of the energy from a point source within about 10 arcsec. The image is sampled at 3 arcsec intervals. The sensitivity is such that stars of 10 - 11 mag in the UV are detected in 2 sec, and in a typical SRG pointing of 5 hours stars as faint as 20 mag are detectable. TAUVEX provides off-line aspect solutions for the SODART focal plane instruments and on-line fine pointing information to the SRG attitude and control system. The experiment is constructed by El-Op, Electro-Optical Industries Ltd., and is financially supported by the Government of Israel, through the Israel Space Agency and the Ministry of Science and Arts. By mid-1994 four models of TAUVEX had been produced and supplied to the SRG integrators: size and mass models in 1992, a thermal model in early 1993 and an engineering model in spring 1994. A qualification model is being tested intensively at El-Op these days and the flight model will be ready, after testing, burn-in and calibration, by the end of 1994. TAUVEX is a light-weight, low-power, versatile UV imaging experiment with significant redundancy, which is not limited to operations on-board SRG. The system may operate on other platforms, including small satellites, if such an opportunity occurs.

  13. Performance evaluation on vacuum pumps using nanolubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, Yeou Feng; Hsu, Yu Chun; Teng, Tun Ping [Dept. of Industrial EducationNational Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan (China)

    2016-09-15

    This study produced alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanovacuum-pump lubricants (NVALs) by involving the dispersion of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles in a vacuum-pump lubricant (VAL) with oleic as a dispersant. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the suspension performance, thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat, tribological performance and vacuum-pump performance of the NVALs. The experimental results obtained from the vacuum-pump performance tests show that the NVALs with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration of 0.2 wt.% and oleic concentration of 0.025 wt.% yielded the lowest electricity consumption, conserving 2.39% of electricity compared with the VAL. No marked difference was observed between the temperatures of the vacuum pump using VAL and NVAL. Furthermore, evacuation (i.e., the minimal pressure of -99.5 kPa) was reached faster by the vacuum pump with the NVALs, and the evacuation time could be reduced by 4.91% under optimal conditions. In addition, the vacuum pump with the NVALs exhibited superior overall effectiveness under relatively lower ambient temperatures.

  14. Manufacture of superhigh vacuum testing tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Kusuo; Suzui, Koichi; Horigome, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    This apparatus is one of the preliminary experiment equipments for the vacuum system of a UVSOR, and the main objective is to obtain the clean vacuum below 10 - 10 Torr. From the viewpoint of manufacture, there is no problem, but all the works from the design through manufacture, assembling and adjustment of the apparatus, to the obtaining of required vacuum were carried out by the authors themselves. The design and its points, and manufacture are described. In order to obtain clean vacuum and maintain it for long period, the surface cleaning of vacuum tanks is very important. Therefore the method of electrolytic polishing was adopted for the purpose, and its effectiveness was examined. After the surface treatment by two methods, the evacuation test was carried out, and the attained pressure was compared. Electrolytic polishing seemed to be effective. As the method of suppressing surface degasification, there is argon bombardment method. It was attempted to improve the pressure attained by baking only further by this method. By baking at 250 deg C for 30 hr only, the final pressure attained was 1.7 x 10 - 10 Torr, and by making argon bombardment twice during baking, it was 0.9 x 10 - 10 Torr, thus slight improvement was obtained. The main objective to obtain vacuum below 10 - 10 Torr was accomplished, but surface treatment requires more experience. (Kako, I.)

  15. Cosmological evolution of vacuum and cosmic acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Ali

    2010-01-01

    It is known that the unregularized expressions for the stress-energy tensor components corresponding to subhorizon and superhorizon vacuum fluctuations of a massless scalar field in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background are characterized by the equation of state parameters ω = 1/3 and ω = -1/3, which are not sufficient to produce cosmological acceleration. However, the form of the adiabatically regularized finite stress-energy tensor turns out to be completely different. By using the fact that vacuum subhorizon modes evolve nearly adiabatically and superhorizon modes have ω = -1/3, we approximately determine the regularized stress-energy tensor, whose conservation is utilized to fix the time dependence of the vacuum energy density. We then show that vacuum energy density grows from zero up to H 4 in about one Hubble time, vacuum fluctuations give positive acceleration of the order of H 4 /M 2 p and they can completely alter the cosmic evolution of the universe dominated otherwise by the cosmological constant, radiation or pressureless dust. Although the magnitude of the acceleration is tiny to explain the observed value today, our findings indicate that the cosmological backreaction of vacuum fluctuations must be taken into account in early stages of cosmic evolution.

  16. Use of vacuum in processing of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saify, M.T.; Rai, C.B.; Singh, S.P.; Singh, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Natural uranium in the form of metal and alloys with suitable heat treatment are being used as fuel in research and some of the power reactors. The fuel is required to satisfy the purity specification from the criteria of neutron economy, corrosion resistance and fabricability. Uranium and its alloys fall under the category of reactive materials. They readily react with atmospheric air to form oxides. If molten uranium is exposed to atmosphere, it reacts violently with atmospheric gases and moisture, leading to explosion in extreme cases. Hence, protective inert atmosphere or high vacuum is required in processing of the materials especially during the melting and casting operation. Vacuum is preferred for melting and remelting of metals and alloys to remove the gaseous and high volatile impurities, to improve the mechanical properties of the material. Also, under vacuum sound castings are produced for further processing by mechanical working or use in casting forms. The addition of reactive alloying elements in uranium is efficiently carried out under vacuum. The paper highlights vacuum systems deployed and applications of vacuum in various operations involved in the processing of uranium and its alloys

  17. TFTR ultrahigh-vacuum pumping system incorporating mercury diffusion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sink, D.A.; Sniderman, M.

    1976-06-01

    The TFTR vacuum vessel will have a system of four 61 cm diameter mercury diffusion pumps to provide a base pressure in the 10 -8 to 10 -9 Torr range as well as a low impurity level within the vessel. The system, called the Torus Vacuum Pumping System (TVPS), will be employed with the aid of an occasional 250 0 C bakeout in situ as well as periodic applications of aggressive discharge cleaning. The TVPS is an ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) system using no elastomers as well as being a closed system with respect to tritium or any tritiated gases. The backing system employing approximately 75 all-metal isolation valves is designed with the features of redundancy and flexibility employed in a variety of ways to meet the fundamental requirements and functions enumerated for the TVPS. Since the design, is one which is a modification of the conceptual design of the TVPS, those features which have changed are discussed. Calculations are presented for the major performance parameters anticipated for the TVPS and include conductances, effective pumping speeds, base pressures, operating parameters, getter pump parameters, and calculations of time constants associated with leak checking. Modifications in the vacuum pumping system for the guard regions on the twelve bellows sections are presented so that it is compatible with the main TVPS. The bellows pumping system consists of a mechanical pump unit, a zirconium aluminum getter pump unit and a residual gas analyzer. The control and management of the TVPS is described with particular attention given to providing both manual and automatic control at a local station and at the TFTR Central Control. Such operations as testing, maintenance, leak checking, startup, bakeout, and various other operations are considered in some detail. Various aspects related to normal pulsing, discharge cleaning, non-tritium operations and tritium operations are also taken into consideration. A cost estimate is presented

  18. Introduction to vacuum technology: supplementary study material developed for IVS sponsored vacuum courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhusan, K.G.

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum technology has advanced to a large extent mainly from the demands of experimental research scientists who have more than ever understood the need for clean very low pressure environments. This need only seems to increase as the lowest pressures achievable in a laboratory setup are dropping down by the decade. What is not usually said is that conventional techniques of producing ultrahigh vacuum have also undergone a metamorphosis in order to cater to the multitude of restrictions in modern day scientific research. This book aims to give that practical approach to vacuum technology. The basics are given in the first chapter with more of a definition oriented approach - which is practically useful. The second chapter deals with the production of vacuum and ultrahigh vacuum with an emphasis on the working principles of several pumps and their working pressure ranges. Measurement of low pressures, both total and partial is presented in the third chapter with a note on leak detection and mass spectrometric techniques. Chapter 4 gives an overview of the materials that are vacuum compatible and their material properties. Chapter 5 gives the necessary methods to be followed for cleaning of vacuum components especially critical if ultrahigh vacuum environment is required. The practical use of a ultrahigh vacuum environment is demonstrated in Chapter 6 for production of high quality thin films through vapour deposition

  19. Determination of ionization energies of CnN (n=4-12): Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization experiments and theoretical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostko, Oleg; Zhou, Jia; Sun, Bian Jian; Lie, Jie Shiuan; Chang, Agnes H.H.; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2010-01-01

    Results from single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of astrophysically relevant CnN clusters, n = 4 - 12, in the photon energy range of 8.0 eV to 12.8 eV are presented. The experimental photoionization efficiency curves, combined with electronic structure calculations, provide improved ionization energies of the CnN species. A search through numerous nitrogen-terminated CnN isomers for n=4-9 indicates that the linear isomer has the lowest energy, and therefore should be the most abundant isomer in the molecular beam. Comparison with calculated results also shed light on the energetics of the linear CnN clusters, particularly in the trends of the even-carbon and the odd-carbon series. These results can help guide the search of potential astronomical observations of these neutral molecules together with their cations in highly ionized regions or regions with a high UV/VUV photon flux (ranging from the visible to VUV with flux maxima in the Lyman-a region) in the interstellar medium.

  20. Excimer UV curing in printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehnert, R.

    1999-01-01

    It is the aim of this study to investigate the potential of 308 run excimer UV curing in web and sheet fed offset printing and to discuss its present status. Using real-time FTIR-ATR and stationary or pulsed monochromatic (313 nm) irradiation chemical and physical factors affecting the curing speed of printing inks such as nature and concentration of photo-initiators, reactivity of the ink binding system, ink thickness and pigmentation, irradiance in the curing plane, oxygen concentration and nitrogen inerting, multiple pulse exposure, the photochemical dark reaction and temperature dependence were studied. The results were used to select optimum conditions for excimer UV curing in respect to ink reactivity, nitrogen inerting and UV exposure and to build an excimer UV curing unit consisting of two 50 W/cm 308 run excimer lamps, power supply, cooling and inerting unit. The excimer UV curing devices were tested under realistic conditions on a web offset press zirkon supra forte and a sheet fed press Heidelberg GTO 52. Maximum curing speeds of 300 m/min in web offset and 8000 sheets per hour in sheet fed offset were obtained

  1. UV-indeks og dets betydning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf, Hans Christian; Eriksen, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The published UV index refers to the expected UV intensity at mid day, when the solar elevation is at its maximum. In Scandinavia, the maximum UV index is seven around midsummer. When the UV index is three, the erythema-weighted dose will be three Standard Erythema Dose (SED) in the hour with max...... a sunburn already when the UV index is higher than two....

  2. The cloud effects on UV irradiance modeled in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafanelli, C.; Anav, A.; Ciattaglia, L.; Di Menno, I.; Di Menno, M.; Araujo, J.; Ochoa, H.; Rodriguez, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The measurement of solar UV radiation in Antarctica is very important in order to obtain information about Ozone level, and many spectro radiometers are installed in the area to perform this task. Usually, their use is very difficult in harsh environment like Southern polar regions, and several multichannel radiometers have been installed. The evaluation of the irradiance and total ozone levels are done using analytical models. A new semi-analytical method to estimate the solar UV irradiance at ground, named WL4UV, was developed. Using spectral irradiance values at 4 selected wavelengths in the UV-B and UV-A regions (305, 320, 340 and 380 nm), the solar UV irradiance at ground is evaluated with low percent of error. The applicability of the method has been tested for clear sky but such conditions are not common in Antarctic. This work investigate the applicability of the WL4UV model under cloudy sky conditions. The 4 irradiance necessary for the model were selected from spectrophotometer Brewer measurements carried out in the Argentinean Belgrano II base (77 degrees 52' S and 34 degrees 38' W). Other tests using spectrophotometers, Brewer and SUV 100, located in Ushuaia, (54 degrees 50' S and 68 degrees 19' W), were also too. This project was funded by the PNRA, IIA-DNA and CADIC for funding and supporting the activities. They thank also all the Brewer operators that in these years spent their time in the management of the instrument. Last but not the least they thank all IIA-DNA personnel for the professional help they put in carrying out the activities in all these years. (author)

  3. Applications of vacuum technology to novel accelerator problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garwin, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    Vacuum requirements for electron storage rings are most demanding to fulfill, due to the presence of gas desorption caused by large quantities of synchrotron radiation, the very limited area accessible for pumping ports, the need for 10/sup -9/ torr pressures in the ring, and for pressures a decade lower in the interaction regions. Design features of a wide variety of distributed ion sublimation pumps (DIP) developed at SLAC to meet these requirements are discussed, as well as NEG (non-evaporable getter) pumps tested for use in the Large Electron Positron Collider at CERN. Application of DIP to much higher pressures in electron damping rings for the Stanford Linear Collider are discussed.

  4. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1996-12-17

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

  5. Evolution of vacuum bubbles embedded in inhomogeneous spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannia, Florencia Anabella Teppa [Grupo de Astrofísica, Relatividad y Cosmología, Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina); Bergliaffa, Santiago Esteban Perez, E-mail: fteppa@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: sepbergliaffa@gmail.com [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado de Rio de Janeiro, CEP 20550-013, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    We study the propagation of bubbles of new vacuum in a radially inhomogeneous background filled with dust or radiation, and including a cosmological constant, as a first step in the analysis of the influence of inhomogeneities in the evolution of an inflating region. We also compare the cases with dust and radiation backgrounds and show that the evolution of the bubble in radiation environments is notably different from that in the corresponding dust cases, both for homogeneous and inhomogeneous ambients, leading to appreciable differences in the evolution of the proper radius of the bubble.

  6. Applications of vacuum technology to novel accelerator problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garwin, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    Vacuum requirements for electron storage rings are most demanding to fulfill, due to the presence of gas desorption caused by large quantities of synchrotron radiation, the very limited area accessible for pumping ports, the need for 10 -9 torr pressures in the ring, and for pressures a decade lower in the interaction regions. Design features of a wide variety of distributed ion sublimation pumps (DIP) developed at SLAC to meet these requirements are discussed, as well as NEG (non-evaporable getter) pumps tested for use in the Large Electron Positron Collider at CERN. Application of DIP to much higher pressures in electron damping rings for the Stanford Linear Collider are discussed

  7. Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 4. An Inflationary Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    This is the fourth paper in a series of four. The first paper in the series, "Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 1. A Liter of Vacuum Energy" [EJ1024183] discusses an example of vacuum energy. Vacuum energy is explained as an energy with a negative pressure whose energy density remains constant in an expanding space. Paper 2, "Vacuum…

  8. Validation of OMI UV measurements against ground-based measurements at a station in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Stamnes, Jakob; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øyvind; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2015-04-01

    We present solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance data measured with a NILU-UV instrument at a ground site in Kampala (0.31°N, 32.58°E), Uganda for the period 2005-2014. The data were analyzed and compared with UV irradiances inferred from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for the same period. Kampala is located on the shores of lake Victoria, Africa's largest fresh water lake, which may influence the climate and weather conditions of the region. Also, there is an excessive use of worn cars, which may contribute to a high anthropogenic loading of absorbing aerosols. The OMI surface UV algorithm does not account for absorbing aerosols, which may lead to systematic overestimation of surface UV irradiances inferred from OMI satellite data. We retrieved UV index values from OMI UV irradiances and validated them against the ground-based UV index values obtained from NILU-UV measurements. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern similar to that of the clouds and the rainfall. OMI inferred UV index values were overestimated with a mean bias of about 28% under all-sky conditions, but the mean bias was reduced to about 8% under clear-sky conditions when only days with radiation modification factor (RMF) greater than 65% were considered. However, when days with RMF greater than 70, 75, and 80% were considered, OMI inferred UV index values were found to agree with the ground-based UV index values to within 5, 3, and 1%, respectively. In the validation we identified clouds/aerosols, which were present in 88% of the measurements, as the main cause of OMI inferred overestimation of the UV index.

  9. Vacuum system of SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Pathan, Firozkhan; George, Siju; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpesh; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Thankey, Prashant; Ramesh, Gattu; Himabindu, Manthena; Pradhan, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Air leaks developed during ongoing SST-1 cooldown campaign were detected online using RGA. ► The presence of N 2 and O 2 gases with the ratio of their partial pressures with ∼3.81:1 confirmed the air leaks. ► Baking of SST-1 was done efficiently by flowing hot N 2 gas in C-channels welded on inner surfaces without any problem. ► In-house fabricated demountable bull nose couplers were demonstrated for high temperature and pressure applications. ► Cryopumping effect was observed when liquid helium cooled superconducting magnets reached below 63 K. -- Abstract: Vacuum chambers of Steady State Superconducting (SST-1) Tokamak comprises of the vacuum vessel and the cryostat. The plasma will be confined inside the vacuum vessel while the cryostat houses the superconducting magnet systems (TF and PF coils), LN 2 cooled thermal shields and hydraulics for these circuits. The vacuum vessel is an ultra-high (UHV) vacuum chamber while the cryostat is a high-vacuum (HV) chamber. In order to achieve UHV inside the vacuum vessel, it would be baked at 150 °C for longer duration. For this purpose, U-shaped baking channels are welded inside the vacuum vessel. The baking will be carried out by flowing hot nitrogen gas through these channels at 250 °C at 4.5 bar gauge pressure. During plasma operation, the pressure inside the vacuum vessel will be raised between 1.0 × 10 −4 mbar and 1.0 × 10 −5 mbar using piezoelectric valves and control system. An ultimate pressure of 4.78 × 10 −6 mbar is achieved inside the vacuum vessel after 100 h of pumping. The limitation is due to the development of few leaks of the order of 10 −5 mbar l/s at the critical locations of the vacuum vessel during baking which was confirmed with the presence of nitrogen gas and oxygen gas with the ratio of ∼3.81:1 indicating air leak. Similarly an ultimate vacuum of 2.24 × 10 −5 mbar is achieved inside the cryostat. Baking of the vacuum vessel up to 110 °C with ±10

  10. Vacuum system of SST-1 Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Ziauddin, E-mail: ziauddin@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Pathan, Firozkhan; George, Siju; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpesh; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Thankey, Prashant; Ramesh, Gattu; Himabindu, Manthena; Pradhan, Subrata [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Air leaks developed during ongoing SST-1 cooldown campaign were detected online using RGA. ► The presence of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gases with the ratio of their partial pressures with ∼3.81:1 confirmed the air leaks. ► Baking of SST-1 was done efficiently by flowing hot N{sub 2} gas in C-channels welded on inner surfaces without any problem. ► In-house fabricated demountable bull nose couplers were demonstrated for high temperature and pressure applications. ► Cryopumping effect was observed when liquid helium cooled superconducting magnets reached below 63 K. -- Abstract: Vacuum chambers of Steady State Superconducting (SST-1) Tokamak comprises of the vacuum vessel and the cryostat. The plasma will be confined inside the vacuum vessel while the cryostat houses the superconducting magnet systems (TF and PF coils), LN{sub 2} cooled thermal shields and hydraulics for these circuits. The vacuum vessel is an ultra-high (UHV) vacuum chamber while the cryostat is a high-vacuum (HV) chamber. In order to achieve UHV inside the vacuum vessel, it would be baked at 150 °C for longer duration. For this purpose, U-shaped baking channels are welded inside the vacuum vessel. The baking will be carried out by flowing hot nitrogen gas through these channels at 250 °C at 4.5 bar gauge pressure. During plasma operation, the pressure inside the vacuum vessel will be raised between 1.0 × 10{sup −4} mbar and 1.0 × 10{sup −5} mbar using piezoelectric valves and control system. An ultimate pressure of 4.78 × 10{sup −6} mbar is achieved inside the vacuum vessel after 100 h of pumping. The limitation is due to the development of few leaks of the order of 10{sup −5} mbar l/s at the critical locations of the vacuum vessel during baking which was confirmed with the presence of nitrogen gas and oxygen gas with the ratio of ∼3.81:1 indicating air leak. Similarly an ultimate vacuum of 2.24 × 10{sup −5} mbar is achieved inside the cryostat. Baking of the

  11. Low loss hollow optical-waveguide connection from atmospheric pressure to ultra-high vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolov, A.; Mak, K. F.; Tani, F.; Hölzer, P.; Travers, J. C. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Russell, P. St. J. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-12-23

    A technique for optically accessing ultra-high vacuum environments, via a photonic-crystal fiber with a long small hollow core, is described. The small core and the long bore enable a pressure ratio of over 10{sup 8} to be maintained between two environments, while permitting efficient and unimpeded delivery of light, including ultrashort optical pulses. This delivery can be either passive or can encompass nonlinear optical processes such as optical pulse compression, deep UV generation, supercontinuum generation, or other useful phenomena.

  12. UV radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is, for most people, a daily occurrence. Significant quantities of ultraviolet are present in sunlight, and this environmental exposure usually greatly exceeds that necessary for vitamin D production, the only certain benefit of UVR. In addition, occupational exposure to artificial sources of UVR is commonly encountered in commerce, industry and medicine. Exposure to UVR can present a hazard, principally to the eyes and exposed areas of the skin. The potential for any given source of UVR to cause photobiological damage depends on the spectral composition of the incident radiation, the geometry of optical coupling into the tissues at risk, the spectral sensitivity to damage of the irradiated tissue, the total accumulated exposure, and the action of any biological repair processes. In the ultraviolet region the photobiological interactions of concern are mainly photochemical. Hazard analysis and radiation protection require an appropriate framework of radiation measurement for the quantitative assessment of exposure and for the specification of safe exposure limits

  13. Design consideration on the synchrotron ultrahigh vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikawa, H.; Chida, K.; Mizobuchi, A.; Miyahara, A.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrahigh vacuum production for the high-energy heavy-ion accelerator poses special problems concerning beam-gas molecule and beam-wall interactions. In this paper, summary of the TARN ultrahigh vacuum system and design criteria of the synchrotron ultrahigh vacuum system are presented. On-beam pressure of 4 x 10 -11 Torr is achieved in the TARN ultrahigh vacuum system, of which experiences through the construction and the operation are described and discussed. With emphasis on the application of newly developed technique in the fabrication of vacuum chamber and ultrahigh vacuum pump for the synchrotron ultrahigh vacuum system. (author)

  14. Aerosols and surface UV products form Ozone Monitoring Instrument observations: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, O.; Tanskanen, A.; Veihelmann, B.; Ahn, C.; Braak, R.; Bhartia, P.K.; Veefkind, J.P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview of the theoretical and algorithmic aspects of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol and surface UV algorithms. Aerosol properties are derived from two independent algorithms. The nearUV algorithm makes use of OMI observations in the 350-390 nm spectral region to

  15. UV ATTENUATION NEAR CORAL REEFS IN THE FLORIDA KEYS: LIGHT ABSORPTION BY CDOM AND PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have investigated the roles of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and suspended particles in the attenuation of UV radiation in the middle and lower regions of the Florida Keys. Extended exposure to UV radiation, along with elevated sea surface temperatures, impairs...

  16. Design foundation of vacuum system for electron beam machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darsono; Suprapto; Djasiman

    1999-01-01

    Vacuum system is a main part of electron beam Machine because (EBM) the electron can not be produced without this vacuum. Vacuum system consists of vacuum pump, connecting pipe, valve, and vacuum gauge. The design vacuum system of EBM, basis knowledge and technology of vacuum is needed. The paper describes types of vacuum pump, calculation of pipe conductance and pumping time of vacuum system then there are used as consideration of criteria to choose vacuum pump for EBM. From the result of study, it is concluded that for EBM of 500 keV/10 mA which is going to use for wood coating and with consideration of economic and technic factor it is better to use diffusion pump. (author)

  17. UV-NIL replication of microlens arrays on flexible fluoropolymer substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jucius, Dalius; Lazauskas, Algirdas; Grigaliūnas, Viktoras

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes application of UV-NIL technique for the fabrication of hexagonal OrmoComp microlens arrays on flexible fluoropolymer substrates having exceptional chemical resistance, stability at elevated temperatures and high transmittance in the UV, visible, and infrared regions...... of the spectrum. Uniform and well-defined patterns of close-packed convex microlenses were formed in OrmoComp layers on H2 plasma treated FEP and ETFE substrates by UV-NIL replication of the metalized and liquid paraffin antiadhesive coated negative OrmoComp replicas of the master mold. UV-NIL replication...

  18. RELATION BETWEEN FUNCTION AND FORM IN VACUUM CLEANERS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU Ștefan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses how robotic vacuum cleaner works, describing their cleaning capabilities and additional features. The paper illustrates advantages of using robotic vacuum cleaners that have intelligent programming and a vacuum cleaning system, the components of a robotic vacuum cleaner. The paper develops aspects concerning to create 2D scale models for the evaluation of specific features of the new components for a prototype robotic vacuum cleaner.

  19. Novel bluish white-emitting CdBaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor for near-UV white-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derbel, Mouna [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, National School of Engineers of Sfax, University of Sfax, BPW 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Mbarek, Aïcha, E-mail: mbarekaicha@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, National School of Engineers of Sfax, University of Sfax, BPW 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Chadeyron, Geneviève [Clermont Université, ENSCCF, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Fourati, Mohieddine [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, National School of Engineers of Sfax, University of Sfax, BPW 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Zambon, Daniel [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Mahiou, Rachid [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, ICCF, BP 80026, F-63171 Aubiere (France)

    2016-08-15

    A new bluish white-emitting phosphor based on a phosphate host matrix, CdBaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+}, was prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The photoluminescence properties were investigated in both ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) regions. The band-gaps of Eu-doped CdBaP{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders can be tuned in the ranges of 2.26–2 eV. The Eu{sup 2+}-doped CdBaP{sub 2}O{sub 7} phosphor was efficiently excited at wavelengths of 250–400 nm, which is suitable for the blue emission band for near-UV light-emitting-diode (LED) chips (360–400 nm) and red emission peaks up to 700 nm. CdBaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} displays two different luminescence centers, which were suggested to Ba{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} sites in the host. The dependence of luminescence intensity on temperatures was measured. The chromaticity coordinates and activation energy for thermal quenching were reported. The phosphor shows a good thermal stability on temperature quenching.

  20. Design of the ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, K.; Johnson, G.; Shimizu, K.; Williamson, D.

    1995-01-01

    The ITER vacuum vessel is a major safety barrier and must support electromagnetic loads during plasma disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDE) and withstand plausible accidents without losing confinement.The vacuum vessel has a double wall structure to provide structural and electrical continuity in the toroidal direction. The inner and outer shells and poloidal stiffening ribs between them are joined by welding, which gives the vessel the required mechanical strength. The space between the shells will be filled with steel balls and plate inserts to provide additional nuclear shielding. Water flowing in this space is required to remove nuclear heat deposition, which is 0.2-2.5% of the total fusion power. The minor and major radii of the tokamak are 3.9 m and 13 m respectively, and the overall height is 15 m. The total thickness of the vessel wall structure is 0.4-0.7 m.The inboard and outboard blanket segments are supported from the vacuum vessel. The support structure is required to withstand a large total vertical force of 200-300 MN due to VDE and to allow for differential thermal expansion.The first candidate for the vacuum vessel material is Inconel 625, due to its higher electric resistivity and higher yield strength, even at high temperatures. Type 316 stainless steel is also considered a vacuum vessel material candidate, owing to its large database and because it is supported by more conventional fabrication technology. (orig.)