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Sample records for vaca enhances prostaglandin

  1. Helicobacter pylori VacA enhances prostaglandin E2 production through induction of cyclooxygenase 2 expression via a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/activating transcription factor 2 cascade in AZ-521 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisatsune, Junzo; Yamasaki, Eiki; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of AZ-521 cells with Helicobacter pylori VacA increased cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA in a time- and dose-dependent manner. A p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, SB203580, blocked elevation of COX-2 mRNA levels, whereas PD98059, which blocks the Erk1/2 cascade......A-induced COX-2 expression. In parallel with COX-2 expression, VacA increased prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production, which was inhibited by SB203580 and NS-398, a COX-2 inhibitor. VacA-induced PGE(2) production was markedly attenuated in AZ-521 cells stably expressing DN-p38. VacA increased transcription...... promoter activation. The reduction of ATF-2 expression in AZ-521 cells transformed with ATF-2-small interfering RNA duplexes resulted in suppression of COX-2 expression. Thus, VacA enhances PGE(2) production by AZ-521 cells through induction of COX-2 expression via the p38 MAPK/ATF-2 cascade, leading...

  2. N-Acetylcysteine enhances the action of anti-inflammatory drugs as suppressors of prostaglandin production in monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Hoffer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs is associated with inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX, the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the synthesis of prostaglandins. Since oxygen free radicals can act as second cellular messengers, especially to modulate the metabolism of arachidonic acid and the prostaglandin tract, it seems plausible that antioxidants might affect the production of prostaglandin by activated cells. This research is focused on the effect of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 formation in activated monocytes by specific and non-specific COX inhibitors. We found that lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E2 formation was significantly reduced by rofecoxib and by diclofenac, two NSAIDs. Addition of NAC to each of these drugs enhanced the effect of the NSAIDs. These results suggest that one might expect either a potentiation of the anti-inflammatory effect of COX inhibitors by their simultaneous administration with NAC, or obtaining the same anti-inflammatory at lower drug levels.

  3. Prostaglandins and its analogues : An approach for treatment of anoestrus and to enhance breeding efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G B Dudhatra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloprostenol is a synthetic prostaglandin F analogue. It is a FP (Prostaglandin F receptor agonist, which shows 2á powerful luteolytic effects. It also stimulates the contraction of uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and produces vasoconstriction in some vessels. Anoestrous may be due to some conditions like abnormal pregnancy, early pregnancy, pyometra, endometritis, retention of placenta, maceration and mummification. So, get rid of this conditions cloprostenol is widely used. It has been now in vogue to administer PGF or its analogue in early 2á postpartum cows and buffaloes in order to hasten early resumption of cyclic ovarian activity and thereby to increase the reproductive efficiency. To improve reproductive efficiency, it is necessary to inseminate cows early in the breeding season so that, thereby achieving a more compact calving season. Breeding efficiency is increased by means of synchronization of estrus, conception rate and pregnancy rate. Estrus synchronization can be achieved by lysis of corpus luteum by administration of prostaglandin (PGF or its synthetic analogue on 5-17 2á days of the estrus cycle. The cows will return to estrus within 3-5 days. The effective therapeutic doses for cloprostenol are 500 μg in cattle and 175 μg in pigs. However, for R-cloprostenol, the recommended doses are: 150 μg in cattle and 75 μg in pigs. In both cases, it is administered by the intramuscular route. [Vet. World 2012; 5(6.000: 378-384

  4. An Overview of Helicobacter pylori VacA Toxin Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foegeding, Nora J.; Caston, Rhonda R.; McClain, Mark S.; Ohi, Melanie D.; Cover, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    The VacA toxin secreted by Helicobacter pylori enhances the ability of the bacteria to colonize the stomach and contributes to the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and peptic ulcer disease. The amino acid sequence and structure of VacA are unrelated to corresponding features of other known bacterial toxins. VacA is classified as a pore-forming toxin, and many of its effects on host cells are attributed to formation of channels in intracellular sites. The most extensively studied VacA activity is its capacity to stimulate vacuole formation, but the toxin has many additional effects on host cells. Multiple cell types are susceptible to VacA, including gastric epithelial cells, parietal cells, T cells, and other types of immune cells. This review focuses on the wide range of VacA actions that are detectable in vitro, as well as actions of VacA in vivo that are relevant for H. pylori colonization of the stomach and development of gastric disease. PMID:27271669

  5. Food deprivation alters thermoregulatory responses to lipopolysaccharide by enhancing cryogenic inflammatory signaling via prostaglandin D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Catherine M; Yao, Xiujuan; Hass, Martha A; Feleder, Carlos; Steiner, Alexandre A

    2010-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that food deprivation alters body temperature (T(b)) responses to bacterial LPS by enhancing inflammatory signaling that decreases T(b) (cryogenic signaling) rather than by suppressing inflammatory signaling that increases T(b) (febrigenic signaling). Free-feeding or food-deprived (24 h) rats received LPS at doses (500 and 2,500 microg/kg iv) that are high enough to activate both febrigenic and cryogenic signaling. At these doses, LPS caused fever in rats at an ambient temperature of 30 degrees C, but produced hypothermia at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C. Whereas food deprivation had little effect on LPS fever, it enhanced LPS hypothermia, an effect that was particularly pronounced in rats injected with the higher LPS dose. Enhancement of hypothermia was not due to thermogenic incapacity, since food-deprived rats were fully capable of raising T(b) in response to the thermogenic drug CL316,243 (1 mg/kg iv). Neither was enhancement of hypothermia associated with altered plasma levels of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6) or with reduced levels of an anti-inflammatory hormone (corticosterone). The levels of PGD(2) and PGE(2) during LPS hypothermia were augmented by food deprivation, although the ratio between them remained unchanged. Food deprivation, however, selectively enhanced the responsiveness of rats to the cryogenic action of PGD(2) (100 ng icv) without altering the responsiveness to febrigenic PGE(2) (100 ng icv). These findings support our hypothesis and indicate that cryogenic signaling via PGD(2) underlies enhancement of LPS hypothermia by food deprivation.

  6. Las vacas imitadores expertos

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    La mayoría de las especies del género Hypoplectrus presentan un comportamiento conocido como mimetismo agresivo. Este fenómeno consiste en la imitación de los patrones de coloración, por parte de las vacas, de peces que no son depredadores de crustáceos y pequeños peces. Al imitar el color de peces inofensivos pueden acercarse a sus presas sin que estas huyan.

  7. H2O2 increases production of constrictor prostaglandins in smooth muscle leading to enhanced arteriolar tone in Type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Nóra; Bagi, Zsolt; Edes, István; Kaley, Gabor; Koller, Akos

    2007-01-01

    Our previous study showed that arteriolar tone is enhanced in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM) due to an increased level of constrictor prostaglandins. We hypothesized that, in mice with T2-DM, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is involved in the increased synthesis of constrictor prostaglandins, hence enhanced basal tone in skeletal muscle arterioles. Isolated, pressurized gracilis muscle arterioles ( approximately 100 microm in diameter) of mice with T2-DM (C57BL/KsJ-db(-)/db(-)) exhibited greater basal tone to increases in intraluminal pressure (20-120 mmHg) than that of control vessels (at 80 mmHg, control: 25 +/- 5%; db/db: 34 +/- 4%, P < 0.05), which was reduced back to control level by catalase (db/db: 24 +/- 4%). Correspondingly, in carotid arteries of db/db mice, the level of dichlorofluorescein-detectable and catalase-sensitive H(2)O(2) was significantly greater. In control arterioles, exogenous H(2)O(2) (0.1-100 micromol/l) elicited dilations (maximum, 58 +/- 10%), whereas in arterioles of db/db mice H(2)O(2) caused constrictions (-28 +/- 8%), which were converted to dilations (maximum, 16 +/- 5%) by the thromboxane A(2)/prostaglandin H(2) (TP) receptor antagonist SQ-29548. In addition, arteriolar constrictions in response to the TP receptor agonist U-46619 were not different between the two groups of vessels. Endothelium denudation did not significantly affect basal tone and H(2)O(2)-induced arteriolar responses in either control or db/db mice. Also, in arterioles of db/db mice, but not in controls, 3-nitrotyrosine staining was detected in the endothelial layer of vessels. Thus we propose that, in mice with T2-DM, arteriolar production of H(2)O(2) is enhanced, which leads to increased synthesis of the constrictor prostaglandins thromboxane A(2)/prostaglandin H(2) in the smooth muscle cells, which enhance basal arteriolar tone. These alterations may contribute to disturbed regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Enhancing trabecular outflow by disrupting the actin cytoskeleton, increasing uveoscleral outflow with prostaglandins, and understanding the pathophysiology of presbyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Several major areas of work by the author and his international collaborators are reviewed. 1) The ciliary muscle in the nonhuman primate eye was disinserted at the scleral spur. Pilocarpine was then ineffective in increasing outflow facility, indicating that ciliary muscle contraction mediated the IOP-lowering effect of muscarinic cholinergics. 2) Compounds such as cytochalasins, H-7 and latrunculin A/B, which alter the actin cytoskeleton, cellular contractility and cellular adhesions in cultured trabecular meshwork cells, relaxed trabecular pathway cells and consequently the meshwork itself so as to decrease IOP and enhance trabecular outflow facility in nonhuman primates. Gene transfer approaches utilizing C3 and caldesmon over-expression by viral vectors to target specific steps in the cellular contractility/cytoskeleton/cell adhesion cascades characteristically altered trabecular meshwork cell morphology and increased outflow facility in organ-cultured anterior segments. 3) Prostaglandin F2α analogues enhanced matrix metalloproteinase production by ciliary muscle cells and scleral fibroblasts, leading to remodeling of the extracellular matrix of the ciliary muscle and sclera and consequently to increased uveoslceral outflow and decreased IOP in primates. 4) The rhesus monkey was an excellent model for human presbyopia, losing the accommodative response to cholinergic stimulation in the same timeframe relative to lifespan. No changes were found in ciliary muscle enzymes involved in acetylcholine biosynthesis or degradation or in muscarinic receptor numbers or affinity. Contractility of isolated ciliary muscle did not diminish with age, but posterior ciliary muscle attachments stiffened, suggesting a possible role in restricting muscle and consequently lens movement during accommodation. A model to reproducibly stimulate accommodation through central stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus was developed. Goniovideography and ultrasound biomicroscopic

  9. Effect of the anticipation of the of application of prostaglandin on the reproductive performance of beef cattle cows submitted to artificial insemination in fixed time Antecipação da aplicação de prostaglandina, em programa de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo em vacas de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Macedo Gregory

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the anticipation of the application of prostaglandin F2alfa (PGF2a was evaluated for the use of fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI. Three hundred and six Aberdeen Angus cows, aged between 3 and 6 years old, with calves at side had been used. The animals were randomly distributed in 4 groups. All animals were synchronized through intravaginal device with progesterone for 8 days (CIDR®, estradiol and PGF2a. The treatments was designed in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 (CIDR® 1º x 2º use and the day of the PGF2a application (6.5th x 8 th day. Seven days after the FTAI clean up bulls were joined until the ending of the breeding season. The conception rate to the FTAI and final pregnancy rate were evaluated. The anticipation of the application of the PGF2a (6.5th day had significant effect (P<0.05 on the conception rate at the FTAI and final pregnancy rate, respectively of 60.9% and 89.1% when compared with the animals that had received PGF2a in the 8 th day, respectively of 49.3% and 76.7%. The 1th or 2th use of the intravaginal device had presented differences (P<0.05 in the conception rate (61.1% and 49.7%, however without effect in the final pregnancy (P>0.05, respectively of 82.6 and 83.4%. The anticipation of the application of the PGF2a increased the pregnancy rate significantly at the FTAI and the final pregnancy. The previous use of the CIDR® affected the percentage of pregnancy at the FTAI, but it did not affect the final pregnancy. The cow’s age and the body condition score had not effect on the conception rate to the FTAI and the final pregnancy.Avaliou-se o efeito da antecipação da aplicação da prostaglandina F2alfa (PGF2a em programa de sincronização do estro com progesterona para o uso de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF. Foram utilizadas 306 vacas Aberdeen Angus, com cria ao pé e idade entre 3 e 6 anos. Os animais foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em 4 grupos sincronizados através de

  10. Prostaglandins and prostaglandin receptor antagonism in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonova, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Human models of headache may contribute to understanding of prostaglandins' role in migraine pathogenesis. The current thesis investigated the migraine triggering effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in migraine patients without aura, the efficacy of a novel EP4 receptor antagonist, BGC20....... The infusion of PGE2 caused the immediate migraine-like attacks and vasodilatation of the middle cerebral artery in migraine patients without aura. The highly specific and potent EP4 receptor antagonist, BGC20-1531, was not able to attenuate PGE2-induced headache and vasodilatation of both intra- and extra......-cerebral arteries. The intravenous infusion of PGF2α did not induce headache or statistically significant vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries in healthy volunteers. Novel data on PGE2-provoked immediate migraine-like attacks suggest that PGE2 may be one of the important final products in the pathogenesis...

  11. MiR-31-5p-ACOX1 Axis Enhances Tumorigenic Fitness in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Via the Promigratory Prostaglandin E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Hsuan; Liu, Hsuan; Chiang, Wei-Fan; Chen, Ting-Wen; Chu, Lichieh Julie; Yu, Jau-Song; Chen, Shu-Jen; Chen, Hua-Chien; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming

    2018-01-01

    During neoplastic development, a multitude of changes in genome-encoded information are progressively selected to confer growth and survival advantages to tumor cells. microRNAs-mRNAs regulatory networks, given their role as a critical layer of robust gene expression control, are frequently altered in neoplasm. However, whether and how these gene perturbations impact metabolic homeostasis remains largely unresolved. Methods: Through targeted miRNA expression screening, we uncovered an oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)-associated miRNAome, among which miR-31-5p was identified based on extent of up-regulation, functional impact on OSCC cell migration and invasion, and direct regulation of the rate-limiting enzyme in peroxisomal β-oxidation, ACOX1. Results: We further found that both miR-31-5p and ACOX1 underpin, in an antagonistic manner, the overall cellular lipidome profiles as well as the migratory and invasive abilities of OSCC cells. Interestingly, the extracellular levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a key substrate of ACOX1, were controlled by the miR-31-5p-ACOX1 axis, and were shown to positively influence the extent of cell motility in correlation with metastatic status. The promigratory effect of this metabolite was mediated by an elevation in EP1-ERK-MMP9 signaling. Of note, functional significance of this regulatory pathway was further corroborated by its clinicopathologically-correlated expression in OSCC patient specimens. Conclusions: Collectively, our findings outlined a model whereby misregulated miR-31-5p-ACOX1 axis in tumor alters lipid metabolomes, consequently eliciting an intracellular signaling change to enhance cell motility. Our clinical analysis also unveiled PGE2 as a viable salivary biomarker for prognosticating oral cancer progression, further underscoring the importance of lipid metabolism in tumorigenesis.

  12. Prenatal exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos enhances brain oxidative stress and prostaglandin E2 synthesis in a mouse model of idiopathic autism.

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    De Felice, Alessia; Greco, Anita; Calamandrei, Gemma; Minghetti, Luisa

    2016-06-14

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are emerging as polygenic and multifactorial disorders in which complex interactions between defective genes and early exposure to environmental stressors impact on the correct neurodevelopment and brain processes. Organophosphate insecticides, among which chlorpyrifos (CPF), are widely diffused environmental toxicants associated with neurobehavioral deficits and increased risk of ASD occurrence in children. Oxidative stress and dysregulated immune responses are implicated in both organophosphate neurodevelopmental effects and ASD etiopathogenesis. BTBR T+tf/J mice, a well-studied model of idiopathic autism, show several behavioral and immunological alterations found in ASD children, and we recently showed that CPF gestational exposure strengthened some of these autistic-like traits. In the present study, we aimed at investigating whether the behavioral effects of gestational CPF administration are associated with brain increased oxidative stress and altered lipid mediator profile. Brain levels of F2-isoprostanes (15-F2t-IsoP), as index of in vivo oxidative stress, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major arachidonic acid metabolite released by immune cells and by specific glutamatergic neuron populations mainly in cortex and hippocampus, were assessed by specific enzyme-immuno assays in brain homogenates from BTBR T+tf/J and C57Bl6/J mice, exposed during gestation to either vehicle or CPF. Measures were performed in mice of both sexes, at different postnatal stages (PNDs 1, 21, and 70). At birth, BTBR T+tf/J mice exhibited higher baseline 15-F2t-IsoP levels as compared to C57Bl6/J mice, suggestive of greater oxidative stress processes. Gestational treatment with CPF-enhanced 15-F2t-IsoP and PGE2 levels in strain- and age-dependent manner, with 15-F2t-IsoP increased in BTBR T+tf/J mice at PNDs 1 and 21, and PGE2 elevated in BTBR T+tf/J mice at PNDs 21 and 70. At PND 21, CPF effects were sex-dependent being the increase of the two

  13. Cysteinyl leukotriene E4activates human group 2 innate lymphoid cells and enhances the effect of prostaglandin D2and epithelial cytokines.

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    Salimi, Maryam; Stöger, Linda; Liu, Wei; Go, Simei; Pavord, Ian; Klenerman, Paul; Ogg, Graham; Xue, Luzheng

    2017-10-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a potential innate source of type 2 cytokines in the pathogenesis of allergic conditions. Epithelial cytokines (IL-33, IL-25, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin [TSLP]) and mast cell mediators (prostaglandin D 2 [PGD 2 ]) are critical activators of ILC2s. Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs), including leukotriene (LT) C 4 , LTD 4 , and LTE 4 , are metabolites of arachidonic acid and mediate inflammatory responses. Their role in human ILC2s is still poorly understood. We sought to determine the role of cysLTs and their relationship with other ILC2 stimulators in the activation of human ILC2s. For ex vivo studies, fresh blood from patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy control subjects was analyzed with flow cytometry. For in vitro studies, ILC2s were isolated and cultured. The effects of cysLTs, PGD 2 , IL-33, IL-25, TSLP, and IL-2 alone or in combination on ILC2s were defined by using chemotaxis, apoptosis, ELISA, Luminex, quantitative RT-PCR, and flow cytometric assays. The effect of endogenous cysLTs was assessed by using human mast cell supernatants. Human ILC2s expressed the LT receptor CysLT 1 , levels of which were increased in atopic subjects. CysLTs, particularly LTE 4 , induced migration, reduced apoptosis, and promoted cytokine production in human ILC2s in vitro. LTE 4 enhanced the effect of PGD 2 , IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP, resulting in increased production of type 2 and other proinflammatory cytokines. The effect of LTE 4 was inhibited by montelukast, a CysLT 1 antagonist. Interestingly, addition of IL-2 to LTE 4 and epithelial cytokines significantly amplified ILC2 activation and upregulated expression of the receptors for IL-33 and IL-25. CysLTs, particularly LTE 4 , are important contributors to the triggering of human ILC2s in inflammatory responses, particularly when combined with other ILC2 activators. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Microneedles enhance topical delivery of 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 and reduce nociception in temporomandibular joint of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Cristina G; Jain, Amit K; Franz-Montan, Michelle; Napimoga, Marcelo H; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana T; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2017-07-01

    The pain arising from temporomandibular disorders is often treated with opioids and agents that inhibit the immune response and are associated with substantial adverse effects and long-term risks. Thus, the development of new therapies that are safer and more effective is of great interest to patients and clinicians. 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is naturally produced in the human body and has anti-inflammatory properties. We have previously shown in a rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ) model that injection of 15d-PGJ2 into the rat TMJ can provide antinociceptive relief against a subsequent noxious challenge from formalin injection into the same TMJ. However, intra-TMJ injections are painful. Thus, to make the treatment patient friendly, this study aimed to evaluate whether the antinociceptive property of 15d-PGJ2 cream can be enhanced with microneedles (MNs). We found that topical application of 15d-PGJ2 cream for 15min directly on the rat TMJ skin did not induce any significant antinociceptive effect. However, if MNs were inserted in the skin for 5min, removed, and then 15d-PGJ2 cream was applied, a significant reduction in formalin-induced nociceptive behavior was observed. This reduction in nociception was comparable to an intra-TMJ injection of 15d-PGJ2. A concentration-dependent effect of 15d-PGJ2 was observed, with higher concentrations of 15d-PGJ2 in the cream showing a more durable effect up to 8h. 15d-PGJ2 cream associated with MNs also significantly reduced the release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 beta, which are pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest that 15d-PGJ2 cream associated with MNs provides antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect, and can offer a potential patient-friendly therapeutic option for pain control related to inflammatory disorders of the TMJ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolism of prostaglandin E and of glutathione conjugate of prostaglandin A (GSH-prostaglandin A) by prostaglandin 9-ketoreductase from rabbit kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, B.S.; Hansen, Harald S.

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit kidney prostaglandin 9-ketoreductase was found to metabolize the glutathione conjugate of prostaglandin A (GSH-prostaglandin A). Apparent K (GSH-prostaglandin A) 13 µM and apparent K (prostaglandin E) 200 µM. The cytosolic preparation was subjected to gelfiltration and isoelectric focusing...

  16. Residuos de antimicrobianos en canales de vacas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GESCHE, E; EMILFORK, C

    1998-01-01

    Con la finalidad de conocer la presencia de residuos de antibióticos y sulfamidas en animales de abasto, se analizaron las canales de 300 vacas faenadas en una Planta Faenadora de Carnes de la X Región de Chile...

  17. Prostaglandins in Cancer Cell Adhesion, Migration, and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Menter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins exert a profound influence over the adhesive, migratory, and invasive behavior of cells during the development and progression of cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1 are upregulated in inflammation and cancer. This results in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, which binds to and activates G-protein-coupled prostaglandin E1-4 receptors (EP1-4. Selectively targeting the COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2/EP1-4 axis of the prostaglandin pathway can reduce the adhesion, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. Once stimulated by prostaglandins, cadherin adhesive connections between epithelial or endothelial cells are lost. This enables cells to invade through the underlying basement membrane and extracellular matrix (ECM. Interactions with the ECM are mediated by cell surface integrins by “outside-in signaling” through Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK and/or “inside-out signaling” through talins and kindlins. Combining the use of COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2/EP1-4 axis-targeted molecules with those targeting cell surface adhesion receptors or their downstream signaling molecules may enhance cancer therapy.

  18. Immune challenge by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide directs gene expression in distinct blood-brain barrier cells toward enhanced prostaglandin E(2) signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilache, Ana Maria; Qian, Hong; Blomqvist, Anders

    2015-08-01

    The cells constituting the blood-brain barrier are critical for the transduction of peripheral immune signals to the brain, but hitherto no comprehensive analysis of the signaling events that occur in these cells in response to a peripheral inflammatory stimulus has been performed. Here, we examined the inflammatory transcriptome in blood-brain barrier cells, including endothelial cells, pericytes, and perivascular macrophages, which were isolated by fluorescent-activated cell sorting, from non-immune-challenged mice and from mice stimulated by bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide. We show that endothelial cells and perivascular macrophages display distinct transcription profiles for inflammatory signaling and respond in distinct and often opposing ways to the immune stimulus. Thus, endothelial cells show induced PGE2 synthesis and transport with attenuation of PGE2 catabolism, increased expression of cytokine receptors and down-stream signaling molecules, and downregulation of adhesion molecules. In contrast, perivascular macrophages show downregulation of the synthesis of prostanoids other than PGE2 and of prostaglandin catabolism, but upregulation of interleukin-6 synthesis. Pericytes were largely unresponsive to the immune stimulation, with the exception of downregulation of proteins involved in pericyte-endothelial cell communication. While the endothelial cells account for most of the immune-induced gene expression changes in the blood-brain barrier, the response of the endothelial cells occurs in a concerted manner with that of the perivascular cells to elevate intracerebral levels of PGE2, hence emphasizing the critical role of PGE2 in immune-induced signal transduction across the blood-brain barrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Roles of mPGES-1, an inducible prostaglandin E synthase, in enhancement of LPS-induced lymphangiogenesis in a mouse peritonitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hiromi; Hosono, Kanako; Tsuru, Seri; Kurashige, Chie; Sekiguchi, Kazuki; Akira, Shizuo; Uematsu, Satoshi; Okamoto, Hirotsugu; Majima, Masataka

    2015-12-01

    Lymphangiogenesis is frequently observed during inflammation, and this inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis (IL) is a phenomenon actively involved in the pathophysiology of inflammation. We explored the roles of an inducible prostaglandin E synthase, mPGES-1, in IL elicited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Peritonitis was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (E. coli 0111-B4; 25μg/mouse every 2days), and IL was evaluated by LYVE-1 immunostaining of whole-mount diaphragm tissues. Compared to vehicle-treated wild-type (WT) mice, lymphatics in the diaphragms of mice injected with LPS were widened and the number of LYVE-1-positive ladder-structured lymphatics increased temporally. This increase in lymphangiogenesis was accompanied by increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C/D in the diaphragms. In mice treated with celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, IL was suppressed with reduced expression of VEGF-C/D. This was also observed in mPGES-1 knockout mice (KO). Immunoreactive COX-2 and mPGES-1 were detected in both CD11b-positive and CD3ε-positivecells in the diaphragm. When FITC-dextran was injected into the peritoneal cavities, the amount of residual FITC-dextran was reduced significantly in WT mice injected with LPS, and this reduction was significantly decreased in mPGES-1 KO mice. The present results suggest that mPGES-1 plays a significant role in lymphangiogenesis during inflammation, and represents a novel target for controlling IL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Menstrual regulation with prostaglandin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenfeldt, K; Bygdeman, M

    1981-01-01

    The development of generally applicable, simple non-surgical methods for menstrual regulation has been desired for a long time. Such an approach to fertility control depends on the availability of a suitable therapeutic agent that should be effective, reliable, simple to administer and free from disturbing side effects. The classical prostaglandins have shown the capability but are unsuitable mainly due to high incidence of side effects. Most of these drawbacks seem to be overcome when prostaglandin analogues are used; however, vaginal administration caused appreciable pain in 10-30% of women, and so severely limits self-administration of these analogues.

  1. Influence of prostaglandins on contractility of the isolated human cervical muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryman, I; Sahni, S; Norström, A; Lindblom, B

    1984-03-01

    The contractile activity of smooth muscle from the pregnant and nonpregnant human cervix uteri was studied in organ bath experiments. Several patterns of spontaneous activity with varying frequency and amplitude were observed. Prostaglandin E2 inhibited muscle activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and total inhibition was achieved in pregnant tissue at extremely low concentrations. Prostaglandin F2 alpha, on the other hand, did not influence spontaneous contractions. Prostaglandin I2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha had an inhibitory effect but only at comparatively high concentrations. 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic acid and indomethacin abolished spontaneous contractions, indicating a regulatory influence of endogenous prostanoids on cervical contractility. The extreme sensitivity to prostaglandin E2 and enhancement of its action during early pregnancy provide evidence for a specific role of this compound in controlling cervical smooth muscle activity in the human female.

  2. Search for prostaglandin A1 in onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrep, K A; Mariani, J M; Attrep, M

    1973-08-01

    Thus far there have been no reports that prostaglandins have been isolated from plant materials. Numerous plant materials were screened using this layer chromatographic technique to determine if such materials could contain prostaglandins. Following this initial screening, onions were selected for further study. A fatty acid fraction separated from yellow onion was subjected to thin layer chromatographic techniques, UV and IR spectrophotometric analyses. This silicic acid-chromatographed fraction corresponded to the prostaglandin A1 fraction. Preliminary identification strongly suggested that this component of onions appeared to be a prostaglandin (PGA1) or a prostaglandin-like compound.

  3. Prostaglandin Hsynthase immunoreactivity in human gut. An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Hanne Birte; Rumessen, Jüri Johannes; Qvortrup, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, prostaglandin H-synthase, smooth muscle cells, intestine, muscularis externa, immunohistochemistry......Anatomy, prostaglandin H-synthase, smooth muscle cells, intestine, muscularis externa, immunohistochemistry...

  4. Bioproduction of prostaglandins in a transgenic liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Miho; Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Nagaya, Shingo; Ohyama, Kanji

    2013-10-01

    Prostaglandins are biologically active substances used in a wide range of medical treatments. Prostaglandins have been supplied mainly by chemical synthesis; nevertheless, the high cost of prostaglandin production remains a factor. To lower the cost of prostaglandin production, we attempted to produce prostaglandins using a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha L., which accumulates arachidonic acid, which is known as a substrate of prostaglandins. Here we report the first bioproduction of prostaglandins in plant species by introducing a cyclooxygenase gene from a red alga, Gracilaria vermiculophylla into the liverwort. The transgenic liverworts accumulated prostaglandin F2α, prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin D2 which were not detected in the wild-type liverwort. Moreover, we succeeded in drastically increasing the bioproduction of prostaglandins using an in vitro reaction system with the extracts of transgenic liverworts.

  5. Prostaglandins as PPARγ Modulators in Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Fujimori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipocytes and fat cells play critical roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Adipogenesis (adipocyte differentiation is regulated via a complex process including coordinated changes in hormone sensitivity and gene expression. PPARγ is a ligand-dependent transcription factor and important in adipogenesis, as it enhances the expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in adipocytes. Prostaglandins (PGs, which are lipid mediators, are associated with the regulation of PPARγ function in adipocytes. Prostacyclin promotes the differentiation of adipocyte-precursor cells to adipose cells via activation of the expression of C/EBPβ and δ. These proteins are important transcription factors in the activation of the early phase of adipogenesis, and they activate the expression of PPARγ, which event precedes the maturation of adipocytes. PGE2 and PGF2α strongly suppress the early phase of adipocyte differentiation by enhancing their own production via receptor-mediated elevation of the expression of cycloxygenase-2, and they also suppress the function of PPARγ. In contrast, PGD2 and its non-enzymatic metabolite, Δ12-PGJ2, activate the middle-late phase of adipocyte differentiation through both DP2 receptors and PPARγ. This paper focuses on potential roles of PGs as PPARγ modulators in adipogenesis and regulators of obesity.

  6. Ionophores stimulate prostaglandin and thromboxane biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Howard R.; Oelz, Oswald; Roberts, L. Jackson; Sweetman, Brian J.; Oates, John A.; Reed, Peter W.

    1977-01-01

    The role of calcium in triggering prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis was studied in several systems with ionophores of different ion specificities. Divalent cationophore A23187 stimulates prostaglandin and thromboxane production by washed human platelets in a concentration-dependent manner (0.3-9 μM). A23187 also induces an antimycin A-insensitive burst in oxygen utilization which is partially blocked by 5 mM aspirin or 10 μM indomethacin. Under our conditions, A23187 (up to 10 μM) does not appear to damage platelet membranes since it does not cause appreciable loss of lactate dehydrogenase or β-glucuronidase. Mono- and divalent cationophore X537A also stimulates platelet thromboxane B2 production and oxygen utilization, but monovalent cationophores nigericin, monensin A, A204, and valinomycin have no effect. The synthesis of prostaglandins E2, D2, and F2α by rat renal medulla mince is stimulated by 1 and 5 μM A23187 without changes in tissue ATP content, lactate output, or K+ efflux. X537A, monensin A, and nigericin (all 5 μM) stimulate both prostaglandin output and K+ efflux from renal medulla, while 5 μM valinomycin or A204 has no effect on either. None of the ionophores stimulates renomedullary prostaglandin production if calcium is omitted from the incubation medium. A23187 also stimulates prostaglandin production by human lymphoma cells, rat stomach and trachea preparations, and guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These observations suggest a major role for Ca2+ in stimulating prostaglandin and thromboxane biosynthesis, and also indicate that prostaglandin and/or thromboxane release may partially mediate some of the previously described effects of ionophores on cells and tissues. PMID:270668

  7. Detection of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA and iceA1 virulence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA and iceA1 virulence genes associated with gastric diseases in Egyptian patients. ... of cagA/iceA type and we could not detect cagA. The overall vacA, iceA1and cagA genes identified were 61.6%, 38.8%, 26.6% respectively, by PCR-based molecular testing. The vacA gene status ...

  8. Detection of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA and iceA1 virulence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed El-Shenawy

    could not detect cagA. The overall vacA, iceA1and cagA genes identified were 61.6%, 38.8%, 26.6% respec- tively, by PCR-based molecular testing. The vacA gene status was highly significant related to gastritis patient (P. 0.036). The vacA s1m1 and s2m2 alleles were significantly found in 50% of H. pylori infected patients ...

  9. Indicadores bioquimicos del balance energetico en el Periparto de vacas Brahman en pastoreo en el tropico Colombiano

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alonso Villa, Nestor; Mateo Osorio, Juan; Escobar, Diana; Ceballos, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Para evaluar los cambios relacionados con el metabolismo energetico en el periparto en vacas Brahman se tomaron quincenalmente 10 mL de sangre de 16 vacas en pastoreo seleccionadas al azar, iniciando...

  10. Diversification of the vacAs1m1 and vacAs2m2 strains of Helicobacter pylori in Meriones unguiculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mendoza Elizalde

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Helicobacter pylori exhibits great genetic diversity, and the pathogenic roles of its virulence factors have been widely studied. However, the evolutionary dynamics of H. pylori strains during stomach colonization are not well characterized. Here, we analyzed the microevolutionary dynamics of the toxigenic strain vacAs1m1, the non-toxigenic strain vacAs2m2, and a combination of both strains in an animal model over time. Meriones unguiculatus were inoculated with the following bacteria: group 1–toxigenic strain vacAs1m1/cagA+/cagE+/babA2+; ST181, group 2–non-toxigenic strain vacAs2m2/ cagA+/ cagE+/ babA2+; ST2901, and group 3–both strains. The gerbils were euthanized at different time points (3, 6, 12 and 18 months. In group 1, genetic alterations were observed at 6 and 12 months. With the combination of both strains, group 3 also exhibited genetic alterations at 3 and 18 months; moreover, a chimera, vacA m1-m2, was detected. Additionally, four new sequence types (STs were reported in the PubMLST database for H. pylori. Synonymous and non-synonymous mutations were analyzed and associated with alterations in amino acids. Microevolutionary analysis of the STs (PHYLOViZ identified in each group revealed many mutational changes in the toxigenic (vacAs1m1 and non-toxigenic (vacAs2m2 strains. Phylogenetic assessments (eBURST did not reveal clonal complexes. Our findings indicate that the toxigenic strain, vacAs1m1, and a combination of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains acquired genetic material by recombination. The allelic combination, vacAs2m1, displayed the best adaptation in the animal model over time, and a chimera, m1-m2, was also identified, which confirmed previous reports.

  11. Comportamento de vacas leiteiras submetidas a um manejo aversivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Hötzel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n1p135 Em pequenas propriedades leiteiras, devido à falta de instalações adequadas para o manejo, as vacas podem ser contidas e submetidas à inspeção ou tratamento veterinário no seu ambiente de ordenha, o que, por sua vez, pode influenciar o comportamento dos animais, perturbando a rotina de manejo. Sete vacas leiteiras, mantidas em sistema intensivo de pastoreio rotativo e ordenhadas duas vezes por dia por dois manejadores, foram expostas a um minucioso exame clínico, durante três dias consecutivos. Dados comportamentais antes e depois do procedimento foram analisados através de uma análise de variância. O comportamento das vacas durante o procedimento indicou forte aversividade. O tratamento não influenciou a distância de fuga mantida em relação ao veterinário ou a uma pessoa desconhecida pelas vacas, avaliadas antes e após o procedimento veterinário (veterinário: antes = 1,2±0,1; após 0,8±0,2; desconhecido: 1,0±0,2 após 1,2±0,2; p=0,3, nem o número de interações agonísticas no grupo, observadas antes (7,1±2 e após (11,5±3 o procedimento (p=0,3, ou um escore de reatividade atribuído a cada animal (p=0,2. Estes resultados não permitem concluir que a aplicação repetida e inevitável de procedimentos veterinários no ambiente da ordenha influencia o comportamento das vacas durante a ordenha ou a sua reatividade ao homem.

  12. de diferentes proporciones de leche de vaca y cabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Natalia Rojas-Castro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Características del yogurt batido de fresa derivadas de diferentes proporciones de leche de vaca y cabra. Durante 2004, en San José, se evaluó el efecto de diferentes proporciones de leche de cabra (c y leche de vaca (v (0%c/100%v, 30%c/70%v, 50%c/50%v, 70%c/30%v y 100%c/0%v, sobre el pH, la viscosidad y la sinéresis de un yogurt batido de fresa, durante los días 1, 7, 14 y 21 de almacenamiento en refrigeración a 4-5°C. El pH disminuyó en almacenamiento acentuadamente en los primeros siete días eindistintamente para todas formulaciones (p≤0,05 des de ámbitos iniciales de 4,35-4,40 hasta 4,25-4,30. Durante los primeros siete días aumentó la viscosidad de todas las muestras, para posteriormente descender hasta el día 21. Las muestras con 100% leche de cabra presentaron menorviscosidad (p≤0,05 (me dia = 11277 cp que las elabo radas con 100% leche de vaca (me dia = 19979 cp. La sinéresis para todas las muestras descendió con el tiempo. La muestra de mayor sinéresis durante todo el periodo fue la de 100% leche de vaca (me dia = 9,4%, mientras la de menor fue la de 100% cabra (me dia = 2,1%. Para la sinéresis se encontró una interacción significativa (p≤0,05 entre el día de almacenamiento y el tipo de leche, con cluyéndose que la sinéresis disminuyó con el tiempo y conforme aumentó el contenido de leche de vaca. Se evaluó con 105 jueces el efecto de diferentes formulaciones (30%c/70%v, 50%c/50%v, 70%c/30%v y 100%c/0%v, sobre el agrado general así como la aceptación del color y textura. La formulación de mayor agrado global (p≤0,05 fue la de 30% leche de cabra, que en promedio alcanzó un valor de 8,1 en una escala hedónica híbrida 10 cm.

  13. HEREDABILIDAD DE CARACTERÍSTICAS REPRODUCTIVAS DE VACAS INDUBRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    \\u00C1ngel R\\u00EDos-Utrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue es- timar componentes de varianza y parámetros genéticos de características reproductivas de vacas Indubrasil mantenidas en clima tropical húmedo en México. El estudio se realizó en el sitio experimental Playa Vicente (Veracruz, México perteneciente al Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Fores- tales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP con vacas Indubrasil (N=264 nacidas de 1974 a 2004. Las vacas se empadrarondos veces al año, en primavera y otoño. Los empadres ini-ciaban el 1 de abril y 1 de octubre, y finalizaban el 30 de junio y 30 de noviembre, respectivamente. La edad al primer servicio (EPS, edad al primer parto (EPP, duración de la gestación (DG, días abiertos (DA, intervalo entre partos (IEP, servicios por concepción (SPC y peso al parto (PP se analizaron con un modelo animal que solo incluyó el efecto genético aditivo, mientras que PP se analizó con un modelo animal de repetibilidad que incluyó el efecto genético aditivo y el efecto del ambiente permanente de la vaca. Los análisis se realizaron con el programa MTDFREML. Los estimadores de heredabilidad fueron: 0,31 ± 0,152, 0,39 ± 0,196, 0,08 ± 0,033, 0,03 ± 0,028, 0,13 ± 0,056, 0,03 ± 0,027 y 0,49 ± 0,098 para EPS, EPP, DG, DA, IEP, SPC y PP, respectivamente. El ambiente permanente de la vaca solo explicó el 2% de la variación total de PP, por lo que el estimador de repetibilidad para dicha característica fue 0,51. La edad a primer servicio, EPP, IEP y PP mostraron considerable variación genética, por lo que podrían ser consideradas en un programa de selección.

  14. Helicobacter pylori vacA Genotypes in Chronic Gastritis and Gastric Carcinoma Patients from Macau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Pinto-Ribeiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is the major triggering factor for gastric carcinoma, but only a small proportion of infected patients develop this disease. Differences in virulence observed among H. pylori strains, namely in the vacuolating cytotoxin vacA gene, may contribute to this discrepancy. Infection with vacA s1, i1 and m1 strains increases the risk for progression of gastric premalignant lesions and for gastric carcinoma. However, in East Asian countries most of the H. pylori strains are vacA s1, regardless of the patients’ clinical status, and the significance of the vacA i1 and m1 genotypes for gastric carcinoma in this geographic area remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate this relationship in 290 patients from Macau, China. Using very sensitive and accurate genotyping methods, we detected infection with vacA i1 and with vacA m1 strains in, respectively, 85.2% and 52.6% of the patients that were infected with single genotypes. The prevalence of cagA-positive strains was 87.5%. No significant associations were observed between vacA genotypes or cagA and gastric carcinoma. It is worth noting that 37.5% of the infected patients had coexistence of H. pylori strains with different vacA genotypes. Additional studies directed to other H. pylori virulence factors should be performed to identify high risk patients in East Asia.

  15. Helicobacter pylori vacA Genotypes in Chronic Gastritis and Gastric Carcinoma Patients from Macau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Ribeiro, Ines; Ferreira, Rui M; Batalha, Sellma; Hlaing, Thazin; Wong, Sio In; Carneiro, Fatima; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2016-05-05

    Helicobacter pylori is the major triggering factor for gastric carcinoma, but only a small proportion of infected patients develop this disease. Differences in virulence observed among H. pylori strains, namely in the vacuolating cytotoxin vacA gene, may contribute to this discrepancy. Infection with vacA s1, i1 and m1 strains increases the risk for progression of gastric premalignant lesions and for gastric carcinoma. However, in East Asian countries most of the H. pylori strains are vacA s1, regardless of the patients' clinical status, and the significance of the vacA i1 and m1 genotypes for gastric carcinoma in this geographic area remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate this relationship in 290 patients from Macau, China. Using very sensitive and accurate genotyping methods, we detected infection with vacA i1 and with vacA m1 strains in, respectively, 85.2% and 52.6% of the patients that were infected with single genotypes. The prevalence of cagA-positive strains was 87.5%. No significant associations were observed between vacA genotypes or cagA and gastric carcinoma. It is worth noting that 37.5% of the infected patients had coexistence of H. pylori strains with different vacA genotypes. Additional studies directed to other H. pylori virulence factors should be performed to identify high risk patients in East Asia.

  16. Transforming Growth Factor β2 Promotes Transcription of COX2 and EP4, Leading to a Prostaglandin E2-Driven Autostimulatory Loop That Enhances Virulence of Theileria annulata-Transformed Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echebli, Nadia; Ding, Ying; Kamau, Everlyn

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine known to regulate cell growth, differentiation, and motility and is a potent modulator of immune function. TGF-β consequently plays a central role in carcinogenesis, and a dampened TGF-β2 response by Theileria annulata-infected monocytes/macrophages underpins disease resistance to tropical theileriosis. Here, we show that concomitant with the loss of TGF-β2 production, there is ablated expression of COX2 and EP4, which leads to a drop in cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and, consequently, reduced activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and EPAC. This ablated phenotype can be rescued in attenuated macrophages by the addition of exogenous TGF-β2, which reactivates the expression of COX2 and EP4 while repressing that of protein kinase inhibitor gamma (PKIG) to the levels in virulent macrophages. TGF-β2 therefore promotes the adhesion and invasiveness of virulent macrophages by modulating COX2, EP4, and PKIG transcription to initiate a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-driven autostimulatory loop that augments PKA and EPAC activities. A virulence phenotype stemming from the double activation of PKA and EPAC is the induction of a CREB-mediated transcriptional program and the upregulation of JAM-L- and integrin 4αβ1-mediated adhesion of Theileria-infected macrophages. PMID:25690101

  17. a randomised controlled trial oftwo prostaglandin regitnens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    visualised and stabilised with a swab holder. Three syringes each containing 0,5 mg PGE, gel were used in immediate succession to instil the prostaglandin through the cervix. The other group received intra-amniotic. PGF,cx_ Aspiration of 2 ml of amniotic fluid trans- abdominally to confirm correct position of the needle.

  18. THE ROLE OF PROSTAGLANDINS IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-05

    May 5, 2015 ... important regulators of female productive functions (ovulation, uterine receptivity, Implantation and parturition) and associated with ... reproductive processes, hence, this paper seeks to review the role of Prostaglandins which is exploited in livestock .... ovarian oxytocin form part of the physiological stimulus.

  19. Molecular characterization of Helicobacter pylori VacA induction of IL-8 in U937 cells reveals a prominent role for p38MAPK in activating transcription factor-2, cAMP response element binding protein, and NF-kappaB activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisatsune, Junzo; Nakayama, Masaaki; Isomoto, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori VacA induces multiple effects on susceptible cells, including vacuolation, mitochondrial damage, inhibition of cell growth, and enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. To assess the ability of H. pylori to modulate the production of inflammatory mediators, we examined...... the mechanisms by which VacA enhanced IL-8 production by promonocytic U937 cells, which demonstrated the greatest VacA-induced IL-8 release of the cells tested. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK (SB203580), ERK1/2 (PD98059), IkappaBalpha ((E)-3-(4-methylphenylsulfonyl)-2-propenenitrile), Ca(2+) entry (SKF96365......+) in mediating activation of MAPK and the canonical NF-kappaB pathway. VacA stimulated translocation of NF-kappaBp65 to the nucleus, consistent with enhancement of IL-8 expression by activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. In addition, small interfering RNA of activating transcription factor (ATF)-2 or CREB, which...

  20. Abnormal Expression of Prostaglandins E2 and F2α Receptors and Transporters in Patients with Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Rakhila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the level of expression of prostaglandin receptivity and uptake factors in eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with endometriosis. Design. Prospective study. Setting. Human reproduction research laboratory. Patients. Seventy-eight patients with endometriosis and thirty healthy control subjects. Intervention(s. Endometrial and endometriotic tissue samples were obtained during laparoscopic surgery. Main Outcome Measure(s. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of mRNA encoding prostaglandin E2 receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4, prostaglandin F2α receptor (FP, prostaglandin transporter (PGT, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4; immunohistochemical localization of expressed proteins. Results. Marked increases in receptors EP3, EP4, and FP and transporters PGT and MRP4 in ectopic endometrial tissue were noted, without noticeable change associated with disease stage. An increase in EP3 expression and decreases in FP and PGT were observed in the eutopic endometrium of endometriosis patients in conjunction with the phases of the menstrual cycle. Conclusion(s. This study is the first to demonstrate a possible relationship between endometriosis and enhanced prostaglandin activity. In view of the wide range of prostaglandin functions, increasing cell receptivity and facilitating uptake in endometrial tissue could contribute to the initial steps of overgrowth and have an important role to play in the pathogenesis and symptoms of this disease.

  1. Desempenho de vacas Charolês e Nelore desterneiradas aos três ou sete meses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restle João

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o desempenho de vacas Charolês (C e Nelore (N, agrupadas em três classes de idade, jovens (3 e 4 anos, adultas (5 a 7 anos e velhas (8 ou mais anos, desmamadas aos três (precoce ou sete meses no outono (tradicional. O peso no outono das vacas desterneiradas aos três meses (T3 foi 45 kg superior ao das vacas com remoção do bezerro aos sete meses (T7. O estado corporal aos sete meses também foi melhor nas vacas do T3 (3,3 contra 2,1 pontos. Vacas do T3 apresentaram maior ganho de peso do parto ao final do período reprodutivo e apresentaram maiores porcentagem de cio (81 contra 51% e prenhez (67,2 contra 37,3% e menor intervalo do parto ao primeiro cio pós-parto (102 contra 114 dias que vacas do T7. Vacas adultas apresentaram melhor estado corporal aos sete meses e tiveram melhor desempenho reprodutivo do que vacas velhas e jovens. A diferença na porcentagem de prenhez entre o T3 e T7 foi mais evidente nas vacas jovens (42,11 contra 12,5% e velhas (51,72 contra 35,71% que nas adultas (62,50 contra 53,33%. Vacas C foram mais pesadas que as N, ao parto, aos três e sete meses pós-parto e apresentaram melhor estado corporal aos sete meses. O efeito do desmame precoce no desempenho reprodutivo foi mais evidente nas vacas C. A porcentagem de fêmeas prenhes nas C foi de 80,60% para o T3 e 41,90% para o T7, já nas N as porcentagens foram de 45,50 e 30,00%, respectivamente, para o T3 e T7. Nas vacas C, a produção de leite e a amamentação apresentaram efeito inibidor, sobre a reprodução, mais marcante que nas vacas N.

  2. Role of renal prostaglandins in the modulation of cisplatinum nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noordewier, B.; Danielson, P.W.; Noordewier, E.R.; Bredehoeft, S.J.

    1986-03-01

    Indomethacin (I) inhibition of renal prostaglandin (PG) synthesis potentiates the nephorotoxic effects of cis-dichlorodiamine platinum (Cis-Pt). The purpose of this study was to determine if this potentiation was unique to I or was shared by other inhibitors of PG synthesis. Male Fischer 344 rats were fed a purified diet replete (Repl) or deplete (Depl) in sodium. After 5 days on this diet, the rats were given saline or cis-Pt (10 mg/kg, iv) with or without tolmetin (Tol) (2 x 10 mg/kg, ip then iv). Toxicity was assessed 2 days after the injections. Cis-Pt given alone increased BUN and plasma creatinine (Cr) in both Depl (BUN = 43 mg/dl, Cr = 1.3 mg/dl) and Repl (BUN = 45, Cr = 1.3) groups. Tol produced a moderate increase in cis-Pt toxicity in Repl rats (BUN = 62, Cr = 1.5) and a marked increase in Depl rats (BUN = 138, Cr = 2.6). These biochemical changes were accompanied by concurrent changes in renal histology. Rats given cis-Pt alone had focal areas of toxicity marked by evidence of necrosis and vacuolation. Tol enhancement of toxicity was characterized by an increased extent of damage with the appearance of tubular protein and some mineralization. The effects of Tol mimic those of I indicating a role for renal prostaglandins in the renal toxicity of Cis-Pt.

  3. Functional association between the Helicobacter pylori virulence factors VacA and CagA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, Richard H; Thomas, Rachael J; Letley, Darren P; Rittig, Michael G; Hardie, Kim R; Atherton, John C

    2008-02-01

    The Helicobacter pylori virulence factors CagA and VacA are implicated in the development of gastroduodenal diseases. Most strains possessing CagA also possess the more virulent vacuolating form of VacA. This study assessed the significance of possession of both virulence factors in terms of their effect on gastric epithelial cells, using a set of minimally passaged, isogenic VacA, CagA and CagE mutants in H. pylori strains 60190 and 84-183. The cagA and cagE mutants were found to significantly increase VacA-induced vacuolation of epithelial cells, and the vacA mutants significantly increased CagA-induced cellular elongations, compared with wild-type strains, indicating that CagA reduces vacuolation and VacA reduces hummingbird formation. Although epithelial cells incubated with the wild-type H. pylori strains may display both vacuolation and hummingbird formation, it was found that (i) hummingbird length was significantly reduced in vacuolated cells compared with those without vacuolation; (ii) the number of vacuoles was significantly reduced in vacuolated cells with hummingbird formation compared with those without hummingbirds; and (iii) cells displaying extensive vacuolation did not subsequently form hummingbirds and vice versa. VacA did not affect the phosphorylation of CagA. These data show that VacA and CagA downregulate each other's effects on epithelial cells, potentially allowing H. pylori interaction with cells whilst avoiding excessive cellular damage.

  4. Hipocalcemia e hipomagnesemia en un hato de vacas Holstein, Jersey y Guernsey en pastoreo

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ml. Sánchez; Alejandro Saborío-Montero

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de hipocalcemia e hipomagnesemia al parto en un hato constituido por vacas de las razas Holstein, Jersey y Guernsey, bajo las mismas condiciones de alimentación, ambiente y manejo. Se realizó en una finca localizada en Cartago, Costa Rica, y comprendió 152 vacas (62 Jersey, 41 Guernsey y 49 Holstein). Durante el período preparto las vacas pastorearon kikuyo (Kikuyuocloa clandestina) (0,35 Ca; 0,31 Mg y 3,50% K de la MS) y fueron suplem...

  5. [Influence of dicinone and taurine on the effects of prostaglandins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunin, A Ia; Ermakova, V N; Shvarts, G Ia; Mashkovskiĭ, M D

    1980-01-01

    In rabbit experiments, the local administration of prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha provoked an increase in intraocular pressure because of hyperproduction of intraocular liquid and increased permeability of the histoophthalmic barrier. Local administration of dicinon and taurin elicited a protective action and prevented the hypertensive effect of prostaglandins. Dicinon and taurin did not produce any influence on spasmogenic and hemodynamic effects of prostaglandins on isolated preparations of smooth muscle organs. Therefore, the protective effect of the drugs in the prostaglandin-induced hypertension of the eye is not related to the antiprostaglandin properties shown by these drugs.

  6. Prostaglandins in teleost ovulation: A review of the roles with a view to comparison with prostaglandins in mammalian ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takayuki; Hagiwara, Akane; Ogiwara, Katsueki

    2018-02-05

    Prostaglandins are well known to be central regulators of vertebrate ovulation. Studies addressing the role of prostaglandins in mammalian ovulation have established that they are involved in the processes of oocyte maturation and cumulus oocyte complex expansion. In contrast, despite the first indication of the role of prostaglandins in teleost ovulation appearing 40 years ago, the mechanistic background of their role has long been unknown. However, studies conducted on medaka over the past decade have provided valuable information. Emerging evidence indicates an indispensable role of prostaglandin E2 and its receptor subtype Ptger4b in the process of follicle rupture. In this review, we summarize studies addressing the role of prostaglandins in teleost ovulation and describe recent advances. To help understand differences from and similarities to ovulation in mammalian species, the findings on the roles of prostaglandins in mammalian ovulation are discussed in parallel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. HISTOPATOLOGIA DA ADENOMIOSE EM VACAS ABATIDAS NO NORTE FLUMINENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulógio Carlos Queiróz de Carvalho

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento relata a ocorrência de adenomiose em vacas destinadas ao abate, na região do Norte Fluminense do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. O crescimento excessivo de glândulas e estroma endometriais por entre as fibras do miométrio é denominado adenomiose. A literatura cita que sua ocorrência não é muito comum nas fêmeas domésticas, contudo é observada em cadelas com hiperplasia endometrial cística. Muitos estudos sugerem que a adenomiose seja causada primariamente pela desorganização da membrana basal endométrio-miometral por estrógenos, progestágenos e prolactina, desencadeando uma invasão do miométrio pelos componentes endometriais. Atribui-se a esta enfermidade interferência na implantação do embrião, em função de alterações em nível vascular e estresse oxidativo, com conseqüente fibrose, subfertilidade e infertilidade. Amostras de 27 úteros de vacas, vazias, azebuadas, foram colhidas e protocoladas no Setor de Morfologia e Anatomia Patológica/LSA/CCTA/UENF, submetidas a histotécnica por inclusão em parafina e coloração pela hematoxilina e eosina e Van-Gieson. Idealizou-se um escore foi idealizado para lesões adenomióticas. Das 27 amostras, 18 (66,67% apresentaram adenomiose, contra 9 (33,33% sem o achado. Dez (55,56% apresentaram adenomiose superficial discreta; 2(11,12% profunda discreta; 1 (5,56% a do tipo moderada superficial; 3 (16,67% profunda moderada; e finalmente 2 (11,12% a do tipo acentuada profunda. É admissível que a exigüidade de descrições desta distrofia nas demais fêmeas domésticas não signifique uma negligência, e sim uma não-percepção da lesão, por se tratar de víscera de pouco valor comercial, de não ser demonstrada em biópsias endometriais e por estarem, em muitos casos, associadas a processos mais expressivos clinicamente, como hiperplasia endometrial cística, ovários policísticos, tumor de células da granulosa etc. Faz-se imprescindível o registro desta

  8. Hipocalcemia subclínica na vaca leiteira

    OpenAIRE

    França, Romão da Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Como o próprio nome indica, o objectivo central desta dissertação consiste na realização de um estudo sobre uma doença muito comum nas vacas leiteiras no período pós-parto: a hipocalcemia subclínica. Trata-se de uma patologia metabólica que atinge os bovinos, especialmente os de alta produção leiteira, e que consiste na descida dos valores séricos de cálcio e numa série de outros problemas subsequentes, tais como a pa...

  9. Bone formation induced in an infant by systemic prostaglandin-E2 administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H R; Svanholm, H; Høst, A

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of long-term systemic administration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to a newborn infant with ductus-dependent congenital heart disease. After 46 days of treatment, radiography showed cortical hyperostosis of the long bones. The child died 62 days after discontinuation of prostaglandi...

  10. Putative role of prostaglandin receptor in intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekher eMohan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Each year, approximately 795,000 people experience a new or recurrent stroke. Of all strokes, 84% are ischemic, 13% are intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH strokes and 3% are subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH strokes. Despite the decreased incidence of ischemic stroke, there has been no change in the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in the last decade. ICH is a devastating disease 37-38% of patients between the ages of 45-64 die within 30 days. In an effort to prevent ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes we and others have been studying the role of prostaglandins and their receptors. Prostaglandins are bioactive lipids derived from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. They sustain homeostatic functions and mediate pathogenic mechanisms, including the inflammatory response. Most prostaglandins are produced from specific enzymes and act upon cells via distinct G-protein coupled receptors. The presence of multiple prostaglandin receptor’s cross-reactivity and coupling to different signal transduction pathways allow differentiated cells to respond to prostaglandins in a unique manner. Due to the number of prostaglandin receptors, prostaglandin-dependent signaling can function either to promote neuronal survival or injury following acute excitotoxicity, hypoxia, and stress induced by ICH. To better understand the mechanisms of neuronal survival and neurotoxicity mediated by prostaglandin receptors, it is essential to understand downstream signaling. Several groups including ours have discovered unique roles for prostaglandin receptors in rodent models of ischemic stroke, excitotoxicity, and Alzheimer disease, highlighting the emerging role of prostaglandin receptor signaling in hemorrhagic stroke with a focus on cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and calcium (Ca2+ signaling. We review current ICH data and discuss future directions notably on prostaglandin receptors, which may lead to the development of unique therapeutic targets against hemorrhagic stroke and

  11. Regulation of blood flow by prostaglandins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, H; Risum, N

    2004-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) belong to the family of prostanoids together with thromboxanes and are produced mainly from arachadonic acid by the enzyme cyclooxygenase. PGs are known to stimulate platelet aggregation, mediate inflammation and edema, play a role in bone metabolism and in biological...... adaptation of connective tissues e.g. tendon. This review covers the role of PG for mediating tissue blood flow at rest and during increases in metabolic demand such as exercise and reactive hyperaemia. There is strong evidence that PGs contribute to elevate blood flow at rest and during reactive hyperaemia...

  12. Many Putative Endocrine Disruptors Inhibit Prostaglandin Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David M.; Skalkam, Maria L.; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prostaglandins (PGs) play key roles in development and maintenance of homeostasis of the adult body. Despite these important roles, it remains unclear whether the PG pathway is a target for endocrine disruption. However, several known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) share a high...... of endocrine disruption. Results: We found that many known EDCs inhibit the PG pathway in a mouse Sertoli cell line and in human primary mast cells. The EDCs also reduced PG synthesis in ex vivo rat testis and it was correlated with a reduced testosterone production. The inhibition of PG synthesis occurs...

  13. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori VacA‐containing vacuoles (VCVs), VacA intracellular trafficking and interference with calcium signalling in T lymphocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kern, Beate; Jain, Utkarsh; Utsch, Ciara; Otto, Andreas; Busch, Benjamin; Jiménez‐Soto, Luisa; Becher, Dörte; Haas, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    .... A major factor is the secreted vacuolating toxin VacA , which forms anion‐selective channels in the endosome membrane that cause the compartment to swell, but the composition and purpose of the resulting VacA...

  14. Cervical ripening with prostaglandin gel and hygroscopic dilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, J U; Shashoua, A; Adamczyk, C; Ismail, M

    1998-01-01

    To study the effectiveness and morbidity of adding hygroscopic cervical dilators to prostaglandin gel for cervical ripening and labor induction. Patients of at least 34 weeks' gestation with a medical indication for induction of labor and with a modified Bishop score of 5 or less were randomized to receive either prostaglandin gel or prostaglandin gel with hygroscopic cervical dilators. Primary outcomes were time to delivery, change in cervical score, and infection. Secondary outcomes included cesarean delivery rate and deliveries before 24 hours of induction. Continuous variables were analyzed by Wilcoxon sum rank test and categorical data by chi-square or Fisher exact test, with P < 0.05 being significant. Seventeen patients were randomized to intracervical prostaglandin alone and 23 patients received intracervical prostaglandin plus hygroscopic dilators. No demographic differences were noted between the groups. After six hours of ripening, the combined group achieved a greater change in Bishop score (3.6 vs. 2.1, P = 0.007) and tended to have a shorter induction time (21.7 vs. 26.4 hours, P = 0.085). The combined therapy group had a higher infection rate than the prostaglandin-only group (59% vs. 12%, P = 0.003). Combining cervical dilators with prostaglandin gel provides more effective cervical ripening and a more rapid induction to delivery interval than prostaglandin alone but with a significant and prohibitive rate of infection.

  15. Release of prostaglandins after amniotomy is not mediated by oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, S M; Hodgson, H T; Mitchell, M D; Anderson, A B; Turnbull, A C

    1980-01-01

    The rise in peripheral plasma levels of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F (PGFM) following amniotomy has now been shown to be maximal within five minutes of the procedure, and levels remain elevated for at least 30 minutes. There was no change in plasma oxytocin levels with amniotomy and therefore a local mechanism for prostaglandin release has been postulated.

  16. Molecular characterization of Helicobacter pylori VacA induction of IL-8 in U937 cells reveals a prominent role for p38MAPK in activating transcription factor-2, cAMP response element binding protein, and NF-kappaB activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisatsune, Junzo; Nakayama, Masaaki; Isomoto, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori VacA induces multiple effects on susceptible cells, including vacuolation, mitochondrial damage, inhibition of cell growth, and enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. To assess the ability of H. pylori to modulate the production of inflammatory mediators, we examined the mechan......Helicobacter pylori VacA induces multiple effects on susceptible cells, including vacuolation, mitochondrial damage, inhibition of cell growth, and enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. To assess the ability of H. pylori to modulate the production of inflammatory mediators, we examined...... the mechanisms by which VacA enhanced IL-8 production by promonocytic U937 cells, which demonstrated the greatest VacA-induced IL-8 release of the cells tested. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK (SB203580), ERK1/2 (PD98059), IkappaBalpha ((E)-3-(4-methylphenylsulfonyl)-2-propenenitrile), Ca(2+) entry (SKF96365......+) in mediating activation of MAPK and the canonical NF-kappaB pathway. VacA stimulated translocation of NF-kappaBp65 to the nucleus, consistent with enhancement of IL-8 expression by activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. In addition, small interfering RNA of activating transcription factor (ATF)-2 or CREB, which...

  17. Helicobacter pylori VacA disrupts apical membrane-cytoskeletal interactions in gastric parietal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengsong; Xia, Peng; Wu, Fang; Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Wei; Ward, Tarsha; Liu, Ya; Aikhionbare, Felix; Guo, Zhen; Powell, Michael; Liu, Bingya; Bi, Feng; Shaw, Andrew; Zhu, Zhenggang; Elmoselhi, Adel; Fan, Daiming; Cover, Timothy L; Ding, Xia; Yao, Xuebiao

    2008-09-26

    Helicobacter pylori persistently colonize the human stomach and have been linked to atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Although it is well known that H. pylori infection can result in hypochlorhydria, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that VacA permeabilizes the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells and induces hypochlorhydria. The functional consequences of VacA infection on parietal cell physiology were studied using freshly isolated rabbit gastric glands and cultured parietal cells. Secretory activity of parietal cells was judged by an aminopyrine uptake assay and confocal microscopic examination. VacA permeabilization induces an influx of extracellular calcium, followed by activation of calpain and subsequent proteolysis of ezrin at Met(469)-Thr(470), which results in the liberation of ezrin from the apical membrane of the parietal cells. VacA treatment inhibits acid secretion by preventing the recruitment of H,K-ATPase-containing tubulovesicles to the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells. Electron microscopic examination revealed that VacA treatment disrupts the radial arrangement of actin filaments in apical microvilli due to the loss of ezrin integrity in parietal cells. Significantly, expression of calpain-resistant ezrin restored the functional activity of parietal cells in the presence of VacA. Proteolysis of ezrin in VacA-infected parietal cells is a novel mechanism underlying H. pylori-induced inhibition of acid secretion. Our results indicate that VacA disrupts the apical membrane-cytoskeletal interactions in gastric parietal cells and thereby causes hypochlorhydria.

  18. The bronchodilators 8-iso-prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin E2 induce K+ current suppression via thromboxane A2 receptors in porcine tracheal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helli, Peter B; Catalli, Adriana; Janssen, Luke J

    2004-10-06

    We examined relaxations and changes in K(+) current evoked by 8-iso-prostaglandin E(2) and prostaglandin E(2) in porcine tracheal smooth muscle. Both autacoids completely reversed cholinergic tone; blockade of thromboxane A(2) receptors had no effect on relaxations to either compound. 8-iso-prostaglandin E(2) and prostaglandin E(2) suppressed outward K(+) currents while the thromboxane A(2) receptor agonist U46619 (9, 11-dideoxy-9a,11a-methanoepoxy prostaglandin F(2alpha)) had no significant effect. During thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonism, however, 8-iso-prostaglandin E(2) markedly augmented K(+) currents while prostaglandin E(2) no longer suppressed K(+) currents, indicating that the inhibition of K(+) currents by both compounds was thromboxane A(2) receptor-mediated. Furthermore, the observation that K(+) currents were augmented by 8-iso-prostaglandin E(2) but not by prostaglandin E(2) suggests that the salutory effect is not exerted through a prostaglandin E receptor. Additionally, our observations argue against any causal role for K(+) current activation in mediating relaxations evoked by isoprostanes or by prostaglandin E(2). We conclude that 8-iso-prostaglandin E(2) relaxes porcine tracheal smooth muscle independent of K(+) current activity, and that 8-iso-prostaglandin E(2) may also act at a non-thromboxane A(2)/non-prostaglandin E receptor to augment K(+) currents.

  19. Gestación con embriones producidos in vitro a partir de ovocitos recuperados de vacas ovariectomizadas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aller, J.F; Alberio, R.H; Palma, G.A

    2000-01-01

    ... de preñez después de la transferencia de embriones descongelados. Ciento veinte vacas Holando Argentino de alto valor productivo fueron ovariectomizadas en 6 sesiones de 18-25 vacas, utilizando un ovariótomo por vía vaginal...

  20. Efeito da urina de vaca no estado nutricional da alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Licínio C. de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Existem diversos relatos da utilização da urina de vaca em hortaliças, todavia sua eficácia carece de comprovação. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da urina de vaca no estado nutricional da alface. O experimento foi constituído de 12 tratamentos, esquema de parcelas subdivididas, em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram alocadas as vias de aplicação (solo ou foliar e nas subparcelas as concentrações das soluções (0,00; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00 e 1,25% v/v. Aplicou-se 60 mL de solução/planta, divididos em cinco aplicações de 5; 5; 10; 20 e 20 mL/planta, aos 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 após o transplante, respectivamente. Durante o ciclo avaliou-se o índice SPAD e na colheita a massa da matéria seca de cabeça (MSCA e os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu e B na matéria seca das folhas (MSF, caule (MSC e raízes (MSR. Em ambas as vias de aplicação o índice SPAD apresentou incremento linear às concentrações e resposta quadrática ao longo do tempo. A MSCA teve comportamento linear às concentrações, com aumento de 25,9 e 35,4% nas aplicações via foliar e solo, respectivamente. Não houve efeito de concentrações sobre teores de nutrientes na MSF e MSC. Na MSR, via solo, os teores de P e K apresentaram pontos de máximo enquanto Fe e Mn de mínimo; o Na apresentou incremento linear às concentrações via foliar. Os efeitos da urina sobre o crescimento da alface provavelmente são devidos a fatores outros que não somente a quantidade de nutrientes veiculados nas soluções.

  1. Progesterone receptor expression declines in the guinea pig uterus during functional progesterone withdrawal and in response to prostaglandins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni N Welsh

    Full Text Available Progesterone withdrawal is essential for parturition, but the mechanism of this pivotal hormonal change is unclear in women and other mammals that give birth without a pre-labor drop in maternal progesterone levels. One possibility suggested by uterine tissue analyses and cell culture models is that progesterone receptor levels change at term decreasing the progesterone responsiveness of the myometrium, which causes progesterone withdrawal at the functional level and results in estrogen dominance enhancing uterine contractility. In this investigation we have explored whether receptor mediated functional progesterone withdrawal occurs during late pregnancy and labor in vivo. We have also determined whether prostaglandins that induce labor cause functional progesterone withdrawal by altering myometrial progesterone receptor expression. Pregnant guinea pigs were used, since this animal loses progesterone responsiveness at term and gives birth in the presence of high maternal progesterone level similarly to primates. We found that progesterone receptor mRNA and protein A and B expression decreased in the guinea pig uterus during the last third of gestation and in labor. Prostaglandin administration reduced while prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor treatment increased progesterone receptor A protein abundance. Estrogen receptor-1 protein levels remained unchanged during late gestation, in labor and after prostaglandin or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor administration. Steroid receptor levels were higher in the non-pregnant than in the pregnant uterine horns. We conclude that the decreasing expression of both progesterone receptors A and B is a physiological mechanism of functional progesterone withdrawal in the guinea pig during late pregnancy and in labor. Further, prostaglandins administered exogenously or produced endogenously stimulate labor in part by suppressing uterine progesterone receptor A expression, which may cause functional progesterone

  2. Progesterone Receptor Expression Declines in the Guinea Pig Uterus during Functional Progesterone Withdrawal and in Response to Prostaglandins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Toni N.; Hirst, Jonathan J.; Palliser, Hannah; Zakar, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone withdrawal is essential for parturition, but the mechanism of this pivotal hormonal change is unclear in women and other mammals that give birth without a pre-labor drop in maternal progesterone levels. One possibility suggested by uterine tissue analyses and cell culture models is that progesterone receptor levels change at term decreasing the progesterone responsiveness of the myometrium, which causes progesterone withdrawal at the functional level and results in estrogen dominance enhancing uterine contractility. In this investigation we have explored whether receptor mediated functional progesterone withdrawal occurs during late pregnancy and labor in vivo. We have also determined whether prostaglandins that induce labor cause functional progesterone withdrawal by altering myometrial progesterone receptor expression. Pregnant guinea pigs were used, since this animal loses progesterone responsiveness at term and gives birth in the presence of high maternal progesterone level similarly to primates. We found that progesterone receptor mRNA and protein A and B expression decreased in the guinea pig uterus during the last third of gestation and in labor. Prostaglandin administration reduced while prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor treatment increased progesterone receptor A protein abundance. Estrogen receptor-1 protein levels remained unchanged during late gestation, in labor and after prostaglandin or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor administration. Steroid receptor levels were higher in the non-pregnant than in the pregnant uterine horns. We conclude that the decreasing expression of both progesterone receptors A and B is a physiological mechanism of functional progesterone withdrawal in the guinea pig during late pregnancy and in labor. Further, prostaglandins administered exogenously or produced endogenously stimulate labor in part by suppressing uterine progesterone receptor A expression, which may cause functional progesterone withdrawal, promote

  3. Improving detection of dairy cow estrus using fuzzy logic Melhoria da detecção do estro de vacas leiteiras por meio da lógica fuzzy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro dos Anjos Brunassi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Production losses due to lack of precision in detecting estrus in dairy cows are well known and reported in milk production countries. Nowadays automatic estrus detection has become possible as a result of technical progress in continuously monitoring dairy cows using fuzzy pertinence functions. Dairy cow estrus is usually visually detected; however, solely use of visual detection is considered inefficient. Many studies have been carried out to develop an effective model to interpret the occurrence of estrus and detect estrus; however, most models present too many false-positive alerts and because of this they are sometimes considered unreliable. The objective of this research was to construct a system based on fuzzy inference functions evaluated with a receiver-operating characteristic curve, capable of efficiently detect estrus in dairy cows. For the input data the system combined previous estrus cases information and prostaglandin application with the data of cow activities. The system outputs were organized in three categories: 'in estrus', 'maybe in estrus" and 'not in estrus'. The system validation was carried out in a commercial dairy farm using a herd of 350 lactating cows. The performance of the test was measured by calculating its sensitivity towards the right estrus detection; and its specificity towards the precision of the detection. Within a six months period of tests, over 25 thousands cases of estrus were analyzed from a database of the commercial farm. The sensitivity found was 84.2%, indicating that the system can detect estrus efficiently and it may improve automatic estrus detection.Perdas na produção leiteiras devido às falhas de detecção do estro são bem conhecidas e relatadas em vários paises. Atualmente a automação na detecção do estro, tem sido possível, devido aos avanços tecnológicos na contínua monitoração de vacas leiteiras e utilização de modelos fuzzy. O estro em vacas de leite é normalmente

  4. Pleiotropic cytotoxicity of VacA toxin in host cells and its impact on immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Fahimi

    2017-02-01

    Results: A number of investigations on the receptor(s binding of VacA toxin confirmed the pleiotropic nature of VacA that uses a unique mechanism for internalization through some membrane components such as lipid rafts and glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-AP. Considering the high potency of VacA toxin in the clinical presentations in infection and assisting persistence and colonization of H. pylori, it is considered as one of the pivotal components in production vaccines and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. Conclusion: It is possible to generate mAbs with a considerable potential to convert into secretory immunoglobulins that could penetrate into the niche of H. pylori and inhibit its normal functionalities. Further, conjugation of H. pylori targeting Ab fragments with the toxic agents or drug delivery systems (DDSs offers new generation of H. pylori treatments.

  5. Relevance of Helicobacter pylori vacA 3'-end Region Polymorphism to Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhti, Seyedeh Zahra; Latifi-Navid, Saeid; Mohammadi, Shiva; Zahri, Saber; Bakhti, Fatemeh Sadat; Feizi, Farideh; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Siavoshi, Farideh

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori vacA genotypes play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe gastrointestinal disease. We identified a novel polymorphic site in the 3'-end region of H. pylori vacA gene, denoted by c1/-c2 (c1: with deletion of 15 bp), and examined associations of this and the previous four sites as well as cagA status with gastroduodenal diseases, in a total of 217 Iranian H. pylori isolates. Histopathologic evaluations were performed and patients with gastric cancer (GC) were further classified based on the anatomic site of tumor, including cardia and noncardia GC, and the histopathologic type of tumor, including intestinal- and diffuse-type GC. The vacA m1, i1, d1, c1, and cagA genotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk of GC, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 4.29 (2.03-9.08), 6.11 (2.63-14.19), 3.18 (1.49-6.76), 15.13 (5.86-39.01), and 2.59 (1.09-6.12), respectively. The vacA c1 genotype had an increased age- and sex-adjusted risk for GC by the multiple logistic regression analysis; the OR was 38.32 (95% CI, 6.60-222.29). This association was independent of and larger than the associations of the m-, i-, and d-type of vacA or cagA status with GC. No significant correlation was found between s1, whether independently or in combination, and the risk of GC or peptic ulcer disease (PUD). The vacA i1 and cagA genotypes were linked to an increased risk of PUD; the OR (95% CI) was 2.80 (1.45-5.40) and 2.62 (1.23-5.61), respectively. The presence of both the vacA i1 and cagA genotypes further increased the risk of PUD; the OR was 5.20 (95% CI, 1.92-14.03). The H. pylori vacA c1 genotype might therefore be one of the strongest risk predictors of GC in male patients aged ≥55 in Iran. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Consideraciones diagnósticas y terapéuticas para infecciones uterinas en vacas lecheras

    OpenAIRE

    Risco, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Desde el punto de vista del bienestar animal y de la perspectiva de productividad, el periodo postparto puede estar comprometido por una pequeña ventana durante el postparto temprano, en la cual la salud y supervivencia de las vacas es un problemática, debido a la presentación de metritis séptica. Esta se perpetuán subsecuentemente con la presentación de endometritis, la cual muy posiblemente contribuye con los patrones de sub-fertilidad en vacas lactantes, generando en general bajas ta...

  7. TASA DE RECUPERACIÓN DE OVOCITOS EN VACAS HOLSTEIN EN DESCARTE

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado Malca, Armando Enrique; Departamento Producción Animal, Facultad de Zootecnia, UNALM (Perú).; Gamarra, Guiselle; Estudiante Especialista del CIETE (Perú).; Gallegos, Amalia; Departamento Producción Animal Facultad de Zootecnia UNALM (Perú).; Samillán, V.; Estudiante EPG UNALM - Práctica privada

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la viabilidad de la técnica de recuperación de ovocitos vía vaginal por aspiración folicular, en vacas Holstein de descarte, así como determinar la viabilidad y calidad de ovocitos recuperados en estos animales que ya han finalizado su vida reproductiva. Se utilizaron cuatro vacas Holstein de descarte de 9 años de edad y buena condición corporal. Se realizaron 24 sesiones de aspiración folicular vía transvaginal, durante doce semanas, en dos sesi...

  8. Los cautiverios de Álvar Núñez Cabeza de vaca

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Calixto, Alberto

    2001-01-01

    El presente artículo aborda el tema del cautiverio en los Naufragios de Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (1 542-1 555). Los capítulos de cautiverio de Cabeza de Vaca se revelarán como la expresión de una pluralidad cultural que al mismo tiempo que humaniza al indígena, le concede voz, permitiéndole existir sin ser esclavo, bestia o cosa. Su narrativa cuestiona, por tanto, la voz autoritaria y autorizada del discurso colonial, llenando sus vacíos y omisiones, y remediando la visión reductora del ind...

  9. Inhibition of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E 2 Expression by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibition of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E 2 Expression by Methanol Extract of Polyopes affinis in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 Microglial Cells through Suppression of Akt-dependent NF-kB Activity and MAPK Pathway.

  10. The role of prostaglandins in livestock production | Okon | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prostaglandins belong to the family of lipid. Soluble unsaturated hydroxyl acid containing twenty carbon (c) atoms and based on the prostanoic acid skeleton. There are two main types of Prostaglandins (PGs), the E and F series each having 3 members E1, E2, E3 and F1σ, F2σ, F3σ. The other PGs are known as secondary ...

  11. Cervical ripening with prostaglandin gel and hygroscopic dilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, J U; Shashoua, A; Adamczyk, C; Ismail, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness and morbidity of adding hygroscopic cervical dilators to prostaglandin gel for cervical ripening and labor induction. STUDY DESIGN: Patients of at least 34 weeks' gestation with a medical indication for induction of labor and with a modified Bishop score of 5 or less were randomized to receive either prostaglandin gel or prostaglandin gel with hygroscopic cervical dilators. Primary outcomes were time to delivery, change in cervical score, and infection. Secondary outcomes included cesarean delivery rate and deliveries before 24 hours of induction. Continuous variables were analyzed by Wilcoxon sum rank test and categorical data by chi-square or Fisher exact test, with P hygroscopic dilators. No demographic differences were noted between the groups. After six hours of ripening, the combined group achieved a greater change in Bishop score (3.6 vs. 2.1, P = 0.007) and tended to have a shorter induction time (21.7 vs. 26.4 hours, P = 0.085). The combined therapy group had a higher infection rate than the prostaglandin-only group (59% vs. 12%, P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Combining cervical dilators with prostaglandin gel provides more effective cervical ripening and a more rapid induction to delivery interval than prostaglandin alone but with a significant and prohibitive rate of infection. PMID:9678143

  12. Usability of prostaglandin monotherapy eye droppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Tom; Wolffsohn, James S

    2015-09-01

    To determine the force needed to extract a drop from a range of current prostaglandin monotherapy eye droppers and how this related to the comfortable and maximum pressure subjects could exert. The comfortable and maximum pressure subjects could apply to an eye dropper constructed around a set of cantilevered pressure sensors and mounted above their eye was assessed in 102 subjects (mean 51.2±18.7 years), repeated three times. A load cell amplifier, mounted on a stepper motor controlled linear slide, was constructed and calibrated to test the force required to extract the first three drops from 13 multidose or unidose latanoprost medication eye droppers. The pressure that could be exerted on a dropper comfortably (25.9±17.7 Newtons, range 1.2-87.4) could be exceeded with effort (to 64.8±27.1 Newtons, range 19.9-157.8; F=19.045, p<0.001), and did not differ between repeats (F=0.609, p=0.545). Comfortable and maximum pressures exerted were correlated (r=0.618, p<0.001), neither were influenced strongly by age (r=0.138, p=0.168; r=-0.118, p=0237, respectively), but were lower in women than in men (F=12.757, p=0.001). The force required to expel a drop differed between dropper designs (F=22.528, p<0.001), ranging from 6.4 Newtons to 23.4 Newtons. The force needed to exert successive drops increased (F=36.373, p<0.001) and storing droppers in the fridge further increased the force required (F=7.987, p=0.009). Prostaglandin monotherapy droppers for glaucoma treatment vary in their resistance to extract a drop and with some a drop could not be comfortably achieved by half the population, which may affect compliance and efficacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Prostaglandin E2 Receptor Expression by Osteoblasts is Modulated by Implant Surface Roughness and Prostaglandin E2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    CAPT CAMPBELL CASEY M 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS HSC AT SAN ANTONIO REPORT...Analysis, 4. Verlag Chemica , Weinheim, 65-92. Breyer RM, Bagdassarian CK, Myers SA, Breyer MD (2001): Prostanoid receptors: subtypes and signaling...prostaglandin E2 in organ culture. Prostaglandins 8:377-385. Sabbieti MG, Marchetti L, Abreu C, Montero A, Hand AR, Raisz LG, Hurley MM (1999

  14. 6-Keto-prostaglandin E1 is more potent than prostaglandin I2 as a renal vasodilator and renin secretagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E K; Herzer, W A; Zimmerman, J B; Branch, R A; Oates, J A; Gerkens, J F

    1981-01-01

    Several studies indicate that prostaglandin (PG) I2 is involved in the control of renin release. This investigation was performed to determine if the active possible metabolite of PGI2, 6-keto-PGE1, is also a renin secretagogue. The relative potencies of PGI2, 6-keto-PGE1 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha on renin secretion rate (RSR) and renal blood flow (RBF) were assessed in nonfiltering, beta adrenoreceptor blocked kidneys of seven anesthetized dogs. Intrarenal infusions of both PGI2 and 6-keto-PGE1 significantly augmented RSR in a dose-related fashion. However, 6-keto-PGE1 was approximately 5 times more potent than PGI2, producing significantly greater increases in RSR at doses from 3 X 10(-9) to 3 X 10(-8 g/kg/min (P eicosanoides enhanced RBF to an equal extent. Thus, in comparison to PGI2, 6-keto-PGF1 induced a greater increase in RSR for equivalent increases in RBF. 6-keto-PGF 1 alpha had no effect on either RSR or RBF at any of the doses infused. We conclude that, in the canine kidney, 6-keto-PGE1 is more potent than PGI2 in stimulating the juxtaglomerular cells to secrete renin.

  15. A Nonoligomerizing Mutant Form of Helicobacter pylori VacA Allows Structural Analysis of the p33 Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rivera, Christian; Campbell, Anne M; Rutherford, Stacey A; Pyburn, Tasia M; Foegeding, Nora J; Barke, Theresa L; Spiller, Benjamin W; McClain, Mark S; Ohi, Melanie D; Lacy, D Borden; Cover, Timothy L

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori secretes a pore-forming VacA toxin that has structural features and activities substantially different from those of other known bacterial toxins. VacA can assemble into multiple types of water-soluble flower-shaped oligomeric structures, and most VacA activities are dependent on its capacity to oligomerize. The 88-kDa secreted VacA protein can undergo limited proteolysis to yield two domains, designated p33 and p55. The p33 domain is required for membrane channel formation and intracellular toxic activities, and the p55 domain has an important role in mediating VacA binding to cells. Previous studies showed that the p55 domain has a predominantly β-helical structure, but no structural data are available for the p33 domain. We report here the purification and analysis of a nonoligomerizing mutant form of VacA secreted by H. pylori The nonoligomerizing 88-kDa mutant protein retains the capacity to enter host cells but lacks detectable toxic activity. Analysis of crystals formed by the monomeric protein reveals that the β-helical structure of the p55 domain extends into the C-terminal portion of p33. Fitting the p88 structural model into an electron microscopy map of hexamers formed by wild-type VacA (predicted to be structurally similar to VacA membrane channels) reveals that p55 and the β-helical segment of p33 localize to peripheral arms but do not occupy the central region of the hexamers. We propose that the amino-terminal portion of p33 is unstructured when VacA is in a monomeric form and that it undergoes a conformational change during oligomer assembly. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Regulation of intraluteal production of prostaglandins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottobre Joseph S

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is clear evidence for intraluteal production of prostaglandins (PGs in numerous species and under a variety of experimental conditions. In general, secretion of PGs appears to be elevated in the early corpus luteum (CL and during the period of luteolysis. Regulation of intraluteal PG production is regulated by a variety of factors. An autoamplification pathway in which PGF-2alpha stimulates intraluteal production of PGF-2alpha has been identified in a number of species. The mechanisms underlying this autoamplification pathway appear to differ by species with expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 and activity of phospholipase A2 acting as important physiological control points. In addition, a number of other responses that are induced by PGF-2alpha (decreased luteal progesterone, increased endothelin-1, increased cytokines also have been found to increase intraluteal PGF-2alpha production. Thus, regulation of intraluteal PG production may serve to initiate or amplify physiological signals to the CL and may be important in specific aspects of luteal physiology particularly during luteal regression.

  17. Nasopharyngeal prostaglandin E(2) in infant bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Kim M; Forsyth, Kevin D; Dixon, Dani-Louise

    2011-12-01

    The mechanism by which severe bronchiolitis can result in the development of recurrent childhood wheeze is unclear. However, mucosal inflammation and immune activation may play a major role. Prostaglandin (PG) E(2) has been highlighted as a possible therapeutic target for both the treatment of bronchiolitis and the prevention of subsequent airway hyperresponsiveness. The aim of this pilot study was to examine PGE(2) in the airways of infants hospitalised with bronchiolitis. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) were collected from 18 infants within 12 hours of admission and assayed by enzyme immunoassays for PGE(2), interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-12, as well as cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 activity. NPA PGE(2) concentration correlated with length of illness preadmission, but was not related to disease severity, causal virus, or IL-10. NPA COX 1 and 2 activity and IL-12 were all below the level of detection. Neither NPA PGE(2) nor disease severity was related to development of recurrent wheeze over 3 years following bronchiolitis. These data suggest that nasopharygeal PGE(2) at hospital admission may be neither directly causal or diagnostic of severity of infant bronchiolitis, or prognostic of development of recurrent wheeze. However, large-cohort temporal examinations are required to adequately define this mediator as a therapeutic target for bronchiolitis.

  18. Prostaglandin therapeutics in the bitch and queen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, R T

    1984-10-01

    The use of prostaglandin F2 alpha as an abortifacient and for the treatment of certain diseases affecting the reproductive system of the bitch and queen is reviewed. Doses of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg PGF administered by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection at intervals of 24 or 48 h after mid-gestation appears to be a satisfactory luteolytic-- abortifacient regime for use in dogs and cats. Doses of 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg in the bitch and 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg PGF in the queen, at intervals of 24 or 48 h, may be used as an adjunct to the therapy of metritis, endometritis or pyometritis. A median lethal dose of 5.13 mg/kg has been derived for use of PGF in the bitch and this is thought to be similar for use of PGF in the queen. Side effects of defecation and/or vomition may be observed in the bitch and queen using routine therapeutic doses.

  19. Prostaglandin potentiates 5-HT responses in stomach and ileum innervating visceral afferent sensory neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sojin; Jin, Zhenhua; Lee, Goeun [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Seek; Park, Cheung-Seog [Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Young-Ho, E-mail: jinyh@khu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) effect was tested on visceral afferent neurons. • PGE{sub 2} did not evoke response but potentiated serotonin (5-HT) currents up to 167%. • PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation was blocked by E-prostanoid type 4 receptors antagonist. • PGE{sub 2} effect on 5-HT response was also blocked by protein kinase A inhibitor KT5720. • Thus, PGE{sub 2} modulate visceral afferent neurons via synergistic signaling with 5-HT. - Abstract: Gastrointestinal disorder is a common symptom induced by diverse pathophysiological conditions that include food tolerance, chemotherapy, and irradiation for therapy. Prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) level increase was often reported during gastrointestinal disorder and prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors has been used for ameliorate the symptoms. Exogenous administration of PGE{sub 2} induces gastrointestinal disorder, however, the mechanism of action is not known. Therefore, we tested PGE{sub 2} effect on visceral afferent sensory neurons of the rat. Interestingly, PGE{sub 2} itself did not evoked any response but enhanced serotonin (5-HT)-evoked currents up to 167% of the control level. The augmented 5-HT responses were completely inhibited by a 5-HT type 3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron. The PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation were blocked by a selective E-prostanoid type4 (EP{sub 4}) receptors antagonist, L-161,982, but type1 and 2 receptor antagonist AH6809 has no effect. A membrane permeable protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT5720 also inhibited PGE{sub 2} effects. PGE{sub 2} induced 5-HT current augmentation was observed on 15% and 21% of the stomach and ileum projecting neurons, respectively. Current results suggest a synergistic signaling in visceral afferent neurons underlying gastrointestinal disorder involving PGE{sub 2} potentiation of 5-HT currents. Our findings may open a possibility for screen a new type drugs with lower side effects than currently using steroidal prostaglandin

  20. Petroleum systems charged by the Vaca Muerta (Tithonian) Formation: Neuquen basin, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wavrek, D.A.; Collister, J.W.; Quick, J.C.; Allen, R.B. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Tithonian (Upper Jurassic) source rock sequences are responsible for a significant volume of petroleum reserves on a global basis. This research defines the petroleum systems within the Neuquon basin that are charged from the Tithonian Vaca Muerta Formation, a unit deposited in a low angle ramp setting that is characterized in seismic and geochemical terms to contain three distinct organic facies. The oil types that correlate to the different organic facies are used to define effective migration pathways. The results indicate that the distal condensed sections are volumetrically significant but physical constraints related to hydrocarbon expulsion and migration contribute to decreased system efficiency. In contrast, the hydrocarbon potential of the shelfal condensed sections have less volumetric significance but exhibit higher efficiency due to the shorter distance required for fracture propagation (i.e., related to the expulsion event) and the effective juxtaposition of migration conduits and/or potential reservoirs. Organic facies are also identified within the Picun Leufu subbasin (South Embayment) that generate a hydrocarbon charge at relatively low levels of thermal stress. The sequence of events required for effective hydrocarbon entrapment is demonstrated by time-slice analysis for the Vaca Muerta-Lajas(!), Vaca Muerta-Sierras Blancas/Tordillo/Catriel/Qda. del Sapo (!), and Vaca Muerta-Quintuco/Mulichinco/Loma Montosa(!) Petroleum Systems.

  1. vacA Genotype Status of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Foods with Animal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Saeidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to controversial theories and results of studies, foods with animal origins play an important role in the transmission of H. pylori to human. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of vacA genotypes of H. pylori, isolated from milk and meat samples of cow, sheep, goat, camel, and buffalo. Eight hundred and twenty raw milk and meat samples were collected from various parts of Iran. Samples were cultured and those found positive for H. pylori were analyzed for the presence of various genotypes of vacA gene. Out of 420 milk and 400 meat samples, 92 (21.90% and 105 (26.25% were positive for H. pylori, respectively. The most commonly detected genotypes in the vacA gene were s1a (86.80%, m1a (79.18%, s1b (69.54%, and m1b (63.45% and detected combined genotypes were mostly m1as1a (68.52%, m1as1b (60.40%, m1bs1b (55.83%, and m1bs1a (53.29%. High presence of bacteria in the milk and meat samples of sheep represents that sheep may be the natural host of H. pylori. High presence of H. pylori strains in milk and meat samples similar to vacA genotypes in human being suggests that milk and meat samples could be the sources of bacteria for human.

  2. Detection of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA and iceA1 virulence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed El-Shenawy

    Mosaicism in · vacuolating cytotoxin alleles of Helicobacter pylori. Association of specific vacA · types with cytotoxin production and peptic ulceration. J Biol Chem · 1995;270:17771–7. [12] Cover TL. The vacuolatingcytotoxin of H. pylori. Mol Microbiol 1996;20:241–6. [13] Van Doorn LJ, Figueiredo C, Sanna R, Pena AS, ...

  3. Genotyping of vacA alleles of Helicobacter pylori strains recovered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the vacA genotype status of H. pylori isolated from some Iranian food items. Methods: Three hundred assorted samples of fish, ham, chicken, vegetable and meat sandwiches, and minced meat were purchased and tested using culture method. Those that were H. pylori-positive were analyzed for presence ...

  4. vacA Genotype Status of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Foods with Animal Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Elnaz; Sheikhshahrokh, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    According to controversial theories and results of studies, foods with animal origins play an important role in the transmission of H. pylori to human. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of vacA genotypes of H. pylori, isolated from milk and meat samples of cow, sheep, goat, camel, and buffalo. Eight hundred and twenty raw milk and meat samples were collected from various parts of Iran. Samples were cultured and those found positive for H. pylori were analyzed for the presence of various genotypes of vacA gene. Out of 420 milk and 400 meat samples, 92 (21.90%) and 105 (26.25%) were positive for H. pylori, respectively. The most commonly detected genotypes in the vacA gene were s1a (86.80%), m1a (79.18%), s1b (69.54%), and m1b (63.45%) and detected combined genotypes were mostly m1as1a (68.52%), m1as1b (60.40%), m1bs1b (55.83%), and m1bs1a (53.29%). High presence of bacteria in the milk and meat samples of sheep represents that sheep may be the natural host of H. pylori. High presence of H. pylori strains in milk and meat samples similar to vacA genotypes in human being suggests that milk and meat samples could be the sources of bacteria for human.

  5. Prostaglandin-E2: a point of divergence in estradiol-mediated sexual differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brigitte J; Schwarz, Jaclyn M; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2005-12-01

    The preoptic area of the mammalian forebrain is a critical substrate for the development and maintenance of many sexually dimorphic behaviors relevant to reproduction. Normal development of the male rodent brain requires completion of two processes: (1) masculinization-induction of the male phenotype, and (2) defeminization-removal of the female phenotype. Both processes, although distinct, are largely directed by the same steroid, estradiol. Whether estradiol achieves both ends via the same or separate mechanisms has been unknown. Here, we report that prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) acting downstream of estradiol, is necessary and sufficient to masculinize sexual behavior but does not affect defeminization of sexual behavior or maternal behavior. Moreover, the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area predicts defeminization of sexual behavior, but not masculinization of sexual behavior. Another sexually dimorphic cellular endpoint regulated by estradiol, spinophilin protein expression in the mediobasal hypothalamus, was not affected by PGE(2). Thus, PGE(2) is a key divergence point in the downstream actions of estradiol to simultaneously masculinize and defeminize sexual behavior.

  6. Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genotypes in Cuban and Venezuelan populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ortiz-Princz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA/vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA among patients with chronic gastritis in Cuba and Venezuela. Gastric antrum biopsies were taken for culture, DNA extraction and PCR analysis. Amplification of vacA and cagA segments was performed using two regions of cagA: 349 bp were amplified with the F1/B1 primers and the remaining 335 bp were amplified with the B7629/B7628 primers. The VA1-F/VA1-R set of primers was used to amplify the 259-bp (s1 or 286-bp (s2 product and the VAG-R/VAG-F set of primers was used to amplify the 567-bp (m1 or 642-bp (m2 regions of vacA. cagA was detected in 87% of the antral samples from Cuban patients and 80.3% of those from Venezuelan patients. All possible combinations of vacA regions were found, with the exception of s2/m1. The predominant combination found in both countries was s1/m1. The percentage of cagA+ strains was increased by the use of a second set of primers and a greater number of strains was amplified with the B7629/B7628 primers in the Cuban patients (p = 0.0001. There was no significant difference between the presence of the allelic variants of vacA and cagA in both populations. The predominant genotype was cagA+/s1m1 in both countries. The results support the necessary investigation of isolates circulating among the human population in each region.

  7. Resposta reprodutiva de vacas de corte associada a marcadores moleculares relacionados à fertilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gottschall

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi buscar associação entre a taxa de prenhez após inseminação e natalidade com marcadores moleculares ligados aos genes do receptor para IGF-1, LHβ, Leptina e receptores do FSH e LH. Utilizaram-se 249 vacas adultas Aberdeen Angus, das quais 199 foram submetidas a protocolos distintos para a IATF, seguida pelo repasse com touros, e 50 vacas formaram o grupo controle representado pelo acasalamento com touros. Foram avaliados o escore de condição corporal (ECC e o escore de condição ovariana (ECO ao início da estação reprodutiva. O ECC influenciou a taxa de natalidade, respectivamente de 55,6%, 75,8% e 82,4% (P<0,05 para os animais com ECC menor que 2,5, entre 2,5 a 2,9, e maior ou igual a 3,0, por ocasião da estação reprodutiva. Os marcadores relacionados ao gene do receptor para o IGF-1 (AFZ-1 e HEL5 mostraram associação com a taxa de natalidade. Vacas homozigóticas para o marcador AFZ-1 apresentaram 84,4% de natalidade em comparação às heterozigóticas, com 71,5% (P<0,05. A presença do alelo*161 para o marcador HEL5 foi negativa sobre a natalidade, respectivamente de 33,3% e 76,5% para vacas com e sem esse alelo (P<0,05. Esses resultados demonstram uma importante associação entre os marcadores envolvidos com o receptor para o IGF-1 e desempenho reprodutivo de vacas Angus.

  8. Prostaglandins and their receptors in insect biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eStanley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We treat the biological significance of prostaglandins (PGs and their known receptors in insect biology. PGs and related eicosanoids are oxygenated derivatives of arachidonic acid (AA and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PGs are mostly appreciated in the context of biomedicine, but a growing body of literature indicates the biological significance of these compounds extends throughout the animal kingdom, and possibly beyond. PGs act in several crucial areas of insect biology. In reproduction, a specific PG, PGE2, releases oviposition behavior in most crickets and a few other insect species; PGs also mediate events in egg development in some species, which may represent all insects. PGs play major roles in modulating fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, rectum and salivary glands, although, again, this has been studied in only a few insect species that may represent the Class. Insect immunity is a very complex defense system. PGs and other eicosanoids mediate a large number of immune reactions to infection and invasion. The actions of most PGs are mediated by specific receptors. Biomedical research has discovered a great deal of knowledge about PG receptors in mammals, including their structures, pharmacology, molecular biology and cellular locations. Studies of PG receptors in insects lag behind the biomedical background, however, recent results hold the promise of accelerated research in this area. A PG receptor has been identified in a class of lepidopteran hemocytes and experimentally linked to the release of prophenoloxidase. We conclude that research into PGs and their receptors in insects will lead to important advances in our understanding of insect biology.

  9. Prostaglandin H synthase immunoreactivity in human gut. An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, H B; Rumessen, J J; Qvortrup, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    Prostaglandins exhibit a variety of actions on intestinal smooth muscle depending upon the type, dose and muscle layer studied. As the cellular origin of prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase has not been established with certainty in the human gut wall, we studied the localization of PGH synthase in th...... large capacity for PGH synthesis and the present results may provide a basis for a better understanding of both normal physiological functions as well as intestinal disease states involving disorders of prostaglandin synthesis.......Prostaglandins exhibit a variety of actions on intestinal smooth muscle depending upon the type, dose and muscle layer studied. As the cellular origin of prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase has not been established with certainty in the human gut wall, we studied the localization of PGH synthase...... in the human duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon by immunohistochemistry. PGH synthase immunoreactivity appeared to be similar in all segments of the intestine. Most smooth muscle cells seemed to contain PGH synthase; however, the reaction in the lamina muscularis mucosae was much stronger than...

  10. Prostaglandin E2 release from dermis regulates sodium permeability of frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium.......Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium....

  11. Retirada do fósforo suplementar na estação seca para vacas Nelore em pastejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ériklis Nogueira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas Nelore em pastos de capim-marandu, após a retirada do fosfato bicálcico da mistura mineral, na estação seca. Sessenta matrizes receberam, durante seis anos, mistura mineral completa na estação chuvosa. Na estação seca, os tratamentos consistiram de: mistura mineral completa (MMC; MMC sem fosfato bicálcico (MM; e MM + concentrado. As pastagens foram manejadas de forma a não limitar a disponibilidade de matéria seca. A retirada do fosfato bicálcico do suplemento mineral, durante a estação seca, não prejudicou o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas, avaliado pela taxa de prenhez, intervalo de partos e retorno da atividade cíclica ovariana. Vacas que receberam concentrado na estação seca pariram em melhor condição corporal; vacas primíparas arraçoadas apresentaram menor número de dias vazios do que as vacas primíparas dos demais tratamentos. A retirada do fosfato bicálcico suplementar, fonte de fósforo e cálcio, na estação seca, não prejudica o desempenho de vacas multíparas em pastejo de capim-marandu.

  12. Detection of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA and iceA1 virulence genes associated with gastric diseases in Egyptian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Shenawy

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, the main genotype combinations in the studied Egyptian patients were; vacAs2m2/iceA1, vacAs1m1/cagA, mostly associated with gastritis, and vacAs1/cagA/icA, mainly in PUD. The less virulent (s2, s2m2 H. pylori genotypes were found in patients aged over 43 years.

  13. Prostaglandin F2alpha elevates blood pressure and promotes atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ying; Lucitt, Margaret B; Stubbe, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about prostaglandin F(2alpha) in cardiovascular homeostasis. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) dose-dependently elevates blood pressure in WT mice via activation of the F prostanoid (FP) receptor. The FP is expressed in preglomerular arterioles, renal collecting ducts, and the hypothalamus....... Deletion of the FP reduces blood pressure, coincident with a reduction in plasma renin concentration, angiotensin, and aldosterone, despite a compensatory up-regulation of AT1 receptors and an augmented hypertensive response to infused angiotensin II. Plasma and urinary osmolality are decreased in FP KOs...

  14. Hipocalcemia e hipomagnesemia en un hato de vacas Holstein, Jersey y Guernsey en pastoreo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ml. Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de hipocalcemia e hipomagnesemia al parto en un hato constituido por vacas de las razas Holstein, Jersey y Guernsey, bajo las mismas condiciones de alimentación, ambiente y manejo. Se realizó en una finca localizada en Cartago, Costa Rica, y comprendió 152 vacas (62 Jersey, 41 Guernsey y 49 Holstein. Durante el período preparto las vacas pastorearon kikuyo (Kikuyuocloa clandestina (0,35 Ca; 0,31 Mg y 3,50% K de la MS y fueron suplementadas con 4 kg.animal -1 .d -1 de alimento concentrado bajo en Ca (0,22 Ca; 0,42 Mg y 1,38% K de la MS y 1 kg de heno (0,4 Ca; 0,35 Mg y 1,85% K de la MS.d -1 . Después del parto, las vacas fueron suplementadas con 1 kg de alimento concentrado (0,9 Ca; 0,42 Mg y 1,38% K de la MS/2,5 a 3,0 kg de leche. Muestras de sangre fueron tomadas de los vasos coccígeos durante el periparto (parto±1d y analizadas para Ca y Mg. Los umbrales sanguíneos para definir la hipocalcemia como clínica o subclínica fueron: menos de 5,5 y 5,5 a 8,0 mg.dl -1 de Ca, respectivamente. Un valor de 1,8 mg.dl -1 de Mg, o menor, se estableció para clasificar a las vacas como hipomagnesémicas. Aunque el contenido de Ca sanguíneo durante el periparto no difirió entre razas (p≤0,05, las vacas Jersey tienden a tener valores menores de este mineral, especialmente al aumentar el número de partos. La prevalencia de hipomagnesemia difirió (p<0,05 entre las razas Jersey y Guernsey. La baja prevalencia de este desbalance sugiere que los casos de hipocalcemia clínica y subclínica observados se deben a aspectos biológicos propios de la homeostasis del Ca y no a mecanismos en la fisiología de este elemento en que interviene el Mg.

  15. Hipocalcemia e Hipomagnesemia en un hato de vacas Holstein, Jersey y Guernsey en pastoreo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ml. Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de hipocalcemia e hipomagnesemia al parto en un hato constituido por vacas de las razas Holstein, Jersey y Guernsey, bajo las mismas condiciones de alimentación, ambiente y manejo. Se realizó en una finca localizada en Cartago, Costa Rica, y comprendió 152 vacas (62 Jersey, 41 Guernsey y 49 Holstein. Durante el período preparto las vacas pastorearon kikuyo (Kikuyuocloa clandestina (0,35 Ca; 0,31 Mg y 3,50% K de la MS y fueron suplementadas con 4 kg.animal-1.d-1 de alimento concentrado bajo en Ca (0,22 Ca; 0,42 Mg y 1,38% K de la MS y 1 kg de heno (0,4 Ca; 0,35 Mg y 1,85% K de la MS.d-1. Después del parto, las vacas fueron suplementadas con 1 kg de alimento concentrado (0,9 Ca; 0,42 Mg y 1,38% K de la MS/2,5 a 3,0 kg de leche. Muestras de sangre fueron tomadas de los vasos coccígeos durante el periparto (parto±1d y analizadas para Ca y Mg. Los umbrales sanguíneos para definir la hipocalcemia como clínica o subclínica fueron: menos de 5,5 y 5,5 a 8,0 mg.dl-1 de Ca, respectivamente. Un valor de 1,8 mg.dl-1 de Mg, o menor, se estableció para clasificar a las vacas como hipomagnesémicas. Aunque el contenido de Ca sanguíneo durante el periparto no difirió entre razas (p≤0,05, las vacas Jersey tienden a tener valores menores de este mineral, especialmente al aumentar el número de partos. La prevalencia de hipomagnesemia difirió (p<0,05 entre las razas Jersey y Guernsey. La baja prevalencia de este desbalance sugiere que los casos de hipocalcemia clínica y subclínica observados se deben a aspectos biológicos propios de la homeostasis del Ca y no a mecanismos en la fisiología de este elemento en que interviene el Mg.

  16. Analytical and preparative resolution of enantiomers of prostaglandin precursors and prostaglandins by liquid chromatography on derivatized cellulose chiral stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L; Weyker, C

    1990-07-06

    Analytical methods were developed for the separation of the enantiomers of four cyclopentenone precursors of prostaglandins. The resolution obtained is correlated with the chemical environment around the chiral center of the cyclopentenones. The analytical methods were scaled up to preparative loadings and the chromatographic parameters were varied to determine their effect on the preparative separations. The correlation between analytical resolution and preparative resolution was also investigated. In addition to the precursors, the preparative resolution of the enantiomers of a synthetic prostaglandin analogue was investigated.

  17. Prostaglandin levels and semen quality in male partners of infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To provide data on semen prostaglandins in Nigerian men and relate this to fertility potential as provided by semen analysis results. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Infertility Clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria Subjects: All male partners of infertile couples who ...

  18. Prostaglandin E2(PGE2) induces headache in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, T; Olesen, Jes; Oturai, P S

    2009-01-01

    The role of prostanoids in nociception is well established. The headache-eliciting effects of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and its possible mechanisms have previously not been systematically studied in man. We hypothesized that infusion of PGE(2) might induce headache and vasodilation of cranial...

  19. Renin-sodium profile and renal prostaglandins in the pathogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in plasma renin activity (PRA), urinary aldosterone values and prostaglandin E2, (PGE2,) and F2a (PGF2a) excretion were simultaneously assessed. Renin profiles, obtained by the plotting of PRA against the urinary excretion of sodium, showed a 62% prevalence of low-renin hypertension, the remaining 38% of ...

  20. Inhibition of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 Expression by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine whether the methanol extract of Polyopes affinis (MEPA) down-regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Methods: The production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was measured by the Griess reagents and ...

  1. Prostaglandin phospholipid conjugates with unusual biophysical and cytotoxic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Palle Jacob; Adolph, Sidsel K.; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of two secretory phospholipase A(2) IIA sensitive 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) phospholipid conjugates is described and their biophysical and biological properties are reported. The conjugates spontaneously form particles in the liposome size region upon dispersion...

  2. Separation of prostaglandin metabolites on sephadex LH 20 columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Bukhave, K.

    1978-01-01

    Sephadex LH 20 columns have been investigated for the separation of initial prostaglandin metabolites. Solvent systems are described for the separation of the free acids of 15-keto-dihydro-PGE, 15-keto-PGE, PGE, and PGF(1a). Further, one of the solvent systems is described for the separation...

  3. Vitamin D-Prostaglandin Interactions and Effects on Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    chloramphenicol ace- at 1300 x g), supernatants were incubated overnight at 4°C, tyltransferase (CAT) under the control of the Herpes virus with the polyclonal...measure of drug Stamey TA, Feldman D. Antiproliferative effects of 18. Badawi AF. The role of prostaglandin synthesis in synergism . Pain 2002;98:163-8

  4. Renin-sodium profile and renal prostaglandins in the pathogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renin-sodium profile and renal prostaglandins in the pathogenesis of systemic arterial hypertension in blacks. L. Somova, J. Mufunda. Thirteen black women with systemic (essential) arterial hypertension, age-matched with normotensives, were examined during two protocols inducing sodium depletion and sodium loading ...

  5. Avaliação biológica e econômica do uso de flunixin meglumine em vacas e novilhas de corte inseminadas em tempo fixo Biological and economic evaluation of flunixin meglumine in postpartum beef cows and heifers inseminated at fixed time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Machado Pfeifer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a redução de perdas embrionárias por meio do bloqueio da secreção de prostaglandina com a utilização de flunixin meglumine (FM e avaliar o retorno econômico desta técnica. No experimento 1, utilizaram-se vacas de corte no pós-parto e, no experimento 2, somente novilhas. Todas as fêmeas foram sincronizadas e inseminadas em tempo fixo (IATF e, após 14 dias da IATF, foram distribuídas em dois grupos: grupo flunixin meglumine (GFM, composto de 59 vacas no experimento 1 e 23 novilhas no experimento 2; e grupo controle (GC, de 56 vacas no experimento 2 e 20 novilhas no experimento 1, que receberam ou não flunixin no dia 14, respectivamente. O tratamento com flunixin não influenciou a taxa de prenhez, que, no experimento 1, foi de 42,4% no grupo flunixin e 42,8% no grupo controle e, no experimento 2, de 39,1% no grupo flunixin e 25,0% no grupo controle. Verificou-se rentabilidade de 21,62; 9,24; 14,36 e 12,06% para os protocolos dos grupos controle e flunixin dos experimentos 1 e 2, respectivamente. A taxa de prenhez não foi influenciada pelo uso de flunixin meglumine no dia 14 após inseminação artificial em vacas no pós-parto e novilhas inseminadas em tempo fixo.This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and the economical advantage of using flunixin meglumine (FM to block uterine secretion of prostaglandin in order to reduce embryonic losses in beef cattle females. Postpartum cows (E1 and heifers (E2 were submitted to estrus synchronization and inseminated at fixed time. Fourteen days after the insemination the animals were assigned to the FM treatment group (FMG, including 59 cows and 23 heifers and to the control group (CG, including 56 cows and 20 heifers. Pregnancy rates (42.4% for FMG and 42.8% for CG in E1 and (39.1% for FMG and 25.0% for CG in E2 did not differ between groups. Estimates of net income were 21.62, 9.24, 14.36 and 12.06% for the CG e FMG protocols in cows and in heifers, respectively

  6. Estradiol-17β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the prostaglandin E2 receptor are involved in PGE2 positive feedback loop in the porcine endometrium

    OpenAIRE

    Waclawik, Agnieszka; Jabbour, Henry N.; Blitek, Agnieszka; Ziecik, Adam J.

    2009-01-01

    Before implantation, the porcine endometrium and trophoblast synthesize elevated amounts of luteoprotective prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We hypothesized that embryo signal, estradiol-17β (E2) and PGE2 modulate expression of key enzymes in PG synthesis: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2), PGE synthase (mPGES-1), PGF synthase (PGFS), and prostaglandin 9-ketoreductase (CBR1); as well as PGE2 receptor (PTGER2 and 4) expression and signaling within the endometrium. We determinated the site ...

  7. Erratum for “Genotyping of vacA alleles of Helicobacter pylori strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erratum for “Genotyping of vacA alleles of Helicobacter pylori strains recovered from some Iranian food items”. Fatemeh Ghorbani, Elham Gheisari and Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi. Ghorbani et al Trop J Pharm Res 2016, 15(8): 1631-1636 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v15i8.5. The correct affiliation, email and telephone ...

  8. POTENCIAL FORRAJERO DE Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl. A Gray EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE VACAS LECHERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Gallego-Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Potencial forrajero de Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl. A Gray en la producción de vacas lecheras. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el uso potencial de la Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray (botón de oro en la alimentación de vacas lecheras en el trópico alto colombiano. Se eligieron términos clave para la búsqueda de información y a partir de ellos se abordaron y analizaron diferentes publicaciones, permitiendo un acercamiento a la problemática propuesta. En estos sistemas de producción típicos del trópico alto en Colombia, el kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum contribuye con el mayor aporte en la ración del ganado y debido al alto N, la baja fibra y materia seca, lleva con frecuencia a balances energéticos negativos en las vacas más productivas, por lo que en muchos casos se sostiene la producción con alimento comercial, compuesto principalmente por cereales y con altos niveles de proteína. Las necesidades nutricionales de este tipo de sistemas productivos están orientados a encontrar estrategias que permitan mejorar la oferta forrajera, en términos de variedad y calidad, disminuir la dependencia de alimentos comerciales o al menos facilitar la inclusión de otros que mejoren el desempeño animal. A partir de este análisis, se evidencia el potencial de T. diversifolia en la alimentación de vacas lecheras de alta producción; esta forrajera arbustiva, por su contenido de proteína, carbohidratos solubles y taninos, puede tener un impacto positivo sobre los sistemas de ganadería lechera intensiva y puede incorporarse a suplementos alimenticios.

  9. Gastrite hemorrágica por alergia ao leite de vaca: relato de dois casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Rodrigo Strehl

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever dois lactentes com gastrite hemorrágica, devido à alergia ao leite de vaca. DESCRIÇÃO DOS CASOS: ambos os pacientes apresentavam hematêmese, vômitos e desnutrição. Os pacientes apresentavam infiltrado eosinofílico em mucosa gástrica biopsiada e resolução dos sintomas após o início de dieta com exclusão da proteína do leite de vaca. COMENTÁRIOS: gastrite hemorrágica devido à alergia ao leite de vaca é um diagnóstico incomum. Até o momento foram relatados 10 pacientes com gastrite alérgica, e as principais manifestações clínicas são vômitos, desnutrição, anemia e hematêmese. A gastrite por alergia ao leite de vaca pode apresentar-se em diferentes graus de gravidade, e pode ser subdiagnosticada em muitos pacientes. A menos que o tratamento correto seja iniciado, o paciente desenvolverá desnutrição protéico-calórica grave e anemia. Doença alérgica do trato gastrointestinal superior deve ser considerada em todos os lactentes com vômitos recorrentes, particularmente se complicado com hematêmese. O diagnóstico de gastrite alérgica é clínico, auxiliado pela endoscopia e anatomia patológica.

  10. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA: LEITE DE VACA HIPOALERGÊNICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eder de Moura Lopes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O leite possui vários nutrientes importantes para a nutrição humana e faz parte da alimentação de milhões de pessoas no mundo, sendo o leite de vaca o mais utilizado como alimento ou matéria-prima para a fabricação de outros alimentos. Apesar disso, alergias ao leite de vaca são bastante comuns, principalmente em crianças. Essa prospecção teve como objetivo analisar as patentes que tratam de leite bovino hipoalergênico, substitutos ou derivados. A busca foi realizada nos bancos de dados do INPI e do EPO. Foram encontradas 44 patentes, que foram analisadas quanto a datas de publicação, país de origem dos depositantes, país onde foi depositada e Classificação Internacional de Patentes (CIP. Os resultados demonstram a tendência no desenvolvimento constante de novas tecnologias que supram a necessidade dos pacientes ao leite de vaca convencional.

  11. INSEMINACIÓN ARTIFICIAL A TIEMPO FIJO EN VACAS BRAHMAN LACTANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Salgado O

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de los días de lactancia sobre la tasa de gestación con inseminación artificial a tiempo fijo (IATF. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 54 vacas multíparas brahman lactantes; sincronizadas con un protocolo a base de progesterona, benzoato de estradiol, eCG y prostaglandina. Se dividieron en dos grupos: G1: vacas 110 días de lactancia (n=27. Las vacas fueron inseminadas a las 30 horas de aplicación de la segunda dosis de benzoato. Las variables se analizaron por medio de la prueba de Chi². Resultados. No se presentó efecto (p>0,05 de los tratamientos sobre los porcentajes de preñez con IATF, obteniendo 29.6% y 22.2% para los tratamientos G1 y G2 respectivamente. Conclusiones. Los días de lactancia no tuvieron efecto sobre la tasa de gestación con IATF.

  12. INTERRUPCIÓN DEL AMAMANTAMIENTO COMO MEDIDA DE CONTROL DEL ANESTRO POSTPARTO EN VACAS CEBUÍNAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ignacio Macías Andrade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El período prolongado improductivo causado por el anestro postparto, asociado al amamantamiento ha sido uno de los principales problemas en el sector ganadero. Para conocer el efecto de la interrupción del amamantamiento sobre la actividad cíclica, se seleccionaron 18 vacas cebú que oscilaban entre el día 90 y 120 postparto, anéstricas durante el amamantamiento, edad promedio 6,73 ± 1,17 años. Se distribuyeron al azar en dos grupos, separadas del ternero durante 72 (T1 y 96 (T2 horas. Las variables bajo estudio fueron la presencia de celo y ovulación. La observación del celo se realizó tres veces al día desde la interrupción del amamantamiento hasta 15 días postratamiento, al igual que la determinación de la ovulación realizada a través del ecógrafo. Los resultados alcanzados para el grupo T1 antes y después de las 72 horas fueron de 27,78 y 22,22% de vacas con presencia de celo respectivamente. Mientras que para T2 el 16,67% de vacas mostraron celo después de lo establecido y 22,22% durante las 96 horas. De los resultados analizados con la interrupción del amamantamiento por 72 horas el 38,89% de las vacas tuvieron un celo ovulatorio y un 11,11% no ovularon. En tanto que en las vacas con la interrupción del amamantamiento por 96 horas el 27,78% de las vacas ovularon y el 22,22% no ovularon. Se concluye qu interrupciones de amamantamiento a las a 72 y 96 horas ocasiona reactivación del ciclo estral en las vacas cebuínas.

  13. Helicobacter pylori VacA Disrupts Apical Membrane-Cytoskeletal Interactions in Gastric Parietal Cells*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengsong; Xia, Peng; Wu, Fang; Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Wei; Ward, Tarsha; Liu, Ya; Aikhionbare, Felix; Guo, Zhen; Powell, Michael; Liu, Bingya; Bi, Feng; Shaw, Andrew; Zhu, Zhenggang; Elmoselhi, Adel; Fan, Daiming; Cover, Timothy L.; Ding, Xia; Yao, Xuebiao

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori persistently colonize the human stomach and have been linked to atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Although it is well known that H. pylori infection can result in hypochlorhydria, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that VacA permeabilizes the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells and induces hypochlorhydria. The functional consequences of VacA infection on parietal cell physiology were studied using freshly isolated rabbit gastric glands and cultured parietal cells. Secretory activity of parietal cells was judged by an aminopyrine uptake assay and confocal microscopic examination. VacA permeabilization induces an influx of extracellular calcium, followed by activation of calpain and subsequent proteolysis of ezrin at Met469-Thr470, which results in the liberation of ezrin from the apical membrane of the parietal cells. VacA treatment inhibits acid secretion by preventing the recruitment of H,K-ATPase-containing tubulovesicles to the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells. Electron microscopic examination revealed that VacA treatment disrupts the radial arrangement of actin filaments in apical microvilli due to the loss of ezrin integrity in parietal cells. Significantly, expression of calpain-resistant ezrin restored the functional activity of parietal cells in the presence of VacA. Proteolysis of ezrin in VacA-infected parietal cells is a novel mechanism underlying H. pylori-induced inhibition of acid secretion. Our results indicate that VacA disrupts the apical membrane-cytoskeletal interactions in gastric parietal cells and thereby causes hypochlorhydria. PMID:18625712

  14. Influence of prostaglandins and adrenoceptor agonists on contractile activity in the human cervix at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryman, I; Norström, A; Lindblom, B

    1986-04-01

    The influence of prostaglandins as well as adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on contractile activity of isolated cervical smooth muscle from term pregnant women was studied. Prostaglandin E2 had an inhibitory effect at extremely low concentrations. Inhibition also was induced by prostaglandin F2 alpha, prostaglandin I2, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, but at considerably higher concentrations. Contractions evoked by noradrenaline or phenylephrine were blocked by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phenoxybenzamine. The beta-adrenoceptor agonist terbutaline acted as an inhibitor, whereas isoprenaline in most cases stimulated contractile activity. The inhibitory action of prostaglandins and especially the high sensitivity to prostaglandin E2 point to a physiologic role of these compounds for cervical dilatation and retraction. A predominance of alpha-adrenoceptors might be of importance for the maintenance of cervical competence during pregnancy.

  15. Prostaglandin D2 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Inflammation and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiki Kida

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal lung disease with limited therapeutic options. Although it is well known that lipid mediator prostaglandins are involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, the role of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether genetic disruption of hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS affects the bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis in mouse. Compared with H-PGDS naïve (WT mice, H-PGDS-deficient mice (H-PGDS-/- represented increased collagen deposition in lungs 14 days after the bleomycin injection. The enhanced fibrotic response was accompanied by an increased mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 on day 3. H-PGDS deficiency also increased vascular permeability on day 3 and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in lungs on day 3 and 7. Immunostaining showed that the neutrophils and macrophages expressed H-PGDS, and its mRNA expression was increased on day 3and 7 in WT lungs. These observations suggest that H-PGDS-derived PGD2 plays a protective role in bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis.

  16. Prostaglandin D2 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Inflammation and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Taiki; Ayabe, Shinya; Omori, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Maehara, Toko; Aritake, Kosuke; Urade, Yoshihiro; Murata, Takahisa

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal lung disease with limited therapeutic options. Although it is well known that lipid mediator prostaglandins are involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, the role of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether genetic disruption of hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS) affects the bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis in mouse. Compared with H-PGDS naïve (WT) mice, H-PGDS-deficient mice (H-PGDS-/-) represented increased collagen deposition in lungs 14 days after the bleomycin injection. The enhanced fibrotic response was accompanied by an increased mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 on day 3. H-PGDS deficiency also increased vascular permeability on day 3 and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in lungs on day 3 and 7. Immunostaining showed that the neutrophils and macrophages expressed H-PGDS, and its mRNA expression was increased on day 3and 7 in WT lungs. These observations suggest that H-PGDS-derived PGD2 plays a protective role in bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis.

  17. Prostaglandin E2 induces expression of MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) in airway smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumzhum, Nowshin N; Ammit, Alaina J

    2016-07-05

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a prostanoid with diverse actions in health and disease. In chronic respiratory diseases driven by inflammation, PGE2 has both positive and negative effects. An enhanced understanding of the receptor-mediated cellular signalling pathways induced by PGE2 may help us separate the beneficial properties from unwanted actions of this important prostaglandin. PGE2 is known to exert anti-inflammatory and bronchoprotective actions in human airways. To date however, whether PGE2 increases production of the anti-inflammatory protein MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) was unknown. We address this herein and use primary cultures of human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells to show that PGE2 increases MKP-1 mRNA and protein upregulation in a concentration-dependent manner. We explore the signalling pathways responsible and show that PGE2-induces CREB phosphorylation, not p38 MAPK activation, in ASM cells. Moreover, we utilize selective antagonists of EP2 (PF-04418948) and EP4 receptors (GW 627368X) to begin to identify EP-mediated functional outcomes in ASM cells in vitro. Taken together with earlier studies, our data suggest that PGE2 increases production of the anti-inflammatory protein MKP-1 via cAMP/CREB-mediated cellular signalling in ASM cells and demonstrates that EP2 may, in part, be involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Estradiol-17β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the prostaglandin E2 receptor are involved in PGE2 positive feedback loop in the porcine endometrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waclawik, Agnieszka; Jabbour, Henry N.; Blitek, Agnieszka; Ziecik, Adam J.

    2009-01-01

    Before implantation, the porcine endometrium and trophoblast synthesize elevated amounts of luteoprotective prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We hypothesized that embryo signal, estradiol-17β (E2) and PGE2 modulate expression of key enzymes in PG synthesis: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2), PGE synthase (mPGES-1), PGF synthase (PGFS), and prostaglandin 9-ketoreductase (CBR1); as well as PGE2 receptor (PTGER2 and 4) expression and signaling within the endometrium. We determinated the site of action of PGE2 in endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Endometrial tissue explants obtained from gilts (n=6) on days 11-12 of the estrous cycle were treated with vehicle (control), PGE2 (100 nM), E2 (1-100 nM) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (100 nM, positive control). E2 increased PGE2 secretion through elevating expression of mPGES-1 mRNA and PTGS2 and mPGES-1 protein in endometrial explants. By contrast, E2 decreased PGFS and CBR1 protein expression. E2 also stimulated PTGER2 but not PTGER4 protein content. PGE2 enhanced mPGES-1 and PTGER2 mRNA as well as PTGS2, mPGES-1 and PTGER2 protein expression. PGE2 had no effect on PGFS, CBR1 and PTGER4 expression and PGF2α release. Treatment of endometrial tissue with PGE2 increased cAMP production. Co-treatment with PTGER2 antagonist (AH6809) but not PTGER4 antagonist (GW 627368X) inhibited significantly PGE2-mediated cAMP production. PTGER2 protein was localized in luminal and glandular epithelium and blood vessels of endometrium, and was significantly up-regulated on days 11-12 of pregnancy. Our results suggest that E2, prevents luteolysis through enzymatic modification of PG synthesis and that E2, PGE2 and endometrial PTGER2 are involved in PGE2 positive feedback loop in porcine endometrium. PMID:19359378

  19. COMPORTAMIENTO REPRODUCTIVO DE VACAS CRIOLLAS CON AMAMANTAMIENTO RESTRINGIDO Y SINCRONIZACIÓN DEL ESTRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Prisciliano Z\\u00E1rate-Mart\\u00EDnez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos fueron conocer el comportamie nto reproductivo posparto de vacas criollas de rodeo con amamantamie nto restringido, la respuesta a la sincronización del estro con protocolos hormonales, los niveles séricos de progesterona y estradiol, la actividad ovárica y la tasa de concepción, con el empleo de inseminación artificial a tiempo fijo. En el Municipi o de Soto Maynes, Chihuahua, México durante el verano de 2008, se observó el comportamie nto de 27 vacas amamantando durante 95 días y se determinó el inicio de su actividad ovárica posparto por detección de estros, ultrasonografía y niveles séricos de progesterona. En el primer tratamie nto, once vacas recibie ron un dispositivo intravaginal con 1,9 g de progesterona, inyección intramuscular con 1 mg de ¿-estradiol + 50 mg de P4. Se retiró el dispositivo intravaginal el día sie te más inyección intramuscular de 30 mg de prostaglandina. A las 24 h se aplicó 1 mg de ¿- estradiol y la IA TF se realizó a las 54 h posteriores al retiro del dispositivo intravaginal. El segundo tratamie nto con once vacas fue similar, pero la inyección intramuscular al recibir el dispositivo intravaginal sólo contenía ¿-estradiol. Se observó un comportamie nto agresivo durante el amamantamie nto restringido. El reinicio de actividad ovárica, fue a los 11,66 días de haber expuesto a vacas criollas a amamantamiento restringido, 11,11% mostraron estro durante este periodo, todas presentaron estro después de los protocolos hormonales. Hubo interacción T*DS (P=0,06 para niveles séricos de progesterona y estradiol. La tasa de concepción fue de 18,8%. Adicionar progesterona con un dispositivo intravaginal no incrementaron los niveles séricos de progesterona.

  20. Avaliação da toxicidade das favas de Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Mimosoideae em vacas gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano R. Aguiar-Filho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a toxicidade de diferentes concentrações das favas de Stryphnodendron fissuratum em vacas prenhes, as favas desta árvore foram moídas, misturadas à ração comercial e fornecidas a oito vacas nas doses totais de 6,5g/kg, 7,5g/kg, 9g/kg e 10g/kg. Os animais que receberam doses de 6,5g/kg pariram bezerros normais e aqueles que receberam 7,5g/kg pariram bezerros fracos que não sobreviveram. Doses de 9g/kg resultaram no nascimento de um bezerro imaturo e de outro bezerro com distiquíase, opacidade congênita das córneas e microftalmia. Ambas as vacas que ingeriram 10g/kg morreram, porém uma vaca abortou antes de morrer. Nas vacas que morreram, as lesões macroscópicas e histológicas do sistema digestivo e fígado foram semelhantes às descritas anteriormente na intoxicação por S. fissuratum. Nos bezerros e no feto abortado não foram observadas lesões macroscópicas ou histológicas significantes. A análise fitoquímica dos extratos metanólicos das favas de S. fissuratum revelou a presença de taninos hidrossolúveis, proantocianidinas, leucoantocianidinas e da saponina triterpénica β-amirina. Saponinas triterpénicas têm sido associadas com a toxicidade das favas de Stryphnodendron spp. e Enterolobium spp., que causam sinais clínicos semelhantes aos observados na intoxicação por S. fissuratum. Esta pesquisa confirmou a toxicidade das favas de S. fissuratum para bovinos, no entanto não foram confirmados os efeitos abortivos das mesmas, pois o aborto e as mortes neonatais observadas podem ser decorrentes dos efeitos tóxicos da planta nas mães. Novas pesquisas são necessárias para pesquisar se as favas da planta causam malformações semelhantes às observas em um dos bezerros nascidos vivos.

  1. Inseminação artificial em tempo fixo e diagnóstico precoce de gestação em vacas leiteiras mestiças Timed artificial insemination and early pregnancy diagnosis in crossbred dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio França Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, durante um ano, o desempenho reprodutivo de 94 vacas leiteiras mestiças Bos taurus x Bos indicus submetidas a um programa de reprodução assistida. Um protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF foi executado por meio de dispositivo intravaginal contendo progesterona e das injeções de prostaglandina F2α e de cipionato de estradiol. Por meio de ultrassonografia, entre 7 e 14 dias após as inseminações ou montas controladas, realizou-se a detecção de corpo lúteo nos ovários a fim de determinar a taxa de ovulação e, no 28º dia, fez-se o diagnóstico de gestação para cálculo da taxa de concepção. Respeitou-se um período mínimo de 34 dias após o parto antes do tratamento. Não houve influência do escore de condição corporal e da presença de corpo lúteo no início do protocolo, nem da reutilização do dispositivo intravaginal e da monta controlada ou inseminação artificial, sobre as taxas de ovulação, concepção e concepção das vacas ovuladas. As taxas de concepção e de concepção das vacas ovuladas foram afetadas negativamente pelo elevado número de dias pós-parto (DPP, ou dias em lactação e pela época quente do ano, primavera/verão. A resposta ao protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo baseado no uso de progesterona, PGF2α e cipionato de estradiol é prejudicada pelo aumento dos dias em lactação e pela época quente do ano. A condição corporal não afeta a resposta ao protocolo de inseminação artificial, desde que as vacas tratadas apresentem escore acima de 2,25 pontos.It was evaluated, during a period of one year, the reproductive performance of 94 Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbred dairy cows submitted to an assisted reproduction program. A timed artificial insemination (TAI protocol was carried out by using an intra-vaginal progesterone device containing progesterone and through injections with Prostaglandin F2α and estradiol cypionate. By using ultrasound

  2. CRPS: A contingent hypothesis with prostaglandins as crucial conversion factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Phe

    2015-11-01

    CRPS is an acute pain disease expressed as chronic pain with a severe loss of tissue and function. CRPS usually occurs after minor injuries and then progresses in a way that is scarcely controllable, or completely uncontrollable. This article addresses the functional control mechanism of a biological organism, a comparison of techniques, and the way the negative feedback mechanisms fail in regulated feedback systems. The measurement and regulation system is controlled at the local, regional, and central levels in a biological system. Locally generated substances such as prostaglandins and hormones, as well as the central nervous system, play important roles in this process. Prostaglandins fulfil many conversion functions and are involved in vasoactive processes, pain, and inflammation. They play an intermediating role between the activity of the autonomic nervous system and local occurrences. The insufficiently explored conversion function of prostaglandins as a ubiquitously present cofactor may be related to the development of CRPS at sites which have had minor injuries in the past. Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a moderately prevalent disease, which occurs more frequently with age. Even though there are diseases known to have a precipitating effect on the aetiology of CRPS, for example Carpal tunnel syndrome, the mechanism of onset is unknown. The disease falls under the category of chronic pain, and seldom has an effective treatment based on scientific research. The economic and psychosocial aspects of the disease are substantial. CRPS is the final position of a positive feedback measurement and control system. Homoeostasis is directed by measurement and control processes. In electronics, a rapid conversion system, which quickly adapts to changing circumstances, superimposed with a delayed conversion system, which ensures a stable basis of homoeostasis. Measured changes are compensatorily controlled. An analogy is expected for a Complex Adaptive System

  3. Consumo, eficiência alimentar e exigências nutricionais de vacas de corte na lactação e terminação

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Zanetti Albertini

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar as exigências e a eficiência energética de vacas de corte lactantes e não gestantes, bem como do par vaca/bezerro. Posteriormente foi correlacionada a eficiência do par vaca/bezerro durante a lactação com a eficiência das mesmas vacas durante a terminação. Na fase de lactação os pares vaca/bezerro foram avaliados desde após o nascimento (17±5, d DP) até a desmama (210 d). Após a desmama foi conduzido o ensaio de terminação (67 d) e abate somente das matri...

  4. Prostaglandin H synthase immunoreactivity in human gut. An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, H B; Rumessen, J J; Qvortrup, K

    1991-01-01

    Prostaglandins exhibit a variety of actions on intestinal smooth muscle depending upon the type, dose and muscle layer studied. As the cellular origin of prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase has not been established with certainty in the human gut wall, we studied the localization of PGH synthase...... in the human duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon by immunohistochemistry. PGH synthase immunoreactivity appeared to be similar in all segments of the intestine. Most smooth muscle cells seemed to contain PGH synthase; however, the reaction in the lamina muscularis mucosae was much stronger than...... in the longitudinal and circular muscle layers. Endothelial cells in capillaries and larger vessels showed a positive reaction. In addition, unidentified cells in subserosa, at the level of Auerbach's plexus and in the submucosa were stained. We concluded that the smooth muscle cells of the human gut has a rather...

  5. Prostaglandins in menstrual fluid in menorrhagia and dysmenorrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, M C; Anderson, A B; Demers, L M; Turnbull, A C

    1984-07-01

    Menstrual fluid was collected in vaginal cups inserted for 2 h during the first 2 days of menstruation and menstrual serum concentrations of prostaglandins PGF2 alpha and PGE2 were measured by radioimmunoassay. In 16 women from whom menstrual fluid was collected on both days, PGF2 alpha and PGE2 concentrations were significantly higher on day 1 than on day 2. The highest concentrations of PGF2 alpha and PGE2 were found in dysmenorrhoeic women on day 1. In non-dysmenorrhoeic women, the amount of PGF2 alpha and PGE2 collected in 2 h correlated directly with total menstrual blood loss. There was no statistically significant difference in the amount of prostaglandins collected in 2 h in pain-free menorrhagic women and dysmenorrhoeic women with normal loss. There was also no significant 9-ketoreductase or 9-hydroxydehydrogenase activity present in menstrual fluid which could suggest PGE2 to PGF2 alpha interconversion.

  6. Sex differences in prostaglandin biosynthesis in neutrophils during acute inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, Simona; Rossi, Antonietta; Krauth, Verena; Dehm, Friederike; Troisi, Fabiana; Bilancia, Rossella; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Werz, Oliver; Sautebin, Lidia

    2017-01-01

    The severity and course of inflammatory processes differ between women and men, but the biochemical mechanisms underlying these sex differences are elusive. Prostaglandins (PG) and leukotrienes (LT) are lipid mediators linked to inflammation. We demonstrated superior LT biosynthesis in human neutrophils and monocytes, and in mouse macrophages from females, and we confirmed these sex differences in vivo where female mice produced more LTs during zymosan-induced peritonitis versus males. Here, ...

  7. [Prostaglandin E binding by plasmatic membranes of thyroid gland cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinkovich, V D; Gal'chinskaia, V Iu

    1979-03-01

    The binding of prostaglandins E (PGE) with human and bovine thyrocyte plasmatic membranes was investigated by the new method with material from the kit for radioimmunoassay of PGE. There was a high affinity and a low affinity site for the specific PGE binding on human and bovine thyrocytes plasmic membranes. The effect of thyrotropin and cyclic nucleotides on the PGE binding by the membranes was revealed.

  8. Prostaglandin F2 alpha in benign and malignant breast tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Vergote, I.B.; Laekeman, G. M.; Keersmaekers, G. H.; Uyttenbroeck, F L; Vanderheyden, J S; Albertyn, G. P.; Haensch, C. F.; De Roy, G. J.; Herman, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) was determined by radioimmunoassay in 57 breast carcinomata, 16 fibroadenomata, and 33 sclero-cystic-disease (SCD) specimens. In 41 cases of carcinoma and 10 cases of fibroadenoma, histologically non-malignant tissue was also obtained from the same breast. PGF2 alpha levels were significantly elevated in breast cancer when compared with the normal tissues and benign diseases (P less than 0.005 for each group). High PGF2 alpha levels were positively correlat...

  9. Prostaglandin E2 Regulation of Chondrocyte Proliferation and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    the period of bone remodeling (18 . A different limb immobilization study in dogs utilized aspirin, 75 mg/kg/day for four weeks and found that aspirin...for alveolar bone augmentation in dogs (123,124). In these studies, significant increases in new bone formation was seen in a dose-dependent manner...Levine, P. Goldhaber. 1972. Evidence that the bone resorption stimulating factor produced by mouse fibrosarcoma cells is prostaglandin E2. J. Exp. Med

  10. Desempenho de vacas de corte Purunã submetidas a diferentes manejos de amamentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan César Furmann Moura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho ponderal e reprodutivo de vacas de corte submetidas a diferentes manejos de amamentação. Durante a estação de monta, de 85 dias, foram avaliadas 161 vacas de corte da raça Purunã, de acordo com os seguintes manejos de amamentação: desmame precoce, vacas separadas dos seus bezerros aos 75 dias pós-parto; amamentação controlada, vacas separadas de seus bezerros aos 75 dias de idade, mas colocadas para amamentar uma vez ao dia durante a estação de monta; e desmame convencional, vacas mantidas com seus bezerros ao pé até o final da estação de monta, aos 160 dias de idade dos bezerros, em média. As taxas de prenhez não foram significativamente afetadas pelos manejos de amamentação, tendo sido de 97% no desmame precoce, de 96% na amamentação controlada e de 90% no desmame convencional. No entanto, o desmame precoce resultou em menor eficiência reprodutiva (28,26 kg, quando comparado à amamentação controlada (35,09 kg e ao desmame convencional (35,34 kg. Vacas de corte mantidas em boas condições corporais ao parto e ao início da estação de monta apresentam alta taxa de fertilidade, independentemente do manejo de amamentação dos bezerros.

  11. Aceitabilidade do sabor do iogurte de "leite de soja" adicionado de leite de vaca em vários sabores

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, G; Oliveira, A.J.; Shirose, I.

    1988-01-01

    Estudou-se, neste trabalho, a aceitabilidade do sabor do iogurte de "leite de soja" adicionado de leite de vaca em vários sabores, nos teores de 85% de "leite de soja" e 15% de leite de vaca. Todos os dez saborizantes experimentados proporcionaram ao produto sabor aceitável e no grau de aceitabilidade "gostei regularmente". A study was made of the acceptability of the flavor of soybean milk ioghurt, to which 15% of cow's milk in several flavors was added. All the ten experimented flavors g...

  12. Comportamiento productivo de vacas mestizas Siboney, en condiciones de estabulación en el trópico

    OpenAIRE

    Julio J. Reyes; Pedro C. Martín; Marcelo Gálvez; Sara Rey; José Capdevila; Aída Noda; Carmen Redilla

    2015-01-01

    Con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento productivo de vacas lecheras en condiciones de estabulación con forrajes tropicales, se estudiaron 20 vacas mestizas Siboney durante tres años, utilizando una superficie de cultivo de los forrajes de 4.25 hectáreas. Para el análisis estadístico se empleó un modelo multiplicativo (producción y calidad de leche), el resto de las medidas se analizó por un análisis de varianza, según diseño completamente aleatorizado. Se mostraron interacciones entre l...

  13. Factores perinatales asociados al desarrollo de alergia a las proteínas de la leche de vaca

    OpenAIRE

    E.M. Toro Monjaraz; J.A. Ramírez Mayans; R. Cervantes Bustamante; E. Gómez Morales; A. Molina Rosales; E. Montijo Barrios; F. Zárate Mondragón; J. Cadena León; M. Cazares Méndez; M. López-Ugalde

    2015-01-01

    La alergia a las proteínas de la leche de vaca se ha incrementado en los últimos años, asociado al uso de antimicrobianos en el periodo perinatal, prematuridad, el tipo de nacimiento y la disminución de la lactancia materna. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar si existe alguna asociación entre estos factores y el desarrollo de alergia a las proteínas de la leche de vaca (APLV). Material y métodos: Estudio comparativo, retrospectivo, transversal, observacional. Se revisaron los expedie...

  14. EFEITOS DO TRATAMENTO COM NIACINA PROTEGIDA E LEVEDURA RICA EM CROMO EM VACAS HOLANDESAS SUBMETIDAS À ESTRESSE TÉRMICO

    OpenAIRE

    Adelina Rodrigues Aires

    2012-01-01

    Vacas leiteiras submetidas à ambientes quentes apresentam consideráveis perdas produtivas. O uso de cromo e niacina são opções nutricionais usadas com efeitos satisfatórios para melhorar o desempenho nessas situações. No entanto, o cromo na forma de cromo-levedura e a niacina na forma protegida ainda não foram utilizados em conjunto em animais submetidos à estresse pelo calor, sendo este o objetivo do presente estudo. Os parâmetros produtivo, comportamental e metabólico de vaca...

  15. Prostaglandin I2 and Prostaglandin E2 Modulate Human Intrarenal Artery Contractility Through Prostaglandin E2-EP4, Prostacyclin-IP, and Thromboxane A2-TP Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Morten P; Hansen, Pernille B L; Stubbe, Jane

    2014-01-01

    receptors. Intrarenal arteries were microdissected from human nephrectomy samples (n=53, median diameter ≈362 μm, 88% viable, 76% relaxed in response to acetylcholine). Rings were suspended in myographs to record force development. In vessels with K(+)-induced tension (EC70: -log [mol/L]=1.36±0.03), PGE2......Cyclooxygenase inhibitors decrease renal blood flow in settings with decreased effective circulating volume. The present study examined the hypothesis that prostaglandins, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostacyclin (PGI2), induce relaxation of human intrarenal arteries through PGE2-EP and PGI2-IP...... receptor antagonist (BR5064, 10(-8) mol/L). Pretreatment of quiescent arteries with PGE2 for 5 minutes (10(-6) mol/L) led to a significant right shift of the concentration-response to norepinephrine (EC50 from 6.6±0.1-5.9±0.1). In intrarenal arteries with K(+)-induced tone, PGE2 and PGI2 at 10(-5) mol...

  16. Mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscle cells mitigates glucocorticoid-induced decreases in prostaglandin production and prostaglandin synthase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromiak, J. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1994-01-01

    The glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) induces a decline in protein synthesis and protein content in tissue cultured, avian skeletal muscle cells, and this atrophy is attenuated by repetitive mechanical stretch. Since the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin mitigated this stretch attenuation of muscle atrophy, the effects of Dex and mechanical stretch on prostaglandin production and prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) activity were examined. In static cultures, 10(-8) M Dex reduced PGF2 alpha production 55-65% and PGE2 production 84-90% after 24-72 h of incubation. Repetitive 10% stretch-relaxations of non-Dex-treated cultures increased PGF2 alpha efflux 41% at 24 h and 276% at 72 h, and increased PGE2 production 51% at 24 h and 236% at 72 h. Mechanical stimulation of Dex-treated cultures increased PGF2 alpha production 162% after 24 h, returning PGF2 alpha efflux to the level of non-Dex-treated cultures. At 72 h, stretch increased PGF2 alpha efflux 65% in Dex-treated cultures. Mechanical stimulation of Dex-treated cultures also increased PGE2 production at 24 h, but not at 72 h. Dex reduced PGHS activity in the muscle cultures by 70% after 8-24 h of incubation, and mechanical stimulation of the Dex-treated cultures increased PGHS activity by 98% after 24 h. Repetitive mechanical stimulation attenuates the catabolic effects of Dex on cultured skeletal muscle cells in part by mitigating the Dex-induced declines in PGHS activity and prostaglandin production.

  17. Causas de morte em vacas leiteiras no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Santos de Mello

    Full Text Available RESUMO: As causas de morte em vacas leiteiras no Rio Grande do Sul foram analisadas através de um estudo retrospectivo dos protocolos de necropsia de 600 vacas leiteiras examinadas entre os anos de 1998-2012. Do total de vacas analisadas 67,5% eram oriundas da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre, seguida das Regiões Nordeste Rio-Grandense 12,4% e Centro Oriental Rio-Grandense 10,4%. Quanto às raças, 76,5% eram holandesas, 9,8% Jersey e 13,7% misturas dessas raças. O diagnóstico definitivo foi possível em 85,8% dos casos. A categoria de doenças inflamatórias e parasitárias foi a principal causa de morte com 48,2% dos casos conclusivos, seguida por neoplasias (17,5%, doenças tóxicas e toxi-infecções (15,9%, doenças nutricionais e metabólicas (8,5%, doenças causadas por agentes físicos (7,4% e outras doenças (2,5%. As principais enfermidades diagnosticadas em cada categoria foram: tristeza parasitária bovina (120 casos, linfoma (77 casos, intoxicação por Senecio spp. (23 casos, retículo pericardite traumática (19 casos, cetose e timpanismo (11 casos cada uma e fulguração (5 casos.

  18. DIAGNÓSTICO DE GESTAÇÃO NA VACA PELA ULTRA-SONOGRAFIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Walter dos Santos

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo do trabalho foi de estudar o desenvolvimento embrionário e revelar quando a prenhez pode ser detectada em bovinos. Constituindo dois grupos, 142 vacas foram submetidas a exames ecográficos para diagnóstico de gestação. Utilizou-se um aparelho Pie Medical Inc., Mod. 450 com transdutor de 5MHz, arranjo linear e uma impressora. No primeiro grupo, constituído de 12 vacas charolesas foram estudadas algumas características da anatomia fetal entre o 10° e o 50° dia. Estruturas foram detectadas na seguinte ordem e tempo (dias: vesícula embrionária (18,0 ± 0,7; embrião (24,1 ± 0,5; batimentos cardíacos (26,2 ± 0,6; âmnio (30,7 ± 0,7; membros (32,7 ± 0,6; vértebras (40,2 ± 0,7 e movimentos fetais (45,6 ± 0,5. No segundo grupo, composto de 130 vacas cruza charolesa, foi observado o desenvolvimento embrionário do 23° até o 50° dia de gestação. Neste período a vesícula embrionária atingiu um diâmetro de 46,4mm, com crescimento diário de 1,38mm; enquanto o comprimento (cabeça-anca do embrião atingiu 36,4mm, com aumento diário de 1,15mm (P<0,0001. O diagnóstico precoce da gestação, e o seu monitoramento através da ultra-sonografia é possível a partir do 18° dia pós-serviço.

  19. Perfil metabólico de vacas Jersey clinicamente saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula B. de Alvarenga

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O conhecimento do metabolismo dos animais é de suma importância para se obter sucesso em qualquer atividade que envolva rebanhos. Objetivou-se determinar o perfil bioquímico sérico de vacas Jersey clinicamente saudáveis no pré e pós-parto, mantidas em sistema de criação semi-intensivo na região de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Realizou-se o exame clínico e coleta de sangue de 40 vacas da raça Jersey multíparas e lactantes em 15 momentos, entre -150 dias pré-parto até 60 dias pós-parto (DPP. No laboratório, foram analisadas as concentrações séricas de proteínas totais, albumina, globulinas, ureia, creatinina, ácidos graxos não esterificados (NEFA, β-hidroxibutirato (BHBA, triglicerídeos, colesterol, lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL, lipoproteínas de muita baixa densidade (VLDL, lipoproteínas de baixa densidade (LDL, aspartato aminotransferase (AST, gama-glutamil transferase (GGT, creatina quinase (CK, cálcio, fósforo e magnésio. Dos 40 animais, apenas 21 vacas atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e seus dados foram utilizados. Procedeu-se o teste de Tukey para os dados paramétricos e para os dados não paramétricos realizou-se o teste de Kruskal Wallis na comparação entre os momentos avaliados. Não houve interferência do balanço energético negativo e da hipocalcemia subclínica na ocorrência de doenças uterinas e no desempenho reprodutivo. Concluiu-se que vacas da raça Jersey apresentam perfil bioquímico caracterizado por hiperglobulinemia durante o periparto, além de níveis elevados de triglicérides, entretanto, sem comprometimento da função hepática e desempenho reprodutivo.

  20. vacA Genotype Status of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Foods with Animal Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Elnaz Saeidi; Amirhossein Sheikhshahrokh

    2016-01-01

    According to controversial theories and results of studies, foods with animal origins play an important role in the transmission of H. pylori to human. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of vacA genotypes of H. pylori, isolated from milk and meat samples of cow, sheep, goat, camel, and buffalo. Eight hundred and twenty raw milk and meat samples were collected from various parts of Iran. Samples were cultured and those found positive for H. pylori were analyzed for the pre...

  1. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca: travel and change (Naufragios)

    OpenAIRE

    Marešová, Jaroslava

    2010-01-01

    The book known nowadays as Naufragios by Álvar Núez Cabeza de Vaca is one of the most important testimonies about the discovery and conquest of the New World. The first half of the 16th century saw many exploration and conquest travels in which thousands of sailors, explorers, conquerors and soldiers had to face the reality of the just discovered continent. It is really interesting to see how those who wrote about this event experienced it. Naufragios has always been read as a source of histo...

  2. Resultados preliminares del forraje de Morus alba en la alimentación de vacas lecheras

    OpenAIRE

    M. Milera; G Martín; Hernández, I.; Sánchez, T.; Fernández, E.

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en evaluar el potencial del forraje de M. alba con vacas mestizas para la producción de leche. El trabajo se desarrolló en Cuba, la cual se encuentra localizada entre los 19° y 81 de longitud oeste. La Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes Indio Hatuey está ubicada en el municipio de Perico, provincia de Matanzas, sobre un suelo ferralítico rojo, a los 22° 40 7 de latitud norte y 81° 2 de longitud oeste, a una altura d...

  3. [Therapeutic abortions in the second trimestre of pregnancy with prostaglandine gel (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzl, S

    1978-03-01

    Results of 141 therapeutic abortions in the second trimestre of pregnancy with Prostaglandine E2 gel or Prostaglandine F2 alpha gel are reported. Some required oxytocin augmentation. There were 102 legal abortions. Five cases had medical indications, 97 cases had psychosocial indications. There were 39 cases of missed abortion or intra-uterine fetal death. Prostaglandine gel was developed in 1973 by Lippert. The Prostaglandine gel was administered by catheter into the extra-amniotic space. Of all 141 cases 136 (96.5%) aborted within 36 hours. The mean administration-abortion interval was 10 h 5 min-3 h 45 min in the group with Prostaglandine E2 gel and 10 h 4 min +/- 6 h 3 min in the group with Prostaglandine E2 gel augmented with Oxytocin. In the group with Prostaglandine F2 alpha gel the mean interval was 9 h 52 min +/- 6 h 50 min and in the group with Prostaglandine F2 alpha gel augmented with oxytocin the mean interval was 16 h 17 min +/- 8 h 19 min. The mean dosage of Prostaglandine corresponded to the mean administration abortion interval time. 1/3 of the cases had side effects. The method and it's result are compared with other series.

  4. In vivo suppression of NK cell cytotoxicity by stress and surgery: glucocorticoids have a minor role compared to catecholamines and prostaglandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenne, Ella; Sorski, Liat; Shaashua, Lee; Neeman, Elad; Matzner, Pini; Levi, Ben; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar

    2014-03-01

    Most in vitro and ex-vivo studies indicate a profound suppression of NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) by glucocorticoids; while catecholamines and prostaglandins were reported both to suppress and to enhance NKCC. However, methodological considerations hinder our ability to deduce from these findings to the impact of endogenous release of these factors on in vivo levels of NKCC and their implications to NK-dependent resistance to pathologies in living humans or animals. Here we used an in vivo approach that sensitively and specifically reflects NKCC in living F344 rats, based on lung clearance of NK-sensitive tumor cells (MADB106), and based on comparing effects between NK-intact and NK-depleted rats. To study the role of corticosterone, epinephrine, and prostaglandins, we administered these factors to rats, or antagonized their endogenous release following different stress paradigms or surgery. The results indicated that endogenous or exogenous elevated corticosterone levels can suppress in vivo NKCC levels, but only under some conditions, and mostly secondarily to the NK-suppressing impact of epinephrine. Specifically, corticosterone-induced NKCC suppression occurred (i) only under prolonged, but not short exposure to stress, and mainly in males; (ii) was smaller than the prominent impact of epinephrine; (iii) was mostly ascribed to corticosterone-induced potentiation of the effects of epinephrine or/and prostaglandins; and (iv) was completely abolished through antagonizing epinephrine or/and prostaglandins. Overall, these findings markedly limit the significance of stress/surgery-induced corticosterone release in the in vivo suppression of NKCC, and highlight the blockade of epinephrine or/and prostaglandins as effective and clinically feasible approaches to overcome such immuno-suppressive effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In vivo suppression of NK cell cytotoxicity by stress and surgery in F344 rats: Glucocorticoids have a minor role compared to catecholamines and prostaglandins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenne, Ella; Sorski, Liat; Shaashua, Lee; Neeman, Elad; Matzner, Pini; Levi, Ben; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar

    2015-01-01

    Most in vitro and ex-vivo studies indicate a profound suppression of NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) by glucocorticoids; while catecholamines and prostaglandins were reported both to suppress and to enhance NKCC. However, methodological considerations hinder our ability to deduce from these findings to the impact of endogenous release of these factors on in vivo levels of NKCC and their implications to NK-dependent resistance to pathologies in living humans or animals. Here we used an in vivo approach that sensitively and specifically reflects NKCC in living F344 rats, based on lung clearance of NK-sensitive tumor cells (MADB106), and based on comparing effects between NK-intact and NK-depleted rats. To study the role of corticosterone, epinephrine, and prostaglandins, we administered these factors to rats, or antagonized their endogenous release following different stress paradigms or surgery. The results indicated that endogenous or exogenous elevated corticosterone levels can suppress in vivo NKCC levels, but only under some conditions, and mostly secondarily to the NK-suppressing impact of epinephrine. Specifically, corticosterone-induced NKCC suppression occurred (i) only under prolonged, but not short exposure to stress, and mainly in males; (ii) was smaller than the prominent impact of epinephrine; (iii) was mostly ascribed to corticosterone-induced potentiation of the effects of epinephrine or/and prostaglandins; and (iv) was completely abolished through antagonizing epinephrine or/and prostaglandins. Overall, these findings markedly limit the significance of stress/surgery-induced corticosterone release in the in vivo suppression of NKCC, and highlight the blockade of epinephrine or/and prostaglandins as effective and clinically feasible approaches to overcome such immuno-suppressive effects. PMID:24333572

  6. Clinical utility and differential effects of prostaglandin analogs in the management of raised intraocular pressure and ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anne J Lee1,2, Peter McCluskey2,31Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Manchester, UK; 2University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 3Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Prostaglandin analogs (PGA are powerful topical ocular hypotensive agents available for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP. Latanoprost 0.005% and travoprost 0.004% are prodrugs and analogs of prostaglandin F2a. Bimatoprost 0.03% is regarded as a prostamide, and debate continues as to whether it is a prodrug. The free acids of all 3 PGAs reduce IOP by enhancing uveoscleral and trabecular outflow via direct effects on ciliary muscle relaxation and remodeling of extracellular matrix. The vast majority of clinical trials demonstrate IOP-lowering superiority of latanoprost, bimatoprost and travoprost compared with timolol 0.5%, brimonidine 0.2%, or dorzolamide 2% monotherapy. Bimatoprost appears to be more efficacious in IOP-lowering compared with latanoprost, with weighted mean difference in IOP reduction documented in one meta-analysis of 2.59% to 5.60% from 1- to 6-months study duration. PGAs reduce IOP further when used as adjunctive therapy. Fixed combinations of latanoprost, bimatoprost or travoprost formulated with timolol 0.5% and administered once daily are superior to monotherapy of its constituent parts. PGA have near absence of systemic side effects, although do have other commonly encountered ocular adverse effects. The adverse effects of PGA, and also those found more frequently with bimatoprost use include ocular hyperemia, eyelash growth, and peri-ocular pigmentary changes. Iris pigmentary change is unique to PGA treatment. Once daily administration and near absence of systemic side effects enhances tolerance and compliance. PGAs are often prescribed as first-line treatment for ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma.Keywords: prostaglandin analog, glaucoma, ocular hypertension, latanoprost, bimatoprost, travoprost

  7. Gestación con embriones producidos in vitro a partir de ovocitos recuperados de vacas ovariectomizadas Gestation with in vitro produced embryos from oocytes of ovariectomized cows

    OpenAIRE

    J F Aller; R.H. ALBERIO; Palma, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar la eficiencia de la producción in vitro (PIV) de embriones empleando ovocitos de vacas ovariectomizadas y determinar la tasa de preñez después de la transferencia de embriones descongelados. Ciento veinte vacas Holando Argentino de alto valor productivo fueron ovariectomizadas en 6 sesiones de 18-25 vacas, utilizando un ovariótomo por vía vaginal. Los ovarios fueron transportados entre 18-20C en solución salina con antibióticos durante 6 horas y pr...

  8. Concentrações séricas hormonais em vacas azebuadas submetidas à baixa e alta ingestão alimentar

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS, A.C.; Mollo, M.R.; BASTOS, M.R.; GUARDIEIRO, M.M.; SARTORI, R.

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da ingestão alimentar nas concentrações séricas de hormônios reprodutivos e metabólicos em vacas azebuadas. Dezoito vacas foram divididas em dois grupos: 170% (alta ingestão = A) e 66% (baixa ingestão = B) da dieta de manutenção. Com 21 dias nas dietas experimentais, as vacas tiveram o estro sincronizado. Posteriormente, os ovários foram avaliados por ultra-sonografia transretal e sangue foi coletado diariamente até o dia 7 do ciclo (ovulação...

  9. Cisto ovariano em vacas de leite: incidência, resposta à aplicação de GnRH e desempenho reprodutivo

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,R.M.; Démetrio,D.G.B.; Vasconcelos,J.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    A incidência de cistos ovarianos, a resposta ao tratamento com GnRH e os efeitos da ocorrência de cisto no desempenho reprodutivo e na taxa de descarte foram determinados em vacas lactantes da raça Holandesa. Vacas lactantes (n=333) foram avaliadas semanalmente por ultrassonografia a partir da quarta semana pós-parto, visando à detecção de corpos lúteos (CL) e de folículos ovarianos maiores que 10mm. Na sétima semana pós-parto, as vacas foram classificadas: em ciclando (n=248; presença de CL ...

  10. A bilateral antidiuresis to renal artery infusion of prostaglandin E1 in dogs treated with phenylbutazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W. J.; Hensey, O. J.; O'Neill, P.; Sheehan, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    1. In acute experiments, high levels of endogenous prostaglandins, provoked by operative stress, could obscure or alter the actions of infused prostaglandins on the kidney. For this reason we decided to compare the effects of infusing prostaglandin E1 into the renal artery of the dog before and after the administration of phenylbutazone, a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor. 2. Infusion of prostaglandin E1 into the left renal artery of the pre-phenylbutazone treated dog undergoing a mannitol diuresis increased renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate and the excretion of salt and water. The findings are in general agreement with those reported by others. 3. Following phenylbutazone administration the vascular and saluretic actions of prostaglandin E1 were unchanged but a reduced diuretic effect was observed. The response to a low dose of prostaglandin E1 (0·05 μg/min) was reduced from 1·46 ± 0·15 to 0·96 ± 0·16 ml./min (P phenylbutazone treatment than before. The reduction in the diuretic response was of the same order as the decrease in the free water clearance response, while the increase in osmolar clearance was unchanged. 5. In water-loaded dogs treated with phenylbutazone, infusion of prostaglandin E1 into the left renal artery had a biphasic effect on urine output from the left kidney. An initial diuretic response to a low dose of prostaglandin E1 disappeared with the infusion of higher doses, and antidiuresis developed in the immediate post-infusion period. 6. As prostaglandin was infused into the left kidney progressive antidiuresis was seen in the non-infused right kidney. 7. It is concluded that endogenous prostaglandins do not obscure or alter the vascular and saluretic actions of intrarenal prostaglandin E1. The findings question the proposed link between the vascular and saluretic actions of this compound. 8. It is suggested that the reduced diuretic effect of prostaglandin E1 in series no. 1, and the antidiuresis in the water-loaded dogs

  11. Comportamiento productivo de vacas mestizas Siboney, en condiciones de estabulación en el trópico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Julio J. Reyes; Pedro C. Martín; Marcelo Gálvez; Sara Rey; José Capdevila; Aída Noda; Carmen Redilla

    2015-01-01

    ... de estabulación con forrajes tropicales, se estudiaron 20 vacas mestizas Siboney durante tres años, utilizando una superficie de cultivo de los forrajes de 4.25 hectáreas. Para el análisis estadístico se empleó...

  12. VacA, CagA, IceA and OipA Genotype Status of Helicobacter pylori ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the state of vacA, cagA, oipA and iceA genotypes of H. pylori isolated from gastric biopsy samples of dogs. Methods: A total of 240 gastric biopsy samples were taken from 240 dogs using gastric endoscope. All the samples were cultured and H. pylori-positive samples were analyzed for the presence ...

  13. Natural history of Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin in human gastric epithelium in vivo: vacuoles and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necchi, Vittorio; Sommi, Patrizia; Vanoli, Alessandro; Fiocca, Roberto; Ricci, Vittorio; Solcia, Enrico

    2017-11-06

    Uptake, intracellular trafficking and pathologic effects of VacA toxin from Helicobacter pylori have been widely investigated in vitro. However, no systematic analysis investigated VacA intracellular distribution and fate in H. pylori-infected human gastric epithelium in vivo, using ultrastructural immunocytochemistry that combines precise toxin localization with analysis of the overall cell ultrastructure and intercompartimental/interorganellar relationships. By immunogold procedure, in this study we investigated gastric biopsies taken from dyspeptic patients to characterize the overall toxin's journey inside human gastric epithelial cells in vivo. Endocytic pits were found to take up VacA at sites of bacterial adhesion, leading to a population of peripheral endosomes, which in deeper (juxtanuclear) cytoplasm enlarged and fused each other to form large VacA-containing vacuoles (VCVs). These directly opened into endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cisternae, which in turn enveloped mitochondria and contacted the Golgi apparatus. In all such organelles we found toxin molecules, often coupled with structural damage. These findings suggest direct toxin transfer from VCVs to other target organelles such as ER/Golgi and mitochondria. VacA-induced cytotoxic changes were associated with the appearance of auto(phago)lysosomes containing VacA, polyubiquitinated proteins, p62/SQSTM1 protein, cathepsin D, damaged mitochondria and bacterial remnants, thus leading to persistent cell accumulation of degradative products.

  14. COMPORTAMIENTO REPRODUCTIVO Y PRODUCTIVO DE VACAS Bos indicus, Bos taurus Y SUS CRUCES EN UN SISTEMA DE PRODUCCIÓN VACA:CRÍA EN YUCATÁN, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Timoteo Mejía Bautista

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el comportamiento reproductivo y productivo de vacas Bos indicus, Bos taurus y sus cruces en un sistema vaca:cría en Yucatán, México. Se utilizó la información de 310 vacas Brahman (Br, 191 Nelore (Ne, 140 Cebú Comercial (CC, 49 Suizo Pardo (SP y 69 cruzadas con SP (Cz que parieron durante un periodo de 20 años. Los indicadores estudiados fueron edad al primer parto (EPP, intervalo entre partos (IEP, peso al destete a 205 días (PDA205 y peso al destete por día de interparto (PDA/IEP. Se utilizaron modelos fijos para determinar los efectos de año de nacimiento (AN o parto (AP, época de nacimiento (EN o parto (EP, número de parto (NP, sexo de la cría (SX y grupo racial de la vaca (GRV sobre los indicadores y modelos mixtos para la repetibilidad calculada mediante los componentes de varianza entre y dentro de vaca. Las medias generales y desviaciones estándar para EPP, IEP, PDA205 y PDA/IEP fueron, 1091.7±137.9 días, 432.9±96.9 días, 164.3±25.5 kg y 401±159 g, respectivamente. El AN y EN afectaron la EPP; el AP, EP y NP afectaron al IEP, PDA205 y PDA/IEP (P

  15. Polymorphism in the Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA toxins and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Dacie R.; Merrell, D. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Half of the world’s population is infected with Helicobacter pylori and approximately 20% of infected individuals develop overt clinical disease such as ulcers and stomach cancer. Paradoxically, despite its classification as a class I carcinogen, H. pylori has been shown to be protective against development of asthma, allergy, and esophageal disease. Given these conflicting roles for H. pylori, researchers are attempting to define the environmental, host, and pathogen interactions that ultimately result in severe disease in some individuals. From the bacterial perspective, the toxins, CagA and VacA, have each been shown to be polymorphic and to contribute to disease in an allele-dependent manner. Based on the notable advances that have recently been made in the CagA field, herein we review recent studies that have begun to shed light on the role of CagA polymorphism in H. pylori disease. Moreover, we discuss the potential interaction of CagA and VacA as a mediator of gastric disease. PMID:23380646

  16. Polymorphism in the Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA toxins and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Dacie R; Merrell, D Scott

    2013-01-01

    Half of the world's population is infected with Helicobacter pylori and approximately 20% of infected individuals develop overt clinical disease such as ulcers and stomach cancer. Paradoxically, despite its classification as a class I carcinogen, H. pylori has been shown to be protective against development of asthma, allergy, and esophageal disease. Given these conflicting roles for H. pylori, researchers are attempting to define the environmental, host, and pathogen interactions that ultimately result in severe disease in some individuals. From the bacterial perspective, the toxins, CagA and VacA, have each been shown to be polymorphic and to contribute to disease in an allele-dependent manner. Based on the notable advances that have recently been made in the CagA field, herein we review recent studies that have begun to shed light on the role of CagA polymorphism in H. pylori disease. Moreover, we discuss the potential interaction of CagA and VacA as a mediator of gastric disease.

  17. MITIGACIÓN DEL ESTRÉS CALÓRICO DURANTE EL PREPARTO EN VACAS LECHERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. TOFFOLI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 30 vacas en preparto que se alojaron en un corral seco con acceso a sombra artificial durante el verano. Las vacas fueron distribuidas en dos grupos: sin refrescado (TS y con refrescado (TR en el sector comedero. El peso corporal y la condición corporal fueron evaluadas al inicio y a los 25 días. La frecuencia respiratoria se realizó dos veces por semana en cuatro momentos del día. El registro de comportamiento dos veces a la semana. Los datos de analizaron con t Student y χ2. El peso y condición corporal no presentaron diferencia signifi cativa. Se observó un efecto del tratamiento en el día y horario para la frecuencia respiratoria (p<0,0001. La conducta de parado a la sombra fue al que dedicaron mayor tiempo en ambos tratamientos 27 % en TS y 29 % en TR. No hubo diferencias en la producción lechera entre TS y TR: 31,4 l/v/d y 30,6 l/v/d respectivamente.

  18. Hypoxia activates the cyclooxygenase-2-prostaglandin E synthase axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Ohashi, Shinya; Wong, Gabrielle S; Takaoka, Munenori; Michaylira, Carmen Z; Budo, Daniela; Tobias, John W; Kanai, Michiyuki; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Naomoto, Yoshio; Klein-Szanto, Andres J P; Haase, Volker H; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), in particular HIF-1alpha, have been implicated in tumor biology. However, HIF target genes in the esophageal tumor microenvironment remain elusive. Gene expression profiling was performed upon hypoxia-exposed non-transformed immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells, EPC2-hTERT, and comparing with a gene signature of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In addition to known HIF-1alpha target genes such as carbonic anhydrase 9, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) was identified as a novel target gene among the commonly upregulated genes in ESCC as well as the cells exposed to hypoxia. The PTGES induction was augmented upon stabilization of HIF-1alpha by hypoxia or cobalt chloride under normoxic conditions and suppressed by dominant-negative HIF-1alpha. Whereas PTGES messenger RNA (mRNA) was negatively regulated by normoxia, PTGES protein remained stable upon reoxygenation. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) biosynthesis was documented in transformed human esophageal cells by ectopic expression of PTGES as well as RNA interference directed against PTGES. Moreover, hypoxia stimulated PGE(2) production in a HIF-1alpha-dependent manner. In ESCC, PTGES was overexpressed frequently at the mRNA and protein levels. Finally, COX-2 and PTGES were colocalized in primary tumors along with HIF-1alpha and IGFBP3. Activation of the COX-2-PTGES axis in primary tumors was further corroborated by concomitant upregulation of interleukin-1beta and downregulation of hydroxylprostaglandin dehydrogenase. Thus, PTGES is a novel HIF-1alpha target gene, involved in prostaglandin E biosynthesis in the esophageal tumor hypoxic microenvironment, and this has implications in diverse tumors types, especially of squamous origin.

  19. Prostaglandin-associated periorbitopathy in latanoprost users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakakura S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Shunsuke Nakakura,1 Minamai Yamamoto,1 Etsuko Terao,1 Nozomi Nagatomi,1 Naoko Matsuo,1 Yausko Fujisawa,1 Yuki Fujio,1 Hitoshi Tabuchi,1 Yoshiaki Kiuchi2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Saneikai Tsukazaki Hospital, Himeji, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan Purpose: We investigated the incidence of prostaglandin-associated periorbitopathy (PAP in subjects with glaucoma treated with latanoprost ophthalmic solution.Subjects and methods: One eye and the forehead in 22 subjects were evaluated. All patients had used latanoprost for more than 1 year (range, 12 to 45 months; mean, 26.0 months and were prostaglandin F2α analogue treatment-naïve. Digital photographs of the subjects obtained before latanoprost therapy and at the last examination were compared retrospectively. Four signs of PAP (deepening of the upper eyelid sulcus (DUES, upper eyelid ptosis, flattening of the lower eyelid bags, and inferior scleral show and supplemental side effects around the eyelids (eyelash growth, poliosis, and eyelid pigmentation were judged to be negative or positive by three independent observers. If the observers unanimously rated a sign as positive, the result was defined as positive.Results: Twelve subjects (54.5% had no apparent signs. Three subjects were judged to have DUES (13.6%, and two subjects each were judged to have flattening of the lower eyelid bags and eyelid pigmentation (9.0%. The other signs were judged as positive in only one subject each, respectively (4.5%. A univariate logistic regression analysis showed no significant associations between any of the signs and age, sex, or the duration of therapy.Conclusion: Latanoprost induced DUES, upper eyelid ptosis, flattening of the lower eyelid bags, inferior scleral show, and supplemental side effects around the eyelids; however, the rates of such occurrence might be relatively low. Keywords: glaucoma

  20. On the pathogenetic role of prostaglandins in Bartter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, I; Hesse, B; Christensen, P

    1979-01-01

    Two patients, one with Bartter's syndrome and one with severe abuse of diuretics, were investigated before and after indomethacin treatment. Before indomethacin the two patients showed a similar pattern of hypokalaemic alcalosis, secondary hyperaldosteronism, and increased urinary excretion of PGE2 and kallikrein. After a few days on peroral indomethacin medication the hypokalaemia was significantly improved, the plasma renin activity, and the urinary excretion of aldosterone, PGE2 and kallikrein were normalized in both patients. It is concluded that the beneficial effect of indomethacin cannot be used as a proof of prostaglandin overproduction as the primary defect in Bartter's syndrome.

  1. Biotechnological approach towards a highly efficient production of natural prostaglandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guder, J C; Buchhaupt, M; Huth, I; Hannappel, A; Ferreirós, N; Geisslinger, G; Schrader, J

    2014-11-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) act as potent local hormones in nearly all tissues of the human body and are used for various medical applications. Heterologous expression of PG endoperoxide H-synthase from the alga, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, into E. coli and the application of this strain in biotransformation experiments resulted in a highly efficient conversion of arachidonic acid (ARA) yielding up to 130 mg natural PGs l(-1) in a laboratory scale approach. Detailed analyses of the products and production kinetics were performed, confirming a rapid conversion of ARA to PGs.

  2. Aves, cerdos, vacas y otras locuras. Poshumanismo y tecnociencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya, Eugenio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of the Kantian and Jonasian phenomenology of life, the author argues for an ethics of the human species and highlights the issues surrounding the principles of an emergent school of speculative philosophy, namely Transhumanism, which champions our technological opportunities to redesign the human condition, to enhance our intellectual, physical and emotional capacities, and to free us from our confinement on planet earth.A la luz de la fenomenología de la vida de Kant y Jonas, el autor defiende una necesaria ética de la especie humana y problematiza los principios de un emergente movimiento filosófico: el Transhumanismo, que defiende las oportunidades tecnológicas de rediseñar la condición humana, de aumentar de las capacidades intelectuales, físicas y emocionales de la humanidad y de liberarnos del confinamiento en el planeta Tierra.

  3. Megalocitose de células luteínicas grandes de vacas prenhes com seneciose crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano A. Krabbe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversas espécies de Senecio estão amplamente difundidas nas pastagens de propriedades rurais do Sul do Brasil. Criadores dessa região relatam quedas nos índices reprodutivos dos rebanhos bovinos, muitas vezes de causas não determinadas. Várias plantas tóxicas são capazes de causar alterações reprodutivas diretas e indiretas em bovinos em diversos países, incluindo o Brasil, no entanto seus mecanismos patogenéticos ainda são pouco compreendidos. O objetivo desse trabalho é descrever lesões ovarianas em vacas com seneciose crônica proveniente de propriedades rurais da mesorregião Sudoeste Rio-grandense. Foram estudados 21 casos positivos de seneciose crônica diagnosticados entre 2011 e 2014. O estudo revelou que a seneciose crônica é a principal causa de morte de bovinos adultos na região. Quatro vacas prenhes apresentaram lesões hepáticas clássicas da intoxicação por Senecio spp. Essas vacas tiveram seus ovários avaliados histologicamente e células luteínicas grandes (CLG desses ovários apresentavam megalocitose e pseudoinclusões nucleares. Algumas CLG apresentaram núcleos com até 23,69μm de diâmetro e o aumento no tamanho desses núcleos foi significativamente maior que os de vacas controle. Conclui-se que a intoxicação por Senecio spp. causa alterações ovarianas em vacas e é possível que a intoxicação cause perdas reprodutivas nos rebanhos bovinas da região.

  4. Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in patients from northeastern Brazil with upper gastrointestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyssa Quezado de Figueiredo Cavalcante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastric inflammation and significantly increases the risk of duodenal and gastric ulcer disease and distal gastric carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated the Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in patients from a Brazilian region where there is a high prevalence of gastric cancer. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to investigate vacA mosaicism and cagA status in the gastric mucosa of 134 H. pylori-positive patients, including 76 with gastritis: 28 with peptic ulcer disease and 30 with gastric cancer. The s1m1 variant was the predominant vacA genotype observed, whereas the s1 allele was more frequently observed in patients with more severe diseases associated with H. pylori infection [p = 0.03, odds ratio (OR = 5.72, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.15-38.60]. Furthermore, all of the s1 alleles were s1b. Mixed vacA m1/m2 strains were found more frequently in patients with gastric cancer and a cagA-positive status was significantly associated with gastric cancer (p = 0.016, OR = 10.36, 95% CI = 1.35-217.31. Patients with gastric cancer (21/21, 100%, p = 0.006 or peptic ulcers (20/21, 95%, p = 0.02 were more frequently colonised by more virulent H. pylori strains compared to gastritis patients (41/61, 67.2%. In conclusion, in the northeastern of Brazil, which is one of the regions with the highest prevalence of gastric cancer in the country, infection with the most virulent H. pylori strains, carrying the cagA gene and s1m1 vacA alleles, predominates and is correlated with more severe H. pylori-associated diseases.

  5. Proteinograma sérico de bezerros recém-nascidos alimentados com colostro de vacas com mastite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Gonçalves Fabretti Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar o proteinograma sérico de bezerros alimentados com colostro oriundo de vacas sadias (n = 10, com mastite assintomática (n = 10 e mastite clínica (n =10 . As vacas foram alocadas em seus respectivos grupos de acordo com o exame macroscópico da secreção colostral, contagem de células somáticas, CMT e isolamento microbiano. As amostras de sangue dos conceptos foram colhidas logo após o nascimento, 24 e 48 horas após a ingestão do colostro dos quartos infectados e dos sadios. Foi avaliada a concentração de proteína total pelo método do biureto e as concentrações de imunoglobulina A (IgA, imunoglobulina G (IgG, transferrina, albumina e haptoglobina por meio da eletrofoerese em gel de poliacrilamida contendo dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos nas concentrações de albumina, proteína total e IgA. Os bezerros alimentados com colostro de vacas com mastite assintomática e clínica apresentaram teores de haptoglobina superiores aos animais sadios. As concentrações de IgG e transferrina foram significativamente inferiores nos bezerros tratados com colostro de vacas com mastite clínica. Concluiu-se que a ingestão de colostro de quartos sadios e infectados de vacas que pariram com mastite (GII e GIII não resulta em falha de transferência da imunidade passiva.

  6. Enteral feeding in prostaglandin-dependent neonates: is it a safe practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Lisa; Thureen, Patti; Kaufman, Jonathan; Wymore, Erica; Skillman, Heather; da Cruz, Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    In many centers presurgical term neonates with prostaglandin-dependent cardiac lesions experience nutritional deficiency because of postponed enteral feeds. We recently adopted early enteral feeding in these infants. This retrospective study demonstrates feeding tolerance in 33 of 34 neonates fed enterally while receiving prostaglandin, suggesting the safety of this practice.

  7. Involvement of prostaglandins in inflammation induced by latex of Calotropis procera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatin M. Shivkar

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aerial parts of the plant Calotropis procera produce milky white latex that causes inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes. Prostaglandins are one of the mediators released in an inflammatory response following induction of cyclooxygenase (COX. In the present study, we have evaluated the role of prostaglandins in inflammatory response elicited by the latex of C. procera.

  8. Emerging therapies for atopic dermatitis: The prostaglandin/leukotriene pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Daniel A; Mosser-Goldfarb, Joy L

    2018-03-01

    The role of leukotrienes and prostaglandins in development of atopy has been prototypically established in studies of asthma pathogenesis. Likewise, both in vitro and in vivo studies of atopic dermatitis have demonstrated that these molecules maintain important pathophysiologic roles. Thus, it follows that targeted therapies against these molecules may be promising in management of atopic dermatitis. Montelukast has had questionable efficacy in patients with atopic dermatitis, whereas small pilots using zileuton did have some clinically significant improvement. There are several agents in development that target leukotrienes and/or prostaglandins as well, including OC000459, Q301, and ZPL-521. In atopic dermatitis, OC000459 did not demonstrate efficacy in clinical trials, and the efficacy of the other 2 agents remains to be seen. Should these medications prove promising, these topical agents may play a future role in chronic maintenance therapy and flare prophylaxis in atopic dermatitis, as antileukotriene therapy does in asthma. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Enfermidades digitais em vacas de aptidão leiteira: associação com mastite clínica, metrites e aspectos epidemiológicos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luiz Antônio Franco da Silva; Maria Clorinda Soares Fioravanti; Bruno Rodrigues Trindade; Olízio Claudino da Silva; Duvaldo Eurides; Paulo Henrique Jorge da Cunha; Leonardo Marçal da Silva; Maria Ivete de Moura

    2004-01-01

    Utilizaram-se nesse estudo 5300 vacas de aptidão leiteira, provenientes de 80 propriedades rurais, que adotavam manejo intensivo ou semi-extensivo, com o objetivo de averiguar a existência de possível...

  10. Indicadores energeticos de vacas lecheras a pastoreo en periodo de transicion y lactancia temprana con alta o moderada condicion corporal preparto

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strieder Barboza, Clarissa; Gabriel Cucunubo, Luis; Pablo Smulders, Juan; Wittwer, Fernando; Noro, Mirela

    2014-01-01

    Se determino las variaciones en indicadores sanguineos y productivos y la presentacion de resistencia a insulina y cetosis en vacas lecheras a pastoreo durante los periodos de transicion y lactancia...

  11. Prevalence and Correlation with Clinical Diseases of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA Genotype among Gastric Patients from Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes have significant genetic heterogenicity, resulting in different clinical outcomes. Northeast part of China has reported high prevalence of H. pylori infections and gastric cancer. Hence, we investigated the H. pylori cagA and vacA genotypes with clinical outcomes in Northeast China. Gastric tissue samples (n=169, chronic gastritis (GIs, gastric ulcer (GU, and gastric cancer (GC were analysed for 16S rRNA ureA, cagA, and cagA genotypes by PCR. A total of 141 (84% cases were found positive for H. pylori by 16S rRNA and ureA. GC showed high H. pylori infection (93% compared with GIs (72% and GU (84%. The vacAs1am1 was highly found in GC (40% and GU (36%, vacAs1am2 in GIs (33%, vacAs1bm1 (14% and vacAs1bm2 (8% in GU cases, and s2m1 in normal cases (33%, while vacAs1cm1 showed low frequency in GIs (2% and GU (3% and GC showed negative result. The East-Asian cagA strain was highly observed in GC (43%, as compared to GIs (41% and GU (20%. The East-Asian cagA/vacAs1am1 was significantly higher in GC (23% than in GU (22% and GIs (145 patients. The East-Asian type cagA with vacAs1a and vacAm1 is the most predominant genotype in H. pylori strains of Northeast China.

  12. EDAD AL PRIMER PARTO EN VACAS HOLSTEIN DE LECHERÍA ESPECIALIZADA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauren Salazar-Carranza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la edad al primer parto (EPP en vacas Holstein pu- ras en lecherías especializadas de Costa Rica. Se realizó un es- tudio longitudinal prospectivo histórico con 46 029 animales de raza Holstein pura de lechería especializada de Costa Rica, durante el periodo comprendido entre los años 2000 y 2010. Se incluyeron los datos de vacas que contaban con registros completos para todas las variables del estudio, registrados en el programa VAMPP Bovino 3.0. Se calculó la EPP por las variables de zona ecológica, la época de nacimiento, el año de parto, el índice de endogamia, el número de lactancias de la madre y el tipo de parto que dio origen al animal en estudio. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de estadística descrip- tiva (porcentajes, promedios, desviación estándar [DE] y el cálculo de intervalos de confianza (IC95%. La EPP prome- dio fue 30,7 meses (D.E: 6,8; IC 95%: 30,6 – 30,8. Durante el periodo, el promedio de la EPP varió entre los 30 y 31 meses; sin embargo, en los años 2006 y 2007 mostró una tendencia a disminuir. La EPP presentó diferencias significativas entre estratos según la época de nacimiento, el número de lactancia de la madre, la zona ecológica, el año de nacimiento, el tipo de parto de la madre y el coeficiente de endogamia de la vaca. Al igual que las tendencias mundiales, mostró tendencia a decrecer en Costa Rica; y las variables de animal, tiempo y ambiente mostraron un efecto sobre la EPP. Excepto el coefi- ciente de endogamia (a mediano y largo plazo, esos factores no son modificables en condiciones de pastoreo, que son los imperantes en la gran mayoría de fincas estudiadas.

  13. Factores asociados a mastitis en vacas de la microcuenca lechera del altiplano norte de Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ramírez Vásquez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio de corte sobre la prevalencia de mastitis bovina en una muestra representativa de las granjas lecheras del altiplano norte de Antioquia, Colombia. Se evaluaron los resultados del California Mastitis Test (CMT, Recuento de Células Somáticas (RCS y cultivo bacteriológico de leche, y se analizaron los factores de riesgo asociados a mastitis bovina. El análisis estadístico de la información se efectuó por medio de estadística descriptiva, análisis de razón de prevalencias y regresión logística multinivel. Con la prueba de CMT se detectó un 20% de cuartos afectados con mastitis, la prevalencia de mastitis subclínica por vaca fue del 39,5% y la de mastitis clínica fue del 1,7%. Se efectuaron 648 cultivos de muestras de leche, de las cuales 23,9% fueron negativas, 34% positivas a Streptococcus agalactiae y 10,2% a Estafilococo coagulasa negativo. El análisis de regresión reveló que las vacas que tuvieron más de seis meses de lactancia presentaron una Odds Ratio (OR de 2,65 en comparación con las de un mes de lactancia (p < 0,05. Se halló un OR de 1,24 para la asociación de la edad y la mastitis (p < 0,05. Para el lavado de manos se encontró un OR de 0,36 en comparación con no hacerlo (p < 0,05. En conclusión, se halló una alta frecuencia de mastitis por vaca. El microorganismo más hallado fue el Streptococcus agalactiae. El trauma podría ser una causa importante de mastitis dado que no se observó crecimiento bacteriano en 23,9% de los cultivos de muestras de leche de cuartos con mastitis.

  14. SUPLEMENTACIÓN PARENTERAL DE COBRE EN VACAS GESTANTES: EFECTO SOBRE POSTPARTO Y TERNEROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan García D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto del cobre en vacas gestantes sobre el comportamiento reproductivo posparto y la salud del ternero. Materiales y métodos. Se estudiaron 80 vacas divididas en dos grupos de 40 animales cada uno. El grupo A fue tratado con 2 ml de CuSO4 (2.5% subcutáneamente. El tratamiento se inició a los 8 meses de gestación, y se repitió a los 30 y 90 días post parto. El grupo B, se uso como control. A las vacas se les analizó el perfil hematoquímico, intervalo parto primer servicio (IPPS, intervalo parto concepción (IPC, intervalo parto-parto (IPP, índice de natalidad (IN, índice de inseminación (II y la eficiencia en la detección de la hembra en estro (EDHE y a los terneros los parámetros hematoquímicos. Los datos se procesaron mediante Statgraphics Plus 5.0, para las diferencias entre medias de los datos hemoquímicos y reproductivos se aplicó (ANOVA y comparaciones de proporciones IN y EDHE. Se empleó la correlación y regresión simple para demostrar la relación del cobre con las demás parámetros estudiados. Resultados. La administración subcutánea de cobre incrementó los niveles de dicho elemento en sangre, hierro y hemoglobina (p< 0.001; así como la disminución del IPPS, IPC, IPP, IN, EDHE, e II (p< 0.05. En los terneros se aumentó la cupremia (p< 0.001, la hemoglobina (p< 0.01 y las proteínas totales (p< 0.05. Conclusiones. El tratamiento aplicado incrementó los indicadores hematoquímicos y reproductivos en los animales tratados

  15. Induction of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 by activated oncogene RhoA GTPase in A549 human epithelial cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hye Jin [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Hyung [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Juil; Do, Kee Hun [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); An, Tae Jin; Ahn, Young Sup; Park, Chung Berm [Department of Herbal Crop Research, NIHHS, RDA, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Yuseok, E-mail: moon@pnu.edu [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Institute and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-30

    Highlights: {yields} As a target of oncogene RhoA-linked signal, a prostaglandin metabolism is assessed. {yields} RhoA activation increases PGE{sub 2} levels and its metabolic enzyme mPGES-1. {yields} RhoA-activated NF-{kappa}B and EGR-1 are positively involved in mPGES-1 induction. -- Abstract: Oncogenic RhoA GTPase has been investigated as a mediator of pro-inflammatory responses and aggressive carcinogenesis. Among the various targets of RhoA-linked signals, pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), a major prostaglandin metabolite, was assessed in epithelial cancer cells. RhoA activation increased PGE{sub 2} levels and gene expression of the rate-limiting PGE{sub 2} producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). In particular, human mPGES-1 was induced by RhoA via transcriptional activation in control and interleukin (IL)-1{beta}-activated cancer cells. To address the involvement of potent signaling pathways in RhoA-activated mPGES-1 induction, various signaling inhibitors were screened for their effects on mPGES-1 promoter activity. RhoA activation enhanced basal and IL-1{beta}-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-{kappa}B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 proteins, all of which were positively involved in RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1. As one potent down-stream transcription factor of ERK1/2 signals, early growth response gene 1 product also mediated RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1 by enhancing transcriptional activity. Since oncogene-triggered PGE{sub 2} production is a critical modulator of epithelial tumor cells, RhoA-associated mPGES-1 represents a promising chemo-preventive or therapeutic target for epithelial inflammation and its associated cancers.

  16. Efecto del estrés calórico sobre la producción embrionaria en vacas superovuladas y la tasa de gestación en receptoras

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Raúl Lozano-Domínguez; Marco Antonio Asprón-Pelayo; Carlos Gustavo Vásquez- Peláez; Everardo González-Padilla; Carlos Fernando Aréchiga-Flores

    2010-01-01

    Los objetivos fueron determinar el efecto de interacción del estrés calórico de la época de producción del embrión y la de transferencia sobre la tasa de gestación de vacas receptoras, y evaluar si existe efecto del estrés calórico sobre la producción y calidad embrionaria en vacas superovuladas. Vacas lactantes de la raza Holstein fueron superovuladas en la época templada (n=20) y cálida (n=22). Los embriones fueron colectados, congelados y transferidos a vacas Holstein lactantes durante la ...

  17. New fossil record of a Jurassic pterosaur from Neuquen Basin, Vaca Muerta Formation, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codorniú, Laura; Garrido, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    Discoveries of Jurassic pterosaurs in the Southern Hemisphere are extremely unusual. In Argentina, pterosaurs from the Upper Jurassic (Tithonian) have only been found in the Northwest of Patagonia (Neuquén Basin). These come from marine deposits and three specimens have been discovered up to the present. In this paper, we report a new finding from the Neuquén Basin. This material is identified as a tibiotarsus, which probably belonged to an osteologically adult individual and represents a new species of a pterodactyloid pterosaur of medium size. This discovery provides new evidence that at least two different species of pterodactyloid pterosaurs may have coexisted in Los Catutos Member, Vaca Muerta Formation, from the shallow marine deposits of the Neuquén Basin.

  18. MADURACIÓN DEL SOLOMO (Biceps femoris) EN VACAS DE DESCARTE Bos indicus Y Bos taurus

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Alonso Cubero-Rojas; Eliana Mora-Peraza; Rodolfo WingChing-Jones; Sandra Calder\\u00F3n-Villaplana

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la maduración sobre la terneza del músculo Biceps femoris en vacas de descarte Bos indicus y Bos taurus. En la planta procesadora de Montecillos R.L., ubicada en Alajuela, se realizó la escogencia y sacrificio de los animales, la maduración y empaque al vacío de la carne. La cocción, determinación de la terneza y evaluación sensorial se llevó a cabo a los 0, 14 y 28 días de maduración, en el Laboratorio de Análisis Sensorial del Centro de I...

  19. Long-Term Prostaglandin E1 Infusion for Newborns with Critical Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykanat, Alper; Yavuz, Taner; Özalkaya, Elif; Topçuoğlu, Sevilay; Ovalı, Fahri; Karatekin, Güner

    2016-01-01

    Prostaglandin E1 is crucial for keeping the patent ductus arteriosus in critical congenital heart disease for the survival and palliation of particularly prematurely born babies until a cardiosurgical intervention is available. In this study, the side effects of prostaglandin E1 in newborns with critical congenital heart disease and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Thirty-five newborns diagnosed with critical congenital heart disease were treated with prostaglandin E1 between January 2012 and September 2014 at our hospital. Patient charts were examined for prostaglandin E1 side effects (metabolic, gastric outlet obstruction, apnea), clinical status, and prognosis. Acquired data were analyzed in the SPSS 20.0 program. Patients with birth weight under 2500 g needed more days of prostaglandin E1 infusion than ones with birthweight over 2500 g (P = 0.016). The ratio of patients with birth weight under 2500 g who received prostaglandin E1 longer than 7 days was higher than the patients with birth weight over 2500 g (P = 0.02). Eighteen side effects were encountered in 11 of 35 patients (31%). Of these side effects, 1 patient had 4, 4 patients had 2, and 6 patients had only 1 side effect. Discontinuation of the therapy was never needed. Prostaglandin E1 is an accepted therapy modality for survival and outcome in critical congenital heart disease in particularly low-birth-weight babies until a surgical intervention is available. Side effects are not less encountered but are almost always manageable, and discontinuation is not needed.

  20. NSAID Pretreatment Inhibits Prostaglandin Release in Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Cataract Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Tim; Joachim, Stephanie C; Szuler, Marek; Stellbogen, Mathias; Dick, H Burkhard

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether short-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) pretreatment on the day of surgery inhibits prostaglandin release. Previous studies detected elevated prostaglandin levels after femtosecond laser treatment and identified them as a potential mediator for laser-induced miosis. Patients underwent either image-guided femtosecond laser cataract surgery or conventional cataract surgery (n = 75). Half of the eyes per group received topical NSAID treatment on the day of surgery. Aqueous humor was collected from all patients. ELISA measurements were performed to detect aqueous humor prostaglandin levels. Femtosecond laser cataract surgery led to higher prostaglandin levels than conventional cataract surgery (P = .007). In both groups, NSAID pretreatment led to reduced prostaglandin release. In the femtosecond laser group, patients pretreated with NSAIDs had significantly lower prostaglandin values (65.3 ± 13.2 pg/mL) than patients not pretreated with NSAIDs (294.4 ± 66.5 pg/mL) (P = .0009). The short-term NSAID treatment prevented prostaglandin release in patients treated with image-guided femtosecond laser. Therefore, it has potential to limit intraoperative laser-induced miosis. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and outcomes after acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Quan; Yu, Wen-Hua; Dong, Xiao-Qiao; Yang, Ding-Bo; Shen, Yong-Feng; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Li; Du, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Zu-Yong; Zhu, Qiang; Che, Zhi-Hao; Liu, Qun-Jie

    2014-11-01

    Higher plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations have been associated with poor outcome of severe traumatic brain injury. We further investigated the relationships between plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations of 128 consecutive patients and 128 sex- and gender-matched healthy subjects were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We assessed their relationships with disease severity and clinical outcomes including 1-week mortality, 6-month mortality and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score>2). Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were substantially higher in patients than in healthy controls. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were positively associated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and hematoma volume using a multivariate linear regression. It emerged as an independent predictor for clinical outcomes of patients using a forward stepwise logistic regression. ROC curves identified the predictive values of plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations, and found its predictive value was similar to NIHSS scores and hematoma volumes. However, it just numerically added the predictive values of NIHSS score and hematoma volume. Increased plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations are associated with disease severity and clinical outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. On the role of prostaglandins in parturition in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, J F; Sokoloski, J; Caploe, P; Duffy, P; Mintz, G; Stambaugh, R L

    1975-04-01

    Treatment of both intact and hypophysectomized pregnant rats on days 19 and 20 of pregnancy with PGF2alpha results in a rapid fall in plasma progesterone concentrations by day 20 followed by premature delivery on day 21. Administration of depoprovera did not prevent the PGF2alpha-induced fall in progesterone levels but premature littering was adverted. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, postponed the onset of parturition by 20 h when administered in late pregnancy but rats treated with both indomethacin and PGF2alpha delivered at the normal time. Treatment of both intact and hypophysectomized animals with indomethacin delayed the fall in plasma progesterone concentrations which normally occurs between days 21 and 22 of pregnancy. Concomitant PGF2alpha treatment of rats receiving indomethacin caused plasma progesterone levels to fall in a pattern similar to controls. These findings indicate that endogenous PGF2alpha induces a fall in blood progesterone concentrations which is followed by increased myometrial activity.

  3. Follicular Dynamics in Crossbred cows undergoing prostaglandin induced luteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Patil

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth and regression of ovarian follicles were studied in crossbred cows (n=6, induced with prostaglandin (PGF2 alpha analogue for luteolysis. After PGF2 alpha treatment, four cows (Group A ovulated from dominant follicle of first follicular wave and remaining 2 animals ovulated from second dominant follicle (Group B. The intervals from treatment to estrus (P<0.01 and treatment to ovulation (P<0.01 were significantly longer in animals of group B compared to the animals of group A. Significant differences were observed in growth profile of ovulatory follicle between animals of group A and group B with respect to daily growth rate (P<0.01, increase in diameter (P<0.01 and size of the follicle on day 0 (P<0.01. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(2.000: 42-44

  4. Biosynthesis of prostaglandins in gingiva of patients with chronic periodontitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendieta, C.F.; Reeve, C.M.; Romero, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the ability of inflamed and normal gingival tissues to synthesize prostaglandins (PGs) from the precursor arachidonic acid. Thirteen samples of inflamed human gingival tissue and six samples of normal human gingival tissue were studied. The inflammation was characterized histologically. After incubation of the tissue with (/sup 14/C)arachidonate, PG metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and identified by comparison with co-chromatographed standards. Inflamed gingival tissue synthesized significantly larger amounts, compared to normal tissue, of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (P less than 0.05), thromboxane B2, PGD2, and PGA2. Some unidentified metabolites, possibly lipoxygenase products were detected in significantly larger amounts in inflamed than in normal tissue.

  5. Prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 regulates lipid droplet size and mitochondrial activity in murine subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Fan; Cai, Yin; Cai, Yu; Wang, Yu; Tang, Eva Hoi Ching

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether genetic ablation of prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) affects white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling mediated by β3-adrenergic stimulation. The selective β3-adrenergic agonist, CL316243 (1 mg/kg/d, i.p.) caused a greater increase in metabolic rate in EP4-knockout mice. CL316243 fragmented the unilocular lipid droplet into multilocular lipid vacuoles and increased mitochondrial biogenesis and its activity. These changes were amplified in mice with EP4 deficiency and were selectively seen in subcutaneous WAT. The expression of fat-specific protein (FSP)-27, a protein that promotes fusion of triglycerides and formation of unilocular lipid droplets were diminished, whereas the expression of phosphorylated AMPK, the upstream regulator of FSP27, was enhanced in EP4-deficient mice. The present study showed that EP4 acts as a negative regulator of WAT remodeling, it tightly coordinates rates of triglyceride storage in lipid droplets and mitochondrial respiratory function in subcutaneous white adipocytes through the phosphorylated AMPK-FSP27 signaling axis. Thus, deletion of EP4 increases mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity in WAT, and fat mass loss ensues in mice.-Ying, F., Cai, Y., Cai, Y., Wang, Y., Tang, E. H. C. Prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 regulates lipid droplet size and mitochondrial activity in murine subcutaneous white adipose tissue. © FASEB.

  6. Prostaglandin F2 alpha in benign and malignant breast tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergote, I B; Laekeman, G M; Keersmaekers, G H; Uyttenbroeck, F L; Vanderheyden, J S; Albertyn, G P; Haensch, C F; De Roy, G J; Herman, A G

    1985-06-01

    Prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) was determined by radioimmunoassay in 57 breast carcinomata, 16 fibroadenomata, and 33 sclero-cystic-disease (SCD) specimens. In 41 cases of carcinoma and 10 cases of fibroadenoma, histologically non-malignant tissue was also obtained from the same breast. PGF2 alpha levels were significantly elevated in breast cancer when compared with the normal tissues and benign diseases (P less than 0.005 for each group). High PGF2 alpha levels were positively correlated with differentiation, positive oestrogen and progestagen receptor status, and low mitotic index. Tumours with good prognosis (less than 20 mm, negative lymph nodes, some degree of differentiation) showed significantly higher PGF2 alpha levels than tumours with a bad prognosis (greater than 20 mm, positive nodes and undifferentiated). A tendency for elevated PGF2 alpha levels was observed with negative lymphatic permeation, postmenopausal status, low grade of nuclear and cellular polymorphism and high degree of elastosis and fibrosis. No correlation was observed between PGF2 alpha levels and host-cell reaction. Plasma levels of 15-keto-13, 14-dihydro-PGF2 alpha were not elevated in cancer patients when compared with the SCD-group. The present study demonstrates that PGF2 alpha levels are high in tumours with good prognosis. However, since other authors have suggested that a high PGE2 production is a bad prognostic index, it is possible that conversion of PGE2 to PGF2 alpha by 9-keto-reductase explains this relationship. Nevertheless, the presented results question the unrestricted use of prostaglandin-synthesis-inhibitors in the treatment of breast cancer.

  7. Plain film and CT observations in prostaglandin-induced bone changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzinger, M.A.; Briggs, V.A.; Dunlap, H.J.; Udjus, K.; Martin, D.J.; McDonald, P. (Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Radiology)

    1992-08-01

    Prostaglandin E[sub 1] intravenous infusion is used in infants with ductal-dependent cogenital heart disease to maintain ductal patency and prolong life until palliative or corrective surgery is feasible. Complications of prostaglandin administration include fever, diarrhoea, hypotension, apnoea, bradycardia, pseudowidening of the cranial sutures, underossification of the calvarial bones, periostitis, and skin edema. This paper presents dramatic plain radiographic features of prostaglandin-induced bone disease, inlcuding periosteal proliferation and the unusual bone-within-bone apperance, and provides the previously unpublished CT correlation. (orig.).

  8. Plasma levels and urinary excretion of prostaglandins in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, O; Seppalä, E; Nissilä, M; Vapaatalo, H

    1983-12-01

    No significant differences were found in plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2), between rheumatoid arthritis patients and controls. However, urinary excretion of PGEe and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha tended to be greater and plasma levels of TxB2 lower in rheumatoid arthritis. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion showed no marked circadian variation, although night or morning values were slightly lower. Plasma and urine prostaglandins do not correlate with clinical symptomatology in rheumatoid arthritis.

  9. Utilização de fontes de gorduras em rações de vacas leiteiras

    OpenAIRE

    José Esler de Freitas Júnior

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a utilização de diferentes fontes de gordura em rações de vacas em lactação sobre o consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes, fermentação ruminal, produção e composição do leite, composição da fração protéica do leite, balanço de energia e de nitrogênio. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas da raça Holandesa, agrupadas em três quadrados latinos balanceados 4x4, alimentadas com as seguintes rações: 1) Controle; 2) Óleo de soja refinado; 3) Grão de soja in natura; e 4) ...

  10. Alergia às proteínas do leite de vaca : Monografia : Cow`s Milk Protein Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Liliana Marlene Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Resumo da tese: A alergia às proteínas do leite de vaca é uma reacção de hipersensibilidade às proteínas do leite de vaca, onde intervêm mecanismos imunológicos e que pode incluir reacções mediadas ou não por lgE. A APLV é, principalmente, uma doença da infância, sendo mais prevalente durante o primeiro ano de vida. Os sinais e sintomas são, muitas vezes, difíceis de objectivar, sendo os sintomas cutâneos (50-70%) e os gastrointestinais (50-60%) os mais frequentes. Um correcto diagnóstico e t...

  11. Prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP-2 is not involved in the induction of non-pregnant guinea pig uterine contractions associated with terminal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Wes; Riccardi, Keith; Grasser, W A; Terry, Ketti; Thompson, David; Paralkar, V M

    2004-12-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) exerts its biological effects through 4 different receptor subtypes, EP-1, EP-2, EP-3, and EP-4. Recently we have demonstrated the importance of the prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP-2 in the healing of bone defects and fractures. This discovery led to the identification of CP-533,536, an EP-2 selective agonist, a promising therapeutic alternative for the enhancement of bone healing and the treatment of fractures (J Bone Miner Res 18 (2003) 2033). PGE2 has a myriad of effects throughout the body including the induction of uterine contractions, which results in termination of pregnancies. Our objective in this study was to determine the role of the EP-2 receptor and specifically that of CP-533,536, an EP-2 specific agonist, to induce uterine contractions and terminate pregnancy in guinea pigs, an animal model of human pregnancy. Preliminary experiments confirmed earlier reports that the guinea pig uterus was more sensitive than that of the rat. The guinea pig uterus contains the four PGE2 receptor subtypes, and ex vivo treatment of the uterus with PGE2 as expected causes profound uterine contractions. However, using receptor selective prostaglandin agonists including CP-533,536 we showed that the EP-1 and 3 receptors not the EP-2 receptor is responsible for the induction of uterine contractions of PGE2. Further, CP-533,536 did not antagonize the ability of PGE2 to induce uterine contractions in this model.

  12. Concentración de inmunoglobulinas totales en calostros de vacas en explotaciones lecheras de Costa Rica

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    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la concentración de inmunoglobulinas (Igs totales en el calostro producido por vacas lecheras y establecer el efecto que la raza y el número de parto pueden tener sobre dicha concentración. Los datos corresponden a determinaciones de concentración de Igs totales determinadas por medio de un calostrómetro en 537 muestras obtenidas entre los años 2010 y 2012, durante los meses de agosto a noviembre en 50 fincas lecheras ubicadas en las provincias de San José, Alajuela, Heredia y Cartago. Las razas de las vacas se clasificaron en Holstein, Jersey, cruce HolsteinxJersey y otras. El tamaño de las fincas osciló entre 10 y 300 vacas en ordeño. Para fines del presente estudio, se consideró un calostro de buena calidad cuando la concentración de Igs fue ≥ 50 mg/ml. La concentración de Igs osciló entre 10 y 140 con un promedio de 85 mg/ml. Del total de muestras analizadas, 13,2% presentaron una concentración inadecuada de Igs. Al considerar el efecto de raza sobre la concentración de Igs, no se encontraron diferencias significativas. El efecto de número de parto de la vaca influyó significativamente sobre la concentración de Igs encontrándose que a mayor número de parto la concentración de Igs aumenta. La información del estudio indica que la calidad de calostro es alta y que una falla en la transferencia de inmunidad pasiva podría deberse a factores como el volumen del calostro consumido, y el tiempo que transcurre desde el nacimiento y la primera toma de calostro.

  13. Nível de ureia na cana-de-açúcar para vacas mestiças leiteiras

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    Plínio de Oliveira Fassio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a redução do nível de 1% de ureia na cana-de-açúcar desintegrada para vacas mestiças de baixa produção sobre o consumo, desempenho e parâmetros nutricionais. Foram utilizadas oito vacas mestiças (Holandês x Gir,compesocorporal médioinicialde 454±64 kg, 60±22 dias pós-parto eproduçãomédia de 7±2,5 kg de leite. As oito vacas foram distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4x4, sendo utilizados quatro níveis de ureia:sulfato de amônio (9:1 na cana-de-açúcar (0,25; 0,5; 0,75 e 1,0% p/p na matéria natural, sal mineral e água à vontade. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente a 5% de significância para o erro tipo I. O consumo e a digestibilidade de todos os componentes não foi influenciado pelos tratamentos, exceto da proteína bruta. A eficiência alimentar, produção e a composição do leite não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos. A eficiência de uso da proteína bruta foi melhorada com a redução no nível de ureia na cana-de-açúcar. O nitrogênio ureico do soro e do leite foram inferiores para os menores níveis de ureia. O produtor que possui vacas de baixa produção leiteira pode reduzir a quantidade de ureia na cana-de-açúcar desintegrada sem alterar a produção de leite.

  14. Mechanism of inhibition of herpes simplex virus replication by delta 7-prostaglandin A1 and delta 12-prostaglandin J2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Fukushima, M; Tsurumi, T; Maeno, K; Nishiyama, Y

    1987-08-14

    We studied the effect of prostaglandins (PGs) A1, delta 7-A1, A2, D2, E1, E2, F2 alpha, J2 and delta 12-J2 on the replication of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Of nine PGs we tested, delta 7-PGA1 was found to have the most potent inhibitory effect; 50% inhibitory dose (ID50) was 0.35 microgram/ml in the plaque reduction assays and HSV-2 induced protein synthesis was strongly suppressed at 0.5 microgram/ml whereas at this dose, the protein synthesis of uninfected cells was not inhibited. Dot blot hybridization analysis revealed that delta 7-PGA1 and delta 12-PGJ2 inhibited the primary transcription of HSV-2. Thus we suggest that those PGs are primarily active at the level of mRNA synthesis.

  15. The effect of two different routes of administration of oxytocin on peripheral plasma prostaglandin F(2α) metabolite levels in early post-partum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajcsy, A C S; Kindahl, H; Szenci, O; van der Weijden, G C; Bartyik, J; Taverne, M A M

    2012-04-01

    Various parenteral treatment forms of oxytocin, as often used under praxis circumstances, may act differently on contractility of the uterus during the first days of the puerperium. Various patterns of such induced uterotonic responses may lead to alterations in the emptying characteristics of the uterine lumen, thus influencing, as a late consequence, the process of involution. Therefore, this study was designed to test whether two different parenteral administration forms of oxytocin induce changes in peripheral plasma concentrations of 15-ketodihydro-prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α) metabolite) in early post-partum cows. Between 13 and 15 h after uncomplicated calving, healthy dairy cows without retained foetal membranes were treated with 50 IU oxytocin, either intramuscularly (OT-IM group; n = 15) or intravenously (OT-IV group; n = 16). Saline solution was administered intramuscularly as controls (CON group; n = 15). Jugular blood samples were taken at 10-min intervals from 1 h before to 2 h after treatment. Plasma PGF(2α) metabolite levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. No significant differences in peripheral plasma PGF(2α) metabolite concentrations occurred in the OT-IM and CON groups, but mean values significantly increased in the OT-IV group, peaking at 20 min after treatment and reaching pre-treatment baseline values again at 120 min. Although the source of prostaglandins was not investigated in this study, our results suggest that exogenous oxytocin may enhance secretion of prostaglandins by the uterus during the first day after normal calving. These prostaglandins might contribute, by an endocrine or paracrine route, to the stimulation of myometrial contractility when exogenous oxytocin is given during this early post-partum stage. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO DE PERFILES DE TEXTURA DE QUESOS FRESCOS DE LECHE DE CABRA Y VACA

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    LUIS ENRIQUE GUZMAN C

    Full Text Available Pese a la existencia de varios estudios sobre diversos aspectos de los quesos de vaca y cabra, hay una escasa información sobre sus propiedades texturales. El estudio de las propiedades reológicas en los quesos es importante porque determina el cuerpo y textura característicos. La presente investigación se realizó con el fin de comparar el perfil de textura de los quesos frescos pasteurizados elaborados a partir de leche de cabra y de vaca y con contenidos de grasa de 30, 50 y 70%; los cuales fueron almacenados en refrigeración a 4°C y analizados los días 1, 6, 12, y 18 respectivamente. Los parámetros texturales de dureza, adhesividad, cohesividad, elasticidad, gomosidad y masticabilidad, se determinaron utilizando un texturómetro EZ-TEST SERIES S. Se concluye que los valores de dureza y adhesividad aumentaron durante el tiempo de almacenamiento, contrario a la elasticidad y cohesividad. Además, el aumento del contenido graso influye en el incremento de estos parámetros a excepción de la dureza. Así mismo, la gomosidad y masticabilidad varían con respecto a la dureza, cohesividad y elasticidad. Los quesos frescos de cabra presentaron mayor adhesividad, cohesividad y elasticidad, con respecto a los quesos frescos de vaca, en los cuales los valores de dureza fueron mayores.

  17. EFECTO DE LA EDAD AL PRIMER PARTO SOBRE PARÁMETROS PRODUCTIVOS EN VACAS JERSEY DE COSTA RICA

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    Gloriana Castillo-Badilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la edad al primer parto (EPP sobre la producción láctea en vacas Jersey. Se analizaron los registros de 28 367 vacas pertenecientes a 545 hatos, registrados en el programa VAMPP Bovino 3.0 entre enero del año 2000 a diciembre del 2010. Se empleó estadística descriptiva y modelos lineales mixtos. La EPP promedio fue 29,35 meses (DE: 6,77, con una tendencia al incremento durante el periodo estudio. Se observó un efecto significativo de la EPP sobre la producción (kg/305 d en las dos primeras lactancias (P41 meses. Las vacas sin retención de placenta (RMF produjeron +450 kg/305 días (P = 0,0022 que con RMF; mientras, el índice de endogamia y el tipo de parto no tuvieron efecto sobre la producción. En la segunda lactancia, las variables de estudio afectaron la producción de forma similar a la primera; sin embargo, la edad al segundo parto no afectó la producción subsecuente. Hubo un efecto lineal de la EPP sobre la producción de leche de la primera y la segunda lactancia; así, la EPP, parece tener un efecto no solo sobre la primera lactancia sino, también, en el rendimiento productivo posterior.

  18. Relationship between New Allelic Types of Helicobacter pylori vacA Gene and cagA Status and Risk of GU or DU in Iran

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    S Bakhti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Several studies have described VacA and CagA as the two important virulence determinants of Helicobacter pylori, which are associated with gastric ulcer (GU and duodenal ulcer (DU. The aim of present study was to determine the associations of the i and d regions genotypes of H. pylori vacA gene and cagA status with GU and DU risk. Methods: A total of 177 isolates were cultured from the biopsies of Iranian patients with different geographic origins and genotyped. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: Frequency of the vacA i1, i2, i1i2, d1, and d2 alleles and cagA in all patients was 42.9%, 55.4%, 1.7%, 41.8%, 58.2% and 68.4%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the frequencies of vacA i1 in isolates from GU than those from non-atrophic gastritis (p<0.05. When the GU was considered as a dependant factor by the multiple logistic regression analysis, the vacA i1 genotype was significantly associated with the age- and sex-adjusted risk for GU (p=0.006, odds ratio [OR]=3.56 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.45–8.75. Statistical analysis showed no significant association between vacA d genotype and digestive diseases. After controlling for age and sex variables, the cagA genotype remained in the final model when the DU was considered as a dependant factor by the the multiple logistic regression analysis (p=0.021, OR=3.77 95% CI=1.22-11.60. Conclusion: We have proposed that the H. pylori vacA i1 and cagA genotypes could be considered as benefit biomarkers for prediction of risk of GU and DU in Iran, respectively.

  19. Determination of prostaglandin analogs in cosmetic products by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, James B; Zhou, Wanlong; Wang, Perry G; Krynitsky, Alexander J

    2014-09-12

    A method was developed and validated for the determination of 16 prostaglandin analogs in cosmetic products. The QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Efficient, Rugged, Safe) liquid-liquid extraction method, typically used for pesticide residue analysis, was utilized as the sample preparation technique. The prostaglandin analogs were chromatographically separated and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Thirty-one cosmetic products were surveyed, and 13 products were determined to contain a prostaglandin analog with amounts ranging from 27.4 to 297μg/g. The calculated concentrations for the cosmetic products were in a similar range when compared to the concentrations of three different prostaglandin analog-containing prescription products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A multi-centre audit on the use of vaginal prostaglandin for the induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selo-Ojeme, D; Lawal, O; Nayar, B

    2008-07-01

    To induce labour, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guideline recommend a maximum total dose of 6 mg of prostaglandin E(2) tablet or 4 mg of prostaglandin E(2) gel for women with an unfavourable cervix (3 mg gel for all other women). To determine clinicians' compliance with these recommendations, the data of 1,424 women, who were induced at 10 obstetric units in England, were reviewed. A higher-than-recommended total dose was administered in 11% of the sample. Women who received prostaglandin tablets had a 2.5-fold greater likelihood to receive higher-than-recommended maximum total dose (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.8-3.7; p audit, 1 in 9 women, who underwent induction of labour, received higher than the recommended maximum total dose of vaginal prostaglandin.

  1. Enhanced

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    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  2. Prostaglandin in Algae, Investigation on Halopteris filicina (Kütz.) Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Güven, K.C.; Kull, Z.; Özdemir, O.; Kaya, G.; Ulutin, O. N.; Türker, R K

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In this work the prostaglandin - like activity was investigated in extract of Halopteris fllicina (Kütz.). The methods used for examination of prostaglandin activity of the algal extract were; ADP, adrenaline and collagen induced aggregation in human platelet rich plasma. The results showed that H. filicina extract, depending on this concentration, inhibited the secondary waves of platelet aggregation induced by ADP and adrenaline and also aggregation waves induced by collagen....

  3. Induction of Labour by Simultaneous Intravenous Administration of Prostaglandin E2 and Oxytocin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, William C. M. K.; Barr, Wallace; MacVicar, J.

    1972-01-01

    In a group of 20 matched primigravid patients labour was induced by forewater amniotomy followed by intravenous oxytocin (Syntocinon) administered in escalating doses. Ten of these patients, in a double-blind trial, also received prostaglandin E2 infused simultaneously with the oxytocin. In the combined prostaglandin-oxytocin group there was a noticeable reduction in the dosage of oxytocin required to produce effective uterine action, and the duration of labour was also reduced. No side effects were observed. PMID:4569549

  4. Effect of Amniotomy on Uterine Muscle Electrical Activity During Labor Induction with Oxytocin and Prostaglandins

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Tibor

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out whether noninvasive recording of uterine muscle electrical activity could help monitor the development of mechanical myometrial activity during induced labor. Myometrium electrical activity during labor induction was analyzed in 110 gravidas hospitalized at Maternity Ward, Bjelovar General Hospital in Bjelovar. The means used for labor induction was oxytocin infusion in 54, intracervical prostaglandin (dinoprostone 0.5 mg) in 20, intravaginal prostaglandin...

  5. Prostaglandin E2 increases hematopoietic stem cell survival and accelerates hematopoietic recovery after radiation injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Rebecca L.; Georger, Mary; Bromberg, Olga; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Frisch, Benjamin J.; Becker, Michael W.; Calvi, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), which continuously maintain all mature blood cells, are regulated within the marrow microenvironment. We previously reported that pharmacologic treatment of naïve mice with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expands HSPCs. However, the cellular mechanisms mediating this expansion remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that PGE2 treatment in naïve mice inhibits apoptosis of HSPCs without changing their proliferation rate. In a murine model of sub-lethal total body irradiation (TBI), in which HSPCs are rapidly lost, treatment with a long-acting PGE2 analogue (dmPGE2) reversed the apoptotic program initiated by TBI. dmPGE2 treatment in vivo decreased the loss of functional HSPCs following radiation injury, as demonstrated both phenotypically and by their increased reconstitution capacity. The antiapoptotic effect of dmPGE2 on HSPCs did not impair their ability to differentiate in vivo, resulting instead in improved hematopoietic recovery after TBI. dmPGE2 also increased microenvironmental cyclooxygenase-2 expression and expanded the α-SMA+ subset of marrow macrophages, thus enhancing the bone marrow microenvironmental response to TBI. Therefore, in vivo treatment with PGE2 analogues may be particularly beneficial to HSPCs in the setting of injury by targeting them both directly and also through their niche. The current data provide rationale for in vivo manipulation of the HSPC pool as a strategy to improve recovery after myelosuppression. PMID:23169593

  6. Doxycycline Attenuates Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis by Prostaglandin E2-EP4 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingwen; Su, Wenru; Chen, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Xiaokang; Dai, Ye; Han, Longhui; Liang, Dan

    2015-10-01

    We explored the anti-inflammatory effects of doxycycline in experimental uveitis and the underlying mechanisms. Rats with endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) received doxycycline (1.5 mg/kg) or the control vehicle via intraperitoneal injection. Clinical scores were graded under a slit lamp. Rat peritoneal macrophages were used in vitro to further explore the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of doxycycline. The levels of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, IL-1β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, I kappa B-α (IκB-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Akt, caspase-3, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were analyzed. Treatment with doxycycline dramatically reduced the clinical scores of EIU (P doxycycline significantly inhibited the production of NO, IL-1β, and TNF-α in peritoneal macrophages by modulating the PI3K/Akt/IκB-α/NF-κB pathway. Importantly, we found that doxycycline significantly enhanced COX2 expression and PGE2 production both in vivo and in vitro. More importantly, blockade of the EP4 receptor of PGE2 significantly reversed the doxycycline-mediated inhibition of macrophages and the PI3K/Akt pathway in vitro. Furthermore, simultaneous injection of an EP4 antagonist and doxycycline significantly blocked the doxycycline-mediated attenuation of EIU. Doxycycline can ameliorate EIU, and PGE2-EP4 signaling is essential for the anti-inflammatory effects of doxycycline in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Effects of drugs inhibiting prostaglandin or leukotriene biosynthesis on postirradiation haematopoiesis in mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubik, A.; Hofmanova, J.; Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.; Hola, J.; Lojek, A. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno (Czech Republic). Biofysikalni Ustav)

    1994-03-01

    Two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, i.e. indomethacin (INDO), an inhibitor of prostaglandin production, and esculetin (ESCUL), an inhibitor of leukotriene production, were tested for their ability to modify haematopoiesis in three experimental systems: (a) in vitro clonal proliferation of marrow GM-CFC from the irradiated mouse was found to be augmented by addition of INDO at a low concentration, and inhibited by ESCUL in a dose-dependent manner; (b) in the lethally irradiated and bone marrow-transplanted mice treated with the drugs in the postirradiation period, stimulatory effects of INDO on CFU-S and GM-CFC populations and an inhibitory effect of ESCUL on GM-CFC were observed; and (c) when the drugs were administered i.p. to mice 1 h before 5-Gy irradiation, INDO enhanced the postirradiation recovery of haematopoietic indices such the numbers of CFU-S, GM-CFC, peripheral blood granuloctyes, and nucleated bone marrow cells, while ESCUL had no effect or even inhibited the recovery of these indices. (author).

  8. Role of nitric oxide and prostaglandin in the maintenance of cortical and renal medullary blood flow

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    S.I Gomez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in anesthetized dogs to evaluate the relative participation of prostaglandins (PGs and nitric oxide (NO in the maintenance of total renal blood flow (TRBF, and renal medullary blood flow (RMBF. It was hypothesized that the inhibition of NO should impair cortical and medullary circulation because of the synthesis of this compound in the endothelial cells of these two territories. In contrast, under normal conditions of perfusion pressure PG synthesis is confined to the renal medulla. Hence PG inhibition should predominantly impair the medullary circulation. The initial administration of 25 µM kg-1 min-1 NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester produced a significant 26% decrease in TRBF and a concomitant 34% fall in RMBF, while the subsequent inhibition of PGs with 5 mg/kg meclofenamate further reduced TRBF by 33% and RMBF by 89%. In contrast, the initial administration of meclofenamate failed to change TRBF, while decreasing RMBF by 49%. The subsequent blockade of NO decreased TRBF by 35% without further altering RMBF. These results indicate that initial PG synthesis inhibition predominantly alters the medullary circulation, whereas NO inhibition decreases both cortical and medullary flow. This latter change induced by NO renders cortical and RMBF susceptible to a further decrease by PG inhibition. However, the decrease in medullary circulation produced by NO inhibition is not further enhanced by subsequent PG inhibition.

  9. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α, a possible prognostic marker in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, De-Sheng; Yan, Min; Hassan, Muhammad; Fang, Ze-Bin; Chen, Man-Tao

    2017-06-01

    8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) is a potential biomarker of oxidative stress. This study clarified whether plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations were affected and its underlying relevance to prognosis in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). In this prospective, observational study, a total of 170 controls and 170 aSAH patients were enrolled. Plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations were detected using an ELISA. Severity was assessed by World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) scale and modified Fisher grading scale. Clinical outcomes included 6-month mortality and poor outcome referred to as Glasgow outcome scale score of 1-3. As compared to controls, admission plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations were significantly enhanced. Increased concentrations of plasma 8-iso-PGF2α correlated with WFNS scores and modified Fisher scores. 8-iso-PGF2α in plasma was an independent predictor for clinical outcomes. Under ROC curve, the predictive values of 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations resembled those of WFNS scores and modified Fisher scores for clinical outcomes. An elevation in plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations is associated with the severity and poor outcome after aSAH, substantializing 8-iso-PGF2α as a potential prognostic biomarker of aSAH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. EFECTO DE LA ENDOGAMIA SOBRE PARÁMETROS PRODUCTIVOS EN VACAS HOLSTEIN Y JERSEY DE COSTA RICA

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    Judyana Aguirre-Valverde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal retrospectivo en 208 148 registros de vacas Holstein y Jersey de 545 hatos lecheros especializados presentes en la Base Nacional de Datos VAMPP Bovino, del Centro Regional de Informática para la Producción Animal Sostenible (CRIPAS, de la Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional (EMV-UNA, período 1995-2010. Se analizó el efecto de la endogamia sobre la producción corregida a 305 días (PC305d y la vida productiva -calculada según la fórmula USDA--, con regresión lineal múltiple, mediante un modelo mixto. Se usó como punto de corte, un valor de coeficiente de endogamia (F de ≥6,25% para valores altos. Además, se estimó la posibilidad de que una vaca con F≥6,25% presente parámetros productivos bajos, mediante regresión logística no condicional. El análisis de supervivencia, mediante la distribución de Weibull, determinó el efecto de endogamia sobre la vida productiva. Se encontró un 17,9% de animales con endogamia, siendo la raza Holstein la de más animales consanguíneos, aunque la Jersey fue la que tuvo, en promedio, los niveles más elevados. Las vacas con baja endogamia produjeron +140,4 kg PC305d en relación con las que tienen niveles elevados (p<0,01. Las vacas con alta endogamia tuvieron más riesgo de PC305d <5000 kg (Jersey y <6500 kg (Holstein que las de baja endogamia (OR=1,3; IC95%: 1,2-1,4. Se observó, para las razas Holstein y Jersey, +10,3 meses y +19,3 meses de vida productiva (USDA para los animales con F bajo. Se concluye que existe un efecto negativo de la consanguinidad elevada sobre la vida productiva (USDA y sobre la PC305d de las vacas Holstein y Jersey en fincas lecheras de Costa Rica.

  11. EFECTOS DE LA ENDOGAMIA SOBRE PARÁMETROS REPRODUCTIVOS EN VACAS HOLSTEIN Y JERSEY DE COSTA RICA

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    Judyana Aguirre-Valverde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el efecto de los niveles de consanguinidad (F en vacas Holstein y Jersey nacidas entre enero de 1995 y diciembre de 2010 en hatos lecheros especializados de Costa Rica. Los datos de la edad a primer parto (EPP, días abiertos (DA y servicios por concepción (SPC se procesaron en el año 2011 mediante estadística descriptiva, regresión lineal múltiple (modelo mixto y re- gresión logística. Se empleó la base de datos (n=263 804 del programa VAMPP Bovino de la Escuela de MedicinaVeterinaria de la Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. Se utilizó como punto de corte un valor F ≥ 6,25% (alto/ riesgo. Resultó un 17,9% de animales con endogamia con F promedio de 0,42% (0,49% y 0,55% para Holstein y Jersey. Hubo 22,6% de Holstein consanguíneos y 20,3% de Jersey; sin embargo, en Jersey hubo animales con F más elevados. Las vacas con endogamia tuvieron un promedio de F de 2,16% para Holstein y 2,98% para Jersey. Las vacas con F bajos tuvieron 18 días menos de EPP (p<0,01, en relación a las que tienen F alto. En DA hubo 0,53 días más para ani- males con F bajo (p=0,71, mientras que en SPC hubo 0,08 más servicios en vacas con F bajo (P<0,01. No hubo riesgo de presentar DA o SPC mayores en animales F ≥ 6,25%, lo que sí ocurrió para la EPP (OR=1,23; IC95% 1,10-1,38. La endogamia no afectó los DA, pero sí levemente los SPC y la EPP, en vacas Holstein y Jersey.

  12. Decreased levels of salivary prostaglandin E2 and epidermal growth factor in recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Wang, C Y; Patel, M; Feng, J; Milles, M; Wang, S L

    1995-12-01

    Prostaglandin E2 and epidermal growth factor are two important cytoprotective compounds in saliva. This study investigated their salivary levels in controls and individuals with minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis. The development of recurrent aphthous stomatitis was divided into three stages: (1) early active stage (mucosal redness); (2) active stage (mucosal ulceration); (3) convalescent stage. Unstimulated mixed saliva was collected from each volunteer. Salivary prostaglandin E2 and epidermal growth factor concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Their levels (mean +/- SEM) were significantly lower during the active stage of ulceration as compared to the control: (a) for prostaglandin E2, 200 +/- 55 versus 73 +/- 11 pg/mg salivary protein (p stomatitis. The prostaglandin E2 concentration decreased significantly during the active stage of ulceration, and then increased significantly during the convalescent stage. However, the recovery of salivary epidermal growth factor after the ulceration was slower than that of the prostaglandin E2. It is suggested that the diminution of prostaglandin E2 and epidermal growth factor in the saliva may be associated with the ulcer development.

  13. Frequency of vacA, cagA and babA2 virulence markers in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Mexican patients with chronic gastritis

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    Negrete Erasmo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with chronic gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and it is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Three major virulence factors of H. pylori have been described: the vacuolating toxin (VacA, the cytotoxin-associated gene product (CagA and the adhesion protein BabA2. Since considerable geographic diversity in the prevalence of H. pylori virulence factors has been reported, the aim of this work was to establish the H. pylori and vacA, cagA and babA2 gene status in 238 adult patients, from a marginal urban area of Mexico, with chronic gastritis. Methods H. pylori was identified in cultures of gastric biopsies by nested PCR. vacA and cagA genes were detected by multiplex PCR, whereas babA2 gene was identified by conventional PCR. Results H. pylori-positive biopsies were 143 (60.1%. All H. pylori strains were vacA+; 39.2% were cagA+; 13.3% were cagA+ babA2+ and 8.4% were babA2+. Mexican strains examined possessed the vacA s1, m1 (43.4%, s1, m2 (24.5%, s2, m1 (20.3% and s2, m2 (11.9% genotypes. Conclusion These results show that the Mexican patients suffering chronic gastritis we have studied had a high incidence of infection by H. pylori. Forty four percent (63/143 of the H. pylori strains analyzed in this work may be considered as highly virulent since they possessed two or three of the virulence markers analyzed: vacA s1 cagA babA2 (9.8%, 14/143, vacA s1 babA2 (4.9%, 7/143, and vacA s1 cagA (29.4%, 42/143. However, a statistically significant correlation was not observed between vacAs1, cagA and babA2 virulence markers (χ2 test; P > 0.05.

  14. Clustering of Helicobacter pylori VacA in lipid rafts, mediated by its receptor, receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase beta, is required for intoxication in AZ-521 Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakayama, Masaaki; Hisatsune, Jyunzo; Yamasaki, Eiki

    2006-01-01

    subsequent events. On the other hand, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB), which disrupts anion channels, did not inhibit translocation of VacA to lipid rafts or VacA-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, but inhibited VacA internalization followed by vacuolation...

  15. Sistemas de inseminação artificial em dois dias com observação de estro ou em tempo fixo para vacas de corte amamentando Artificial insemination systems within two days of estrus detection or at fixed time for suckled beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Carvalho Siqueira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente experimento foi investigar se a realização exclusiva da inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF, empregando como indutor da ovulação o benzoato de estradiol (BE, proporciona taxas de prenhez semelhantes a uma associação de IA convencional e IATF com GnRH, em vacas de corte no pós-parto. Duzentos e cinqüenta vacas amamentado receberam um pessário vaginal contendo 250mg de acetato de medroxi-progesterona (MAP e uma injeção intramuscular (IM de 5mg de BE no dia 0. O pessário vaginal permaneceu por sete dias. No dia 6, foram aplicadas 400UI de gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina por via IM e 5mg de análogo de prostaglandina na submucosa vulvar, realizando nesse momento o desmame por 96h. Após a retirada dos pessários (dia 7, as vacas foram distribuídas em dois grupos. No grupo BioRep (n=150, as fêmeas foram observadas duas vezes por dia para detecção de estro por 48h e inseminadas 12h após sua manifestação. Os animais que não manifestaram estro nesse período receberam uma injeção IM de 100mg de GnRH, sendo submetidas à IATF, 16 a 18h após. No grupo BE (n=100, as vacas receberam uma injeção de 1mg de BE IM no dia 8 e foram inseminadas em tempo fixo no dia 9. A porcentagem de prenhez no grupo BioRep (54,7% foi maior (PThis experiment was aimed at comparing two estrus induction protocols for cows in post partum period, using either GnRH and two-day artificial insemination (AI or estradiol benzoate (EB and fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 250 suckled beef cows received a vaginal device containing 250mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and an injection of 5mg of EB intramuscularly (IM on day 0. The vaginal device was removed on day 7. On day 6, cows were injected with 400IU eCG (IM and 5mg prostaglandin analog (into vulvar submucosa and calves were removed for 96 hours (h. After removing the vaginal devices (day 7, cows were divided in two groups. In the BioRep group (n=150

  16. La cepa de yogur en leche de vaca y cabra como suplemento en corderos de levante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia E. Flechas-F.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La  obtención de  productos pecuarios  inocuos para la salud humana cobra cada vez más fuerza. Por esta razón surge la tendencia al empleo de probióticos  que  administrados  a  los  animales provocan  efectos  benéficos  mediante modificaciones en  la población microbiana de su tracto digestivo. Se realizó un estudio con 25 corderos en etapa de  levante, con el  fin de evaluar el  efecto  de  el  uso  de  la  cepa  de  yogur (Lactobacillus  bulgaricus  y  Streptococcus thermophylus  preparado  en  leche  de  vaca  y leche de cabra sobre el crecimiento y  la ganancia de peso, con una duración de 30 días, la dieta estuvo  conformada  por  forraje  a  voluntad  y suplementación  con maíz  y  concentrado.  Los tratamientos  fueron:  yogur a base de  leche de vaca, dosis de 10 y 20 cm3; yogur a base de  leche de cabra, dosis 10 y 20 cm3 y control agua como placebo, 10 cm3. Se suministro  la cepa cada 3 días  y  se  pesaron  los  animales  una  vez  por semana, se realizó química sanguínea al inicio y al  final del ensayo. El peso para  los diferentes

  17. Suplementação de vacas leiteiras com homeopatia: desempenho e digestibilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R.M. Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de uma combinação homeopática sobre o desempenho e a digestibilidade de nutrientes em vacas leiteiras. Trinta e duas vacas Holandesas foram blocadas em pares e aleatoriamente alocadas a um de dois tratamentos por 63 dias, posterior a um período de padronização de 14 dias. Variáveis mensuradas no final da padronização ajustaram medidas semanais da mesma variável no modelo de análise estatística. Os tratamentos foram: Suplementação diária com 150 gramas de uma combinação homeopática (Hypothalamus, 10-30; Colibacilinum, 10-30; Streptococus Beta Hemolyticum, 10-60; Streptococus Uberis, 10-60; Phytolacca, 10-60; Calcium Phosphoricum, 10-30; Natrum Muriaticum, 10-60; Urtica Urens, 10-30; Silicea Terra, 10-400 em veículo mineral, ou 150 gramas do mesmo veículo mineral (controle. A suplementação com homeopatia aumentou o teor de proteína no leite de 3,09 para 3,19% (P=0,01 e tendeu a aumentar a secreção diária de proteína de 0,737 para 0,776kg (P=0,10. A queda na digestibilidade da fibra e da matéria orgânica (P=0,10, e a similaridade na relação entre alantoína e creatinina na urina (P=0,32, sugerem que houve aumento na eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana no rúmen. Apesar de o mecanismo não ter sido elucidado, a combinação homeopática aumentou o teor de proteína do leite.

  18. Inhibition of Prostaglandin Transporter (PGT Promotes Perfusion and Vascularization and Accelerates Wound Healing in Non-Diabetic and Diabetic Rats.

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    Zhongbo Liu

    Full Text Available Peripheral ischemia, resulting from diminished arterial flow and defective local vascularization, is one of the main causes of impaired wound healing in diabetes. Vasodilatory prostaglandins (PGs, including PGE2 and PGI2, regulate blood flow in peripheral tissues. PGs also stimulate angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial growth factor. However, PG levels are reduced in diabetes mainly due to enhanced degradation. We hypothesized that inhibition of the prostaglandin transporter (PGT (SLCO2A1, which mediates the degradation of PGs, would increase blood flow and stimulate vascularization, thereby mitigating peripheral ischemia and accelerating wound healing in diabetes. Here we report that inhibiting PGT with intravenously injected PGT inhibitor, T26A, increased blood flow in ischemic hind limbs created in non-diabetic rats and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Systemic, or combined with topical, T26A accelerated closure of cutaneous wounds. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that inhibition of PGT enhanced vascularization (marked by larger numbers of vessels formed by CD34+ cells, and accelerated re-epithelialization of cutaneous wounds. In cultured primary human bone marrow CD34+ cells and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs either inhibiting or silencing PGT increased migration in both cell lines. Thus PGT directly regulates mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and HEKs, which could contribute to PGT-mediated vascularization and re-epithelialization. At the molecular level, systemic inhibition of PGT raised circulating PGE2. Taken together, our data demonstrate that PGT modulates arterial blood flow, mobilization of EPCs and HEKs, and vascularization and epithelialization in wound healing by regulating vasodilatory and pro-angiogenic PGs.

  19. Prostaglandins temporally regulate cytoplasmic actin bundle formation during Drosophila oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, Andrew J.; Kelpsch, Daniel J.; Chen, Xiang; Spracklen, Cassandra N.; Tootle, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs)—lipid signals produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes—regulate actin dynamics in cell culture and platelets, but their roles during development are largely unknown. Here we define a new role for Pxt, the Drosophila COX-like enzyme, in regulating the actin cytoskeleton—temporal restriction of actin remodeling during oogenesis. PGs are required for actin filament bundle formation during stage 10B (S10B). In addition, loss of Pxt results in extensive early actin remodeling, including actin filaments and aggregates, within the posterior nurse cells of S9 follicles; wild-type follicles exhibit similar structures at a low frequency. Hu li tai shao (Hts-RC) and Villin (Quail), an actin bundler, localize to all early actin structures, whereas Enabled (Ena), an actin elongation factor, preferentially localizes to those in pxt mutants. Reduced Ena levels strongly suppress early actin remodeling in pxt mutants. Furthermore, loss of Pxt results in reduced Ena localization to the sites of bundle formation during S10B. Together these data lead to a model in which PGs temporally regulate actin remodeling during Drosophila oogenesis by controlling Ena localization/activity, such that in S9, PG signaling inhibits, whereas at S10B, it promotes Ena-dependent actin remodeling. PMID:24284900

  20. Possible role of prostaglandin F in blastocyst implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasamo, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Yamashita, K.; Sengoku, K.; Shimizu, T.

    1986-02-01

    The synthesis and release of Prostaglandin F (PGF) by the rabbit blastocyst and endometrium were investigated on Day 6 and Day 7, using radioimmunoassay, autoradiography and conversion experiments. The following results were obtained: The content of PGF in the blastocyst increased significantly (P less than 0.01) from Day 6 to Day 7. The content of PGF in the endometrium was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) on Day 7 implantation sites compared to the other areas. The in vitro synthesis and release of PGF by Day 6 blastocysts sharply increased after one and two hours of culture, respectively. Thereafter both values declined with time. The in vitro synthesis and release of PGF by Day 6 endometria increased continuously with time. /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid (/sup 14/C-AA) was incorporated into Day 6 blastocysts in vitro and converted to PGF2 alpha. These results suggest that both the endometrium and the blastocyst are the sources of the PGs involved in implantation, and that PGF derived from the blastocysts may act as the trigger of implantation.

  1. Effect of topical prostaglandin analogues on corneal hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar, Gema; Sánchez-Barahona, Cristina; Teus, Miguel; Castejón, Miguel A; Paz-Moreno-Arrones, Javier; Gutiérrez-Ortiz, Consuelo; Mikropoulos, Dimitrios G

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate possible changes in corneal hysteresis (CH) after topical treatment with a prostaglandin analogue in medication-naïve eyes. This was a prospective, observational cohort study. Sixty-eight eyes of 68 patients were prospectively included who were newly diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension in our institution. All patients were treatment-naïve. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months of treatment with latanoprost in the eye with the lower intraocular pressure (IOP) measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT). The ocular response analyzer was used to measure CH. CH increased significantly (p = 0.0001) from 8.96 ± 2.3 mmHg to 9.79 ± 1.97 mmHg, and this increase was correlated significantly (p = 0.0001, r = 0.64, r(2) = 0.41) with the basal CH. We identified a weak but significant (r(2) = 0.06, p = 0.01) relationship between the basal CH and the drug-induced reduction of the GAT IOP. Nevertheless, the increase in the drug-induced CH was not correlated with the decrease in the GAT IOP. Treatment with latanoprost increases CH. The CH increase was not correlated with the drug-induced decrease in the GAT IOP, which suggested a direct effect of latanoprost on the viscoelastic corneal properties. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Prostaglandin-E2 Mediated Increase in Calcium and Phosphate Excretion in a Mouse Model of Distal Nephron Salt Wasting.

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    Manoocher Soleimani

    Full Text Available Contribution of salt wasting and volume depletion to the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia is poorly understood. Pendrin/NCC double KO (pendrin/NCC-dKO mice display severe salt wasting under basal conditions and develop profound volume depletion, prerenal renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis and are growth retarded. Microscopic examination of the kidneys of pendrin/NCC-dKO mice revealed the presence of calcium phosphate deposits in the medullary collecting ducts, along with increased urinary calcium and phosphate excretion. Confirmatory studies revealed decreases in the expression levels of sodium phosphate transporter-2 isoforms a and c, increases in the expression of cytochrome p450 family 4a isotypes 12 a and b, as well as prostaglandin E synthase 1, and cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals also had a significant increase in urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2 and renal content of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE levels. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals exhibit reduced expression levels of the sodium/potassium/2chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2 in their medullary thick ascending limb. Further assessment of the renal expression of NKCC2 isoforms by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR reveled that compared to WT mice, the expression of NKCC2 isotype F was significantly reduced in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. Provision of a high salt diet to rectify volume depletion or inhibition of PGE-2 synthesis by indomethacin, but not inhibition of 20-HETE generation by HET0016, significantly improved hypercalciuria and salt wasting in pendrin/NCC dKO mice. Both high salt diet and indomethacin treatment also corrected the alterations in NKCC2 isotype expression in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. We propose that severe salt wasting and volume depletion, irrespective of the primary originating nephron segment, can secondarily impair the reabsorption of salt and calcium in the thick ascending limb of Henle and/or proximal tubule, and reabsorption of

  3. Effect of meloxicam and meloxicam with misoprostol on serum prostaglandins and gastrointestinal permeability in healthy beagle dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Roškar Tina; Nemec Svete Alenka; Jerin A.; Butinar J.; Kobal Silvestra

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of meloxicam and meloxicam with misoprostol on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) serum concentration, as well as on gastrointestinal permeability. NSAIDs, such as meloxicam, have gastrointestinal side effects, which are due to prostaglandins depletion and topical damage. Seven adult beagle dogs were included in the study. Three different 20 days long treatments were carried out (pl...

  4. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate synergistically potentiates prostaglandin E2-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Gen; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Kainuma, Shingo; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Ohguchi, Reou; Kawabata, Tetsu; Sakai, Go; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Harada, Atsushi; Kozawa, Osamu; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2017-01-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant flavonoid in green tea, and chlorogenic acid, the main polyphenol found in coffee, attract significant attention owing to health benefits. We have previously demonstrated that prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) stimulates osteoprotegerin synthesis through the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EGCG or chlorogenic acid on the PGE 2 -stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. EGCG significantly amplified the PGE 2 -induced release. EGCG markedly enhanced the expression levels of osteoprotegerin mRNA induced by PGE 2 . On the contrary, chlorogenic acid had no effect on the PGE 2 -stimulated release of osteoprotegerin. EGCG significantly strengthened the PGE 2 -induced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK, whereas chlorogenic acid failed to affect them. BIRB0796 and SP600125, a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor and a SAPK/JNK inhibitor, respectively, markedly reduced the amplification by EGCG of the PGE 2 -stimulated osteoprotegerin release. These results strongly suggest that EGCG synergistically enhances the PGE 2 -stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis via potentiation of p38 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK in osteoblasts. Our present findings could present a new significant aspect in the favorable effect of EGCG on the prevention of osteoporotic bone loss and fracture especially in elderly people since osteoprotegerin secreted from osteoblasts is well-recognized to act as a suppressor of osteoclastic bone resorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in the plasma prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite before and during spontaneous labor and labor induced by amniotomy, oxytocin and prostaglandin E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, I; Sunaga, H; Furuya, K; Makimura, N; Kato, K

    1987-04-01

    To elucidate the role of endogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha in spontaneous and induced labor, plasma concentrations of 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGFM) were determined before the onset of labor, at onset of labor, during active labor, at the crowning of the fetal head, and 1 and 2 hours after delivery. Patients in spontaneous labor and labor induced by amniotomy, oxytocin, and prostaglandin E2 were studied. The levels of plasma PGFM in patients who entered spontaneous labor fell 2 to 3 weeks before delivery, whereas those in the induced labor group did not change until the time of induction. Although the levels of PGFM rose gradually with the progress of labor in all cases, the levels in the spontaneous labor were significantly lower in each stage than in the corresponding stage of induced labor. These results suggest that endogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) production decreases 2-3 weeks prior to the spontaneous onset of labor and is increased again as labor progresses, that the patterns of PGF2 alpha production are similar to each other during spontaneous labor and labor induced by various methods. Therefore, it is felt that endogenous PGF2 alpha may participate in the progress of all kinds of labor.

  6. A new Late Jurassic halecomorph fish from the marine Vaca Muerta Formation, Argentina, southwestern Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gouiric-Cavalli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of Mesozoic fish faunas of the Southern Hemisphere is still inadequate; the diversity and evolution of the Late Jurassic marine ichthyofaunas of Argentina remain unclear. One fish recovered from the Tithonian levels of the Los Catutos Member of the Vaca Muerta Formation, southwestern Argentina was considered a "caturid-like" halecomorph for almost 30 years. Recently, it was proposed that it could belong to the Pachycormiformes. A thorough comparative anatomical study of the material is conducted to test whether it could be included in †Caturidae or †Pachycormidae. The specimen is assigned to †Caturidae as a new genus and species: †Catutoichthys olsacheri (http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:6884876C-075C-433B-90B7-74187FC04C26, registered on 1 June 2016. The new taxon is based on a unique character combination, three of which are exclusive to †Catutoichthys olsacheri among caturids–diplospondylous vertebral column with triangular basidorsals and well-developed and fan-shaped basiventrals; neural and haemal spines strongly inclined to the body axis at an angle of 14°; a large number of infrahaemals; rounded amioid-type scales with an unornamented free field. The new taxon provides anatomical information useful for further understanding the anatomy and evolution of caturid fishes.

  7. Porcentaje de concepción en vacas Holstein repetidoras tratadas con somatotropina bovina al momento de la inseminación

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Mendoza Medel; Joel Hernández Cerón; Luis A. Zarco Quintero; Carlos G. Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    S e probó si una sola inyección de la hormona bovina del crecimiento (bST) al momento de la inseminaci ón aumenta el porcentaje de concepción en vacas Holstein repetidoras. Se utilizaron 316 vacas repetidoras (vacas con > 3 servicios infértiles); al momento de la inseminación se dividieron aleatoriamente en dos grupos: grupo bST (n= 175), recibió 500 mg sc de bST al momento de la inseminación. El grupo testigo (n=141), no recibió bST. El diagnóstico de gestación se realizó por palpación recta...

  8. Uso del sulfato de cobre por vía parenteral en vacas hipocuprémicas con mastitis y su efecto en la fertilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Gelda; Paez, Reynel; Azúm, José; Roller, Felicia; González, Noelia; Acosta, Jorge; Pedroso, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    La deficiencia de cobre  y la mastitis  afectan a las vacas lechereas en pastoreo. Durante seis  meses (mayo–octubre 2015) se determinó la prevalencia y relación de la mastitis  subclínica con la deficiencia de cobre  y los trastornos de la fertilidad en un grupo  de 335 vacas, 231 de la raza  Jersey y 104 del genotipo Siboney; también, en 240 vacas Siboney se evaluó  el efecto  de la suplementación de cobre oral en la salud  de la ubre  ...

  9. Efeito de um imunomodulador na qualidade do colostro e na incidência de doenças no pós-parto de vacas leiteiras

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Ana Catarina Gaspar do

    2017-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Este estudo analisou a eficácia do pegbovigrastim (ImrestorTM) na incidência de doenças no pós-parto de vacas leiteiras e o seu efeito na qualidade do colostro. Às vacas do grupo experimental foi administrado pegbovigrastim e às vacas do grupo controlo soro fisiológico. Não se observaram diferenças significativas no número de neutrófilos e macrófagos nos esfregaços de colostro. Contudo, os seus valores máximos foram s...

  10. Administração de acetato de melengestrol após inseminação artificial em tempo fixo em vacas Nelore lactantes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,Moraima Castro; Leão,Karen Martins; Silva,Natália do Carmo; Silva,Rossane Pereira da; Viu,Marco Antônio de Oliveira; Cardoso,Lucas Morais

    2014-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o efeito do fornecimento de Acetato de Melengestrol (MGA®Premix) após IATF (inseminação artificial em tempo fixo), sobre a taxa de concepção em vacas paridas da raça Nelore. Experimento I, avaliou-se o efeito do fornecimento de 2,28g de MGA/ vaca/ dia, do dia 13 (D13) ao dia 18 (D18) após a IATF. As vacas foram divididas em dois grupos, sendo o Grupo I (n=83, controle) que foi realizado apenas IATF e Grupo II (n=104, tratado) que foi fornecido o MGA após a...

  11. Desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte submetidas à prática de desmame definitivo para inseminação artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Reinaldo Leopoldino de Souza Neto

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a eficiência reprodutiva de vacas de corte com cria ao pé em programas de inseminação artificial (IA), utilizando práticas de desmame definitivo antecipado (DA) ou temporário e terapia de sincronização de estros para IATF. Foram utilizadas 205 vacas Angus x Nelore, com escore de condição corporal de 2,6±0,4 (escala de 1 a 5) e período pósparto variando de 54 e122 dias. No início do estudo, determinou-se, em uma amostragem de 20% das vacas, a taxa de ac...

  12. Piglet mortality: the impact of induction of farrowing using prostaglandins and oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkden, R D; Broom, D M; Andersen, I L

    2013-04-01

    Induction is usually carried out by administering prostaglandins (prostaglandin F2α or a synthetic analogue). Other hormones, most commonly oxytocin, may also be given. The primary objective is to increase the synchrony of farrowing. This facilitates farrowing supervision, early fostering and 'all in, all out' management of the farrowing house, all of which have the potential to decrease piglet mortality. However, there are also risks, including decreased piglet viability when farrowing is induced too early and an increased probability of dystocia associated with oxytocin use. What are the effects of induction procedures on mortality in pigs? With respect to prostaglandins, studies show that the date of induction and the level of supervision provided are important factors affecting piglet mortality. We recommend administering prostaglandins no earlier than 2d before the expected farrowing date for the herd. Some studies have reported that prostaglandin induction decreases stillbirth and live-born mortality and this is probably due to increased farrowing supervision. The incidence of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome is also decreased in herds with a high prevalence of this condition. Inconsistent effects on the progress of farrowing are reported following the routine administration of oxytocin 20-24h after prostaglandin. Although there is generally no effect on stillbirth rate, dystocia may increase. Earlier administration of low doses may decrease stillbirths, but this requires further research. Carbetocin, a long-acting analogue of oxytocin, is a possible alternative. We recommend that prostaglandin induction be used in conjunction with skilled farrowing supervision to decrease piglet mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Porcentaje de concepción en vacas Holstein repetidoras tratadas con somatotropina bovina al momento de la inseminación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mendoza Medel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available S e probó si una sola inyección de la hormona bovina del crecimiento (bST al momento de la inseminaci ón aumenta el porcentaje de concepción en vacas Holstein repetidoras. Se utilizaron 316 vacas repetidoras (vacas con > 3 servicios infértiles; al momento de la inseminación se dividieron aleatoriamente en dos grupos: grupo bST (n= 175, recibió 500 mg sc de bST al momento de la inseminación. El grupo testigo (n=141, no recibió bST. El diagnóstico de gestación se realizó por palpación rectal 45 ± 3 días después de la IA. Para conocer el efecto de la bST en la s concentraciones plasmáticas de IGF-1 y progesterona, se obtuvieron muestras sanguíneas diariamente a partir de la inseminación hasta el día 10 posinseminación en siete vacas tratadas con bST y siete testigos. El tratamiento con bST incrementó el porcentaje de concepción [81/175 (46 % vs 49/141 (35 %]; P <0.01. Las concentraciones de IGF-1 fueron mayores ( P <0.001 en las vacas que recibieron bST que en las testigo. Las concentraciones de progesterona fueron similares entre los grupos ( P =0.68. Se concluye que una sola inyección de la hormona bovina del crecimiento al momento de la inseminación incrementa el porcentaje de concepción en vacas Holstein repetidoras.

  14. Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotype diversity and interferon gamma expression in patients with chronic gastritis and patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carrillo, D N; Atrisco-Morales, J; Hernández-Pando, R; Reyes-Navarrete, S; Betancourt-Linares, R; Cruz-del Carmen, I; Illades Aguiar, B; Román-Román, A; Fernández-Tilapa, G

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main risk factor for the development of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. In H. pylori-infected individuals, the clinical result is dependent on various factors, among which are bacterial components, the immune response, and environmental influence. To compare IFN-γ expression with the H. pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in patients with chronic gastritis and patients with gastric cancer. Ninety-five patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis and 20 with gastric cancer were included in the study. Three gastric biopsies were taken; one was used for the molecular detection and genotyping of H. pylori; another was fixed in absolute alcohol and histologic sections were made for determining IFN-γ expression through immunohistochemistry. No differences were found in the cells that expressed IFN-γ between the patients with chronic gastritis (median percentage of positive cells: 82.6% in patients without H. pylori and 82% in infected persons) and those with gastric cancer (70.5% in H. pylori-negative patients and 78.5% in infected persons). IFN-γ expression was 69% in chronic gastritis patients infected with H. pylori vacAs2m2/cagA⁻ it was 86.5% in patients infected with H. pylori vacAs1m2/cagA⁻, 86.5% in vacAs1m1/cagA⁻, and 82% in vacAs1m1/cagA⁺. Similar data were found in the patients with gastric cancer. IFN-γ expression varied depending on the H. pylori vacA and cagA genotype, but not in accordance with the presence of chronic gastritis or gastric cancer.

  15. Producción comparativa de chícharo de vaca (vigna unguiculata y frijol (phaseolus vulgaris en riego y en sequía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo D\\u00EDaz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Producción comparativa de chícharo de vaca (Vigna unguiculata y frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris en riego y en sequía. Se comparó la productividad de seis genotipos de chícharo de vaca (Vigna unguiculata y dos variedades de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris, en dos condiciones, una en riego y otra en sequía. En riego, ‘California Blackeye No. 5’ la mejor producción de vaina y ‘29144’, ‘56061/BRE’ y ‘California Blackeye No. 5’ el mayor rendimiento de grano. En frijol, ‘Pinto Anzalduas 91’ registró el mayor rendimiento de grano. En sequía se presentó clorosis férrica y hubo un amplio rango de severidad entre las especies y cultivares. No se registraron precipitaciones durante el ciclo y sólo tres genotipos de chícharo de vaca llegaron a producir vaina y grano; ‘California Blackeye No. 5’ fue la mejor productora de vaina y grano. Las variedades de frijol no produjeron grano. La mayoría de los genotipos de chícharo de vaca sobresalieron en la producción de materia seca. La mayor altura de planta fue en chícharo de vaca y se correlacionó (r= 0,71 con materia seca. Resultó contrastante la productividad de las dos especies entre las condiciones evaluadas, aunque destacó el mayor potencial productivo del chícharo de vaca sobre el frijol

  16. Cardioprotective actions of curcumin on the pathogenic NFAT/COX-2/prostaglandin E2pathway induced during Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Matías; Wicz, Susana; Corral, Ricardo S

    2016-11-15

    Diverse cardiovascular signaling routes have been considered critical for Chagas cardiomyopathy caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Along this line, T. cruzi infection and endothelin-1 (ET-1) have been shown to cooperatively activate the Ca 2+ /NFAT cascade in cardiomyocytes, leading to cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) induction and increased release of prostanoids and prohypertrophic peptides. To determine whether the well-known cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin (Cur) could be helpful to interfere with this key machinery for pathogenesis of Chagas myocarditis. Cur treatment was evaluated through in vivo studies using a murine model of acute T. cruzi infection and in vitro experiments using ET-1-stimulated and parasite-infected mouse cardiomyocytes. Cur-treated and untreated infected mice were followed-up to estimate survival postinfection and heart tissues from both groups were analyzed for inflammatory infiltration by histopathology, whereas parasite load, induction of arachidonic acid pathway and natriuretic peptide expression were determined by real-time PCR. Molecular analysis of Cur myocardial targets included intracellular calcium measurement, NFAT and COX-2 induction in transfected cells, and assessment of NFAT, COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) levels by immunoblotting, prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) by ELISA, b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) by real-time PCR, and PGE 2 /EP4 receptor/BNP interaction by transwell experiments. Cur treatment of acute Chagas mice enhanced survival and proved to hinder relevant inflammatory processes in the heart, including leukocyte recruitment, activation of the eicosanoid pathway and BNP overexpression, without modifying parasite burden in the organ. Cur was capable of blocking Ca 2+ -dependent NFATc1 transcriptional activity, COX-2 and mPGES-1 induction, and subsequent PGE 2 production in ET-1-stimulated and parasite-infected cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the decline

  17. Factores que afectan la preñez en vacas Brahman sometidas a inseminación artificial a tiempo fijo

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Correa-Orozco; Luis Uribe-Velásquez; Erik Pulgarín-Velásquez

    2013-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Evaluar la relación entre la condición corporal (CC), la manifestación de estro, las concentraciones plasmáticas de estradiol, el diámetro del folículo mayor y la preñez, en vacas Bos indicus amamantando, sometidas a un protocolo de inseminación artificial a tiempo fijo (IATF). Materiales y métodos. Treinta y ocho vacas Brahman recibieron un dispositivo intravaginal de progesterona + benzoato de estradiol en el día 0; retiro del dispositivo + dinoprost + gonadotropina corióni...

  18. Fontes protéicas e de amido com diferentes degradabilidades ruminais para alimentar vacas leiteiras Protein and starch sources varying in rumen degradability to feed dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Imaizumi; Flávio Augusto Portela Santos; Alexandre Vaz Pires; Sérgio de Oliveira Juchem

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar fontes de amido (milho moído fino x milho processado como pipoca) e fontes protéicas (farelo de soja x uréia x farinha de peixe) com degradabilidades ruminais diferentes para alimentar vacas leiteiras. Foram utilizadas 56 vacas Holandesas com 112 dias em lactação. Os tratamentos foram: MFS (milho moído fino + farelo de soja); PFS (pipoca + farelo de soja); PFP (pipoca + farelo de soja + farinha de peixe); PU (pipoca + farelo de soja + uréia). O tratamento...

  19. Role of Helicobacter pylori cagA EPIYA motif and vacA genotypes for the development of gastrointestinal diseases in Southeast Asian countries: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahara Shu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with cagA-positive, cagA EPIYA motif ABD type, and vacA s1, m1, and i1 genotype strains of Helicobacter pylori is associated with an exacerbated inflammatory response and increased risk of gastroduodenal diseases. However, it is unclear whether the prevalence and virulence factor genotypes found in Southeast Asia are similar to those in Western countries. Here, we examined the cagA status and prevalence of cagA EPIYA motifs and vacA genotypes among H. pylori strains found in Southeast Asia and examined their association with gastroduodenal disease. Methods To determine the cagA status, cagA EPIYA motifs, and vacA genotypes of H. pylori, we conducted meta-analyses of 13 previous reports for 1,281 H. pylori strains detected from several Southeast Asian countries. Results The respective frequencies of cagA-positive and vacA s1, m1, and i1 genotypes among examined subjects were 93% (1,056/1,133, 98% (1,010/1,033, 58% (581/1,009, and 96% (248/259, respectively. Stratification showed significant variation in the frequencies of cagA status and vacA genotypes among countries and the individual races residing within each respective country. The frequency of the vacA m-region genotype in patients infected with East Asian-type strains differed significantly between the northern and southern areas of Vietnam (p vacA m1 type or cagA-positive strains was associated with an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease (odds ratio: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.01-2.12, p = 0.046 and 2.83, 1.50-5.34, p = 0.001, respectively in the examined Southeast Asian populations. Conclusions Both Western- and East Asian-type strains of H. pylori are found in Southeast Asia and are predominantly cagA-positive and vacA s1 type. In Southeast Asia, patients infected with vacA m1 type or cagA-positive strains have an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease. Thus, testing for this genotype and the presence of cagA may have clinical usefulness.

  20. Mortalidad de vacas en tres rebaños lecheros: estudio preliminar (1994-2004) Cow mortality in three dairy herds: preliminary study (1994-2004)

    OpenAIRE

    L Rogel; R Tamayo

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la tasa de mortalidad bruta promedio anual de las vacas lecheras de tres rebaños de la provincia de Valdivia, Chile, durante el período 1994-2004, además de determinar las causas más frecuentes de muerte. La información se recopiló desde 205 tarjetas de registros individuales de las vacas muertas y de los respectivos inventarios anuales; los datos obtenidos fueron procesados mediante el programa Microsoft Excel. La tasa de mortalidad bruta promedio para ...

  1. Produção e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com capim-elefante suplementados com óleo de girassol

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Gustavo Santos Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    O experimento teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos de dois modos de fornecimento de concentrados mistura completa ou fornecidos fracionados após cada uma das duas ordenhas diárias contendo dois tipos de óleo de girassol (OG; 4,5% da MS da dieta) com diferentes teores de ácido oleico alto e médio oleico fornecidos para 32 vacas primíparas em lactação recebendo dieta à base de capim-elefante picado. As vacas foram distribuídas em delineamento de blocos casualisados em esquema fatorial 2 x 2...

  2. Pesos de abate sobre o desempenho animal, cortes comerciais da carcaça e características da carne de vacas de descarte

    OpenAIRE

    Regis Luis Missio; João Restle; José Luiz Moletta; Fernando Kuss; José Neuman Miranda Neiva; Denise Adelaide Gomes Elejalde; Ivan César Furmann Moura; Ivanor Nunes Prado; Fabrícia Rocha Chaves Miotto

    2015-01-01

     Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do peso de abate sobre o desempenho animal, cortes comerciais da carcaça e características da carne de vacas Purunã terminadas em confinamento. Foram utilizadas 28 vacas de descarte com 68,02±17,36 meses de idade abatidas com pesos distintos (434; 461; 476 e 522 kg). O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (pesos de abate) e sete repetições (animais). O consumo de matéria seca, expresso em kg dia-1 e % do peso corporal, ...

  3. Relaciones hormonales y dinámica folicular durante el periodo posparto en vacas Sanmartinero / Hormone relationship and follicular dynamics during postpartum period in Sanmartinero breed cows

    OpenAIRE

    Báez Sandoval, Giovanni Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar una descripción básica acerca de los fenómenos hormonales y foliculares durante el posparto en un grupo de vacas de la raza Sanmartinero, identificando posibles factores determinantes de la expresión de buena eficiencia reproductiva en individuos de esta raza. Se siguieron 18 vacas desde el día 7 posparto, tomando muestras de sangre tres veces por semana para determinar los niveles de progesterona y estradiol durante la reanudación de la actividad estr...

  4. High Frequency of vacA s1m2 Genotypes Among Helicobacter pylori Isolates From Patients With Gastroduodenal Disorders in Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajavand, Hamid; Alvandi, Amirhooshang; Mohajeri, Parviz; Bakhtyari, Somaye; Bashiri, Homayoon; Kalali, Behnam; Gerhard, Markus; Najafi, Farid; Abiri, Ramin

    2015-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection and related diseases outcome are mediated by a complex interplay between bacterial, host and environmental factors. Several distinct virulence factors of H. pylori have been shown to be associated with different clinical outcomes. Here we focused on vacA and cagA genotypes of H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastric disorder. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of two toxins and genotypes of VacA toxin in patients referred to a central hospital in the west of Iran (Imam Reza hospital, Kermanshah) during 2011 - 2012. Samples were collected from patients infected with H. pylori. Gastric biopsy specimens from the stomach antrum and corpus were cultured. PCR analysis was performed for genotyping H. pylori vacA and cagA genes. Helicobacter pylori was isolated from 48% (96/200) of patients with gastroduodenal disorders. In 81/96 (84%) cases, the cagA gene was present. Among different genotypes of vacA, two s1m2 and s2m2 genotypes were dominant with frequency of 39.5% and 50%, respectively. The frequency of the s1m1 genotype was 7.2% (7/96), which is much lower than elsewhere. H. pylori isolates with positive results for cagA gene and vacA s1m2 genotypes showed statistically significant correlation with peptic ulcer (s1m2 13/34 [38.2%] P = 0.003). However, isolates of H. pylori infection with cagA gene and vacA s2m2 genotypes were significantly associated with development of gastritis (s2m2 41/42 [97.6%] P = 0.000). About 90% of H. pylori strains potentially contained vacA s2m2 and s1m2 genotypes. Infection with H. pylori strain containing the cagA gene or the vacA s1m1 and s1m2 genotypes was associated with increased incidence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD).

  5. Un conquistador à la découverte de l'autre. Les Naufragios d'Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca (1490-1557), gentleman of the highest Spanish nobility, is the author of a travel very significantly entitled Naufragios (1542) which is the heart of this thesis entitled "A conquistador exploring the other: the Naufragios of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca". It aims to demonstrate that the exceptional nature of this text lies as much in its content and in the person of its author, in spite of himself and suddenly confronted with the shock of otherness, as a result of ac...

  6. Rabbit blastocysts accumulate (/sup 3/H)prostaglandins in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.A.; Harper, M.J.

    1984-08-01

    Rabbit blastocysts obtained on days 5, 6, and 6.8 of pregnancy were incubated in vitro in Tyrode's buffer with /sup 3/H-labeled prostaglandins (PGs). Accumulation of PGs was studied, using Whatman GF/F filters to separate bound and free ligands. The uptake and efflux of (/sup 3/H)PGs were studied as a function of PG type, incubation time, temperature, and effect of metabolic inhibitors as well as age and number of blastocysts. Blastocysts of the same age accumulated approximately the same amount of (/sup 3/H)PGE2 and (/sup 3/H)PGF2 alpha from their environment; however, there was no apparent saturation over a PG concentration range of 1-1000 nM. Both the uptake and efflux of PG were age dependent, with older blastocysts accumulating more PGs. Approximately 90% of the (/sup 3/H)PGs appear to be transported into the blastocoelic fluid, with little PG remaining in the blastomeres. PG accumulation was relatively insensitive to azide, ouabain, cyanide, or bromcresol green, but was affected by incubation at 0 C or the addition of indomethacin (10 micrograms/ml). No catabolism of the accumulated PGs was observed. The release of PGE2 in general did not differ from that of PGF2 alpha, except on day 6.8 of pregnancy when PGE2 was released more rapidly than on day 6. The authors conclude that rabbit blastocysts can accumulate PGs from their environment, which may imply a storage potential in the blastocyst and release before implantation.

  7. An audit about labour induction, using prostaglandin, in women with a scarred uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Alexandra; Barlow, Patricia; Benali, Nordine; Murillo, Daniel; Manigart, Yannick; Belhomme, Julie; Rozenberg, Serge

    2012-12-01

    Induction of labour after a previous caesarean section is still controversial. We aim to analyse, in a population of women who have a uterine scar, the maternal, foetal and neonatal complications in relation to the mode of labour and delivery. Retrospective analysis of collected data from all the singleton deliveries of patients with a scarred uterus (N=798), admitted to the hospital between August 2006 and March 2009. maternal and perinatal complications. Among 798 singleton deliveries, 36.1% had a spontaneous labour, 12.6% a prostaglandin-induced labour and 2.9% an ocytocin-induced labour, and 48.4% had an elective caesarean section. The chance of delivering vaginally was respectively 84.4% for those who had a spontaneous labour, 75.2% for those who were induced using prostaglandin, 82.6% after induction using ocytocin. There were eight uterine ruptures, four after spontaneous labour (1.4%), two after prostaglandin induction (2%) and two at the time of an iterative caesarean section (0.5%). There were no differences between groups, except the risk of haemorrhage (17.4% after spontaneously induced labour, 34.8% after ocytocin, 17.8% after prostaglandin and 44.6% after iterative caesarean section; plabour, 9.1% after ocytocin, 12% after prostaglandin and 16.8% after iterative caesarean section; plabour after caesarean section, this study is too underpowered to exclude an increased risk.

  8. Uterine action after induction of labour with oral prostaglandin E2 tablets compared with intravenous oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, M G

    1975-08-01

    Uterine action throughout the whole of labour induced by low amniotomy and either oral prostaglandin E2 tablets or intravenous ocytocin was studied in 10 randomly matched pairs of patients. Oral prostaglandin E2 tablets induced fewer contractions per hour, and these contractions were longer and more variable in length than those induced by intravenous oxytocin. There was no difference in basal uterine tone or in the amplitude of contractions. A comparison was made between the outcome of labour induced by low amniotomy and either oral prostaglandin E2 tablets 0-5 mg. hourly in 65 patients, or intravenous ocytocin in 41 patients. This dose of prostaglandin E2 tablets was an inadequate adjunct to low amniotomy in nulliparous patients. Despite this, the induction-delivery interval for the whole prostaglandin group was not significantly greater than that for the oxytocin group. There were no significant differences in fetal heart rate pattern, or in the incidence of gastro-intestinal side-effects between the two groups.

  9. Oxidative stress, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels in the gastrointestinal tract of aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mármol, Frederic; Sánchez, Juan; López, Diego; Martínez, Nuria; Mitjavila, Maria Teresa; Puig-Parellada, Pere

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the presence of oxidative stress and alterations in the levels of two cytoprotective agents, prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide, in the gastrointestinal tract of aging rats. The production of superoxide anion, lipid peroxides, levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and production of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide in the stomach and duodenum of rats were determined at 1.5, 3, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. Oxidative stress was present in the stomach of the old rats (24 months), whereas prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production remained stable at 18 and 24 months. In the duodenum, no oxidative stress was observed at 24 months, but at 18 months, an increase in superoxide anion levels was detected. Prostaglandin E2 remained constant in the aged rats but nitric oxide decreased significantly at 24 months. The absence of macroscopic gastric injury throughout the gastrointestinal tract indicates that the oxidative stress in the stomach and the significant decrease of nitric oxide in the duodenum in the old rats are not sufficient to disrupt the mucosal defence network. The results support the notion that the disruption of the mucosal network is essentially regulated by the cytoprotective agents prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide, and that injury appears only when both substances are concurrently reduced.

  10. Potencial forrajero de Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl. A Gray en la producción de vacas lecheras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Gallego-Castro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el uso potencial de la Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray (botón de oro en la alimentación de vacas lecheras en el trópico alto colombiano. Se eligieron términos clave para la búsqueda de información y a partir de ellos se abordaron y analizaron diferentes publicaciones, permitiendo un acercamiento a la problemática propuesta. En estos sistemas de producción típicos del trópico alto en Colombia, el kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum contribuye con el mayor aporte en la ración del ganado y debido al alto N, la baja fibra y materia seca, lleva con frecuencia a balances energéticos negativos en las vacas más productivas, por lo que en muchos casos se sostiene la producción con alimento comercial, compuesto principalmente por cereales y con altos niveles de proteína. Las necesidades nutricionales de este tipo de sistemas productivos están orientados a encontrar estrategias que permitan mejorar la oferta forrajera, en términos de variedad y calidad, disminuir la dependencia de alimentos comerciales o al menos facilitar la inclusión de otros que mejoren el desempeño animal. A partir de este análisis, se evidencia el potencial de T. diversifolia en la alimentación de vacas lecheras de alta producción; esta forrajera arbustiva, por su contenido de proteína, carbohidratos solubles y taninos, puede tener un impacto positivo sobre los sistemas de ganadería lechera intensiva y puede incorporarse a suplementos alimenticios.

  11. SENSIBILIDADE IN VITRO DE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLADOS DE AMOSTRAS DE LEITE DE VACAS COM MASTITE SUBCLÍNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram submetidas a teste de sensibilidade in vitro a cinco antibióticos e quimioterápicos, 291 cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isolados de 667 amostras de leite procedentes de 375 vacas reagentes ao California Mastitis Test (CMT. Verificaram-se os seguintes percentuais de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos: gentamicina, 90,72% (264/291; enrofloxacina, 89,35% (260/291; cefaperazona, 88,66% (258/291; kanamicina, 87,63% (255/291 e penicilina, 23,71% (69/291. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Leite bovino, mastite subclínica, antimicrobianos.

  12. Influencia del color y la uniformidad del pelaje sobre el comportamiento productivo de vacas lecheras en condiciones tropicales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manrique P. Luis Phanor

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A total of 1.862 records of milk production were analalized on cows Lucerna's race, trying to find out whether the hair color and the uniformity of the hair color are important in milk production of this race under tropical conditions. Each selected cow was classified in one of eight categories for hair color and one of three categories for uniformity of the hair color. Hair color showed a high variation (P<0.05 in the analysis of production variables such as total production, lactation length production, at 180 and 305 days milking, where the larger milk production was observed on cows with hair color near the prototype of Lucerna's race, suitable for the climatic conditions of the region. Uniformity of the color was not important on milk production of  Lucerna's cows.

    Fueron analizados 1.862 registros de producción lechera de vacas Lucerna para determinar si el color del pelo y la uniformidad del color del pelaje tienen importancia en el comportamiento productivo de la raza en condiciones de clima tropical. A las vacas seleccionadas se les asignó una de las ocho categorías para el color del pelo y una de las tres para la uniformidad del color del pelaje. El color del pelo fue una fuente de variación significativa (P < 0.05 en el análisis de las variables productivas a los 180 y 305 días de lactancia, producción total de leche y duración del período de lactación, donde las mayores producciones se presentaron en vacas con colores del pelaje próximos al prototipo de la raza Lucerna, apropiados a las condiciones climáticas de la región. La uniformidad del color del pelaje no influyó estadísticamente en el comportamiento productivo de las vacas Lucerna.

  13. PRESENCIA DE METALES PESADOS (ARSÉNICO Y MERCURIO) EN LECHE DE VACA AL SUR DE ECUADOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala Armijos, José; Romero Bonilla, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo fue desarrollado en el Cantón Arenillas, provincia de El Oro, al sur de Ecuador. El objetivo de este consistió en determinar la presencia de arsénico y mercurio en la leche que se comercializa y que es obtenida del ganado vacuno existente en el lugar. Las muestras de leche fueron recolectadas de vacas lecheras de la zona y del mercado del cantón Arenillas. Luego fueron analizadas mediante Espectrofotometría de Absorción Atómica con Generación de Vapor de Hidruros,...

  14. Exigências nutricionais de vacas nelores primíparas lactantes Nutritional requirements of primiparous lactating Nellore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozart Alves Fonseca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as exigências nutricionais de proteína e energia de vacas nelores em lactação no período de 0 a 180 dias. Foram utilizadas 20 vacas primíparas com peso corporal médio ao parto de 362±25 kg. Quatro vacas foram abatidas logo após o parto e foram consideradas grupo referência. Do parto aos 90 dias, quatro vacas receberam alimentação restrita na proporção de 1,5% do peso corporal (PC, em porcentagem da matéria seca (MS, e 12 foram alimentadas à vontade. Aos 90 dias do pós-parto, foram abatidas oito vacas (quatro de cada oferta alimentar. Dos 90 aos 180 dias, quatro vacas foram realocadas para mantença (1,8% PC em MS e quatro continuaram em consumo voluntário, sendo todas abatidas ao final do período. Os conteúdos corporais de proteína e energia foram estimados pelo equação Y = a . Xb, em que X é o peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ e a e b os parâmetros da equação. Foram obtidas relações médias de 0,894 para PCVZ/PC e de 0,936 para ganho de PCVZ (GPCVZ/ganho de PC (GPC. As exigências líquidas de energia para mantença (ELm foram de 97,84 kcal/PCVZ0,75 e as de energia metabolizável para mantença (EMm, 140,17 kcal/PCVZ0,75. As eficiências de utilização da energia para mantença e ganho de peso foram 0,70 e 0,44, respectivamente. Os conteúdos corporais de proteína diminuíram com o aumento do PC, enquanto os de energia aumentaram. No leite das vacas, foram determinados teores médios de 3,71; 3,88; e 4,74%, respectivamente, de proteína bruta, gordura e lactose. A exigência de ELm para lactação de vacas nelores é de 97,84 kcal/PCVZ0,75, enquanto a de EMm é de 140,17 kcal/PCVZ0,75 e a de proteína metabolizável, de 52,8 g. Para produzir 1 kg de leite com 4% de gordura, vacas nelores necessitam de 0,300 kg de NDT.This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional requirements of protein and energy of primiparous lactating Nellore cows from 0 to 180 days after calving. A total of 20 lactating

  15. High diversity of vacA and cagA Helicobacter pylori genotypes in patients with and without gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda López-Vidal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the topographical distribution of H. pylori in the stomach as well as the vacA and cagA genotypes in patients with and without gastric cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three gastric biopsies, from predetermined regions, were evaluated in 16 patients with gastric cancer and 14 patients with dyspeptic symptoms. From cancer patients, additional biopsy specimens were obtained from tumor centers and margins; among these samples, the presence of H. pylori vacA and cagA genotypes was evaluated. Positive H. pylori was 38% and 26% in biopsies obtained from the gastric cancer and non-cancer groups, respectively (p = 0.008, and 36% in tumor sites. In cancer patients, we found a preferential distribution of H. pylori in the fundus and corpus, whereas, in the non-cancer group, the distribution was uniform (p = 0.003. A majority of the biopsies were simultaneously cagA gene-positive and -negative. The fundus and corpus demonstrated a higher positivity rate for the cagA gene in the non-cancer group (p = 0.036. A mixture of cagA gene sizes was also significantly more frequent in this group (p = 0.003. Ninety-two percent of all the subjects showed more than one vacA gene genotype; s1b and m1 vacA genotypes were predominantly found in the gastric cancer group. The highest vacA-genotype signal-sequence diversity was found in the corpus and 5 cm from tumor margins. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: High H. pylori colonization diversity, along with the cagA gene, was found predominantly in the fundus and corpus of patients with gastric cancer. The genotype diversity observed across systematic whole-organ and tumor sampling was remarkable. We find that there is insufficient evidence to support the association of one isolate with a specific disease, due to the multistrain nature of H. pylori infection shown in this work.

  16. Sustitución de alimento concentrado, con morera fresca (Morus alba), en la dieta de vacas lecheras

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Boschini

    2003-01-01

    Se experimentaron cuatro dietas balanceadas con sustitución de alimento concentrado por la inclusión de 0, 20, 40 y 60% de materia seca de hojas de morera de 84 días. El consumo de materia seca total fue de 3,12 a 3,24% con relación al peso vivo. No se apreciaron diferencias importantes (P≥0,05) en el consumo total de MS entre vacas dentro de un mismo tratamiento. En la dieta sin morera (0%), el forraje constituyó el 42% y en la dieta con 60% de morera constituyó...

  17. Sustitución de alimento concentrado, con morera fresca (Morus alba), en la dieta de vacas lecheras.

    OpenAIRE

    Boschini-Figueroa, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Se experimentaroncuatro dietas balanceadas con sustitución de alimentoconcentrado por la inclusión de 0, 20, 40 y 60% de materiaseca de hojas de morera de 84 días. El consumo demateria seca total fue de 3,12 a 3,24% con relación al peso vivo.No se apreciaron diferencias importantes (P≥0,05) en elconsumo total de MS entre vacas dentro de un mismo tratamiento.En la dieta sin morera (0%), el forraje constituyó el42% y en la dieta con 60% de morera constituyó el 86% de lamateria seca. El consumo ...

  18. Lubiprostone Increases Small Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractions Through a Prostaglandin E Receptor 1 (EP1)-mediated Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Walter W; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    Lubiprostone, a chloride channel type 2 (ClC-2) activator, was thought to treat constipation by enhancing intestinal secretion. It has been associated with increased intestinal transit and delayed gastric emptying. Structurally similar to prostones with up to 54% prostaglandin E2 activity on prostaglandin E receptor 1 (EP1), lubiprostone may also exert EP1-mediated procontractile effect on intestinal smooth muscles. We investigated lubiprostone's effects on intestinal smooth muscle contractions and pyloric sphincter tone. Isolated murine small intestinal (longitudinal and circular) and pyloric tissues were mounted in organ baths with modified Krebs solution for isometric recording. Basal muscle tension and response to electrical field stimulation (EFS; 2 ms pulses/10 V/6 Hz/30 sec train) were measured with lubiprostone (10(-10)-10(-5) M) ± EP1 antagonist. Significance was established using Student t test and P Lubiprostone had no effect on the basal tension or EFS-induced contractions of longitudinal muscles. With circular muscles, lubiprostone caused a dose-dependent increase in EFS-induced contractions (2.11 ± 0.88 to 4.43 ± 1.38 N/g, P = 0.020) that was inhibited by pretreatment with EP1 antagonist (1.69 ± 0.70 vs. 4.43 ± 1.38 N/g, P = 0.030). Lubiprostone had no effect on circular muscle basal tension, but it induced a dose-dependent increase in pyloric basal tone (1.07 ± 0.01 to 1.97 ± 0.86 fold increase, P lubiprostone caused a dose-dependent and EP1-mediated increase in contractility of circular but not longitudinal small intestinal smooth muscles, and in basal tone of the pylorus. These findings suggest another mechanism for lubiprostone's observed clinical effects on gastrointestinal motility.

  19. Prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ in bovine luteal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.S.; Weakland, L.L.; Weiland, D.A.; Farese, R.V.; West, L.A.

    1987-06-01

    The present studies were conducted to determine whether prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) stimulates the production of ''second messengers'' derived from inositol phospholipid hydrolysis and increases intracellular free Ca2+ ((Ca2+)i) in isolated bovine luteal cells. PGF2 alpha provoked rapid (10 sec) and sustained (up to 60 min) increases in the levels of inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates (InsP, InsP2, and InsP3, respectively). InsP3 was formed more rapidly than InsP2 or InsP after PGF2 alpha treatment. In addition, PGF2 alpha increased inositol phospholipid turnover, as evidenced by increased /sup 32/PO/sub 4/ incorporation into phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol. LiCl (1-20 mM) enhanced inositol phosphate accumulation in response to PGF2 alpha. Maximal increases in InsP3 occurred at 1 microM PGF2 alpha, with half-maximal stimulation occurring at 36 nM. The acute effects of PGF2 alpha on InsP3 levels were independent of reductions in extracellular calcium. Prostaglandins E1 and E2 also stimulated increases in inositol phosphate levels, albeit to a lesser extent. PGF2 alpha also induced rapid and concentration-dependent increases in (Ca2+)i as measured by quin-2 fluorescence. The PGF2 alpha-induced increases in (Ca2+)i were maximal within 30 sec (approximately 2- to 3-fold), and (Ca2+)i remained elevated for 8-10 min. The PGF2 alpha-induced increases in (Ca2+)i were also independent of extracellular calcium. These findings demonstrate that the action of PGF2 alpha is coupled to the phospholipase C-InsP3 and diacylglycerol second messenger system in the corpus luteum.

  20. Estratégias de manejo e alimentação para reduzir o período de monta em vacas de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyro Ferreira Meirelles

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da desmama temporária e a suplementação de fósforo sobre a taxa de concepção aos 60 e 120 dias da estação de monta. A avaliação foi feita mediante diversos ensaios levados a cabo durante três anos utilizando vacas Nelore. O Experimento I incluiu 47 vacas Nelore acíclicas com bezerro ao pé e com idades que flutuavam entre 55 e 70 dias. Um grupo de bezerros foi separado de suas mães por 48 h no início do experimento e outro permaneceu com suas mães durante todo o período experimental. A proporção de vacas que ciclaram durante a estação de monta foi de 5 sobre 25 vacas (20% no grupo controle e de 15 sobre 22 (68% no grupo em que o bezerro foi separado (p<0,05. No Experimento II, 66 vacas Nelore acíclicas com média de 60 ± 0,57 dias (x ± EP pós-parto foram distribuídas ao acaso nos três grupos seguintes: Grupo A, bezerros separados de suas mães por 48 h no primeiro dia da estação de monta; Grupo B, similar ao grupo A, mas os bezerros foram separados por 72 h; e Grupo C, grupo controle (o bezerro não foi separado. As porcentagens de vacas gestantes no final da estação de monta foram de 54,6 no grupo controle, de 50,0 no grupo de 48 h de separação e de 63,6 no grupo de 72 h de separação. No Experimento II, 75 vacas gestantes foram selecionadas no terço final da gestação. As vacas foram distribuídas ao acaso em quatro grupos: Grupo A, as vacas receberam uma mistura de sal mineral ad libitum contendo 12,0% P durante os três meses posteriores à estação de monta, e os bezerros foram separados de suas mães no primeiro dia de monta por um período de 96 h; Grupo B, similar ao grupo C, mas os bezerros não foram separados; Grupo C, similar ao Grupo A, mas a mistura mineral continha 8,8% P; e Grupo D, similar ao grupo C, mas os bezerros não foram separados. Um maior número de vacas que receberam 12% P estiveram ciclando aos 30, 60 e 90 dias (p<0,05 do início da estação de monta. Sob as

  1. Desenvolvimento de espécies de pimentas sobre efeito de doses urina de vaca

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    L. Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A crescente demanda do mercado de pimentas tem impulsionado o aumento da área cultivada no Brasil anualmente, no Nordeste brasileiro esse cultivo vem sendo feito não apenas em hortas caseiras para o consumo doméstico, como também em áreas comerciais que abastecem o mercado local e externo. Diante disso objetivou-se verificar os efeitos da utilização da adubação orgânica no cultivo de espécies de pimenta no intuito de possibilitar aos agricultores desenvolverem sua produção utilizando-se de práticas onde produtos alternativos e de baixo custo econômico e ambiental disponíveis em suas propriedades como é o caso da urina de vaca que pode ser utilizados como fertilizante além de possuir outras propriedades favoráveis a este cultivo. Foram usadas as espécies Cambuci, Dedo-de-moça, Bode Amarela e as proporções de urina de vaca utilizadas nas pulverizações foram de 1 a 5%. As variáveis analisadas foram à altura, diâmetro do caule e matéria seca do caule das plantas após a semeadura. A dosagem de urina nas concentrações a partir de 2%, 4% e 5% obtiveram médias maiores de alturas que nas demais concentrações exercendo maior influência sobre o desenvolvimento das plantas. No diâmetro do caule verificou-se um desenvolvimento maior nas aplicações com concentração de urina aplicada a 4%, 5%. E na matéria seca os melhores resultados foram obtidos nas plantas que receberam adubação com urina a 3 a 5% na maioria das amostras indicando que os melhores efeitos foram atingidos nas maiores concentrações. Development of pepper species on effect of doses of cow urineAbstract: The growing demand of the peppers market has driven the increase of cultivated area in Brazil annually, in the Brazilian Northeast this cultivation has been done not only in home gardens for domestic consumption, as well as in commercial gardens that supply the local and foreign markets. Therefore, it was decided to observe the effects of the use of

  2. Eficiência produtiva e reprodutiva em vacas leiteiras Productive and reproductive efficiency in dairy cows

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    Tisa Echevarria Leite

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar efeitos de transtornos puerperais sobre a eficiência reprodutiva e produtiva de vacas da raça Holandês de uma estação experimental, durante 24 anos. Foram coletados dados produtivos e reprodutivos de 350 vacas. Todos os dados foram submetidos à análise descritiva. As variáveis dependentes: intervalo entre partos (IEP, intervalo parto concepção (IPC, intervalo parto primeiro cio (IPPC, número de crias (NC e produção de leite (PL foram submetidas a análise de variância para determinação dos efeitos da ocorrência de transtornos puerperais (aborto, natimorto, distocia e retenção de placenta e de mastite. A idade ao primeiro cio (IdPC foi de 29,4 meses, a idade ao primeiro parto (IdPP de 37,1 meses e a longevidade (L de 69,7 meses. O IEP apresentou média de 14,6 meses, o IPPC de 97,0 dias e o IPC de 150,7 dias. O intervalo entre cios (IEC apresentou média de 48,2 dias, sugerindo falhas na detecção de cios. Foi observado efeito significativo (PThe present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of post partum disorders on productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows, from a dairy experimental station, during 24 years. Productive and reproductive data were collected from 350 cows. Analyses of variance was conducted to evaluate the effects of occurrence of post partum disorders (abortion, stillbirth, dystocia, retained placenta and mastitis on calving interval (IEP, calving to conception interval (IPC, calving to first estrus interval (IPPC, number of estrus before conception (NC and milk production (PL. The mean age at first estrus was 29.4 months and the mean age at first calving was 37.1 months. Mean IEP was 14.6 months, mean IPPC was 97.04 days and median IPC was 150.71 days. Median interestrus interval was 24 days, suggesting problems in a estrus detection. A significant effect of occurrence of abortion (P<0.05 was observed on IEP. Calving intervals were 258 days

  3. Prostaglandin E2 promotes features of replicative senescence in chronically activated human CD8+ T cells.

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    Jennifer P Chou

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a pleiotropic immunomodulatory molecule, and its free radical catalyzed isoform, iso-PGE2, are frequently elevated in the context of cancer and chronic infection. Previous studies have documented the effects of PGE2 on the various CD4+ T cell functions, but little is known about its impact on cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes, the immune cells responsible for eliminating virally infected and tumor cells. Here we provide the first demonstration of the dramatic effects of PGE2 on the progression of human CD8+ T cells toward replicative senescence, a terminal dysfunctional state associated multiple pathologies during aging and chronic HIV-1 infection. Our data show that exposure of chronically activated CD8+ T cells to physiological levels of PGE2 and iso-PGE2 promotes accelerated acquisition of markers of senescence, including loss of CD28 expression, increased expression of p16 cell cycle inhibitor, reduced telomerase activity, telomere shortening and diminished production of key cytotoxic and survival cytokines. Moreover, the CD8+ T cells also produced higher levels of reactive oxygen species, suggesting that the resultant oxidative stress may have further enhanced telomere loss. Interestingly, we observed that even chronic activation per se resulted in increased CD8+ T cell production of PGE2, mediated by higher COX-2 activity, thus inducing a negative feedback loop that further inhibits effector function. Collectively, our data suggest that the elevated levels of PGE2 and iso-PGE2, seen in various cancers and HIV-1 infection, may accelerate progression of CD8+ T cells towards replicative senescence in vivo. Inhibition of COX-2 activity may, therefore, provide a strategy to counteract this effect.

  4. Prostaglandin E2 produced following infection with Theiler's virus promotes the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Jin, Young-Hee; Kim, Byung S

    2017-01-01

    Infection of various cells with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) activates the TLR- and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)-dependent pathways, resulting in the production of IL-1β via the activation of caspase-1 upon assembly of the node-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. The role of IL-1β in the pathogenesis of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease was previously investigated. However, the signaling effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) downstream of the NLRP3 inflammasome on the immune responses to viral determinants and the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease are unknown. In this study, we investigated the levels of intermediate molecules leading to PGE2 signaling and the effects of blocking PGE2 signaling on the immune response to TMEV infection, viral persistence and the development of demyelinating disease. We demonstrate here that TMEV infection activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and PGE2 signaling much more vigorously in dendritic cells (DCs) and CD11b+ cells from susceptible SJL mice than in cells from resistant B6 mice. Inhibition of virus-induced PGE2 signaling using AH23848 resulted in decreased pathogenesis of demyelinating disease and viral loads in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, AH23848 treatment caused the elevation of protective early IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. Because the levels of IFN-β were lower in AH23848-treated mice but the level of IL-6 was similar, over-production of pathogenic IFN-β was modulated and the generation of IFN-γ-producing T cell responses was enhanced by the inhibition of PGE2 signaling. These results strongly suggest that excessive activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and downstream PGE2 signaling contribute to the pathogenesis of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease.

  5. Vaginal prostaglandin gel to induce labour in women with one previous caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agnew, G

    2012-02-01

    This retrospective study reviewed the mode of delivery when vaginal prostaglandins were used to induce labour in women with a single previous lower segment caesarean section. Over a 4-year period, PGE 2 gel was used cautiously in low doses in 54 women. Induction with PGE 2 gel was associated with an overall vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) rate of 74%, which compared favourably with the 74% VBAC rate in women who went into spontaneous labour (n = 1969). There were no adverse outcomes recorded after the prostaglandin inductions but the number reported are too small to draw any conclusions about the risks, such as uterine rupture. We report our results because they may be helpful in assessing the chances of a successful VBAC in the uncommon clinical circumstances where prostaglandin induction is being considered.

  6. Morphological changes in the placenta and decidua after induction of abortion by extra-amniotic prostaglandin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, H; Herd, M E; Harilal, K R

    1978-03-01

    Seventeen placentae from second trimester abortions induced by the injection of extra-amniotic prostaglandin have been examined. The extraplacental membranes, the chorionic plate of the placenta, the placental intervillous space and the placental villi were normal in all cases. In all but one specimen lesions were, however, noted in the decidua, these including focal decidual necrosis, intradecidual haemorrhage, thrombosis of maternal vessels and dilatation and congestion of the maternal vasculature. Similar decidual lesions were also seen in placentae from spontaneous and surgical second trimester abortions and it is concluded that prostaglandins do not produce any specific lesions in the placenta or decidua. It is suggested that the negative findings of this study indicate that prostaglandins do not induce abortion by either direct injury to the placenta or by provoking utero-placental ischaemia.

  7. Degradabilidad ruminal del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PULIDO RUBÉN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica degradativa de forrajes, en muestras de una pradera permanente (Lolium perenne L., manejadas a dos alturas de pradera, alta y baja. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo (FD y en forraje aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo (FS. La degradabilidad ruminal se estudió usando la técnica de las bolsas de dacrón y los datos fueron ajustados a una ecuación exponencial. La fracción soluble (g/kg MS, de la materia seca (MS (299 v/s 351, s.e.d.= 5,4, de la materia organica (MO (304 v/s 376, s.e.d.= 3,3 y del nitrógeno (250 v/s 301, s.e.d.= 6,4, fueron significativamente mayores (P<0,05 en muestras de FS que en muestras de FD. La degradabilidad potencial (g/kg MS de MS, MO y nitrógeno, fue significativamente mayor (P<0,05 en las muestras de FS, que en las muestras de FD. La degradabilidad efectiva fue mayor en las muestras de FS, que en las muestras de FD, tanto para la MS (474 v/s 508, s.e.d.= 13,0, MO (490 v/s 529, s.e.d.= 11,6 y nitrógeno (351 v/s 419, s.e.d.= 10,0. Respecto del factor altura, sólo se encontró un efecto significativo en la degradabilidad efectiva en el nitrógeno, en favor de la altura baja (365 v/s 406, s.e.d.= 10,0.

  8. Alteridad y conquista en Naufragios, de Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Alterity and conquest in Naufragios, by Alvar núñez Cabeza de Vaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gloria Godoy R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo propone una reflexión sobre la problemática de la alteridad yla identidad a partir de la lectura de Naufragios, documento del siglo XVIque narra la experiencia del español Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca entre losindígenas que poblaban territorios de América del Norte que hoy correspondena parte de Estados Unidos y México. Atendiendo al contexto histórico-culturalen el que se inscribe, se analiza la narración de Álvar tomando como modelo laexperiencia del etnógrafo y la “construcción” del conocimiento sobre el Otro.From the reading of Naufragios, a document from the sixteenth century whichnarrates the experience of the Spanish Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca among theaborigines from North American territories, that today form a part of the UnitedStates and Mexico, this work proposes a reflection about the otherness’s andidentity’s problem. Considering the historical and cultural context in which thestory develops, the article analyzes the Alvar’s narration, taking as a model theethnographer’s experience and the “construction” of the knowledge about the“other”.

  9. Hyperthyroidism advances luteolysis in the pregnant rat through changes in prostaglandin balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Paola B; Motta, Alicia B; Hapon, María B; Jahn, Graciela A

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the underlying mechanisms implicated in the premature luteolysis induced by hyperthyroidism in pregnant rats. Experimental basic study. Research institute. Groups of 6-8 adult female Wistar rats were injected SC daily with T(4) (0.25 mg/kg) or vehicle, starting 8 days before mating, and killed by decapitation on days 19 (G19), 20 (G20), and 21 (G21) of pregnancy. Corpora lutea and truncal blood of control and hyperthyroid rats were obtained. Circulating and intraluteal hormones were determined by using RIA and luteal messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of enzymes and factors involved in P synthesis and metabolism by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. 20α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20αHSD) mRNA and protein expression was also determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Hyperthyroidism advanced luteolysis and 20αHSD expression induction by one day without changes in enzymes involved in P synthesis, decreased circulating E(2) and luteal estrogen receptor beta, and increased luteal prostaglandin F(2α) on G19 and G20 and prostaglandin E(2) on G19, while decreasing it on G20. Thus, decreased estrogenic influence and high prostaglandin F(2α)/prostaglandin E(2) ratio favors premature induction of 20αHSD on hyperthyroid rats. Hyperthyroidism affects luteolysis in pregnant rats through alterations in luteal prostaglandin balance and decreased luteotrophic factors favoring the luteolytic action of prostaglandin F(2α) that induces premature 20αHSD expression that in turn advances circulating P fall and delivery. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental ileitis alters prostaglandin biosynthesis in mesenteric lymphatic and blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehal, Sonia; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandins are important mediators responsible for many changes that occur during the inflammatory response. Specifically, in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), prostaglandins are key players in maintenance of blood flow and mucosal defense. In blood vessels, prostaglandins modulate and inhibit transmigration. In lymphatic vessels, on the other hand, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) have been shown to potently inhibit lymphatic contractility. Inhibition of lymphatic contractility could impair proper tissue fluid drainage during inflammation, consequently leading to the submucosal oedema observed in IBD. Alterations in production of PGE2 and PGI2 during inflammation could have severe implications on lymphatic and vascular functions within the small intestine. Using the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced ileitis guinea pig and rat models, we assessed by quantitative PCR changes in mRNA transcript of enzymes and receptors involved in the production and actions of prostaglandins in mesenteric lymphatic and blood vessels as well as in the affected ileum. Furthermore, we also assessed lymphatic tissue levels of PGE2 and PGI2 during inflammation. We observed significant changes in lymphatic mRNA expression of COX-1, COX-2, MPGES-1, PGIS, EP4 and IP and increases in PGE2 and PGI2 in tissues of TNBS-treated animals. Changes in mRNA in blood vessels from TNBS-treated animals included differences in COX-1, COX-2, MPGES-1, PGIS, EP1, EP2 and IP expression. Prostaglandin metabolites are differentially regulated in both lymphatic and blood vessels during intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Ecbolic and hormonal action of synthetic prostaglandin F2a in fetal mummification in two Holstein cows (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, P; Lamothe, P

    1979-02-01

    Ecbolic and Hormonal Action of Synthetic Prostaglandin F(2)a in Fetal Mummification in Two Holstein CowsThe effects of treatment with synthetic prostaglandin F(2)a (500mug i.m.) to correct cases of fetal mummification in two Holstein cows are described.

  12. Expression of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma and in gastric cancer cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rees, Bastiaan P.; Sivula, Anna; Thorén, Staffan; Yokozaki, Hiroshi; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Ristimäki, Ari

    2003-01-01

    Gastrointestinal carcinomas synthesize elevated levels of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), which has been mechanistically linked to carcinogenesis. Recently, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) was cloned, which seems to be inducible and linked to cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) in the biosynthesis

  13. Superação da dormência em sementes de pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia angulata Vell. = Overcoming dormancy of pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia angulata Vell seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar José Smiderle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes da Embrapa Roraima, com o objetivo de estudar métodos pré-germinativos em laboratório para a superação da dormência de sementes de pata-de-vaca. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso com sete tratamentos e 4 repetições de 50 sementes. Os tratamentos pré-germinativos foram: escarificação com imersão em ácido sulfúrico (PA por 5, 10 e 15 minutos; imersão em álcool etílico por 5, 10 e 15 minutos; e testemunha, sem tratamento prévio nas sementes. As sementes foram incubadas a 25oC no interior de caixas plásticas, tipo ‘gerbox’, contendo como substrato papel ‘germitest’ umedecido. Diariamente, até 89 dias após a semeadura, foi feita avaliação da embebição e da germinação; a partir dos dados de germinação foi estimada a velocidade de germinação. Os resultados demonstraram que os tratamentos pré-germinativos promoveram acréscimo de pelo menos 50% na germinaçãodas sementes de pata-de-vaca, sendo que a escarificação com ácido sulfúrico (15 minutos, revelou ser o método mais efetivo para a superação da dormência desta espécie. A utilização de álcool (10 minutos pode ser uma boa alternativa para promover a germinação de sementes de pata-de-vaca.= - This study was carried out at Seed laboratory of Embrapa Roraima, with the objective to study the overcoming dormancy of pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia angulata seeds. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with seven treatments and four replicates of 50 seeds each. The pre-germinations treatments were: sulfuric acid - PA (5, 10 and 15 minutes, ethylene alcohol (5, 10 and 15 minutes, and control. The seeds were disposed in plastic boxes over humidified paper and incubated at 25oC in a germinator. The parameters evaluated were germination, imbibition, speed of germination, normal seedlings at 89 days after sowing. The germinated seeds were counted daily during 89

  14. Control hormonal de la producción de leche en bovinos Holstein. Efectos de las nematodiasis gastrointestinales durante el desarrollo de las terneras y distintas etapas reproductivas de la vaca adulta

    OpenAIRE

    Perri, Adrián Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Se evaluó la influencia de parasitosis gastrointestinales sobre producción lechera y desarrollo de bovinos Holstein, considerando los mecanismos fisiológicos involucrados. En vacas se evaluó la producción de leche y la concentración de hormonas lactogénicas y en terneras la influencia parasitaria sobre el desarrollo mamario y las alteraciones hormonales. Se muestrearon mensualmente 256 vacas, materia fecal y sangre. Las vacas positivas a huevos por gramo (HPG>0) durante el periparto (meses -...

  15. Relationship between VacA Toxin and Host Cell Autophagy in Helicobacter pylori Infection of the Human Stomach: A Few Answers, Many Questions

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    Vittorio Ricci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of about half the global population and represents the greatest risk factor for gastric malignancy. The relevance of H. pylori for gastric cancer development is equivalent to that of tobacco smoking for lung cancer. VacA toxin seems to play a pivotal role in the overall strategy of H. pylori towards achieving persistent gastric colonization. This strategy appears to involve the modulation of host cell autophagy. After an overview of autophagy and its role in infection and carcinogenesis, I critically review current knowledge about the action of VacA on host cell autophagy during H. pylori infection of the human stomach. Although VacA is a key player in modulation of H. pylori-induced autophagy, a few discrepancies in the data are also evident and many questions remain to be answered. We are thus still far from a definitive understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which VacA affects autophagy and the consequences of this toxin action on the overall pathogenic activity of H. pylori.

  16. The importance of vacA, cagA, and iceA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori infection in peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arents, NLA; van Zwet, AA; Thijs, JC; Kooistra-Smid, AMD; van Slochteren, KR; Degener, JE; Kleibeuker, JH; van Doorn, LJ

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between the presence of H. pylori virulence factors and clinical outcome in H. pylori infected patients. METHODS: DNA was isolated from an antral biopsy sample and vacA, cagA, and iceA genotype were determined by PCR and a reverse hybridization technique in 183

  17. Characterization of virulence genes cagA and vacA in Helicobacter Pylori and their prevalence in gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Palmeiro, Jussara Kasuko; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Neves, Daniel Locatelli; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of H. pylori infection was determined using cultures of gastric biopsy samples of patients attended at the academic hospital of the Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Molecular methods were used to characterize the cagA and vacA genes from bacterial isolates associated with different diseases presented by patients. Out of a total of 81, forty-two gastric biopsy samples tested were positive for H. pylori, with a prevalence of 51.9%. No significant difference was found with regard to the gender (p=0.793) and age (p=0.183) of the patients. Genotype s1m1 vacA gene was found in 67% of the cases of peptic ulcer investigated (p=1.0), despite the limited number of patients with this disease (n=3). A correlation between the presence of less virulent strains (s2m2) and reflux esophagitis was found in the majority of the cases (45%), but without statistical significance. An association between the prevalence of cagA gene, found in 92% of isolates, and peptic ulcer was not observed (p=1.0), suggesting that this gene cannot be considered a specific marker of severity in our environment. The results reinforce the importance of conducting regional studies and the need to characterize H. pylori virulence genes associated with different diseases. PMID:24031754

  18. Chitinoidellids from the Early Tithonian-Early Valanginian Vaca Muerta Formation in the Northern Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietzmann, Diego A.

    2017-07-01

    As part of microfacies studies carried out on the Tithonian - Valanginian carbonate ramp of the Neuquén Basin, two stratigraphic sections of the Vaca Muerta Formation (Arroyo Loncoche and Río Seco de la Cara Cura) were chosen in order to analyze the chitinoidellid content and distribution. Calpionellids in the studied sections are relatively poorly preserved; hyaline calcite walls are often recrystallized making the systematic determination difficult. However, microgranular calcite walls seem to have resisted better the incipient neomorphism presented by the limestones of the Vaca Muerta Formation. Seven known species of Chitinoidellidae and four known species of Calpionellidae are recognized. The distribution of calpionellid species allows recognizing the Chitinoidella and Crassicollaria Zones in the Neuquén Basin. The Chitinoidella Zone correlates with the Virgatosphinctes mendozanus-Windhauseniceras internispinosum Andean ammonite Zones, and can be divided into two subzones. The lower one is poorly defined, while the upper one can be assigned to the Boneti Subzone. The Crassicollaria Zone in the Neuquén basin needs a detailed revision, but data provided in this work enable its correlation at least with the Corongoceras alternans ammonite Zone. Similar associations were reported in Mexico and Cuba, showing good consistency between these regions. However, in the Neuquén Basin unlike the Tethys, chitinoidellids persist until the lower Berriasian.

  19. Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin/subunit p34: targeting of an anion channel to the inner mitochondrial membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Domańska

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The vacuolating toxin VacA, released by Helicobacter pylori, is an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers. VacA contains two subunits: The p58 subunit mediates entry into target cells, and the p34 subunit mediates targeting to mitochondria and is essential for toxicity. In this study we found that targeting to mitochondria is dependent on a unique signal sequence of 32 uncharged amino acid residues at the p34 N-terminus. Mitochondrial import of p34 is mediated by the import receptor Tom20 and the import channel of the outer membrane TOM complex, leading to insertion of p34 into the mitochondrial inner membrane. p34 assembles in homo-hexamers of extraordinary high stability. CD spectra of the purified protein indicate a content of >40% beta-strands, similar to pore-forming beta-barrel proteins. p34 forms an anion channel with a conductivity of about 12 pS in 1.5 M KCl buffer. Oligomerization and channel formation are independent both of the 32 uncharged N-terminal residues and of the p58 subunit of the toxin. The conductivity is efficiently blocked by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylaminobenzoic acid (NPPB, a reagent known to inhibit VacA-mediated apoptosis. We conclude that p34 essentially acts as a small pore-forming toxin, targeted to the mitochondrial inner membrane by a special hydrophobic N-terminal signal.

  20. Helicobacter pylori counteracts the apoptotic action of its VacA toxin by injecting the CagA protein into gastric epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Oldani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori is responsible for gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers but is also a high risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. The most pathogenic H. pylori strains (i.e., the so-called type I strains associate the CagA virulence protein with an active VacA cytotoxin but the rationale for this association is unknown. CagA, directly injected by the bacterium into colonized epithelium via a type IV secretion system, leads to cellular morphological, anti-apoptotic and proinflammatory effects responsible in the long-term (years or decades for ulcer and cancer. VacA, via pinocytosis and intracellular trafficking, induces epithelial cell apoptosis and vacuolation. Using human gastric epithelial cells in culture transfected with cDNA encoding for either the wild-type 38 kDa C-terminal signaling domain of CagA or its non-tyrosine-phosphorylatable mutant form, we found that, depending on tyrosine-phosphorylation by host kinases, CagA inhibited VacA-induced apoptosis by two complementary mechanisms. Tyrosine-phosphorylated CagA prevented pinocytosed VacA to reach its target intracellular compartments. Unphosphorylated CagA triggered an anti-apoptotic activity blocking VacA-induced apoptosis at the mitochondrial level without affecting the intracellular trafficking of the toxin. Assaying the level of apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells infected with wild-type CagA(+/VacA(+H. pylori or isogenic mutants lacking of either CagA or VacA, we confirmed the results obtained in cells transfected with the CagA C-ter constructions showing that CagA antagonizes VacA-induced apoptosis. VacA toxin plays a role during H. pylori stomach colonization. However, once bacteria have colonized the gastric niche, the apoptotic action of VacA might be detrimental for the survival of H. pylori adherent to the mucosa. CagA association with VacA is thus a novel, highly ingenious microbial strategy to locally protect its

  1. Avaliação da reutilização de implantes contendo progestágenos na taxa de prenhez em vacas de corte

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    Décio Zuliani Maluf

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Duzentos e vinte e uma vacas (78 paridas com bezerros entre 40 e 90 dias de idade e as demais secas vazias Nelore (Bos taurus indicus e mestiças Charolês (Bos taurus taurus foram utilizadas para avaliar a reutilização de implantes auriculares de silicone impregnados com progestágenos para controle farmacológico do ciclo estral e ovulação sobre a taxa de prenhez. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram de três protocolos para sincronização do cio e inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF. No tratamento 1 (T1; n = 73 as vacas receberam um implante auricular de Crestar® (3 mg de norgestomet; no tratamento 2 (T2; n = 75 as vacas receberam um implante auricular de Crestar® já utilizado previamente; e no tratamento 3 (T3; n = 73 as vacas receberam dois implantes auriculares de Crestar® também utilizados previamente. Além dos implantes, as vacas receberam aplicação intramuscular (i.m 2 mL de progesterona (25 mg/mL + 2 mL de benzoato de estradiol i.m (1 mg/mL no momento da colocação dos implantes. Os implantes foram removidos após oito dias junto a uma aplicação de 2,0 mL de Preloban® i.m (150 µg de D-cloprostenol. Após 24 h da remoção do implante, aplicou-se 1 mL de Estrogin® i.m (1 mg de benzoato de estradiol. A IATF foi realizada 54-56 h após a retirada dos implantes. Não houve diferença na taxa de prenhez das vacas, sendo 39,72%, 34,21% e 36,98% para os tratamentos T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente. A reutilização de implantes com progestágeno (Crestar® não alterou a taxa de prenhez de vacas aptas à reprodução.

  2. Comparison of plasma oxytocin levels during spontaneous labor and labor induced by amniotomy, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and prostaglandin E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, I; Kato, K; Makimura, N; Uesato, T; Seki, K; Kikuchi, Y

    1983-10-01

    Plasma concentrations of oxytocin in nine spontaneous labors (group 1), nine amniotomy-induced labors (group 2), six prostaglandin F2 alpha-induced labors (group 3), and five prostaglandin E2-induced labors (group 4) were determined at the stages of 1 to 7 days preceding the onset of labor, onset of labor, and established labor, by means of unextracted radioimmunoassay. The levels of oxytocin in the stage preceding the onset of labor in group 1 were not significantly different from the levels of oxytocin in the corresponding stages in groups 2, 3, and 4. However, the levels of oxytocin in the stages of onset of labor and established labor in group 1 were significantly higher than those in the corresponding stages in groups 2, 3, and 4. These results suggest that oxytocin plays a leading role in the onset and progress of spontaneous labor, whereas something other than oxytocin might be involved in the labor induced by amniotomy alone or by prostaglandins.

  3. Isolation of Arcobacter spp from the milk of dairy cows in Brazil Isolamento de Arcobacter spp do leite de vacas leiteiras no Brasil

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    Celso Pianta

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriologic examinations were performed on 188 milk samples collected from cows from 11 farms for diagnosis of mastitis in three cities of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Among the common causes of mastitis, the most frequent isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Corynebacterium sp, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus agalactiae. Bacteriologic examination of 32 milk samples from one farm didn't show bacteria known as common etiologic agent of mastitis. Six samples of Arcobacter spp typed by genotypic tests as Arcobacter cryaerophilus (five strains and Arcobacter butzleri (one strain were isolated from cows' milk of that farm. It is reported the isolation of Arcobacter species from the milk of cows in absence of clinical signs of mastitis. This is the first report of the detection of the microorganisms in the milk of dairy cows in Brazil. No previous reports are known from other countries.Foram realizados exames bacteriológicos em 188 amostras de leite colhidas de vacas de 11 propriedades leiteiras para diagnóstico de mastite, em três municípios no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Entre as causas comuns de mastite, os isolados mais freqüentes foram Staphylococcus aureus, seguido de Corynebacterium sp, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae e Streptococcus agalactiae. O exame bacteriológico realizado em 32 amostras de leite de vacas de uma propriedade não demonstrou a presença de bactérias conhecidas como causadoras de mastite. Foram isoladas do leite de vacas desta propriedade seis amostras de Arcobacter spp, classificadas por testes moleculares como Arcobacter cryaerophilus (cinco amostras e Arcobacter butzleri (uma amostra. É relatado o isolamento de espécies de Arcobacter do leite de vacas na ausência de sinais clínicos de mastite. Este é o primeiro relato da detecção dos microorganismos no leite de vacas leiteiras no Brasil.

  4. Prostaglandin Transporter (PGT/SLCO2A1 Protects the Lung from Bleomycin-Induced Fibrosis.

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    Takeo Nakanishi

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin (PG E2 exhibits an anti-fibrotic effect in the lung in response to inflammatory reactions and is a high-affinity substrate of PG transporter (SLCO2A1. The present study aimed to evaluate the pathophysiological relevance of SLCO2A1 to bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Slco2a1 protein was expressed in airway and alveolar type I (ATI and II (ATII epithelial cells, and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry further demonstrated cell surface expression of Slco2a1 in ATI cells in wild type (WT C57BL/6 mice. PGE2 uptake activity was abrogated in ATI-like cells from Slco2a1-deficient (Slco2a1-/- mice, which was clearly observed in the cells from WT mice. Furthermore, the PGE2 concentrations in lung tissues were lower in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice. The pathological relevance of SLCO2A1 was further studied in mouse BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis models. BLM (1 mg/kg or vehicle (phosphate buffered saline was intratracheally injected into WT and Slco2a1-/- mice, and BLM-induced fibrosis was evaluated on day 14. BLM induced more severe fibrosis in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice, as indicated by thickened interstitial connective tissue and enhanced collagen deposition. PGE2 levels were higher in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but lower in lung tissues of Slco2a1-/- mice. Transcriptional upregulation of TGF-β1 was associated with enhanced gene transcriptions of downstream targets including plasminogen activator inhitor-1. Furthermore, Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant activation of protein kinase C (PKC δ along with a modest activation of Smad3 in lung from Slco2a1-/- mice, suggesting a role of PKCδ associated with TGF-β signaling in aggravated fibrosis in BLM-treated Slco2a1-/- mice. In conclusion, pulmonary PGE2 disposition is largely regulated by SLCO2A1, demonstrating that SLCO2A1 plays a critical role in protecting the lung from BLM-induced fibrosis.

  5. Prostaglandin Transporter (PGT/SLCO2A1) Protects the Lung from Bleomycin-Induced Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takeo; Hasegawa, Yoshitaka; Mimura, Reo; Wakayama, Tomohiko; Uetoko, Yuka; Komori, Hisakazu; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi; Tamai, Ikumi

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 exhibits an anti-fibrotic effect in the lung in response to inflammatory reactions and is a high-affinity substrate of PG transporter (SLCO2A1). The present study aimed to evaluate the pathophysiological relevance of SLCO2A1 to bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Slco2a1 protein was expressed in airway and alveolar type I (ATI) and II (ATII) epithelial cells, and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry further demonstrated cell surface expression of Slco2a1 in ATI cells in wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. PGE2 uptake activity was abrogated in ATI-like cells from Slco2a1-deficient (Slco2a1-/-) mice, which was clearly observed in the cells from WT mice. Furthermore, the PGE2 concentrations in lung tissues were lower in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice. The pathological relevance of SLCO2A1 was further studied in mouse BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis models. BLM (1 mg/kg) or vehicle (phosphate buffered saline) was intratracheally injected into WT and Slco2a1-/- mice, and BLM-induced fibrosis was evaluated on day 14. BLM induced more severe fibrosis in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice, as indicated by thickened interstitial connective tissue and enhanced collagen deposition. PGE2 levels were higher in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but lower in lung tissues of Slco2a1-/- mice. Transcriptional upregulation of TGF-β1 was associated with enhanced gene transcriptions of downstream targets including plasminogen activator inhitor-1. Furthermore, Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant activation of protein kinase C (PKC) δ along with a modest activation of Smad3 in lung from Slco2a1-/- mice, suggesting a role of PKCδ associated with TGF-β signaling in aggravated fibrosis in BLM-treated Slco2a1-/- mice. In conclusion, pulmonary PGE2 disposition is largely regulated by SLCO2A1, demonstrating that SLCO2A1 plays a critical role in protecting the lung from BLM-induced fibrosis.

  6. Interactions of prostaglandin A2 with the glutathione-mediated biotransformation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.L.P.S. van; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Smink, N.; Koeman, J.H.; Bladeren, P.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) is known to inhibit cell proliferation, and metabolism of this compound thus might be important in controlling its ultimate function. The glutathione-related metabolism of PGA2 was therefore investigated both with purified glutathione S-transferase P1-1

  7. Indomethacin and paracetamol : Interaction with prostaglandin synthesis in the rat stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolfschoten, A.A. van; Hagelen, F.; Noordwijk, J. van

    1982-01-01

    Using ex vivo incubation of mucosal strips the production of prostaglandins (I2- and E-like PGs) in the rat stomach was demonstrated by bioassay. Indomethacin inhibited this PG synthesis 1 and 4 h after oral drug administration. Paracetamol stimulated the production of PGs when given by itself but

  8. Increased jejunal prostaglandin E2 concentrations in patients with acute cholera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, P.; Rabbani, G. H.; Bukhave, K.; Rask-Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Supraphysiologic doses of prostaglandins (PGs) mimic the effect of cholera toxin and cAMP in the small intestine, but not all observations are explicable in terms of the theory that links PGs to cAMP. Because no data exist on endogenous PGs in human cholera we measured PGE2 concentrations in jejunal

  9. Prostaglandin E2 tablets compared with intravenous oxytocin in induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J F; Welply, G A; Elstein, M

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of uterine activity after amniotomy has been carried out with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) tablets in two dosage regimens and with intravenous oxytocin. Oxytocin stimulation was the most successful. The difference in success rate was most marked in nulliparous patients and those with low Bishop score. PMID:1120220

  10. Phenylbutazone induces equine glandular gastric disease without decreasing prostaglandin E2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, S K; Cribb, A E; Read, E K; French, D; Banse, H E

    2017-11-16

    In equids, phenylbutazone at high doses induces gastric disease, primarily in the glandular portion of the stomach. However, the mechanism of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric disease in horses has yet to be determined. While phenylbutazone-associated ulceration is often attributed to a decrease in basal gastric prostaglandins, this has not been demonstrated in the horse. Twelve horses were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 6; 4.4 mg/kg phenylbutazone PO in 20 ml molasses q 12 hr for 7 days) or placebo (n = 6; 20 ml molasses PO q 12 hr for 7 days) groups. Before treatment and 3 and 7 days after initiation of treatment, gastroscopy was performed and glandular gastric biopsies were collected and frozen at -80°C. Glandular disease was assessed on a scale of 0-4. Prostaglandin E2 concentrations in biopsies were measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All phenylbutazone-treated horses developed grade ≥2 glandular disease. Prostaglandin concentrations increased over time (p = .0017), but there was no effect of treatment (p = .49). These findings indicate that despite induction of glandular disease grade ≥2, phenylbutazone did not decrease basal glandular gastric prostaglandin E2 concentration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Preferential binding of growth inhibitory prostaglandins by the target protein of a carcinogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, S.H.; Sorof, S. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is the principal target protein of the hepatic carcinogen N-(2-fluorenyl)acetamide (2-acetylaminofluorene) in rat liver. In addition, the cyclopentenone prostaglandins (PG), PGA, PGJ{sub 2}, and {Delta}{sup 12}-PGJ{sub 2}, inhibit the growth of many cell types in vitro. This report describes the preferential binding of the growth inhibitory prostaglandins by L-FABP and the reversible inhibition of thymidine incorporation into DNA by PGA{sub 2} and {Delta}{sup 12}-PGJ{sub 2} in primary cultures of purified rat hepatocytes. As a model ligand, ({sup 3}H)PGA{sub 1} bound to L-FABP specifically, reversibly, rapidly, and with high affinity. Its dissociation constants were 134 nM (high affinity) and 3.6 {mu}M (low affinity). The high-affinity finding of ({sup 3}H)PGA{sup 1} correlated with their growth inhibitory activities reported previously and here. The in vitro actions of L-FABP are compatible with those of a specific and dissociable carrier of growth inhibitory prostaglandins in rat hepatocytes and suggest that the carcinogen may usurp the cellular machinery of the growth inhibitory prostaglandins.

  12. The role of the prostaglandin D2 receptor, DP, in eosinophil trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schratl, Petra; Royer, Julia F; Kostenis, Evi

    2007-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is a major mast cell product that acts via two receptors, the D-type prostanoid (DP) and the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) receptors. Whereas CRTH2 mediates the chemotaxis of eosinophils, basophils, and Th2 lymphocytes, the role...

  13. Prostaglandin E2 potentiation of P2X3 receptor mediated currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Li-Yen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is a well-known inflammatory mediator that enhances the excitability of DRG neurons. Homomeric P2X3 and heteromeric P2X2/3 receptors are abundantly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and participate in the transmission of nociceptive signals. The interaction between PGE2 and P2X3 receptors has not been well delineated. We studied the actions of PGE2 on ATP-activated currents in dissociated DRG neurons under voltage-clamp conditions. PGE2 had no effects on P2X2/3 receptor-mediated responses, but significantly potentiated fast-inactivating ATP currents mediated by homomeric P2X3 receptors. PGE2 exerted its action by activating EP3 receptors. To study the mechanism underlying the action of PGE2, we found that the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin and the membrane-permeable cAMP analogue, 8-Br-cAMP increased ATP currents, mimicking the effect of PGE2. In addition, forskolin occluded the enhancement produced by PGE2. The protein kinase A (PKA inhibitors, H89 and PKA-I blocked the PGE2 effect. In contrast, the PKC inhibitor, bisindolymaleimide (Bis did not change the potentiating action of PGE2. We further showed that PGE2 enhanced α,β-meATP-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia and the enhancement was blocked by H89. These observations suggest that PGE2 binds to EP3 receptors, resulting in the activation of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and leading to an enhancement of P2X3 homomeric receptor-mediated ATP responses in DRG neurons.

  14. On the mechanism of noradrenaline-induced prostaglandin E2-Synthesis in primary cell cultures from rabbit splenic pulpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner-Schmidt, R; Jackisch, R; Hertting, G

    1981-10-01

    The role of Ca2+ and phospholipase A2 in alpha-adrenoceptor mediated stimulation of prostaglandin (PG)E2-release was investigated in primary cell cultures of rabbit splenic pulpa. Noradrenaline enhanced PGE2-release only in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. In contrast, PGE2-release induced by arachidonic acid was unchanged when Ca2+ was omitted. In the presence of Ca2+, the ionophore A 23187 increased PGE2-release concentration-dependently. During incubation in Ca2+-free medium, the ionophore was ineffective. Inhibitors of phospholipase A2 (mepacrine, p-bromophenacyl bromide) abolished the noradrenaline-induced PGE2-release and reduced the effect of A 23187; the stimulation of PGE2-release by arachidonic acid was not affected. Addition of exogenous phospholipase A2 enhances release of PGE2. From these results we suggest that noradrenaline-induced PGE2-release in rabbit splenic fibroblasts via alpha-adrenoceptors involves the following steps: influx of Ca2+, activation of a Ca2+-dependent phospholipase and liberation of arachidonic acid which is transformed into PGs.

  15. Peripheral haemodynamic effects of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis in congestive heart failure and interactions with captopril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, J. N.; Doran, J.; Lote, C. J.; Davies, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate the role of prostaglandins in maintaining circulatory homoeostasis in chronic heart failure and the hypothesis that an increase in vasodilatory prostaglandin synthesis may contribute to the actions of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure. DESIGN--Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled studies. Cardiac output and renal and limb blood flow were measured after oral indomethacin 50 mg or placebo followed by "open" intravenous infusion of prostaglandin E2 (study A). In a second study the same measurements were made after oral indomethacin 50 mg or placebo was given 30 min before "open" captopril (study B). METHODS--Blood pressure was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer. Cardiac output was determined by Doppler interrogation of blood flow in the ascending aorta and echocardiographic measurement of aortic root diameter. Renal blood flow was calculated from the effective renal plasma flow measured by p-aminohippurate clearance and the haematocrit, and glomerular filtration rate by endogenous creatinine clearance. Limb blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography using mercury in silastic strain gauges. The concentration of plasma prostaglandin E2 was measured by radioimmunoassay. SETTING--University department of cardiovascular medicine. PATIENTS--12 patients with chronic stable heart failure before starting treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. RESULTS--Indomethacin resulted in adverse effects on cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, urinary sodium excretion, and calf vascular resistance. Changes were reversed with infusion of prostaglandin E2. Pretreatment with indomethacin resulted in the attenuation of the acute increase in cardiac output and decrease in systemic vascular resistance that occurred with captopril. Similarly, an increase in renal blood flow with captopril was attenuated by indomethacin. CONCLUSIONS--The acute

  16. Activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by nicotine selectively up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in rat microglial cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghetti Luisa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotinic acetylcholine (Ach receptors are ligand-gated pentameric ion channels whose main function is to transmit signals for the neurotransmitter Ach in peripheral and central nervous system. However, the α7 nicotinic receptor has been recently found in several non-neuronal cells and described as an important regulator of cellular function. Nicotine and ACh have been recently reported to inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α production in human macrophages as well as in mouse microglial cultures. In the present study, we investigated whether the stimulation of α7 nicotinic receptor by the specific agonist nicotine could affect the functional state of activated microglia by promoting and/or inhibiting the release of other important pro-inflammatory and lipid mediator such as prostaglandin E2. Methods Expression of α7 nicotinic receptor in rat microglial cell was examined by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining and Western blot. The functional effects of α7 receptor activation were analyzed in resting or lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulated microglial cells pre-treated with nicotine. Culture media were assayed for the levels of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1β, nitric oxide, interleukin-10 and prostaglandin E2. Total RNA was assayed by RT-PCR for the expression of COX-2 mRNA. Results Rat microglial cells express α7 nicotinic receptor, and its activation by nicotine dose-dependently reduces the LPS-induced release of TNF-α, but has little or no effect on nitric oxide, interleukin-10 and interleukin-1β. By contrast, nicotine enhances the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and the synthesis of one of its major products, prostaglandin E2. Conclusions Since prostaglandin E2 modulates several macrophage and lymphocyte functions, which are instrumental for inflammatory resolution, our study further supports the existence of a brain cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway mediated by α7 nicotinic receptor that could be

  17. MADURACIÓN DEL SOLOMO (Biceps femoris EN VACAS DE DESCARTE Bos indicus Y Bos taurus

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    Roger Alonso Cubero-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la maduración sobre la terneza del músculo Biceps femoris en vacas de descarte Bos indicus y Bos taurus. En la planta procesadora de Montecillos R.L., ubicada en Alajuela, se realizó la escogencia y sacrificio de los animales, la maduración y empaque al vacío de la carne. La cocción, determinación de la terneza y evaluación sensorial se llevó a cabo a los 0, 14 y 28 días de maduración, en el Laboratorio de Análisis Sensorial del Centro de Investigaciones en Tecnología de Alimentos de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San José, en julio del año 2011. De acuerdo con la evaluación instrumental, la especie y la cronometría dental no fueron factores significativos en la determinación de la terneza de la carne, mientras que el tiempo de maduración sí mostró cambios altamente significativos (p>0,001 sobre el mismo parámetro. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron a los 28 días, donde B. indicus mostró 3,78 kg de fuerza al corte, mientras que para B. taurus se obtuvo 3,88 kg. En la evaluación sensorial, los animales B. indicus se calificaron como más jugosos (p=0,016 y con mejor sabor (p<0,001. Se determinó una relación inversa entre sabor y tiempo de maduración, lo cual indicó que a mayor tiempo de maduración el sabor de la carne se volvió menos agradable al paladar.

  18. Metastasizing oral melanoma in a cow Melanoma oral metastático em uma vaca

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    Marilene de Farias Brito

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A malignant dendritic melanoma of the oral cavity with metastases widely spread in a cow is described. The clinicopathological manifestations, developed during a two-year period, was characterized by the difficulty in mastication and swallowing, progressive weight loss, weakness and profuse sialorrhea. At the necropsy, an ulcerated black mass was found at the left jaw projecting into the oral cavity. The tumor reached the chin, inferior lip and tongue. Metastases were detected within the tongue, parotid gland, lymph nodes, trachea, thyroid, pleura, lungs, heart, peritoneum, omentum, and serosal membranes of the forestomach and abomasum, liver, and intima of some hepatic vessels, mammary gland, and muscles and fasciae of the left hind leg. No reference to metastasizing oral dendritic melanoma in the oral cavity of the cattle has been mentioned in the literature.Neste trabalho, descreve-se um caso de melanoma dendrítico maligno da cavidade oral em uma vaca, com metástases amplamente disseminadas. A evolução clínica foi de dois anos, e o quadro clínico-patológico caracterizou-se por dificuldade na mastigação e deglutição, perda de peso progressiva, fraqueza e sialorréia profusa. À necropsia, uma massa enegrecida e ulcerada foi encontrada na mandíbula esquerda e projetava-se para a cavidade oral. O tumor envolvia principalmente a porção cranial do ramo horizontal esquerdo da mandíbula e alcançou o mento, o lábio inferior, a gengiva e a língua. Metástases foram detectadas na língua, na glândula parótida, nos linfonodos, na traquéia, na tireóide, na pleura, nos pulmões, no coração, no peritônio, no omento e na serosa dos pré-estômagos e do abomaso, do fígado e da íntima de alguns vasos hepáticos, da glândula mamária e das fáscias e dos músculos do membro posterior esquerdo. Histologicamente o tumor primário e as metástases eram do tipo dendrítico. Não encontramos referências a melanomas primários de mand

  19. Inhibition of the Prostaglandin Transporter PGT Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Rats and Mice.

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    Yuling Chi

    Full Text Available Inhibiting the synthesis of endogenous prostaglandins with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs exacerbates arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that the converse, i.e., raising the level of endogenous prostaglandins, might have anti-hypertensive effects. To accomplish this, we focused on inhibiting the prostaglandin transporter PGT (SLCO2A1, which is the obligatory first step in the inactivation of several common PGs. We first examined the role of PGT in controlling arterial blood pressure blood pressure using anesthetized rats. The high-affinity PGT inhibitor T26A sensitized the ability of exogenous PGE2 to lower blood pressure, confirming both inhibition of PGT by T26A and the vasodepressor action of PGE2 T26A administered alone to anesthetized rats dose-dependently lowered blood pressure, and did so to a greater degree in spontaneously hypertensive rats than in Wistar-Kyoto control rats. In mice, T26A added chronically to the drinking water increased the urinary excretion and plasma concentration of PGE2 over several days, confirming that T26A is orally active in antagonizing PGT. T26A given orally to hypertensive mice normalized blood pressure. T26A increased urinary sodium excretion in mice and, when added to the medium bathing isolated mouse aortas, T26A increased the net release of PGE2 induced by arachidonic acid, inhibited serotonin-induced vasoconstriction, and potentiated vasodilation induced by exogenous PGE2. We conclude that pharmacologically inhibiting PGT-mediated prostaglandin metabolism lowers blood pressure, probably by prostaglandin-induced natriuresis and vasodilation. PGT is a novel therapeutic target for treating hypertension.

  20. The Role of Prostaglandins and COX-Enzymes in Chondrogenic Differentiation of ATDC5 Progenitor Cells.

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    Marjolein M J Caron

    Full Text Available NSAIDs are used to relieve pain and decrease inflammation by inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-catalyzed prostaglandin (PG synthesis. PGs are fatty acid mediators involved in cartilage homeostasis, however the action of their synthesizing COX-enzymes in cartilage differentiation is not well understood. In this study we hypothesized that COX-1 and COX-2 have differential roles in chondrogenic differentiation.ATDC5 cells were differentiated in the presence of COX-1 (SC-560, Mofezolac or COX-2 (NS398, Celecoxib specific inhibitors. Specificity of the NSAIDs and inhibition of specific prostaglandin levels were determined by EIA. Prostaglandins were added during the differentiation process. Chondrogenic outcome was determined by gene- and protein expression analyses.Inhibition of COX-1 prevented Col2a1 and Col10a1 expression. Inhibition of COX-2 resulted in decreased Col10a1 expression, while Col2a1 remained unaffected. To explain this difference expression patterns of both COX-enzymes as well as specific prostaglandin concentrations were determined. Both COX-enzymes are upregulated during late chondrogenic differentiation, whereas only COX-2 is briefly expressed also early in differentiation. PGD2 and PGE2 followed the COX-2 expression pattern, whereas PGF2α and TXA2 levels remained low. Furthermore, COX inhibition resulted in decreased levels of all tested PGs, except for PGD2 and PGF2α in the COX-1 inhibited condition. Addition of PGE2 and PGF2α resulted in increased expression of chondrogenic markers, whereas TXA2 increased expression of hypertrophic markers.Our findings point towards a differential role for COX-enzymes and PG-production in chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells. Ongoing research is focusing on further elucidating the functional partition of cyclooxygenases and specific prostaglandin production.

  1. Changes in salivary prostaglandin levels during menstrual migraine with associated dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Paul L; Vause, Carrie V; Derosier, Frederick; McDonald, Susan; Cady, Roger; Martin, Vincent

    2010-05-01

    To measure prostaglandin levels in the saliva of individuals during menstrual migraine associated with dysmenorrhea (MMaD) and in response to treatment with a single tablet combination of sumatriptan succinate and naproxen sodium. Prostaglandins are thought to play a role in MMaD as elevated serum prostaglandin levels have been reported during attacks of menstrual migraine and are increased in the menstrual fluid of women with dysmenorrhea. While triptans are the primary line of migraine treatment, nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed therapy for dysmenorrhea symptoms. Data from recent clinical studies have provided evidence that treatment with a single tablet combination of sumatriptan and naproxen sodium is an effective abortive therapy for attacks of MMaD. Women diagnosed with MMaD were treated with a sumatriptan succinate and naproxen sodium single tablet combination or placebo at time of migraine attack. Saliva samples were collected at time of attack as well as 2 and 4 hours after treatment. PGD(2), PGE(2), PGF(2), PGI(2), and TXA(2) levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Elevated levels of PGD(2), PGF(2), and TXA(2) at 2 and 4 hours and PGE(2) at 4 hours were found in saliva obtained from placebo subjects when compared with onset of attack levels. However, in subjects treated with a single tablet combination of sumatriptan and naproxen sodium, the levels of PGD(2), PGF(2), and PGE(2) were not elevated at either time point while TXA(2) levels were still elevated at 4 hours. Data from this pilot study provide evidence that saliva levels of several prostaglandins increase during attacks of MMaD and that treatment with a single tablet combination of sumatriptan and naproxen sodium prevents elevation of prostaglandin levels.

  2. Topical prostaglandin F2alpha treatment reduces collagen types I, III, and IV in the monkey uveoscleral outflow pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, T; Gaton, D D; Lindsey, J D; Gabelt, B T; Kaufman, P L; Weinreb, R N

    1999-06-01

    Topical prostaglandin F2alpha isopropyl ester increases uveoscleral outflow in monkeys and humans. To investigate the effects of prostaglandin F2alpha isopropyl ester with topical administration on collagen types I, III, and IV within the anterior segment tissue of monkey eyes. Eight eyes of 4 cynomolgus monkeys were evaluated. One eye of each monkey was treated with 2 microg of prostaglandin F2alpha isopropyl ester twice daily for 5 days, and intraocular pressure reduction was confirmed. These eyes were fixed in methacarn, and paraffin sections were immunostained using antibodies to collagen types I, II, or IV. To measure staining intensity, optical density (OD) was determined using 2-dimensional imaging densitometry. Mean OD scores along line segments placed over the ciliary muscle were determined. Mean+/-SD OD scores for collagen types I, III, and IV were less in the ciliary muscle of prostaglandin-treated eyes than in vehicle-treated eyes by 52%+/-7%, 45%+/-6%, and 45%+/-5%, respectively. In the sclera adjacent to the ciliary body, mean OD scores for collagen types I and III were less in prostaglandin-treated eyes, by 43%+/-32% and 45%+/-13%, respectively. The scleral stroma was minimally immunoreactive for collagen type IV. All differences were significant by the paired Student t test (Pcollagen types I, III, and IV immunoreactivity in the ciliary muscle and adjacent sclera following topical prostaglandin F2alpha isopropyl ester treatment. These reductions may contribute to the increased uveoscleral outflow observed with topical prostaglandin treatment. The cellular mechanism by which certain prostaglandins lower intraocular pressure is not known. The present study provides immunohistochemical data demonstrating that intraocular pressure reduction that occurs with topical prostaglandin F2alpha is associated with a reduction of collagens within the uveoscleral outflow pathway.

  3. Comportamiento productivo de vacas mestizas Siboney, en condiciones de estabulación en el trópico

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    Julio J. Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento productivo de vacas lecheras en condiciones de estabulación con forrajes tropicales, se estudiaron 20 vacas mestizas Siboney durante tres años, utilizando una superficie de cultivo de los forrajes de 4.25 hectáreas. Para el análisis estadístico se empleó un modelo multiplicativo (producción y calidad de leche, el resto de las medidas se analizó por un análisis de varianza, según diseño completamente aleatorizado. Se mostraron interacciones entre los bimestres de parto y producción, por años (P<0.001, mostraron una mayor producción en los animales que parieron en la época lluviosa (8.63 vs. 8.09 kg vaca-1 día-1. Con respecto a la calidad de la leche, solamente los sólidos totales mostraron, en los dos primeros años, un mayor (P<0.05 porcentaje en la época lluviosa. Los animales del grupo seco revelaron una mejor (P<0.05 condición corporal que los de ordeño en ambas épocas (2.96; 3.35 vs. 2.87; 3.30 ordeño y secos en lluvia y poco lluviosa, respectivamente. El análisis del punto de equilibrio, mostró una ganancia neta sobre las ventas del 23.68, 31.44 y 36.46% para los años del primero al tercero, respectivamente. Los resultados del trabajo demuestran la posibilidad de obtener producción láctea bioeconómicamente factible, en el orden de los 9,183.09 a 12,035.40 kg leche ha-1 año-1, sin afectaciones en la calidad de la misma.

  4. Arachidonic Acid and Prostaglandins Enhance Potassium-Stimulated Calcium InFlux into Rat Brain Synaptosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-02

    calcium ci 10 100 10~M l0UM 3O"M I Blausten and Uctor. 1975. Leslie. Friedman, Wilcox riMet’al~r 01iM . and FlrI rod. I 9SO( [a~ contro an d drug...releases sesceral types of cell t Barritt. 1981). it i, possible a ra li l o"nic acid troil, lie ph. -phI1o i pi ds ( Brad ford. that secretion. stim ul...cardiosa-,alar Leslie S. W. Friedman MI B . Wilcox R. F. and Elrod S. disease and calcium antagonists. Am J. (’urdio/ 49: Y i Nxw Acute and c~hronic

  5. Helicobacter pylori vacA i region polymorphism but not babA2 status associated to gastric cancer risk in northwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghi, Batool; Safaralizadeh, Reza; Bonyadi, Morteza; Latifi-Navid, Saeid; Somi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori-specific genotypes have been strongly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (GC). The aim of the present work was to study the associations of H. pylori virulence factors, vacA i region polymorphisms and babA2 status with GC risk in Azerbaijan patients. The DNA extracted from gastric biopsy specimens was used to access the babA2 and vacA genotypes. Overall, babA2 was present in 85.39 % (76/89) of H. pylori strains: 19 out of 24 (79.16 %) strains from GC, 16 out of 17 (94.14 %) strains from peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and 41 out of 48 (85.14 %) strains from chronic gastritis. No significant association was found between babA2 genotype and clinical outcomes (P > 0.05). i1 vacA polymorphism was detected in 46/89 (51.68 %) strains: in 21/24 (87.5 %), 6/17 (35.29 %) and 19/48 (39.58 %) patients with GC, PUD and chronic gastritis, respectively. i2 allele was detected in 43 (48.31 %) out of all 89 strains examined: 3 (14.28 %) of 24 strains from GC, 11 (64.71 %) of 17 from PUD, and 29 (60.42 %) of 48 strains from chronic gastritis. In this study, multiple linear regression analysis confirmed the strong association of i1 allele with GC (partial regression correlation 0.455 ± 0.101; P = 0). Results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that vacA i1 genotype was significantly associated with GC compared with a control group (gastritis) (odds ratio 13.142, 95 % CI 3.116-55.430; P = 0). Findings from the measurement of H. pylori babA2 and vacA genotypes indicate a strong correlation between the vacA i1 allele and GC risk in the Azerbaijan area of Iran.

  6. Efeitos da administração epidural de amitraz, xilazina ou dimetil sulfóxido em vacas

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida, R. M.; Valadão,C.A.A.; Moreno, J.C.D. [UNESP; Farias, A; Souza, A.H

    2004-01-01

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos da injeção epidural de amitraz (0,4mg/kg), xilazina (0,05mg/kg) ou dimetil sulfóxido 10% (5,0ml) sobre a freqüência cardíaca (FC), pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), freqüência respiratória (FR), motilidade ruminal (MR), temperatura retal (TR), altura de cabeça (AC) e latência das respostas a estímulos nociceptivos nas regiões da coxa (LECC) e coroa do casco (LRRM) de vacas. Houve diminuição da FC e da MR nos grupos xilazina e amitraz. O tratamento com xilazina resultou...

  7. EVALUACIÓN DE PROGESTERONA INTRAVAGINAL POST INSEMINACIÓN ARTIFICIAL PARA REDUCIR LA MUERTE EMBRIONARIA EN VACAS

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ignacio Macias; Jofre Andrés Vera Cedeño

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la administración de un dispositivo intravaginal de progesterona post IATF sobre la reducción de la muerte embrionaria, el cual se aplicó siete días después de la inseminación. Se utilizaron 40 vacas de aptitud cárnica de cruza mestiza Senangus x Brahman de dos-cuatro partos. Se realizó ecografía transrectal (Aquilla Vet 7.5 MHZ) previo a la sincronización. Se efectuó el inicio de ésta con el dispositivo CIDR 1.38 g progesterona. Desp...

  8. The Prostaglandin E2 Receptor EP4 Regulates Obesity-Related Inflammation and Insulin Sensitivity.

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    Mika Yasui

    Full Text Available With increasing body weight, macrophages accumulate in adipose tissue. There, activated macrophages secrete numerous proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, giving rise to chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. Prostaglandin E2 suppresses macrophage activation via EP4; however, the role of EP4 signaling in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus remains unknown. In this study, we treated db/db mice with an EP4-selective agonist, ONO-AE1-329, for 4 weeks to explore the role of EP4 signaling in obesity-related inflammation in vivo. Administration of the EP4 agonist did not affect body weight gain or food intake; however, in the EP4 agonist-treated group, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were significantly improved over that of the vehicle-treated group. Additionally, administration of the EP4 agonist inhibited the accumulation of F4/80-positive macrophages and the formation of crown-like structures in white adipose tissue, and the adipocytes were significantly smaller. The treatment of the EP4 agonist increased the number of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, and in the stromal vascular fraction of white adipose tissue, which includes macrophages, it markedly decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Further, EP4 activation increased the expression of adiponectin and peroxidase proliferator-activated receptors in white adipose tissue. Next, we examined in vitro M1/M2 polarization assay to investigate the impact of EP4 signaling on determining the functional phenotypes of macrophages. Treatment with EP4 agonist enhanced M2 polarization in wild-type peritoneal macrophages, whereas EP4-deficient macrophages were less susceptible to M2 polarization. Notably, antagonizing peroxidase proliferator-activated receptor δ activity suppressed EP4 signaling-mediated shift toward M2 macrophage polarization. Thus, our results demonstrate that EP4 signaling plays a critical role in obesity-related adipose tissue

  9. Proteinograma do leite de vacas lactantes submetidas à retenção láctea

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    Valéria Aparecida Caobianco Sant'ana

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Doenças, intensidade na criação e produção, bem como o manejo inadequado foram fatores considerados estressantes para vacas leiteiras, determinando a retenção de leite. Quatro vacas adultas, sadias e em plena lactação e sem antecedentes de mamites e/ou tratamento intra-mamário foram submetidas experimentalmente a 10% de retenção de leite, das quais colheram-se amostras de leite nos seguintes momentos (Tempos: antes da retenção, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 horas durante a retenção e, 168 e 180 horas após o início do procedimento, ou seja, 108 e 120 horas após cessada a retenção. As amostras de leite foram, previamente, submetidas a exames físico-químico e microbiológico. O soro lácteo era obtido por coagulação do leite com renina e o proteinograma determinado por biureto e fracionamento por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. Observou-se um gradativo e significativo aumento de algumas frações do soro lácteo: albumina e imunoglobulina sérica bovina; lactoferrina; ±1-antitripsina; ²-lactoglobulina e; ±-lactoalbumina. Ao final da experimentação os valores das frações protéicas, retornaram aos iniciais, momento anterior ao início da retenção láctea.

  10. Fontes de amido e proteína para vacas leiteiras em dietas à base de capim elefante Starch and protein sources in elephantgrass-based diets for lactating dairy cows

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    Laísse Garcia de Lima

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A correta associação de fontes concentradas de energia e/ou proteína ao volumoso da ração de bovinos, poderá maximizar o desempenho dos animais, como efeito da complementariedade das taxas de degradação de nutrientes. Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes formas de processamento de milho, níveis de inclusão na dieta e fontes de proteína sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes na dieta, parâmetros de fermentação ruminal, bem como o desempenho de vacas leiteiras. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça holandesa em lactação, distribuídas ao acaso em um delineamento experimental do tipo quadrado latino 5 x 5. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: silagem de milho, farelo de soja e milho moído (quirera fino em nível alto; capim elefante, farelo de soja, milho moído em nível alto; capim elefante, farelo de soja, milho moído em nível baixo; capim elefante, farelo de soja, milho floculado (360 g L-1 em nível alto; capim elefante, farinha de peixe, milho floculado em nível alto. A dieta contendo capim elefante, milho floculado e farelo de soja em alto nível foi a que mais se aproximou da dieta de silagem de milho nos diversos parâmetros avaliados. A fonte de proteína não degradável no rúmen (PNDR não apresentou vantagens em relação à fonte convencional de proteína. O fornecimento de baixo nível de concentrado não supriu as deficiências energéticas do capim elefante. A maior eficiência de produção de vacas leiteiras que receberam rações com base em capim elefante simulando pastejo foi observada quando a energia estava disponível no rúmen, seja através do processamento, ou seja da maior inclusão de concentrado na dieta.Ruminant performance may be improved due to association of specific energy and protein supplemental sources by matching nutrient degradation rates on diets. This work aimed to analyze the effects of corn grain processing, concentrate levels and protein sources on nutrient digestibilities, ruminal

  11. Prostaglandin synthesis can be inhibited locally by infusion of NSAIDS through microdialysis catheters in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Helmark, Ida Carøe; Kjaer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, to study the local role of prostaglandins, the formation of prostaglandins within the tissue must be controlled. Microdialysis enables determination of local concentrations of water-soluble substances within the tissue. In the present study......, the microdialysis method was used to infuse NSAIDs locally into human skeletal muscles producing a local block of prostaglandin formation. In addition, the graded blockade at various distances from the infusion site within the muscle during rest, exercise and recovery was determined. Microdialysis was performed...... in thigh muscles (vastus lateralis muscle) in six healthy men. One of the microdialysis catheters was used to block prostaglandin synthesis by infusion of the NSAID indomethacin. Additional catheters were placed 1 and 4 cm away from the infusion and in the contralateral leg (working control). Following 2 h...

  12. CONSUMO DE LEITE DE VACA E DERIVADOS ENTRE AGRICULTORES DA REGIÃO OESTE DO PARANÁ

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    Heloísa TOMBINI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O leite é a principal fonte de cálcio na alimentação humana, cuja importância está relacionada às suas funções no organismo humano, pois contribui para a formação do tecido ósseo, promove o crescimento, regula o sistema nervoso e aumenta a resistência a infecções. Seus principais nutrientes são: proteínas de alta qualidade, gorduras, carboidratos, além de ser rico em vitaminas e minerais. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar o consumo de leite de vaca e derivados na população rural residente na região oeste do Paraná. O estudo transversal descritivo foi realizado durante o 20º Show Rural Coopavel, no ano de 2009, em Cascavel, Paraná, com agricultores moradores das áreas urbana e rural dessa região. Para verificar os hábitos alimentares foi aplicado o teste “Como está a sua Alimentação?” validado pelo Ministério da Saúde, cuja classificação segue as porções diárias de leite e derivados recomendadas pela pirâmide alimentar para a população adulta. Dos 372 agricultores que participaram do teste, 193 responderam sobre o consumo de leite, e destes, 160 afirmaram consumir leite e derivados, dos quais 82,5% apresentaram consumo maior ou igual à recomendação e 17,5% apresentaram consumo menor que a recomendação. Em relação à adequação de consumo, 82,7% das mulheres e 82,2% dos homens consomem leite e derivados dentro das recomendações estabelecidas pela pirâmide alimentar, assim como 81,6% dos adultos e 89,5% dos idosos. Segundo as classes econômicas, o consumo adequado de leite e derivados foi verificado em 85,7% na classe A, 90,2% na classe B, 77,5% na classe C e 83,3% na classe D+E, não havendo diferença significativa entre estas variáveis. O tipo de leite mais consumido pelos agricultores foi o leite integral (86,1% e apenas 13,9% relataram ingerir leite desnatado. De acordo com o local de domicílio 20% residia na zona urbana e 80% no meio rural, sendo que dos residentes na cidade, 90

  13. Profitability measures of dairy cows Medidas de rentabilidade de vacas leiteiras

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    Anamaria Cândido Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at defining profitability measures designed for prediction of breeding values (EBV in dairy cows. Performance and economic data recorded in herds enrolled in the DHIA (Dairy Herd Improvement Association program in Kentucky, USA, were used to evaluate economic functions which included the following profitability measures: lifetime net income (LNI, efficiency (EF, milk income over feed costs (IOFC, net income per day of productive life (NIPL, net income at the end of the first lactation (NI1, and milk income over feed costs at the end of the first lactation (IOFC1. The estimated averages for LNI, EF, IOFC, NIPL, NI1 and IOFC1 were respectively US$ 532.13, 1.04, US$ 3038.19, US$ -0.16, US$ -69.34 and US$ 1293.77. The heritability estimates for these traits ranged from 0.06 to 0.09. The EBV and Spearman correlation estimates were positive, ranging from moderate to high values, suggesting a direct linear relationship among the profitability measures. LNI was the best profitability measure and genetic correlation estimates between LNI and economic measures recorded in first lactation (NI1 and IOFC1 were moderate (Os objetivos neste trabalho foram definir funções econômicas para vacas leiteiras, classificar os animais por seus valores genéticos estimados (EBV para cada uma destas medidas de rentabilidade e estimar correlações entre esses valores. As informações utilizadas foram provenientes de rebanhos participantes do programa da DHIA (Dairy Herd Improvement Association, em Kentucky, Estados Unidos. As características estudadas foram receita líquida vitalícia (LNI, eficiência (EF, receita do leite menos o custo de alimentação (IOFC, receita líquida por dia de vida produtiva (NIPL, receita líquida ao final da primeira lactação (NI1 e receita do leite menos o custo de alimentação ao final da primeira lactação (IOFC1. Os valores médios estimados foram US$ 532,13; 1,04; US$ 3038,19; US$ -0,16; US$ -69,34; e US

  14. [Various effects of prostaglandin E2 on reabsorption of water and urea in the amphibia osmosis-regulating epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnova, R G; Bakhteeva, V T; Lavrova, E A

    2001-12-01

    Principal similarities between molecular pathways providing the enhancement of water and urea reabsorption under the action of argininvasotocin (AVT) in amphibian urinary bladder suggest that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) could be a negative regulator of urea transport. To analyse this hypothesis, the role of PGE2 in regulation of urea transport was studied in isolated frog (Rana temporaria L.) urinary bladder. The urea permeability (Pu) was determined from the rate of efflux of (14) Curea from mucosal to serosal solution in isoosmotic conditions. The water permeability was measured in separate experiments in presence of an osmotic gradient. In contrast to water permeability, we were unable to demonstrate any inhibitory effect of 10-1000 nM PGE2 on AVT-stimulated urea transport using a variety of protocols. It was found that basolateral PGE2 exposure (10 nM-1 microM) caused an increase in Pu with no effect on osmotic water flow. The PGE2 effect was markedly inhibited by phloretin, a specific inhibitor of urea transporter. Sulprostone, an EP1/EP3 prostaglandin E2 receptor agonist, had no effect on Pu suggesting the contribution of EP2/EP4 receptor subtypes. In presence of osmotic water flow, the AVT-induced urea transport was significantly higher. This water flow-dependent urea permeability was inhibited by PGE2 although the inhibitory effect was less pronounced in comparison to the action of PGE2 on osmotic water flow. On the basis of these results we can make a conclusion that PGE2 has different role in regulation of water and urea transport in the frog urinary bladder. PGE2 could be considered as a stimulator of urea transport and an inhibitor of osmotic water flow activated by the AVT. The ability of PGE2 to regulate various types of cAMP-dependent transport by different mechanisms seems to be based on the presence of multiple basolateral PGE2 receptor subtypes in amphibian osmosis-regulatory epithelium.

  15. Effect of indomethacin on aloin and 1,8 dioxianthraquinone-induced production of prostaglandins in rat isolated colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, F; Mascolo, N; Autore, G; Duraccio, M R

    1983-10-01

    The effect of aloin and 1,8 dioxyanthraquinone on the release of prostaglandin-like material (PG) from rat isolated colon has been investigated. Orally administered aloin and 1,8 dioxyanthraquinone stimulates PG production by subsequently isolated segments of colon. Indomethacin was able to prevent this increased production of PG. These results suggest that the laxative properties of aloin and 1,8 dioxyanthraquinone may depend, at least in part, on increased prostaglandin synthesis by the intestinal tissue.

  16. A study to compare circulating flunixin, meloxicam and gabapentin concentrations with prostaglandin E₂ levels in calves undergoing dehorning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccaro, E; Coetzee, J F; Odore, R; Edwards-Callaway, L N; Kukanich, B; Badino, P; Bertolotti, L; Glynn, H; Dockweiler, J; Allen, K; Bergamasco, L

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of intravenous flunixin (2.2 mg/kg b.w.), oral meloxicam (1mg/kg b.w.), oral gabapentin (15 mg/kg b.w.) alone or co-administrated with meloxicam as well as the effects of these compounds on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in calves subjected to surgical dehorning. Plasma samples collected up to 24h after drug administration were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, whereas blood PGE2 levels were measured by immunoenzymatic assay. In plasma, the terminal half-live of flunixin, meloxicam and gabapentin were 6.0 h (range, 3.4-11.0 h), 16.7h (range, 13.7-21.3h) and 15.3h (range, 11-32.9h), respectively. The co-administration of single doses of gabapentin and meloxicam did not seem to affect the pharmacokinetic profile of the two drugs except for gabapentin that reached significantly (Pflunixin-treated animals compared with control calves. Moreover, circulating log PGE2 concentrations were inversely proportional to log flunixin concentrations (R(2)=0.75; P<0.0001). None of the other drugs significantly affected blood PGE2 levels. Further assessment of oral meloxicam and gabapentin in established pain models is required to formulate science based analgesic recommendations to enhance animal well-being after dehorning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel insights into the mechanisms of pregnancy establishment: regulation of prostaglandin synthesis and signaling in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waclawik, Agnieszka

    2011-09-01

    Ovarian progesterone induces essential changes leading to a temporary state of uterine receptivity for conceptus implantation. Estrogens secreted by the porcine conceptus on days 11 and 12 of pregnancy provide the initial signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy and maintenance of a functional corpus luteum (CL) for continued production of progesterone. As prostaglandins F(2)(α) (PGF(2)(α)) and E(2) (PGE(2)) exert opposing actions on the CL, a tight control over their synthesis and secretion is critical either for the initiation of luteolysis or maintenance of pregnancy. One of the supportive mechanisms by which conceptus inhibits luteolysis is changing PG synthesis in favor of luteoprotective PGE(2). Conceptus PGE(2) could be amplified by PGE(2) feedback loop in the endometrium. In pigs, as in other species, implantation and establishment of pregnancy is associated with upregulation of expression of proinflammatory factors, which include cytokines, growth factors, and lipid mediators. The conceptus produces inflammatory mediators: interferon γ and interferon δ, interleukins IL1B and IL6, and PGs, which probably activate inflammatory pathways in the endometrium. The endometrium responds to these embryonic signals by enhancing further progesterone-induced uterine receptivity. Understanding the mechanisms of pregnancy establishment is required for translational research to increase reproductive efficiencies and fertility in humans and animals.

  18. Farelo de glúten de milho para vacas leiteiras em pastos de azevém anual Corn gluten meal to dairy cows grazing italian ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Mendonça Nunes Ribeiro Filho

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da suplementação com proteína de baixa degradabilidade ruminal (PNDR para vacas leiteiras em pastos de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas da raça Holandesa no terço médio de lactação. Os tratamentos avaliados foram zero e 4,0kg vaca-1 dia-1 de uma mistura 60:40 de grão de milho + farelo de glúten de milho, em três períodos de avaliação de 15 dias. Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro lotes uniformes (dois por tratamento e alocados em piquetes de azevém manejado no método rotativo, com uma oferta de 24kg de MS vaca-1 dia-1. A massa de forragem (2.325kg MS ha-1 e a altura (15,8cm antes da entrada dos animais foram semelhantes nos piquetes dos animais suplementados e não suplementados. Da mesma forma, os teores médios de PB e FDN da forragem ingerida foram semelhantes entre tratamentos (18,9% e 53,0%, respectivamente. O consumo de MS da forragem não variou com o uso da suplementação (média=8,5kg vaca-1 dia-1. O consumo de MS total aumentou 3,0kg vaca-1 dia-1 e o de energia metabolizável aumentou 42MJ vaca-1 dia-1. A produção de leite aumentou 4,0kg vaca-1 dia-1 com o uso da suplementação, mas os teores de gordura e de proteína não variaram entre tratamentos, sendo observados valores médios de 32,8g kg-1 e 29,2g kg-1, respectivamente. Em baixa oferta de forragem, a suplementação com alimento concentrado (22% PB contendo farelo de glúten de milho eleva a produção de leite na ordem de 1kg por kg de concentrado. A resposta a esse tipo de suplementação em condição de oferta de forragem não-limitante deve ser estudada.The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of undegradable protein supplementation to dairy cows grazing Italian ryegrass. Twelve Holstein cows in the mid lactation were used and treatments were 0 (zero and a mixture (60:40 of ground corn + corn gluten meal (4.0kg cow day-1 evaluated along three periods of fifteen days

  19. Níveis de proteína bruta em dietas para vacas leiteiras da Raça Holandesa em confinamento

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, Vanildo Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito de dietas com níveis de proteína bruta - PB (10, 12, 14 e 16% na matéria seca - MS) sobre o desempenho produtivo e eficiência de utilização dos nutrientes em vacas em lactação. Doze vacas da raça Holandesas com peso corporal (PC) médio de 570 kg, produção de leite (PL) de 13 kg/dia foram distribuídas em três quadrados latinos (4x4). O volumoso utilizado foi a silagem de milho e a relação volumoso:concentrado foi de 75:25. Houve aumento (P

  20. Desempenho Comparativo de Seis Grupos de Cruzamento Holandês/Guzerá. 11. Peso e Altura de Vacas e Novilhas1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Madureira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as características peso corporal, altura à cernelha e razão peso/altura (um indicador da condição corporal de, respectivamente, 263, 232 e 232 vacas e 171, 135 e 135 novilhas, de seis diferentes composições genéticas Holandês Vermelho e Branco (HVB x Guzerá (Guz: ¼, ½, 5/8, ¾, 7/8 e > ou = 31/32 HVB. Para as vacas o modelo [1] incluiu os efeitos fixos de estado reprodutivo, estádio da lactação, estação de pesagem, classe de fazenda, idade e grupo genético, interações duplas e o efeito aleatório de vaca e para as novilhas, os efeitos fixos de estação de pesagem, classe de fazenda, idade e grupo genético, a interação de estação x idade e o efeito aleatório de novilha. O modelo [2] foi igual ao modelo [1], exceto para o efeito de grupo genético, que foi substituído por regressões sobre a fração de HVB e a heterozigose racial, para estimar a diferença aditiva entre as raças (gI, HVB-Guz e a heterose (hI. A altura de vacas e novilhas não apresentou heterose, mas diminuiu linearmente com a fração de HVB (vacas, gI = -9,75+2,42 cm, novilhas, -10,38+2,72 cm. A estimativa de gI não foi significativamente diferente de zero para peso corporal de vacas ou novilhas, mas a heterose foi muito importante (vacas, hI = 51,42+13,40 kg, novilhas, hI = 109,77+ 32,97 kg. Para peso/altura as estimativas em vacas e novilhas foram, respectivamente, gI = 0,27+0,10 e 0,41+0,24 kg/cm e hI = 0,36+0,08 e 0,65+0,24 kg/cm. Testes de F da variação no modelo [1] ajustado após o modelo [2] não foram significativos, indicando que a epistasia ou outro efeito genético não incluído no modelo [2] não foram importantes nestas características, em nenhuma das duas categorias. O grupo genético mais pesado e com maior relação peso/altura foi o ½ HVB (F1.

  1. Associação entre cagA e alelos do vacA de Helicobacter pylori e úlcera duodenal em crianças no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ashour Abdussalam Ali Ramadam; Gusmão Valquíria Ribeiro de; Magalhães Paula Prazeres; Collares Guilherme Birchal; Mendes Edilberto Nogueira; Queiroz Dulciene Maria de Magalhães; Rocha Gifone Aguiar; Rocha Andreia Maria Camargos; Carvalho Anfrisina Sales Teles

    2002-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori é o principal agente de gastrite em seres humanos e fator de risco para úlcera péptica e câncer gástrico. A evolução da infecção está relacionada a diversos fatores, inclusive bacterianos, como presença de cagA e genótipo s1-m1 do vacA, associados com o desenvolvimento de úlcera e adenocarcinoma gástrico. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a associação entre cagA e alelos do vacA em H. pylori isolado de crianças e relacionar os achados com a doença apresentada pelo pac...

  2. Indução de tolerância às proteínas do leite de vaca em adolescente com anafilaxia

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Mariana; Sampaio, Graça; Piedade, Susana; Morais de Almeida, Mário

    2013-01-01

    A alergia às proteínas do leite de vaca (APLV) é cada vez mais prevalente e persistente, sendo a dieta de evicção difícil; as reacções adversas por ingestão de alergénio oculto são frequentes, impondo alternativas terapêuticas. Reportamos o caso de uma adolescente, com antecedentes de APLV de longa duração, com clínica de vários episódios de anafilaxia por ingestão de leite de vaca (LV) como alergénio oculto, submetida com sucesso a protocolo de indução de tolerância ao LV, tendo-se alcançado...

  3. Protocolos de inseminación artificial a tiempo fijo en vacas (Bos indicus en el trópico bajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés M. Sanabria-V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En una hacienda de clima tropical bajo, se evalula  respuesta  a  tres  programas de  Inseminación Artificial a Tiempo Fijo (IATF en 30 vacas vacías cebú  comercial, cíclicas,  con buena  condición corporal,  seleccionadas por  palpación  rectal  ydistribuidas al azar en  tres grupos de 10 vacas cada uno. A  éstos  se  les  asignó  un  protocolo  de sincronización de celos y ovulación diferente. En el grupo 1 se utilizó un dispositivo  intravaginal impregnado con progesterona;  las vacas del grupo 2 recibieron un  implante auricular  impregnado de Norgestomet  y  en  el  grupo  3  se  realizó  el protocolo de Ovsynch. Se diagnosticó la preñez mediante ultrasonografía, 30 días después de la inseminación en  los  tratamientos y  los datos  fueron analizados mediante  estadística descriptiva  con variables  de  tipo  cuantitativo.  Los  resultados obtenidos para el grupo 1, fueron 4 de 10 vacas preñadas, en el grupo 2, 6 de 10 vacas preñadas y en  el  grupo  3, 3  de 10  vacas. Se  encontraron diferencias  significativas  entre  las  vacas  que recibieron  el  implante  auricular,  así  como  a aquellas  vacas que  se  les hizo  el protocolo de Ovsynch,  pero  no  se  encontraron  diferencias significativas  entre  el  dispositivo  intravaginal impregnado con progesterona,  respecto de  los dos restantes. El valor más económico por preñez se obtuvo  con  la  utilización  del  protocolo  de Ovsynch; sin embargo, en  términos de eficiencia,fue mejor usar el implante auricular impregnado de  Norgestomet;  esto  por  razones  de mejoramiento  genético.  De  esta  forma  se concluyó que el protocolo del implante auricular con Norgestomet  tuvo una superior  tasa de preñez,sin que  esto  sea  una  constante,  debido  a  que  existen diferentes  factores que hacen variar  los resultados de la IATF.

  4. Does prostaglandin D2 hold the cure to male pattern baldness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, Ashley; Garza, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    Lipids in the skin are the most diverse in the entire human body. Their bioactivity in health and disease is underexplored. Prostaglandin D2 has recently been identified as a factor which is elevated in the bald scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and has the capacity to decrease hair lengthening. An enzyme which synthesizes it, prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS or lipocalin-PGDS), is hormone responsive in multiple other organs. PGD2 has two known receptors, GPR44 and PTGDR. GPR44 was found to be necessary for the decrease in hair growth by PGD2 . This creates an exciting opportunity to perhaps create novel treatments for AGA, which inhibit the activity of PTGDS, PGD2 or GPR44. This review discusses the current knowledge surrounding PGD2 , and future steps needed to translate these findings into novel therapies for patients with AGA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prostaglandin E2 and its methyl ester reduce cataplexy in canine narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, S; Mignot, E; Fruhstorfer, B; Dement, W C; Hayaishi, O

    1989-04-01

    The effects of intravenous administration of prostaglandins (PGs) were investigated in genetically narcoleptic Doberman pinschers. The treatment of narcoleptic dogs with PGE2 and PGE2 methyl ester, but not PGD2 and PGD2 methyl ester, induced a dose-dependent reduction of canine cataplexy, a dissociated manifestation of rapid-eye-movement sleep. The effect was specific and not associated with any change in other behavior. Furthermore, the effect was long-lasting (up to 2 hr) and could not be explained by the acute cardiovascular changes seen after intravenous PG administration. PGE2 methyl ester, a lipophilic derivative of PGE2 with more central penetration than PGE2, was 4 times more potent than PGE2. These results indicate that PGE2 modifies cataplexy through a central effect and suggest that this prostaglandin may play a role in rapid-eye-movement sleep regulation.

  6. Gastroprotective Effect of Geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris Is Dependent on Production of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Aparecido Ribeiro-Junior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP from Melipona scutellaris and to investigate the possible mechanisms of action. The gastroprotective activity of the EEGP was evaluated using model ulcer induced by ethanol. To elucidate the possible mechanisms of action, we investigated the involvement of the nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH groups, nitric oxide and prostaglandins. In addition, the antisecretory activity of EEGP was also evaluated by pylorus ligated model. The EEGP orally administrated (300 mg/kg reduced the ulcerative lesions induced by the ethanol (P0.05. These results support the alternative medicine use of geopropolis as gastroprotective and the activities observed show to be related to nitric oxide and prostaglandins production.

  7. Gastroprotective Effect of Geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris Is Dependent on Production of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Junior, Jerônimo Aparecido; Franchin, Marcelo; Cavallini, Miriam Elias; Denny, Carina; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP) from Melipona scutellaris and to investigate the possible mechanisms of action. The gastroprotective activity of the EEGP was evaluated using model ulcer induced by ethanol. To elucidate the possible mechanisms of action, we investigated the involvement of the nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) groups, nitric oxide and prostaglandins. In addition, the antisecretory activity of EEGP was also evaluated by pylorus ligated model. The EEGP orally administrated (300 mg/kg) reduced the ulcerative lesions induced by the ethanol (P 0.05). These results support the alternative medicine use of geopropolis as gastroprotective and the activities observed show to be related to nitric oxide and prostaglandins production.

  8. Release of prostaglandin D2 by murine mast cells: importance of metabolite formation for antiproliferative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Haberl

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin (PG D2 , PGJ2 and Δ12 -PGJ2 are antiproliferative eicosanoids. We investigated the production of PGD2 by murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC taking into consideration metabolism of PGD2 to PGD2 and Δ12-PGJ2. PG-metabolites were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined with radioimmunoassay (RIA. Stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187 BMMC released eight-fold more PGJ2 and Δ12-PGJ2 than PGD2. Conversion of endogenously produced PGD2 to PGJ2 and Δ12-PGJ2 proceeded rapidly in contrast to metabolism of exogenously added PGD2. The antiproliferative potency of these prostaglandins is demonstrated in vitro. We conclude that determination of PGD2 production by mast cells must take into consideration rapid conversion to active derivatives, which may play a significant role in growth regulation.

  9. Expression of prostaglandin synthases (pgds and pges) during zebrafish gonadal differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E; Nielsen, Betina Frydenlund

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at elucidating whether the expression pattern of the membrane bound form of prostaglandin E2 synthase (pges) and especially the lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (pgds) indicates involvement in gonadal sex differentiation in zebrafish as has previously been found....... In this study, a sexually dimorphic expression of pgds was found in gonads of adult zebrafish with expression in testis but not in ovaries. To determine whether the sex-specific expression pattern of pgds was present in gonads of juvenile zebrafish and therefore could be an early marker of sex in zebrafish, we...... microdissected gonads from four randomly selected individual zebrafish for every second day in the period 2-20 days post hatch (dph) and 0-1 dph. The temporal expression of pgds and pges was investigated in the microdissected gonads, however, no differential expression that could indicate sex-specific difference...

  10. vacA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori in the oral cavity and stomach of patients with chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Román, Adolfo; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Martínez-Carrillo, Dinorah Nashely; Loaiza-Loeza, Salome; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria

    2013-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori adheres to various components of the human saliva. Therefore, the objective of this research was to simultaneously detect H. pylori in saliva and in gastric biopsy, and to determine the agreement between the vacA genotypes in both saliva and gastric biopsy. A total of 162 patients with chronic gastritis and 34 with gastric ulcer were studied, and saliva and biopsy samples were collected from each patient. H. pylori DNA was detected by conventional PCR and nested PCR was used for vacA genotyping. In 24% of the patients (47/196) H. pylori DNA was found in saliva and in biopsy; 52.5% (103/196) were saliva(negative)/biopsy(positive) and 6.6% (13/196) were saliva(positive)/biopsy(negative). In either or both H. pylori vacAs1m1 or s1m2 genotypes were detected in saliva in 41.5% of the patients with chronic gastritis. Forty-seven percent had >1 genotype, and the s1m1/s1m2 combination was found in 36% of them. H. pylori vacAs1m1 and s1m2 were also found in the saliva and biopsy of patients with gastric ulcer. The genotypes found in saliva and biopsy of the same patient had 51.1% agreement. In 27.6% of the 47 patients saliva(positive)/biopsy(positive) two genotypes were found in saliva, and one or both in the stomach. The s1m1/s1m2 genotypes, alone or together, are found simultaneously in saliva and gastric biopsy of the same patient. These results suggest that H. pylori reaches the oral cavity by various ways, and that saliva can be the transmitting and re-infecting vector. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Imunidade celular em vacas Holandesas soropositivas para o Vírus da Leucose Bovina (BLV durante o período de transição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gomes

    Full Text Available RESUMO Esta pesquisa avaliou a dinâmica dos leucócitos e das subpopulações de linfócitos em vacas Holandesas soropositivas para o BLV no período de transição. Amostras de sangue (n=72 provenientes de 12 vacas foram coletadas entre as semanas -2 e +3 para a realização do leucograma, imunofenotipagem, dosagem de cortisol e haptoglobina (Hp. O perfil leucocitário foi caracterizado por leucocitose, neutrofilia, monocitose e eosinopenia próximo ao parto. Linfocitose e elevada proporção de linfócitos B CD21+ foram achados constantes entre as semanas -2 e +3; assim, as vacas foram testadas e confirmadas soropositivas para o BLV. Os valores das subpopulações de linfócitos T apresentaram-se baixos durante o período de transição, observando-se dois picos máximos que coincidiram com as elevações nas concentrações de cortisol no parto (2,11µg/dL e semana +3 (1,97µg/dL. Hp apresentou aumento crescente de -2 (166µg/mL a +3 (576µg/mL, provavelmente associada à elevada taxa de infecções uterinas observadas nas semanas +2 e +3. As vacas soropositivas para o BLV apresentaram leucograma de estresse próximo ao parto, exceto para linfócitos. A linfocitose e as elevadas proporções de células B CD21+, associadas com as baixas proporções de células T, podem ser indicativo de imunossupressão e predisposição aos processos inflamatórios no período pós-parto.

  12. Evaluación de implantes de norgestomet reutilizados en protocolos de sincronización del estro en vacas Brahman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Uribe-Velásquez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar las concentraciones de progesterona, la manifestación de estro y las tasas de preñez en vacas Bos indicus sometidas a varios protocolos de sincronización del estro con un implante de norgestomet usado previamente. Materiales y métodos. Sesenta vacas recibieron un implante auricular de norgestomet reutilizado y fueron distribuidas en uno de cuatro protocolos: (1 benzoato de estradiol (BE + progesterona (P4 + prostaglandina F2α (PG (BE+P4+PG; (2 valerato de estradiol (VE + norgestomet (NG (VE+NG; (3 el mismo protocolo BE+P4+PG, asociado con 400 UI de gonadotropina coriónica equina (eCG (BE+P4+PG+eCG; (4 el mismo protocolo VE+NG, asociado con 400 UI de eCG (VE+NG+eCG. El implante fue removido el día 9, con inseminación artificial (IA 12 horas después de la detección del estro. La preñez fue diagnosticada 45 días después de la IA. Las muestras de sangre fueron tomadas los días 0, 4 y 9 (después de colocar el implante para el análisis de progesterona por RIA. Resultados. En el día 4, las concentraciones de progesterona fueron menores en vacas tratadas con BE+P4+PG (0.90 ± 0.73 ng/ml; p0.05. Conclusiones. Los implantes de norgestomet reutilizados fueron eficaces para sincronizar el estro y alcanzar tasas de preñez adecuadas en vacas Brahman.

  13. [Genotyping of Helicobacter pylori virulence factors vacA and cagA in individuals from two regions in Colombia with opposing risk for gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Esperanza; Martínez, Teresa; Bravo, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    The overall prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is high in Colombia; however, in the country´s Andean region, gastric cancer rates far surpass those in coastal areas. Helicobacter pylori genotypes cagA positive and vacA s1 and m1 are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. To compare the distribution of H. pylori genotypes associated with virulence in two regions in Colombia with opposing risk for gastric cancer. Four hundred and one gastric antral biopsies were obtained and analyzed from 401 individuals diagnosed with non-atrophic gastritis, atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia: 256 came from the high-risk area cities of Tunja and Bogotá, and 145 from the low-risk area cities of Barranquilla, Santa Marta and Cartagena. Genotyping of virulence genes vacA and cagA was performed by PCR. No difference was observed in the frequency of H. pylori infection between the two areas (77.3% vs 77.9 %, p=non significant, ns). The presence of cagA was higher in the low-risk area (77.9% vs. 69.2 %, p=ns). The vacA s1 allele was also more prevalent in the low-risk area (61.8 % vs 72.0 %, p=ns). The vacA m1 allele was more prevalent in the high-risk area (57.2 % vs 42.8 %, p=ns). The cagA positive s1m1 combination was also more frequent in the low-risk area (48.9% vs 38.9%, p=ns). The differences in the risk of gastric cancer in these two geographic areas cannot be explained by differences in the prevalence of infection by H. pylori or by differences in the virulence of circulating strains.

  14. Successful management of mummified fetus in a heifer by prostaglandin therapy and episiotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Krishan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetal mummification is one of the gestation- al accidents that occur due to intra-uterine death of fetus commonly at fourth, fifth and six months of gestation. This report describes the successful management of the mummified fetus in a five year old graded Holstein Friesian heifer cow using single dose of prostaglandin F2α analogue and by performing episiotomy. Antibiotic therapy was given to avoid any uterine infection.

  15. Effect of Aspirin and Indomethacin on Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis in C6 Glioma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Shiuh-Lin; Lee, Kung-Shing; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lieu, Ann-Shung; Cheng, Chi-Yun; Loh, Joon-Khim; Hwang, Yan-Fen; Su, Yu-Feng; Howng, Shen-Long

    2004-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays an important role in immunosuppression and tumor growth. PGE2 inhibitors such as aspirin and indomethacin suppress experimental tumor growth. Little is known of the relationship between PGE2 synthesis in brain tumors and the dose of aspirin or indomethacin. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different doses of aspirin and indomethacin on PGE2 synthesis in C6 glioma cells. C6 glioma cells were incubated with different concentrations (2, 4, ...

  16. Effectiveness of prostaglandin F2alpha in the initial treatment of bovine ovarian cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavatte, P M; Archbald, L F; Risco, C; Tran, T; Sumrall, D

    1993-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the use of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) in the initial treatment of ovarian cysts in dairy cattle. Two hundred and sixty three cows diagnosed cystic on palpation per rectum were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (A, B or C). Cows in Groups A and B were treated with 25 mg i.m.of PGF2alpha at the time of diagnosis (Day 0), while cows in Group C received 100 mug of GnRH. Seven days following initial treatment (Day 7), cows from Group A that were not observed in estrus were treated with GnRH. Cows from Groups B and C were not treated. On Day 14, all cows that had not been inseminated received PGF2alpha. A blood sample was obtained from all cows on Days 0, 7 and 14 and was analyzed for progesterone (P4) using radioimmunoassay. Incidences of estrus were recorded and cows that were more than 60 d in milk at the time of diagnosis were bred when observed in estrus. The incidence of follicular cysts on Day 0 (as defined as P4 cysts. There were significantly more cows pregnant to insemination within 7 d of initial treatment in Group B than in Groups A and C (Povarian cysts diagnosed by per rectum examination with prostaglandin (at time of diagnosis and 14 d later for cows that were not inseminated) was as effective as initial treatment with GnRH followed by prostaglandins 14 d later for cows that were not inseminated previously. Cows that were initially treated with prostaglandins also tended to become pregnant sooner.

  17. Isolation from Cannabis sativa L. of cannflavin--a novel inhibitor of prostaglandin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, M L; Gordon, D; Evans, F J

    1985-06-01

    The isolation from Cannabis sativa L. of an inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG) E2 production by cultured rheumatoid synovial cells is described. This agent, for which the name Cannflavin has been coined, is distinct from cannabinoids on the basis of isolation procedure, preliminary structural analysis and biological properties. The activity of Cannflavin has been compared with several established anti-inflammatory drugs and the major cannabinoids.

  18. Effective prevention of pseudothrombocytopenia in feline blood samples with the prostaglandin I2 analogue Iloprost

    OpenAIRE

    Riond, Barbara; Waßmuth, Andrea Katharina; Hartnack, Sonja; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro platelet aggregation in feline blood samples is a well-known phenomenon in veterinary clinical laboratories resulting in high numbers of pseudothrombocytopenia. Several attempts have been made to prevent or dissolve platelet aggregates in feline blood samples and to increase the reliability of feline platelet counts. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) is the most powerful endogenous inhibitor of platelet aggregation but unstable. Iloprost is a stable PGI2 analogue. The aims of the p...

  19. Gastroprotective Effect of Geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris Is Dependent on Production of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro-Junior, Jer?nimo Aparecido; Franchin, Marcelo; Cavallini, Miriam Elias; Denny, Carina; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP) from Melipona scutellaris and to investigate the possible mechanisms of action. The gastroprotective activity of the EEGP was evaluated using model ulcer induced by ethanol. To elucidate the possible mechanisms of action, we investigated the involvement of the nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) groups, nitric oxide and prostaglandins. In addition, the antisecretory activity of EEGP was al...

  20. Intracerebral administration of Mycoplasma fermentans produces sickness behavior: role of prostaglandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirmiya, R; Barak, O; Avitsur, R; Gallily, R; Weidenfeld, J

    1997-02-21

    Mycoplasmas are small microorganisms, which cause various diseases in animals and in humans, activate the immune system, and induce the release of various cytokines. Some of the effects of mycoplasmas are mediated by the CNS. Moreover, Mycoplasma fermentans (MF) has recently been found in the brain, as well as other tissues of some AIDS patients, who usually display severe neurobehavioral disturbances. The present study was designed to examine the behavioral effects of central administration of MF, and the role of prostaglandins in mediating these effects. In one set of experiments, rats were injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) with either saline or a dose of MF (5.1-36 microg per rat), and several behavioral parameters were measured. In addition, body temperature and locomotor activity were continuously monitored by a biotelemetric system. MF induced a significant elevation in body temperature and suppression of motor activity levels. MF also significantly reduced the time spent in social exploration, decreased locomotor and exploratory activity in the open field test, suppressed the consumption of food and saccharine solution, and reduced body weight. In a second set of experiments, i.c.v. administration of MF (7.2 microg) was found to produce a significant increase in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in hypothalamic, hippocampal, and cortical tissues. This effect was blocked by indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor. Indomethacin also attenuated the effects of MF on body temperature, motor activity and body weight, suggesting the involvement of prostaglandins in mediating some of the effects of MF. Together, these findings suggest that the presence of MF in the brain may be responsible for some of the neurobehavioral abnormalities in HIV-infected patients.

  1. Exosomes account for vesicle-mediated transcellular transport of activatable phospholipases and prostaglandins[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subra, Caroline; Grand, David; Laulagnier, Karine; Stella, Alexandre; Lambeau, Gérard; Paillasse, Michael; De Medina, Philippe; Monsarrat, Bernard; Perret, Bertrand; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc; Record, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Exosomes are bioactive vesicles released from multivesicular bodies (MVB) by intact cells and participate in intercellular signaling. We investigated the presence of lipid-related proteins and bioactive lipids in RBL-2H3 exosomes. Besides a phospholipid scramblase and a fatty acid binding protein, the exosomes contained the whole set of phospholipases (A2, C, and D) together with interacting proteins such as aldolase A and Hsp 70. They also contained the phospholipase D (PLD) / phosphatidate phosphatase 1 (PAP1) pathway leading to the formation of diglycerides. RBL-2H3 exosomes also carried members of the three phospholipase A2 classes: the calcium-dependent cPLA2-IVA, the calcium-independent iPLA2-VIA, and the secreted sPLA2-IIA and V. Remarkably, almost all members of the Ras GTPase superfamily were present, and incubation of exosomes with GTPγS triggered activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2)and PLD2. A large panel of free fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (AA) and derivatives such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandinJ2 (15-d PGJ2), were detected. We observed that the exosomes were internalized by resting and activated RBL cells and that they accumulated in an endosomal compartment. Endosomal concentrations were in the micromolar range for prostaglandins; i.e., concentrations able to trigger prostaglandin-dependent biological responses. Therefore exosomes are carriers of GTP-activatable phospholipases and lipid mediators from cell to cell. PMID:20424270

  2. Gastroduodenal mucosal prostaglandin generation in patients with Helicobacter pylori before and after treatment with bismuth subsalicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avunduk, C; Suliman, M; Gang, D; Polakowski, N; Eastwood, G L

    1991-04-01

    To determine whether Helicobacter pylori has an effect on gastroduodenal mucosal prostaglandin generation, mucosal biopsies were obtained from the gastric body, antrum, and duodenal bulb of 30 patients who were undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for clinical indications. One biopsy from the gastric body and one from the antrum were tested for urease activity (urea broth) and one biopsy from each area including the duodenum was processed for histology. Two other biopsies form each area were incubated and the accumulation of prostaglandin E2 and 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha in the incubation medium was measured by radioimmunoassay. Twelve of the 17 H. pylori-positive patients and seven of the 13 H. pylori-negative patients agreed to take bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) two tablets four times a day for four weeks. One week after treatment, these patients again underwent endoscopy and the above studies. This study indicates that: (1) mucosal PGE2 generation may be increased in the duodenum, gastric body, and antrum in H. pylori-positive patients compared to H. pylori-negative patients, and (2) treatment with bismuth subsalicylate for four weeks results in reduction of mucosal PGE2 in the duodenum, gastric body, and antrum of H. pylori-positive patients and fails to eradicate H. pylori or reduce gastric inflammation.

  3. Multiple roles of the prostaglandin D2 signaling pathway in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossitto, Moïra; Ujjan, Safdar; Poulat, Francis; Boizet-Bonhoure, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandins signaling molecules are involved in numerous physiological processes. They are produced by several enzyme-limited reactions upon fatty acids, which are catalyzed by two cyclooxygenases and prostaglandin synthases. In particular, the prostaglandins E2 (PGE2), D2 (PGD2), and F2 (PGF2 α) have been shown to be involved in female reproductive mechanisms. Furthermore, widespread expression of lipocalin- and hematopoietic-PGD2 synthases in the male reproductive tract supports the purported roles of PGD2 in the development of both embryonic and adult testes, sperm maturation, and spermatogenesis. In this review, we summarize the putative roles of PGD2 signaling and the roles of both PGD2 synthases in testicular formation and function. We review the data reporting the involvement of PGD2 signaling in the differentiation of Sertoli and germ cells of the embryonic testis. Furthermore, we discuss the roles of lipocalin-PGD2 synthase in steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, in terms of lipid molecule transport and PGD2 production. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis that PGD2 signaling may be affected in certain reproductive diseases, such as infertility, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  4. Prostaglandin E2 levels in cerebrospinal fluid of normal and narcoleptic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, S; Mignot, E; Kilduff, T S; Sakai, T; Hayaishi, O; Dement, W C

    1990-11-15

    It has been shown that endogenous prostaglandin D2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are involved in sleep-wake regulation. Our recent experimental result that exogenously administered PGE2 significantly reduces canine cataplexy (a pathological equivalent of rapid-eye-movement sleep atonia and a symptom of narcolepsy) suggests that PGE2 is involved in the pathophysiology of canine narcolepsy. In order to further investigate the role of prostaglandins (PGs) in this disorder, PG levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of genetically homozygous narcoleptic, heterozygous (unaffected), and control Doberman pinschers were studied. PGE2 levels were measured by direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) and after high-grade purification using PG affinity columns and high-performance liquid chromatography. PGD2 and PGF2 alpha levels were measured by RIA after high-grade purification. There was no significant difference in PGE2 levels between homozygous narcoleptic and heterozygous or controls dogs, and PGD2 and PGF2 alpha levels were undetectable in most cases. Our results do not favor the hypothesis that central PGE2 levels are modified in canine narcolepsy, assuming that PGE2 levels in cisternal CSF properly reflect PGE2 production in the brain.

  5. Fish faunas from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) Vaca Muerta Formation of Argentina: One of the most important Jurassic marine ichthyofaunas of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouiric-Cavalli, Soledad; Cione, Alberto Luis

    2015-11-01

    The marine deposits of the Vaca Muerta Formation (Tithonian-Berriasian) houses one of the most diverse Late Jurassic ichthyofaunas of Gondwana. However, most of the specimens remain undescribed. Jurassic fishes have been recovered from several localities at Neuquén Province (i.e., Picún Leufú, Plaza Huincul, Cerro Lotena, Portada Las Lajas, Los Catutos, and Arroyo Covunco) but also from Mendoza Province (i.e., La Valenciana, Los Molles, and Arroyo del Cajón Grande). Presently, the fish fauna of Los Catutos, near Zapala city (Neuquén Province), has yielded the highest number of specimens, which are taxonomically and morphologically diverse. At Los Catutos locality, the Vaca Muerta Formation is represented by the Los Catutos Member, which is considered the only lithographic limestones known in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we review the Tithonian fish faunas from the Vaca Muerta Formation. During Late Jurassic times, the actual Argentinian territory could have been a morphological diversification center, at least for some actinopterygian groups. The apparently lower species diversity recorded in marine Jurassic ichthyofaunas of Argentina (and some Gondwanan countries) in comparison with Chilean and European fish faunas could be related to the fish paleontological research history in Gondwana and the low number of detailed studies of most of specimens recorded.

  6. Etiologia das infecções intramamárias em vacas primíparas ao longo dos primeiros quatro meses de lactação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laffranchi Alessandra

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available De 88 vacas primíparas, oriundas de quatro rebanhos leiteiros, foram colhidas 1985 amostras de leite, ao longo dos 120 dias pós-parto, das quais 457 (23,02% apresentaram resultados microbiológicos positivos. Os estafilococos coagulase negativos (ECN foram isolados em 316 (69,14% amostras, Corynebacterium bovis em 56 (12,25%, estreptococos em 41 (8,97% e estafilococos coagulase positivos (ECP em 38 (8,31%. Mastite clínica foi detectada em nove (10,23% vacas. No primeiro dia pós-parto, 57 (64,77% animais e 114 (32,66% quartos apresentaram exames bacteriológicos positivos. Até o décimo quarto dia, ocorreu um decréscimo acentuado no número de vacas e quartos infectados, que posteriormente tendeu a estabilizar. Os ECN foram as bactérias mais isoladas ao longo de todo experimento, enquanto o número de estreptococos decresceu acentuadamente nas duas primeiras semanas pós-parto. As infecções por C. bovis aumentaram progressivamente a partir do parto. Entre os ECN, predominaram o S. hyicus e o S. intermedius e, nos estreptococos, os do grupo C e D. A contagem média de células somáticas (CCS, nos quartos infectados, foi de 508,914/m, enquanto que, nos quartos negativos, foi de 73,942/m.

  7. Anti-CagA IgG Antibody is Independent from Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA Genotypes

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    Hashem Fakhre Yaseri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori strains have two classical virulence genes, the cytotoxinassociated A (cagA gene and the vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA gene, which are located in thecag pathogenicity island (cagPAI. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies to H. pylori,especially, the CagA antigen may be a reliable marker for selection of dyspeptic patients for upperendoscopy.Methods: Serum sample of 129 dyspeptic patients with positive H. pylori, were tested for serumIgG Anti-CagA antibody by ELISA. The presence of the cagA and vacA genotypes weredetermined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR on biopsy samples taken via endoscopy.Results: Positive serum IgG anti-CagA antibodies in patients with cagA+/vacA+ and cagA+/vacA- genotypes were 22/23 (95.6% and 18/19 (94.7%, respectively. In addition, serum IgG anti-CagAantibodies in patients with cagA-/vacA+ and cagA-/vacA- genotypes were 22/47 (46.8% and 33/40(82.5%, respectively.Conclusions: It can be concluded that the serum IgG anti-CagA antibody alone could selectpatients with dyspepsia following upper endoscopy. The assessment of vacuolating cytotoxinactivity of H. Pylori is, therefore, not required, even when vacA gene is positive. This hypothesisneeds to be studied in a large number of patients with dyspepsia.

  8. Topical or systemic 16,16 dm prostaglandin E sub 2 or WR-2721 (WR-1065) protects mice from alopecia after fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, L.; Malkinson, F.D. (Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke' s Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)); Hanson, W.R. (Hines VA Medical Center, IL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Previous studies in mice demonstrated that systemic or topical 16,16 dm PGE{sub 2} protected against single dose radiation-induced hair loss. The authors have now investigated prostaglandin, or WR-2721, protection against murine alopecia produced by varying doses and schedules of fractionated radiation. In some studies with the radioprotectors given systematically, WR-2721 afforded slightly greater radioprotection than 16,16 dm PGE{sub 2}. The two compounds were essentially equally radioprotective in the topical application studies. Since both systemic and topical applications of the agents tested enhanced hair regrowth following radiation, the authors conclude that clinical use of these compounds may provide some protection of hair follicles, and perhaps other tissues, lying within a radiation therapy field. (author).

  9. Efficiency of high molecular weight backbone degradable HPMA copolymer-prostaglandin E1 conjugate in promotion of bone formation in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huaizhong; Sima, Monika; Miller, Scott C; Kopečková, Pavla; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2013-09-01

    Multiblock, high molecular weight, linear, backbone degradable HPMA copolymer-prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) conjugate has been synthesized by RAFT polymerization mediated by a new bifunctional chain transfer agent (CTA), which contains an enzymatically degradable oligopeptide sequence flanked by two dithiobenzoate groups, followed by postpolymerization aminolysis and thiol-ene chain extension. The multiblock conjugate contains Asp8 as the bone targeting moiety and enzymatically degradable bonds in the polymer backbone; in vivo degradation produces cleavage products that are below the renal threshold. Using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, the accumulation in bone and efficacy to promote bone formation was evaluated; low molecular weight conjugates served as control. The results indicated a higher accumulation in bone, greater enhancement of bone density, and higher plasma osteocalcin levels for the backbone degradable conjugate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficiency of High Molecular Weight Backbone Degradable HPMA Copolymer – Prostaglandin E1 Conjugate in Promotion of Bone Formation in Ovariectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huaizhong; Sima, Monika; Miller, Scott C.; Kopečková, Pavla; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Multiblock, high molecular weight, linear, backbone degradable HPMA copolymer-prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) conjugate has been synthesized by RAFT polymerization mediated by a new bifunctional chain transfer agent (CTA), which contains an enzymatically degradable oligopeptide sequence flanked by two dithiobenzoate groups, followed by post-polymerization aminolysis and thiol-ene chain extension. The multiblock conjugate contains Asp8 as the bone-targeting moiety and enzymatically degradable bonds in the polymer backbone; in vivo degradation produces cleavage products that are below the renal threshold. Using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, the accumulation in bone and efficacy to promote bone formation was evaluated; low molecular weight conjugates served as control. The results indicated a higher accumulation in bone, greater enhancement of bone density, and higher plasma osteocalcin levels for the backbone degradable conjugate. PMID:23731780

  11. Desempenho de vacas da raça Holandesa em pastagem de coastcross Performance of Holsteins cows on coastcross pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Vilela

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho produtivo de vacas da raça Holandesa mantidas em pastagem de coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pears fertilizada, irrigada e suplementada com 3 ou 6 kg de concentrado/vaca/dia. Dados de 108 lactações coletados durante três anos consecutivos (outubro/2000 a outubro/2003 foram analisados em um delineamento de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições por tratamento, utilizando-se nove animais por área e 18 por tratamento, com lotação fixa de cinco vacas/ha. Adotou-se o sistema de pastejo em lotação rotacionada, com um dia de ocupação e 25 e 35 dias de descanso dos piquetes, nas estações chuvosa e seca, respectivamente. A pastagem foi irrigada nos meses de menor precipitação e fertilizada com adubo formulado (NPK, distribuído a lanço em seis aplicações anuais. A disponibilidade de matéria seca foi de 7.280 e 6.167 kg/ha no início do pastejo, com resíduo pós-pastejo de 4.885 e 3.994 kg/ha, nas estações chuvosa (primavera/verão e seca (outono/inverno, respectivamente. Durante parte do período experimental, algumas características morfogênicas da pastagem foram avaliadas, registrando-se disponibilidade de 83,9; 125,6 e 89,5 kg de MS de lâminas foliares/ha, nas estações de primavera, verão e outono, respectivamente. As produções médias diárias de leite (corrigidas para 3,5% de gordura foram de 15,5 e 19,1 kg/vaca e de 77,8 e 94,0 kg/ha, quando foram fornecidos, para cada vaca, 3 e 6 kg de concentrado, respectivamente. Pastagem de coastcross, quando fertilizada e manejada adequadamente, viabiliza elevadas produtividades de leite por animal e por área, podendo ser recomendada para produção de leite em pastagens.The productive performance of Holstein cows grazing fertilized coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pears pasture, strategically irrigated and supplemented with either 3 or 6 kg of concentrate/cow/day, was evaluated in this trial. The data were collected for three years (October/2000 to

  12. Expression of the prostaglandin F synthase AKR1B1 and the prostaglandin transporter SLCO2A1 in human fetal membranes in relation to spontaneous term and preterm labour

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    Hana A Alzamil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human labour is a complex series of cellular and molecular events that occur at the materno-fetal and uterine levels. Many hypotheses have been proposed for the initiation of human labour, one hypothesis suggests that maturation of the fetus releases a signal in the amniotic fluid that will be transmitted to myometrium via the fetal membranes and initiate uterine contractions. There is strong evidence that prostaglandins (PGs play a central role in initiation and progression of human labour. Objectives: In this study we intended to investigate the expression of prostaglandin F synthase and the prostaglandin transporter in the human fetal membranes and to explore the relationship between cytokines and PGs in the mechanism of human labour. Methods: We used fetal membranes obtained before labour at term and after spontaneous labour at term or preterm to identify the changes in prostaglandin F synthase (AKR1B1 and human prostaglandin transporter (SLCO2A1 proteins in relation to parturition. Using fetal membranes explants we tested the effect of cytokines (interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor alpha on PG production and the concomitant changes in cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2, AKR1B1 and SLCO2A1 expression. Results: Expression of PTGS2 and AKR1B1 was upregulated in the fetal membranes in association with term labour while SLCO2A1 was downregulated with advancing gestation and during term labour. Before labour, IL-1 increased the expression of PTGS2, however during labour TNF upregulated PTGS2 and AKR1B1 proteins. Conclusions: The prostaglandin F synthase AKR1B1 is upregulated while prostaglandin transporter is downregulated during term labour. The amnion is more responsive than choriodecidua to stimulation with pro-inflammatory cytokines. The mechanisms of term and preterm labour are different.

  13. Intraocular pressure dynamics with prostaglandin analogs: a clinical application of water-drinking test

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    Özyol P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pelin Özyol,1 Erhan Özyol,1 Ercan Baldemir2 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Biostatistics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla, Turkey Aim: To evaluate the clinical applicability of the water-drinking test in treatment-naive primary open-angle glaucoma patients. Methods: Twenty newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma patients and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in this prospective study. The water-drinking test was performed at baseline and 6 weeks and 3 months after prostaglandin analog treatment. Peak and fluctuation of intraocular pressure (IOP measurements obtained with the water-drinking test during follow-up were analyzed. Analysis of variance for repeated measures and paired and unpaired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean baseline IOP values in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma were 25.1±4.6 mmHg before prostaglandin analog treatment, 19.8±3.7 mmHg at week 6, and 17.9±2.2 mmHg at month 3 after treatment. The difference in mean baseline IOP of the water-drinking tests was statistically significant (P<0.001. At 6 weeks of prostaglandin analog treatment, two patients had high peak and fluctuation of IOP measurements despite a reduction in baseline IOP. After modifying treatment, patients had lower peak and fluctuation of IOP values at month 3 of the study. Conclusion: Peak and fluctuation of IOP in response to the water-drinking test were lower with prostaglandin analogs compared with before medication. The water-drinking test can represent an additional benefit in the management of glaucoma patients, especially by detecting higher peak and fluctuation of IOP values despite a reduced mean IOP. Therefore, it could be helpful as a supplementary method in monitoring IOP in the clinical practice. Keywords: glaucoma, intraocular pressure, water-drinking test, prostaglandin analog, intra­ocular pressure fluctuation

  14. Activation of prostaglandin E2 EP1 receptor increases arteriolar tone and blood pressure in mice with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkai, Ibolya; Feher, Attila; Erdei, Nora; Henrion, Daniel; Papp, Zoltan; Edes, Istvan; Koller, Akos; Kaley, Gabor; Bagi, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Aims Type 2 diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. We tested the hypothesis that activation of type 1 prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor (EP1) increases skeletal muscle arteriolar tone and blood pressure in mice with type 2 diabetes. Methods and results In 12-week-old, male db/db mice (with homozygote mutation in leptin receptor), systolic blood pressure was significantly elevated, compared with control heterozygotes. Isolated, pressurized gracilis muscle arterioles (∼90 µm) of db/db mice exhibited an enhanced pressure- and angiotensin II (0.1–10 nM)-induced tone, which was reduced by the selective EP1 receptor antagonist, AH6809 (10 µM), to the level observed in arterioles of control mice. Exogenous application of PGE2 (10 pM–100 nM) or the selective agonist of the EP1 receptor, 17-phenyl-trinor-PGE2 (10 pM–100 nM), elicited arteriolar constrictions that were significantly enhanced in db/db mice (max: 31 ± 4 and 29 ± 5%), compared with controls (max: 20 ± 2 and 14 ± 3%, respectively). In the aorta of db/db mice, an increased protein expression of EP1, but not EP4, receptor was also detected by western immunoblotting. Moreover, we found that oral administration of the EP1 receptor antagonist, AH6809 (10 mg/kg/day, for 4 days), significantly reduced the systolic blood pressure in db/db, but not in control mice. Conclusion Activation of EP1 receptors increases arteriolar tone, which could contribute to the development of hypertension in the db/db mice. PMID:19299433

  15. Ingestive behavior of Nellore cows and their straightbred or crossbred calves Comportamento em pastejo de vacas Nelores amamentando bezerros Nelores ou mestiços Simental × Nelore

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    Fernando Miranda de Vargas Junior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed to investigate the influence of calf genetic group on the ingestive behavior of Nellore dams and their offspring on pasture. Twenty one primiparous and multiparous Nellore cows were assigned to the experiment; 13 cows nursed straightbred Nellore calves; and eight cows nursed halfbred Simmental × Nellore calves. The observations started in the morning, as soon as identification of the animals in daylight was possible, and they lasted until after sunset, when identification became impossible. The observations were made at 3, 6, 12, 24 and 30 weeks after calving. The following events were continuosly observed: grazing, rumination, idleness, water and mineral intake, and suckling frequency and length.. The dams of straightbreds showed a shorter rumination time and longer idleness. Nellore calves showed shorter grazing time and higher suckling frequency. The ingestive behavior of Nellore cows on pasture is affected by the genetic group of their offspring, possibly because of the suckling frequency of the calves.O objetivo neste trabalho foi estudar a influência do grupo genético do bezerro nas características comportamentais de vacas nelores e de seus bezerros em pastejo. Foram usadas 21 vacas nelores (primíparas e pluríparas: 13 com bezerros nelores; e 8 com bezerros mestiços Simental × Nelore. As observações do comportamento nas pastagens começaram pela manhã, no momento em que a luminosidade permitia a identificação dos animais, e terminaram ao final da tarde, quando não era mais possível a identificação, e foram realizadas nas semanas 3, 6, 12, 24 e 30 após o parto. Foram avaliados continuamente os seguintes eventos nas vacas e nos bezerros: pastejo, ruminação, ócio, consumo de água e de mistura mineral; e frequência e duração das mamadas. As vacas com bezerros nelores apresentaram menor tempo de ruminação e maior tempo de ócio e seus bezerros, menor tempo de pastejo e maior número de mamadas. O

  16. DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPEUTIC CONSIDERATIONS OF UTERINE INFECTIONS IN DAIRY CATTLE CONSIDERACIONES DIAGNÓSTICAS Y TERAPÉUTICAS PARA INFECCIONES UTERINAS EN VACAS LECHERAS

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    Risco Carlos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available From an animal health-well being, welfare, and performance perspective, the postpartum period is comprised of an early window where acute health and cow survival is an issue with the development of septic metritis. Subsequently, sustained presence of endometritis is likely to be contributing to sub-fertility in lactating dairy cows with an overall herd pregnancy rate of approximately 16%. The challenge is to integrate on commercial dairies preventive medicine programs with reproductive management to improve herd fertility. Cows affected by periparturient disorders such as hypocalcemia, dystocia, and retained fetal membranes are more likely to contract uterine infections than cows that calve normally are. Thus, appropriate management of the transition period is critical in the prevention of uterine infections at the herd level. In addition, a postpartum program to monitor health to provide treatment to cows in the early stages of disease should be implemented.Desde el punto de vista del bienestar animal y de la perspectiva de productividad, el periodo postparto puede estar comprometido por una pequeña ventana durante el postparto temprano, en la cual la salud y supervivencia de las vacas es un problemática, debido a la presentación de metritis séptica. Esta se perpetuán subsecuentemente con la presentación de endometritis, la cual muy posiblemente contribuye con los patrones de sub-fertilidad en vacas lactantes, generando en general bajas tasas de preñez del 16 %. El reto es entonces integrar en las explotaciones comerciales un programa de medicina veterinaria preventiva con el manejo reproductivo, con el fin de mejorar la fertilidad del hato. Se ha descrito que las vacas que sufren problemas durante el periparto tales como hipocalcemia y retención de las membranas fetales son más susceptibles de contraer infecciones uterinas, comparadas con aquellas vacas que tienen un parto normal. Por ello un manejo apropiado del periodo de transici

  17. CASCA E COCO DE MACAÚBA ADICIONADOS AO CONCENTRADO PARA VACAS MESTIÇAS LACTANTES EM DIETAS À BASE DE SILAGEM DE MILHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Freitas Sobreira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade de uso dos resíduos gerados na produção de biodiesel pode ser uma ajuda valiosa na alimentação dos ruminantes, já que a quantidade de resíduos é grande; deste modo, a destinação final deve ocorrer de forma apropriada. Foi testada a viabilidade do uso da casca do coco e do coco triturado na alimentação animal, substituindo a ração constituída de milho e farelo de soja em 0, 0,4; 0,8 e 1,2 kg de um total de 2,5 kg/vaca/dia. O concentrado foi fornecido às vacas leiteiras no momento da ordenha, realizada duas vezes ao dia, e a silagem, uma vez, pela manhã. Oito vacas mestiças Holandês-Gir foram utilizadas, sendo distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 x 4, com média de 11 kg de leite/dia. As análises químicas do leite foram feitas na Embrapa Gado de Leite em Juiz de Fora - MG. Foram realizadas pesagens da produção de leite e dos animais a cada término de período de 10 dias. Foi feita análise das variáveis em delineamento quadrado latino. O modelo estatístico incluiu efeitos de tratamento (níveis de substituição, quadrado latino (QL, animal/QL e período/ QL à 5% de probabilidade. Não foram verificadas diferenças na produção de leite. Os teores de lactose, extrato seco e extrato seco desengordurado apresentaram-se significativamente diferentes, porém a produção diária em kg/dia não. Assim a casca do coco e o coco de macaúba triturados podem ser utilizados em até 1,2 kg, de um total de 2,5 kg de concentrado/vaca/dia, sem afetar o desempenho de vacas mestiças produzindo aproximadamente 11 kg de leite/dia e recebendo silagem de milho como volumoso.

  18. Produção de leite de vacas alimentadas com alta proporção de forragem em dietas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira V.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e duas vacas primíparas e 26 multíparas da raça Holandesa foram distribuídas em três tratamentos em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. As dietas testadas consistiram de duas proporções forragem:concentrado, 55:45 (RCS e 75:25 (RCSH, para silagem de milho comum, e 75:25 (BMR para outra dieta baseada no híbrido bm3. Não houve interação entre tratamentos e ordem de lactação. A proporção silagem de alfafa:silagem de milho na porção forrageira da dieta foi de 47,7:53,3. A ingestão (kg/dia de matéria seca e de proteína bruta foi superior para BMR e RCS (19,5 e 19,5; 3,41 e 3,42, respectivamente em relação à ingestão para RCSH (17,6 e 3,14, enquanto que a de fibra em detergente neutro foi maior para BMR (6,61 e menor para RCSH e RCS (6,08 e 5,40, respectivamente. O consumo de fibra em detergente ácido (kg/dia foi maior para BMR e RCSH (4,88 e 4,73 e menor para RCS (4,02. A produção de leite foi superior para o tratamento com maior proporção de concentrados (35,7kg/vaca/dia, seguida pelo tratamento BMR (34,1kg/vaca/dia e finalmente por RCSH, com a menor produção (32,1kg/vaca/dia. O teor de gordura no leite foi superior nos tratamentos com alto conteúdo de forragem na dieta, enquanto que a porcentagem de proteína seguiu padrão oposto. O híbrido bm3, em dieta contendo alta proporção de forragem, foi eficiente em manter o nível de desempenho de vacas de alta produção em comparação à dietas com relações forragem:concentrado normal ou alta e baseadas em híbridos contendo diferente genética de milho.

  19. Correlación entre la fertilidad y el pH uterino de vacas Holstein suplementadas con levadura de cerveza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Barrera-Sánchez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available En  la  región del Sugamuxi  se ha establecido  la levadura de cerveza (Saccharomyces cerevisiae como  suplemento  en  ganaderías  lecheras  por producir  aumento  de  la  producción  láctea.  El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar los cambios de pH uterino en fase estral y fase luteal de vacas Holstein suplementadas correlacionándolos con la  fertilidad. Así  se  evaluaron dos grupos: uno suplementado  (n=50  y  otro no suplementado (n=50. Se extrajeron muestras de moco uterino y se midió el pH con un pH-metro para  las dos fases del ciclo estral. Los análisis estadísticos se realizaron mediante la prueba t- student para las variables de pH  y  correlación de Pearson, para relacionar  el  pH  y  fertilidad  de  las  vacas suplementadas. Se determinó que el hecho de no encontrar diferencias significativas (plevadura de cerveza no  interfiere con el pH uterino en esta fase y, por lo tanto, tampoco interfiere en el  transporte  espermático,  la  capacidad  de desarrollo  y  fertilización  del  oocito. Además, según  los  resultados de este  trabajo,  se  logró  inferir que a pesar de la variación encontrada en el pH luteal de  las vacas suplementadas y el de vacas no suplementadas, no se altera el porcentaje de preñez  entre  los grupos; pero el hecho de que vacas  no  suplementadas  con pH  luteal <  6.0 consiguieran la gestación, hace pensar que  los pH ácidos en esta  fase pueden ser compatibles con la supervivencia del embrión.

  20. EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA L LEAF ON MENSTRUAL PAIN AND PROSTAGLANDIN LEVEL IN ADOLESCENT WITH PRIMARY DYSMENORRHEA: A TRUE EXPERIMENT

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    Siska Nurul Abidah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary dysmenorrhea occurs because of the excessive amount of prostaglandins in the blood. Papaya leaf extract is considered to be able to reduce prostaglandin and menstrual pain. Objective: This study aims to prove that papaya leaf extract (Carica Papaya L. can decrease the level of menstrual pain and prostaglandin levels in primary dysmenorrhea. Methods: A true experimental study with randomized pretest posttest control group design. There were 32 samples recruited using simple random sampling, with 16 each assigned to an experiment and control group. Numerical Rating Scale (NRS was used to measure menstrual pain, and the level of prostaglandin was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Independent t-test and paired t-test were performed for data analysis. Results: There was statistically significant differencec of menstrual pain and prostaglandin level before and after intervention with p-value 0.000 (<0.005, which indiciated that papaya leaf extract had a significant effect on reducing menstrual pain. The decrease of menstrual pain in the experimental group was -3.375 and in the control group was -3.438; while the decrease of prostaglandin level in the experimental group was -56.971 and in the control group was -57.557. Conclusion: Provision of papaya leaf extract (Carica Papaya L. significantly decreased the level of menstrual pain and prostaglandin levels in primary dysmenorrhea. Papaya leaf extract can be used as a safe and effective herbal medicine for primary dysmenorrhoea which has almost the same efficacy as mefenamic acid.

  1. Consumo precoce de leite de vaca entre crianças brasileiras: resultados de uma pesquisa nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Ane Bortolini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o consumo, frequência e tipo de leite ingerido por crianças brasileiras menores de 60 meses. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal baseado em dados secundários da Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde de 2006/7. Foram utilizados dados de 4.718 crianças menores de 60 meses. Todas as análises foram realizadas com amostra expandida. O inquérito dietético representou o consumo do dia anterior e foi estimado por meio de análise univariada apresentada em percentual. RESULTADOS: consumiram leite materno no dia anterior à investigação 91% das crianças menores de seis meses e 34,8% das crianças de 13 a 24 meses. Entre as crianças que receberam outros leites, o leite de vaca foi consumido por 62,4% das crianças menores de seis meses, por 74,6% das crianças de 6 a 12 meses e por aproximadamente 80% das crianças maiores de doze meses. O consumo de fórmulas infantis foi de 23% em crianças menores de seis meses, 9,8% na idade de 6 a 12 meses e menor 1% nas demais idades. O consumo de leite de soja variou de 14,6% a 20% nas idades investigadas. O consumo de leite não materno antes de seis meses de idade foi mais frequente em crianças residentes nas Regiões Nordeste e Sul. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados deste estudo mostram que a maior parte das crianças recebeu leite de vaca em substituição ao leite materno. Enfatiza-se a importância do fomento às políticas públicas de promoção, proteção e apoio ao Aleitamento Materno em todas as regiões brasileiras para reversão do cenário observado.

  2. Consumo de forrajes tropicales por vacas lecheras, mestizas Siboney, manejadas en condiciones de estabulación

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    Julio J. Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estudiar el comportamiento de tres forrajes tropicales y su consumo por animales lecheros, durante tres años, se utilizó un área total de cultivos de 4.25 hectáreas, distribuidas en 1.50 hectáreas para caña de azúcar (Sacharum officinarun, 2 hectáreas del king grass clon CT-169 (Pennisetum purpureum vc Cuba CT-169 y 0.75 hectáreas de leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala; para estimar el consumo, se utilizaron 20 vacas lecheras mestizas de Siboney, mantenidas en régimen de estabulación, con dieta semi-integral. Se realizó un análisis de varianza, según diseño completamente aleatorizado, en arreglo factorial. Los resultados arrojan que las disponibilidades promedio del forraje caña de azúcar fueron mayores (P<0.05 en la época poco lluviosa: 1,916.64 vs. 1,474.73 kg MS ha-1 mes-1; mientras que los forrajes de CT-169 y leucaena fueron superiores sus disponibilidades (P<0.01 en la época lluviosa: 924.76 y 519.01 vs. 649.10 y 314.20 kg MS ha-1 mes-1, respectivamente. La calidad de los forrajes fue menor (P<0.001 en la época poco lluviosa. Los consumos totales de materia seca que realizaron los animales, fue superior (P<0.001 en la época lluviosa (10.56 vs. 9.33 kg MS animal-1 día-1; mientras que los animales de ordeño realizaron un mayor (P<0.001 consumo que los secos (10.82 vs. 9.06 kg MS animal-1 día-1. Los resultados expresan la posibilidad del sistema en estabulación de mantener una carga promedio de 4.70 a 4.9 UGM ha-1, con vacas lecheras de mediano potencial y obtener un consumo adecuado de estos forrajes.

  3. Comportamiento de vacas Holstein mantenidas en un sistema de estabulación libre, en invierno, en zona árida, México Behaviour of Holstein cows under a free housing system, in winter, in an arid zone, México

    OpenAIRE

    I. Vitela; Cruz-Vázquez, C.; Solano, J

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el comportamiento individual y social de vacas lecheras bajo un sistema de estabulación libre durante el invierno y entre períodos de alimentación. El estudio se realizó durante 60 días en un hato productor de leche en el Estado de Aguascalientes, México, con 40 vacas Holstein en producción de entre 2 a 4 años de edad. Las vacas estaban en un solo corral y con un espacio de 40 m²/vaca. Los resultados mostraron que las vacas destinaron 51% del tiem...

  4. Hepatic transformation of prostaglandin D2 to a new prostanoid, 9 alpha,11 beta-prostaglandin F2, that inhibits platelet aggregation and constricts blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, G.; Spokas, E.G.; Marcinkiewicz, E.; Wong, P.Y.

    1985-11-25

    The metabolic transformation of tritium-labeled prostaglandin D2 ((TH)PGD2) was investigated in the isolated Tyrode's-perfused rabbit liver. One major product was isolated and identified in the perfusate as a new prostanoid. The structure of this metabolite was further confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemical methods to be 9 alpha,11 beta,15-L-trihydroxyprosta-5-cis, 13-trans-dienoic acid, namely (9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2). This new prostanoid was found to be an inhibitor of platelet aggregation and to cause constriction of canine coronary artery strips. These results suggested that on passage through the hepatic circulation exogenous PGD2 is converted to 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2, the latter having a biological profile which differs from that of PGD2 and PGF2 alpha.

  5. mRNA expression profile of prostaglandin D2 receptors in rat trigeminovascular system, and effect of prostaglandins in rat migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekeroglu, A.; Jansen-Olesen, I.; Gupta, S.

    2015-01-01

    processing structures in rat brain; 2.) To study the effect of the DP1 receptor antagonist, MK-0524, on PGD2-induced vasodilation of middle meningeal artery (MMA) in rat closed cranial window (CCW) model; 3.) To investigate if an i.v. infusion of prostaglandin (PG) mix, PGD2, PGE2 and PGI2 (iloprost...... receptor was highly expressed in trigeminal ganglion and dorsal rootganglion. MK-0524 significantly (62%, pMMA. No increase in p-ERK protein level was observed in the TVS after infusion of PG mix in awake rats. Neuronal activation markers, cFOS and EGR-1, were...... not changed in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Conclusions: PGD2 induced vasodilation of MMA is mainly mediated by activation of DP1 receptors. Furthermore, high expression of DP1 mRNA in TG and DRG suggest that PGD2 might play a role in migraine pathophysiology. However, infusion of PG mix in awake rats did...

  6. Prostaglandin E2 is an endogenous modulator of cerebellar development and complex behavior during a sensitive postnatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Shannon L; Knutson, Jessica F; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2012-04-01

    Prostaglandins are lipid-derived molecules that mediate the generation of fever in the central nervous system. In addition to their proinflammatory role, prostaglandins also impact neuronal development and synaptic plasticity, sometimes in a sex-specific manner. The cerebellum has a high expression of prostaglandin receptors during development, but the role that these molecules play during normal cerebellar maturation is unknown. We demonstrate here that disrupting prostaglandin synthesis with cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors during a time-sensitive window in early postnatal life alters cerebellar Purkinje cell development in rats, resulting in initially increased dendritic growth in both sexes. We show that this results in later cerebellar atrophy in males only, resulting in a sex-specific loss of cerebellar volume. Further, although performance in motor tasks is spared, social interaction and the sensory threshold are altered in males developmentally exposed to cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors. This work demonstrates a previously unknown role for prostaglandins in cerebellar development and emphasizes the role that the cerebellum plays outside motor tasks, in cognitive and sensory domains that may help to explain its connection to complex neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Desempenho de vacas em lactação alimentadas com dietas contendo torta de macaúba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Azevedo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo de nutrientes e a produção e composição do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes quantidades de inclusão de torta de macaúba. Oito animais foram distribuídos em dois quadrados latinos 4x4, sendo quatro tratamentos, 0, 100, 200 e 300g kg-1 de TM na matéria seca da dieta, e quatro períodos experimentais de 21 dias, 14 de adaptação e sete de avaliações. A adição de quantidades crescentes de torta de macaúba à dieta alterou o consumo de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente neutro, carboidratos não fibrosos, produção e os teores de lactose, extrato seco desengordurado e sólidos totais do leite, bem como a eficiência alimentar e a digestibilidade da matéria seca. Por outro lado, não foi verificada diferença nos teores de gordura do leite. A adição da TM em até 300g kg-1 da dieta comprometeu o consumo e o desempenho produtivo dos animais.

  8. DE TUBO DE SILICONE NO REPARO DE SEIO LACTÍFERO PAPILAR DE VACA LEITEIRA: ESTUDO EXPERIMENTAL

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    Duvaldo Eurides

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Neste experimento, 10 vacas leiteiras foram distribuídas em dois grupos de igual número para implante de tubo de silicone no seio lactífero papilar. No grupo 1 a prótese foi fixada ao seio lactífero com pontos de sutura, permanecendo no local durante 60 dias. No grupo 2 a prótese foi implantada juntamente com uma sonda uretral para drenagem de leite e removida 12 dias após à intervenção cirúrgica. Em todos os animais foram feitas avaliações do fluxo de leite e estudos macroscópicos e microscópicos do seio lactífero papilar. Nos animais do grupo 1 os resultados apontaram alterações do seio lactífero papilar, mamite e deslocamento do tubo de silicone. No outro grupo os resultados foram excelentes, sendo o método mais vantajoso.

  9. Involvement of prostaglandins in inflammation induced by latex of Calotropis procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay L; Shivkar, Yatin M

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:The aerial parts of the plant Calotropis procera produce milky white latex that causes inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes. Prostaglandins are one of the mediators released in an inflammatory response following induction of cyclooxygenase (COX). In the present study, we have evaluated the role of prostaglandins in inflammatory response elicited by the latex of C. procera. METHODS: Aqueous extract of dried latex of C. procera was injected into the 6-day air-pouch in the rat. The inflammatory response was evaluated by studying the air-pouch fluid for its volume, protein and prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations, and leucocyte counts. The granulation tissue from the pouch was quantified and studied for COX-2 expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The inhibitory effect of celecoxib and dexamethasone was evaluated on the aforementioned parameters. RESULTS: Dried latex produced an inflammatory response that was maximum at 6 h. It was associated with the accumulation of protein-rich fluid, leucocytes and PGE2 production. It also resulted in granulation of the pouch cavity that was a maximum on day 3. COX-2 expression could be detected in the granulation tissue on day 1 and it increased progressively up to day 5. The anti-inflammatory drugs celecoxib and dexamethasone significantly attenuated the inflammatory response and inhibited COX-2 expression in granulation tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Latex of C. procera induces an inflammatory response characterized by an early exudative phase accompanied by PGE2 production and a late proliferative phase associated with COX-2 induction. Both the phases were effectively inhibited by COX-2 inhibitors. PMID:15223605

  10. Hypoxia activates the cyclooxygenase-2–prostaglandin E synthase axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J.; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Ohashi, Shinya; Wong, Gabrielle S.; Takaoka, Munenori; Michaylira, Carmen Z.; Budo, Daniela; Tobias, John W.; Kanai, Michiyuki; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Naomoto, Yoshio; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.P.; Haase, Volker H.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), in particular HIF-1α, have been implicated in tumor biology. However, HIF target genes in the esophageal tumor microenvironment remain elusive. Gene expression profiling was performed upon hypoxia-exposed non-transformed immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells, EPC2-hTERT, and comparing with a gene signature of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In addition to known HIF-1α target genes such as carbonic anhydrase 9, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) was identified as a novel target gene among the commonly upregulated genes in ESCC as well as the cells exposed to hypoxia. The PTGES induction was augmented upon stabilization of HIF-1α by hypoxia or cobalt chloride under normoxic conditions and suppressed by dominant-negative HIF-1α. Whereas PTGES messenger RNA (mRNA) was negatively regulated by normoxia, PTGES protein remained stable upon reoxygenation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) biosynthesis was documented in transformed human esophageal cells by ectopic expression of PTGES as well as RNA interference directed against PTGES. Moreover, hypoxia stimulated PGE2 production in a HIF-1α-dependent manner. In ESCC, PTGES was overexpressed frequently at the mRNA and protein levels. Finally, COX-2 and PTGES were colocalized in primary tumors along with HIF-1α and IGFBP3. Activation of the COX-2–PTGES axis in primary tumors was further corroborated by concomitant upregulation of interleukin-1β and downregulation of hydroxylprostaglandin dehydrogenase. Thus, PTGES is a novel HIF-1α target gene, involved in prostaglandin E biosynthesis in the esophageal tumor hypoxic microenvironment, and this has implications in diverse tumors types, especially of squamous origin. PMID:20042640

  11. Intravaginal prostaglandin F2 alpha for the treatment of metritis and pyometra in the bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor, G; Siver, L; Szenci, O

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether intravaginal prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) would be effective for the treatment of metritis or pyometra in the bitch. Seventeen bitches with metritis or pyometra were treated with PGF2 alpha. Prostaglandin F2 alpha (150 micrograms/kg body weight) was administered once or twice daily by infusing 0.3 ml per 10 kg body wt into the vaginal lumen. Bitches were also treated with amoxicillin (15 mg/kg body wt/48 h) and/or gentamicin (4 mg/kg body wt/day) administered as intramuscular (i.m.) injections. Fifteen bitches were treated successfully with intravaginally administered PGF2 alpha for 3 to 12 days and with intramuscularly administered antibiotics for 4 to 12 days. Success of treatment was judged by cessation of vaginal discharge, the absence of fluid in the uterus as determined by ultrasonography, and the overall health status of the animal. As two bitches with pyometra showed clinical deterioration in spite of medical treatment, ovariohysterectomy was performed after the first and the second treatment, respectively. No side effects (salivation, vomiting, diarrhoea, hyperpnoea, ataxia, urination, anxiety, pupillary dilatation followed by contraction) were observed after PGF2 alpha treatment. The disease did not recur during the subsequent oestrous cycles within 12 months after the initial treatment. The results demonstrate that intravaginal administration of PGF2 alpha was effective in 13 dogs (86.6%) with metritis or pyometra, and caused no side effects. Although the study was based on a relatively small number of cases, it is concluded that prostaglandin F2 alpha can be a useful means of treating bitches with metritis or pyometra. However, in severe cases of pyometra ovariohysterectomy is needed.

  12. Acetylsalicylic acid interferes with embryonic kidney growth and development by a prostaglandin-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Simon J M; Sparrow, Alexander J; Gardner, David S; Elmes, Matthew J

    2017-01-06

    To evaluate the effects of the non-selective, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), on ex vivo embryonic kidney growth and development. Pairs of fetal mouse kidneys at embryonic day 12.5 were cultured ex vivo in increasing concentrations of ASA (0.04-0.4 mg/mL) for up to 7 d. One organ from each pair was grown in control media and was used as the internal control for the experimental contralateral organ. In some experiments, organs were treated with ASA for 48 h and then transferred either to control media alone or control media containing 10 μmol/L prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) for a further 5 d. Fetal kidneys were additionally obtained from prostaglandin synthase 2 homozygous null or heterozygous (PTGS2(-/-) and PTGS2(-/+)) embryos and grown in culture. Kidney cross-sectional area was used to determine treatment effects on kidney growth. Whole-mount labelling to fluorescently detect laminin enabled crude determination of epithelial branching using confocal microscopy. Increasing ASA concentration (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/mL) significantly inhibited metanephric growth (P growth area to control levels. Application of control media alone after cessation of ASA exposure showed no benefit on kidney growth. Despite the apparent recovery of growth area with 10 μmol/L PGE2, no obvious renal tubular structures were formed. The number of epithelial tips generated after 48 h exposure to ASA was reduced by 40% (0.2 mg/mL; P growth of PTGS2(-/-) and PTGS2(+/-) kidneys in organ culture showed no differences, indicating that PTGS2 derived PGE2 may at best have a minor role. ASA reduces early renal growth and development but the role of prostaglandins in this may be minor.

  13. Plasmodium falciparum Produces Prostaglandins that are Pyrogenic, Somnogenic, and Immunosuppressive Substances in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Kilunga Kubata, B.; Eguchi, Naomi; Urade, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Kouwa; Mitamura, Toshihide; Tai, Kumiko; Hayaishi, Osamu; Horii, Toshihiro

    1998-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe form of human malaria, which kills ∼1.5–2.7 million people every year, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical symptoms and the host–parasite interaction remain unclear. We show here that P. falciparum produces prostaglandins (PGs) D2, E2, and F2α. After incubation with 1 mM arachidonic acid (AA), cell homogenates of P. falciparum produced PGs as determined by enzyme immunoassay and gas chromatography–selected ion monitoring. PG produc...

  14. Effect on prostaglandin F 2 alpha on sperm motility in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberger, W; Maier, U; Lunglmayr, G

    1981-01-01

    The effect of prostaglandin F 2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) on sperm motility in ejaculates from 53 subfertile men was investigated. The addition of PGF2 alpha in a concentration of 25 00 ng/ml isotonic salt solution to sperm samples resulted in a highly significant (p less than 0.025) increase in sperm motility; however, only two out of three samples responded in this way, the remainder being unaffected. Mean progressive sperm motility in responders increased by 32.8% of baseline value (determined 2h after liquefaction). In higher concentrations (25 000 ng/ml aliquots), PGF2 alpha was ineffective.

  15. Prostaglandin E2 and its methyl ester reduce cataplexy in canine narcolepsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishino, S.; Mignot, E.; Fruhstorfer, B; Dement, W C; Hayaishi, O

    1989-01-01

    The effects of intravenous administration of prostaglandins (PGs) were investigated in genetically narcoleptic Doberman pinschers. The treatment of narcoleptic dogs with PGE2 and PGE2 methyl ester, but not PGD2 and PGD2 methyl ester, induced a dose-dependent reduction of canine cataplexy, a dissociated manifestation of rapid-eye-movement sleep. The effect was specific and not associated with any change in other behavior. Furthermore, the effect was long-lasting (up to 2 hr) and could not be e...

  16. The effect of caffeine on prostaglandin output from the guinea-pig uterus.

    OpenAIRE

    Naderali, E K; Poyser, N L

    1994-01-01

    1. Caffeine increased the outputs of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha from the guinea-pig uterus on days 7 and 15 of the oestrous cycle. The effect on PGE2 output depended on the age of the animals and was absent in younger guinea-pigs (< 4 months). Theophylline also stimulated the outputs of PGF2 alpha and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, but not the output of PGE2, from the day 7 guinea-pig uterus. 2. The stimulatory effects of caffeine on the outputs of PGF2 alpha, PGE2 an...

  17. Prostaglandin as a Target Molecule for Pharmacotherapy of Allergic Inflammatory Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroichi Nagai

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of prostaglandins (PGs) in allergic inflammation and to know the value of PGs, as a target molecule for an anti-allergic drug. PGD2 is the major PG produced by the cyclooxygenase pathway in mast cells. Our and others findings indicate that PGD2 is one of the potent allergic inflammatory mediators and must be a target molecule of antiallergic agent. From our data, one of PGD2 receptor antagonists show clear inhibition of airway hypersensit...

  18. Treatment of canine pyometra and endometritis with prostaglandin F2 alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R W; Feldman, E C; Stabenfeldt, G H

    1982-11-01

    Seventeen bitches with pyometra or postpartum endometritis were treated with prostaglandin F2 alpha. Response to the treatment included cessation of uterine discharge, decrease in uterine diameter, reduction in plasma progesterone concentration, and return of a normal leukogram. Treatment of 14 bitches was successful, and 13 of these bitches subsequently experienced estrus. Of those 13 bitches, 11 were bred and 9 became pregnant. In 2 bitches, pyometra developed again, within 6 weeks of the following estrus, illustrating that bitches so affected are susceptible to recurrence of the disease. Of 4 bitches with closed cervix, one failed to respond to treatment, and two bitches with closed cervix required ovariohysterectomy shortly after instituting treatment.

  19. Furosemide-induced renal medullary hypoperfusion in the rat: role of tissue tonicity, prostaglandins and angiotensin II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Leszek; Sadowski, Janusz

    2005-01-01

    Furosemide (frusemide)-induced renal medullary hypoperfusion provides a model for studies of the dependence of local circulation on tissue tonicity. We examined the role of medullary prostaglandins (PG) and adenosine (Ado) as possible mediators of the response to furosemide. Furosemide was infused i.v. at 0.25 mg kg−1 h−1 in anaesthetized rats, untreated or treated with intramedullary indomethacin (Indo) or Ado. An integrated set-up was used to measure renal medullary laser-Doppler flux (MBF) and medullary ionic tonicity (electrical admittance, Y), and to infuse Indo and Ado directly into the medulla. The cortical flux was measured on kidney surface. The excretion of water, sodium and total solute was also determined. Intramedullary Indo (1 mg kg−1 h−1) decreased MBF 18 ± 5% and increased tissue Y 14 ± 3% (both significant); the treatment abolished the post-furosemide decrease in MBF (−22% in untreated group) and enhanced slightly the increase in renal excretion. Intramedullary Ado (5 mg kg−1 h−1) did not change baseline MBF or Y; the post-furosemide decreases in MBF (−22%) and Y, and the increase in renal excretion were preserved. We conclude that a decrease in intramedullary PG activity secondary to decreased medullary hypertonicity mediates the fall in medullary perfusion in response to furosemide; the hypoperfusion may help restore the initial tonicity. Together with the earlier evidence on the dependence of post-furosemide medullary hypoperfusion on angiotensin II, the study exposes its interaction with PG in the control of medullary circulation. Adenosine is not involved in medullary vascular responses to decreased tissue hypertonicity. PMID:15961422

  20. In Silico Screening of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Their Combined Action on Prostaglandin H Synthase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Goltsov

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The detailed kinetic model of Prostaglandin H Synthase-1 (PGHS-1 was applied to in silico screening of dose-dependencies for the different types of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as: reversible/irreversible, nonselective/selective to PGHS-1/PGHS-2 and time dependent/independent inhibitors (aspirin, ibuprofen, celecoxib, etc. The computational screening has shown a significant variability in the IC50s of the same drug, depending on different in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. To study this high heterogeneity in the inhibitory effects of NSAIDs, we have developed an in silico approach to evaluate NSAID action on targets under different PGHS-1 microenvironmental conditions, such as arachidonic acid, reducing cofactor, and peroxide concentrations. The designed technique permits translating the drug IC50, obtained in one experimental setting to another, and predicts in vivo inhibitory effects based on the relevant in vitro data. For the aspirin case, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the enhancement and reduction (aspirin resistance of its efficacy, depending on PGHS-1 microenvironment in in vitro/in vivo experimental settings. We also present the results of the in silico screening of the combined action of sets of two NSAIDs (aspirin with ibuprofen, aspirin with celecoxib, and study the mechanism of the experimentally observed effect of the suppression of aspirin-mediated PGHS-1 inhibition by selective and nonselective NSAIDs. Furthermore, we discuss the applications of the obtained results to the problems of standardization of NSAID test assay, dependence of the NSAID efficacy on cellular environment of PGHS-1, drug resistance, and NSAID combination therapy.

  1. Influence of some prostaglandins on DNA synthesis and DNA excision repair in mouse spleen cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egg, D.; Altmann, H.; Guenther R.; Klein W.; Kocsis, F.

    1978-03-01

    In vitro experiments were performed on mouse spleen cells to establish possible influences of some naturally occurring prostaglandins on DNA synthesis and DNA excision repair. The prostaglandins A1, B1, E1, E2, and F2 alpha were tested in concentrations of lopg, 5 ng and 2.5 microgram per ml cell suspension. DNA synthesis was significantly increased by PgF2 alpha in all the three concentrations tested, while the other tested prostaglandins were essentially ineffective. DNA excision repair was significantly inhibited by PgE1 and PgE2 at 5 ng/ml and at 2.5 microgram/ml but increased by PgF2 alpha in the two lower concentrations. The rejoining of DNA-strand breaks after gamma-irradiation was slightly reduced by PgE1, PgE2 and PgF2 alpha at 2.5 microgram/ml.

  2. Adenosine contributes to blood flow regulation in the exercising human leg by increasing prostaglandin and nitric oxide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan; Nyberg, Michael; Thaning, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Adenosine can induce vasodilation in skeletal muscle, but to what extent adenosine exerts its effect via formation of other vasodilators and whether there is redundancy between adenosine and other vasodilators remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine, prostaglandins, and NO act...... in synergy to regulate skeletal muscle hyperemia by determining the following: (1) the effect of adenosine receptor blockade on skeletal muscle exercise hyperemia with and without simultaneous inhibition of prostaglandins (indomethacin; 0.8 to 1.8 mg/min) and NO (N(G)-mono-methyl-l-arginine; 29 to 52 mg....../min); (2) whether adenosine-induced vasodilation is mediated via formation of prostaglandins and/or NO; and (3) the femoral arterial and venous plasma adenosine concentrations during leg exercise with the microdialysis technique in a total of 24 healthy, male subjects. Inhibition of adenosine receptors...

  3. Induction of labour: a comparison of a single prostaglandin E2 vaginal tablet with amniotomy and intravenous oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J H; Stewart, P; Barlow, D H; Hillan, E; Calder, A A

    1982-09-01

    In a randomized controlled study of 100 women of low parity and favourable induction features, induction of labour by means of a single vaginal tablet containing 3 mg of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was compared with the conventional method of amniotomy and intravenous oxytocin. Four of the patients (8%) who received the prostaglandin tablet required additional intravenous oxytocin to achieve delivery. The prostaglandin group had a longer mean overall induction-delivery interval but a shorter amniotomy-delivery interval than the oxytocin group. One patient in the PGE2 group and two in the oxytocin group required caesarean section. The PGE2 treated patients expressed a higher level of satisfaction with their method of induction, they required less analgesia, had less blood loss at delivery and their babies had a lower incidence of neonatal jaundice.

  4. Helicobacter pylori vacA s1m1 genotype but not cagA or babA2 increase the risk of ulcer and gastric cancer in patients from Southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rom?n-Rom?n, Adolfo; Mart?nez-Carrillo, Dinorah Nashely; Atrisco-Morales, Josefina; Az?car-Heziquio, Julio C?sar; Cuevas-Caballero, Abner Sa?l; Casta??n-S?nchez, Carlos Alberto; Reyes-R?os, Roxana; Betancourt-Linares, Reyes; Reyes-Navarrete, Salom?n; Cruz-del Carmen, Iv?n; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Cort?s-Malag?n, Enoc Mariano; Fern?ndez-Tilapa, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    Background The vacA, cagA and babA2 genotypes of Helicobacter pylori are associated with gastric pathology. The objectives were to determine the frequency of infection and distribution of the vacA, cagA and babA2 genotypes of H. pylori in patients with gastric ulcer, chronic gastritis and gastric cancer, and to evaluate the association of virulent genotypes with diagnosis. Methods We studied 921 patients with symptoms of dyspepsia or with presumptive diagnosis of gastric cancer. The DNA of H....

  5. Egecto de la Somatropina Recombinante Bovina (rBST) sobre la tasa de concepción en vacas Holstein sincronizadas con dispositivos intravaginales con Progesterona y Benzoato de Estradiol e inseminadas a tiempo fijo

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Espinoza, Rodrigo Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo fue determinar el efecto de la Somatotropina Recombinante Bovina sobre la morfometría ovárica, el porcentaje de concepción y la tasa de mortalidad embrionaria en vacas Holstein de alta producción sincronizadas con dispositivos intravaginales a base de Progesterona (P4) y Benzoato de Estradiol (BE) e inseminadas artificialmente a tiempo fijo. El estudio se realizó entre Febrero-Agosto del 2012 en la hacienda Chullin, ubicada en el cantón Chambo Chimborazo; se utilizaron 50 vacas ...

  6. Prevalencia y factores DE RIESGO relacionados con la cetosis clínica y subclínica tipo I y II en un hato de vacas Jersey en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Sabor\\u00EDo-Montero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la prevalencia y grado de cetosis tipo I y tipo II e investigar los factores de riesgo asociados con esta enfermedad metabólica, en un hato Jersey de 203 vacas en Oreamuno, Cartago, Costa Rica (9° 55' Latitud Norte, 83° 51' Longitud Oeste, 2350 m de altitud, para proponer prácticas de manejo y alimentación que contribuyan a reducir la incidencia de este desbalance metabólico. La prevalencia de cetosis tipo II y tipo I fue determinada midiendo la concentración sanguínea del ácido β-hidroxibutírico (βHBA a los 8±3 y 30±3 días de lactancia en 117 y 114 animales, respectivamente. La cetosis clínica tipo II no fue detectada y 4,27% de las vacas tuvieron cetosis subclínica (1,4 a 2,9 mmol.l-1 de este tipo. Los porcentajes de vacas con cetosis clínica (>2,9 mmol.l-1 y subclínica tipo I fueron 3,51 y 9,65 respectivamente. Durante la última semana de gestación, la pérdida de condición corporal difirió (p<0,05 para vacas sanas y cetóticas tipo I y fue de 0,09 y 0,31 puntos, respectivamente. Las vacas con cetosis tipo I fueron de mayor (p<0,01 número de partos, duración del período seco más extensa (p<0,05 y mayor pico de lactancia (p<0,01, que las vacas sanas. Los resultados sugieren que calificar la condición corporal durante la última semana de gestación podría ser útil para predecir el riesgo de los animales a desarrollar cetosis tipo I. Basados en estos resultados, el manejo para evitar periodos secos mayores de 60 días ayudaría a reducir la incidencia de cetosis. Además, la alimentación y manejo de las vacas multíparas y vacas de mayor producción, conducente a reducir la pérdida de condición corporal post parto, también podrían reducir la incidencia de los diferentes tipos de cetosis.

  7. Interrupción temporal del amamantamiento (ITA) vacas cebú y su efecto en la función ovárica (Temporary suckling interruption (TSI) in zebu cows and effect in the ovary function)

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Echeverri, Carlos Andrés; Ruiz Cortés, Zulma Tatiana; Restrepo, Luis Fernando; Olivera Angel, Martha

    2005-01-01

    En Colombia, el ganado Cebú presenta un extenso período desde el parto hasta la concepción que dificulta la meta productiva de tener un ternero por vaca anualmente. El retorno a la actividad ovárica posparto, está determinada por la recuperación del eje hipotálamo–hipófisis–ovario y mediada por tres factores principalmente: (a) nutrición, por la liberación de leptina desde los adipocitos, (b) amamantamiento, por la liberación de prolactina y (c) el vínculo vaca-ternero, por los sentidos de la...

  8. Evaluación del Residuo del Cultivo de Agaricus bisporus como Alimento de Vacas Lecheras en Lactancia Media / Evaluation of the Agaricus bisporus Spent Compost as Feed of Dairy Cows in Mid Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Miguel Gómez Urrego; Guillermo Correa Londoño; Rolando Barahona Rosales

    2014-01-01

    Resumen. Se evaluó el potencial del residuo del cultivo de la seta Agaricus bisporus como materia prima para la alimentación de vacas lecheras en segundo tercio de lactancia. Para esto, se sustituyó 10% del concentrado comercial por el residuo (sin turba) y se evaluó su efecto en la producción, el balance nutricional de las vacas y el costo final del concentrado. El diseño experimental fue un cross-over o de intercambio con medidas repetidas en eltiempo. Cada periodo experimental tuvo una dur...

  9. Evaluación del residuo del cultivo de agaricus bisporus como alimento de vacas lecheras en lactancia media / evaluation of the agaricus bisporus spent compost as feed of dairy cows in mid lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Londoño, Guillermo; Barahona Rosales, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    Resumen. Se evaluó el potencial del residuo del cultivo de la seta Agaricus bisporus como materia prima para la alimentación de vacas lecheras en segundo tercio de lactancia. Para esto, se sustituyó 10% del concentrado comercial por el residuo (sin turba) y se evaluó su efecto en la producción, el balance nutricional de las vacas y el costo final del concentrado. El diseño experimental fue un cross-over o de intercambio con medidas repetidas en eltiempo. Cada periodo experimental tuvo una dur...

  10. Efeito da somatotrofina bovina (bST-r, do implante de progestágeno e do desmame por 72 horas na indução do estro e na taxa de prenhez em vacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel M.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de tratamentos hormonais sobre a fertilidade de vacas de corte no pós-parto com diferentes condições corporais, durante a estação de monta de outono. Setenta e três vacas pluríparas cruzadas (Hereford x Nelore criadas extensivamente, com condição corporal entre 2 e 4, foram pesadas e distribuídas em três grupos experimentais. O grupo GSED, constituído por 25 vacas, recebeu pessário vaginal (dia 0 contendo 250mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona e 500mg de somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST-r. Na retirada dos pessários (dia 7, as vacas receberam 0,5mg de cipionato de estradiol e procedeu-se o desmame temporário dos bezerros por 72 horas. No grupo SED, 25 vacas receberam tratamento semelhante ao grupo GSED, porém não receberam bST-r. No grupo-controle, as 23 vacas somente foram separadas dos seus bezerros por 72h. Quando da retirada dos pessários as vacas foram colocadas com touros por 30 dias. Os animais foram pesados e avaliados quanto à condição corporal no início do experimento e na retirada dos touros (dia 37. Foi constatada perda média de peso de 0,648 kg/dia e os percentuais de estro foram de 26,1%, 33,3% e 56,5%, respectivamente, para os grupos controle, SED e GSED. O diagnóstico de gestação, realizado pela palpação retal 60 dias após a retirada dos touros, indicou percentuais de prenhez de 13,0%, 8,3% e 21,7%, respectivamente, para os grupos controle, SED e GSED (P=0,16, demonstrando que os programas hormonais adotados não foram eficientes no incremento das taxas de prenhez de vacas que perdiam peso entre 50 e 70 dias após o parto.

  11. Production of prostaglandin E2 in monocytes stimulated in vitro by Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma fermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausse-Opatz, Birgit; Schmidt, Cornelia; Fendrich, Ursula; Bialowons, Anke; Kaever, Volkhard; Zeidler, Henning; Kuipers, Jens; Köhler, Lars

    2004-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) as well as Chlamydophila pneumoniae (CP) cause chronic inflammatory diseases in humans. Persistently infected monocytes are involved in the pathogenesis by inducing mediators of inflammation. An in vitro system of chlamydial persistence in human peripheral blood monocytes (HPBM) was used to investigate prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production and the expression of the key enzyme for prostaglandin production, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). PGE(2) production was determined by PGE(2)-ELISA of HPBM-culture supernatants. Cox-2 mRNA expression was measured by real-time RT-PCR of total RNA isolated from HPBM. Both, CT and CP, stimulated PGE(2) production of HPBM in vitro. Equivalent numbers of CT per host cell induced a higher PGE(2)-response compared to CP. The amount of synthesized PGE(2) depended on the chlamydial multiplicity of infection (MOI). Even at an MOI of 10 the amount of CT- and CP-induced prostaglandin, respectively, was lower than the amount of prostaglandin induced by E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at a concentration of 10microg/ml. In contrast to stimulation with LPS, Chlamydia-induced PGE(2) production as well as cox-2 mRNA decreased after day 1 post infection (p.i.). These data indicate that Chlamydia stimulate PGE(2) production in human monocytes. Since Chlamydia are often contaminated by mycoplasma, the influence of mycoplasma on the prostaglandin production was investigated additionally. Mycoplasma fermentans (MF) also stimulated PGE(2) production. The co-infection of mycoplasma and Chlamydia resulted in an additive effect in the production of PGE(2). Thus it is important to use host cells and Chlamydia free of mycoplasma contamination for the analysis of Chlamydia-induced prostaglandin production.

  12. Prostaglandin E-2 Synthesizing Enzymes in Rheumatoid Arthritis B Cells and the Effects of B Cell Depleting Therapy on Enzyme Expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gheorghe, Karina Roxana; Thurlings, Rogier M.; Westman, Marie; Boumans, Maartje J.; Malmström, Vivianne; Trollmo, Christina; Korotkova, Marina; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Tak, Paul-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: B cells may play an important role in promoting immune activation in the rheumatoid synovium and can produce prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) when activated. In its turn, PGE(2) formed by cyclooxygenase (COX) and microsomal prostaglandin E-2 synthase 1 (MPGES1) contributes to the rheumatoid

  13. Quantitative profiling of prostaglandins as oxidative stress biomarkers in vitro and in vivo by negative ion online solid phase extraction - Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teppner, Marieke; Zell, Manfred; Husser, Christophe; Ernst, Beat; Pähler, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Free radical-mediated oxidation of arachidonic acid to prostanoids has been implicated in a variety of pathophysiological conditions such as oxidative stress. Here, we report on the development of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to measure several classes of prostaglandin derivatives based on regioisomer-specific mass transitions down to levels of 20 pg/ml applied to the measurement of prostaglandin biomarkers in primary hepatocytes. The quantitative profiling of prostaglandin derivatives in rat and human hepatocytes revealed the increase of several isomers on stress response. In addition to the well-established markers for oxidative stress such as 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and the prostaglandin isomers PE2 and PD2, this method revealed a significant increase of 15R-prostaglandin D2 from 236.1 ± 138.0 pg/1E6 cells in untreated rat hepatocytes to 2001 ± 577.1 pg/1E6 cells on treatment with ferric NTA (an Fe(3+) chelate with nitrilotriacetic acid causing oxidative stress in vitro as well as in vivo). Like 15R-prostaglandin D2, an unassigned isomer that revealed a more significant increase than commonly analyzed prostaglandin derivatives was identified. Mass spectrometric detection on a high-resolution instrument enabled high-quality quantitative analysis of analytes in plasma levels from rat experiments, where increased concentrations up to 23-fold change treatment with Fe(III)NTA were observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Apresentação clínica da alergia ao leite de vaca com sintomatologia respiratória Clinical presentation of cow milk allergy symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO FERREIRA DE CARVALHO JUNIOR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os alérgenos do leite de vaca são os primeiros antígenos a entrar em contato com a criança. A sintomatologia, em geral multissistêmica, pode estar relacionada ao trato gastrointestinal, à pele e, raramente, ao aparelho respiratório. Objetivo: Descrever algumas características clínicas e epidemiológicas de crianças com alergia ao leite de vaca com sintomas respiratórios. Casuística e método: Foram avaliadas retrospectivamente 17 crianças com acometimento do trato respiratório imediato à ingestão de leite de vaca que, com a exclusão deste tipo de alimento por quatro a seis semanas, se tornaram assintomáticas e, posteriormente, voltaram a apresentar sintomas respiratórios com a reintrodução, em ambiente hospitalar, do leite de vaca. Resultados: Não houve diferença quanto ao sexo e 14 das 17 crianças tinham antecedentes atópicos familiares. O tempo médio do aleitamento materno exclusivo foi de 2,9 meses e o do início dos sintomas, de 3,6 meses. Oito dos dez testes de hipersensibilidade cutânea imediata ao leite de vaca foram positivos. As manifestações clínicas foram: lactente chiador (nove, asma (cinco, otite de repetição (duas, deficiência seletiva de IgA associada com broncoespasmo (duas, rinoconjuntivite alérgica (uma. Conclusão: Em lactentes chiadores a alergia ao leite de vaca deve ser incluída no diagnóstico diferencial e em pacientes com antecedentes familiares atópicos deve ser estimulado o aleitamento materno exclusivo. Entretanto, o diagnóstico preciso é importante para evitar privações alimentares desnecessárias.Cow milk allergens are the first antigens children have contact with. The symptoms, which are frequently multi-systemic, may be related to the gastrointestinal tract, to the skin and, more rarely, to the respiratory tract. Objective: To describe some clinic and epidemiological characteristics of children who have cow milk allergy and present respiratory symptoms. Patients and method

  15. Misoprostol inhibits gastric mucosal release of endogenous prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Eskerod, O; Bukhave, K

    1995-01-01

    blind, cross over design. In each subject misoprostol or placebo was instilled in randomised order into the stomach, which was subsequently perfused with isotonic mannitol. Misoprostol significantly decreased basal as well as acid stimulated output of PGE2 and TXB2, without affecting output of LTB4......Prostaglandin analogues of the E-series theoretically offer the ideal antiulcer drugs. Peptic ulcer healing with prostaglandin analogues is, however, no better than would be predicted from their ability to inhibit gastric acid secretion and they are less effective than histamine H2 receptor...

  16. High dietary niacin may increase prostaglandin formation but does not increase tumor formation in ApcMin/+ mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kwong, Alan M; Tippin, Brigette L.; Materi, Alicia M.; Buslon, Virgilio S; French, Samuel W; Lin, Henry J.

    2011-01-01

    High doses of niacin (nicotinic acid) used to treat dyslipidemias cause flushing, due to high levels of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). GPR109A, a G-protein coupled receptor, triggers the flushing in the skin. In addition to boosting PGD2, niacin binding to GPR109A activates the entire prostanoid cascade. We found that GPR109A occurs throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Mice that alternated between a 1% niacin diet and a control diet had higher urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) metabolite levels whe...

  17. Prostaglandin F2-alpha receptor (FPr expression on porcine corpus luteum microvascular endothelial cells (pCL-MVECs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forni Monica

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The corpus luteum (CL is a transient endocrine gland and prostaglandin F2-alpha is considered to be the principal luteolysin in pigs. In this species, the in vivo administration of prostaglandin F2-alpha induces apoptosis in large vessels as early as 6 hours after administration. The presence of the prostaglandin F2-alpha receptor (FPr on the microvascular endothelial cells (pCL-MVECs of the porcine corpus luteum has not yet been defined. The aim of the study was to assess FPr expression in pCL-MVECs in the early and mid-luteal phases (EL-p, ML-p, and during pregnancy (P-p. Moreover, the effectiveness of prostaglandin F2-alpha treatment in inducing pCL-MVEC apoptosis was tested. Methods Porcine CLs were collected in the EL and ML phases and during P-p. All CLs from each animal were minced together and the homogenates underwent enzymatic digestion. The pCL-MVECs were then positively selected by an immunomagnetic separation protocol using Dynabeads coated with anti-CD31 monoclonal antibody and seeded in flasks in the presence of EGM 2-MV (Microvascular Endothelial Cell Medium-2. After 4 days of culture, the cells underwent additional immunomagnetic selection and were seeded in flasks until the confluent stage. PCR Real time, western blot and immunodetection assays were utilized to assess the presence of FPr on pCL-MVEC primary cultures. Furthermore, the influence of culture time (freshly isolated, cultured overnight and at confluence and hormonal treatment (P4 and E2 on FPr expression in pCL-MVECs was also investigated. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay of pCL-MVECs exposed to prostaglandin F2-alpha. Results We obtained primary cultures of pCL-MVECs from all animals. FPr mRNA and protein levels showed the highest value (ANOVA in CL-MVECs derived from the early-luteal phase. Moreover, freshly isolated MVECs showed a higher FPr mRNA value than those cultured overnight and confluent cells (ANOVA. prostaglandin F2-alpha

  18. The Effect of Thyroid Hormone, Prostaglandin E2, and Calcium Gluconate on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Hamedi, Roya; Khavandegar, Zohre

    2015-03-01

    A major objective of investigators is to clarify the role of metabolites in achievement of maximum tooth movement with minimal root damage during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of administration of thyroid hormone, prostaglandin E2, and calcium on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in rats. Sixty four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups of eight rats each: 1- 20µg/kg thyroxine was injected in traperitoneally after installation of the orthodontic appliance.  2- 0.1 ml of 1 mg/ml prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally.  3- 10% (200 mg/kg) calcium gluconate was injected.  4- Prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally and 10% calcium was injected intraperitoneally.  5- Thyroxine was injected intraperitoneally and prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally.  6- 20µg/kg thyroxine with calcium was injected. 7- Prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally with calcium and thyroxine.  8- Distilled water was used in control group. The orthodontic appliances comprised of a NiTi closed coil were posteriorly connected to the right first molar and anteriorly to the upper right incisor. OTM was measured with a feeler gauge. The mid-mesial root of the first molar and the adjacent tissues were histologically evaluated. The Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test. The highest mean OTM was observed in the thyroxine and prostaglandin E2 group (Mean±SD = 0.7375±0.1359 mm) that was significantly different (p< 0.05). A significant difference (p< 0.05) in root resorption was observed between the prostaglandin E2 (0.0192±0.0198 mm(2)) and the other groups. It seems that the combination of thyroxine and prostaglandin E2, with a synergistic effect, would decrease the root resorption and increase the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

  19. INICIO DEL CELO, TASA DE GESTACIÓN Y RELACIÓN DEL TIEMPO DE INSEMINACIÓN CON LOS NIVELES DE PROGESTERONA EN VACAS BRAHMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Aguirre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Establecer la frecuencia del celo, la tasa de fertilidad y los niveles de progesterona (P4en vacas brahman. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron la presentación del celo, la tasa de fertilidady los niveles de P4 al momento de la IA en vacas Brahman (n=160 en una Finca del departamentode Cundinamarca (Colombia. Resultados. La mayor frecuencia de celos se observó en la mañana(68.75% respecto a la tarde (31.25%. Los valores promedio de P4 fueron de 0.22ng/ml, convalores máximos y mínimos de 3.035ng/ml. y 0.000ng/ml, respectivamente. La eficiencia en ladetección del celo por niveles de P4 fue alta (96. 25%. El promedio de tiempo transcurrido entre elmomento de la detección de la vaca en celo y la inseminación fue de (12.6 horas. No se encontróuna asociación estadística entre los niveles de P4 al momento de la inseminación con la tasa defertilidad (45%. Conclusiones. Las condiciones climáticas o la época pueden afectar la presentacióndel celo, que los niveles de P4 por si solos no explican las tasas de fertilidad, que la P4 es útil en elmanejo del control reproductivo y que la IA diferente al esquema AM –PM podría mejorar las tasasde fertilidad de los programas de IA en el trópico húmedo colombiano.

  20. Urinary prostaglandin E and vasopressin excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    Three groups of weanling male rats were fed on a fat-free diet for 13 weeks. One group received only the fat-free diet (FF rats), the other 2 groups received the fat-free diet and a daily supplement of 2 energy% ethyl linoleate ([n-6] rats), or 2 energy% ethyl linolenate ([n-3] rats). Urinary...... excretion of prostaglandin E (PGE), immunoreactive arginine vasopressin (iA VP), and kallikrein were determined. PGE was quantitated with a radioimmunoassay having 4.9% cross-reactivity with prostaglandin E (PGE). After 4 weeks on the diet, water consumption and urinary iAVP excretion increased...... significantly in the FF rats and the (n-3) rats compared with the (n-6) rats. Urinary PGE excretion was the same for all 3 groups during the first 10 weeks; thereafter it decreased in FF rats and (n-3) rats compared with the (n-6) rats. There was no difference in urinary PGE excretion between the FF rats...

  1. G-protein coupled receptor-evoked glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes: role of prostaglandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cali, Corrado; Lopatar, Jan; Petrelli, Francesco; Pucci, Luca; Bezzi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes are highly secretory cells, participating in rapid brain communication by releasing glutamate. Recent evidences have suggested that this process is largely mediated by Ca(2+)-dependent regulated exocytosis of VGLUT-positive vesicles. Here by taking advantage of VGLUT1-pHluorin and TIRF illumination, we characterized mechanisms of glutamate exocytosis evoked by endogenous transmitters (glutamate and ATP), which are known to stimulate Ca(2+) elevations in astrocytes. At first we characterized the VGLUT1-pHluorin expressing vesicles and found that VGLUT1-positive vesicles were a specific population of small synaptic-like microvesicles containing glutamate but which do not express VGLUT2. Endogenous mediators evoked a burst of exocytosis through activation of G-protein coupled receptors. Subsequent glutamate exocytosis was reduced by about 80% upon pharmacological blockade of the prostaglandin-forming enzyme, cyclooxygenase. On the other hand, receptor stimulation was accompanied by extracellular release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Interestingly, administration of exogenous PGE2 produced per se rapid, store-dependent burst exocytosis of glutamatergic vesicles in astrocytes. Finally, when PGE2-neutralizing antibody was added to cell medium, transmitter-evoked exocytosis was again significantly reduced (by about 50%). Overall these data indicate that cyclooxygenase products are responsible for a major component of glutamate exocytosis in astrocytes and that large part of such component is sustained by autocrine/paracrine action of PGE2.

  2. Prostaglandin E2 stimulates Fas ligand expression via the EP1 receptor in colon cancer cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Callaghan, G

    2012-02-03

    Fas ligand (FasL\\/CD95L) is a member of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily that triggers apoptosis following crosslinking of the Fas receptor. Despite studies strongly implicating tumour-expressed FasL as a major inhibitor of the anti-tumour immune response, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate FasL expression in tumours. In this study, we show that the cyclooxygenase (COX) signalling pathway, and in particular prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), plays a role in the upregulation of FasL expression in colon cancer. Suppression of either COX-2 or COX-1 by RNA interference in HCA-7 and HT29 colon tumour cells reduced FasL expression at both the mRNA and protein level. Conversely, stimulation with PGE(2) increased FasL expression and these cells showed increased cytotoxicity against Fas-sensitive Jurkat T cells. Prostaglandin E(2)-induced FasL expression was mediated by signalling via the EP1 receptor. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis using serial sections of human colon adenocarcinomas revealed a strong positive correlation between COX-2 and FasL (r=0.722; P<0.0001) expression, and between EP1 receptor and FasL (r=0.740; P<0.0001) expression, in the tumour cells. Thus, these findings indicate that PGE(2) positively regulates FasL expression in colon tumour cells, adding another pro-neoplastic activity to PGE(2).

  3. Effect of ibuprofen on menstrual blood prostaglandin levels in dysmenorrheic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, M O; Csapo, A I

    1979-07-01

    In a randomized crossover study 15 dysmenorrheic women were treated during two consecutive menstrual period, once with the potent prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitor: ibuprofen and once with an identical looking placebo. Each patient was medicated for 12 hours during the first day of her menstrual flow and was subsequently fitted with a cervical cup for the collection of menstrual blood during three hours. In these samples the concentrations of prostaglandin (PG)F and PGE were measured by radioimmunoassay. The patients receiving placebo had high PGF levels 135 +/- 27 ng/ml (Mean +/- S.E.) which were significnatly reduced by Ibuprofen to 24 +/- 5 ng/ml (P less than 0.001). The PGE concentrations decreased from 5 +/- 1 ng/ml to 2 +/- 1 ng/ml (P less than 0.05). Ibuprofen also reduced the menstrual pain significantly (P less than 0.001). These results substantiate the earlier conclusion that a causal relationship exists between effective treatment with PG-synthesis inhibitors and decrease in menstrual blood PG levels, intrauterine pressure and dysmenorrheic pain.

  4. Heritability of thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin E2 biosynthetic machinery in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Luis; Martinez-Perez, Angel; Camacho, Mercedes; Buil, Alfonso; Alcolea, Sonia; Pujol-Moix, Nuria; Soler, Marta; Antón, Rosa; Souto, Juan-Carlos; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Soria, José-Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Prostanoids play a critical role in clinical areas such as inflammation, thrombosis, immune response, and cancer. Although some studies suggest that there are genes that determine variability of some prostanoid-related phenotypes, the genetic influence on these traits has not been evaluated. The relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences to the prostanoid biosynthetic pathway-related phenotypes, cyclooxygenase isoenzymes, microsomal-PGE-synthase-1 and TxA-synthase expression, and thromboxane-A(2) and prostaglandin-E(2) production by stimulated whole blood, were assessed in a sample of 308 individuals in 15 extended families. The effects of measured covariates (such as sex, age, and smoking), genes, and environmental variables shared by members of a household were quantified. Heritabilities ranging from 0.406 to 0.634 for enzyme expression and from 0.283 to 0. 751 for prostanoid production were found. These results demonstrate clearly the importance of genetic factors in determining variation in phenotypes that are components of the prostanoid biosynthetic pathways. The presence of such strong genetic effects suggest that it will be possible to localize previously unknown genes that influence quantitative variation in these phenotypes, some of which affect multiple aspects of cell biology, with important clinical implications.

  5. Upregulation of prostaglandin receptor EP1 expression involves its association with cyclooxygenase-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapita Sood

    Full Text Available While many signals cause upregulation of the pro-inflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase -2 (COX-2, much less is known about mechanisms that actively downregulate its expression. We have recently shown that the prostaglandin EP1 receptor reduces the expression of COX-2 in a pathway that facilitates its ubiquitination and degradation via the 26S proteasome. Here we show that an elevation of COX-2 intracellular levels causes an increase in the endogenous expression of prostaglandin EP1. The increase in EP1 levels does not occur at the transcriptional level, but is rather associated with complex formation between the receptor and COX-2, which occurs both in vitro and in mammalian tissues. The EP1-COX-2 complex is disrupted following binding of arachidonic acid to COX-2 and accompanied by a parallel reduction in EP1 levels. We propose that a transient interaction between COX-2 and EP1 constitutes a feedback loop whereby an increase in COX-2 expression elevates EP1, which ultimately acts to downregulate COX-2 by expediting its proteasomal degradation. Such a post translational mechanism may serve to control both the ligand-generating system of COX-2 and its reception system.

  6. Ultraviolet-evoked prostaglandin biosynthesis in varying stages of keratinocyte differentiation in guinea pig skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmali, R.A.; Safai, B.

    1984-09-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) production by guinea pig epidermal cells was evaluated at various incubation intervals in normal and UV-exposed cultures. Prostaglandins have been implicated as mediators of the early phase of erythema in skin exposed to sunlight or UV-radiation. Using a density gradient centrifugation procedure, the epidermal cells were fractionated according to the various maturation stages of epidermal keratinocytes: high-density epidermal cells (HDEC) consisting of round, less mature cells; low-density epidermal cells (LDEC) consisting of polygonal keratinized cells; and intermediate-density epidermal cells (IDEC) consisting of both HDEC and LDEC. When cultures of 1 X 10(6) cells were incubated at 37 degrees C in 5% CO/sub 2/ the highest concentrations of five PG moieties measured were present in supernatants from the LDEC cultures as compared to those of IDEC or HDEC. Levels of PGF 2 alpha were much higher than the rest, which were found in the order PGF2 alpha greater than PGE2 greater than PGE1 greater than 6-keto-PGF1 alpha greater than thromboxane (TX)B2. UV-irradiation induced increases in all but TXA2 production. These results identify and quantitate five compounds produced as a result of exaggerated activity of the cyclooxygenase induced by UV-irradiation.

  7. Suppression of the cutaneous immune response following topical application of the prostaglandin PGE2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rheins, L.A.; Barnes, L.; Amornsiripanitch, S.; Collins, C.E.; Nordlund, J.J.

    1987-04-15

    UVB irradiation (290-320 nm) and topical applications of arachidonic acid (AA) in mice decrease the number of identifiable Langerhans cells and alter the cutaneous immune response. Application of contact allergens such as dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) to irradiated or AA-treated skin induces antigen-specific tolerance. Indomethacin (IM), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, administered orally to mice prior to UVB irradiation or prior to the topical application of arachidonic acid, abrogates suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) to DNFB. This suggests a byproduct of arachidonic acid generated through the cyclooxygenase pathway may be involved in the immune suppression. Topical application of various prostaglandins (PGE2, PGD2, PGF2 alpha, and CTXA2) did not cause alterations in the population density of the identifiable Ia+ dendritic Langerhans cells. PGE2, but no other tested agent, produced a suppression of the CHS response to DNFB. These observations suggests that of the various prostaglandins, PGE2 might be one of several biochemical signals which mediate the suppression of contact hypersensitivity reactions following ultraviolet radiation exposure. However, the mechanisms by which PGE2 produces its suppressive effects have not been identified.

  8. Aspirin inhibits interleukin 1-induced prostaglandin H synthase expression in cultured endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.K.; Sanduja, R.; Tsai, A.L.; Ferhanoglu, B.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S. (Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and prostacyclin. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, interleukin 1 (IL-1) is known to induce the synthesis of this enzyme, thereby raising the level of PGH synthase protein severalfold over the basal level. Pretreatment with aspirin at low concentrations inhibited more than 60% of the enzyme mass and also the cyclooxygenase activity in IL-1-induced cells with only minimal effects on the basal level of the synthase enzyme in cells without IL-1. Sodium salicylate exhibited a similar inhibitory action whereas indomethacin had no apparent effect. Similarly low levels of aspirin inhibited the increased L-({sup 35}S)methionine incorporation into PGH synthase that was induced by IL0-1 and also suppressed expression of the 2.7-kilobase PGH synthase mRNA. These results suggest that in cultured endothelial cells a potent inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthetic capacity can be effected by aspirin or salicylate at the level of PGH synthase gene expression. The aspirin effect may well be due to degradation of salicylate.

  9. Resveratrol inhibits prostaglandin formation in IL-1β-stimulated SK-N-SH neuronal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candelario-Jalil Eduardo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Resveratrol, a polyphenol present in grapes and red wine, has been studied due to its vast pharmacological activity. It has been demonstrated that resveratrol inhibits production of inflammatory mediators in different in vitro and in vivo models. Our group recently demonstrated that resveratrol reduced the production of prostaglandin (PG E2 and 8-isoprostane in rat activated microglia. In a microglial-neuronal coculture, resveratrol reduced neuronal death induced by activated microglia. However, less is known about its direct roles in neurons. In the present study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on interleukin (IL-1β stimulated SK-N-SH cells. Resveratrol (0.1-5 μM did not reduce the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1, although it drastically reduced PGE2 and PGD2 content in IL-1β-stimulated SK-N-SH cells. This effect was due, in part, to a reduction in COX enzymatic activity, mainly COX-2, at lower doses of resveratrol. The production of 8-iso-PGF2α, a marker of cellular free radical generation, was significantly reduced by resveratrol. The present work provides evidence that resveratrol reduces the formation of prostaglandins in neuroblastoma cells by reducing the enzymatic activity of inducible enzymes, such as COX-2, and not the transcription of the PG synthases, as demonstrated elsewhere.

  10. Prostaglandin E1 inhibits endocytosis in the β-cell endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Fang, Qinghua; Straub, Susanne G; Lindau, Manfred; Sharp, Geoffrey W G

    2016-06-01

    Prostaglandins inhibit insulin secretion in a manner similar to that of norepinephrine (NE) and somatostatin. As NE inhibits endocytosis as well as exocytosis, we have now examined the modulation of endocytosis by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). Endocytosis following exocytosis was recorded by whole-cell patch clamp capacitance measurements in INS-832/13 cells. Prolonged depolarizing pulses producing a high level of Ca(2+) influx were used to stimulate maximal exocytosis and to deplete the readily releasable pool (RRP) of granules. This high Ca(2+) influx eliminates the inhibitory effect of PGE1 on exocytosis and allows specific characterization of the inhibitory effect of PGE1 on the subsequent compensatory endocytosis. After stimulating exocytosis, endocytosis was apparent under control conditions but was inhibited by PGE1 in a Pertussis toxin-sensitive (PTX)-insensitive manner. Dialyzing a synthetic peptide mimicking the C-terminus of the α-subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein Gz into the cells blocked the inhibition of endocytosis by PGE1, whereas a control-randomized peptide was without effect. These results demonstrate that PGE1 inhibits endocytosis and Gz mediates the inhibition. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman R

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite, progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra.

  12. Prostaglandin E2 signals through PTGER2 to regulate sclerostin expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian C Genetos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt signaling pathway is a robust regulator of skeletal homeostasis. Gain-of-function mutations promote high bone mass, whereas loss of Lrp5 or Lrp6 co-receptors decrease bone mass. Similarly, mutations in antagonists of Wnt signaling influence skeletal integrity, in an inverse relation to Lrp receptor mutations. Loss of the Wnt antagonist Sclerostin (Sost produces the generalized skeletal hyperostotic condition of sclerosteosis, which is characterized by increased bone mass and density due to hyperactive osteoblast function. Here we demonstrate that prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2, a paracrine factor with pleiotropic effects on osteoblasts and osteoclasts, decreases Sclerostin expression in osteoblastic UMR106.01 cells. Decreased Sost expression correlates with increased expression of Wnt/TCF target genes Axin2 and Tcf3. We also show that the suppressive effect of PGE(2 is mediated through a cyclic AMP/PKA pathway. Furthermore, selective agonists for the PGE(2 receptor EP2 mimic the effect of PGE(2 upon Sost, and siRNA reduction in Ptger2 prevents PGE(2-induced Sost repression. These results indicate a functional relationship between prostaglandins and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in bone.

  13. Comparison of prostaglandin E2 vaginal tablet with amniotomy and intravenous oxytocin for induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, L; Ho, M W; Leung, P

    1994-05-01

    Prostaglandins have been increasingly used in obstetrical practice for cervical ripening and induction of labour. We set out to investigate the effectiveness of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) vaginal pessaries in inducing labour in the Chinese population in Hong Kong. In the period August, 1991 to August, 1992, we recruited 206 pregnant Chinese women who required induction of labour for various obstetrical indications into the trial. The study group had induction of labour by PGE2 vaginal pessaries and the control group underwent amniotomy plus oxytocin infusion. These patients were alternately assigned either method of induction. They were further divided into primiparous and multiparous (parity 1 and 2 only) groups. Only 101 primiparas and 99 multiparas were available in the final analysis of the trial. Various aspects of labour, delivery, maternal and fetal outcome were compared. For primiparas, the traditional combined induction was the preferred method. For multiparas, both induction methods were quite satisfactory and there was a trend toward lesser blood loss and pethidine requirement in the PGE2 users.

  14. Induction of labor by intracervical prostaglandin gel and oxytocin infusion in primigravid women with unfavorable cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafunnessa; Khatun, S S; Chowdhury, S A; Begum, S R; Rashid, M; Khatun, M S

    1997-12-01

    The rate of Cesarean Section for failed induction of labor and maternal and fetal compilations are high when labor is induced in a nulliparas women with an unripe cervix by amniotomy and oxytocin infusion. Prostaglandins (PG) in different forms have been used for ripening the cervix with an aim of reducing these problems. A prospective randomized trial was performed on one hundred primigravid women between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancy, cephalic presentation and unfavorable cervix (Modified Bishop Score oxytocin infusion and artificial rupture of membrane (ARM). The Modified Bishop Score (MBS), interval between IOL and onset of labor and the duration of labor after insertion of PGE2 gel was significantly different from those of oxytocin infusion group. But the Apgar Score at 1 & 5 min had shown no statistically significant difference. Any significant difference could also not be detected in the mode of delivery between the two induction group. The proportion of emergency Cesarean Section (CS) was high in the oxytocin infusion group than that of in the prostaglandin group. There was also no significant difference regarding the acceptability of both the induction methods.

  15. Prostaglandin-Associated Periorbital Lipodystrophy in Cosmetic Eyelid Surgery: A Novel Cause of Facial Asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Kian; Mifflin, Mark D; Anderson, Richard L

    2016-03-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented to our practice with profound ptosis of the left upper eyelid and notable asymmetry of the periocular area. On examination, she was noted to have significant atrophy of the periocular tissues on the left side, with lower eyelid retraction. These features were present but less severe on the right side. Upon further questioning, she stated that she had cataract surgery on the left side that was complicated by a high intraocular pressure and required subsequent secondary surgery. She had taken a prostaglandin eyedrop for many months after her cataract surgery to keep the eye pressure low. Recently, a newly recognized adverse effect of prostaglandin eyedrops has been described in the ophthalmic literature in which patients develop periorbital lipodystrophy. This case emphasizes that this may occur unilaterally in patients taking the eyedrop in only one eye, and should be recognized prior to considering functional and aesthetic surgery of the periocular area. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. G-Protein Coupled Receptor-Evoked Glutamate Exocytosis from Astrocytes: Role of Prostaglandins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Cali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are highly secretory cells, participating in rapid brain communication by releasing glutamate. Recent evidences have suggested that this process is largely mediated by Ca2+-dependent regulated exocytosis of VGLUT-positive vesicles. Here by taking advantage of VGLUT1-pHluorin and TIRF illumination, we characterized mechanisms of glutamate exocytosis evoked by endogenous transmitters (glutamate and ATP, which are known to stimulate Ca2+ elevations in astrocytes. At first we characterized the VGLUT1-pHluorin expressing vesicles and found that VGLUT1-positive vesicles were a specific population of small synaptic-like microvesicles containing glutamate but which do not express VGLUT2. Endogenous mediators evoked a burst of exocytosis through activation of G-protein coupled receptors. Subsequent glutamate exocytosis was reduced by about 80% upon pharmacological blockade of the prostaglandin-forming enzyme, cyclooxygenase. On the other hand, receptor stimulation was accompanied by extracellular release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. Interestingly, administration of exogenous PGE2 produced per se rapid, store-dependent burst exocytosis of glutamatergic vesicles in astrocytes. Finally, when PGE2-neutralizing antibody was added to cell medium, transmitter-evoked exocytosis was again significantly reduced (by about 50%. Overall these data indicate that cyclooxygenase products are responsible for a major component of glutamate exocytosis in astrocytes and that large part of such component is sustained by autocrine/paracrine action of PGE2.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and bronchoprotective roles of endogenous prostaglandin E2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Sakakibara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is produced by resident cells in the airway, such as airway epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells and alveolar macrophages, and is always present in the airway. Various exogenous and endogenous stimuli cause immediate increases in PGE2 from several-fold to multiples of 10-fold. Prostaglandin E2 controls the function of cells that contribute to immune and inflammatory responses, such as lymphocytes, eosinophils, mast cells, macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells, and exhibits suppressor activity in the initial and advanced stages of allergic airway inflammation (establishment of sensitization, induction of early asthmatic response, chemotaxis of inflammatory cells and continuation of the late asthmatic response. Therefore, if the endogenous protective effects of PGE2 are weakened or absent, inflammation and hypersensitive responses readily occur in the airway. Although the effects of PGE2 remain to be clarified, the possibility of the involvement of decreased PGE2 activity in the pathogenesis of asthma exists. However, in aspirin-induced asthma the role of PGE2 as a protective factor, through an as yet undetermined mechanism, is marked. It is thought that, in this type of asthma, symptoms may be induced by the elimination of the protective action of PGE2 by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID. It is possible that PGE2 agonists that produce little airway irritation and drugs that raise the endogenous PGE2 level have potential as new types of anti-inflammatory or anti-asthma drugs.

  18. Effects of interactions between progesterone and prostaglandin on uterine contractility in a perfused swine uterus model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Julian; Geisler, Klaudija; Maltaris, Theodoros; Müller, Andreas; Hoffmann, Inge; Schneider, Heike; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dittrich, Ralf; Oppelt, Patricia G

    2014-01-01

    Uterine quiescence at the time of embryo transfer is a prerequisite for successful in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study assessed whether prostaglandin-induced contractions in the perfused swine uterus can be reduced by progesterone. Fifty-eight non-pregnant swine uteri were perfused using an established extracorporeal perfusion model. Intrauterine pressure changes during perfusion with prostaglandin (PG) administration (PGE1, PGE2, PGF2α) and progesterone (1 pg/ml, 10 pg/ml, 25 pg/ml, 50 pg/ml) were assessed using an intrauterine double-chip microcatheter. The contraction-stimulating effect of PGs was clearly reduced by progesterone. Only PGE1 still triggered relevant contractions during continuous perfusion with progesterone solution, up to a concentration of 10 pg/ml. With PGE2 and PGF2α, a clear reduction of uterine contractility was observed even at at a progesterone concentration of 1 pg/ml. The extracorporal perfusion model of swine uteri shows that PG-induced contractions can be reduced in a dose-dependent manner by progesterone. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Cuidar al lactante con alergia a la proteína de la leche de vaca : implicaciones para enfermería

    OpenAIRE

    Villa Pérez, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    La alergia a las proteínas de la leche de vaca es la primera alergia de origen alimentario que debuta en la vida de un individuo y, por tanto, una de las más importantes en la infancia, después del huevo y pescado. En los últimos años ha aumentado su prevalencia en los países occidentales, hecho que genera un problema de salud pública importante en nuestro medio. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes se producen a nivel digestivo y cutáneo. La sintomatología respiratoria es menos frecue...

  20. Análisis del marco regulatorio e institucional de la problemática del manejo y preservación del ecosistema del Humedal La Vaca

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez Ampudia, Ingrid Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    La tesis analizara el marco regulatorio e institucional existente para el manejo y preservación del ecosistema del humedal La Vaca con el fin de determinar en qué medida son eficaces la normatividad existente y las instituciones competentes. Se pretende establecer entonces los elementos de gestión asociadas al manejo de ecosistemas de humedales, establecer en qué medida se ha aplicado la normatividad y los resultados de ello, así como establecer los resultados del papel de las autoridades amb...

  1. Efeito da polpa de morango e leite de côco no sabor do iogurte de "leite" de soja adicionado de leite de vaca

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, G; Oliveira, A.J.; Shirose, I.; Valle, J.L.E.do

    1989-01-01

    Estudou-se o efeito da polpa de morango e leite de côco no sabor do iogurte de "leite" de soja adicionado de leite de vaca (85 e 15%, respectivamente). Os resultados indicam que os saborizantes morango e côco contribuíram significativamente para melhorar o sabor do produto. Este produto, mesmo sem saborizante é ainda um produto de sabor aceitável. A study was made of the effect of strawberry pulp and coconut milk on the flavor of soybean milk yoghurt to which cow milk was added (85% and 15...

  2. Evaluación del bienestar animal en vacas lecheras de la región Sureste del estado de Hidalgo aplicando el protocolo Welfare Quality®

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Salas, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Como resultado de la vinculación con el Cuerpo Académico en Producción Animal de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo que cultiva la LGAC de Bienestar Animal en Animales de Producción, se trabajó en el proyecto “Evaluación del Bienestar en Vacas de Hatos Lecheros en los Estados de Hidalgo y México” propuesto por la Dra. María Guadalupe Torres Cardona. Este proyecto obtuvo el primer lugar en el concurso Promotores de Bienestar Animal otorgado por World Animal Protection. De esta colab...

  3. Relación entre características de tipo y producción de leche en vacas Holstein de Antioquia, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Corrales A.; Mario Cerón-Muñoz; Jhon Cañas A.; Cristina Herrera R.; Samir Calvo C.

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la relación entre las características de tipo agrupadas por factores con la producción de leche en ganado Holstein de Antioquia, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron datos de 24 características lineales y producción de leche de 3102 vacas de la raza Holstein del departamento de Antioquia en control lechero oficial. Se realizó un análisis por factores (AF) con el método de componentes principales y se retuvieron los factores que mostraron valores propios mayores que ...

  4. Viabilidade de embriões vitrificados oriundos da fertilização in vitro de oócitos de vacas suplementadas com canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.N. Domingues

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a produção de oócitos e embriões de vacas Nelore in vitro e a resistência à vitrificação. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas Nelore, distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois tratamentos: T1-tratados com canola em grão (2,0kg/animal/dia e T2-controle. Cada animal foi aspirado quatro vezes para obtenção de óocitos para fecundação in vitro. Os oócitos foram quantificados e classificados em viáveis ou inviáveis. Os zigotos foram cultivados in vitro e, sete dias após, os embriões foram avaliados quanto à qualidade e grau de desenvolvimento e vitrificados em hastes próprias. Na sequência, foram descongelados e cultivados em 6, 12 e 24 horas, observando-se a taxa de expansão e eclosão. Não houve diferenças (P>0,05 no número total de oócitos viáveis, T1=12,7% e T2=11,0%, na taxa de clivagem, T1=60,6% e T2=61,4%, e taxa de blastocistos, T1=23,7% e T2=27,0%, em função do tratamento. Também não houve influência na taxa de re-expansão, T1=70,5 e T2=59,6%, após a vitrificação e descongelamento. Todavia houve diferença (P<0,06 para a taxa de eclosão, T1=69,2 e T2=35,7. Conclui-se que a adição de canola na dieta de vacas não alterou a produção de embriões; entretanto, os embriões resultantes de oócitos coletados de vacas alimentadas com canola são mais resistentes à vitrificação.

  5. Prevención de la alergia a las proteínas de la leche de vaca Prevention of cow's milk protein allergy

    OpenAIRE

    C. Bousoño García

    2011-01-01

    La alergia a proteínas de leche de vaca (APLV) se caracteriza por una serie de manifestaciones clínicas de naturaleza cutánea, digestiva, respiratoria o sistémica, en respuesta a su ingesta en individuos previamente sensibilizados, habitualmente por un mecanismo IgE  reacciones inmediatas cutáneas o digestivas, síndrome alérgico oral y anafilaxis), aunque puedan ocurrir también como respuesta no IgE mediada (colitis, gastroenteropatía y enterocolitis) o incluso por mecanismos mixtos (dermatit...

  6. Efeito de complexo homeopático no controle e tratamento de mastite em vacas leiteiras sob manejo orgânico

    OpenAIRE

    Galdino, Mariana Cassins [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    O alimento orgânico representa uma demanda crescente da sociedade e uma possibilidade de produção sustentável ao agricultor rural. O tratamento da mastite na produção orgânica exige recursos alternativos ao antimicrobiano, como a homeopatia. Avaliou-se o efeito da administração do complexo homeopático de Phytolacca decandra, Lachesis, Belladona, Phosphorus, Bryonia, Conium maculatum, Apis mellifera, Mercurius solubilis e Pyrogenium CH6 no controle e tratamento da mastite em vacas em sistemas ...

  7. Helicobacter pylori bab Paralog Distribution and Association with cagA, vacA, and homA/B Genotypes in American and South Korean Clinical Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeryun Kim

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori genetic variation is a crucial component of colonization and persistence within the inhospitable niche of the gastric mucosa. As such, numerous H. pylori genes have been shown to vary in terms of presence and genomic location within this pathogen. Among the variable factors, the Bab family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs has been shown to differ within subsets of strains. To better understand genetic variation among the bab genes and to determine whether this variation differed among isolates obtained from different geographic locations, we characterized the distribution of the Bab family members in 80 American H. pylori clinical isolates (AH and 80 South Korean H. pylori clinical isolates (KH. Overall, we identified 23 different bab genotypes (19 in AH and 11 in KH, but only 5 occurred in greater than 5 isolates. Regardless of strain origin, a strain in which locus A and locus B were both occupied by a bab gene was the most common (85%; locus C was only occupied in those isolates that carried bab paralog at locus A and B. While the babA/babB/- genotype predominated in the KH (78.8%, no single genotype could account for greater than 40% in the AH collection. In addition to basic genotyping, we also identified associations between bab genotype and well known virulence factors cagA and vacA. Specifically, significant associations between babA at locus A and the cagA EPIYA-ABD motif (P<0.0001 and the vacA s1/i1/m1 allele (P<0.0001 were identified. Log-linear modeling further revealed a three-way association between bab carried at locus A, vacA, and number of OMPs from the HOM family (P<0.002. En masse this study provides a detailed characterization of the bab genotypes from two distinct populations. Our analysis suggests greater variability in the AH, perhaps due to adaptation to a more diverse host population. Furthermore, when considering the presence or absence of both the bab and homA/B paralogs at their given loci and the

  8. Aspectos reprodutivos e produtivos de vacas da raça Holandesa com puerpério normal ou patológico

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,T.M.; R.L. Santos; T.A. Paixão; Costa, É.A.; Pires,A.C.; Á.M. Borges

    2013-01-01

    Foram avaliadas 103 vacas da raça Holandesa de primeira, segunda ou terceira ordens de lactação, com o objetivo de comparar aspectos reprodutivos e produtivos dos animais com puerpério normal ou patológico. Exames ginecológicos foram realizados semanalmente, do parto ao final do puerpério, por meio de palpação transretal, ultrassonografia e vaginoscopia. As incidências de partos gemelares, partos auxiliados, retenção de placenta e infecções uterinas até o primeiro serviço foram de 11,7%, 20,4...

  9. Utilizacion de grasas de origen vegetal en raciones de vacas lecheras: rendimentos productivos, reproductivos y composición de la grasa

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, D; Castro Madrigal, Teresa; Jimeno Vinatea, Vicente; Isabel, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar los efectos de la incorporación de aceites vegetales con distinto grado de saturación en raciones de vacas lecheras, sobre la producción, composición de la leche y de la grasa, y sobre los rendimientos reproductivos. Las raciones experimentales fueron: CONTROL (sin grasa añadida, TC), SOJA (con un 4% de aceite de soja en el concentrado, TS) y LINAZA (con un 4% de aceite de linaza en el concentrado, TL). La incorporación de aceite no afectó la ...

  10. Estratégias de suplementação para vacas e para novilhas de corte dos quatro aos dezoito meses de idade

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Victor Rezende Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Foram realizados três experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar Estratégias de suplementação para vacas e para novilhas de corte dos quatro aos dezoito meses de idade. No primeiro experimento objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho produtivo, o consumo de pasto, bem como consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes ingeridos por novilhas Nelore ou mestiça, com predominância de sangue zebu, suplementadas com diferentes quantidades de suplemento múltiplo, em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, dos q...

  11. La comunicación entre europeos e indígenas en los Naufragios de Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca

    OpenAIRE

    Labajo Fraile, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Durante el siglo XVI, el interés por el Nuevo Mundo provocó que Europa se lanzase a la conquista ultramarina. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca participó en 1527 en una expedición a Florida y describe su experiencia como explorador en la obra Naufragios. Este trabajo pretende indagar en las características de los primeros contactos comunicativos entre conquistador y conquistado bien fuera este entendimiento verbal o se realizase mediante gestos y señas. El obstáculo de no poseer una l...

  12. M. Carmen Gómez-Galisteo, Early Visions and Representations of America: Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca's Naufragios and William Bradford's Of Plymouth Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Diamantouli, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This absorbing book brings together two works written by two seemingly dissimilar figures who share the experience of finding themselves in “an unknown land whose reality they could hardly grasp” (x) and who were pioneers in their experiences of America. Cabeza de Vaca, a “failed conquistador looking for lands to annex to the emergent Spanish empire” and Bradford, an “Englishman whose religious beliefs made his community the object of … intense persecution,” both left written testomies of Ame...

  13. INFLUENCIA DEL CONSUMO, POR VACAS LECHERAS, DE SILAJES DE DIFERENTES FORRAJES EN LA CALIDAD DE LA LECHE Y SU POSTERIOR APTITUD PARA LA ELABORACIÓN DE QUESOS

    OpenAIRE

    ETCHEVERS GUTIÉRREZ, FRANCISCO RAMÓN

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar cómo influye en la calidad de la leche y de los quesos de pasta dura, el consumo por vacas lecheras de silajes de diferentes forrajes. Los dos insumos utilizados en el proceso de ensilado fueron plantas completas de maíz, de cultivos realizados para tal fin, y pulpa de citrus residual proveniente de la industria citrícola del Departamento Concordia, Provincia de Entre Ríos, Argentina. Se construyeron y analizaron cinco silajes diferentes en dos ensay...

  14. Utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5 na imunização de vacas leiteiras contra mastites causadas por E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio R. Molina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5, na imunização de vacas leiteiras, para prevenção e controle da mastite causada por E. coli através da análise da prevalência das infecções intramamárias (IMM no pós-parto, ocorrência e intensidade dos casos clínicos de mastite nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação, influência na contagem de células somáticas (CCS e produção de leite. O grupo experimental foi composto de 187 animais, divididos em 2 grupos, vacas vacinadas e não vacinadas. As imunizações ocorreram 60 dias antes do parto, 30 dias antes do parto e na primeira semana pós-parto. No dia da secagem e sete dias após o parto foram coletadas amostras para diagnóstico microbiológico dos patógenos causadores de mastite. A ocorrência de casos clínicos foi verificada pelo teste da caneca durante as ordenhas sendo registrados os dados relacionados à intensidade. Amostras foram coletadas mensalmente, a partir do décimo dia de lactação, para avaliação da CCS. A produção de leite foi registrada mensalmente nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação. Verificou-se no grupo vacinado, redução na prevalência de E. coli no pós-parto, na ocorrência de casos clínicos por E.coli nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação bem como na intensidade destes casos clínicos. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas significativas na CCS, entretanto vacas vacinadas apresentaram maior produção de leite, comparadas às vacas não vacinadas. A vacinação com E. coli J5 foi eficaz em reduzir a prevalência de infecções intramamárias (IMM ao parto, ocorrência e intensidade dos casos clínicos e aumento na produção de leite nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação.

  15. Associação entre cagA e alelos do vacA de Helicobacter pylori e úlcera duodenal em crianças no Brasil

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    Ashour Abdussalam Ali Ramadam

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori é o principal agente de gastrite em seres humanos e fator de risco para úlcera péptica e câncer gástrico. A evolução da infecção está relacionada a diversos fatores, inclusive bacterianos, como presença de cagA e genótipo s1-m1 do vacA, associados com o desenvolvimento de úlcera e adenocarcinoma gástrico. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a associação entre cagA e alelos do vacA em H. pylori isolado de crianças e relacionar os achados com a doença apresentada pelo paciente. Foram estudadas 65 crianças (24 com úlcera duodenal e 41 sem úlcera gástrica ou duodenal. A pesquisa de cagA e de alelos do vacA foi feita por PCR em amostras da bactéria isoladas do estômago dos pacientes. Infecção mista foi identificada em dez (15,4% crianças. Entre os pacientes com monoinfecção, o alelo s1 foi detectado em amostras isoladas de 40 (72,7%, e o m1 em 34 (61,8%. CagA foi identificado em H. pylori isolado de 38 (69,1% pacientes. Foi observada associação entre presença de cagA e de genótipo s1-m1 (p = 10-7 e entre cagA e padrão s1-m1 com úlcera duodenal (p = 0,073 e p = 0,037, respectivamente. Em conclusão, infecção mista por H. pylori é comum em crianças brasileiras, e amostras da bactéria apresentando o alelo s1 e cagA são as mais prevalentes no nosso meio. A concomitância do alelo s1 do vacA e de cagA foi freqüentemente observada, e a associação de amostras positivas de s1 e de cagA com úlcera duodenal foi confirmada neste trabalho.

  16. Influencia de la homogeneización, el contenido en proteína y el fermento en la Calidad del yogur de vaca azucarado batido

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Sánchez, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido estudiar la influencia de la homogeneización, del contenido en proteínas y del fermento, en la calidad del yogur batido azucarado de vaca. Para realizar este estudio se han realizado dos ensayos diferentes, en el primero únicamente se modificó el contenido en proteínas mediante el empleo de leche en polvo, mientras que en el segundo se modificaron las condiciones de homogeneización, el contenido en proteínas y el tipo de fermento empleado. Se han llevado a ...

  17. Efficacy and tolerability of brinzolamide/brimonidine suspension and prostaglandin analogs in patients previously treated with dorzolamide/timolol solution and prostaglandin analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo JS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan S Lo,1 Pierre M Pang,2 Samuel C Lo3 1John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, 2MD-Pacific Eye Surgery Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, 3MD-Laser and Eye Surgery Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA Objective: Fixed combination glaucoma medication is increasingly used in glaucoma treatment. There is a lack of comparative study in the literature of non-beta blocker combination agents used adjunctively with a glaucoma agent in a different class. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of intraocular pressure (IOP control and tolerability of non-beta blocker combination suspension with prostaglandin analogs (PGA in patients with open angle glaucoma who were previously treated with beta blocker combination solution with PGA. Design: Open-label retrospective review of patient records. Patients and methods: This study looked at patients with open angle glaucoma taking dorzolamide/timolol solution with PGA that were switched to brinzolamide/brimonidine combination suspension with PGA. This study reviewed the charts of all patients who were at least 21 years old with a clinical diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension in at least one eye. Patients needed to have been treated with concomitant use of PGA and dorzolamide/timolol solution for at least one month. Patients using dorzolamide/timolol solution plus PGA with medication related ocular irritation were switched to brinzolamide/brimonidine suspension with the same PGA. Best-corrected visual acuity, ocular hyperemia grading, slit lamp biomicroscopy and Goldmann applanation tonometry measurements, and patient medication preferences were assessed at baseline, 1 month and 3 months. Results: Forty eyes with open angle glaucoma. The mean age of the patients was 68 and 60% were females. The IOP before the switch was 17.2 and 16.5 (P=0.70 following the switch at 3 months. We found a decreasing trend of ocular hyperemia (P=0.064 and strong preference (P

  18. EL "MAL DE LAS VACAS LOCAS": UN TEMA DE BIOÉTICA EN LOS NUEVOS ESCENARIOS O "MAL DAS VACAS LOUCAS": UM TEMA DE BIOÉTICA NOS NOVOS CENÁRIOS THE "MAD COW DISEASE": A BIOETHICS’ ISSUE IN THE NEW SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Vera Lara

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La encefalopatía espongiforme bovina ("mal de las vacas locas", se produce en un momento y en un contexto que permiten resaltar los éxitos y fracasos de la biotecnología. En el marco de la globalización ha quedado de manifiesto la necesidad de establecer límites para la tecnociencia que en materia de logros aparecía como ilimitada. Se ha puesto en la balanza la rentabilidad de la industria cárnica versus la salud pública. El mal de las vacas locas constituye un traspié que no fue previsto, porque no era previsible en la perfectibilidad del sistema, lo que ha dejado al descubierto una fisura que, por ahora, es contextual. El contagio de las vacas a las personas es una campana de alarma, una advertencia que debe ser escuchada. La crisis esta recién en su etapa inicialA encefalopatia espongiforme bovina (mal da vaca louca ocorre em momento e contexto que permitem ressaltar êxitos e fracassos da biotecnologia. O marco da globalização tornou clara a necessidade de estabelecer limites para a tecnociência que por seus feitos mostrava-se ilimitada. Colocou-se na balança a rentabilidade da indústria da carne versus a saúde pública. O mal das vacas loucas constitui um deslize imprevisto, já que não era esperado considerando-se a perfeição do sistema e expos assim uma fissura que mostra-se contextual. O contágio de seres humanos é um alerta, uma advertência que deve ser considerada. A crise está apenas em sua etapa inicialBovine Spongiform Encephalopathy ("mad cow disease" appears in a moment and in a context that highlights the achievements and failures of biotechnology. The reality of globalization evidences the need to set limits to a technoscience viewed as unlimited because of its breakthroughs. Livestock industry profitability versus public health have been placed on the balance. Mad cow disease is an unforeseen stumble, since it was something unexpected in a system considered as perfect. This fact has disclosed a fissure

  19. Perfil sérico proteico de vacas Holandesas no período de transição

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    J.F. Reis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, de forma longitudinal, o perfil sérico proteico de 13 vacas Holandesas durante o período de transição. Amostras de sangue (n=78 foram coletadas semanalmente, da segunda semana pré-parto (M-2 até a terceira semana pós-parto (M3, para determinação do perfil sérico proteico, por meio de teste bioquímico (proteínas séricas totais - PT e eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida SDS-PAGE, para as outras proteínas analisadas. Os valores de PT diminuíram de forma gradativa (P=0,000 de M-2 (6,4g/dL a M0 (6,2g/dL, aumentando nos momentos subsequentes (M3=7,3g/dL. As concentrações da IgG de cadeia pesada (M-2=919,4; M-1=1074,5mg/dL e de cadeia leve (M-2=393,9; M-1=466,7mg/dL foram menores no pré-parto em relação ao pós-parto (M1=1283,3; M2=1374,2 e M3=1630,3 mg/dL para IgG pesada e M1=463,4; M2=573,7; M3=651,8mg/dL para IgG leve. Para a IgA, houve diminuição nos valores (P=0,001, de M-2 (51,9mg/dL a M1 (34,0mg/dL, e aumento em M2 (45,4g/dL e M3 (62,6g/dL. Os valores de haptoglobina (Hp e ceruloplasmina (Cp aumentaram (P=0,000 de M-2 (Hp=16,6mg/dL; Cp=8,6mg/dL a M3 (Hp=60,9mg/dL; Cp=127,1mg/dL. A albumina apresentou ligeiras variações durante o período de transição (P=0,000, enquanto a transferrina sérica (P=0,101 e a glicoproteína ácida (P=0,105 foram estáveis. O escore de condição corporal (ECC também foi analisado durante o período de transição, verificando-se diferença (P=0,003 entre M-2 (ECC=4,0 e M1 (ECC=3,0. Foi relatada ainda a ocorrência de distocias (4/13, retenção de placenta (1/13 e hipocalcemia (1/13 no dia da parição (M0 e infecções uterinas (5/13 e cetose (1/13 ocorridas no pós-parto. Concluiu-se, portanto, que houve aumento nas concentrações séricas de Hp e Cp e diminuição nos valores de imunoglobulina e transferrina em vacas Holandesas no período de transição, relacionados às doenças ocorridas nesse período e ao elevado ECC, promovendo

  20. Aceites vegetales sobre ácidos grasos y producción de metano in vitro en vacas lecheras.

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    Esperanza Prieto-Manrique

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la adición de aceites vegetales en dietas representativas de vacas lecheras bajo pastoreo, sobre los ácidos grasos, fermentación ruminal y producción de metano in vitro. La investigación se desarrolló en el laboratorio NUTRILAB–GRICA, perteneciente a la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, en agosto del 2013. Se utilizó la técnica de producción de gas in vitro. En cuatro dietas (dos de monocultivo en Cynodon plectostachyus y dos de sistema silvopastoril intensivo con Leucaena leucocephala, se evaluó la adición de tres aceites vegetales (girasol, lino y palma a nivel del 2 y 4% de la MS, en un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial de 4x3x2. En todas las dietas, la suplementación con aceite de girasol aumentó el contenido de ácido linoleico (C18:2 c9,12, ácido linoleico conjugado (ALC-c9t11 y ácido transvaccénico (ATV, C18:1 t11 después de la fermentación (p0,05. Ningún aceite afectó la cinética de fermentación, pH, total de ácidos grasos volátiles (AGV, proporción de AGV, ni la producción de metano.

  1. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA Genotypes and cagA Gene in Dental Plaque of Asymptomatic Mexican Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cantú, Alejandra; Urbina-Ríos, Cynthia Sofía; García-Martínez, Martha Elena; Torre-Martínez, Hilda H. H.

    2017-01-01

    The variability in Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes has been related to the progression of the gastrointestinal disease; also the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity has been associated with periodontal disease in adults, but, in children without dyspeptic symptoms, little is known about this. We evaluated the prevalence of H. pylori and the presence of vacA/cagA genotypes in the oral cavity of Mexican children without dyspeptic symptoms. The gingival status was measured, and dental plaque samples (n = 100) were taken. 38% of children were positive for H. pylori 16S rRNA gene by qPCR. A significant association between H. pylori oral infection and gingival status was observed (P < 0.001). In 34.6% (9/26) of mild gingivitis cases, s1m2 genotype was found, while s1m1 was typed in 50% (3/6) of moderate gingivitis. The cagA prevalence among H. pylori-positive children was 80.8% (21/26), 83.3% (5/6), and 16.7% (1/6) of cases of mild gingivitis, moderate gingivitis, and nongingivitis, respectively (P < 0.001). The s1m1/cagA+ combinational genotype was the most detected in children with gingivitis. Our results suggest that the prevalence of H. pylori and detection of vacA/cagA genotypes-associated gastrointestinal disease in the oral cavity could be related to the progression of gingivitis in asymptomatic children. PMID:29226140

  2. Sustitución de alimento concentrado, con morera fresca (Morus alba, en la dieta de vacas lecheras

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    Carlos Boschini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se experimentaron cuatro dietas balanceadas con sustitución de alimento concentrado por la inclusión de 0, 20, 40 y 60% de materia seca de hojas de morera de 84 días. El consumo de materia seca total fue de 3,12 a 3,24% con relación al peso vivo. No se apreciaron diferencias importantes (P≥0,05 en el consumo total de MS entre vacas dentro de un mismo tratamiento. En la dieta sin morera (0%, el forraje constituyó el 42% y en la dieta con 60% de morera constituyó el 86% de la materia seca. El consumo de morera fue cercano a 2% en la dieta con 60%. La tasa de sustitución fue de 677 g/animal- /día de materia seca de concentrado por cada kilogramo de materia seca de morera agregada a la dieta, más la sustitución de 323 g/animal/día del sorgo negro forrajero y de la soja en mezcla para los dietas que contienen esta última. El reemplazo de proteína fue de 576 g/animal/día del concentrado y 424 g/animal/día del sorgo negro forrajero y soja por cada kilogramo de proteína cruda de morera adicionada. Cada megacalor ía de energía digestible de morera agregada a la dieta sustituyó 0,675 mcal/animal/día de energía del concentrado y 0,325 mcal/animal/día de la mezcla sorgo negro forrajero y soja. Se encontraron diferencias (P0,05 entre el peso inicial y final de los animales y las variaciones de producción de leche diaria fueron de pequeña magnitud dentro de dietas.

  3. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA Genotypes and cagA Gene in Dental Plaque of Asymptomatic Mexican Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Mendoza-Cantú

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability in Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes has been related to the progression of the gastrointestinal disease; also the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity has been associated with periodontal disease in adults, but, in children without dyspeptic symptoms, little is known about this. We evaluated the prevalence of H. pylori and the presence of vacA/cagA genotypes in the oral cavity of Mexican children without dyspeptic symptoms. The gingival status was measured, and dental plaque samples (n=100 were taken. 38% of children were positive for H. pylori 16S rRNA gene by qPCR. A significant association between H. pylori oral infection and gingival status was observed (P<0.001. In 34.6% (9/26 of mild gingivitis cases, s1m2 genotype was found, while s1m1 was typed in 50% (3/6 of moderate gingivitis. The cagA prevalence among H. pylori-positive children was 80.8% (21/26, 83.3% (5/6, and 16.7% (1/6 of cases of mild gingivitis, moderate gingivitis, and nongingivitis, respectively (P<0.001. The s1m1/cagA+ combinational genotype was the most detected in children with gingivitis. Our results suggest that the prevalence of H. pylori and detection of vacA/cagA genotypes-associated gastrointestinal disease in the oral cavity could be related to the progression of gingivitis in asymptomatic children.

  4. Estructura genética poblacional del gen lactoferrina bovino en vacas Holstein del departamento de Antioquia

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    Nancy Rodríguez C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar algunos parámetros de estructura poblacional en una población Holstein del departamento de Antioquia. Materiales y métodos. El estudio se realizó con 427 vacas de la raza Holstein pertenecientes a 5 municipios del departamento de Antioquia. La genotipificación se llevó a cabo usando la técnica de PCR-PFLPs. La Heterocigocidad observada (Ho y Heterocigocidad esperada (He, la prueba de Hardy-Weinberg (HW y la estructura y diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones se calculó mediante los parámetros F de Wright, evaluados mediante el software GENEPOP. Las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas se evaluaron con el método descrito por Hartl. Resultados. Las frecuencias genotípicas encontradas fueron 0.61, 0.34 y 0.05 para los genotipos AA, AB y BB respectivamente y las frecuencias de los alelos fueron 0.78 y 0.22 para A y B, encontrándose la población en equilibrio de HW. La heterocigocidad fue media entre poblaciones (Ho=0.368. Los valores FIS, FST y FIT de la población total fueron -0.0717, 0.0099 y -0.0611. Conclusiones. No fue posible asumir endogamia, ni exogamia en los municipios analizados, exceptuando el municipio de San Pedro de los Milagros, en cuyo caso se percibe de manera más fuerte el efecto del mejoramiento genético y la disminución de la heterocigocidad.

  5. The applications of timed artificial insemination and timed embryo transfer in reproductive management of dairy cattle Aplicação da inseminação artificial e transferência de embrião em tempo fixo no manejo reprodutivo de vacas leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divakar Justus Ambrose

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fertility of dairy cattle is generally decreasing. Overall estrus detection efficiency in lactating dairy cattle is low, as expression of estrus is often compromised. Consequently, undetected estrus, low AI-submission rates, and long inter-breeding intervals are the main contributors to poor reproductive efficiency. Although failure to become pregnant is the most common reason for culling dairy cattle, pregnancy rates could be improved by increasing the AI-submission rate through increased estrus detection efficiency, timed insemination (Timed-AI, or timed embryo transfer (Timed-ET. In these protocols, ovarian follicular development and luteolysis are controlled, culminating in synchronous ovulation in most cows. There are several modifications to improve pregnancy rates in Timed-AI protocols, e.g. presynchronization with 2 doses of PGF2a 14 d apart, and starting the Ovsynch protocol 12 d after the 2nd PGF2a. Timed-AI programs ensure a timely first breeding; this should be followed with early pregnancy diagnosis to identify nonpregnant cows, and prompt re-insemination. However, in a recent field study involving 23 dairy herds, the mean interval between 1st and 2nd breeding was 42 d; only 28% of the cows were rebred within 24 d after 1st breeding. Fortunately, there are several resynchronization protocols to reduce inter-breeding intervals. Anestrus cows, or those with cystic ovarian follicles, have a good chance of conceiving when subjected to synchronization of ovulation and Timed-AI. Furthermore, Timed-ET is a practical and viable option for synchronizing and selecting recipient cattle for embryo transfers. In summary, systematic and judicious use of Timed-AI and Timed-ET protocols can greatly enhance reproductive performance, and improve herd productivity.A fertilidade em vacas de leite está em decréscimo e, de modo geral, a detecção eficiente do estro em vacas lactantes é baixa, já que a expressão do estro é frequentemente

  6. Intra-arterial infusion of prostaglandin E1 in normal subjects and patients with peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P E; Nielsen, S L; Holstein, P

    1976-01-01

    Acute vasodilatation was produced by infusion of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in the femoral artery in 6 patients with occlusive arterial disease of the legs and in 3 normal subjects. The effect on blood flow and on blood pressure was measured at different segments of the leg with the strain gauge...

  7. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 mediated prostaglandin release regulates blood flow in connective tissue during mechanical loading in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, H; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Skovgaard, D

    2003-01-01

    prior to the experiment) or COX unspecific (n = 8, indomethacin 100 mg (12 and 1 h pre-experiment) and acetyl salicylic acid 500 mg day-1 for 3 days pre-experiment). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration was determined by microdialysis and blood flow by 133Xe washout. In C, interstitial PGE2 rose from...

  8. Early transcriptome responses of the bovine midcycle corpus luteum to prostaglandin F2a includes cytokine signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    In ruminants, prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2a)-mediated luteolysis is essential prior to estrous cycle resumption, and is a target for improving fertility. To deduce early PGF2a-provoked changes in the corpus luteum a short time-course (0.5–4 h) was performed on cows at midcycle. A microarray-determin...

  9. A biphasic response of urinary prostaglandin E2 excretion to water deprivation in conscious diabetes insipidus Brattleboro rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, J K; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Christensen, P

    1989-01-01

    The effects of water deprivation on the urinary excretion rate of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were examined in conscious Brattleboro rats. In order to study the time course of the changes in the PGE2 excretory rate, urine was collected in 6 periods, Control: 0-1 hour (h.). 1: 3-4.5 h., 8-10 h., III: ...

  10. Control of cell cycle by metabolites of prostaglandin D2 through a non-cAMP mediated mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Fukushima, M.

    1993-01-01

    The dehydration products of PGD2, 9-deoxy-9 prostaglandin D2(PGJ2), 9-deoxy-delta 9, delta 12, delta 13 dehydroprostaglandin D2 (delta 12 PGJ2), and PGA2 all contain an unsaturated cyclopentenone structure which is characteristic of prostaglandins which effectively inhibit cell growth. It has been suggested that the action of the inhibitory prostaglandins may be through a cAMP mechanism. In this study, we use S49 wild type (WT) and adenylate cyclase variant (cyc-) cells to show that PGD2 and PGJ2 are not acting via a cyclic AMP mechanism. First, the increase in cyclic AMP in wild type S-49 cells is not proportional to its effects on DNA synthesis. More importantly, when S-49 cyc- cells were exposed to PGJ2, the adenylate cyclase (cyc-) mutant had decreased DNA synthesis with no change in its nominal cAMP content. Short-term (2 hours or less) exposure of the cyc- cells to prostaglandin J2 caused an inhibition of DNA synthesis. PGJ2 caused cytolysis at high concentrations. Long-term exposure (>14 hrs) of the cells to PGJ2, delta 12PGJ2 or delta 12, delta 14PGJ2 caused a cell cycle arrest in G1 demonstrating a cell cycle specific mechanism of action for growth inhibition by naturally occurring biological products independent of cAMP.

  11. Regulation of prostaglandin generation in carrageenan-induced pleurisy by inducible nitric oxide synthase in knockout mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, A.; Cuzzocrea, S.; Mazzon, E.; Serraino, I.; Sarro, A. de; Dugo, L.; Felice, M.R.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Rosa, M. Di; Musci, G.; Caputi, A.P.; Sautebin, L.

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, by comparing the responses in wild-type mice (iNOSWT) and mice lacking (iNOSKO) the inducible (or type 2) nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), we investigated the correlation between endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) generation in carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The

  12. Functional and molecular characterization of prostaglandin E2 dilatory receptors in the rat craniovascular system in relevance to migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myren, Maja; Baun, Michael; Ploug, Kenneth Beri

    2010-01-01

    Migraine pain is thought to involve an increase in trigeminal nerve terminal activity around large cerebral and meningeal arteries, leading to vasodilatation. Because prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is elevated in cephalic venous blood during migraine attacks, and is also capable of inducing headache...... in healthy volunteers, we hypothesize that PGE(2) dilatory receptors, EP(2) and EP(4), mediate the response....

  13. Lipid Classes, Fatty Acid Composition, and Glycerolipid Molecular Species of the Red Alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla, a Prostaglandin-Producing Seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaki; Ishimaru, Takashi; Itabashi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla is a well-known producer of prostaglandins, such as PGE2 and PGF2α. In this study, the characteristics of glycerolipids as substrates of prostaglandin production were clarified, and the lipid classes, fatty acid composition, and glycerolipid molecular species were investigated in detail. The major lipid classes were monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), as well as phosphatidylcholine (PC), which accounted for 43.0% of the total lipid profile. Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), a prostaglandin precursor, and palmitic acid (16:0) were the predominant fatty acids in the total lipid profile. The 20:4n-6 content was significantly high in MGDG and PC (more than 60%), and the 16:0 content was significantly high in DGDG and SQDG (more than 50%). Chiral-phase high-performance liquid chromatography determined that fatty acids were esterified at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of those lipids. The main glycerolipid molecular species were 20:4n-6/20:4n-6 (sn-1/sn-2) for MGDG (56.5%) and PC (40.0%), and 20:4n-6/16:0 for DGDG (75.4%) and SQDG (58.4%). Thus, it was considered that the glycerolipid molecular species containing one or two 20:4n-6 were the major substrates for prostaglandin production in G. vermiculophylla.

  14. High dietary niacin may increase prostaglandin formation but does not increase tumor formation in ApcMin/+ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Alan M.; Tippin, Brigette L.; Materi, Alicia M.; Buslon, Virgilio S.; French, Samuel W.; Lin, Henry J.

    2011-01-01

    High doses of niacin (nicotinic acid) used to treat dyslipidemias cause flushing, due to high levels of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). GPR109A, a G-protein coupled receptor, triggers the flushing in the skin. In addition to boosting PGD2, niacin binding to GPR109A activates the entire prostanoid cascade. We found that GPR109A occurs throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Mice that alternated between a 1% niacin diet and a control diet had higher urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) metabolite levels when on niacin (2.8-fold increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.8–3.9). PGE2 promotes tumors in the intestines, whereas PGD2 may have an opposite effect, on the basis of our report showing that transgenic hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase suppresses intestinal adenomas in ApcMin/+ mice. To determine if either tumor growth or tumor suppression prevails, we fed ApcMin/+ mice a 1% niacin diet and assessed tumor development. A 1% niacin diet did not affect the number of tumors scored histologically in ApcMin/+ mice at 14 weeks (33 mice on niacin, 33 controls). Although niacin stimulates production of various prostaglandins, our results support an interpretation that very high intakes of niacin are safe in relation to intestinal tumors in this model. PMID:21774590

  15. Prostaglandin E1 treatment in ductus dependent congenital cardiac malformation. A review of the treatment of 34 neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Halken, S; Kamper, J

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-four sick neonates with major duct dependent cardiac defects were given short term (1 h-408 h) intravenous infusions of prostaglandin E1 (alprostadil) in doses varying between 0.1 micrograms/kg/min (starting dose) and 0.01 micrograms/kg/min. The aim of the study was to establish an effecti...

  16. Activation of PPARγ by endogenous prostaglandin J2 mediates the antileukemic effect of selenium in murine leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Emily R; Tukaramrao, Diwakar B; Goodfield, Laura L; Quickel, Michael D; Paulson, Robert F; Prabhu, K Sandeep

    2017-03-30

    Supplementation with nontoxic doses of micronutrient selenium has been shown to alleviate chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) via the elimination of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in mice. This treatment provides a new and novel method for eliminating the LSCs that are otherwise not targeted by existing therapies. The antileukemic effect of selenium was dependent on the production of endogenous cyclopentenone prostaglandins (CyPGs), Δ-12 prostaglandin J2 (Δ(12)-PGJ2), and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2). Here, we show that these endogenous CyPGs, produced by mice maintained on selenium-supplemented diets, alleviate the symptoms of CML through their ability to activate the nuclear hormone receptor, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ). GW9662, a potent PPARγ antagonist, blocked the antileukemic effect of selenium supplementation by significantly reducing CyPGs. This effect was mediated by an increase in 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-Pgdh) activity, which oxidizes and inactivates Δ(12)-PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2 In contrast, treatment with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone mimicked selenium supplementation. This treatment led to decreased 15-Pgdh activity and increased CyPG levels, which inhibited CML progression. Selenium-dependent activation of PPARγ mediated by endogenous CyPGs decreased Stat5 expression leading to the downregulation of Cited2, a master regulator of LSC quiescence. These studies suggest a potential role for selenium supplementation as an adjuvant therapy in CML. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Prostaglandin E2 stimulates the expression of cumulus expansion-related genes in pigs: the role of protein kinase B

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blaha, Milan; Procházka, Radek; Adámková, K.; Nevoral, J.; Němcová, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 130, č. 2 (2017), s. 38-46 ISSN 1098-8823 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1510138; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : cumulus * oocyte * prostaglandin E2 * protein kinase B Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.640, year: 2016

  18. Efecto de una dieta con bajo aporte de selenio sobre la respuesta inmune a la vacuna Brucella abortus Cepa RB51 en vacas lecheras Effect of a low selenium diet on the immune response to Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    V Leyán; F Wittwer; P A Contreras; G Schurig

    2006-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto de una dieta con bajo aporte de selenio (Se) sobre la respuesta inmune a la vacuna Brucella abortus Cepa RB51 y la concentración de inmunoglobulinas séricas en vacas. Se utilizaron 12 vacas Friesian, estabuladas desde aproximadamente dos meses preparto y hasta el cuarto mes de lactancia mantenidas con una dieta basada en heno de pradera con bajo contenido de Se (0,02 ppm de MS) y balanceada según requerimientos para el resto de nutrientes. Seis vacas conformaron el grupo ...

  19. Prostaglandin D₂: a dominant mediator of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Katherine N; Bensko, Jillian C; Boyce, Joshua A; Laidlaw, Tanya M

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin desensitization followed by high-dose aspirin therapy is routinely performed for patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). Little is known about the contributions of mediators other than cysteinyl leukotrienes to aspirin reactions and to the therapeutic benefit of high-dose aspirin therapy. We investigated differences in urinary eicosanoid metabolite levels and blood eosinophil counts in patients with AERD who tolerate and those who fail aspirin desensitization and also in patients with AERD who were successfully treated with high-dose aspirin therapy. Twenty-nine patients with AERD were stratified into those who tolerated aspirin desensitization (group I) and those who did not (group II). Urine was analyzed for eicosanoid metabolites at baseline, during aspirin reactions, and during high-dose aspirin therapy. Blood was analyzed for cell differentials at baseline and during aspirin therapy. Basal prostaglandin D2 metabolite (PGD-M; 13.6 ± 2.7 vs 7.0 ± 0.8 pmol/mg creatinine [Cr], P < .05) and thromboxane metabolite (TX-M; 1.4 ± 0.3 vs 0.9 ± 0.1 pmol/mg Cr, P < .01) levels were higher in group II than in group I. During aspirin reactions, PGD-M levels remained unchanged, whereas TX-M levels (0.7 ± 0.1 pmol/mg Cr, P = .07) tended to decrease in group I. In contrast, PGD-M levels increased dramatically in group II (61.3 ± 19.9 pmol/mg Cr, P < .05), whereas TX-M levels did not change. The decrease in FEV1 inversely correlated with basal urinary levels of both leukotriene E4 and PGD-M. Blood eosinophil and basophil levels increased and urinary PGD-M levels (2.2 ± 0.8 pmol/mg Cr, P < .001) decreased on 2 months of high-dose aspirin therapy in group I. Failure to tolerate aspirin desensitization in a subset of patients with AERD is associated with prostaglandin D2 overproduction. The increase in blood eosinophil and basophil counts during high-dose aspirin therapy might reflect the functional consequences of decreased prostaglandin D2

  20. The role of prostaglandins in spinal transmission of the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Audrey J.; Copp, Steven W.; Kaufman, Marc P.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies found that prostaglandins in skeletal muscle play a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex; however the role played by prostaglandins in the spinal transmission of the reflex is not known. We determined, therefore, whether or not spinal blockade of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and/or spinal blockade of endoperoxide receptor (EP) 2 or EP4 receptors attenuated the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats. We first established that intrathecal doses of a non-specific COX inhibitor Ketorolac (100ug in 10ul), a COX-2 specific inhibitor Celecoxib (100μg in 10μl), an EP2 antagonist PF-04418948 (10μg in 10μl), and an EP4 antagonist L-161,982 (4μg in 10μl) effectively attenuated the pressor responses to intrathecal injections of Arachidonic Acid (100μg in 10μl), EP2 agonist Butaprost (4ng in 10 μl), and EP4 agonist TCS 2510 (6.25μg in 2.5 μl), respectively. Once effective doses were established, we statically contracted the hindlimb before and after intrathecal injections of Ketorolac, Celecoxib, the EP2 antagonist and the EP4 antagonist. We found that Ketorolac significantly attenuated the pressor response to static contraction (before Ketorolac: 23±5 mmHg, after Ketorolac 14±5 mmHg; p<0.05) whereas Celecoxib had no effect. We also found that 8μg of L-161,982, but not 4 μg of L-161,982, significantly attenuated the pressor response to static contraction (before L-161,982: 21±4 mmHg, after L-161,982 12±3 mmHg; p<0.05), whereas PF-04418948 (10μg) had no effect. We conclude that spinal COX-1, but not COX-2, plays a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex, and that the spinal prostaglandins produced by this enzyme are most likely activating spinal EP4 receptors, but not EP2 receptors. PMID:25003710

  1. Novel mechanisms and signaling pathways of esophageal ulcer healing: the role of prostaglandin EP2 receptors, cAMP, and pCREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; Baatar, Dolgor; Jones, Michael K; Tarnawski, Andrzej S

    2014-09-15

    Clinical studies indicate that prostaglandins of E class (PGEs) may promote healing of tissue injury e.g., gastroduodenal and dermal ulcers. However, the precise roles of PGEs, their E-prostanoid (EP) receptors, signaling pathways including cAMP and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and their relation to VEGF and angiogenesis in the tissue injury healing process remain unknown, forming the rationale for this study. Using an esophageal ulcer model in rats, we demonstrated that esophageal mucosa expresses predominantly EP2 receptors and that esophageal ulceration triggers an increase in expression of the EP2 receptor, activation of CREB (the downstream target of the cAMP signaling), and enhanced VEGF gene expression. Treatment of rats with misoprostol, a PGE1 analog capable of activating EP receptors, enhanced phosphorylation of CREB, stimulated VEGF expression and angiogenesis, and accelerated esophageal ulcer healing. In cultured human esophageal epithelial (HET-1A) cells, misoprostol increased intracellular cAMP levels (by 163-fold), induced phosphorylation of CREB, and stimulated VEGF expression. A cAMP analog (Sp-cAMP) mimicked, whereas an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (Rp-cAMP) blocked, these effects of misoprostol. These results indicate that the EP2/cAMP/protein kinase A pathway mediates the stimulatory effect of PGEs on angiogenesis essential for tissue injury healing via the induction of CREB activity and VEGF expression.

  2. Ética e ingeniería: Fernando Sáez Vacas, "Más allá de Internet" y Javier del Arco, "Ética en la sociedad red"

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverría Ezponda, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Crítica de los libros: Fernando Sáez Vacas, "Más allá de Internet: la Red Universal Digital"; Madrid: Centro de Estudios Ramón Areces, 2004 y Javier del Arco, "Elementos de Ética para la Sociedad Red"; Madrid: Fundación Vodafone y Dykinson, 2004.

  3. EFEITOS DA DISPONIBILIDADE DE SOMBRA DURANTE O VERÃO SOBRE A PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE DE VACAS DA RAÇA HOLANDÊS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcy Madruga de Carvalho

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de avaliar o desempenho de vacas da raça Holandês em lactação, submetidas a manejo com e sem disponibilidade de sombra, durante as horas mais quentes do dia, no verão, com relação à produção de leite. Após um período de 55 dias, ficou evidenciada uma clara tendência de menor produção de leite por parte dos animais que não tiveram acesso à sombra, sendo que os de maior produção mostraram-se mais sensíveis às condições desfavoráveis do manejo ao Sol. Com base nos dados obtidos, concluiu-se que se faz necessária a disponibilidade de sombra durante os meses quentes de verão, para as vacas leiteiras em lactação, principalmente para aquelas de mais alto nível de produção.

  4. DISTRIBUCIÓN ESPACIOTEMPORAL DE NÁYADES DE ODONATOS EN LOS HUMEDALES LA VACA Y SANTA MARÍA DEL LAGO, BOGOTÁ, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillot Monroy Gabriel Hernando

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la variación espacial y temporal de las comunidades de náyades de odonatos y su asociación al estado de rehabilitación de hábitat en los humedales La Vaca y Santa María del Lago. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos en cada humedal a lo largo de un año; utilizando técnicas estandarizadas de colecta de macroinvertebrados en puntos a la entrada, salida y espejos de agua de los humedales. Se encontró un gradiente en la distribución de la abundancia de las náyades observado en ambos humedales, donde la comunidad de náyades presenta mayor número de ejemplares en los puntos de muestreos que espacialmente se ubican a mayores distancias de los sitios de vertimientos. Al comparar la composición entre los humedales La Vaca y Santa María del Lago se encontró heterogeneidad de las comunidades de ambos humedales mediante la evaluación de la diversidad beta. El gradiente en la distribución de la abundancia de las náyades observado en ambos humedales, se ajusta más a una respuesta de las especies en términos de tolerancia a las variables ambientales.

  5. The Presence of Phage Orthologous Genes in Helicobacter pylori Correlates with the Presence of the Virulence Factors CagA and VacA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrillos, Alexandra; Arora, Gaurav; Murray, Bradley; Rosenwald, Anne G

    2016-06-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is associated with ulcers and the development of gastric cancer. Several genes, including cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), are associated with increased gastric cancer risk. Some strains of H. pylori also contain sequences related to bacteriophage phiHP33; however, the significance of these phage-related sequences remains unknown. We assessed the extent to which phiHP33-related sequences are present in 335 H. pylori strains using homology searches then mapped shared genes between phiHP33 and H. pylori strains onto an existing phylogeny. One hundred and twenty-one H. pylori strains contain phage orthologous sequences, and the presence of the phage-related sequences correlates with the presence of CagA and VacA. Mapping of the phage orthologs onto a phylogeny of H. pylori is consistent with the hypothesis that these genes were acquired by horizontal gene transfer. phiHP33 phage orthologous sequences might be of significance in understanding virulence of different H. pylori strains. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas em lactação alimentadas com cana-de-açúcar ou feno da parte aérea da mandioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Rocha Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de dietas com cana-de-açúcar ou diferentes porcentagens de inclusão de feno da parte aérea da mandioca (FPAM sobre o comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras. Utilizaram-se 16 vacas, sendo 12 em lactação e quatro secas, fistuladas, distribuídas em quatro quadrados latinos 4x4. As dietas foram formuladas na tentativa de serem isoenergéticas, com quatro porcentagens de FPAM na dieta 0, 33, 67 e 100% da MS total da dieta, em substituição à cana-de-açúcar tratada com 1% de uma mistura de ureia e sulfato de amônio (9:1 partes. O comportamento ingestivo foi avaliado durante 24 horas consecutivas, sendo as observações efetuadas em intervalos de cinco minutos. Foi observado efeito quadrático (P0,05 para os números e períodos de alimentação e ruminação. A avaliação do comportamento ingestivo constitui ferramenta de mensuração da quantidade e qualidade das dietas consumidas, uma vez que demonstra a resposta ingestiva dos bovinos à dieta fornecida.

  7. DISTRIBUCIÓN ESPACIAL Y TEMPORAL DE NÁYADES DE ODONATOS EN LOS HUMEDALES LA VACA Y SANTA MARÍA DEL LAGO, BOGOTÁ, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA INÉS MORENO PALLARES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron la variación espacial y temporal de las comunidades de náyades de odonatos y su asociación al estado de rehabilitación de hábitat en los humedales La Vaca y Santa María del Lago. Mediante técnicas estandarizadas de recolección de macroinvertebrados, se realizaron cuatro muestreos en cada humedal a lo largo de un año en puntos a la entrada y salida y en el espejo de agua de los humedales. Se encontró un gradiente en la distribución de la abundancia de las náyades en ambos humedales, según el cual la comunidad presenta mayor número de ejemplares en los puntos de muestreos que se ubican espacialmente a mayores distancias de los sitios de verti- mientos. Al comparar la composición entre los humedales La Vaca y Santa María del Lago mediante la evaluación de la diversidad beta, se encontró heterogeneidad de las comunidades de ambos ecosistemas. El gradiente en la distribución de la abundancia de las náyades observado en ambos humedales se ajusta a una respuesta de las especies en términos de tolerancia a las variables ambientales.

  8. Characterization of biosynthesis and modes of action of prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin in guinea pig mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehal, Sonia; Blanckaert, Pauline; Roizes, Simon; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    2009-12-01

    Rhythmical transient constrictions of the lymphatic vessels provide the means for efficient lymph drainage and interstitial tissue fluid balance. This activity is critical during inflammation, to avoid or limit oedema resulting from increased vascular permeability, mediated by the release of various inflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and prostacyclin modulate lymphatic contractility in isolated guinea pig mesenteric lymphatic vessels. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the expression of mRNA for enzymes and receptors involved in the production and action of PGE(2) and prostacyclin in mesenteric collecting lymphatic vessels. Frequency and amplitude of lymphatic vessel constriction were measured in the presence of these prostaglandins and the role of their respective EP and IP receptors assessed. Prostaglandin E(2) and prostacyclin decreased concentration-dependently the frequency, without affecting the amplitude, of lymphatic constriction. Data obtained in the presence of the EP(4) receptor antagonists, GW627368x (1 microM) and AH23848B (30 microM) and the IP receptor antagonist CAY10441 (0.1 microM) suggest that PGE(2) predominantly activates EP(4), whereas prostacyclin mainly stimulates IP receptors. Inhibition of responses to either prostaglandin with H89 (10 microM) or glibenclamide (1 microM) suggested a role for the activation of protein kinase A and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Our findings characterized the inhibition of lymphatic pumping induced by PGE(2) or prostacyclin in guinea pig mesenteric lymphatics. This action is likely to impair oedema resolution and to contribute to the pro-inflammatory actions of these prostaglandins.

  9. Neuroinflammation and J2 prostaglandins: linking impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and mitochondria to neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emilia Figueiredo-Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune response of the CNS is a defense mechanism activated upon injury to initiate repair mechanisms while chronic over-activation of the CNS immune system (termed neuroinflammation may exacerbate injury. The latter is implicated in a variety of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, HIV dementia and prion diseases. Cyclooxygenases (COX -1 and COX-2, which are key enzymes in the conversion of arachidonic acid into bioactive prostanoids, play a central role in the inflammatory cascade. J2 prostaglandins are endogenous toxic products of cyclooxygenases, and because their levels are significantly increased upon brain injury, they are actively involved in neuronal dysfunction induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms by which J2 prostaglandins (1 exert their actions, (2 potentially contribute to the transition from acute to chronic inflammation and to the spreading of neuropathology, (3 disturb the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and mitochondrial function, and (4 contribute to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and demyelination in Krabbe disease. We conclude by discussing the therapeutic potential of targeting the J2 prostaglandin pathway to prevent/delay neurodegeneration associated with neuroinflammation. In this context, we suggest a shift from the traditional view that cyclooxygenases are the most appropriate targets to treat neuroinflammation, to the notion that J2 prostaglandin pathways and other neurotoxic prostaglandins downstream from cyclooxygenases, would offer significant benefits as more effective therapeutic targets to treat chronic neurodegenerative diseases, while minimizing adverse side effects.

  10. Utilização de Três Fontes de Nitrogênio Associadas à Palma Forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica, Mill. Cv. Gigante na Suplementação de Vacas Leiteiras Mantidas em Pasto Diferido

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    Albuquerque Samuel Salgado Cavalcanti de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O fornecimento da palma forrageira como único alimento não atende as necessidades nutricionais do rebanho, notadamente em proteína e fibra. Nesta pesquisa avaliaram-se fontes de suplementação protéica sobre o desempenho de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com palma e pasto diferido, durante a estação seca, bem como a composição botânica da pastagem. Testaram-se três tratamentos: T1 = pasto diferido (PD + palma + cama de aviário; T2 = PD + palma + farelo de soja e T3 = PD + palma + uréia/sulfato de amônio, em um delineamento de blocos casualizados. Utilizaram-se 12 vacas mestiças 5/8 Holando-Zebu, com produção média de leite de 5,6 kg/dia/vaca e peso vivo (PV médio de 452 kg. O experimento teve duração de 121 dias, sendo 21 dias de período de adaptação. Os resultados para produção de leite in natura (3,38, 5,33 e 3,38 kg/vaca/dia, produção de leite corrigido para 4% de gordura (3,15, 4,98 e 3,11 kg/vaca/dia, variação de peso vivo (-351, 77 e -401 g/vaca/dia e consumo in natura de palma (26,3, 37,8 e 26,3 kg/vaca/dia, para T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente, demonstraram a superioridade do farelo de soja como fonte protéica, em relação aos demais tratamentos. No pasto diferido foram identificados 18 famílias, 32 gêneros e 36 espécies. O capim-milhã (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch foi o componente de maior participação na composição botânica da pastagem (28,72%.

  11. Efecto del estrés calórico sobre la producción embrionaria en vacas superovuladas y la tasa de gestación en receptoras

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    Renato Raúl Lozano-Domínguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos fueron determinar el efecto de interacción del estrés calórico de la época de producción del embrión y la de transferencia sobre la tasa de gestación de vacas receptoras, y evaluar si existe efecto del estrés calórico sobre la producción y calidad embrionaria en vacas superovuladas. Vacas lactantes de la raza Holstein fueron superovuladas en la época templada (n=20 y cálida (n=22. Los embriones fueron colectados, congelados y transferidos a vacas Holstein lactantes durante la época templada (n=54 y cálida (n=53. La respuesta superovulatoria (85.1 % y la tasa de fertilización (76.2 % fueron similares en ambas épocas (P>0.05. En la época templada, el número de óvulos y embriones (10.6, y embriones transferibles (7.4 colectados por vaca fueron superiores a los observados en la época cálida (6.1 y 4.4, respectivamente (P<0.05. La tasa de gestación de las vacas receptoras fue más alta durante la época templada cuando éstas recibieron un embrión producido en condiciones templadas (45.0 %, que en aquéllas que recibieron un embrión de época cálida (21.5 %, P<0.05. Independientemente de la época de producción del embrión, la tasa de gestación de las vacas receptoras fue menor durante la época cálida (13.9 % que en la templada (33.2 %, P<0.05. El estrés calórico compromete la producción embrionaria y la competencia del embrión para el establecimiento de la gestación, y se mostró un efecto materno durante la época cálida, que impacta negativamente la sobrevivencia del embrión después de la transferencia.

  12. Hipocalcemia não puerperal em vacas leiteiras sob pastejo de aveia e azevém: estudo de fatores predisponentes

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    Mariana M. Coneglian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Hipocalcemia Não Puerperal (HNP é uma condição rara e pouco compreendida. Não há estudos que expliquem a sua relação com a ingestão de pastagens de inverno como base da alimentação volumosa. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram descrever aspectos clínicos de dois casos naturais de HNP, e estudar o balanço mineral e eletrolítico de vacas leiteiras de alta e de média produção alimentadas em pastagem de inverno em diferentes estágios de evolução. Foram acompanhados dois casos de HNP em vacas leiteiras, mantidas em pastagens de aveia ou de azevém no município de Francisco Beltrão, PR. De três propriedades localizadas no mesmo município, foram selecionadas vacas lactantes hígidas de alta produção da raça Holandesa (n=11 e de média produção das raças Holandesa (n=8 e Jersey (n=9, mantidas em pastagem mista de aveia e azevém, de junho a outubro de 2011, e complementadas com silagem de milho. Amostras de sangue, de urina e dos alimentos ingeridos foram colhidas antes do ingresso na pastagem (maio, e nos estágios inicial (junho, intermediário (julho e final (setembro do ciclo de maturação da forragem. Foram determinadas as concentrações séricas e urinárias de Ca, P, Mg, Na+, K+, Cl- e creatinina e calculada as excreções fracionadas. Nas amostras de alimento foram determinadas a matéria seca (MS e as concentrações de Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl e S, e calculou-se a diferença entre cátions e ânions da dieta (DCAD nos diferentes momentos. Com base nas evidências pode-se afirmar que vacas leiteiras em lactação mantidas em pastagem de aveia e/ou de azevém nos meses de inverno podem desenvolver hipocalcemia e exibir sinais clínicos e resposta ao tratamento similares aos da hipocalcemia puerperal clássica, mesmo não sendo recém paridas. A ingestão de aveia e azevém, substituindo parcialmente a silagem de milho como volumoso da dieta, não provoca desequilíbrio eletrolítico e não interfere com a calcemia, a

  13. Zoneamento bioclimático para vacas leiteiras no Estado da Bahia Bioclimatical zoning of milk cows in the State of Bahia, Brazil

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    Sílvia H. N. Turco

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados dados meteorológicos médios diários de 437 estações meteorológicas distribuídas por todo o Estado da Bahia para realizar o zoneamento bioclimático de vacas leiteiras e o declínio da produção de leite para vacas com nível de produção de 10 e 25 kg dia-1, nas condições térmicas desse Estado. As variáveis consideradas foram a temperatura (Ta e a umidade relativa do ar (UR que foram utilizadas no cálculo do índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU. Estimou-se o declínio da produção de leite (DPL em função do ITU e do nível de produção (NP. Com os valores de ITU e DPL, foram traçadas as isolinhas dessas duas variáveis para a Bahia por meio do programa SURFER 7.0. Observou-se que, mesmo para os meses com temperaturas mais amenas, há grande possibilidade de ocorrência de estresse climático para vacas em lactação, em algumas regiões do Estado. Nos meses mais quentes, há três zonas bioclimáticas na Bahia com maior ocorrência de estresse. Com a espacialização do declínio na produção, foram verificadas zonas com maior probabilidade de ocorrência de decínio na produção de leite, devido às condições climáticas desfavoráveis, apresentando regiões com perdas de até 1 kg de leite por vaca por dia com NP de 10 kg e regiões com perdas de produção de até 4,5 kg de leite por vaca por dia com NP de 25 kg.Daily mean meteorological data from 437 meteorological stations in the State of Bahia were used to accomplish the bioclimatical zoning of milk cows and the decline in milk yield of cows with production levels of 10 and 25 kg day-1 in summer thermic condition in this State. The variables temperature (Ta and relative air humidity (RH were used to calculate the temperature and humidity index (THI. The milk production decline (MPD was estimated based on data of the THI and the level of production (LP. With these data the PMD and THI mapping was done for the State of Bahia with the program SURFER 7

  14. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase is not a biomarker of atherosclerotic manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosbond, Susanne E; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Pedersen, Lise

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Over the last decades Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), Osteoprotegerin (OPG), Osteopontin (OPN) and Pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) have been reported to be associated with coronary artery disease, and L-PGDS has been proposed as a potential new diagnostic...... patients with CVD, who were referred for cardiovascular surgery [CVD-group]. Concentrations of L-PGDS, OPG, OPN and PAPP-A were analyzed and compared between the four groups. RESULTS: We did not find any significant differences in L-PGDS concentrations between the four groups (p = 0.32). OPG concentrations...... differed significantly (p = 0.003), with the highest concentration observed in ACS patients. Considering OPN (p = 0.12) and PAPP-A (p = 0.53) their concentrations between groups did not differ significantly. CONCLUSION: The main message from this study is the observation that L-PGDS based on a single blood...

  15. Differential regulation of renal prostaglandin receptor mRNAs by dietary salt intake in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Mann, Birgitte; Skøtt, O

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that prostaglandin (PG) receptor expression in the rat kidney is subject to physiological regulation by dietary salt intake. METHODS: Rats were fed diets with 0.02 or 4% NaCl for two weeks. PG receptor expression was assayed in kidney regions...... with cells obtained from salt-loaded animals. In the outer medulla, EP3 transcripts correlated directly with salt intake, and mRNA abundance was increased twofold by a high-NaCl diet. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that subtype-specific, regional changes in PG receptor expression are involved in the renal...... and cells by ribonuclease protection assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Functional correlates were studied by measurement of PGE2-induced cAMP formation and renin secretion in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells isolated from animals on various salt intakes. RESULTS: EP1 and EP3...

  16. Role of prostaglandin E2 on amoebic liver abscess formation in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ramírez, B; Escalante, B; Rosales-Encina, J L; Talamás-Rohana, P

    1997-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica can modulate macrophage functions and cytokine production by a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) mechanism. To study the participation of PGE2 on amoebic liver abscess formation, we tested the effect of the PG synthesis inhibitor indomethacin (INDO) on abscess development in hamsters infected intrahepatically with E. histolytica trophozoites. Male infected animals had higher levels of plasma PGE2 (5.7 +/- 0.7 pg/ml pre-infection; 26.0 +/- 2.0 pg/ml 7 days postinfection; p abscess weight by 18% and 30% respectively (p abscesses through generation and support of the inflammation. The partial effect of INDO treatment suggests that additional factors are involved.

  17. Lipopolysaccharide and silica-stimulated mononuclear cell prostaglandin production in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punchard, N A; Cason, J; Mullins, J; Chander, C; Thompson, R P

    2000-01-01

    Basal, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and silica-stimulated prostaglandin (PG) production were compared between peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from UC patients and healthy subjects (HS). Basal and LPS-stimulated PBMNC PGI2, but not PGE2, production was greater in UC. LPS stimulated both PGE2 and PGI2 by PBMNC from HS and UC patients. Silica stimulated production of both PGs by cells from HS but only PGE2 by cells from UC patients. The differences in responses to silica and LPS may result from differences in activation of NFkappaB or, alternatively, prior sensitisation to one of these agents. That PBMNC PGE2 production is not increased in UC, as it is in Crohn's disease, suggests that there are differences in PBMNC behaviour between these two diseases. PMID:11132777

  18. Lipopolysaccharide and silica-stimulated mononuclear cell prostaglandin production in ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville A. Punchard

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal, lipopolysaccharide (LPS and silica-stimulated prostaglandin (PG production were compared between peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC from UC patients and healthy subjects (HS. Basal and LPS-stimulated PBMNC PGI2, but not PGE2, production was greater in UC. LPS stimulated both PGE2 and PGI2 by PBMNC from HS and UC patients. Silica stimulated production of both PGs by cells from HS but only PGE2 by cells from UC patients. The differences in responses to silica and LPS may result from differences in activation of NFκB or, alternatively, prior sensitisation to one of these agents. That PBMNC PGE2 production is not increased in UC, as it is in Crohn’s disease, suggests that there are differences in PBMNC behaviour between these two diseases.

  19. Reduced progesterone and altered cotyledonary prostaglandin values induced by locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus) in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, L.C.; James, L.F.; McMullen, R.W.; Panter, K.E.

    1985-09-01

    Feeding 300 or 400 g of dried spotted locoweed, Astragalus lentiginosus per day to 11 pregnant Columbia ewes from the 20th to the 50th days of their gestations resulted in dead and edematous fetuses. Aspartate aminotransferase values were increased, whereas serum progesterone values were significantly diminished in a dose-dependent manner by locoweed ingestion. Cotyledonary 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG)F1 alpha (400 g/day only) and PGF2 alpha (300 and 400 g/day) values were significantly increased, whereas PGE values were not affected by the treatment. Alterations in PG values in these sheep may be a mechanism for altering corpus luteum function and inducing fetal death, which would ultimately result in abortion.

  20. Storage in vivo of (/sup 3/H)prostaglandins by rabbit blastocysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.A.; Anderson, W.; Turner, T.G.; Harper, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    Day 6 rabbit blastocysts that had previously been incubated with 10 nM (/sup 3/H)prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), (/sup 3/H) PGF2 alpha, or 0.5 microCi (/sup 3/H)water were surgically transferred to the uteri of day 6 pseudopregnant recipient rabbits. At 1, 3, and 20 h after transfer, blastocysts were collected from the recipient rabbits and evaluated for retention of (/sup 3/H)ligands. The transferred day 6 blastocysts were able to retain a significant proportion of the initial PGs for up to 20 h in vivo. These PGs were not metabolized while they remained in the blastocysts in vivo, as assessed by HPLC. The transferred blastocysts appeared normal and viable after 20 h in vivo, since implantation sites could be detected visually. These data support our hypothesis that blastocysts can sequester PGs from their environment in vivo and retain them unmetabolized during the critical period just before implantation.

  1. AUGMENTATIVE EFFECT OF PROSTAGLANDIN E1 ON PENTOBARBITAL HYPNOSIS MEDIATED BY 5-HT IN CHICKS

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    Amalendu Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins (PG are present in different tissues specially in brain tissues endowed with different central nervous system activities. Similarly, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT a biogenic amine with its presence in different central and peripheral tissues as neurotransmitter plays an important role in the regulation of physiological functions specially hypnosis, convulsions, analgesia in rats, mice, cats and chicks etc. Pentobarbitone (PB induced sleep appear to be a serotonergic modulator activity in different animals. PGE1 potentiates the pentobarbitone hypnosis also mediated through serotonin. In the present study, PGE1 induced sleeping time in chicks was evaluated. Drugs affecting 5-HT synthesis, metabolism and receptor activity modulate the potentiating response, while adrenergic receptor antagonists did not showed any response. This study suggest that PGE1 potentiate PB induced sleep through serotonergic signaling pathway as PGE1 increased 5-HT synthesis rate in chick brain.

  2. Prostaglandin F2 alpha-induced response of the bovine ovary, oviduct (uterine tube), and uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, L P; Sadiku, A; Verma, O P

    1979-12-01

    Tissue strips from the ovary, (uterine tube), and oviduct, and uterus of pregnant and nonpregnant cows were tested for their contractile response to prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). When 2.1 x 10(-6)M PGF2 alpha was added to the uterine strips, tension of tissues from pregnant cows increased sharply; however, tension in tissues from nonpregnant cows only increased moderately. Similar concentrations failed to elicit any response from oviductal tissues of either group. Unlike the uterus and the oviduct, the ovaries contracted slowly and irregularly. They responded with varying degrees of stimulation; ovaries from pregnant cows with brief and mild stimulation and ovaries from nonpregnant cows with slower and relatively stronger stimulation. Results indicate that the bovine ovary contracts rhythmically and that its sensitivity to PGF2 alpha decreases during pregnancy in contrast to the bovine uterus which becomes increasingly sensitive during pregnancy.

  3. Localization of prostaglandin E(2) EP2 and EP4 receptors in the rat kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Stubbe, J; Hansen, P B

    2001-01-01

    segments showed EP2 expression in descending thin limb of Henle's loop (DTL) and in vasa recta of the outer medulla. The EP4 receptor was expressed in distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) in preglomerular vessels, and in outer medullary vasa recta. Butaprost, an EP2 receptor......We investigated the localization of cAMP-coupled prostaglandin E(2) EP2 and EP4 receptor expression in the rat kidney. EP2 mRNA was restricted to the outer and inner medulla in rat kidney, as determined by RNase protection assay. RT-PCR analysis of microdissected resistance vessels and nephron......-selective agonist, dose dependently raised cAMP levels in microdissected DTL and outer medullary vasa recta specimens but had no effect in EP2-negative outer medullary collecting duct segments. Dietary salt intake did not alter EP2 expression in the kidney medulla. These results suggest that PGE(2) may act...

  4. Magaldrate stimulates endogenous prostaglandin E2 synthesis in human gastric mucosa in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Baumeister, B; Kipnowski, J; Miederer, S E; Vetter, H

    1998-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays an important role in the inhibition of gastric acid production and exerts cytoprotective action. The in vitro and in vivo effect of magaldrate, an aluminum containing antacid, on PGE2 synthesis in the gastric mucosa was investigated. In the first part of the study, magaldrate was added to a suspension of isolated gastric mucosal cells. In the second part, the antacid gel was applied to the gastric mucosa during gastroscopy and biopsies were taken from the same site 5 and 10 min later. The antacid significantly stimulated PGE2 release from the suspension of isolated gastric cells in vitro. The biopsies obtained after the application of magaldrate showed an increased PGE2 production compared to specimens obtained before. The data suggest that in addition to its neutralizing capacity as an antacid, magaldrate contributes to the cytoprotective activity of the mucosa by stimulating endogenous PGE2 synthesis.

  5. Absence of systemic oxidative stress and increased CSF prostaglandin F2α in progressive MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Magda A.; Maghzal, Ghassan J.; Khademi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS).  Methods: We determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry nonenzymatic (F2-isoprostanes) and enzymatic oxidation products of arachidonic acid (prostaglandin F2α [PGF2α......]) in plasma and CSF of 45 controls (other neurologic disease [OND] with no signs of inflammation) and 62 patients with MS. Oxidation products were correlated with disease severity and validated biomarkers of inflammation (chemokine ligand 13; matrix metalloproteinase-9; osteopontin) and axonal damage......, but not F2-isoprostanes, were significantly higher in patients with progressive disease than OND controls (p age (p = 0.022), although this increase could not be explained by age. CSF PGF2α decreased...

  6. The effect of various acrylonitriles and related compounds on prostaglandin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, F; Mercklein, L; de Paulet, A C; Doré, J C; Gilbert, J; Miquel, J F

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the effect of nearly 90 arylacrylonitrile derivatives, and several related compounds, on the biosynthesis of prostaglandins from bovine seminal vesicle microsomes. This effect was compared to that of triarylacrylonitrile derivatives known for their inhibiting properties. Several arylacrylonitrile derivatives have also proved good inhibitors, especially certain N-trisubstituted compounds: trans (dimethylamino-4 phenyl)-3 (methoxy-4' phenyl)-2 acrylonitrile was the best inhibitor of the group, with an IC50 of 0.07 microM. The absence of carboxy groups in these derivatives precludes the application of any of the site-models proposed to date. We suggest that the electronic charges carried especially by the three aromatic rings play an important role in the inhibiting mechanism.

  7. Prostaglandin E2-induced colonic secretion in patients with and without colorectal neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Nicolai; Tilotta, Maria C; Witte, Anne-Barbara

    2010-01-01

    EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 is not significantly different between neoplasia diseased patients and controls. This indicates that increased indomethacin-sensitive mechanisms in colonic mucosa from neoplasia diseased patients are not related to differences in functional expression of EP receptor subtypes....... by prostaglandin E2 is needed. We hypothesized that patients with colonic neoplasia have altered colonic epithelial ion transport and express functionally different prostanoid receptor levels in this respect. METHODS: Patients referred for colonoscopy were included and grouped into patients with and without...... and inhibitors of prostanoid receptors and ion transport were subsequently added to the chamber solutions. Electrogenic ion transport parameters (short circuit current and slope conductance) were recorded. Tissue pathology and tissue damage before and after experiments was assessed by histology. RESULTS...

  8. Effect of dietary vitamin E or selenium on prostaglandin dehydrogenase in hyperoxic rat lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, L. N.; Mathias, M. M.; Schatte, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    Weanling male rats were fed semipurified diets supplemented with 0, 60, or 600 IU/kg vitamin E or 0, 100, or 1000 ppb selenium. One group was injected daily with vitamin E at a rate equivalent to consumption of 60 IU/kg. Animals from all groups were sacrificed after exposure to normobaric oxygen or air for 48 h. Lung tissue was analyzed for the combined activity of prostaglandin dehydrogenase and reductase. Using the decline in enzyme activity as an indicator of susceptibility to oxygen poisoning, protection against hyperoxia was directly related to the level of vitamin E supplementation. Selenium supplemented at 100 ppb provided significant protection when compared to 0 ppb or 1000 ppb. The latter dose may have been marginally toxic. Thus dietary supplementation of vitamin E and selenium may influence the relative susceptibility of an animal to pulmonary oxygen poisoning.

  9. LPS-Challenged TNFα Production, Prostaglandin Secretion, and TNFα/TNFRs Expression in the Endometrium of Domestic Cats in Estrus or Diestrus, and in Cats with Pyometra or Receiving Medroxyprogesterone Acetate

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    Ewelina Jursza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone (P4 derivatives which are commonly used to block the cyclicity of domestic cats disturb the endocrine balance in the endometrium. The aims of this study were (i to examine whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS is responsible for enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα secretion by the feline endometrial epithelial and stromal cells in vitro, (ii to know whether immunolocalization of TNFα/TNFR1 and TNFR2 differs in cats at estrus or diestrus, receiving medroxyprogesterone acetate and suffering from pyometra, and (iii to determine if TNFα-challenged prostaglandin secretion is stopped by prostaglandin synthases inhibitors. A total of 37 domestic adult cats in estrus or diestrus, receiving octane medroxyprogesterone or having clinical symptoms of pyometra, were enrolled in this study. The results obtained showed a distinct increase in LPS-challenged TNFα secretion in endometrial epithelial, but not stromal cells. TNFα augmented PG secretion was blocked by phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and cyclooxygeanase-2 (COX-2, but not by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitor. TNFα/TNFR1 and 2 protein expressions were limited mostly to the surface and glandular epithelium. TNFα/TNFRs protein was upregulated in the inflammatory uterus and hence may be involved in development of pathologic changes in the endometrial glands in cats receiving exogenous P4 as a hormonal contraceptive.

  10. LPS-Challenged TNFα Production, Prostaglandin Secretion, and TNFα/TNFRs Expression in the Endometrium of Domestic Cats in Estrus or Diestrus, and in Cats with Pyometra or Receiving Medroxyprogesterone Acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jursza, Ewelina; Szóstek, Anna Z.; Kowalewski, Mariusz P.; Boos, Alois; Okuda, Kiyoshi; Siemieniuch, Marta J.

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone (P4) derivatives which are commonly used to block the cyclicity of domestic cats disturb the endocrine balance in the endometrium. The aims of this study were (i) to examine whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is responsible for enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) secretion by the feline endometrial epithelial and stromal cells in vitro, (ii) to know whether immunolocalization of TNFα/TNFR1 and TNFR2 differs in cats at estrus or diestrus, receiving medroxyprogesterone acetate and suffering from pyometra, and (iii) to determine if TNFα-challenged prostaglandin secretion is stopped by prostaglandin synthases inhibitors. A total of 37 domestic adult cats in estrus or diestrus, receiving octane medroxyprogesterone or having clinical symptoms of pyometra, were enrolled in this study. The results obtained showed a distinct increase in LPS-challenged TNFα secretion in endometrial epithelial, but not stromal cells. TNFα augmented PG secretion was blocked by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cyclooxygeanase-2 (COX-2), but not by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor. TNFα/TNFR1 and 2 protein expressions were limited mostly to the surface and glandular epithelium. TNFα/TNFRs protein was upregulated in the inflammatory uterus and hence may be involved in development of pathologic changes in the endometrial glands in cats receiving exogenous P4 as a hormonal contraceptive. PMID:25028529

  11. Prostaglandins in non-insectan invertebrates: recent insights and unsolved problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Andrew F; Vogan, Claire L; Taylor, Graham W; Clare, Anthony S

    2005-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PG) are oxygenated derivatives of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. In mammals, these compounds have been shown to play key roles in haemostasis, sleep-wake regulation, smooth muscle tone, and vaso-, temperature and immune regulation. In invertebrates, PGs have been reported to perform similar roles and are involved in the control of oogenesis and spermatogenesis, ion transport and defence. Although there is often a detailed understanding of the actions of these compounds in invertebrates such as insects, knowledge of their mechanism of biosynthesis is often lacking. This account provides a critical review of our current knowledge on the structure and modes of biosynthesis of PGs in invertebrates, with particular reference to aquatic invertebrates. It emphasises some of the most recent findings, which suggest that some PGs have been misidentified. Prostaglandins in invertebrates can be categorised into two main types; the classical forms, such as PGE2 and PGD2 that are found in mammals, and novel forms including clavulones, bromo- and iodo-vulones and various PGA2 and PGE2 esters. A significant number of reports of PG identification in invertebrates have relied upon methods such as enzyme immunoassay that do not have the necessary specificity to ensure the validity of the identification. For example, in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, although there are PG-like compounds that bind to antibodies raised against PGE2, mass spectrometric analysis failed to confirm the presence of this and other classical PGs. Therefore, care should be taken in drawing conclusions about what PGs are formed in invertebrates without employing appropriate analytical methods. Finally, the recent publication of the Ciona genome should facilitate studies on the nature and mode of biosynthesis of PGs in this advanced deuterostomate invertebrate.

  12. Nitric oxide and prostaglandins in the clenbuterol-induced ACTH and corticosterone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadek-Michalska, A; Bugajski, A J; Bugajski, J

    2008-03-01

    The present study was designed to determine the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG) in the stimulatory action of clenbuterol, a selective beta(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis under basal and social crowding stress conditions. Clenbuterol given i.c.v. (10 microg) or i.p. (0.2 mg/kg) considerably increased ACTH and corticosterone secretion. A selective beta(2)-receptor antagonist compound ICI 118551 and non-selective beta-receptor antagonist propranolol given by either route reduced the stimulatory action of clenbuterol. Crowding stress (21 rats in a cage for 7) for 3-7 days significantly reduced the i.c.v. clenbuterol-induced ACTH and corticosterone secretion and i.p. clenbuterol-elicited ACTH secretion. L-NAME, mainly endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocker, stronger than L-NNA, a neuronal NOS blocker, reduced the clenbuterol-evoked ACTH and corticosterone secretion in control rats but did not significantly alter this secretion already reduced by crowding stress. Piroxicam, predominantly constitutive cyclooxygenase (COX-1) inhibitor, given i.p. significantly diminished the i.p. clenbuterol-induced ACTH and corticosterone secretion in control rats and tended to reverse the reduction of ACTH secretion by crowding stress. These results indicate that clenbuterol, a selective beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, is much stronger stimulator of the HPA axis than isoprenaline, a non-selective beta-receptor agonist. Social crowding stress reduces to a larger extent the HPA response to beta(2)-receptor stimulation. Likewise, in the HPA axis stimulation via beta(2)-adrenoceptors endogenous NO and prostaglandins are significantly involved. Beta2-adrenoceptor is a dominant functional subtype of beta-receptor in the stimulatory and modulatory signals regulating the HPA axis activity under basal and social stress conditions.

  13. Prostaglandin E2 metabolism in rat brain: Role of the blood-brain interfaces

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    Strazielle Nathalie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is involved in the regulation of synaptic activity and plasticity, and in brain maturation. It is also an important mediator of the central response to inflammatory challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the tissues forming the blood-brain interfaces to act as signal termination sites for PGE2 by metabolic inactivation. Methods The specific activity of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase was measured in homogenates of microvessels, choroid plexuses and cerebral cortex isolated from postnatal and adult rat brain, and compared to the activity measured in peripheral organs which are established signal termination sites for prostaglandins. PGE2 metabolites produced ex vivo by choroid plexuses were identified and quantified by HPLC coupled to radiochemical detection. Results The data confirmed the absence of metabolic activity in brain parenchyma, and showed that no detectable activity was associated with brain microvessels forming the blood-brain barrier. By contrast, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity was measured in both fourth and lateral ventricle choroid plexuses from 2-day-old rats, albeit at a lower level than in lung or kidney. The activity was barely detectable in adult choroidal tissue. Metabolic profiles indicated that isolated choroid plexus has the ability to metabolize PGE2, mainly into 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGE2. In short-term incubations, this metabolite distributed in the tissue rather than in the external medium, suggesting its release in the choroidal stroma. Conclusion The rat choroidal tissue has a significant ability to metabolize PGE2 during early postnatal life. This metabolic activity may participate in signal termination of centrally released PGE2 in the brain, or function as an enzymatic barrier acting to maintain PGE2 homeostasis in CSF during the critical early postnatal period of brain development.

  14. Activation of prostaglandin EP receptors by lubiprostone in rat and human stomach and colon.

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    Bassil, A K; Borman, R A; Jarvie, E M; McArthur-Wilson, R J; Thangiah, R; Sung, E Z H; Lee, K; Sanger, G J

    2008-05-01

    Lubiprostone (Amitiza), a possible ClC-2 channel opener derived from prostaglandin E(1) and indicated for the treatment of constipation, increases chloride ion transport and fluid secretion into the intestinal lumen. As lubiprostone may also directly modulate gastrointestinal motility, we investigated its actions and the possible involvement of prostaglandin EP receptor activation on rat and human isolated gastrointestinal preparations. Rat and human isolated preparations were mounted in tissue baths for isometric recording. The effects of lubiprostone on muscle tension and on electrically stimulated, neuronal contractions were investigated in the absence and presence of EP receptor antagonists. In rat and human stomach longitudinal muscle, lubiprostone induced a contraction (pEC(50) of 7.0+/-0.0, n=4 and 6.4+/-0.2, n=3, respectively), which was inhibited by pretreatment with the EP(1) receptor antagonist, EP(1)A 300 nM (pEC(50) reduced to 6.2+/-0.2, n=6), but not by the EP(3) or EP(4) receptor antagonists (L-798106 and GW627368X, respectively, 1 microM, P>0.05). Lubiprostone also reduced electrically stimulated, neuronal contractions in rat and human colon circular muscle preparations (pIC(50) of 8.9+/-0.4, n=7 and 8.7+/-0.9, n=6, respectively), an effect mediated pre-junctionally. This effect was reduced by the EP(4) receptor antagonist (pIC(50) of 6.7+/-1.1, n=7 and 7.7+/-0.4, n=6, respectively) but not by EP(1) or EP(3) receptor antagonists. In rats and humans, lubiprostone contracts stomach longitudinal muscle and inhibits neuronally mediated contractions of colon circular muscle. Experiments are now needed to determine if this additional activity of lubiprostone contributes to its clinical efficacy and/or side-effect profile.

  15. Thermodynamic and NMR analyses of NADPH binding to lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase

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    Qin, Shubin [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shimamoto, Shigeru [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Maruno, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yuji [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kawahara, Kazuki; Yoshida, Takuya [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ohkubo, Tadayasu, E-mail: ohkubo@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-12-04

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is one of the most abundant proteins in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with dual functions as a prostaglandin D{sub 2} (PGD{sub 2}) synthase and a transporter of lipophilic ligands. Recent studies revealed that L-PGDS plays important roles in protecting against various neuronal diseases induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the molecular mechanisms of such protective actions of L-PGDS remain unknown. In this study, we conducted thermodynamic and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses, and demonstrated that L-PGDS binds to nicotinamide coenzymes, including NADPH, NADP{sup +}, and NADH. Although a hydrophilic ligand is not common for L-PGDS, these ligands, especially NADPH showed specific interaction with L-PGDS at the upper pocket of its ligand-binding cavity with an unusually bifurcated shape. The binding affinity of L-PGDS for NADPH was comparable to that previously reported for NADPH oxidases and NADPH in vitro. These results suggested that L-PGDS potentially attenuates the activities of NADPH oxidases through interaction with NADPH. Given that NADPH is the substrate for NADPH oxidases that play key roles in neuronal cell death by generating excessive ROS, these results imply a novel linkage between L-PGDS and ROS. - Highlights: • Interactions of L-PGDS with nicotinamide coenzymes were studied by ITC and NMR. • The binding affinity of L-PGDS was strongest to NADPH among nicotinamide coenzymes. • NADPH binds to the upper part of L-PGDS ligand-binding cavity. • L-PGDS binds to both lipophilic and hydrophilic ligands. • This study implies a novel linkage between L-PGDS and reactive oxygen species.

  16. Decreased Prostaglandin D2 Levels in Major Depressive Disorder Are Associated with Depression-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cuilin; Wei, Hui; Zhu, Wanwan; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is the most abundant prostaglandin in the mammalian brain. The physiological and pharmacological actions of PGD2 in the central nervous system seem to be associated with some of the symptoms exhibited by patients with major depressive disorder. Previous studies have found that PGD2 synthase was decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of major depressive disorder patients. We speculated that there may be a dysregulation of PGD2 levels in major depressive disorder. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a stable isotopic-labeled internal standard was used to determine PGD2 levels in the plasma of major depressive disorder patients and in the brains of depressive mice. A total of 32 drug-free major depressive disorder patients and 30 healthy controls were recruited. An animal model of depression was constructed by exposing mice to 5 weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress. To explore the role of PGD2 in major depressive disorder, selenium tetrachloride was administered to simulate the change in PGD2 levels in mice. Mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress exhibited depression-like behaviors, as indicated by reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. PGD2 levels in the plasma of major depressive disorder patients and in the brains of depressive mice were both decreased compared with their corresponding controls. Further inhibiting PGD2 production in mice resulted in an increased immobility time in the forced swimming test that could be reversed by imipramine. Decreased PGD2 levels in major depressive disorder are associated with depression-like behaviors.

  17. Effects of a thromboxane receptor antagonist on prostaglandin D2 and histamine induced bronchoconstriction in man.

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    al Jarad, N; Hui, K P; Barnes, N

    1994-01-01

    Many prostanoids including are prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha and PGD2 are potent bronchoconstrictor agents. There is evidence to suggest that airway thromboxane (TP) receptor may act as a common receptor for their bronchoconstrictor actions. We tested the hypothesis that inhaled prostaglandin (PG) D2-induced bronchoconstriction is mediated by interacting with the TP receptor antagonist, ICI 192605, on the bronchoconstrictor response to inhaled PGD2 in a double-blind, placebo-controlled and crossed-over trial in normal subjects. The effect of ICI 192605 on histamine induced bronchoconstriction served as control for non-specific bronchodilatory actions. The study had two phases; the first consisted of two inhaled PGD2 challenge study days, and the second phase was that of inhaled histamine. Each study day was separated by at least a week. On each study day, the challenge tests were carried out 30 min after ingestion of 100 mg ICI 192605 or placebo. Doubling concentrations of agonist were given till more than 35% fall in post-diluent specific airway conductance (sGaw) occurred. The concentration needed to cause a fall in a sGaw of 35% post-diluent value (PC35sGaw) was then determined from linear interpolation of the log dose-response. Eight male subjects (median age 26, range 20-35 years) completed the study. ICI 192605 did not change baseline airway calibre 30 min after ingestion on either PGD2 or histamine study days. ICI 192605 significantly shifted the dose-response curve to inhaled PGD2 to the right by a median of 3.4 fold (Wilcoxon rank sign test, P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Impaired leukocyte influx in cervix of postterm women not responding to prostaglandin priming.

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    Sahlin, Lena; Stjernholm-Vladic, Ylva; Roos, Nathalie; Masironi, Britt; Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor

    2008-09-02

    Prolonged pregnancies are associated with increased rate of maternal and fetal complications. Post term women could be divided into at least two subgroups, one where parturition is possible to induce by prostaglandins and one where it is not. Our aim was to study parameters in cervical biopsies in women with spontaneous delivery at term (controls) and compare to those that are successfully induced post term (responders), and those that are not induced (non-responders), by local prostaglandin treatment. Stromal parameters examined in this study were the accumulation of leukocytes (CD45, CD68), mRNAs and/or proteins for the extracellular matrix degrading enzymes (matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9), their inhibitors (tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2), interleukin-8 (IL-8), the platelet activating factor-receptor (PAF-R), syndecan-1 and estrogen binding receptors (estrogen receptor (ER)alpha, ERbeta and G-coupled protein receptor (GPR) 30) as well as the proliferation marker Ki-67. The influx of leukocytes as assessed by CD45 was strongest in the responders, thereafter in the controls and significantly lower in the non-responders. IL-8, PAF-R and MMP-9, all predominantly expressed in leukocytes, showed significantly reduced immunostaining in the group of non-responders, while ERalpha and GPR30 were more abundant in the non-responders, as compared to the controls. The impaired leukocyte influx, as reflected by the reduced number of CD45 positive cells as well as decreased immunostaining of IL-8, PAF-R and MMP-9 in the non-responders, could be one explanation of the failed ripening of the cervix in post term women. If the decreased leukocyte influx is a primary explanation to absent ripening or secondary, as a result of other factors, is yet to be established.

  19. Impaired leukocyte influx in cervix of postterm women not responding to prostaglandin priming

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    Masironi Britt

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged pregnancies are associated with increased rate of maternal and fetal complications. Post term women could be divided into at least two subgroups, one where parturition is possible to induce by prostaglandins and one where it is not. Our aim was to study parameters in cervical biopsies in women with spontaneous delivery at term (controls and compare to those that are successfully induced post term (responders, and those that are not induced (non-responders, by local prostaglandin treatment. Methods Stromal parameters examined in this study were the accumulation of leukocytes (CD45, CD68, mRNAs and/or proteins for the extracellular matrix degrading enzymes (matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9, their inhibitors (tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, interleukin-8 (IL-8, the platelet activating factor-receptor (PAF-R, syndecan-1 and estrogen binding receptors (estrogen receptor (ERα, ERβ and G-coupled protein receptor (GPR 30 as well as the proliferation marker Ki-67. Results The influx of leukocytes as assessed by CD45 was strongest in the responders, thereafter in the controls and significantly lower in the non-responders. IL-8, PAF-R and MMP-9, all predominantly expressed in leukocytes, showed significantly reduced immunostaining in the group of non-responders, while ERα and GPR30 were more abundant in the non-responders, as compared to the controls. Conclusion The impaired leukocyte influx, as reflected by the reduced number of CD45 positive cells as well as decreased immunostaining of IL-8, PAF-R and MMP-9 in the non-responders, could be one explanation of the failed ripening of the cervix in post term women. If the decreased leukocyte influx is a primary explanation to absent ripening or secondary, as a result of other factors, is yet to be established.

  20. Effects of prostaglandin administration 10 days apart on reproductive parameters of cyclic dairy nulliparous goats

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    J.F. Fonseca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reported the effects of prostaglandin (PGF2a administration 10 days apart on reproductive parameters of cyclic artificial inseminated (AI nulliparous Alpine (n=9 and Saanen (n=9 goats. Animals received two doses of 22.5mg PGF2a 10 days apart. After 1st and 2nd PGF2a administrations, estrus was monitored at 12 h intervals, with a buck teaser. Plasma progesterone concentration (ng/mL was determined from blood sampled on day 0 (1st PGF2a and the following 5, 10 (2nd PGF2a, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days. After the onset of the second estrus, females were transrectally (5 MHz probe scanned at 4 hour intervals until at least 8h after ovulation. Pregnancy was checked through transrectal ultrasound on days 20, 25, 30, 35 and 90 after insemination. All parameters studied did not differ between breeds (P>0.05. Estrous response and interval to estrus, respectively, after 1st (78.9% and 50.6±17.2h and 2nd PGF2a (88.9% and 50.0±14.8h administration did not differ (P>0.05. Overall animals ovulating (100.0%, interval to ovulation after 2nd PGF2a (64.5±19.5h and after estrous onset (18.0±9.1h, ovulation rate (1.3±0.5, diameter of ovulatory follicle (8.1±1.1mm were recorded. Embryo loss occurred before day 30 of pregnancy. Estrus can be efficiently synchronized in nulliparous Alpine and Saanen goats with two doses of prostaglandin 10 days apart.