WorldWideScience

Sample records for utility management options

  1. Demand-side management pricing options in electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardana, P.; Herman, P.

    1990-01-01

    In 1989 Ontario Hydro implemented optional time-of-use (TOU) rates at the wholesale level for all municipal utilities in the province. At the same time, mandatory TOU rates were implemented for large users (customers with loads in excess of 5 MW) served by municipal utilities and Ontario Hydro's direct customers. To fully explore the potential of rate structures as demand-side management (DSM) tools, Ontario Hydro retained a consulting firm to carry out a survey of innovative rate structures in other jurisdications. The survey was intended to identify: the status quo of rate structures in other jurisdictions that were designed specifically to encourage DSM; a profile of the cost basis of the rate structures, for example whether traditional embedded cost of service analyses or contentious methods such as marginal cost pricing were used; whether innovative rates have been successful, and customer reactions and attitudes; and how innovative rates fit into the overall strategy of the utilities. It was found that TOU, interruptible and end-use targeted rates are the rate structures of choice for many utilities. Most are concerned with deferring capacity, reducing peak demand, and shifting load out of peak periods. Most utilities report success with their programs and satisfaction with the present form of the programs. 5 tabs

  2. R and D options for demand side management in Japanese electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takahiko

    1996-01-01

    Japanese electric demand has been steadily increasing in accordance with the economic growth. However, Japanese electric utilities are facing several problems; increasing construction cost of power facilities, siting constraints and the environmental issue of greenhouse gas emissions. To overcome these problems, electric utilities have been promoting demand-side-management (DSM) activities as well as supplier-side measures, with some presently being carried out through promoting energy conservation technologies and introducing electric tariff options of specific contracts for residential/commercial and industrial consumers. Japanese electric utilities have been carrying out R and D for the future, in particular, energy storage and heat storage which contribute to the improvement of load factor. In this paper, I would like to outline the R and D options for DSM in Japan. (author)

  3. R and D options for demand side management in Japanese electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, T.

    1995-01-01

    Japanese electric utilities are facing several problems: increasing construction cost of power facilities, siting constraints and the environmental issue of greenhouse gas emissions. To overcome these problems, electric utilities have been promoting demand-side-management (DSM) activities as well as supplier-side measures, with some presently being carried out through promoting energy conservation technologies and introducing tariff options for residential/commercial and industrial consumers. R and D works have been carried out on various fields such as energy storage and heat storage which contribute to the improvement of the load factor. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  4. A comparison of costs associated with utility management options for dry active waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornibrook, C. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The economics of low level waste management is receiving more attention today than ever before. This is due to four factors: (1) the increases in the cost of processing of these wastes; (2) increases in the cost of disposal; (3) the addition of storage costs for those without access to disposal; and (4) the increasing competitive nature of the electric generation industry. These pressures are forcing the industry to update it`s evaluation of the mix of processing that will afford it the best long term economics and minimize it`s risks for unforeseen costs. Whether disposal is available or not, all utilities face the same challenge of minimizing the costs associated with the management of these wastes. There are a number of variables that will impact how a utility manages their wastes but the problem is the uncertainty of what will actually happen, i.e., will disposal be available, when and at what cost. Using the EPRI-developed WASTECOST: DAW code, this paper explores a variety of LLW management options available to utilities. Along with providing the costs and benefits, other technical considerations which play an important part in the management of these wastes are also addressed.

  5. Mixed waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Currently, limited storage and treatment capacity exists for commercial mixed waste streams. No commercial mixed waste disposal is available, and it has been estimated that if and when commercial mixed waste disposal becomes available, the costs will be high. If high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and management options. Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition) no migration petition) and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly. Another option for mixed waste management that is being explored is the feasibility of Department of Energy (DOE) accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment, storage, and disposal. A study has been completed that analyzes DOE treatment capacity in comparison with commercial mixed waste streams. (author)

  6. Hazardous landfill management, control options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, M.H.; Lederman, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    The land disposal of hazardous wastes has been a common practice over the last half century. The industrial and environmental communities, as well as the public, have an immediate challenge to control the contaminants that may be released from waste land disposal facilities. At the same time, land disposal continues to be, in many cases, the only available disposal technique that can be utilized in the next five years. Thus, it is extremely important that environmentally sound landfill management and control techniques be utilized, both for inactive and active sites. There are a number of key steps in developing a sound management and control plan. These include problem definition, personnel safety, characterization, evaluation of control options, cost-effectiveness analysis and development of an integrated control plan. A number of control options, including diversion, regrading, sealing, and leachate treatment are available and more cost effective in most cases than waste removal. These and other options, as well as the methodology to develop an integrated control plan, are discussed, together with examples. (Auth.)

  7. Management options of varicoceles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Treatment options for varicoceles includes open varicocelectomy performed at various anatomical levels. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy has been established to be a safe and effective treatment for varicoceles. Robotic surgery has been introduced recently as an alternative surgical option for varicocelectomy. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has gained increasing popularity among experts in male reproductive medicine as the treatment of choice for varicocele because of its superior surgical outcomes. There is a growing volume of literature in the recent years on minimal invasive varicocele treatment with percutaneous retrograde and anterograde venous embolization/sclerotherapy. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and limitations associated with each treatment modality for varicoceles. Employment of these advanced techniques of varicocelectomy can provide a safe and effective approach aiming to eliminate varicocele, preserve testicular function and, in a substantial number of men, increase semen quality and the likelihood of pregnancy.

  8. A combined model to assess technical and economic consequences of changing conditions and management options for wastewater utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessler, Mathias; Tränckner, Jens

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents a simplified model that quantifies economic and technical consequences of changing conditions in wastewater systems on utility level. It has been developed based on data from stakeholders and ministries, collected by a survey that determined resulting effects and adapted measures. The model comprises all substantial cost relevant assets and activities of a typical German wastewater utility. It consists of three modules: i) Sewer for describing the state development of sewer systems, ii) WWTP for process parameter consideration of waste water treatment plants (WWTP) and iii) Cost Accounting for calculation of expenses in the cost categories and resulting charges. Validity and accuracy of this model was verified by using historical data from an exemplary wastewater utility. Calculated process as well as economic parameters shows a high accuracy compared to measured parameters and given expenses. Thus, the model is proposed to support strategic, process oriented decision making on utility level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 10 CFR 490.307 - Option for Electric Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Option for Electric Utilities. 490.307 Section 490.307... Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.307 Option for Electric Utilities. (a) A covered person or its... selling, at wholesale or retail, electricity has the option of delaying the vehicle acquisition mandate...

  10. Reducing uncertainty in load forecasts and using real options for improving capacity dispatch management through the utilization of weather and hydrologic forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of weather on electricity markets was discussed with particular focus on reducing weather uncertainty by improving short term weather forecasts. The implications of weather for hydroelectric power dispatch and use were also discussed. Although some errors in weather forecasting can result in economic benefits, most errors are associated with more costs than benefits. This presentation described how a real options analysis can make weather a favorable option. Four case studies were presented for exploratory data analysis of regional weather phenomena. These included: (1) the 2001 California electricity crisis, (2) the delta breeze effects on the California ISO, (3) the summer 2002 weather forecast error for ISO New England, and (4) the hydro plant asset valuation using weather uncertainty. It was concluded that there is a need for more economic methodological studies on the effect of weather on energy markets and costs. It was suggested that the real options theory should be applied to weather planning and utility applications. tabs., figs

  11. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  12. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by usi...

  13. POEM is a cost-effective procedure: cost-utility analysis of endoscopic and surgical treatment options in the management of achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Heidi J; Neupane, Ruel; Fayezizadeh, Mojtaba; Majumder, Arnab; Marks, Jeffrey M

    2017-04-01

    Achalasia is a rare motility disorder of the esophagus. Treatment is palliative with the goal of symptom remission and slowing the progression of the disease. Treatment options include per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LM) and endoscopic treatments such as pneumatic dilation (PD) and botulinum toxin type A injections (BI). We evaluate the economics and cost-effectiveness of treating achalasia. We performed cost analysis for POEM, LM, PD and BI at our institution from 2011 to 2015. Cost of LM was set to 1, and other procedures are presented as percentage change. Cost-effectiveness was calculated based on cost, number of interventions required for optimal results for dilations and injections and efficacy reported in the current literature. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated by a cost-utility analysis using quality-adjusted life year gained, defined as a symptom-free year in a patient with achalasia. Average number of interventions required was 2.3 dilations or two injections for efficacies of 80 and 61 %, respectively. POEM cost 1.058 times the cost of LM, and PD and BI cost 0.559 and 0.448 times the cost of LM. Annual cost per cure over a period of 4 years for POEM, and LM were consistently equivalent, trending the same as PD although this has a lower initial cost. The cost per cure of BI remains stable over 3 years and then doubles. The cost-effectiveness of POEM and LM is equivalent. Myotomy, either surgical or endoscopic, is more cost-effective than BI due to high failure rates of the economical intervention. When treatment is being considered BI should be utilized in patients with less than 2-year life expectancy. Pneumatic dilations are cost-effective and are an acceptable approach to treatment of achalasia, although myotomy has a lower relapse rate and is cost-effective compared to PD after 2 years.

  14. Managing the nuclear utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) is the fifth largest investor-owned utility in the country. The success of nuclear power generation at the St. Lucie Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 has resulted from a continuing management commitment to the nuclear program. The management of the power plants rely strongly on teamwork for most large projects and activities whether they entail plant operation, construction, or maintenance. Various examples of how teamwork has been used to realize the successful completion of projects or solutions to problems are given

  15. Assessing Pinyon Juniper Feedstock Properties and Utilization Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, Kevin Louis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States. These ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon pine and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become more dense, potentially increasing fire hazards. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyonjuniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, including restoration to previous vegetative cover, mitigation of fire risk, and improvement in wildlife habitat. However, the cost of clearing or thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyonjuniper stand management. The goal of this project was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a pinyon-juniper harvest so that potential applications for the biomass may be evaluated.

  16. Proceedings of the Management options information seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This seminar was held in order to provide an opportunity to participants to broaden their knowledge concerning the numerous management options that are available when dealing with emissions generated by the electric power sector. It also represented an opportunity to gather information with regard to a host of different options to support the Electricity Project Team. The presentations centred on topics such as assessment, design and development of management options for the emissions of the electric power industry in Alberta. The legal, economic, social and environmental aspects were considered by the speakers for the options, and the perspectives included experience gained from hands on projects and initiatives. The reasons underlying the selection of options were revealed and lessons learned examined. Of the 14 presentations and the closing remarks speech, two presentations were included in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Herbicide options for hardwood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; A. Brady Self

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbicides in hardwood management presents special problems in that many of the most effective herbicides are either designed to control hardwoods or the product is not labeled for such applications. Numerous studies involving herbicide application in hardwoods have been completed at Mississippi State University. This paper is a compilation of results from...

  18. Management options in decompensated cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah NL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neeral L Shah,1 Yasmin Pourkazemi Banaei,2 Kristen L Hojnowski,2 Scott L Cornella3 1Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Abstract: Chronic injury to the liver from a variety of different sources can result in irreversible scarring of the liver, known as cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA, and according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was responsible for 31,903 deaths in 2010 alone. It is thus of the utmost importance to appropriately manage these patients in the inpatient and outpatient setting to improve morbidity and mortality. In this review, we address four major areas of cirrhosis management: outpatient management of portal hypertension with decompensation, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, and bleeding/coagulation issues. Outpatient management covers recommendations for health care maintenance and screening. Hepatic encephalopathy encompasses a brief review of pathophysiology, treatment in the acute setting, and long-term prevention. Hepatorenal syndrome is discussed in regards to pathophysiology and treatment in the hospital setting. Finally, a discussion of the assessment of coagulation profiles in cirrhosis and recommendations for bleeding and thrombosis complications is included. These topics are not all encompassing with regard to this complicated population, but rather an overview of a few medical problems that are commonly encountered in their care. Keywords: portal hypertension, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal, coagulation

  19. Polycystic ovarian syndrome management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, G Wright; Propst, Anthony M

    2012-12-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder of androgen excess and ovarian dysfunction. Hirsutism and elevated free testosterone levels are the most consistent signs of the androgen excess. Irregular, infrequent, or absent menses and infertility are symptoms of ovulatory dysfunction. Obesity is also a feature of this syndrome and contributes to associated metabolic abnormalities. Lifestyle modification should be the first treatment and is effective in reducing the signs and symptoms. The ovulatory infertility associated with PCOS can be overcome in most cases with oral (clomiphene citrate or letrozole) or injectable (gonadotropins) agents. Surgical intervention is reserved for cases resistant to medical management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Time management problems and discounted utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Cornelius J; Kleinmann, Martin

    2007-05-01

    The lens of behavioral decision theory offers a new perspective for research on time management. The basic idea of this approach is that people discount future consequences of their time management decisions, meaning that they work on tasks with smaller but sooner outcomes rather than on tasks with larger but later outcomes. The authors performed 2 experimental studies to test whether people are sensitive to differences in the discounted utility of time management decisions. In Experiment 1, they used vignettes of typical time management situations; Experiment 2 was a laboratory simulation (an in-basket task that was part of a training assessment). Participants in both studies were German students. As expected, manipulating the discounted utility of options resulted in different time management decisions. In Experiment 1, reactions to time management situations were judged as less likely if the reactions had lower discounted utilities. In Experiment 2, people spent less time on an interruption.

  1. Market based generation: A promising market management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, R.

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed to ease the tension between demand management and supply side management at electric utilities through the introduction of a concept called market management. Market management provides a framework for developing and evaluating the attractiveness of new products and services such as dispersed generation hardware, implementation services, and complementary pricing structures. A market management strategy is the definition of market segments, creating products for those segments, evaluation of the profitability of the product-segment combinations, commitment of resources to those segments, and development of product and marketing plans for those segments. A brief analysis of backup generation is presented as an example of market management. In this example, the customer that is backed up shares some portion of the capital and maintenance costs of the backup unit through priority service rates; the utility and customers that are not backed up can obtain the use of the generating resource but pay only a portion of its costs. Backup generation programs have been found to provide utilities with the ability to meet peak load requirements more cheaply than by investing in peaking capacity. Other benefits for utilities include protection of market share, more efficient rates, and a new source of revenues. With the advances in the technology of small-scale generation, utilities can examine bundling various pricing options with market based generation to offer alternative value-added service options to customer segments with demand characteristics that make these technologies attractive. 3 figs

  2. Managing change in nuclear utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    important factors to consider when undertaking changes in a nuclear business. For the nuclear executive, the most important considerations are as follows. Is there a policy on change management, that gives priority to safety, that is aligned to the vision, goals and objectives of the utility, that is communicated to stakeholders? Is there a systematic, transparent and rigorous change management process applied to all types of change? Are appropriate resources provided to support the process of change? Has sufficient analysis been performed to ensure the changes are adequately justified and are in fact the correct option? What risk analysis and independent reviews have been performed to ensure any potential encroachment on safety levels has been identified and compensatory measures developed? Have these reviews been performed by individuals with commensurate nuclear knowledge and experience? Do the senior managers have a mechanism to review progress regularly? Is the information received sufficient to enable them to exercise their responsibilities as guardians of nuclear safety? Have specific performance indicators been established to monitor the effects of the change? Does the communication plan keep all staff informed of progress and performance and provide for feedback? Does this communication also reach other stakeholders including the regulators, the public and trade unions? How has the utility assessed the cumulative impact of a number of changes in a business area? Following completion, did the change achieve the improvement targets originally established and if not do I understand the cause and do we have a plan to correct the situation? Have we organized a post change peer review to ensure we are continuing to improve in both performance and safety with respect to the rest of the industry?

  3. Managing change in nuclear utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    important factors to consider when undertaking changes in a nuclear business. For the nuclear executive, the most important considerations are as follows. Is there a policy on change management, that gives priority to safety, that is aligned to the vision, goals and objectives of the utility, that is communicated to stakeholders? Is there a systematic, transparent and rigorous change management process applied to all types of change? Are appropriate resources provided to support the process of change? Has sufficient analysis been performed to ensure the changes are adequately justified and are in fact the correct option? What risk analysis and independent reviews have been performed to ensure any potential encroachment on safety levels has been identified and compensatory measures developed? Have these reviews been performed by individuals with commensurate nuclear knowledge and experience? Do the senior managers have a mechanism to review progress regularly? Is the information received sufficient to enable them to exercise their responsibilities as guardians of nuclear safety? Have specific performance indicators been established to monitor the effects of the change? Does the communication plan keep all staff informed of progress and performance and provide for feedback? Does this communication also reach other stakeholders including the regulators, the public and trade unions? How has the utility assessed the cumulative impact of a number of changes in a business area? Following completion, did the change achieve the improvement targets originally established and if not do I understand the cause and do we have a plan to correct the situation? Have we organized a post change peer review to ensure we are continuing to improve in both performance and safety with respect to the rest of the industry?.

  4. Designing flexible engineering systems utilizing embedded architecture options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jeff G.

    This dissertation develops and applies an integrated framework for embedding flexibility in an engineered system architecture. Systems are constantly faced with unpredictability in the operational environment, threats from competing systems, obsolescence of technology, and general uncertainty in future system demands. Current systems engineering and risk management practices have focused almost exclusively on mitigating or preventing the negative consequences of uncertainty. This research recognizes that high uncertainty also presents an opportunity to design systems that can flexibly respond to changing requirements and capture additional value throughout the design life. There does not exist however a formalized approach to designing appropriately flexible systems. This research develops a three stage integrated flexibility framework based on the concept of architecture options embedded in the system design. Stage One defines an eight step systems engineering process to identify candidate architecture options. This process encapsulates the operational uncertainty though scenario development, traces new functional requirements to the affected design variables, and clusters the variables most sensitive to change. The resulting clusters can generate insight into the most promising regions in the architecture to embed flexibility in the form of architecture options. Stage Two develops a quantitative option valuation technique, grounded in real options theory, which is able to value embedded architecture options that exhibit variable expiration behavior. Stage Three proposes a portfolio optimization algorithm, for both discrete and continuous options, to select the optimal subset of architecture options, subject to budget and risk constraints. Finally, the feasibility, extensibility and limitations of the framework are assessed by its application to a reconnaissance satellite system development problem. Detailed technical data, performance models, and cost estimates

  5. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  6. Utilizing waste heat. Energy recovery options for trade and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, W

    1988-08-01

    The article shows options for efficient and low-cost thermal energy recovery. Heat recovery involves a number of problems, e.g. the type of waste heat, the uses of the energy recovered, and the best way of utilizing it. There is no generally applicable way of solving these problems. Some practical examples are presented. Economically efficient solutions require detailed technical knowledge as well as a good portion of creativity and imagination. (BR).

  7. French programs for advanced waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvatores, M [CEA-DRN (France); Schapira, J P [CNRS-IN2P3 (France); Mouney, H [EDF-DE (France)

    1997-11-01

    Several organisms (CEA, CNRS, EdF, etc.) are cooperating in France on Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS). The major motivation is the investigation of innovative options for the radioactive waste management. The paper describes the ongoing activities and future directions of this cooperative effort in the field of ADS. 11 refs, 3 figs.

  8. Low-level radioactive waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the non-technical problems associated with the social and political obstacles to the secure disposal of low level radioactive waste. The author reviews thirty years' experience managing non-military wastes. The merits of available options are considered

  9. Warranty of Misinforming as an Option in Product Utilization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Grozdanov Christozov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The following definition of “option” is given in Wikipedia - “In finance, an option is a contract, which gives the buyer (the owner or holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on or before a specified date, depending on the form of the option” (“Option,” n.d.. Option as a risk management (mitigation tool is broadly used in finance and trade. At the same time, it introduces asymmetry in the sense that, probabilistically, it limits the level of losses (e.g., the price of the option and allows for unlimited gains. In the market of sophisticated devices (as smart phones, tablets, etc., where technologies are rapidly advancing, customers usually do not have the experience to use all features of the device at the time of the purchase. Due to the lack of appropriate expertise, the risk of misinforming, leading to not purchasing the “right” device is high, but given enough time to learn the capabilities of the device and map these to the needs and tasks that device will be used for, could provide the client with substantial long term benefits. Warranty of misinforming is a mechanism that provides the client with the opportunity to explore the device and master its features under limited risk of financial losses. Thus, the warranty of misinforming could be considered as an option - the custom-ers buy it (at a fixed cost and may gain (theoretically unlimited benefit by realizing (within the terms of the warranty that the device can be used to solve a variety of problems not envisaged at the time of purchase. In this study we present the idea of treating the warranty of misinforming as an option in finances and provide examples to illustrate our viewpoint.

  10. Nuclear spent fuel management. Experience and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel can be stored safely for long periods at relatively low cost, but some form of permanent disposal will eventually be necessary. This report examines the options for spent fuel management, explores the future prospects for each stage of the back-end of the fuel cycle and provides a thorough review of past experience and the technical status of the alternatives. Current policies and practices in twelve OECD countries are surveyed

  11. Erectile dysfunction management options in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2009-04-01

    In Nigeria, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) among patients attending primary care clinics, age-standardized to the U.S. population in 2000 is 57.4%. This is considered high enough to warrant the attention of scientist for critical studies and analysis. The high ED prevalence is associated with etiologies such as psychosexual factors, chronic medical conditions, and some lifestyles. ED constitutes a major public health problem, influencing the patient's well-being and quality of life. It also leads to broken homes and marriages, psychological, social, and physical morbidity. To give an account of various ED management options in Nigeria. Review of peer-reviewed literature, questionnaire, and ethnobotanical survey to some indigenous herb sellers and herbalists. Cross cultural perspectives of ED management in Nigeria. The review suggests that traditional (phytotherapy, zootherapy, and occultism) and nontraditional, orthodox practice (drug therapy, psychological, and behavioral counseling) are applicable to ED management in Nigeria. This review should help in creating awareness into various options available for managing ED in the country, but does not recommend self medication of any form, be it the use of orthodox or herbal remedy.

  12. Impact of gas on utilities - competitive energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolican, M.

    1997-01-01

    The initiatives taken by Nova Scotia Power to have natural gas as a generating fuel was discussed. Nova Scotia Power customers have indicated to the Utility that along with reduced energy costs, they want choices, better services and innovative products. It was noted that coal is currently Nova Scotia Power's principal fuel, but the utility is working with the Cape Breton Development Corporation, their supplier, to bring the cost of coal down. The utility is also exploring the potential of coal bed methane in Pictou and Cumberland counties of Nova Scotia. However, the most promising competitive energy option for their customers is Sable Offshore natural gas. To bring natural gas as the generating fuel for electricity, the Utility is taking steps to convert its Tufts Cove Thermal Generating Station to natural gas and to pipe natural gas to the Trenton Generating Station by November 1999. Bringing natural gas to these two stations would establish a critical base level of demand for natural gas in the Halifax and New Glasgow-Trenton area. One of the important ingredients of this plan is the cost of piping the gas to market. It was suggested that the 'postage stamp' tolling system (i.e. one price for the gas delivered anywhere along the pipeline) favored by some, would not give Nova Scotians the economic advantages that they deserve. For this reason, Nova Scotia Power favours the 'point to point' tolling system, a system that is considered fair and efficient, and the one that has a better chance of producing competitive energy prices

  13. New options in the management of tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Maffulli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Maffulli1, Umile Giuseppe Longo2, Mattia Loppini2, Filippo Spiezia2, Vincenzo Denaro21Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mile End Hospital, London, England; 2Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Biomedico University, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Tendon injuries can be acute or chronic, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors, either alone or in combination. Tendinopathies are a common cause of disability in occupational medicine and account for a substantial proportion of overuse injuries in sports. Tendinopathy is essentially a failed healing response, with haphazard proliferation of tenocytes, abnormalities in tenocytes, with disruption of collagen fibres and subsequent increase in noncollagenous matrix. The scientific evidence base for managing tendinopathies is limited. What may appear clinically as an “acute tendinopathy” is actually a well advanced failure of a chronic healing response in which there is neither histologic nor biochemical evidence of inflammation. In this review we report the new options for the management of tendinopathy, including eccentric exercises, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, injections (intratendinous injections of corticosteroids, aprotinin, polidocanol platelet-rich plasma, autologous blood injection, high-volume injections and surgery. Open surgery aims to excise fibrotic adhesions, remove areas of failed healing and make multiple longitudinal incisions in the tendon to detect intratendinous lesions, and to restore vascularity and possibly stimulate the remaining viable cells to initiate cell matrix response and healing. New surgical techniques aim to disrupt the abnormal neoinnervation to interfere with the pain sensation caused by tendinopathy. These procedures are intrinsically different from the classical ones in present use, because they do not attempt to address directly the pathologic

  14. New options in the management of tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Tendon injuries can be acute or chronic, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors, either alone or in combination. Tendinopathies are a common cause of disability in occupational medicine and account for a substantial proportion of overuse injuries in sports. Tendinopathy is essentially a failed healing response, with haphazard proliferation of tenocytes, abnormalities in tenocytes, with disruption of collagen fibres and subsequent increase in noncollagenous matrix. The scientific evidence base for managing tendinopathies is limited. What may appear clinically as an “acute tendinopathy” is actually a well advanced failure of a chronic healing response in which there is neither histologic nor biochemical evidence of inflammation. In this review we report the new options for the management of tendinopathy, including eccentric exercises, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, injections (intratendinous injections of corticosteroids, aprotinin, polidocanol platelet-rich plasma, autologous blood injection, high-volume injections) and surgery. Open surgery aims to excise fibrotic adhesions, remove areas of failed healing and make multiple longitudinal incisions in the tendon to detect intratendinous lesions, and to restore vascularity and possibly stimulate the remaining viable cells to initiate cell matrix response and healing. New surgical techniques aim to disrupt the abnormal neoinnervation to interfere with the pain sensation caused by tendinopathy. These procedures are intrinsically different from the classical ones in present use, because they do not attempt to address directly the pathologic lesion, but act only to denervate them. They include endoscopy, electrocoagulation, and minimally invasive stripping. Further randomized controlled trials are necessary to clarify better the best therapeutic options for the management of tendinopathy. PMID:24198540

  15. Utilization and management of alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David G. Briggs; Dean S. DeBell; William A. Atkinson

    1978-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia, red alder often grows on forest lands following natural or man-caused disturbances. Frequently ignored as a pest or weed, many alder stands have developed to the point where important utilization and management questions are being asked. It is recognized that alder is a fast growing species, and that its rapid early growth...

  16. Partitioning and transmutation: Radioactive waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Growing world population with increasing energy needs, especially in the developing countries, Threat of global warming due to CO 2 emissions demands non-fossil electricity production. Nuclear will have to be part of a sustainable mix of energy production options Figures show that 350 GWe worldwide capacity is 'nuclear'. Present worldwide spent fuel (containing high Pu inventory) and HLW would need large repositories. In view of the previous facts this lecture deals Partitioning and transmutation as radioactive waste management option. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is a complex technology i.e. advanced reprocessing, and demand transuranics fuel fabrication plants, as well as innovative and/or dedicated transmutation reactors. In addition to U, Pu, and 129 I, 'partitioning' extracts from the liquid high level waste the minor actinides (MA) and the long-lived fission products (LLFP) 99-Tc, 93-Zr, 135-Cs, 107-Pd, and 79-Se). 'Transmutation' requires fully new fuel fabrication plants and reactor technologies to be developed and implemented on industrial scale. Present LWRs are not suited for MA and LLFP transmutation (safety consideration, plant operation, poor incineration capability). Only specially licensed LWRs can cope with MOX fuel; for increased Pu loadings (up to 100%), special reactor designs (e.g., ABB80+) are required; a combination of these reactor types could allow Pu inventory stabilization. Long-term waste radiotoxicity can be effectively reduced only if transuranics are 'incinerated' through fission with very hard neutron spectra. New reactor concepts (dedicated fast reactors, Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), fusion/fission hybrid reactors) have been proposed as transmuters/incinerators. Significant Pu+MAs incineration rates can be achieved in symbiotic scenarios: LWR-MOX and dedicated fast reactors; fast neutron spectrum ADS mainly for MA incineration; very high thermal flux ADS concepts could also provide a significant transuranics

  17. Minor actinide transmutation - a waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    1986-01-01

    The incentive to recycle minor actinides results from the reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk rather than from a better utilization of the uranium resources. Nevertheless, the gain in generated electricity by minor actinide transmutation in a fast breeder reactor can compensate for the costs of their recovery and make-up into fuel elements. Different recycling options of minor actinides are discussed: transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) is possible as long as plutonium is not recycled in light water reactors (LWRs). In this case a minor actinide burner with fuel of different composition has to be introduced. The development of appropriate minor actinide fuels and their properties are described. The irradiation experiments underway or planned are summarized. A review of minor actinide partitioning from the PUREX waste stream is given. From the present constraints of LMFBR technology a reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk by a factor of 200 is deduced relative to that from the direct storage of spent LWR fuel. Though the present accumulation of minor actinides is low, nuclear transmutation may be needed when nuclear energy production has grown. (orig.)

  18. Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

    2009-01-01

    Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative

  19. Technological options for the management of biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Brown, Sally L; Magesan, Guna N; Slade, Alison H; Quintern, Michael; Clinton, Peter W; Payn, Tim W

    2008-06-01

    provide a complete management for biosolids. A number of advanced thermal conversion technologies (e.g., supercritical water oxidation process and pyrolysis) are under development for biosolids management with a goal to generate useful products, such as higher quality fuels and recovery of phosphorus. With an ever-increasing demand for renewable energy, growing bioenergy crops and forests using biosolids as a fertilizer and soil amendment can not only contribute to the low-carbon economy but also maximize the nutrient and carbon value of the biosolids. Land application of biosolids achieves a complete reuse of its nutrients and organic carbon at a relatively low cost. Therefore, land application should become a preferred management option where there is available land, the quality of biosolids meet regulatory requirements, and it is socially acceptable. Intensive energy cropping and forest production using biosolids can help us meet the ever-increasing demand for renewable energy, which can eliminate the contamination potential for food sources, a common social concern about land application of biosolids. In recent years, increasing numbers of national and local governments have adopted more stringent regulations toward biosolid management. Under such a political climate, biosolids producers will have to develop multireuse strategies for biosolids to avoid being caught because a single route management practice might be under pressure at a short notice. Conventional incineration systems for biosolids management generally consume more energy than they produce and, although by-products may be used in manufacturing, this process cannot be regarded as a beneficial use of biosolids. However, biosolids are likely to become a source of renewable energy and produce 'carbon credits' under the increasingly popular, low-carbon economy policy. To manage biosolids in a sustainable manner, there is a need for further research in the following areas: achieving a higher degree of public

  20. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  1. Radioactive waste management turning options into solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, J.

    2000-10-01

    Most of the statements from representatives of different countries and institutions focused on the status of high level radioactive waste management, including spent fuel repositories. Speakers dealing with such topics were representatives from countries applying nuclear power for electricity production. They all reported about there national programs on technical and safety aspects of radioactive waste management. The panel discussion extended to questions on political sensitivities and public acceptance; in this respect, interesting developments are taking place in Finland and Sweden. It is expected that Finland will operate a final repository for spent fuel in 10 - 15 years from now, followed close by Sweden. Other countries, however, face decisions by policy makers and elected officials to postpone dealing with waste disposal concerns. In this connection there is relevant experience in our country, too - even in the absence of spent fuel or other high level waste to be dealt with. During personal discussions with representatives of other countries not using nuclear power it was confirmed that there are similar or shared experiences. Development of publicly -accepted solutions to radioactive waste management remains an important issue. Independent of the amount or the activity of radioactive waste, the public at large remains skeptical despite the agreement among experts that disposal can be safe, technically feasible and environmentally sound. In countries not using nuclear power there are only small quantities of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Therefore, international co-operation among such countries should be an option. There was common understanding by representatives from Norway, Italy and Austria that international co-operation should be developed for treatment and disposal of such waste. For the moment however it has to be accepted that, for political reasons, it is not possible. Forced to deal with the lack of near-term solutions, the

  2. Managing plutonium in Britain. Current options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This is the report of a two day meeting to discuss issues arising from the reprocessing of plutonium and production of mixed oxide nuclear fuels in Britain. It was held at Charney Manor, near Oxford, on June 25 and 26, 1998, and was attended by 35 participants, including government officials, scientists, policy analysts, representatives of interested NGO's, journalists, a Member of Parliament, and visiting representatives from the US and Irish governments. The topic of managing plutonium has been a consistent thread within ORG's work, and was the subject of one of our previous reports, CDR 12. This particular seminar arose out of discussions earlier in the year between Dr. Frank Barnaby and the Rt. Hon. Michael Meacher MP, Minister for the Environment. With important decisions about the management of plutonium in Britain pending, ORG undertook to hold a seminar at which all aspects of the subject could be aired. A number of on-going events formed the background to this initiative. The first was British Nuclear Fuels' [BNFL] application to the Environment Agency to commission a mixed oxide fuel [MOX] plant at Sellafield. The second was BNFL's application to vary radioactive discharge limits at Sellafield. Thirdly, a House of Lords Select Committee was in process of taking evidence, on the disposal of radioactive waste. Fourthly, the Royal Society, in a recent report entitled Management of Separated Plutonium, recommended that 'the Government should commission a comprehensive review... of the options for the management of plutonium'. Four formal presentations were made to the meeting, on the subjects of Britain's plutonium policy, commercial prospects for plutonium use, problems of plutonium accountancy, and the danger of nuclear terrorism, by experts from outside the nuclear industry. It was hoped that the industry's viewpoint would also be heard, and BNFL were invited to present a paper, but declined on the grounds that they were 'currently involved in a formal

  3. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

    1996-08-01

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables

  4. What determines how top managers value their stock options?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sautner, Z.; Weber, M.

    2008-01-01

    What determines how top managers value their executive stock options? We explore this question empirically by using a unique survey data set which combines subjective option valuation data with a wide set of individual-level variables. Inconsistent with the predictions of theory, individuals in our

  5. Nuclear waste management: options and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    This paper addresses three topics relevant to the technology of waste management: an overview describing the types of waste and the status of technologies used to manage them, a review of high-level waste management, and final disposition of the waste

  6. Options and processes for spent catalyst handling and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafi, M; Stanislaus, A

    2003-07-18

    The quantity of spent hydroprocessing catalysts discarded as solid wastes in the petroleum refining industries has increased remarkably in recent years due to a rapid growth in the hydroprocessing capacity to meet the rising demand for low-sulfur fuels. Due to their toxic nature, spent hydroprocessing catalysts have been branded as hazardous wastes, and the refiners are experiencing pressure from environmental authorities to handle them safely. Several alternative methods such as reclamation of metals, rejuvenation and reuse, disposal in landfills and preparation of useful materials using spent catalysts as raw materials are available to deal with the spent catalyst problem. The technical feasibility as well as the environmental and economic aspects of these options are reviewed. In addition, details of two bench-scale processes, one for rejuvenation of spent hydroprocessing catalysts, and the other for producing non-leachable synthetic aggregate materials that were developed in this laboratory, are presented in this paper.

  7. Bee diseases: Examining options for their management in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bee diseases: Examining options for their management in Africa. ... In Europe and Asia, the problem of damage to bees by Varroa-Mites has ... has become more complicated, more work-intensive and more cost-intensive. ... from 32 Countries:.

  8. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  9. Trade-off decisions in distribution utility management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavickas, Rimas Anthony

    As a result of the "unbundling" of traditional monopolistic electricity generation and transmission enterprises into a free-market economy, power distribution utilities are faced with very difficult decisions pertaining to electricity supply options and quality of service to the customers. The management of distribution utilities has become increasingly complex, versatile, and dynamic to the extent that conventional, non-automated management tools are almost useless and obsolete. This thesis presents a novel and unified approach to managing electricity supply options and quality of service to customers. The technique formulates the problem in terms of variables, parameters, and constraints. An advanced Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) optimization formulation is developed together with novel, logical, decision-making algorithms. These tools enable the utility management to optimize various cost components and assess their time-trend impacts, taking into account the intangible issues such as customer perception, customer expectation, social pressures, and public response to service deterioration. The above concepts are further generalized and a Logical Proportion Analysis (LPA) methodology and associated software have been developed. Solutions using numbers are replaced with solutions using words (character strings) which more closely emulate the human decision-making process and advance the art of decision-making in the power utility environment. Using practical distribution utility operation data and customer surveys, the developments outlined in this thesis are successfully applied to several important utility management problems. These involve the evaluation of alternative electricity supply options, the impact of rate structures on utility business, and the decision of whether to continue to purchase from a main grid or generate locally (partially or totally) by building Non-Utility Generation (NUG).

  10. Review of options for managing iodine-125 wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, P.J.; Wakerley, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    Data on the nature, radioactive content and management options used for I-125 wastes that are produced in England and Wales and fall within the provisions of the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 have been collated. The options for, and impacts of the disposal of these wastes have been reviewed and discussed. In addition storage for decay has been reviewed. The necessary storage requirements and methods of storage for the various waste forms have been examined. Conclusions are drawn with respect to the potential/suitability of the various waste management options. (author)

  11. Options for wastewater management in Harare, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhapi, I.

    2004-01-01

    The sustainable management of wastewater should aim at pollution prevention and reduction first, followed by resource recovery and reuse. This thesis shows that substantial water quality improvements could be achieved through a so-called 3-Step Strategic Approach to wastewater management. This

  12. [Options for stress management in obesity treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeglédi, Edit

    2016-02-14

    Overeating and physical inactivity are of great importance in the etiology of obesity. Psychological factors are often found in the background of life style. Chronic stress can contribute to physical inactivity and behaviors that hinder the keeping of a diet (e.g., irregular eating pattern, emotional eating). Results of randomized controlled trials show that relaxation can reduce emotional eating, improve cognitive restraint, and thereby reduce weight. However, stress management is more than relaxation. It consists of adaptive emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies and skills to improve relationships. Deflection skills may help in replacing emotional eating with other behaviors. Cognitive restructuring, saying no, and problem solving help to prevent or manage conflicts and difficulties otherwise would result in overeating due to distress. Developing stress management skills may result in greater compliance with the treatment. The techniques presented in the study can be easily applied by general practitioners or specialists, and provide tools for optimizing obesity treatment.

  13. NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  14. Accelerators and alternative nuclear fuel management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The development of special accelerators suggests the po tential for new directions in nuclear energy systems evolution. Such directions point towards a more acceptable form of nuclear energy by reason of the consequent accessibility of enhanced fuel management choices. Essential and specifically directed research and development activity needs to be under taken in order to clarify and resolve a number of technical issues

  15. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

  16. Global plutonium management: A security option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, K.W.B.

    1998-01-01

    The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has made disposition action conditional on extracting the fuel value of its Pu but lacks the infrastructure to do so. Assistance in the construction of the required facilities would conflict with official US policy opposing the development of a Pu fuel cycle. The resulting stagnation provides impetus for a reevaluation of US nonproliferation objectives and Pu disposition options. A strategy for satisfying Russian fuel value concerns and reducing the proliferation risk posed by surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is proposed. The effectiveness of material alteration (e.g., isotopic, chemical, etc.hor-ellipsis) at reducing the desire, ability and opportunity for proliferation is assessed. Virtually all the security benefits attainable by material processing can be obtained by immobilizing Pu in large unit size/mass monoliths without a radiation barrier. Russia would be allowed to extract the Pu at a future date for use as fuel in a verifiable manner. Remote tracking capability, if proven feasible, would further improve safeguarding capability. As an alternate approach, the US could compensate Russia for its Pu, allowing it to be disposed of or processed elsewhere. A market based method for pricing Pu is proposed. Surplus Pu could represent access to nuclear fuel at a fixed price at a future date. This position can be replicated in the uranium market and priced using derivative theory. The proposed strategy attempts to meet nonproliferation objectives by recognizing technical limitations and satisfying political constraints

  17. Risk management with options and futures under liquidity risk

    OpenAIRE

    Adam-Müller, A F A; Panaretou, A

    2009-01-01

    Futures hedging creates liquidity risk through marking to market. Liquidity risk matters if interim losses on a futures position have to be financed at a markup over the risk-free rate. This study analyzes the optimal risk management and production decisions of a firm facing joint price and liquidity risk. It provides a rationale for the use of options on futures in imperfect capital markets. If liquidity risk materializes, the firm sells options on futures in order to partly cover this liqui...

  18. Drug utilization research and risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Mol, Peter G. M.; Elseviers, Monique; Wettermark, Björn; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Andersen, Morten; Benko, Ria; Bennie, Marion; Eriksson, Irene; Godman, Brian; Krska, Janet; Poluzzi, Elisabetta; Taxis, Katja; Vlahovic-Palcevski, Vera; Stichele, Robert Vander

    2016-01-01

    Good risk management requires continuous evaluation and improvement of planned activities. The evaluation impact of risk management activities requires robust study designs and carefully selected outcome measures. Key learnings and caveats from drug utilization research should be applied to the

  19. Management Options in Avascular Necrosis of Talus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Mandeep S; Rana, Balvinder; Panda, Inayat; Patel, Sandeep; Kumar, Prasoon

    2018-01-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the talus can be a cause of significant disability and is a difficult problem to treat. The most common cause is a fracture of the talus. We have done a systematic review of the literature with the following aims: (1) identify and summarize the available evidence in literature for the treatment of talar AVN, (2) define the usefulness of radiological Hawkins sign and magnetic resonance imaging in early diagnosis, and (3) provide patient management guidelines. We searched MEDLINE and PUBMED using keywords and MESH terminology. The articles' abstracts were read by two of the authors. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria of the 335 abstracts screened. The interventions of interest included hindfoot fusion, conservative measures, bone grafting, vascularized bone graft, core decompression, and talar replacement. All studies were of Level IV evidence. We looked to identify the study quality, imprecise and sparse data, reporting bias, and the quality of evidence. Based on the analysis of available literature, we make certain recommendations for managing patients of AVN talus depending on identified disease factors such as early or late presentation, extent of bone involvement, bone collapse, and presence or absence of arthritis. Early talar AVN seems best treated with protected weight bearing and possibly in combination with extracorporeal shock wave therapy. If that fails, core decompression can be considered. Arthrodesis should be saved as a salvage procedure in late cases with arthritis and collapse, and a tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with bone grafting may be needed in cases of significant bone loss. Role of vascularized bone grafting is still not defined clearly and needs further investigation. Future prospective, randomized studies are necessary to guide the conservative and surgical management of talar AVN.

  20. Management options in avascular necrosis of talus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep S Dhillon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Avascular necrosis (AVN of the talus can be a cause of significant disability and is a difficult problem to treat. The most common cause is a fracture of the talus. We have done a systematic review of the literature with the following aims: (1 identify and summarize the available evidence in literature for the treatment of talar AVN, (2 define the usefulness of radiological Hawkins sign and magnetic resonance imaging in early diagnosis, and (3 provide patient management guidelines. We searched MEDLINE and PUBMED using keywords and MESH terminology. The articles' abstracts were read by two of the authors. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria of the 335 abstracts screened. The interventions of interest included hindfoot fusion, conservative measures, bone grafting, vascularized bone graft, core decompression, and talar replacement. All studies were of Level IV evidence. We looked to identify the study quality, imprecise and sparse data, reporting bias, and the quality of evidence. Based on the analysis of available literature, we make certain recommendations for managing patients of AVN talus depending on identified disease factors such as early or late presentation, extent of bone involvement, bone collapse, and presence or absence of arthritis. Early talar AVN seems best treated with protected weight bearing and possibly in combination with extracorporeal shock wave therapy. If that fails, core decompression can be considered. Arthrodesis should be saved as a salvage procedure in late cases with arthritis and collapse, and a tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with bone grafting may be needed in cases of significant bone loss. Role of vascularized bone grafting is still not defined clearly and needs further investigation. Future prospective, randomized studies are necessary to guide the conservative and surgical management of talar AVN.

  1. Management Options in Avascular Necrosis of Talus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Mandeep S; Rana, Balvinder; Panda, Inayat; Patel, Sandeep; Kumar, Prasoon

    2018-01-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the talus can be a cause of significant disability and is a difficult problem to treat. The most common cause is a fracture of the talus. We have done a systematic review of the literature with the following aims: (1) identify and summarize the available evidence in literature for the treatment of talar AVN, (2) define the usefulness of radiological Hawkins sign and magnetic resonance imaging in early diagnosis, and (3) provide patient management guidelines. We searched MEDLINE and PUBMED using keywords and MESH terminology. The articles' abstracts were read by two of the authors. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria of the 335 abstracts screened. The interventions of interest included hindfoot fusion, conservative measures, bone grafting, vascularized bone graft, core decompression, and talar replacement. All studies were of Level IV evidence. We looked to identify the study quality, imprecise and sparse data, reporting bias, and the quality of evidence. Based on the analysis of available literature, we make certain recommendations for managing patients of AVN talus depending on identified disease factors such as early or late presentation, extent of bone involvement, bone collapse, and presence or absence of arthritis. Early talar AVN seems best treated with protected weight bearing and possibly in combination with extracorporeal shock wave therapy. If that fails, core decompression can be considered. Arthrodesis should be saved as a salvage procedure in late cases with arthritis and collapse, and a tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with bone grafting may be needed in cases of significant bone loss. Role of vascularized bone grafting is still not defined clearly and needs further investigation. Future prospective, randomized studies are necessary to guide the conservative and surgical management of talar AVN. PMID:29887631

  2. The application of financial options theory to electric utility decision making in integrated resource planning and maintenance shutdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, F.

    1995-01-01

    Increased competition in wholesale power generation will allow electric utilities to use financial models to improve their decision making. This competition will result in the creation of electricity spot, futures, and forward markets, which will provide necessary information for utility executives to used advance financial tools, such as random walk models and options theory. These models will allow executives to place a value on risk. Once this value is known, executives can determine how best to manage that risk, whether by entering into financial transactions, adjusting their operational and planning decisions, or both

  3. Municipal solid waste options : integrating organics management and residual disposal treatment : executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cant, M. (comp.) [Totten Sims Hubicki Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Van der Werf, P. [2cg Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kelleher, M. [Kelleher Environmental, Toronto, ON (Canada); Merriman, D. [MacViro Consultants, Markham, ON (Canada); Fitcher, K. [Gartner Lee Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); MacDonald, N. [CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    The Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Options Report explored different MSW management options for 3 community sizes: 20,000, 80,000 and 200,0000 people. It was released at a time when many communities were developing waste management plans to cost-effectively reduce environmental impacts and conserve landfill capacity. The purpose of this report was to provide a greater understanding on the environmental, social, economic, energy recovery/utilization and greenhouse gas (GHG) considerations of MSW management. The report also demonstrated the interrelationships between the management of organics and residuals. It was based on information from existing waste diversion and organics management options and emerging residual treatment technology options. The following organics management and residual treatment disposal options were evaluated: composting; anaerobic digestion; sanitary landfills; bioreactor landfills; and thermal treatment. Composting was examined with reference to both source separated organics (SSO) and mixed waste composting. SSO refers to the separation of materials suitable for composting solid waste from households, while mixed waste composting refers to the manual or mechanical removal of recyclable material from the waste, including compost. The composting process was reviewed along with available technologies such as non-reactor windrow; aerated static pile; reactor enclosed channel; and, container tunnel. An evaluation of SSO and mixed waste composting was then presented in terms of environmental, social, financial and GHG impacts. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Direct potable reuse – a feasible water management option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lahnsteiner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct potable reuse (DPR can be more economic than indirect potable reuse as no environmental buffer is needed and conveyance and blending of the purified water with other potable sources is basically less expensive. Long-term experience in Windhoek (48 years shows that treated domestic sewage can be safely and cost-efficiently utilized for potable reclamation (0.72 €/m3. A multiple barrier strategy is employed in order to attain the highest possible safety levels. There are three types of barriers: non-treatment, treatment and operational barriers. In recent years, new DPR schemes have been implemented in South Africa and in the USA, and the major difference between all the new reclamation processes and the Windhoek New Goreangab water reclamation plant lies in the employment of desalination process units. This topic and other issues, such as the use of ozone and biological activated carbon filtration, are addressed. Reclamation process optimization (increase in sustainability and the attainment of greater public acceptance are the major challenges facing the promotion of DPR, which should become a common and widely used water management option within the next 5–10 years.

  5. Fuel management options to extend the IRIS reactor cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Franceschini, F.

    2004-01-01

    To optimize plant operation, reduce scheduled maintenance outage, and increase capacity factor, IRIS is designed to enable extended cycles of up to four years. However, due to the enrichment licensing limitation (less than 5% enriched uranium oxide) there is a tradeoff between the achievable cycle length and fuel utilization, i.e., the average fuel discharge burnup. The longest individual cycle may be achieved with the single-batch straight burn, but at the expense of a lower burnup. Considering the IRIS basic performance requirements, a cycle length in the range of three to four years is deemed desirable. This paper examines different fuel management options, i.e., the influence of the required cycle length on the corresponding reloading strategy, including a two-batch and a three-batch reloading. A reference two-batch core design has been developed for the first cycle, as well as for the transition cycles leading to equilibrium. Main core performance parameters are evaluated. This core design provides the framework for the safety analyses needed to prepare the IRIS safety evaluations. Alternate designs are also considered.(author)

  6. Utilization Management in the Blood Transfusion Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jeremy Ryan Andrew; Dzik, Walter “Sunny”

    2015-01-01

    The scope of activity of the Blood Transfusion Service (BTS) makes it unique among the clinical laboratories. The combination of therapeutic and diagnostic roles necessitates a multi-faceted approach to utilization management in the BTS. We present our experience in utilization management in large academic medical center. PMID:24080431

  7. Management of sigmoid volvulus: options and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddah, Ghodratollah; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hossein; Abdollahi, Abbas; Bahar, Mostafa Mehrabi; Tavassoli, Alireza; Shabahang, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    To describe the management of sigmoid volvulus with reference to the type of surgical procedures performed and to determine the prognosis of sigmoid volvulus. A case series. Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad, University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, from 1996 to 2008. A total of 944 cases of colon obstruction were reviewed. Demographic, laboratory and treatment results, mortality and complications were recorded. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics as frequency and percentage for the qualitative variables and mean and standard deviation values for the quantitative variables. Also chisquare and Fisher's exact test were used for the association between the qualitative variables. SPSS statistical software (version 18) was used for the data analysis. In all patients except those with symptoms or signs of gangrenous bowel, a long rectal tube was inserted via the rectosigmoidoscope which was successful in 80 (36.87%) cases. Rectosigmoidoscopic detorsion was unsuccessful in 137 (63.13%) patients, who underwent an emergent laparotomy. The surgical procedures performed in these cases were resection and primary anastomosis in 40 (29.1%), Mikulicz procedure in 9 (6.6%), laparotomy detorsion in 37 (27.01%), Hartmann procedure in 47 (34.3%), mesosigmoidoplasty in 3 (2.19%) patients and total colectomy in one (0.73%) case. The overall mortality was 9.8% (22) patients. In sigmoid volvulus, the most important determinant of patient outcome is bowel viability. The initial treatment of sigmoid colon volvulus is sigmoidoscopy with rectal tube placement.

  8. The laboratory test utilization management toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Efficiently managing laboratory test utilization requires both ensuring adequate utilization of needed tests in some patients and discouraging superfluous tests in other patients. After the difficult clinical decision is made to define the patients that do and do not need a test, a wealth of interventions are available to the clinician and laboratorian to help guide appropriate utilization. These interventions are collectively referred to here as the utilization management toolbox. Experience has shown that some tools in the toolbox are weak and other are strong, and that tools are most effective when many are used simultaneously. While the outcomes of utilization management studies are not always as concrete as may be desired, what data is available in the literature indicate that strong utilization management interventions are safe and effective measures to improve patient health and reduce waste in an era of increasing financial pressure.

  9. Leveraging network utility management practices for regulatory purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    Electric utilities around the globe are entering a phase where they must modernize and implement smart grid technologies. In order to optimize system architecture, asset replacement, and future operating costs, it the utilities must implement robust and flexible asset management structures. This report discussed the ways in which regulators assess investment plans. It focused on the implicit or explicit use of an asset management approach, including principles; processes; input and outputs; decision-making criteria and prioritization methods. The Ontario Energy Board staff were familiarized with the principles and objectives of established and emerging asset management processes and underlying analytic processes, systems and tools in order to ensure that investment information provided by network utilities regarding rates and other applications could be evaluated effectively. Specifically, the report discussed the need for and importance of asset management and provided further details of international markets and their regulatory approaches to asset management. The report also discussed regulatory approaches for review of asset management underlying investment plans as well as an overview of international regulatory practice for review of network utility asset management. It was concluded that options for strengthening regulatory guidance and assessment included utilizing appropriate and effective benchmarking to assess, promote and provide incentives for best practices and steer clear of the potential perverse incentives. 21 tabs., 17 figs., 1 appendix.

  10. Comparative evaluation of radioactive waste management options. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, D.; Kreusch, J.; Neumann, W.

    2001-05-01

    A comprehensive presentation of the various radioactive waste options under debate has not been made so far, let alone a comparative evaluation of the options with respect to their substantiated or assumed advantages or drawbacks. However, any appropriate discussion about the pros and cons of the specific options for final decision making has to be based on a comprehensive knowledge base drawn from profound comparative evaluation of essential options. Therefore, the study reported in this publication was to serve three major purposes: Presentation of the conditions and waste management policies and approaches in selected countries, in order to compile information about the various policy goals and the full scope of argumentation, as well as the range of individual arguments used for or against specific options. - Derivation of a methodology for evaluation, including development of criteria for a comparative and qualitative evaluation of options. - Identification of possible implications for a waste management strategy for Germany, derived from the results of the comparative evaluation and the examination of the reasonings and argumentation used in the various countries. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Management of Sigmoid Volvulus: Options and Prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddah, G.; Kazemzadeh, G. H.; Abdollahi, A.; Bahar, M. M.; Tavassoli, A.; Shabahang, H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the management of sigmoid volvulus with reference to the type of surgical procedures performed and to determine the prognosis of sigmoid volvulus. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad, University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, from 1996 to 2008. Methodology: A total of 944 cases of colon obstruction were reviewed. Demographic, laboratory and treatment results, mortality and complications were recorded. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics as frequency and percentage for the qualitative variables and mean and standard deviation values for the quantitative variables. Also chisquare and Fisher's exact test were used for the association between the qualitative variables. SPSS statistical software (version 18) was used for the data analysis. Results: In all patients except those with symptoms or signs of gangrenous bowel, a long rectal tube was inserted via the rectosigmoidoscope which was successful in 80 (36.87%) cases. Rectosigmoidoscopic detorsion was unsuccessful in 137 (63.13%) patients, who underwent an emergent laparotomy. The surgical procedures performed in these cases were resection and primary anastomosis in 40 (29.1%), Mikulicz procedure in 9 (6.6%), laparotomy detorsion in 37 (27.01%), Hartmann procedure in 47 (34.3%), mesosigmoidoplasty in 3 (2.19%) patients and total colectomy in one (0.73%) case. The overall mortality was 9.8% (22) patients. Conclusion: In sigmoid volvulus, the most important determinant of patient outcome is bowel viability. The initial treatment of sigmoid colon volvulus is sigmoidoscopy with rectal tube placement. (author)

  12. [Conservative management option in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guienne, Véronique; Parahy, Sophie; Testa, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    "Conservative management" is as an alternative care pathway offered to patients who elect not to start dialysis often because of a heavy burden of comorbid illness and advanced ages. Our research, characterized by a transdisciplinary medical and social investigation and based on a case by case analysis, intends to understand the reasons and the context in which this choice has to be made. On the first hand, the results show that all the studied cases can be explained by two variables, the latter can be combined: when the patient is suffering from important clinical pathologies; when the patient lives with this renal failure as a trouble linked to the age. On the second hand, two important questions are raised: the first one is about the medical practices and stems from the influence of criteria always present in the decisions to take (the paramedical exams and the clinical information from the interview, the patient's examination and the discussion with his/her close family member). The second one is about the patient's autonomy and can be analyzed regarding to his/her capacity to express his/her choices and share it with his close family. But also, to live in according to his age, that is to say the relation he/she has with his/her edged body and to the limits of his/her existence. The key notion of shared decision-making renewed is to refer in the consultation and the choices to take to the question of the advantages/drawbacks for the patient's life and not only to the question of the connection between the results and the medical risks, in order to exchange view with the patient on his/her future life and not only on the condition of his failed organ. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Electricity market risk management using forward contracts with bilateral options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, T.S.; Yu, C.W.; Wong, K.P.; Zhang, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Extreme short-term price volatility in competitive electricity markets creates the need for risk management arrangements. A new electricity forward contract with bilateral financial options is introduced, which allows both seller and buyer to take advantage of flexibility in generation and consumption to obtain monetary benefits while simultaneously removing the risk of market price fluctuations. The option theory is incorporated to formulate the contract price. The strike prices of options are derived from solving an equilibrium model in which both the buyer and the seller aim to maximise their own profit. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed optional forward contract presents a more equitable and reasonable payoff structure that allows the buyer and seller to earn a larger overall expected benefit, and the contractual arrangement supports efficiency in economic dispatch of electricity production and consumption. The insights obtained from these results will be helpful to participants in the contractual decision-making process. (Author)

  14. Information management applications for the compliance function: a utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoie, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Today's complex and changing regulatory environment presents many challenges to those involved in the nuclear power industry. This is particularly true of technical personnel and managers involved in serving the compliance function for nuclear utilities. Adequately supporting the construction, startup, and operations of a nuclear power plant while simultaneously satisfying each regulatory requirement requires the meshing of thousands of individual regulatory tasks with each possible implementation option. The compliance function acts as a screen or filter between the regulatory bodies and the utility nuclear staff. Many varied approaches are taken by utilities in performing this compliance function, both from an organizational and information management perspective. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experiences of Louisiana Power and Light (LP and L) in developing its compliance function and to describe the innovative information management techniques LP and L has developed to serve this function

  15. Evaluation of dairy effluent management options using multiple criteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, Stefan A; Wheeler, Sarah A

    2008-04-01

    This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

  16. Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff: management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kentaro; Potts, Aaron; Anakwenze, Oke; Singh, Anshu

    2014-11-01

    Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff tendons is a common cause of shoulder pain in adults and typically presents as activity-related shoulder pain. It is thought to be an active, cell-mediated process, although the exact pathophysiology remains unclear. Nonsurgical management continues to be the mainstay of treatment; most patients improve with modalities such as oral anti-inflammatory medication, physical therapy, and corticosteroid injections. Several options are available for patients who fail nonsurgical treatment, including extracorporeal shock wave therapy, ultrasound-guided needle lavage, and surgical débridement. These modalities alleviate pain by eliminating the calcific deposit, and several recent studies have demonstrated success with the use of these treatment options. Surgical management options include arthroscopic procedures to remove calcific deposits and subacromial decompression; however, the role of subacromial decompression and repair of rotator cuff defects created by removing these deposits remains controversial. Copyright 2014 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  17. National Forest management options in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    2009-01-01

    The effect of climate change on ecosystem structure, function, and services will depend on the ecosystem's degree of sensitivity to climate change, the natural ability of plants and animals to adapt, and the availability of effective management options. Sensitivity to climate change is a function of ecosystem health and environmental stresses such as air pollution...

  18. Acceptability of child adoption as management option for infertility in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility remains a global health challenge with devastating psycho-social consequences in many African communities. Adoption that may serve as an alternative strategy for the affected couples is not widely practiced. This study was conceptualized to assess the acceptability of child adoption as a management option by ...

  19. Socia preferences to Mopane woodland management options: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socia preferences to Mopane woodland management options: A case study from Southern Zimbabwe. TA Gondo, C Musvoto, T Mujawo. Abstract. No Abstract. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 19 (1&2) 2007: pp.4-14. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other

  1. Utilizing Interns in Facilities Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Clarissa; Morris, John P.; Molocznik, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    Facilities management is rapidly changing and developing from a position an individual stumbles into--or work one's way up through--to a discipline and vocation all of its own. There is a need for a collaborative strategy among leaders in practice, education, and research to share knowledge and experience and to establish professional and ethical…

  2. Asset Management for Water and Wastewater Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewing and replacing the nation's public water infrastructure is an ongoing task. Asset management can help a utility maximize the value of its capital as well as its operations and maintenance dollars.

  3. Development of a utility conflict management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    A critical process for the timely development and delivery of highway construction projects is the early : identification and depiction of utility interests that may interfere with proposed highway facilities. The : effective management of such utili...

  4. Considerations Regarding ROK Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Chaim; Forrest, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss spent fuel management options in the Republic of Korea (ROK) from two interrelated perspectives: Centralized dry cask storage and spent fuel pyroprocessing and burning in sodium fast reactors (SFRs). We argue that the ROK will run out of space for at-reactors spent fuel storage by about the year 2030 and will thus need to transition centralized dry cask storage. Pyroprocessing plant capacity, even if approved and successfully licensed and constructed by that time, will not suffice to handle all the spent fuel discharged annually. Hence centralized dry cask storage will be required even if the pyroprocessing option is successfully developed by 2030. Pyroprocessing is but an enabling technology on the path leading to fissile material recycling and burning in future SFRs. In this regard we discuss two SFR options under development in the U. S.: the Super Prism and the Travelling Wave Reactor (TWR). We note that the U. S. is further along in reactor development than the ROK. The ROK though has acquired more experience, recently in investigating fuel recycling options for SFRs. We thus call for two complementary joint R and D project to be conducted by U. S. and ROK scientists. One leading to the development of a demonstration centralized away-from-reactors spent fuel storage facility. The other involve further R and D on a combined SFR-fuel cycle complex based on the reactor and fuel cycle options discussed in the paper

  5. Evaluating Nitrogen Management Options for Reducing Nitrate Leaching from Northeast U.S. Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Stout

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial amounts of nitrate nitrogen NO3-N can leach from intensively grazed pasture in the northeast U.S. where there is about 30 cm of groundwater recharge, annually. Management options for reducing NO3-N leaching were evaluated for this environment using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System Model and a recently developed nitrogen leaching index. Management options utilizing energy supplementation of grazing dairy cows could improve nitrogen efficiency within the cow, but would not necessarily reduce NO3-N leaching at the pasture scale if stocking rate was not controlled. The management option of using white clover to supply nitrogen to the pasture decreased NO3-N leaching, but produced less dry matter yield, which in turn reduced stocking rate. The economic returns of reducing NO3-N with these options need to be evaluated in light of milk prices and commodity and fertilizer nitrogen costs. At current prices and costs, the economic benefit from the energy supplementation options is substantial.

  6. Using real options analysis to support strategic management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaivanov, Stanimir; Markovska, Veneta; Milev, Mariyan

    2013-12-01

    Decision making is a complex process that requires taking into consideration multiple heterogeneous sources of uncertainty. Standard valuation and financial analysis techniques often fail to properly account for all these sources of risk as well as for all sources of additional flexibility. In this paper we explore applications of a modified binomial tree method for real options analysis (ROA) in an effort to improve decision making process. Usual cases of use of real options are analyzed with elaborate study on the applications and advantages that company management can derive from their application. A numeric results based on extending simple binomial tree approach for multiple sources of uncertainty are provided to demonstrate the improvement effects on management decisions.

  7. Decision support for utility environmental risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balson, W.E.; Wilson, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews a number of decision support methods developed and applied by Decision Focus Incorporated to help utility personnel manage current environmental problems. This work has been performed for the Environmental Risk Analysis Program of EPRI's Environment Division, and also for a number of electric utilities across the country. These are two distinct types of decision support software tools that have been created: economic risk management and environmental risk analysis. These types differ primarily in the identification of who will make a decision. Economic risk management tools are directed primarily at decisions made by electric utilities. Environmental risk analysis tools are directed primarily at decisions made by legislative or regulatory agencies, about which a utility may wish to comment

  8. Establishing benchmarks and metrics for utilization management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Stacy E F

    2014-01-01

    The changing environment of healthcare reimbursement is rapidly leading to a renewed appreciation of the importance of utilization management in the clinical laboratory. The process of benchmarking of laboratory operations is well established for comparing organizational performance to other hospitals (peers) and for trending data over time through internal benchmarks. However, there are relatively few resources available to assist organizations in benchmarking for laboratory utilization management. This article will review the topic of laboratory benchmarking with a focus on the available literature and services to assist in managing physician requests for laboratory testing. © 2013.

  9. Albedo and vegetation demand-side management options for warm climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Darwin C.

    1997-01-01

    For electric utilities, demand-side management (DSM) can reduce electric load and shift load from peak to off-peak periods. In general, the investor in DSM collects the reward with lower electric bills, excepting a positive externality because of reduced tropospheric and stratospheric air pollution from fossil fuel power plants. In warm climates, DSM options include increasing albedo and vegetation, respectively, by painting surfaces white and planting trees; these DSM options are distinguished from all other DSM options because of ecosystem effects. Ambient temperature falls, mitigating the urban 'heat island', which reduces electric load and ozone formation. The investor in albedo and vegetation DSM options does not collect all of the reward from lower electric bills, since the lower ambient temperature provides savings to all customers who use electricity for air conditioning and refrigeration. Similar to other DSM options, air pollution is also reduced as a result of lower power plant emissions. Complex airshed models and electric utility system dispatch models are applied in this paper to account for some of these ecosystem effects. Unaccounted ecosystem effects remain, stymieing cost effectiveness analysis

  10. Management options in the food chain for accidental radionuclide deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    2005-12-01

    Finland with four other countries participated in the European Union's network project FARMING in 2000 - 2004. The aim of the project was to invite participants from each country representing the food supply chain in a stakeholder group and advance with the groups the networking in building preparedness for accidental contamination of the food production systems. The task of the groups was to evaluate the practicability of management options suggested for reduction of radiation exposure through foodstuffs, and for disposal of waste generated in implementation of these options. The criteria for practicability were effectiveness in reduction of radiation exposure through foodstuffs, technical feasibility, capacity, costs for implementation, secondary costs for waste disposal, socio-economic impact, and acceptability concerning ecology and protection of environment and landscape. Practicable management options aimed at sustainable restoration of food production systems after accidental contamination. The Finnish stakeholder group represented farm production, processing industry, food marketing, catering, advisor organisations for households and agriculture, consumers, nature conservation, the media, experts on environmental impact and authorities responsible for production, safety and security of foodstuffs, food supply and feedstuffs. The group was expected to examine the effect of the Finnish, and, also more generally, northern production conditions on the practicability of the suggested management options. The stakeholder group members first familiarized themselves with intervention after accidental contamination of a large milk production area and thereafter with practicability of individual management options. The evaluation was based on the group members' complementary expertise that very well covered the chain 'from field to fork' whether the issue was related to legislation, production methods, logistics, environmental impacts, or the issues of consumers and

  11. Options for including nitrogen management in climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.

    2010-12-01

    The outline of the presentation is as follows: Climate change and nitrogen; Nitrogen and climate interlinkages; Options for nitrogen management; Report, workshop and IPCC; and Conclusions. The concluding remarks are: Fertilizing the biosphere with reactive nitrogen compounds lead to ecosystem, health, water and climate impacts; Nitrogen deposition can lead to additional carbon sequestration and to impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services; Nitrogen addition to the biosphere might have a net cooling effect of 1 W/m 2 ; Life Cycle Analysis is needed to show the full impact; and Nitrogen management is essential for the environment and can have a positive effect on the net GHG exchange.

  12. Development of integrated waste management options for irradiated graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Wareing

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Treatment and Disposal of Irradiated Graphite and other Carbonaceous Waste project sought to develop best practices in the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of irradiated graphite including other irradiated carbonaceous waste such as structural material made of graphite, nongraphitized carbon bricks, and fuel coatings. Emphasis was given on legacy irradiated graphite, as this represents a significant inventory in respective national waste management programs. This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of graphite irradiated during its use, primarily as a moderator material, within nuclear reactors. It describes the potential techniques applicable to the retrieval, treatment, recycling/reuse, and disposal of these graphite wastes. Considering the lifecycle of nuclear graphite, from manufacture to final disposal, a number of waste management options have been developed. These options consider the techniques and technologies required to address each stage of the lifecycle, such as segregation, treatment, recycle, and ultimate disposal in a radioactive waste repository, providing a toolbox to aid operators and regulators to determine the most appropriate management strategy. It is noted that national waste management programs currently have, or are in the process of developing, respective approaches to irradiated graphite management. The output of the Treatment and Disposal of Irradiated Graphite and other Carbonaceous Waste project is intended to aid these considerations, rather than dictate them.

  13. Development of integrated waste management options for irradiated graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wareing, Alan; Abrahamsen-Mills, Liam; Fowler, Linda; Jarvis, Richard; Banford, Anthony William [National Nuclear Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Grave, Michael [Doosan Babcock, Gateshead (United Kingdom); Metcalfe, Martin [National Nuclear Laboratory, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom); Norris, Simon [Radioactive Waste Management Limited, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-15

    The European Treatment and Disposal of Irradiated Graphite and other Carbonaceous Waste project sought to develop best practices in the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of irradiated graphite including other irradiated carbonaceous waste such as structural material made of graphite, nongraphitized carbon bricks, and fuel coatings. Emphasis was given on legacy irradiated graphite, as this represents a significant inventory in respective national waste management programs. This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of graphite irradiated during its use, primarily as a moderator material, within nuclear reactors. It describes the potential techniques applicable to the retrieval, treatment, recycling/reuse, and disposal of these graphite wastes. Considering the lifecycle of nuclear graphite, from manufacture to final disposal, a number of waste management options have been developed. These options consider the techniques and technologies required to address each stage of the lifecycle, such as segregation, treatment, recycle, and ultimate disposal in a radioactive waste repository, providing a toolbox to aid operators and regulators to determine the most appropriate management strategy. It is noted that national waste management programs currently have, or are in the process of developing, respective approaches to irradiated graphite management. The output of the Treatment and Disposal of Irradiated Graphite and other Carbonaceous Waste project is intended to aid these considerations, rather than dictate them.

  14. 41 CFR 102-194.5 - What is the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program? 102-194.5 Section 102-194.5 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROGRAMS 194-STANDARD AND OPTIONAL FORMS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM § 102-194.5 What is the Standard and Optional...

  15. Radiological impacts of spent nuclear fuel management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riotte, H.; Lazo, T.; Mundigl, S.

    2000-01-01

    An important technical study on radiological impacts of spent nuclear fuel management options, recently completed by the NEA, is intended to facilitate informed international discussions on the nuclear fuel cycle. The study compares the radiological impacts on the public and on nuclear workers resulting from two approaches to handling spent fuel from nuclear power plants: - the reprocessing option, that includes the recycling of spent uranium fuel, the reuse of the separated plutonium in MOX fuel, and the direct disposal of spent MOX fuel; and the once-through option, with no reprocessing of spent fuel, and its direct disposal. Based on the detailed research of a group of 18 internationally recognised experts, under NEA sponsorship, the report concludes that: The radiological impacts of both the reprocessing and the non-reprocessing fuel cycles studied are small, well below any regulatory dose limits for the public and for workers, and insignificantly low as compared with exposures caused by natural radiation. The difference in the radiological impacts of the two fuel cycles studied does not provide a compelling argument in favour of one option or the other. The study also points out that other factors, such as resource utilisation efficiency, energy security, and social and economic considerations would tend to carry more weight than radiological impacts in decision-making processes. (authors)

  16. Options for Healthcare Waste Management and Treatment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare waste management and treatment is one of the national priority tasks of China's Tenth Five-Year Plan.Numerous installations disposing medical waste have already operated the project or under construction to the operation in 2006. This paper focuses on the assessment of existing and fu~re options to handle medical waste (MW). Internationally available and so far in China applied technologies and management practice are analysed, including the problems how to materials. Non-hazardous MW can be managed and treated in analogue to municipal solid waste (MSW). In most of the European countries decentralised hospital incinerators have been, because of high operation costs and pollution problems,widely banned and replaced by pre-treatment technologies at the source and centralised incineration plants for hazardous MW.Information for adapting and further developing MW management solutions and treatment technologies in China and applying the most appropriate MWM practice is provided.

  17. Savannah River Plant Low-Level Waste Heat Utilization Project preliminary analysis. Volume II. Options for capturing the waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Options for utilizing the heated SRP effluent are investigated. The temperature and availability characteristics of the heated effluent are analyzed. Technical options for energy recovery are discussed. A number of thermodynamic cycles that could generate electrical power using the energy in the heated SRP effluent are described. Conceptual designs for SRP application of two attractive options are presented. Other direct uses for the heated effluent, as heat sources for agriculture and aquaculture options are discussed

  18. Technological options for management of hazardous wastes from US Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.; Newsom, D.; Barisas, S.; Humphrey, J.; Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides comprehensive information on the technological options for management of hazardous wastes generated at facilities owned or operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). These facilities annually generate a large quantity of wastes that could be deemed hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Included in these wastes are liquids or solids containing polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, heavy metals, waste oils, spent solvents, acids, bases, carcinogens, and numerous other pollutants. Some of these wastes consist of nonnuclear hazardous chemicals; others are mixed wastes containing radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. Nearly 20 unit processes and disposal methods are presented in this report. They were selected on the basis of their proven utility in waste management and potential applicability at DOE sites. These technological options fall into five categories: physical processes, chemical processes, waste exchange, fixation, and ultimate disposal. The options can be employed for either resource recovery, waste detoxification, volume reduction, or perpetual storage. Detailed descriptions of each technological option are presented, including information on process performance, cost, energy and environmental considerations, waste management of applications, and potential applications at DOE sites. 131 references, 25 figures, 23 tables.

  19. Technological options for management of hazardous wastes from US Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.; Newsom, D.; Barisas, S.; Humphrey, J.; Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides comprehensive information on the technological options for management of hazardous wastes generated at facilities owned or operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). These facilities annually generate a large quantity of wastes that could be deemed hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Included in these wastes are liquids or solids containing polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, heavy metals, waste oils, spent solvents, acids, bases, carcinogens, and numerous other pollutants. Some of these wastes consist of nonnuclear hazardous chemicals; others are mixed wastes containing radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. Nearly 20 unit processes and disposal methods are presented in this report. They were selected on the basis of their proven utility in waste management and potential applicability at DOE sites. These technological options fall into five categories: physical processes, chemical processes, waste exchange, fixation, and ultimate disposal. The options can be employed for either resource recovery, waste detoxification, volume reduction, or perpetual storage. Detailed descriptions of each technological option are presented, including information on process performance, cost, energy and environmental considerations, waste management of applications, and potential applications at DOE sites. 131 references, 25 figures, 23 tables

  20. Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference

  1. Usage of Option Contracts for Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Today in Romania, in the context of the liberalization of the capital account and under a floating exchange rate (official is a managed floating currency regime established by National Bank of Romania the foreign exchange rate is very volatile. In consequence the financial institutions, corporations and, especially, the importers and exporters have to deal with a big exposition of currency risk related with their activities. Financial institutions and corporations today must adopt new roles in order to compete successfully in the explosively evolving foreign exchange markets. The methods, instruments and techniques used to manage foreign exchange risk are more complex than ever before. The objective of our paper is to provide the techniques and insights needed to pinpoint opportunities and control risks. We will present the most modern practical methods for managing the currency risk: option strategies (spread, strangle, straddle, etc. Also we will present the advantage, the disadvantage and our opinions related with the use of currency derivatives instruments (especially currency strategies options, making a comparative analysis.

  2. Utility-free heuristic models of two-option choice can mimic predictions of utility-stage models under many conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Piantadosi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Economists often model choices as if decision-makers assign each option a scalar value variable, known as utility, and then select the option with the highest utility. It remains unclear whether as-if utility models describe real mental and neural steps in choice. Although choices alone cannot prove the existence of a utility stage in choice, utility transformations are often taken to provide the most parsimonious or psychologically plausible explanation for choice data. Here, we show that it is possible to mathematically transform a large set of common utility-stage two-option choice models (specifically ones in which dimensions are linearly separable into a psychologically plausible heuristic model (specifically, a dimensional prioritization heuristic that has no utility computation stage. We then show that under a range of plausible assumptions, both classes of model predict similar neural responses. These results highlight the difficulties in using neuroeconomic data to infer the existence of a value stage in choice.

  3. Utility-free heuristic models of two-option choice can mimic predictions of utility-stage models under many conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven T.; Hayden, Benjamin Y.

    2015-01-01

    Economists often model choices as if decision-makers assign each option a scalar value variable, known as utility, and then select the option with the highest utility. It remains unclear whether as-if utility models describe real mental and neural steps in choice. Although choices alone cannot prove the existence of a utility stage, utility transformations are often taken to provide the most parsimonious or psychologically plausible explanation for choice data. Here, we show that it is possible to mathematically transform a large set of common utility-stage two-option choice models (specifically ones in which dimensions are can be decomposed into additive functions) into a heuristic model (specifically, a dimensional prioritization heuristic) that has no utility computation stage. We then show that under a range of plausible assumptions, both classes of model predict similar neural responses. These results highlight the difficulties in using neuroeconomic data to infer the existence of a value stage in choice. PMID:25914613

  4. A bayesian approach to laboratory utilization management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald G Hauser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory utilization management describes a process designed to increase healthcare value by altering requests for laboratory services. A typical approach to monitor and prioritize interventions involves audits of laboratory orders against specific criteria, defined as rule-based laboratory utilization management. This approach has inherent limitations. First, rules are inflexible. They adapt poorly to the ambiguity of medical decision-making. Second, rules judge the context of a decision instead of the patient outcome allowing an order to simultaneously save a life and break a rule. Third, rules can threaten physician autonomy when used in a performance evaluation. Methods: We developed an alternative to rule-based laboratory utilization. The core idea comes from a formula used in epidemiology to estimate disease prevalence. The equation relates four terms: the prevalence of disease, the proportion of positive tests, test sensitivity and test specificity. When applied to a laboratory utilization audit, the formula estimates the prevalence of disease (pretest probability [PTP] in the patients tested. The comparison of PTPs among different providers, provider groups, or patient cohorts produces an objective evaluation of laboratory requests. We demonstrate the model in a review of tests for enterovirus (EV meningitis. Results: The model identified subpopulations within the cohort with a low prevalence of disease. These low prevalence groups shared demographic and seasonal factors known to protect against EV meningitis. This suggests too many orders occurred from patients at low risk for EV. Conclusion: We introduce a new method for laboratory utilization management programs to audit laboratory services.

  5. Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Utilization and Transmutation of Actinides in Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    Renewed interest in the potential of nuclear energy to contribute to a sustainable worldwide energy mix is strengthening the IAEA's statutory role in fostering the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, in particular the need for effective exchanges of information and collaborative research and technology development among Member States on advanced nuclear power technologies (Articles III-A.1 and III-A.3). The major challenges facing the long term development of nuclear energy as a part of the world's energy mix are improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptability. The concern linked to the long life of many of the radioisotopes generated from fission has led to increased R and D efforts to develop a technology aimed at reducing the amount of long lived radioactive waste through transmutation in fission reactors or accelerator driven hybrids. In recent years, in various countries and at an international level, more and more studies have been carried out on advanced and innovative waste management strategies (i.e. actinide separation and elimination). Within the framework of the Project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (http://www.iaea.org/inisnkm/nkm/aws/fnss/index.html), the IAEA initiated a number of activities on utilization of plutonium and transmutation of long lived radioactive waste, accelerator driven systems, thorium fuel options, innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles, non-conventional nuclear energy systems, and fusion/fission hybrids. These activities are implemented under the guidance and with the support of the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). This publication compiles the analyses and findings of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste (2002

  6. Improving Knowledge Management and Utilization of Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving Knowledge Management and Utilization of Research Results in Ecohealth Projects. This study brings together lead investigators from 11 past and ongoing Ecohealth projects across Latin America who are interested in achieving better development outcomes guided by research results. Their collective ...

  7. Fleet management tools for the utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caywood, J. [Terex Telelect, Watertown, SD (United States)

    2002-08-01

    In order to enable fleet managers to make the appropriate decisions concerning buying, selling, renting, leasing or repairing vehicles, information about ownership and operating cost and utilization are important. Fleet management tools are now available in the heavy construction industry. The author describes one such fleet management services customized for the utility industry: FleetEdge. This system utilizes current and future technologies to enable the managers to take proactive or predictive approaches to fleet management. An example of a company that has opted for this system was reviewed: Reliant Energy-Houston Metro. The data collection process was explained. A mini-computer processor is fitted on the equipment, and the requested monitoring parameters in turn determine the variety of sensors and alarms to be selected. Location can also be monitored through the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment. The parameters normally include low engine oil pressure, high engine operating temperature, high transmission operating temperature, high hydraulic oil temperature, engine hours. Wireless data transfer is effected via cellular or satellite networks. The data is then collected and checked for errors and format at a hub before going to the computer server through the Internet. Information is transmitted from the accounting system to fleet management service through a secure interface. The data is then configured to meet the client's needs. It results in up to date, understandable information to the client. Equipment utilization, downtime and cost by machine or category is easily accessible and printed if required. Fleet equipment status is provided, as well as hourly cost analysis. Other reports are also available. 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  8. Managing AVN following internal fixation: treatment options and clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Simon; Morison, Zachary; Shahrokhi, Shahram; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2015-03-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) after internal fixation of intracapsular hip fractures is a progressive multifactorial disease that ultimately results in local ischemia with ensuing osteocyte necrosis and structural compromise. This disease can cause significant clinical morbidity and affects patients of any age, including young and active patients. Effective treatment of this condition among young adults is challenging due to their high functional demands. The aim of managing AVN is to relieve pain, preserve range of movement and improve function. Treatment methods vary depending on the stage of the disease and can be broadly categorised into two options, hip preserving surgery and hip arthroplasty. Although, hip preserving techniques are attractive in the young adult, they may alter the morphology of the proximal femur and make subsequent arthroplasty more challenging. Conversely, arthroplasty in the young adult may require repeat revision procedures throughout the patient's life. Current evidence suggests that modifications of prevailing treatments, in addition to new technologies, have led to the development of management strategies that may be able to alter the course of femoral head osteonecrosis. This review aims to summarise the options available for treatment of AVN in the young adult and review the clinical results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Forest managment options for sequestering carbon in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masera, O.R.; Bellon, M.R.; Segura, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper identifies and examines economic response options to avoid carbon emissions and increase carbon sequestration in Mexican forests. A ''Policy'' scenario covering the years 2000, 2010 and 2030 and a ''Technical Potential'' scenario (year 2030) are developed to examine the potential carbon sequestration and costs of each response option. Benefit-cost analyses for three case studies, including management of a pulpwood plantation, a native temperate forest and a native tropical evergreen forest are presented and discussed. The study suggests that a large potential for reducing carbon emissions and increasing carbon sequestration exists in Mexican forests. However, the achievement of this potential will require important reforms to the current institutional setting of the forest sector. The management of native temperate and tropical forests offers the most promising alternatives for carbon sequestration. The cost effectiveness of commercial plantations critically depends on very high site productivity. Restoration of degraded forest lands; particularly through the establishment of energy plantations, also shows a large carbon sequestration potential. (Author)

  10. Effective utilization and management of research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muranaka, R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Research and Isotopes

    1984-06-01

    The problem of utilizing a research reactor effectively is closely related to its management and therefore should not be considered separately. Too often, attention has been focused on specific techniques and methods rather than on the overall programme of utilization, with the result that skills and equipment have been acquired without any active continuing programme of applications and services. The seminar reported here provided a forum for reactor managers, users, and operators to discuss their experience. At the invitation of the Government of Malaysia, it was held at the Asia Pacific Development Centre, Kuala Lumpur, from 7 to 11 November 1983. It was attended by about 50 participants from 19 Member States; it is hoped that a report on the seminar, including papers presented, can be published and thus reach a wider audience. Thirty-one lectures and contributions were presented at a total of seven sessions: Research reactor management; Radiation exposure and safety; Research reactor utilization (two sessions); PUSPATI Research Reactor Project Development; Core conversion to low-enriched uranium, and safeguards; Research reactor technology. In addition, a panel discussed the causes and resolutions of the under-utilization of research reactors.

  11. Effective utilization and management of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, R.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of utilizing a research reactor effectively is closely related to its management and therefore should not be considered separately. Too often, attention has been focused on specific techniques and methods rather than on the overall programme of utilization, with the result that skills and equipment have been acquired without any active continuing programme of applications and services. The seminar reported here provided a forum for reactor managers, users, and operators to discuss their experience. At the invitation of the Government of Malaysia, it was held at the Asia Pacific Development Centre, Kuala Lumpur, from 7 to 11 November 1983. It was attended by about 50 participants from 19 Member States; it is hoped that a report on the seminar, including papers presented, can be published and thus reach a wider audience. Thirty-one lectures and contributions were presented at a total of seven sessions: Research reactor management; Radiation exposure and safety; Research reactor utilization (two sessions); PUSPATI Research Reactor Project Development; Core conversion to low-enriched uranium, and safeguards; Research reactor technology. In addition, a panel discussed the causes and resolutions of the under-utilization of research reactors

  12. Management options for vulvar carcinoma in a low resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Ahizechukwu C; Alabi-Isama, Lilian I; Akabuike, Josephat C

    2010-11-01

    Vulvar carcinoma is a rare tumor of the female genital tract. In Nigeria, very few studies have looked at the management options for vulvar carcinoma. The objective of this study was therefore, to describe the management options available and the challenges in treating this malignancy in Nigeria. A descriptive study of all vulvar cancer cases managed at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi over a 12 year period (1998-2009). The theatre, ward register, histo-pathologic records and case notes of all women who had surgery for vulvar carcinomas were retrieved and socio-demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, type of surgery, histologic type and complications of treatment were retrieved and analyzed. There were 867 gynecological malignancies and vulval carcinoma accounted for 11 cases, giving a prevalence of 1.27%. The ages ranged from 54 to 79 years with a mean of 61.2 years. Parity was 2-14, with a mean of 6.7 ± 2.33. Most of the patients were of low socio-economic class. All the 11 patients had surgery as 1st line treatment. Radical vulvectomy was done for 6 cases since they presented in the advanced stage. The complications of surgery included hemorrhage (18.2%), chronic lymphedema, wound infection and anesthetic complications. There were no hospital mortalities. Late presentation, with stage III (45.4%) was the commonest stage at presentation while the majority of the vulvar carcinomas (72.7%) were of epithelial origin. Squamous cell carcinoma predominated (63.6%). Carcinoma of the vulva is a rare gynecological malignancy in Nigeria. Surgery and radiotherapy remains the mainstay of this disease in Nigeria and can be highly successful if patients present early.

  13. Life-cycle assessment of selected management options for air pollution control residues from waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    Based on available technology and emission data seven selected management options for air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incineration were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE model. Scenarios were evaluated with respect to both non-toxicity impact categories (e.g. global warming) and toxicity related impact categories (e.g. ecotoxicity and human toxicity). The assessment addressed treatment and final placement of 1 tonne of APC residue in seven scenarios: 1) direct landfilling without treatment (baseline), 2) backfilling in salt mines, 3) neutralization of waste acid, 4) filler material in asphalt, 5) Ferrox stabilization, 6) vitrification, and 7) melting with automobile shredder residues (ASR). The management scenarios were selected as examples of the wide range of different technologies available worldwide while at the same time using realistic technology data. Results from the LCA were discussed with respect to importance of: energy consumption/substitution, material substitution, leaching, air emissions, time horizon aspects for the assessment, and transportation distances. The LCA modeling showed that thermal processes were associated with the highest loads in the non-toxicity categories (energy consumption), while differences between the remaining alternatives were small and generally considered insignificant. In the toxicity categories, all treatment/utilization options were significantly better than direct landfilling without treatment (lower leaching), although the thermal processes had somewhat higher impacts than the others options (air emissions). Transportation distances did not affect the overall ranking of the management alternatives. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 13 CFR 107.250 - Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Sbic § 107.250 Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses. Stock options... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses. 107.250 Section 107.250 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  15. Calculating cost savings in utilization management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Donna

    2014-01-01

    A major motivation for managing the utilization of laboratory testing is to reduce the cost of medical care. For this reason it is important to understand the basic principles of cost accounting in the clinical laboratory. The process of laboratory testing includes three distinct components termed the pre-analytic, analytic and post-analytic phases. Utilization management efforts may impact the cost structure of these three phases in different ways depending on the specific details of the initiative. Estimates of cost savings resulting from utilization management programs reported in the literature have often been fundamentally flawed due to a failure to understand basic concepts such as the difference between laboratory costs versus charges and the impact of reducing laboratory test volumes on the average versus marginal cost structure in the laboratory. This article will provide an overview of basic cost accounting principles in the clinical laboratory including both job order and process cost accounting. Specific examples will be presented to illustrate these concepts in various different scenarios. © 2013.

  16. Impact assessment of waste management options in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Reginald B H; Khoo, Hsien H

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes the application of life cycle assessment for evaluating various waste management options in Singapore, a small-island city state. The impact assessment method by SimaPro is carried out for comparing the potential environmental impacts of waste treatment options including landfilling, incineration, recycling, and composting. The inventory data include gases and leachate from landfills, air emissions and energy recovery from incinerators, energy (and emission) savings from recycling, composting gases, and transport pollution. The impact assessment results for climate change, acidification, and ecotoxicity show that the incineration of materials imposes considerable harm to both human health and the environment, especially for the burning of plastics, paper/cardboard, and ferrous metals. The results also show that, although some amount of energy can be derived from the incineration of wastes, these benefits are outweighed by the air pollution (heavy metals and dioxins/furans) that incinerators produce. For Singapore, landfill gases and leachate generate minimal environmental damage because of the nation's policy to landfill only 10% of the total disposed wastes. Land transportation and separation of waste materials also pose minimal environmental damage. However, sea transportation to the landfill could contribute significantly to acidification because of the emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from barges. The composting of horticultural wastes hardly imposes any environmental damage. Out of all the waste strategies, the recycling of wastes offers the best solution for environmental protection and improved human health for the nation. Significant emission savings can be realized through recycling.

  17. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D. [Foster Wheeler Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ``Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?`` That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation`s mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation`s mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ``Which mixed waste has no treatment option?`` Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology.

  18. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D.

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ''Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?'' That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation's mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation's mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ''Which mixed waste has no treatment option?'' Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology

  19. Spent fuel management options for research reactors in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    Research reactors (RRs) have been operated in Latin America since the late 1950s, and a total of 23 RRs have been built in the region. At the time of writing (November 2005), 18 RRs are in operation, 4 have been shut down and 1 has been decommissioned. The number of operating RRs in Latin America represents around 6% of the existing operational RRs worldwide and around 21% of the RRs operating in developing countries. Common to all RRs in the region is a consistent record of safe and successful operation. With the purpose of carrying out a collaborative study of different aspects of the management of spent fuel from RRs, some countries from the region proposed to the IAEA in 2000 the organization of a Regional Project. The project (IAEA TC Regional Project RLA/4/018) that was approved for the biennium 2001-2002 and extended for 2003-2004 included the participation of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Peru. The main objectives of this project were: (a) to define the basic conditions for a regional strategy for managing spent fuel that will provide solutions compatible with the economic and technological realities of the countries involved; and (b) to determine what is needed for the temporary wet and dry storage of spent fuel from the research reactors in the countries of the Latin American region that participated in the project. This TECDOC is based on the results of TC Regional Project RLA/4/018. This project was successful in identifying and assessing a number of viable alternatives for RRSF management in the Latin American region. Options for operational and interim storage, spent fuel conditioning and final disposal have been carefully considered. This report presents the views of Latin American experts on RR spent fuel management and will be useful as reference material for the Latin American RR community, decision making authorities in the region and the public in general

  20. Management options for cholestatic liver disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catzola, Andrea; Vajro, Pietro

    2017-11-01

    Due to a peculiar age-dependent increased susceptibility, neonatal cholestasis affects the liver of approximately 1 in every 2500 term infants. A high index of suspicion is the key to an early diagnosis, and to implement timely, often life-saving treatments. Even when specific treatment is not available or curative, prompt medical management and optimization of nutrition are of paramount importance to survival and avoidance of complications. Areas covered: The present article will prominently focus on a series of newer diagnostic and therapeutic options of cholestasis in neonates and infants blended with consolidated established paradigms. The overview of strategies for the management reported here is based on a systematic literature search published in English using accessible databases (PubMed, MEDLINE) with the keywords biliary atresia, choleretics and neonatal cholestasis. References lists from retrieved articles were also reviewed. Expert commentary: A large number of uncommon and rare hepatobiliary disorders may present with cholestasis during the neonatal and infantile period. Potentially life-saving disease-specific pharmacological and surgical therapeutic approaches are currently available. Advances in hepatobiliary transport mechanisms have started clarifying fundamental aspects of inherited and acquired cholestasis, laying the foundation for the development of possibly more effective specific therapies.

  1. Management of stage IV rectal cancer: Palliative options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnekleiv-Kelly, Sean M; Kennedy, Gregory D

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 30% of patients with rectal cancer present with metastatic disease. Many of these patients have symptoms of bleeding or obstruction. Several treatment options are available to deal with the various complications that may afflict these patients. Endorectal stenting, laser ablation, and operative resection are a few of the options available to the patient with a malignant large bowel obstruction. A thorough understanding of treatment options will ensure the patient is offered the most effective therapy with the least amount of associated morbidity. In this review, we describe various options for palliation of symptoms in patients with metastatic rectal cancer. Additionally, we briefly discuss treatment for asymptomatic patients with metastatic disease. PMID:21412493

  2. Natural options for management of melasma, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomakhosi, Mpofana; Heidi, Abrahamse

    2018-02-20

    A blemish free, even-toned skin is universally associated with healthy skin. This reasoning makes people desire to have a flawless skin. Melanin is a naturally occurring pigment in humans. This pigment is responsible for skin, hair, and eye color, therefore determines our race and phenotypic appearance. On darker skin types, it is common that melanin production processes malfunctions. These malfunctions often lead to overproduction and secretion of melanin. As a result, unwanted pigmentary problems such melasma occur. Due to unknown etiology and its recurrence in nature, melasma is challenging to treat. The current available melasma treatment options often produce undesired side effects and suboptimum results. First-line topical treatments usually involve hydroquinone or topical steroids. Apart from the irritant reactions, this treatment mode is not suitable for all skin types. Skin care specialists are in search of an effective long-term cosmetics and cosmeceuticals to address hypermelanosis problems. Understanding of naturally occurring depigmenting agents provides an opportunity for more effective ways to manage melasma in all skin types. This review considers the benefits of naturally occurring ingredients which could help address skin pigmentation problems and broaden the choice for skin-lightening treatments.

  3. Athabasca caribou landscape management options report : executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    The woodland caribou are listed as threatened under Alberta's Wildlife Act and the federal Species at Risk Act. The key factors that directly or indirectly affect the population size and distribution of woodland caribou population include habitat change due to wildfire or human land-use activities, predation and hunting. The Alberta Woodland Caribou Recovery Plan outlines a time line to progressively improve conditions for caribou in Alberta. The 2 main goals are to achieve self-sustaining woodland caribou populations and maintain the distribution of caribou in Alberta; and ensure that long-term habitat requirements for woodland caribou are met within Alberta's caribou range. The Athabasca Landscape Team conducted 2 analyses from which it developed management options. The first was a rating or relative risk to caribou persistence within 4 Athabasca ranges based on a series of 8 risk criteria, including both biological and land use factors. The second analysis conducted for each planning area involved simulation modeling using ALCES to forecast likely caribou populations and habitat conditions under 3 scenarios, including non-industrial, business and usual, and alternative futures. 1 tab.

  4. Therapeutic Options for the Management of the Cardiorenal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Koniari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with heart failure often present with impaired renal function, which is a predictor of poor outcome. The cardiorenal syndrome is the worsening of renal function, which is accelerated by worsening of heart failure or acute decompensated heart failure. Although it is a frequent clinical entity due to the improved survival of heart failure patients, still its pathophysiology is not well understood, and thus its therapeutic approach remains controversial and sometimes ineffective. Established therapeutic strategies, such as diuretics and inotropes, are often associated with resistance and limited clinical success. That leads to an increasing concern about novel options, such as the use of vasopressin antagonists, adenosine A1 receptor antagonists, and renal-protective dopamine. Initial clinical trials have shown quite encouraging results in some heart failure subpopulations but have failed to demonstrate a clear beneficial role of these agents. On the other hand, ultrafiltration appears to be a more promising therapeutic procedure that will improve volume regulation, while preserving renal and cardiac function. Further clinical studies are required in order to determine their net effect on renal function and potential cardiovascular outcomes. Until then, management of the cardiorenal syndrome remains quite empirical.

  5. Options analysis of managed care contracting and regulation: theory and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R A; Magiera, F T

    2000-08-01

    Managed care contracts can be represented as bundles of options. In particular, the managed care provider is short a call option. To hedge the risk involved in such contracts, managed care contractors can construct several types of virtual put options, among them the ownership of facilities. Agency theory and options theory suggest that for-profit managed care plans, in the presence of debt, will engage in less hedging activity than will other managed care plans. Here, the authors test that hypothesis, using data for Florida HMOs in 1995, and they reject the null hypothesis. That managed care organizations act as if they are short a call option raises interesting regulatory issues, including the possibility of using a hedge-based regulatory scheme in place of a net-worth-based scheme.

  6. Demand-side management: The perspective of a combination utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packard, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    During the 1980's, Baltimore Gas ampersand Electric (BG ampersand E) met part of the rapid growth in demand for electricity in its service territory by implementing cost-effective demand-side management (DSM) programs--specifically, peak shaving and load shifting strategies. BG ampersand E's focus in the 1990's has been expanded to include all DSM options with an increasing emphasis on those which promote overall 1 energy efficiency or strategic conservation. This change in focus is being driven by Federal legislation, state regulatory requirements and the perceived potential benefits for both the customer and the Company. Current activities related to DSM include involvement in a Collaborative Process to design cost-effective electric and gas conservation programs for all customer classes--low-income, residential, commercial and industrial. Program design consists of four steps: (1) data gathering and technology assessment; (2) development of program concepts; (3) detailed program design and (4) monitoring and evaluation. Significant reductions in the projected peaks as well as in sales in future years are the anticipated results of our efforts. As a combination utility, unique opportunities and challenges face BG ampersand E: fuel switching, eligibility of non-full requirements customers, and energy options for customers

  7. Savannah River Plant Low-Level Waste Heat Utilization Project preliminary analysis. Volume III. Preferred utilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The technical, economic, environmental, and institutional considerations that must be resolved before implementing options to recover energy from the heated SRP effluent are examined. Detailed hypothetical siting options and expected economic returns are examined for power generation, prawn production, and one industrial park scenario. The likely indirect effects on regional population, income, taxes, and infrastructure requirements if the industrial park scenario is implemented are also projected. Recommendations for follow-on studies to make possible an informed go/no-go decision for implementing attractive waste heat options using reject SRP effluent are included

  8. Strategic management and utilization of patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyeong Go; Yun, Gwon Jun

    1993-11-01

    This book deals with why does management of patents need?, system of management of patents with function and site of management of patents and system and composition, what does management of patents department do?, task like technical development, management regulation, patent information, management of patents in small business with technical development of small business, how does business manage the patents in real, introduction of management of patents in the U.S, Europe, Japan, and Korea, and management of patents as strategic management.

  9. Impact of advanced fuel cycle options on waste management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordelier, Stan; Cavedon, Jean-Marc

    2006-01-01

    OECD/NEA has performed a study on the impact of advanced fuel cycle options on waste management policies with 33 experts from 12 member countries, 1 non-member country and 2 international organizations. The study extends a series of previous ones on partitioning and transmutation (P and T) issues, focusing on the performance assessments for repositories of high-level waste (HLW) arising from advanced fuel cycles. This study covers a broader spectrum than previous studies, from present industrial practice to fully closed cycles via partially closed cycles (in terms of transuranic elements); 9 fuel cycle schemes and 4 variants. Elements of fuel cycles are considered primarily as sources of waste, the internal mass flows of each scheme being kept for the sake of mass conservation. The compositions, activities and heat loads of all waste flows are also tracked. Their impact is finally assessed on the waste repository concepts. The study result confirms the findings from the previous NEA studies on P and T on maximal reduction of the waste source term and maximal use of uranium resources. In advanced fuel cycle schemes the activity of the waste is reduced by burning first plutonium and then minor actinides and also the uranium consumption is reduced, as the fraction of fast reactors in the park is increased to 100%. The result of the repository performance assessments, analysing the effect of different HLW isotopic composition on repository performance and on repository capacity, shows that the maximum dose released to biosphere at any time in normal conditions remains, for all schemes and for all the repository concepts examined, well below accepted radiation protection thresholds. The major impact is on the detailed concept of the repositories, through heat load and waste volume. Advanced fuel cycles could allow a repository to cover waste produced from 5 to 20 times more electricity generation than PWR once-through cycle. Given the flexibility of the advanced fuel

  10. Management and conservation options for Indian coral reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    for management of the reefs. The approaches proposed for management of Indian reefs are (1) decision on the need for management, (2) preparation of a use and impact analysis chart, to evaluate the type of management approach needed, (3) preparation of management...

  11. Utility evaluations for Markov states of lung cancer for PET-based disease management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papatheofanis, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Utilities for the health outcomes states (Markov states) of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLCL) should be measured to evaluate management options for patients because patients are key participants in the process of care, and their assessment of diagnostic and therapeutic value in the options presented to them ultimately impacts their net health outcomes. This investigation sought to measure utilities for stage-dependent outcomes states of NSCLC. Persons (n=23) with suspected NSCLC based on physical findings and computed tomography completed a short utilities survey. Utility valuations were obtained according to severity of morbidity and varied considerably. Respondents rated these health states according to accuracy measures for 18 flurodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and mediastinoscopy. The results demonstrate that stage-dependent morbidity is an important consideration for patients with NSCLC and should be included in any decision analysis regarding the evaluation or treatment of NSCLC. Respondents valued the quality of information obtained from non-invasive mediastinoscopy comparably. The utilities obtained from this investigation are useful in clinical decision-making based on Markov processes because they provide an initial estimation of utility assessment for 18 FDG-based diagnostic evaluation of lung cancer. Consequently, these utilities will be useful in future decision analyses that require patient preference in the assignment of the evaluation of decision options (branches)

  12. Option managing for radioactive metallic waste from the decommissioning of Kori Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, David S.; Kim, Chagn Lak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School (KINGS), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate several leading options for the management of radioactive metallic waste against a set of general criteria including safety, cost effectiveness, radiological dose to workers and volume reduction. Several options for managing metallic waste generated from decommissioning are evaluated in this paper. These options include free release, controlled reuse, and direct disposal of radioactive metallic waste. Each of these options may involve treatment of the metal waste for volume reduction by physical cutting or melting. A multi-criteria decision analysis was performed using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to rank the options. Melting radioactive metallic waste to produce metal ingots with controlled reuse or free release is found to be the most effective option.

  13. Spatial management of invasive species : Pathways and policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchirico, James N.; Albers, Heidi J.; Fischer, Carolyn; Coleman, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    In addressing the problem of invasive species, decision makers have a variety of options, each targeting different aspects as it evolves over time and space. We develop a 2-region bioeconomic model that includes several transmission pathways that spread the invader. Within each region, inspections,

  14. A multi-criteria decision analysis assessment of waste paper management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, Deirdre; Burnley, Stephen; Cooke, David

    2013-03-01

    The use of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was investigated in an exercise using a panel of local residents and stakeholders to assess the options for managing waste paper on the Isle of Wight. Seven recycling, recovery and disposal options were considered by the panel who evaluated each option against seven environmental, financial and social criteria. The panel preferred options where the waste was managed on the island with gasification and recycling achieving the highest scores. Exporting the waste to the English mainland for incineration or landfill proved to be the least preferred options. This research has demonstrated that MCDA is an effective way of involving community groups in waste management decision making. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A multi-criteria decision analysis assessment of waste paper management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, Deirdre; Burnley, Stephen; Cooke, David

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isolated communities have particular problems in terms of waste management. ► An MCDA tool allowed a group of non-experts to evaluate waste management options. ► The group preferred local waste management solutions to export to the mainland. ► Gasification of paper was the preferred option followed by recycling. ► The group concluded that they could be involved in the decision making process. - Abstract: The use of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was investigated in an exercise using a panel of local residents and stakeholders to assess the options for managing waste paper on the Isle of Wight. Seven recycling, recovery and disposal options were considered by the panel who evaluated each option against seven environmental, financial and social criteria. The panel preferred options where the waste was managed on the island with gasification and recycling achieving the highest scores. Exporting the waste to the English mainland for incineration or landfill proved to be the least preferred options. This research has demonstrated that MCDA is an effective way of involving community groups in waste management decision making

  16. A multi-criteria decision analysis assessment of waste paper management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanan, Deirdre [Department of Design, Development, Environment and Materials, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Burnley, Stephen, E-mail: s.j.burnley@open.ac.uk [Department of Design, Development, Environment and Materials, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Cooke, David [Department of Design, Development, Environment and Materials, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Isolated communities have particular problems in terms of waste management. ► An MCDA tool allowed a group of non-experts to evaluate waste management options. ► The group preferred local waste management solutions to export to the mainland. ► Gasification of paper was the preferred option followed by recycling. ► The group concluded that they could be involved in the decision making process. - Abstract: The use of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was investigated in an exercise using a panel of local residents and stakeholders to assess the options for managing waste paper on the Isle of Wight. Seven recycling, recovery and disposal options were considered by the panel who evaluated each option against seven environmental, financial and social criteria. The panel preferred options where the waste was managed on the island with gasification and recycling achieving the highest scores. Exporting the waste to the English mainland for incineration or landfill proved to be the least preferred options. This research has demonstrated that MCDA is an effective way of involving community groups in waste management decision making.

  17. Towards phronetic knowledge for strategic planning in corporate real estate management: A real options approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reedt Dortland, Maartje; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The objective of this paper is to provide insights about the potential of real option thinking for corporate real estate management (CREM) from the owner-user perspective. A promising approach to classifying and evaluating flexibility in real estate is the real options approach. Most

  18. Knowledge management implementation and the tools utilized in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge management implementation and the tools utilized in healthcare for ... a knowledge driven process and thus knowledge management and the tools to ... health record systems, communities of practice and advanced care planning.

  19. Energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on energy options as a means of managing exposure to energy prices. An intuitive approach to energy options is presented, and traditional definitions of call and put options are given. The relationship between options and swaps, option value and option exercises, commodity options, and option pricing are described. An end-user's guide to energy option strategy is outlined, and straight options, collars, participating swaps and collars, bull and bear spreads, and swaption are examined. Panels explaining the defining of basis risk, and discussing option pricing and the Greeks, delta hedging, managing oil options using the Black-Scholes model, caps, floors and collars, and guidelines on hedging versus speculation with options are included in the paper

  20. Declassification, an actual operating materials management option in Cofrentes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Bermejo, R.; Diego compadre, J. L. de; Lopez Alvarez, L.; Analya Lazaro, M.

    2014-01-01

    Methods and procedures developed for declassification feature a series of methodological options and innovative technology, including the systematic use of the spatial random variable named index of Residual activity, level specific factors for declassification determined empirically for each unit of characterization and contrasts of hypothesis not parametric which are used in the demonstration of compliance of the levels of declassification Decision rules authorized by the CSN. (Author)

  1. Management Options for Advanced Low or Intermediate Grade Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Review of Recent Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Neychev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the biology, genetics, and natural history of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas has improved considerably in the last several decades and the spectrum of available therapeutic options is rapidly expanding. The management of patients with metastatic low or intermediate grade NETs has been revolutionized by the development of new treatment strategies such as molecular targeting therapies with everolimus and sunitinib, somatostatin analogs, tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitors, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy that can be used alone or as a multimodal approach with or without surgery. To further define and clarify the utility, appropriateness, and the sequence of the growing list of available therapies for this patient population will require more high level evidence; however, data from well-designed randomized phase III clinical trials is rapidly accumulating that will further stimulate development of new management strategies. It is therefore important to thoroughly review emerging evidence and report major findings in frequent updates, which will expand our knowledge and contribute to a better understanding, characterization, and management of advanced NETs.

  2. Options in radioactive waste management revisited: a proposed framework for robust decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flüeler, T

    2001-08-01

    Deregulation, with concurrent pressure on electricity utilities, has fundamentally changed the once-"closed" radioactive waste management system controlled by the so-called "nuclear establishment." Advocacy coalitions may change-who knows in which direction-but policy learning may also take place. This article presents a framework to evaluate the management options for a specified concept of "sustainability." When weighing the different objectives in view of the long-lasting potential danger of radiotoxic substances, the overall goal of a sound waste management system is to demonstrate safety. The first-priority objective of a disposal system, therefore, is its stability so that it can comply with the protection goal, that is, the long-term protection of humans and the environment from ionizing radiation. The complementary objective is flexibility, defined here as intervention potential. Because trade-offs within the "sustainability triangle" of ecology, economy, and society are unavoidable, the concept of "integral robustness"-both technical and societal-is introduced into radioactive waste management. A system is robust if it is not sensitive to significant parameter changes. In the present case, it has to have a conservative, passively stable design with built-in control and intervention mechanisms. With regard to technical implementation, a concept called "monitored long-term geological disposal" is presented. Such an "extended" final disposal concept emphasizes technical robustness, recognizes evaluation demands (for a potential break-off of a project), and enhances process-based transparency. This open approach admittedly sets high challenges with regard to technicalities as well as the institutional setting and the management process. It requires "mutual learning" by and from all stakeholders to achieve a truly sustainable radioactive waste management system.

  3. Management Options For Reducing The Release Of Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance Genes To The Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water - 77 environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. 78 Objective: To identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and 79 antibiotic resist...

  4. DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE CONSTRUCTION SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT RESEARCH IN NEW ZEALAND: A REAL OPTIONS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran, Van

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Real Options (RO has been a universally accepted concept in a number of major industries. However, its use in the construction supply chain management (CSCM sector has been limited. Some rare supply chain management RO studies have shown a number of limitations. First, there is a lack of a rigorous theoretical RO framework pertaining specifically to CSCM. All such supply chain management RO studies are based off RO theories or models developed for other sectors (engineering, infrastructure, natural resources. And second, attempts to extend real option to wider uses in CSCM seem premature at the present. This paper reviews all recent literature pertaining to real options and real options applied specifically to the construction supply chain management area. The study proposes a research programme pertaining to CSCM in New Zealand in order to enhance the current understanding of RO in this area and in the process develop a comprehensive theory for the RO application in New Zealand CSCM.

  5. How do managers behave in stock option plans? Clinical evidence from exercise and survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sautner, Z.; Weber, M.

    2009-01-01

    We use unique case study data to analyze the behavior of top managers in an executive stock option plan. We gather questionnaire data on the managers' traits and combine it with exercise data. Managers in our sample expect low volatilities (compared to historical estimates) and are well diversified

  6. Template for assessing climate change impacts and management options: TACCIMO user guide version 2.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrys Treasure; Steven McNulty; Jennifer Moore Myers; Lisa Nicole Jennings

    2014-01-01

    The Template for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Management Options (TACCIMO) is a Web-based tool developed by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture to assist Federal, State, and private land managers and planners with evaluation of climate change science implications for sustainable natural resource management. TACCIMO is a dynamic information...

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding waste management options in Romania: results from a school questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Karin KOLBE

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in the area of different waste management approaches of pupils in Romania. Examining school students' knowledge about waste management options and finding out the reasons that prevent them from participating in environmentally sound disposal options is essential for teachers and legislators. For this purpose, questionnaires were designed and distributed in two schools in Romania. The analysis revealed that knowledge is highly developed in...

  8. Practical constraints on fuel management a utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grier, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The practical and potential constraints of performing fuel management at a large utility are reviewed. Based on approximately six years of experience in performing fuel management the constraints due to commercial, technical, utility system, design methods, and personnel and computer resources are discussed in detail

  9. Using Options to Manage Dynamic Uncertainty in Acquisition Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ceylan, B. K; Ford, David N

    2002-01-01

    Uncertainty in acquisition projects and environments can degrade performance. Traditional project planning, management tools, and methods can effectively deal with uncertainties in relatively stable environments...

  10. A comparison of benefit and economic value between two sound therapy tinnitus management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Craig W; Sandridge, Sharon A

    2012-02-01

    Sound therapy coupled with appropriate counseling has gained widespread acceptance in the audiological management of tinnitus. For many years, ear level sound generators (SGs) have been used to provide masking relief and to promote tinnitus habituation. More recently, an alternative treatment device was introduced, the Neuromonics Tinnitus Treatment (NTT), which employs spectrally-modified music in an acoustic desensitization approach in order to help patients overcome the disturbing consequences of tinnitus. It is unknown, however, if one treatment plan is more efficacious and cost-effective in comparison to the other. In today's economic climate, it has become critical that clinicians justify the value of tinnitus treatment devices in relation to observed benefit. To determine perceived benefit from, and economic value associated with, two forms of sound therapy, namely, SGs and NTT. Retrospective between-subject clinical study. A sample of convenience comprised of 56 patients drawn from the Tinnitus Management Clinic at the Cleveland Clinic participated. Twenty-three patients selected SGs, and 33 patients selected NTT as their preferred sound therapy treatment option. Sound therapy benefit was quantified using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). The questionnaire was administered before and 6 mo after initiation of tinnitus treatment. Prior to device fitting, all patients participated in a 1.5 hr group education session about tinnitus and its management. Economic value comparisons between sound therapy options were made using a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and cost-utility analysis (CUA). THI scores indicated a significant improvement (p 0.05) between the treatment alternatives at baseline or 6 mo postfitting. The magnitude of improvement for both SGs and NTT was dependent on initial perceived tinnitus handicap. Based on the CEA and CUA economic analyses alone, it appears that the SGs may be the more cost-effective alternative; however, the magnitude of

  11. Optimal management of seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex: current and emerging options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shelly Wang,1 Aria Fallah2,3 1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Miami Children’s Hospital, Miami, FL, USA; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: Seizures are clinically significant manifestations associated with 79%–90% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Often occurring within the first year of life in the form of infantile spasms, seizures interfere with neuropsychiatric, social, and cognitive development and carry significant individual and societal consequences. Prompt identification and treatment of seizures is an important focus in the overall management of tuberous sclerosis complex patients. Medical management, either after seizure onset or prophylactically in infants with electroencephalographic abnormalities, is considered first-line therapy. Vigabatrin and adrenocorticotropic hormone have emerged over the past few decades as mainstay pharmacologic modalities. Furthermore, emerging research on mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors demonstrated promise for the management of seizures and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. For appropriate surgical candidates with an epileptogenic zone associated with one or more glioneuronal hamartomas, ideally in noneloquent cortex, resective surgery can be considered, which provides a cure in 56% of patients. For medically refractory patients who do not meet criteria for curative surgery, palliative surgical approaches focused on reducing seizure burden, in the form of corpus callosotomy and vagus nerve stimulation, are alternative management options. Lastly, the ketogenic diet, a reemerging therapy based on the anticonvulsant effects of ketone bodies, can be utilized independently or in conjunction with other treatment modalities for the management of difficult-to-treat seizures. Keywords: epilepsy, adrenocorticotropic hormone, vigabatrin, mammalian

  12. Artisanal Fisheries in Zimbabwe: Options for Effective Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mhlanga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The small-scale (artisanal fisheries in Zimbabwe play an important role in income-generation and food security at the household level. This sector has the potential to significantly increase its contribution to household income and food security if more effective fisheries management strategies are put in place. Historically, fisheries management has adopted a centralised “Top-down” approach. This approach has had very limited effectiveness. Over the last decade, efforts have been made to implement co-management in the fisheries sector. Several factors have hampered the success of fisheries co-management in the artisanal fishery. These factors have been institutional, ecological, human and financial. This paper discusses these factors and proposes possible solutions. A more innovative and effective fisheries management approach is also proposed.

  13. Building utility executive strength. [Job rotation as part of management training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, N.J.

    1977-02-17

    The selection and development of strong executive talent to manage the utility industry is essential if some of the controversy and confusion over the role and policies of utilities is to be resolved. The industry has traditionally trained and elevated executives within the organization, but new technical developments have changed the managerial skills required of executives. Today's manager needs an understanding of the total industry regardless of his initial training, the politics involved in advocating issues, and the need to keep costs down. To develop managerial continuity, utilities can institute job rotation as part of their management training program. The option to bring in executives from outside the company allows more stringent standards and introduces new ideas. Competitive salaries increase the opportunity to attract and retain talent. The Board of Directors can actively develop a flexible organizational structure that allows the executive group to adjust to changing demand. (DCK)

  14. Managing Reputational Risk through Environmental Management and Reporting: An Options Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pineiro-Chousa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reputation is a complex and multidimensional concept that may be organized in downside and upside reputational risk. In this article, we present a formal modelling for the management capabilities of environmental management and reporting over reputational risk, considering that reputational risk is becoming increasingly important for organizations and it directly depends on the information available about companies’ environmental performances. As long as the effectiveness of communication and disclosure plays a key role in the process, the usefulness of environmental management and reporting as a hedging instrument for reputational risk is addressed through different levels of information transparency. When considering a scenario of voluntary reporting, we show that environmentally concerned companies can reduce the cost of environmental management as a reputational risk strategy, as well as reducing the potential loss of reputational value from reputational threats and increasing the potential profit from reputational opportunities. In the context of mandatory reporting, we highlight the role of assurance companies as bearers of the risk of bad reputations for non-concerned companies. As a result, this novel approach applies theoretical oriented research from options theory to reputational risk management literature, so that it benefits from the option’s well known theory, robustness, and conclusions.

  15. Viewpoint of utilities regarding fuel management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, C.; Moraw, G.; Schneeberger, M.; Szeless, A.

    1977-01-01

    The engagement of utilities in nuclear power requires them to engage in an increasing amount of fuel management activities in order to carry out all the tasks involved. Essentially, these activities involve two main areas: The procurement of all steps of the fuel cycle from the head to the back end; and in-core fuel management. A general survey of the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented together with the related activities and responsibilities which have to be borne by the utilities. Today's increasing utility involvement in the nuclear fuel management is shown, as well as future fuel management trends. The fuel management activities of the utilities are analysed with respect to organizational, technical, safeguarding, and financial aspects. The active participation of the utilities in fuel management helps to achieve high availability and flexibility of the nuclear power plant during its whole life as well as safe waste isolation. This can be ensured by continuous optimization of all fuel management aspects of the power plant or, on a larger scale, of a power plant system, i.e. activities by utilities to minimize fuel-cycle effects on the environment, which include optimization of fuel behaviour, and radiation exposure to the public and personnel; and technical and economic evaluations by utilities of out- and in-core fuel management. (author)

  16. Management options to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels

    2011-01-01

    Livestock products carry a large carbon footprint compared with other foods, and thus there is a need to focus on how to reduce it. The major contributing factors are emissions related to feed use and manure handling as well as the nature of the land required to produce the feed in question. We can....... Basically, it is important to make sure that all beneficial interactions in the livestock system are optimized instead of focusing only on animal productivity. There is an urgent need to arrive at a sound framework for considering the interaction between land use and carbon footprints of foods....... conclude that the most important mitigation options include - better feed conversion at the system level, - use of feeds that increase soil carbon sequestration versus carbon emission, - ensure that the manure produced substitutes for synthetic fertilizer, and - use manure for bio-energy production...

  17. Current treatment options for the management of patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Koh Takeuchi,1 Atsushi Hirota,2 Sachito Minegishi,1 Jotaro Kobayashi,1 Keiji Tsuchiya3 1Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, 2Department of Neonatology, 3Department of Pediatrics, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Pharmacological and/or surgical closure of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in the very premature infant has been the standard of care over the past few decades. However, the rationale for closure of PDA has recently been challenged. In this article, three ways of approaching the closure of PDA including pharmacological treatment, catheter intervention, and surgical intervention, are reviewed in detail. In addition, the different treatment strategies applied in clinical care are evaluated with a focus on the discussion of the available evidence of PDA treatment in the literature. Keywords: patent ductus arteriosus, premature infant, treatment option

  18. Air quality management in China: issues, challenges, and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality, identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future, proposed the long-term air pollution control targets, and suggested the options for better air quality in China. With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years, China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption, electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions. Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone, as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country. To protect public health and the eco-system, the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO). To achieve the air quality targets, the emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%, 40%, 50%, and 40%, respectively, on the basis of that in 2005. A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China. The options include development of clean energy resources, promotion of clean and efficient coal use, enhancement of vehicle pollution control, implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2, NOx, VOC, and PM emissions, joint prevention and control of regional air pollution, and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures.

  19. Developing technology options for rice integrated crop management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    high farm level impact for research and development efforts that emphasize improved crop and resource management ..... in addition to having superior net revenue per hectare across .... Given this picture, scientists at the Center will explore.

  20. Rationalisation of Management of Strategic Option of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechetova-Terashvili Tetyana M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the state of management of domestic corporate enterprises by such features: nature of management, management functions, spheres of activity, efficiency of activity and priority directions of development. It outlines problems of non-correspondence of requirements of the highly competitive environment and existing models of management. It analyses the procedure of formation of managerial competences at the level of subjects of corporate relations, in the basis of which there is identification of their functions and criteria of efficiency of activity. It identifies a necessity of the study of managerial competences through allocation of corporate management subjects, authorities of which are outlined by goals of efficient management, protection of shareholders’ rights, ensuring observation of rights of interested persons, protected by law and international regulatory rules, ensuring modern and correct disclosure of information by all existing issues that have to do with the JSC activity. It justifies a set of measures on the search for efficient decisions on accumulation and use of managerial knowledge by means of creation of a portfolio of alternatives in correspondence with certain criteria.

  1. Radioactive waste management: a utility view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste continues to be a matter of public concern and discussion. There is broad agreement among members of the technical community that the various types of waste radioactive species can be managed without jeopardizing public health and safety. Despite this consensus, one of the major reasons cited by opponents of commercial nuclear power for their opposition is the lack of a fully deployed waste management program. Such a program has been suggested but implementation is not yet complete. It is essential that a program be undertaken so as to dispel the impression that past inaction on waste disposal represents an inability to deal safely with wastes

  2. Utilization options for fly ash, bottom ash, and slag in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, O.E.

    1995-12-01

    Since 1967, at least six ash utilization symposiums have been held in the United States, with papers presented by several European authors on the utilization of coal by-products in Eastern Europe. There is currently over 80,000 megawatts of installed coal-fired capacity available in that region. Unfortunately, of the 117,778,000 tonnes of fly ash, bottom ash, and slag produced in Eastern Europe in 1989, only 13% was utilized. This paper outlines the research and levels and kinds of coal by-product utilization taking place in Eastern Europe since the late 1960s.

  3. Agricultural waste concept, generation, utilization and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural wastes are non-product outputs of production and processing of ... less than the cost of collection, transportation, and processing for beneficial use. ... Agricultural waste management system (AWMS) was discussed and a typical ...

  4. Maintenance Management in Network Utilities Framework and Practical Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez Fernández, Juan F

    2012-01-01

    In order to satisfy the needs of their customers, network utilities require specially developed maintenance management capabilities. Maintenance Management information systems are essential to ensure control, gain knowledge and improve-decision making in companies dealing with network infrastructure, such as distribution of gas, water, electricity and telecommunications. Maintenance Management in Network Utilities studies specified characteristics of maintenance management in this sector to offer a practical approach to defining and implementing  the best management practices and suitable frameworks.   Divided into three major sections, Maintenance Management in Network Utilities defines a series of stages which can be followed to manage maintenance frameworks properly. Different case studies provide detailed descriptions which illustrate the experience in real company situations. An introduction to the concepts is followed by main sections including: • A Literature Review: covering the basic concepts an...

  5. Utilities' view on the fuel management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, C.; Moraw, G.; Schneeberger, M.; Szeless, A.

    1977-01-01

    Utilities engagement in nuclear power requires an increasing amount of fuel management activities by the utilities in order to meet all tasks involved. These activities comprise essentially two main areas: - activities to secure the procurement of all steps of the fuel cycle from the head to the back end; - activities related to the incore fuel managment. A general survey of the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented together with the related activities and responsibilities which have to be realized by the utilities. Starting in the past, today's increasing utility involvement in the nuclear fuel management is shown, as well as future fuel management trends. The scope of utilities' fuel management activities is analyzed with respect to organizational aspects, technical aspects, safeguarding aspects, and financial aspects. Utilities taking active part in the fuel management serves to achieve high availability and flexibility of the nuclear power plant during the whole plant life as well as safe waste isolation. This can be assured by continuous optimization of all fuel management aspects of the power plant or on a larger scale of a power plant system, i.e., utility activities to minimize the effects of fuel cycle on the environment, which includes optimization of fuel behaviour, radiation exposure to public and personnel, and utility technical and economic evaluations of out- and incore fuel management. These activities of nuclear power producing utilities in the field of nuclear fuel cycle are together with a close cooperation with fuel industry as well as national and international authorities a necessary basis for the further utilization of nuclear power

  6. Surgical options in the management of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    Goitre is a common every day problem but cancer of the thyroid is a comparatively rare disease. It constitutes only 1.3 % of all cancers seen at the Tata Memorial Hospital. The surgeon has a central role in the management of cancer of the thyroid. All other modalities of treatment, like radioiodine therapy follow his surgery and depend on the extent of surgery performed. It is therefore important that the surgeon has a clear cut policy of management. Although surgery is the prime mode of treatment, the extent of surgery has been a matter of debate. Additionally, what constitutes adequate surgical treatment itself is highly controversial. A policy for management based on the natural history, biological behaviour of the disease and the previous treatment methods is discussed

  7. Options for Enhancing Education, Training and Knowledge Management for Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: Decommissioning: 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; Operational: 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Technology Education Consortium (NTEC) Decommissioning Modules: N04 Decommissioning, Radioactive Waste and Environmental Management; N07 Nuclear Safety Case Development; N08 Particle & Colloid Engineering in the Nuclear Industry; N09 Policy, Regulation & Licensing; N10 Processing, Storage & Disposal of Nuclear Waste; N31 Management of the Decommissioning Process; N01 Reactor Physics, Criticality & Design; N02 Nuclear Fuel Cycle; N03 Radiation & Radiological Protection; N06 Reactor Materials & Lifetime Behaviour; N11 Radiation Shielding; N12 Reactor Thermal Hydraulics; N13 Criticality Safety Management; N23 Environmental Impact Assessment; N32 Experimental Reactor Physics

  8. Characteristics and management options of crusting soils in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to control the crusting. The relationship between crust thickness and soil physical and chemical properties and management practices were assessed using stepwise regression analysis. Soil crusting was largely related to soil aggregation, infiltration, fine sand fraction, cotton monocropping and crop residue incorporation.

  9. ANALYSIS OF INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR TRANSGENIC BT CORN,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing interest in the responsible management of technology in the industrial and agricultural sectors of the economy has been met through the development of broadly applicable tools to assess the "sustainability" of new technologies. An arena ripe for application of such ana...

  10. Fisher's preferences and trade-offs between management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzpatrick, Mike; Maravelias, Christos D; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2017-01-01

    fisheries in Denmark and demersal fisheries in Greece. Fisheries management policies were characterized by five attributes designed both to cover the principal CFP reform proposals and to integrate ecological, social, economic and institutional factors affecting fisher’s decisions. The study uses a random...

  11. Model risk analysis for risk management and option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, F.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the growing complexity of products in financial markets, market participants rely more and more on quantitative models for trading and risk management decisions. This introduces a fairly new type of risk, namely, model risk. In the first part of this thesis we investigate the quantitative

  12. Management Options for a High Elevation Forest in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandl, R.; Jandl, N.; Schindlbacher, A.

    2013-12-01

    We explored different management strategies for a Cembran pine forest close to the timber line with respect to maintenance of the stand structure, the sequestration of carbon in the biomass and the soil, and the economical relevance of timber production. We used the forest growth simulation model Caldis for the implementation of three management intensities (zero managment, thinning every 30 years, thinning every 50 years) under two climate scenarios (IPCC A1B and B1). The soil carbon dynamics were analyzed with the simulation model Yasso07. The ecological evaluation of our simulation data showed that the extensive management with cutting interventions every 50 years allows the maintenance of the ecosystem carbon pool. Zero managment leads to the build-up of the carbon pool because the forest stand is rather unvulnerable to disturbances (bark beetle, storm). The more intensive mangement causes a decline in the ecosystem carbon pool. The economical evaluation showed the marginal relevance of the income generated by timber production. The main challenge is the compensation for the high harvesting costs (long-distance cable logging system). Even at extremely favorable market prices for timber from Cembran pine it is impossible to extract an appropriate amount of timber to justify the temporary instalment of the harvesting system and to maintain a stand density expected for a protection forest. We conclude that timber production is not a feasible object for mountain forests close to the timber line. Even in a warmer climate the productivity situation of forests close to the timberline will not change sufficiently. Therefore it will require public subsidies and personal efforts to maintain the silvicultural intensity at a level that is required for the sustainable maintenance of protection forests.

  13. Climate change adaptation and mitigation options a guide for natural resource managers in southern forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Kier D. Klepzig

    2014-01-01

    The rapid pace of climate change and its direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems present a pressing need for better scientific understanding and the development of new science-management partnerships. Understanding the effects of stressors and disturbances (including climatic variability), and developing and testing science-based management options to deal...

  14. Evaluation of fuel cycle options for plutonium utilization: 1977 study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardue, W.M.; Madia, W.J.; Pobereskin, M.; Tripplett, M.B.; Waddell, J.D.

    1977-05-01

    This is the third in a series of three reports on the analysis of plutonium recycle. Analyses are based upon an October, 1976, middle case ERDA forecast of nuclear growth which predicts 510 GWe of nuclear capacity in the year 2000. Four fuel cycle options were reviewed, ranging from no LWR recycle of uranium of plutonium to recycle options both with and without breeder reactors. A special effort was devoted to the review of various estimates of the costs of reprocessing nuclear fuels, with a resulting value of $190/kg of heavy metal (deflated 1975 dollars). The associated range is estimated to $125/kg to $250/kg. Sensitivity analysis of reprocessing costs, uranium consumption, average generation costs, and total discounted costs of electricity indicate that the long-term economic advantages of plutonium recycle are quite conclusive. Nuclear scenarios which project low growth rates and which delay the start of recycle and introduction of a breeder reactor postpone the apparent economic advantages

  15. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission-intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  16. Management of patients with resistant hypertension: current treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar N

    2013-10-01

    options to treat RHTN.Keywords: RHTN, blood pressure, chlorthalidone, hydrochlorothiazide, baroreflex activation, renal denervation, aldosterone, heart failure, renovascular, obstructive sleep apnea

  17. Institutional options for state management of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper concerns ''institutional'' (legal, organizational, and political) aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Its point of departure is the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. With federal law and political consensus now behind the policy of state responsibility for low level waste, the question becomes, how is this new policy to be implemented. The questions of policy implementation are essentially institutional: What functions must a regional low level waste management system perform. What entities are capable of performing them. How well might various alternatives or combinations of alternatives work. This paper is a preliminary effort to address these questions. It discusses the basic functions that must be performed, and identifies the entities that could perform them, and discusses the workability of various alternative approaches

  18. The surgical management of sex reassignment surgery and its options

    OpenAIRE

    高橋,義雄; 難波,祐三郎; 岸本,晃司; 光嶋,勲

    2001-01-01

    GENDER IDENTITY DISORDER (GID) is a unique human condition that is classified behaviorally and treated medically with hormones and surgery in the severe form. This condition has been and still somewhat remains controversial by religious belief, social institutions and health care delivery systems. We described the surgical management of transsexuals, so called SEX REASSGINMENT SURGERY (SRS) and showed the team for gender treatment, GENDER CLINIC. A gender treatment team composing staff member...

  19. Tube thoracostomy: Primary management option for empyema thoracis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra K Ghritlaharey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to review our experience with tube thoracostomy in the management of empyema thoracis in children. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study included 46 children (26 boys and 20 girls who were admitted and managed for empyema thoracis, between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2010 at the author′s department of paediatric surgery. Results: During the last 12 months, 46 children aged below 12 years were treated for empyema thoracis: Five (10.86% were infants, 22 (47.82% were 1 to 5 years and 19 (41.30% were 6 to 12 years of age. All the patients presented with complaints of cough, fever and breathlessness of variable durations. Twenty three (50% children had history of pneumonia and treatment prior to development of empyema. Thirty five (76.08% children had right-sided and 11 (23.91% had left-sided empyema. Thirty nine (84.78% children were successfully treated with tube thoracostomy, systemic antibiotics and other supportive measures. Seven (15.21% children failed to respond with above and needed decortications. Most commonly isolated bacteria were Pseudomonas (n = 12 and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 7. The average length of hospital stay in patients with tube thoracostomy was 15.35 days, and in patients who needed decortications was 16.28 days following thoracotomy. There was no mortality amongst above treated children. Conclusions: Majority of children with empyema thoracis are manageable with tube thoracostomy, antibiotics, physiotherapy and other supportive treatment. Few of them who fail to above measures need more aggressive management.

  20. Improving Knowledge Management and Utilization of Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They are extremely vulnerable, and they have to cope with few resources, poor health, ... and improve research implementation approaches and instruments through ... The project's long-term aim is to contribute to integrated policies that link health, ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  1. Diagnosis and management options in malignant pleural effusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Ramakant; Agarwal, KC; Gokhroo, Archana; Patil, Chetan B; Meena, Manoj; Shah, Narender S; Arora, Piyush

    2017-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) denotes an advanced malignant disease process. Most of the MPE are metastatic involvement of the pleura from primary malignancy at lung, breast, and other body sites apart from lymphomas. The diagnosis of MPE has been traditionally made on cytological examination of pleural fluid and/or histological examination of pleural biopsy tissue that still remains the initial approach in these cases. There has been tremendous advancement in the diagnosis of MPE now a day with techniques i.e. characteristic Ultrasound and computed tomography features, image guided biopsies, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging, thoracoscopy with direct biopsy under vision, tumor marker studies and immunocytochemical analysis etc., that have made possible an early diagnosis of MPE. The management of MPE still remains a challenge to pulmonologist and oncologist. Despite having various modalities with better tolerance such as pleurodesis and indwelling pleural catheters etc., for long-term control, all the management approaches remain palliative to improve the quality of life and reduce symptoms. While choosing an appropriate management intervention, one should consider the clinical status of the patient, life expectancy, overall cost, availability and comparative institutional outcomes, etc. PMID:28360465

  2. Diagnosis and management options in malignant pleural effusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dixit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural effusion (MPE denotes an advanced malignant disease process. Most of the MPE are metastatic involvement of the pleura from primary malignancy at lung, breast, and other body sites apart from lymphomas. The diagnosis of MPE has been traditionally made on cytological examination of pleural fluid and/or histological examination of pleural biopsy tissue that still remains the initial approach in these cases. There has been tremendous advancement in the diagnosis of MPE now a day with techniques i.e. characteristic Ultrasound and computed tomography features, image guided biopsies, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging, thoracoscopy with direct biopsy under vision, tumor marker studies and immunocytochemical analysis etc., that have made possible an early diagnosis of MPE. The management of MPE still remains a challenge to pulmonologist and oncologist. Despite having various modalities with better tolerance such as pleurodesis and indwelling pleural catheters etc., for long-term control, all the management approaches remain palliative to improve the quality of life and reduce symptoms. While choosing an appropriate management intervention, one should consider the clinical status of the patient, life expectancy, overall cost, availability and comparative institutional outcomes, etc.

  3. Current management options for latent tuberculosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton BL

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Brianna L Norton, David P HollandDepartment of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Tuberculosis remains the world’s second leading infectious cause of death, with nearly one-third of the global population latently infected. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is a mainstay of tuberculosis-control efforts in low-to medium-incidence countries. Isoniazid monotherapy has been the standard of care for decades, but its utility is impaired by poor completion rates. However, new, shorter-course regimens using rifamycins improve completion rates and are cost-saving compared with standard isoniazid monotherapy. We review the currently available therapies for latent tuberculosis infection and their toxicities and include a brief economic comparison of the different regimens.Keywords: isoniazid, rifampin, rifapentine, tuberculin skin test, interferon-gamma release assay

  4. Data presentation options to manage variability in physical activity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Diego; Miller, Bryon G; Samaha, Andrew L; Miltenberger, Raymond G

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents seven tactics for managing the variability evident in some physical activity data. High levels of variability in daily step-count data from pedometers or accelerometers can make typical visual inspection difficult. Therefore, the purpose of the current paper is to discuss several strategies that might facilitate the visual interpretation of highly variable data. The seven strategies discussed in this paper are phase mean and median lines, daily average per week, weekly cumulative, proportion of baseline, 7-day moving average, change point detection, and confidence intervals. We apply each strategy to a data set and discuss the advantages and disadvantages. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. Coalbed methane-produced water quality and its management options in Raniganj Basin, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendhe, Vinod Atmaram; Mishra, Subhashree; Varma, Atul Kumar; Singh, Awanindra Pratap

    2017-06-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) recovery is associated with production of large quantity of groundwater. The coal seams are depressurized by pumping of water for regular and consistent gas production. Usually, CBM operators need to pump >10 m3 of water per day from one well, which depends on the aquifer characteristics, drainage and recharge pattern. In India, 32 CBM blocks have been awarded for exploration and production, out of which six blocks are commercially producing methane gas at 0.5 million metric standard cubic feet per day. Large amount of water is being produced from CBM producing blocks, but no specific information or data are available for geochemical properties of CBM-produced water and its suitable disposal or utilization options for better management. CBM operators are in infancy and searching for the suitable solutions for optimal management of produced water. CBM- and mine-produced water needs to be handled considering its physical and geochemical assessment, because it may have environmental as well as long-term impact on aquifer. Investigations were carried out to evaluate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions of CBM blocks in Raniganj Basin. Totally, 15 water samples from CBM well head and nine water samples from mine disposal head were collected from Raniganj Basin. The chemical signature of produced water reveals high sodium and bicarbonate concentrations with low calcium and magnesium, and very low sulphate in CBM water. It is comprehend that CBM water is mainly of Na-HCO3 type and coal mine water is of Ca-Mg-SO4 and HCO3-Cl-SO4 type. The comparative studies are also carried out for CBM- and mine-produced water considering the geochemical properties, aquifer type, depth of occurrence and lithological formations. Suitable options like impounding, reverse osmosis, irrigation and industrial use after prerequisite treatments are suggested. However, use of this huge volume of CBM- and mine-produced water for irrigation or other beneficial purposes

  6. Current and emerging treatment options in the management of lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Natasha; D’Cruz, David

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with variable clinical manifestations. While the clearest guidelines for the treatment of SLE exist in the context of lupus nephritis, patients with other lupus manifestations such as neuropsychiatric, hematologic, musculoskeletal, and severe cutaneous lupus frequently require immunosuppression and/or biologic therapy. Conventional immunosuppressive agents such as mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide are widely used in the management of SLE with current more rationalized treatment regimens optimizing the use of these agents while minimizing potential toxicity. The advent of biologic therapies has advanced the treatment of SLE particularly in patients with refractory disease. The CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab and the anti-BLyS agent belimumab are now widely in use in clinical practice. Several other biologic agents are in ongoing clinical trials. While immunosuppressive and biologic agents are the foundation of inflammatory disease control in SLE, the importance of managing comorbidities such as cardiovascular risk factors, bone health, and minimizing susceptibility to infection should not be neglected. PMID:27529058

  7. Communications technologies for demand side management, DSM, and European utility communications architecture, EurUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkkaeinen, S.; Kekkonen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Rissanen, P. [Tietosavo Oy (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this project the main target is to develop and assess methods for DSM (Demand Side Management) and distribution automation planning from the utility`s point of view. The final goal is to integrate these methods for the strategic planning of electric utilities. In practice the project is divided into four main parts: The development and assessment of DSM/IRP planning methods and cost/benefit analysis as a part of international co-operation (IEA DSM Agreement: Annex IV, European Cost/Benefit analysis of DSM, EUBC, and Finnish SAVE-project started in 1995 in co-operation with SRC International and six electric utilities in Finland); Development of PC-based DSM planning and assessment tools at VTT; Development of a decision support system of distribution network planning including DSM options at Tietosavo Oy and Integration of DSM planning and network planning tools in co-operation with VTT Energy and Tietosavo Oy

  8. Communications technologies for demand side management, DSM, and European utility communications architecture, EurUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkkaeinen, S; Kekkonen, V [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Rissanen, P [Tietosavo Oy (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In this project the main target is to develop and assess methods for DSM (Demand Side Management) and distribution automation planning from the utility`s point of view. The final goal is to integrate these methods for the strategic planning of electric utilities. In practice the project is divided into four main parts: The development and assessment of DSM/IRP planning methods and cost/benefit analysis as a part of international co-operation (IEA DSM Agreement: Annex IV, European Cost/Benefit analysis of DSM, EUBC, and Finnish SAVE-project started in 1995 in co-operation with SRC International and six electric utilities in Finland); Development of PC-based DSM planning and assessment tools at VTT; Development of a decision support system of distribution network planning including DSM options at Tietosavo Oy and Integration of DSM planning and network planning tools in co-operation with VTT Energy and Tietosavo Oy

  9. Water Utility Management Strategies in Turkey: The current situation and the challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, E.; Aksoy, M. N.; Koçer, B.

    2013-12-01

    As the effects of climate change becomes more prominent, current challenges related to water and wastewater management is becoming more serious. Providing water that satisfies environmental and safety standards in terms of quantity and quality is needed to maintain human life without compromising the need of future generations. Besides providing safe and affordable water, necessary treatment should be achieved according to several important factors such as receiving body standards, discharge standards, water reuse options. Therefore, management of water becomes more crucial than ever that states have to provide accessibility of safe water with affordable cost to its citizens with the means of effective utility management, including water treatment facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, water supply facilities and water distribution systems. Water utilities encounter with several challenges related to cost, infrastructure, population, legislation, workforce and resource. This study aims to determine the current situation and the necessary strategies to improve utility management in Turkish municipalities in a sustainable manner. US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has formed a tool on effective utility management that assists utilities to provide a solution for both current and future challenges. In this study, we used EPA's guidelines and developed a survey consists of 60 questions under 10 sub-topics (Product Quality, Employee & Leadership Development, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Operational Optimization, Infrastructure Stability, Financial Viability, Community Sustainability, Customer Satisfaction, Operational Resiliency, and Water Resource Adequacy). This survey was sent to the managers of 25 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey to assess the current condition of municipalities. After the evaluation of the survey results for each topic, including the importance given by managers, facilities were rated according to their level of achievement

  10. Current Surgical Options for the Management of Pediatric Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are numerous choices for the treatment of pediatric glaucoma depending on the type of glaucoma, the age of the patient, and other particularities of the condition discussed in this review. Traditionally, goniotomy and trabeculotomy ab externo have been the preferred choices of treatment for congenital glaucoma, and a variety of adult procedures adapted to children have been utilized for other types of pediatric glaucoma with variable results and complications. More recently, seton implantations of different types have become more popular to use in children, and newer techniques have become available including visualized cannulation and opening of Schlemm’s canal, deep sclerectomy, trabectome, and milder more directed cyclodestructive procedures such as endolaser and transcleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation. This paper reviews the different surgical techniques currently available, their indications, results, and most common complications to allow the surgeon treating these conditions to make a more informed choice in each particular case. Although the outcome of surgical treatment in pediatric glaucoma has improved significantly, its treatment remains challenging.

  11. An option for the management of radioactive waste in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinchuk, D.

    2001-01-01

    Argentina has an active nuclear program, started in the 50's, which includes two nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation and one under construction, providing 12% of power generated in the country. Together with eight research reactors, complete facilities at the front and back end of the fuel cycle, such as radioisotope production plants and supporting laboratories in four atomic centers with an extensive research and development (R and D) program and an independent nuclear regulatory authority, constitute the backbone of the country's nuclear activities, employing in total approximately 4500 people. These activities, together with the future decommissioning of nuclear facilities, generate a considerable amount of nuclear waste which needs to be treated properly according to international practices and standards. The safe management of these wastes has being always one of Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica's (CNEA) top priorities. (author)

  12. Issues related to public perception of radioactive waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Public perceptions about radioactive waste are generally rather or even strongly negative. They are also very poorly informed. This is rather unfortunate as it is these perceptions that appear to greatly influence the Public views on nuclear energy in general. This, in turn, has had an influence on political decisions. On the other hand, in a very clear majority of the Member States of the European Union, the Public have already indicated that they would be ready to accept the important role of nuclear in their future energy mix as long as all the radioactive wastes can be safely managed. However perceptions about nuclear energy and radioactive waste should be seen in the context of the Public wider perceptions on energy and, in particular, the role in the future of different sources. It may be wrong for political decisions on nuclear energy in the future to rely to heavily on the Public perceptions. (author)

  13. Sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease patients and management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claassen DO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel O Claassen, Scott J KutscherDepartment of Neurology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Sleep disturbances are among the most common nonmotor complaints of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, and can have a great impact on quality of life. These disturbances manifest in a variety of ways; for instance, insomnia, sleep fragmentation, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Sleep-related movement disorders such as restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements may share a common pathophysiology, and occurrence of rapid eye movement behavior disorder may predate the onset of PD or other synucleinopathies by several years. Medications for PD can have a significant impact on sleep, representing a great challenge to the treating physician. Awareness of the complex relationship between PD and sleep disorders, as well as the varied way in which sleep disturbances appear, is imperative for successful long-term management.Keywords: sleep disorders, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, Parkinson disease, fatigue, REM behavior disorder

  14. Global Change Drought in the Southwest: New Management Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udall, B. H.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Long held worries about future runoff declines in the Colorado River under climate change are proving to be more than just theory. Fifteen years into this century flows of the Colorado are already declining due mostly to unprecedented temperatures, and as warming proceeds, declines in river flow will grow larger. Temperature-driven droughts, some lasting decades and much more severe than the current 15-year drought, will also become more commonplace if climate change continues unabated. Current projections of future water availability almost universally understate the risk of large Colorado flow reductions under business-as-usual warming. Betting on highly uncertain projections of increased precipitation to overcome even part of the flow reductions due to virtually certain warming is a poor risk management strategy. Many of the existing water policy arrangements in the Colorado River Basin will fail in the 21st century unless innovative new solutions are developed under leadership from the federal government and its basin state partners.

  15. Resource management in utility and cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Han

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBrief reviews the existing market-oriented strategies for economically managing resource allocation in distributed systems. It describes three new schemes that address cost-efficiency, user incentives, and allocation fairness with regard to different scheduling contexts. The first scheme, taking the Amazon EC2? market as a case of study, investigates the optimal resource rental planning models based on linear integer programming and stochastic optimization techniques. This model is useful to explore the interaction between the cloud infrastructure provider and the cloud resource c

  16. Hysterectomy as a Management Option for Morbidly Adherent Placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansar, A; Shuja, S.; Khan, S.; Malik, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the outcome of interval (delayed) hysterectomy as compared to cesarean (immediate) hysterectomy in cases of placental invasion in previous cesarean sections. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Unit II, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2008 to June 2011. Methodology: The study subjects included 28 women with history of previous cesarean section who had low lying as well as morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) of variable degree. Patients were classified into two groups (group A and B) according to whether cesarean or interval hysterectomy was needed at time of delivery. Demographic data, obstetrical risk factors such as parity and number of previous cesarean sections were compared as well as radiological and histopathological findings, and details of the management. Chi-square, Fisher's exact and t-tests were used to compare proportions and mean values. Results: The frequency of MAP in previous cesarean sections turned out to be 1.83/1000 (28/15,340) deliveries. Mean maternal age (26.54 vs. 29.13 years, p=0.05), mean gestational age (33.8 vs. 36 weeks, p=0.05), estimated blood loss (2615.38 vs. 1506.6 mL, p=0.001), volume of blood transfused (9.76 vs. 2.9 pints, p=0.001) and the duration of hospital stay (10.69 vs. 32.86 days, p=0.001) differed significantly between group A and group B. One maternal death occurred in each group. Eight patients had other complications in group A compared to 3 patients in group B. Three neonatal deaths occurred in group A compared to nil in group B. Conclusion: The frequency of morbidly adherent placenta was 1.83/1000 deliveries. The management and outcome differed markedly according to emergency and scheduled antenatal diagnosis. Counselling and antenatal radiological screening can reduce the high morbidity and mortality associated with it. (author)

  17. Economic assumptions for evaluating reactor-related options for managing plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the economic assumptions in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences' report, Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium: Reactor-Related Options (1995). It reviews the Net Present Value approach for discounting and comparing the costs and benefits of reactor-related options. It argues that because risks associated with the returns to plutonium management are unlikely to be constant over time, it is preferable to use a real risk-free rate to discount cash flows and explicitly describe the probability distributions for costs and benefits, allowing decision makers to determine the risk premium of each option. As a baseline for comparison, it assumes that one economic benefit of changing the current plutonium management system is a reduction in on-going Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) costs. This reduction in the present value of S and M costs can be compared with the discounted costs of each option. These costs include direct construction costs, indirect costs, operating costs minus revenues, and decontamination and decommissioning expenses. The paper also discusses how to conduct an uncertainty analysis. It finishes by summarizing conclusions and recommendations and discusses how these recommendations might apply to the evaluation of Russian plutonium management options. (author)

  18. Herbicide-resistant crops: utilities and limitations for herbicide-resistant weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M; Owen, Micheal D K

    2011-06-08

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, have transformed the tactics that corn, soybean, and cotton growers use to manage weeds. The use of GR crops continues to grow, but weeds are adapting to the common practice of using only glyphosate to control weeds. Growers using only a single mode of action to manage weeds need to change to a more diverse array of herbicidal, mechanical, and cultural practices to maintain the effectiveness of glyphosate. Unfortunately, the introduction of GR crops and the high initial efficacy of glyphosate often lead to a decline in the use of other herbicide options and less investment by industry to discover new herbicide active ingredients. With some exceptions, most growers can still manage their weed problems with currently available selective and HR crop-enabled herbicides. However, current crop management systems are in jeopardy given the pace at which weed populations are evolving glyphosate resistance. New HR crop technologies will expand the utility of currently available herbicides and enable new interim solutions for growers to manage HR weeds, but will not replace the long-term need to diversify weed management tactics and discover herbicides with new modes of action. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of anticipated weed management options and the best management practices that growers need to implement in HR crops to maximize the long-term benefits of current technologies and reduce weed shifts to difficult-to-control and HR weeds.

  19. Life cycle cost and risk estimation of environmental management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.

    1996-01-01

    The evaluation process is demonstrated in this paper through comparative analysis of two alternative scenarios identified for the management of the alpha-contaminated fixed low-level waste currently stored at INEL. These two scenarios, the Base Case and the Delay Case, are realistic and based on actual data, but are not intended to exactly match actual plans currently being developed at INEL. Life cycle cost estimates were developed for both scenarios using the System Cost Model; resulting costs are presented and compared. Life cycle costs are shown as a function of time and also aggregated by pretreatment, treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Although there are some short-term cost savings for the Delay Case, cumulative life cycle costs eventually become much higher than costs for the Base Case over the same period of time, due mainly to the storage and repackaging necessary to accommodate the longer Delay Case schedule. Life cycle risk estimates were prepared using a new risk analysis method adapted to the System Cost Model architecture for automated, systematic cost/risk applications. Relative risk summaries are presented for both scenarios as a function of time and also aggregated by pretreatment, treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Relative risk of the Delay Case is shown to be higher than that of the Base Case. Finally, risk and cost results are combined to show how the collective information can be used to help identify opportunities for risk or cost reduction and highlight areas where risk reduction can be achieved most economically

  20. Financial considerations of policy options to enhance biomass utilization for reducing wildfire hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis R. Becker; Debra Larson; Eini C. Lowell

    2009-01-01

    The Harvest Cost-Revenue Estimator, a financial model, was used to examine the cost sensitivity of forest biomass harvesting scenarios to targeted policies designed to stimulate wildfire hazardous fuel reduction projects. The policies selected represent actual policies enacted by federal and state governments to provide incentive to biomass utilization and are aimed at...

  1. Longer operating times of nuclear power plants. Options for compensating public utility advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, Sven; Kondziella, Hendrik; Bruckner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The current German government of CDU/CSU and FDP intends to prolong the operating time of existing nuclear power plants in Germany. The advantages resulting for public utilities are to be compensated. The authors discuss how compensation may be achieved and outline the available instruments. (orig.)

  2. Prudent management of utility assets -- Problem or promise?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, D.; Serwinowski, M.

    1998-01-01

    As utilities move into a deregulated market, the extent and nature of their asset base, as well as, the manner in which they have managed it, may play a key factor in the form of regulatory recovery. Utilities must face the issue of stranded assets. One form of addressing this issue is using ''EVA'', Economic Value Added as a mechanism to form financial models for prudent asset management. The authors present an approach to this challenging aspect of deregulation. They focus on the following utility assets: buildings/facilities, and excess real physical assets. Primarily focusing on Niagara Mohawk, two or three case studies are used to demonstrate how proactive management and EVA analysis transforms underperforming utility assets. These will be presented in a way that can show benefits for all utility stakeholders such as cost avoidance, load growth, real estate tax savings, stranded asset reductions, environmental gains, corporate image enhancement, and regulatory/governmental gains; over and above possible economic gains. Examples will be given that include the transformation of utility assets into award winning commercial, residential, and industrial developments as well as recreational/park lands and greenways. Similarly, other examples will show the many tangible and intangible benefits of an effective investment recovery and waste stream management program. Various strategies will also be presented that detail how utilities can begin to develop a total comprehensive plan for their asset portfolio. The first step in realizing and maximizing EVA towards a portfolio of assets is a change in corporate policy--one from passive ownership to active prudent management. Service and cost will drive competition resulting from full deregulation. To drive down costs, utilities will need to become more efficient in dealing with their asset base. By embracing an EVA model on an entire asset portfolio, utilities can prepare and excel in the newly shaped marketplace

  3. Real options analysis for land use management: Methods, application, and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Courtney M; Bryan, Brett A; Connor, Jeffery D; Meyer, Wayne S; Ostendorf, Bertram; Zhu, Zili; Bao, Chenming

    2015-09-15

    Discounted cash flow analysis, including net present value is an established way to value land use and management investments which accounts for the time-value of money. However, it provides a static view and assumes passive commitment to an investment strategy when real world land use and management investment decisions are characterised by uncertainty, irreversibility, change, and adaptation. Real options analysis has been proposed as a better valuation method under uncertainty and where the opportunity exists to delay investment decisions, pending more information. We briefly review the use of discounted cash flow methods in land use and management and discuss their benefits and limitations. We then provide an overview of real options analysis, describe the main analytical methods, and summarize its application to land use investment decisions. Real options analysis is largely underutilized in evaluating land use decisions, despite uncertainty in policy and economic drivers, the irreversibility and sunk costs involved. New simulation methods offer the potential for overcoming current technical challenges to implementation as demonstrated with a real options simulation model used to evaluate an agricultural land use decision in South Australia. We conclude that considering option values in future policy design will provide a more realistic assessment of landholder investment decision making and provide insights for improved policy performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 41 CFR 102-194.30 - What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program? Your agency head... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program? 102-194.30 Section 102-194.30 Public...

  5. Therapeutic options in the management of autonomously functioning thyroid adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrenechea, E.A.; Ong, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules or adenomas (AFTN or AFTA) was established as a clinical entity in 1918 by Goetsch correlating cellular mitochondrial content with nodular function and showing the inverse correlation between AFTN function and extra nodular tissue function. They are almost always benign and degeneration, which is common in AFTN, can result in the development of hyperthyroidism. It is therefore important to know the function of these nodules by requesting for the thyroid function tests namely T3, T4, and TSH. They are diagnosed by thyroid scans using I-131 or Tc 99m as a hot solitary nodule in one lobe with the other lobe not appearing on scan or suppressed. The frequency of AFTA worldwide is quite variable depending on geography. It ranges from 1% in North America to 10 % in some areas in Europe and Asia or in areas of iodine deficiency. The traditional methods of treatment of these nodules have been surgery and radioactive iodine ablation. Surgical treatment as a rule is indicated in young patients with nodules larger than 3 cm and those with local compressive symptoms. RAI is used in elderly patients and those who are poor surgical risks. The usual dose ranges from 20 to 30 mCi and is definitely larger that when treating Graves' disease. Others have resorted to PEI or percutaneous ethanol injection with reported success. There has been no definite management of these AFTA due to the variable natural history and some would only recommend observation for asymptomatic small adenomas, which are euthyroid. Therefore this paper studied the results of treatment using RAI ablation, surgery or plain observation for AFTA. Percutaneous ethanol injection is not being done in our center. In the local setting, where thyroid disease is still endemic, the incidence of AFTA is not so high. Graves' disease is still the predominating cause of hyperthyroidism followed by multinodular goiter. Toxic AFTA occurs in 3% of the total hyperthyroid

  6. Life cycle analysis of management options for organic waste collected in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Different options for managing the organic fraction (OF) of municipal solid waste generated in a given urban area were analyzed by life cycle assessment (LCA) for different source segregation (SS) intensities ranging from 0 to 52%. The best management option for processing the OF remaining in the residual organic fraction (ROF) for the different SS intensities was by incineration. Landfilling and mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of ROF gave higher impacts. Aerobic treatment alone or combined with anaerobic digestion (AD) for processing the source-segregated organic fraction (SSOF) led to relevant environmental impact reduction even if the difference between the two options was quite negligible. The weighted impact showed that scenarios using incineration always gave environmental gains, whereas there was a higher environmental burden with the scenarios using MBT.

  7. Windrow composting as an option for disposal and utilization of dead birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vinodkumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the feasibility of windrow composting as an environmentally safe and bio-secure disposal method of poultry manure and mortalities. Materials and Methods: Poultry dead birds and cage layer manure were collected from the commercial poultry farms and coir pith was obtained from coir fiber extraction unit. Physical properties and chemical composition of ingredients were analyzed and a suitable compost recipe was formulated. Two treatment windrow groups (T1- Dead birds + Cage layer manure + Coir pith, T2- Cage layer manure + Coir pith in replication were fabricated. Physical chemical and biological parameters of compost were analyzed. Results: Temperature profile ensured maximum pathogen and parasite reduction. Reduction in moisture content, weight, volume, total organic carbon, and progressive increase in total ash, calcium, phosphorus and potassium content as the composting proceeded, were indicative of organic matter degradation and mineralization. Favourable C:N ratio and germination index indicated compost maturity and absence of any phytotoxins in finished compost. The finished compost had undetectable level of Salmonella. There was no odour and fly menace throughout the composting experiment. Conclusion: Windrow composting of poultry waste can be considered as a biologically and environmentally safe disposal option with recycling of nutrients in the form of compost.

  8. Options for the management of Chernobyl-restricted areas in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, A.; Woodman, R.

    1999-01-01

    Areas in England and Wales are still subject to restrictions on tile movement, sale and slaughter of sheep because concentrations of radiocaesium in sheep meat may exceed the 1000 Bq kg -1 limit imposed after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Various monitoring programmes have been implemented to enable lamb production to be sustained in these restricted areas, although no alternative management strategies have been considered to date. Current management practices have been reviewed and costed. An assessment has also been undertaken to establish the practicability and cost effectiveness of five alternative management options. The practicability of each option, which encompasses technical feasibility, capacity, cost, impact and acceptability, was assessed through a series of case studies carried out on farms in the restricted area of north Wales, and through consultation with a range of organisations with interests in farming and/or the environment. Recommendations are made for the future management of the restricted areas in England and Wales. (author)

  9. Lethal trap trees: a potential option for emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G McCullough; Therese M. Poland; Phillip A. Lewis

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Economic and ecological impacts of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality resulting from emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) invasion are severe in forested, residential and urban areas. Management options include girdling ash trees to attract ovipositing adult beetles and then destroying infested trees...

  10. Forward, Forward Option and No Hedging Which One is the Best for Managing Currency Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Hendrawan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bank Indonesia Regulation No.18/18/PBI/2016 concerning foreign exchange transactions against rupiah between banks and domestic parties, indicates that the importance of hedging for business actors in Indonesia. Based on the data of the rupiah exchange rate movement against the dollar from January 2006 to December 2016 shows that the fluctuation of the rupiah against the US dollar tends to weaken, although at some point the observation shows the strengthening of the rupiah against the US dollar. The purpose of this research is to assess impact of Forward, Forward Option and No Hedging Strategy for managing currency exposure between IDR to USD. Using data from January 2006–December 2016 taken from website of Bank Indonesia and Federal Reserve. Total 396 simulations,consists of 132 using Forward simulations, 132 using Forward Option simulations and 132 using No Hedging simulations. Findings from this research show that Forward Option was has no positive contribution in managing currency exposure, No Hedging Strategy has 36,36 percent positive contribution and forward contract has 72,73 percent positive contribution in managing currency exposure. Its means Forward Contract was better than Forward Option and No Hedging Strategies in managing currency exposure.

  11. Management options for reducing the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes to the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruden, Amy; Larsson, D.G. Joakim; Amézquita, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Objective: Our aim in this study was to identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance...

  12. Assessment of stormwater management options in urban contexts using Multiple Attribute Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gogate, Nivedita G.; Kalbar, Pradip; Raval, Pratap M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of selecting the most sustainable stormwater management alternative in developing countries in a dense urban context. Firstly, suitable Low Impact Development (LID) stormwater management measures for dense urban areas in developing countries were identified based...... sustainable stormwater management options in densely populated areas of developing countries....... on critical review of literature. Alternatives have been formulated as varying percentages (degree of adoption) of these suitable measures to manage the stormwater sustainably. Further, a novel decision-making framework is developed which generates the hierarchy for selection of the most sustainable...

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding waste management options in Romania: results from a school questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin KOLBE

    2014-12-01

    The analysis revealed that knowledge is highly developed in Romania regarding the potential of recycling, while the concepts of waste management technologies are far less known about and understood. Landfill is seen as a problem for human health and the environment. However, recycling behaviour is low - partly as a result of limited possibilities. In general, the treatment hierarchy that is recommended in the "European waste hierarchy" is only partly reflected in students’ attitudes towards waste management options.

  14. Impact of HMO ownership on management processes and utilization outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, M; Molinari, C

    2001-05-01

    To examine the effects of health maintenance organization (HMO) ownership characteristics on selected utilization outcomes and management processes affecting utilization. We used 1995 HMO data from the American Association of Health Plans. Using regression analysis, we examined the relation between HMO utilization (hospital discharges, days, and average length of stay; cardiac catheterization procedures; and average cost of outpatient prescriptions) and the structural characteristics of HMOs: ownership type (insurance company, hospital, physician, independent, and national managed care company), HMO size, for-profit status, model type, geographic region, and payer mix. HMO ownership type is significantly associated with medical management processes, including risk sharing by providers, risk sharing by consumers, and other management strategies. Relative to hospital-owned HMOs, insurance company-owned HMOs have fewer hospital discharges, fewer hospital days, and longer lengths of stay. National managed care organization-owned HMOs have fewer cardiac catheterizations and lower average outpatient prescription costs. Independently owned HMOs have more cardiac catheterizations. For-profit HMOs have lower prescription costs. Relative to hospital-owned HMOs, insurance company-owned HMOs are more likely to use hospital risk sharing and provider capitation and less likely to use out-of-pocket payments for hospital use and a closed formulary. National managed care organization-owned HMOs are less likely to use provider capitation, out-of-pocket payments for hospital use, catastrophic case management, and hospital risk sharing. Physician-hospital-owned HMOs are less likely to use catastrophic case management. For-profit HMOs are more likely to use hospital risk sharing and catastrophic case management. HMO ownership type affects utilization outcomes and management strategies.

  15. Utilization management in radiology, part 2: perspectives and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszak, Richard; Berlin, Jonathan W

    2012-10-01

    Increased utilization of medical imaging in the early part of the last decade has resulted in numerous efforts to reduce associated spending. Recent initiatives have focused on managing utilization with radiology benefits managers and real-time order entry decision support systems. Although these approaches might seem mutually exclusive and their application to radiology appears unique, the historical convergence and broad acceptance of both programs within the pharmacy sector may offer parallels for their potential future in medical imaging. In this second installment of a two-part series, anticipated trends in radiology utilization management are reviewed. Perspectives on current and future potential roles of radiologists in such initiatives are discussed, particularly in light of emerging physician payment models. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternative Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ''Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management'', presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs

  17. The Nuclear option for U.S. electrical generating capacity additions utilizing boiling water reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrity, T.F.; Wilkins, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The technology status of the Advanced Boiling Water (ABWR) and Simplified Boiling Water (SBWR) reactors are presented along with an analysis of the economic potential of advanced nuclear power generation systems based on BWR technology to meet the projected domestic electrical generating capacity need through 2005. The forecasted capacity needs are determined for each domestic North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region. Extensive data sets detailing each NERC region's specific generation and load characteristics, and capital and fuel cost parameters are utilized in the economic analysis of the optimal generation additions to meet this need by use of an expansion planning model. In addition to a reference case, several sensitivity cases are performed with regard to capital costs and fuel price escalation

  18. Light Duty Utility Arm computer software configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    This plan describes the configuration management for the Light Duty Utility Arm robotic manipulation arm control software. It identifies the requirement, associated documents, and the software control methodology. The Light Duty Utility Ann (LDUA) System is a multi-axis robotic manipulator arm and deployment vehicle, used to perform surveillance and characterization operations in support of remediation of defense nuclear wastes currently stored in the Hanford Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) through the available 30.5 cm (12 in.) risers. This plan describes the configuration management of the LDUA software

  19. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management for Finance: Application of Real Options Method for Disaster Risk Sensitive Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSDHIANTO SETIAWAN

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of real options analysis for a project that is in the process of construction and was affected by a natural disaster. The use of the analytical method has become a way of thinking in making decisions that should be taught to business school students. The case in this paper is based on an MBA thesis at the University of Gadjah Mada that was intended as a showcase for application of real options to address real business problems. It shows one of the strategies in mainstreaming disaster risk management in the business school that also answers the needs of businesses in the disaster-prone country.

  20. Time Charters with Purchase Options in Shipping: Valuation and Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte; De Giovanni, Domenico

    The paper studies the valuation and optimal management of Time Charters with Purchase Options (T/C-POPs) which is a specific type of asset lease with embedded options that is common in shipping markets. T/C-POPs are economically significant and sometimes account for more than half of the stock...... market value of listed shipping companies. The main source of risk in markets for maritime transportation is the freight rate, and we therefore specify a single-factor continuous time model for the dynamic evolution of freight rates which allows us to price a wide variety of freight rate related...

  1. Time Charters with Purchase Options in Shipping: Valuation and Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte; De Giovanni, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    The article studies the valuation and optimal management of Time Charters with Purchase Options (T/C-POPs), which is a specific type of asset lease with embedded options that is common in shipping markets. T/C-POPs are economically significant and sometimes account for more than half of the stock...... market value of listed shipping companies. The main source of risk in markets for maritime transportation is the freight rate, and we therefore specify a single-factor continuous time model for the dynamic evolution of freight rates that allows us to price a wide variety of freight rate...

  2. A PC-based software package for modeling DOE mixed-waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abashian, M.S.; Carney, C.; Schum, K.

    1995-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters and associated contractors have developed an IBM PC-based software package that estimates costs, schedules, and public and occupational health risks for a range of mixed-waste management options. A key application of the software package is the comparison of various waste-treatment options documented in the draft Site Treatment Plans prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. This automated Systems Analysis Methodology consists of a user interface for configuring complexwide or site-specific waste-management options; calculational algorithms for cost, schedule and risk; and user-selected graphical or tabular output of results. The mixed-waste management activities modeled in the automated Systems Analysis Methodology include waste storage, characterization, handling, transportation, treatment, and disposal. Analyses of treatment options identified in the draft Site Treatment Plans suggest potential cost and schedule savings from consolidation of proposed treatment facilities. This paper presents an overview of the automated Systems Analysis Methodology

  3. Dealing with uncertainty and pursuing superior technology options in risk management-The inherency risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helland, Aasgeir

    2009-01-01

    Current regulatory systems focus on the state of scientific evidence as the predominant factor for how to handle risks to human health and the environment. However, production and assessment of risk information are costly and time-consuming, and firms have an intrinsic disincentive to produce and distribute information about risks of their products as this could endanger their production opportunities and sales. An emphasis on more or better science may result in insufficient thought and attention going into the exploration of technology alternatives, and that risk management policies miss out on the possible achievement of a more favorable set of consequences. In this article, a method is proposed that combines risk assessment with the search for alternative technological options as a part of the risk management procedure. The method proposed is the inherency risk analysis where the first stage focuses on the original agent subject to investigation, the second stage focuses on identifying technological options whereas the third stage reviews the different alternatives, searching for the most attractive tradeoffs between costs and inherent safety. This is then used as a fundament for deciding which technology option to pursue. This method aims at providing a solution-focused, systematic technology-based approach for addressing and setting priorities for environmental problems. By combining risk assessment with a structured approach to identify superior technology options within a risk management system, the result could very well be a win-win situation for both company and the environment.

  4. Clinically undetected retinal breaks causing retinal detachment: A review of options for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Ching, Jared; Tornambe, Paul E

    2017-08-12

    approach, and this is reflected in the many options that are available for management. The surgeon must consider the benefits versus the risk of their preferred approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Successful process management for public utilities; Erfolgreiches Prozessmanagement fuer Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipprath, Daniel [projekt:unternehmensberatungsgesellschaft mbH, Muenchen (Germany); Schaefer, Anke [Dr. Schaefer PR- und Strategieberatung, Rostock (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    As a result of regulatory cuts in their revenue structure, public utilities are increasingly compelled to improve their cost efficiency. Furthermore, they have to deal with altered framework conditions of energy procurement as well as the necessity of sustainable customer loyalty management. The example of a regional supplier is used here to show how goal-oriented process management can contribute to securing a sustainable, promising position in the market.

  6. Delay/Disruption Tolerance Networking (DTN) Implementation and Utilization Options on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Mark; Pitts, Robert Lee; Gifford, Kevin K.; Jenkins, Andrew; Kuzminsky, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration and nearing final assembly. With its maturity and diverse payloads onboard, the opportunity exists to extend the orbital lab into a facility to exercise and demonstrate Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN). DTN is an end-to-end network service providing communications through environments characterized by intermittent connectivity, variable delays, high bit error rates, asymmetric links and simplex links. The DTN protocols, also known as bundle protocols, provide a store-and-forward capability to accommodate end-to-end network services. Key capabilities of the bundling protocols include: the Ability to cope with intermittent connectivity, the Ability to take advantage of scheduled and opportunistic connectivity (in addition to always up connectivity), Custody Transfer, and end-to-end security. Colorado University at Boulder and the Huntsville Operational Support Center (HOSC) have been developing a DTN capability utilizing the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload resources onboard the ISS, at the Boulder Payload Operations Center (POC) and at the HOSC. The DTN capability is in parallel with and is designed to augment current capabilities. The architecture consists of DTN endpoint nodes on the ISS and at the Boulder POC, and a DTN node at the HOSC. The DTN network is composed of two implementations; the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) and the open source DTN2 implementation. This paper presents the architecture, implementation, and lessons learned. By being able to handle the types of environments described above, the DTN technology will be instrumental in extending networks into deep space to support future missions to other planets and other solar system points of interest. Thus, this paper also discusses how this technology will be applicable to these types of deep space exploration missions.

  7. Energy management in microgrid based on the multi objective stochastic programming incorporating portable renewable energy resource as demand response option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabar, Vahid Sohrabi; Jirdehi, Mehdi Ahmadi; Hemmati, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy resources are often known as cost-effective and lucrative resources and have been widely developed due to environmental-economic issues. Renewable energy utilization even in small scale (e.g., microgrid networks) has attracted significant attention. Energy management in microgrid can be carried out based on the generating side management or demand side management. In this paper, portable renewable energy resource are modeled and included in microgrid energy management as a demand response option. Utilizing such resources could supply the load when microgrid cannot serve the demand. This paper addresses energy management and scheduling in microgrid including thermal and electrical loads, renewable energy sources (solar and wind), CHP, conventional energy sources (boiler and micro turbine), energy storage systems (thermal and electrical ones), and portable renewable energy resource (PRER). Operational cost of microgrid and air pollution are considered as objective functions. Uncertainties related to the parameters are incorporated to make a stochastic programming. The proposed problem is expressed as a constrained, multi-objective, linear, and mixed-integer programing. Augmented Epsilon-constraint method is used to solve the problem. Final results and calculations are achieved using GAMS24.1.3/CPLEX12.5.1. Simulation results demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of the proposed method in microgrid energy management. - Highlights: • Introducing portable renewable energy resource (PRER) and considering effect of them. • Considering reserve margin and sensitivity analysis for validate robustness. • Multi objective and stochastic management with considering various loads and sources. • Using augmented Epsilon-constraint method to solve multi objective program. • Highly decreasing total cost and pollution with PRER in stochastic state.

  8. The role of quantitative optimization techniques in assessment of best practicable environmental options for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    The interpretation of the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) and ALARA concepts in radioactive waste management is given. The quantitative analysis of the financial and radiological impacts of different options for waste management is discussed. Finally, the role of quantitative multi-attribute analysis in the DOE's assessment of BPEOs for radioactive waste is described. (UK)

  9. 42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.153 Drug utilization... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs). 423.153 Section 423.153 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE...

  10. Risk management strategies utilized by small scale poultry farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds can only tolerate narrow temperature changes; therefore, poultry flocks are vulnerable to climate induced risk. This study investigated risk management strategies utilized by small scale poultry farmers in Oyo state. A total of 118 respondents were sampled using multi stage sampling procedure. Interview schedule was ...

  11. LiDAR utility for natural resource managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Thomas Hudak; Jeffrey Scott Evans; Alistair Mattthew Stuart. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Applications of LiDAR remote sensing are exploding, while moving from the research to the operational realm. Increasingly, natural resource managers are recognizing the tremendous utility of LiDAR-derived information to make improved decisions. This review provides a cross-section of studies, many recent, that demonstrate the relevance of LiDAR across a suite of...

  12. Building Maintenance and Utilities Management. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a building maintenance and utilities management program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary…

  13. assessing the utilization of personnel in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    MANAGEMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN AKWA IBOM. STATE, NIGERIA. ALOYSIUS O. UMOSEN. (Received 19, April 2011; Revision Accepted 16, June 2011). ABSTRACT. The study assesses the utilization of technical teachers in Akwa Ibom State technical colleges. The study design was ex-post facto.

  14. Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far.

  15. Taking action against ocean acidification: a review of management and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far.

  16. Options for Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste for Countries Developing New Nuclear Power Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. Today, numerous countries are considering construction of their first nuclear power plant or the expansion of a small nuclear power programme, and many of these countries have limited experience in managing radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. They often have limited information about available technologies and approaches for safe and long term management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel arising from power reactors. The lack of basic know-how and of a credible waste management strategy could present a major challenge or even an obstruction for countries wishing to

  17. Herbal Medicine Offered as an Initiative Therapeutic Option for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Ru; Qiu, Hong-Cong; Hu, Yang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2016-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant cancer and is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Effective treatment of this disease is limited by the complicated molecular mechanism underlying HCC pathogenesis. Thus, therapeutic options for HCC management are urgently needed. Targeting the Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog, Notch, and Hippo-YAP signaling pathways in cancer stem cell development has been extensively investigated as an alternative treatment. Herbal medicine has emerged as an initiative therapeutic option for HCC management because of its multi-level, multi-target, and coordinated intervention effects. In this article, we summarized the recent progress and clinical benefits of targeting the above mentioned signaling pathways and using natural products such as herbal medicine formulas to treat HCC. Proving the clinical success of herbal medicine is expected to deepen the knowledge on herbal medicine efficiency and hasten the adoption of new therapies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The Three-Dimensional Approach of Total Quality Management, an Essential Strategic Option for Business Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armenia Androniceanu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In a complex and dynamic business environment, managers widely appeal to modern methods and techniques that would help them cope with the competition and offer their customers new, attractive, good quality products and services and at competitive prices. In this context, total quality management is a viable and sustainable option that can systematically contribute to the consolidation of the capacity of organizations. The aim of this paper was to put forth a three-dimensional approach of total quality management and provide some concrete action ways through which organizations in Romania that implement total or partial quality management integrated systems would produce significant competitive advantages. The main research methods used were: the questionnaire, document analysis, applications offered by Word and Excel and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, one of the most complete software packages with which we calculated means and standard deviations and determined and analysed correlations between variables and various quality parameters. In this research, have been identified the main key success factors, the vulnerabilities and weaknesses of the systems, their causes and the necessary changes through which the threedimensional approach of total quality management could become a preferred strategic option with a major positive impact upon business excellence. The most important results obtained are a three-dimensional approach of the Total Quality Management and a substantial number of certain proposals for the Romanian firms in order to achieve business excellence.

  19. Agricultural land management options following large-scale environmental contamination - evaluation for Fukushima affected agricultural land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2013-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils, the transfer in the food chain and the possibility of continued restricted future land use. This paper summarizes what is generally understood about the application of agricultural countermeasures as a land management option to reduce the radionuclides transfer in the food chain and to facilitate the return of potentially affected soils to agricultural practices in areas impacted by a nuclear accident. (authors)

  20. Agricultural land management options following large-scale environmental contamination - evaluation for Fukushima affected agricultural land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde [Biosphere Impact Studies, Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils, the transfer in the food chain and the possibility of continued restricted future land use. This paper summarizes what is generally understood about the application of agricultural countermeasures as a land management option to reduce the radionuclides transfer in the food chain and to facilitate the return of potentially affected soils to agricultural practices in areas impacted by a nuclear accident. (authors)

  1. EPRI Guide to Managing Nuclear Utility Protective Clothing Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.J.; Kelly, D.M.

    1993-10-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) commissioned a radioactive waste related project (RP2414-34) in 1989 to produce a guide for developing and managing nuclear plant protective clothing programs. Every nuclear facility must coordinate some type of protective clothing program for its radiation workers to ensure proper and safe protection for the wearer and to maintain control over the spread of contamination. Yet, every nuclear facility has developed its own unique program for managing such clothing. Accordingly, a need existed for a reference guide to assist with standardizing protective clothing programs and in controlling the potentially escalating economics of such programs. The initial Guide to Managing Nuclear Utility Protective Clothing Programs, NP-7309, was published in May 1991. Since that time, a number of utilities have reviewed and/or used the report to enhance their protective clothing programs. Some of these utilities requested that a computer program be developed to assist utilities in evaluating the economics of protective clothing programs consistent with the guidance in NP-7309. The PCEVAL computer code responds to that industry need. This report, the PCEVAL User's Manual, provides detailed instruction on use of the software

  2. Radiological aspects of postfission waste management for light-water reactor fuel cycle options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipler, D B; Nelson, I C [Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (United States)

    1978-12-01

    A generic environmental impact statement on the management of radioactive postfission wastes from various light-water reactor fuel cycles in the United States has been prepared. The environmental analysis for post-fission waste management includes an examination of radiological impacts related to different waste treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal options at the process level. Effects addressed include effluents from plants, and radiological impacts from facility operation (routine and accidents), and decommissioning. Environmental effects are combined for fuel reprocessing plants, mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants, and waste repositories. Radiological effects are also aggregated for several fuel cycle options over the period 1980 and 2050. Fuel cycles analyzed are (1) once-through cycle in which spent reactor fuel is cooled in water basins for at least 6-1/2 years and then disposed of in deep geologic repositories; (2) spent fuel reprocessing in which uranium only and uranium and plutonium is recycled and solidified high level waste, fuel residues, and non-high-level transuranic wastes are disposed of in deep geologic repositories; and (3) deferred cycle that calls for storage of spent fuel at Federal spent fuel storage facilities until the year 2000 at which time a decision is made whether to dispose of spent fuel as a waste or to reprocess the fuel to recover uranium and plutonium. Key environmental issues for decision-making related to waste management alternatives and fuel cycle options are highlighted. (author)

  3. Environmental assessment of different management options for individual waste fractions by means of life-cycle assessment modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    and environmental factors involved, including energy generation from landfill gas and storage of biogenic carbon. Leachate and gas emissions associated to each individual waste fraction have been estimated by means of a mathematical modelling. This approach towards landfilling emissions allows for a more precise...... quantification of the landfill impacts when comparing management options for selected waste fractions.Results from the life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) show that the environmental performance estimated for landfilling with energy recovery of the fractions “organics” and “recyclable paper” is comparable...... with composting (for “organics”) and incineration (for “recyclable paper”). This however requires high degree of control over gas and leachate emissions, high gas collection efficiency and extensive gas utilization at the landfill. For the other waste fractions, recycling and incineration are favourable, although...

  4. Editorial Commentary: In a World of Endless Options, Is There a Single Solution? Management Options for Failed Anterior Instability Surgery in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzkin, Elizabeth

    2018-05-01

    There are many options to manage anterior instability of the shoulder. The management of athletes who have failed previous operative stabilization can make choosing a treatment solution difficult. A modified Latarjet without capsulolabral repair has been demonstrated to be a good choice when treating failed stabilization in a high-risk population with sufficient return to play and outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Management options for implementing a basic and applied research program responsive to CS technology base needs. Task VIII. Review existing CS materials R and D programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-28

    Possibilities for setting up a basic and applied research program that would be responsive to the Conservation and Solar energy base needs are considered with emphasis on the area of materials research. Several organizational arrangements for the implementation of this basic and applied research program are described and analyzed. The key functions of the system such as resources allocation, and program coordination and management follow from two fundamental characteristics: assignment of lead responsibility (CS and the Office of Energy Research, ER); and nature of the organizational chain-of-command. Three options are categorized in terms of these two characteristics and discussed in detail. The first option retains lead responsibility in ER, with CS personnel exercising sign-off authority and filling the coordination role. Option 2 places lead responsibility with CS program office management, and utilizes the existing chain-of-command, but adds a Basic and Applied Research Division to each program office. Option 3 also places lead responsibility with CS, but within a new Office of Basic and Applied Research, which would include a Research Coordinator to manage interactions with ER, and Research Managers for each CS program area. (MCW)

  6. Is strategic asset management applicable to small and medium utilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Urban water infrastructures provide essential services to modern societies and represent a major portion of the value of municipal physical assets. Managing these assets rationally is therefore fundamental for the sustainability of the services and to the economy of societies. "Asset Management" (AM) is a modern term for an old practice--assets have always been managed. In recent years, significant evolution occurred in terms of the AM formal approaches, of the monitoring and decision support tools and of the implementation success cases. However, most tools developed are too sophisticated and data seek for small utilities. The European R&D network COST Action C18 ( E-mail: www.costc18.org) identified key research problems related to the management of urban water infrastructures, currently not covered by on-going projects of the European Framework Program. The top 1 topic is "Efficient management of small community". This paper addresses challenges and opportunities for small and medium utilities with regard to infrastructure AM (IAM). To put this into context, the first sections discuss the need for IAM, highlight key recent developments, and present IAM drivers, as well as research and development gaps, priorities and products needed.

  7. Improve data integration performance by employing metadata management utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, M.; Sung, A.H. [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This conference paper explored ways of integrating petroleum and exploration data obtained from different sources in order to provide more comprehensive data for various analysis purposes and to improve the integrity and consistency of integrated data. This paper proposes a methodology to enhance oil and gas industry data integration performance by cooperating data management utilities in Microsoft SQL Server database management system (DBMS) for small scale data integration without support of commercial software. By semi-automatically capturing metadata, data sources are investigated in detail, data quality problems are partially cleansed, and the performance of data integration is improved. 20 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig.

  8. Reconciling privacy and efficient utility management in smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    Rebollo Monedero, David; Bartoli, Andrea; Hernández Serrano, Juan; Forné Muñoz, Jorge; Soriano Ibáñez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    A key aspect in the design of smart cities is, undoubtedly, a plan for the efficient management of utilities, enabled by technologies such as those entailing smart metering of the residential consumption of electricity, water or gas. While one cannot object to the appealing advantages of smart metering, the privacy risks posed by the submission of frequent, data-rich measurements cannot simply remain overlooked. The objective of this paper is to provide a general perspective on the contrastin...

  9. Utilities pull together to design latest storm management software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildman, T.; Ritchie, I.

    2003-04-01

    Development of Outage Mitigation and Recovery software by the Electric Power Research Institute with the support of cooperating electric utilities is discussed. The software is designed to aid utilities in their resource allocation and mutual assistance activities during recovery from major outages cause by natural or man-made disasters. The software is designed to operate in conjunction with major commercial outage systems, to add significant new functionality not available in existing systems. The new software module, called emPower, was actually developed by LeT Systems, a world leader in the design, development and deployment of mission critical e-business-based, real-time outage, network and workforce management solutions for the utility sector. The software is a real-time, stand-alone, web-based program built around advanced intelligence and robust algorithms, designed to interface easily and cleanly with embedded outage mitigation and recovery systems. emPower provides extensive procedural and logistical support to successfully integrate crews and equipment, and automatically assigns tasks and schedules them in accordance with defined restoration goals and priorities. emPower also tracks all activities and generates proper reports for internal and external agencies, among them utility management, police, government departments, media, medical facilities, and customers.

  10. A review on technological options of waste to energy for effective management of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Samadder, S R

    2017-11-01

    Approximately one-fourth population across the world rely on traditional fuels (kerosene, natural gas, biomass residue, firewood, coal, animal dung, etc.) for domestic use despite significant socioeconomic and technological development. Fossil fuel reserves are being exploited at a very fast rate to meet the increasing energy demands, so there is a need to find alternative sources of energy before all the fossil fuel reserves are depleted. Waste to energy (WTE) can be considered as a potential alternative source of energy, which is economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The present study reviewed the current global scenario of WTE technological options (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, anaerobic digestion, and landfilling with gas recovery) for effective energy recovery and the challenges faced by developed and developing countries. This review will provide a framework for evaluating WTE technological options based on case studies of developed and developing countries. Unsanitary landfilling is the most commonly practiced waste disposal option in the developing countries. However, developed countries have realised the potential of WTE technologies for effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM). This review will help the policy makers and the implementing authorities involved in MSWM to understand the current status, challenges and barriers for effective management of municipal solid waste. This review concluded WTE as a potential renewable source of energy, which will partly meet the energy demand and ensure effective MSWM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Waste Management Options for Long-Duration Space Missions: When to Reject, Reuse, or Recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.; Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Gallo, Christopher A.; Balasubramaniam, Ramaswamy; Hegde, Uday G.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of waste generated on long-duration space missions away from Earth orbit creates the daunting challenge of how to manage the waste through reuse, rejection, or recycle. The option to merely dispose of the solid waste through an airlock to space was studied for both Earth-moon libration point missions and crewed Mars missions. Although the unique dynamic characteristics of an orbit around L2 might allow some discarded waste to intersect the lunar surface before re-impacting the spacecraft, the large amount of waste needed to be managed and potential hazards associated with volatiles recondensing on the spacecraft surfaces make this option problematic. A second option evaluated is to process the waste into useful gases to be either vented to space or used in various propulsion systems. These propellants could then be used to provide the yearly station-keeping needs at an L2 orbit, or if processed into oxygen and methane propellants, could be used to augment science exploration by enabling lunar mini landers to the far side of the moon.

  12. Estimating option values of solar radiation management assuming that climate sensitivity is uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arino, Yosuke; Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Homma, Takashi; Oda, Junichiro; Tomoda, Toshimasa

    2016-05-24

    Although solar radiation management (SRM) might play a role as an emergency geoengineering measure, its potential risks remain uncertain, and hence there are ethical and governance issues in the face of SRM's actual deployment. By using an integrated assessment model, we first present one possible methodology for evaluating the value arising from retaining an SRM option given the uncertainty of climate sensitivity, and also examine sensitivities of the option value to SRM's side effects (damages). Reflecting the governance challenges on immediate SRM deployment, we assume scenarios in which SRM could only be deployed with a limited degree of cooling (0.5 °C) only after 2050, when climate sensitivity uncertainty is assumed to be resolved and only when the sensitivity is found to be high (T2x = 4 °C). We conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis with constraining temperature rise as the objective. The SRM option value is originated from its rapid cooling capability that would alleviate the mitigation requirement under climate sensitivity uncertainty and thereby reduce mitigation costs. According to our estimates, the option value during 1990-2049 for a +2.4 °C target (the lowest temperature target level for which there were feasible solutions in this model study) relative to preindustrial levels were in the range between $2.5 and $5.9 trillion, taking into account the maximum level of side effects shown in the existing literature. The result indicates that lower limits of the option values for temperature targets below +2.4 °C would be greater than $2.5 trillion.

  13. Glenohumeral Joint Preservation: A Review of Management Options for Young, Active Patients with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier A. van der Meijden

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of osteoarthritis of the shoulder in young, active patients is a challenge, and the optimal treatment has yet to be completely established. Many of these patients wish to maintain a high level of activity, and arthroplasty may not be a practical treatment option. It is these patients who may be excellent candidates for joint-preservation procedures in an effort to avoid or delay joint replacement. Several palliative and restorative techniques are currently optional. Joint debridement has shown good results and a combination of arthroscopic debridement with a capsular release, humeral osteoplasty, and transcapsular axillary nerve decompression seems promising when humeral osteophytes are present. Currently, microfracture seems the most studied reparative treatment modality available. Other techniques, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation and osteochondral transfers, have reportedly shown potential but are currently mainly still investigational procedures. This paper gives an overview of the currently available joint preserving surgical techniques for glenohumeral osteoarthritis.

  14. Strategic options in using sterile insects for area-wide integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrichs, J.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Enkerlin, W.R.; Cayol, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The four strategic options, 'suppression', 'eradication', 'containment' and 'prevention', in which the sterile insect technique (SIT) can be deployed as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) interventions, are defined and described in relation to the contexts in which they are applied against exotic or naturally occurring major insect pests. Advantages and disadvantages of these strategic options are analysed, and examples of successful programmes provided. Considerations of pest status, biology and distribution affecting decision-making in relation to strategy selection are reviewed and discussed in terms of feasibility assessment, and programme planning and implementation. Unrealistic expectations are often associated with applying the SIT, resulting in high political costs to change a strategy during implementation. The choice of strategy needs to be assessed carefully, and considerable baseline data obtained to prepare for the selected strategy, before embarking on an AW-IPM programme with an SIT component. (author)

  15. Land Management Restrictions and Options for Change in Perpetual Conservation Easements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Adena; Bihari, Menka; Hamilton, Christopher; Locke, Christina; Lowenstein, David; Motew, Melissa; Price, Jessica; Smail, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Conservation organizations rely on conservation easements for diverse purposes, including protection of species and natural communities, working forests, and open space. This research investigated how perpetual conservation easements incorporated property rights, responsibilities, and options for change over time in land management. We compared 34 conservation easements held by one federal, three state, and four nonprofit organizations in Wisconsin. They incorporated six mechanisms for ongoing land management decision-making: management plans (74 %), modifications to permitted landowner uses with discretionary consent (65 %), amendment clauses (53 %), easement holder rights to conduct land management (50 %), reference to laws or policies as compliance terms (47 %), and conditional use permits (12 %). Easements with purposes to protect species and natural communities had more ecological monitoring rights, organizational control over land management, and mechanisms for change than easements with general open space purposes. Forestry purposes were associated with mechanisms for change but not necessarily with ecological monitoring rights or organizational control over land management. The Natural Resources Conservation Service-Wetland Reserve Program had a particularly consistent approach with high control over land use and some discretion to modify uses through permits. Conservation staff perceived a need to respond to changing social and ecological conditions but were divided on whether climate change was likely to negatively impact their conservation easements. Many conservation easements involved significant constraints on easement holders' options for altering land management to achieve conservation purposes over time. This study suggests the need for greater attention to easement drafting, monitoring, and ongoing decision processes to ensure the public benefits of land conservation in changing landscapes.

  16. Utility Potential of Parthenium hysterophorus for Its Strategic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Saini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parthenium hysterophorus, one of the world’s most dangerous weeds, is responsible for huge losses to the biodiversity, agriculture, economy, and health of livestock and human beings. High competitive success rate and adaptability of the species enable it to dominate diverse types of habitats. Various weed control strategies are being used globally to reduce its population to manageable levels. But owing to many limitations associated with the conventional methods, management of Parthenium still remains a challenge. Recently large scale utilization has been taken up as a holistic approach for the control of weeds. Parthenium hysterophorus can be managed by exploiting this weed in diverse fields. In agriculture, it can be used either as green manure or after composting. Industrially it can be used for producing various value added products. The weed also exhibits many environmental applications. Chemical constituents of Parthenium show extensive range of pharmacological activities suggesting its role as a chemotherapeutic agent. This review briefly discusses the problem of Parthenium and enlists its possible utilities which can open new avenues for effective management of this violent weed.

  17. An Agent-Based Approach for Evaluating Basic Design Options of Management Accounting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Wall

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of reducing errors in management accounting systems with respect to organizational performance. In particular, different basic design options of management accounting systems of how to improve the information base by measurements of actual values are analyzed in different organizational contexts. The paper applies an agent-based simulation based on the idea of NK fitness landscapes. The results provide broad, but no universal support for conventional wisdom that lower inaccuracies of accounting information lead to more effective adaptation processes. Furthermore, results indicate that the effectiveness of improving the management accounting system subtly interferes with the complexity of the interactions within the organization and the coordination mode applied

  18. Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion – viable alternative options for terrestrial weed management – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Saha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The management of terrestrial weed is of great concern for the scientific community as these weeds cause adverse effect in different ecosystems like forest, agriculture and urban. The widespread of these weeds by their adaptive capability and morphological advancement is difficult to control. Parthenium hysterophorous, Lantana camara, Saccharum spontaneum, Ageratum conyzoides are the weeds that spread all over the world. There are various management practices employed for the control of this weeds. But all of these practices have some drawbacks those are neither environment friendly nor economical. In this paper a review has been done to evaluate various alternative management practices for these terrestrial weeds and to analyze their feasibility. Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion can be viable alternative option which is cost effective as well. There are few studies regarding vermicomposting and anaerobic digestions of terrestrial weeds are done.

  19. Contemporary management of carotid blowout syndrome utilizing endovascular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Nauman F; Rezaee, Rod P; Ray, Abhishek; Wick, Cameron C; Blackham, Kristine; Stepnick, David; Lavertu, Pierre; Zender, Chad A

    2017-02-01

    To illustrate complex interdisciplinary decision making and the utility of modern endovascular techniques in the management of patients with carotid blowout syndrome (CBS). Retrospective chart review. Patients treated with endovascular strategies and/or surgical modalities were included. Control of hemorrhage, neurological, and survival outcomes were studied. Between 2004 and 2014, 33 patients had 38 hemorrhagic events related to head and neck cancer that were managed with endovascular means. Of these, 23 were localized to the external carotid artery (ECA) branches and five localized to the ECA main trunk; nine were related to the common carotid artery (CCA) or internal carotid artery (ICA), and one event was related to the innominate artery. Seven events related to the CCA/ICA or innominate artery were managed with endovascular sacrifice, whereas three cases were managed with a flow-preserving approach (covered stent). Only one patient developed permanent hemiparesis. In two of the three cases where the flow-preserving approach was used, the covered stent eventually became exposed via the overlying soft tissue defect, and definitive management using carotid revascularization or resection was employed to prevent further hemorrhage. In cases of soft tissue necrosis, vascularized tissues were used to cover the great vessels as applicable. The use of modern endovascular approaches for management of acute CBS yields optimal results and should be employed in a coordinated manner by the head and neck surgeon and the neurointerventionalist. 4. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:383-390, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Women's experiences of three early miscarriage management options a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsay F; Frost, Julia; Levitas, Ruth; Bradley, Harriet; Garcia, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Background Miscarriage affects around one in six pregnancies. Much research has taken place identifying the consequences of this for parents but is mainly quantitative. Of the limited qualitative studies, none have explored women's experiences of the methods of miscarriage management received. Aim To assess the social and personal impact of different management methods (expectant, medical and surgical) on women's experience of first trimester miscarriage. Design of study Qualitative interviews using a topic guide with a purposive cohort of four categories of women (each management method plus non-participants) 6 months to 1 year after first trimester miscarriage. Focus groups with both research participants and health workers. Setting Women from three hospitals in the South West of England that participated in the Miscarriage Treatment (MIST) trial. Method Seventy-two interviews were undertaken between September 1999 and June 2000. There were also five focus groups (47 participants) and two feedback sessions (8 participants) with written feedback from 12 women. Interviews lasted 0.5–2.5 hours generating over 2000 A4 pages of transcripts. The transcripts were analysed for common themes, using standard proformas, which were filled in by individual team members and then discussed by the whole research team. Iterative readings in the light of new emerging issues ensured that new themes could be identified throughout the analytical process. All transcripts were then encoded for the identified themes using NUDIST. Results Common themes emerged across all management options although some were specific to just one or two management options. The five major themes arising out of the data analysis were: intervention; experiences of care; finality; the ‘baby’; and pain and bleeding. Conclusions Women's experiences and beliefs vary widely and their preferences need to be considered in their early miscarriage management. The three methods have different benefits and

  1. Women's experiences of three early miscarriage management options: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsay F; Frost, Julia; Levitas, Ruth; Bradley, Harriet; Garcia, Jo

    2006-03-01

    Miscarriage affects around one in six pregnancies. Much research has taken place identifying the consequences of this for parents but is mainly quantitative. Of the limited qualitative studies, none have explored women's experiences of the methods of miscarriage management received. To assess the social and personal impact of different management methods (expectant, medical and surgical) on women's experience of first trimester miscarriage. Qualitative interviews using a topic guide with a purposive cohort of four categories of women (each management method plus non-participants) 6 months to 1 year after first trimester miscarriage. Focus groups with both research participants and health workers. Women from three hospitals in the South West of England that participated in the Miscarriage Treatment (MIST) trial. Seventy-two interviews were undertaken between September 1999 and June 2000. There were also five focus groups (47 participants) and two feedback sessions (8 participants) with written feedback from 12 women. Interviews lasted 0.5-2.5 hours generating over 2000 A4 pages of transcripts. The transcripts were analysed for common themes, using standard proformas, which were filled in by individual team members and then discussed by the whole research team. Iterative readings in the light of new emerging issues ensured that new themes could be identified throughout the analytical process. All transcripts were then encoded for the identified themes using NUDIST. Common themes emerged across all management options although some were specific to just one or two management options. The five major themes arising out of the data analysis were: intervention; experiences of care; finality; the 'baby'; and pain and bleeding. Women's experiences and beliefs vary widely and their preferences need to be considered in their early miscarriage management. The three methods have different benefits and problems from the women's point of view. Competence and caring from

  2. National Option of China's Nuclear Energy Systems for Spent Fuel Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, R.X. [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, W. I.; Lee, S. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Along with safety concerns, these long standing environmental challenges are the major factors influencing the public acceptance of nuclear power. Although nuclear power plays an important role in reducing carbon emissions from energy generation, this could not fully prove it as a sustainable energy source unless we find a consensus approach to treat the nuclear wastes. There are currently no countries that have completed a whole nuclear fuel cycle, and the relative comparison of the reprocessing spent fuel options versus direct disposal option is always a controversial issue. Without exception, nowadays, China is implementing many R and D projects on spent fuel management to find a long-term solution for nuclear fuel cycle system transition, such as deep geological repositories for High Level Waste (HLW), Pu Reduction by Solvent Extraction (PUREX) technology, and fast reactor recycling Mixed U-Pu Oxide (MOX) fuels, etc. This paper integrates the current nation's projects of back-end fuel cycle, analyzes the consequences of potential successes, failures and delays in the project development to future nuclear fuel cycle transition up to 2100. We compared the dynamic results of four scenarios and then assessed relative impact on spent fuel management. The result revealed that the fuel cycle transition of reprocessing and recycling of spent fuel would bring advantages to overall nuclear systems by reducing high level waste inventory, saving natural uranium resources, and reducing plutonium management risk.

  3. Management of tritium-contaminated wastes a survey of alternative options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannone, F.

    1990-01-01

    The European Tritium Handling Experimental Laboratory (ETHEL) under construction on the site of Ispra Joint Research Centre of the Commission of European Communities has been commissioned to experimentally develop operational and environmental safety aspects related to the tritium technology in fusion, i.e. dealing with the behaviour and reliability of materials, equipment and containment systems under tritium impact. For this reason a part of the experimental activities to be performed in ETHEL will be devoted to laboratory research on tritiated waste management. However, since all experimental activities planned for the execution in ETHEL will by itselves generate tritiated wastes, current strategies and practices to be applied for the routine management of these wastes need also to be defined. To attain this target an adequate background information must be provided, which is the intent of this report. Through an exhaustive literature survey tritiated waste management options till now investigated or currently applied in several countries have been assessed. A particular importance has been attached to the tritium leach test programmes, whose results enable to assess the tritium retention efficiency of the various waste immobilization options. The conclusions resulting from the overall assessment are presented

  4. Utility leaders must manage change in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, R.; Gering, D.

    1997-01-01

    Like most other industries in the United States, the utility industry is undergoing profound changes. Furthermore, the industry is in a far more precarious position than almost all other businesses. Deregulation, a changing labor pool, competition and years of unbridled growth are some of the extraordinary factors impacting the industry. Perhaps the greatest challenge of all rests with the utility industry's top management. To lead their organizations from government anointed monopolies to rightful market leaders demands major intellectual and physical adjustments. Given this most difficult position, executives must learn to embrace change as a constant business opportunity and develop skills to constructively channel and manage change. The challenge to utilities is deceptively clear - to be competitive in a consumer and service driven environment. Unfortunately, the actions necessary to accomplish this daunting task are not that clear. The authors offer that this transition does not have to be as ominous as it may seem, provided one develops and employs a good plan and the open minds necessary to navigate these tricky waters

  5. Fusion Teaching: Utilizing Course Management Technology to Deliver an Effective Multimodal Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Bradley D.; Cochran, Howard H.; Velikova, Marieta

    2013-01-01

    Fusion teaching merges several pedagogies into a coherent whole. Course management technology allows for the digitization and delivery of pedagogies in an effective and exciting manner. Online course management options more easily enable outcome assessment and monitoring for continuous improvement.

  6. NOBLAST and JAMBLAST: New Options for BLAST and a Java Application Manager for BLAST results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagnel, Jacques; Tsigenopoulos, Costas S; Iliopoulos, Ioannis

    2009-03-15

    NOBLAST (New Options for BLAST) is an open source program that provides a new user-friendly tabular output format for various NCBI BLAST programs (Blastn, Blastp, Blastx, Tblastn, Tblastx, Mega BLAST and Psi BLAST) without any use of a parser and provides E-value correction in case of use of segmented BLAST database. JAMBLAST using the NOBLAST output allows the user to manage, view and filter the BLAST hits using a number of selection criteria. A distribution package of NOBLAST and JAMBLAST including detailed installation procedure is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/JAMBLAST/ and http://sourceforge.net/projects/NOBLAST. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. The combined use of business management with facility management as an option for intelligent building

    OpenAIRE

    Weise, Andreas Dittmar; Schultz, Charles Albino; Trierweiller, Andréa Cristina; Rocha, Rudimar Antunes da; Peixe, Blênio Cesar Severo

    2014-01-01

    Words like Business Management (BM) and Facility Management (FM) are well known as separate management methods. FM offers transparency about their property costs and exploitation, starting from the planning phase until its demolition. The investor sees this in the property invested capital and its recoverable yield. This means they also want a profit with their real estates. Besides this, changes in the social and environmental requirements become necessary to adapt the properties. The soluti...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury in the Geriatric Population: Risk Factors, Treatment Options, and Long-Term Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpeze, Tochukwu C; Mesfin, Addisu

    2017-06-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are sustained by more than 12 500 patients per year in the United States and more globally. The SCIs disproportionately affect the elderly, especially men. Approximately 60% of these injuries are sustained traumatically through falls, but nontraumatic causes including infections, tumors, and medication-related epidural bleeding have also been documented. Preexisting conditions such as ankylosing spondylitis and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis can render the spine stiff and are risk factors as well as cervical spondylosis and ensuing cervical stenosis. Treatment options vary depending on the severity, location, and complexity of the injury. Surgical management has been growing in popularity over the years and remains an option as it helps reduce spinal cord compression and alleviate pain. Elevating mean arterial pressures to prevent spinal cord ischemia and avoiding the second hit of SCI have become more common as opposed to high dose steroids. Ongoing clinical trials with pharmacological agents such as minocycline and riluzole have shown early, promising results in their ability to reduce cellular damage and facilitate recovery. Though SCI can be life changing, the available treatment options have aimed to reduce pain and minimize complications and maintain quality of life alongside rehabilitative services.

  9. Managing the GPS/GIS function in an electric utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, M.W. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    A new period of higher significance has arrived for the GPS/GIS function at electric utilities such that to a degree never seen before, utility managers are looking to their GIS programs, filled with increasingly accurate data collected by GPS technology, before making many decisions. With this capability comes an expectation for GPS/GIS professionals to provide higher levels of planning and management of their data collection process. At Duke Power in Charlotte, North Carolina, managers rely on GPS mapping to fill their data collection equipment needs. When the city of Charlotte requested a more detailed billing system, Duke Power co-sponsored the street lighting inventory project, a comprehensive program implemented to fully account for street lighting facilities within the billing area. One of the key projects to be kept in mind was the creation of a common data base viewable by GIS from which a bill could be created and as well reveal data. A billing calculation routine can be run against the data base to generate a bill or use MapInfo to see a graphical picture. Prior to the creation of this data base capability, the difference between the data base as a display tool and billing system was a potential source of discrepancy, which is eliminated now. Creating the data base allows more than just creating a bill for the city, it allows Duke Power to work better with the city by improving its billing accountability and provides better service as well

  10. Generic steam generator life cycle management from a utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Steam generator repairs and replacements, which have occurred over the last 10 years, have lead many utilities to evaluate the economics of continued maintenance on existing steam generators against the economics of steam generator replacement. Such an endeavor requires an assessment of the expected rate and types of degradation. In addition, an identification of possible preventative or remedial measures and their potential effectiveness must be made. To arrive at an assessment of the economic impact of various combinations of potential courses of action many utilities have employed in-house developed or customized commercial programs to convert technical assessments into economic impact evaluations. This paper intends to give the reader an introduction to the technical issues and insight into a method of addressing the economic impact of possible management strategies. 52 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  11. An Evaluation of Feral Cat Management Options Using a Decision Analysis Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie Anne T. Loyd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The feral domestic cat (Felis catus is a predatory invasive species with documented negative effects on native wildlife. The issue of appropriate and acceptable feral cat management is a matter of contentious debate in cities and states across the United States due to concerns for wildlife conservation, cat welfare, and public health. Common management strategies include: Trap-Neuter-Release, Trap-Neuter-Release with removal of kittens for adoption and Trap-Euthanize. Very little empirical evidence exists relevant to the efficacy of alternative options and a model-based approach is needed to predict population response and extend calculations to impact on wildlife. We have created a structured decision support model representing multiple stakeholder groups to facilitate the coordinated management of feral cats. We used a probabilistic graphical model (a Bayesian Belief Network to evaluate and rank alternative management decisions according to efficacy, societal preferences, and cost. Our model predicts that Trap-Neuter-Release strategies would be optimal management decisions for small local populations of less than fifty cats while Trap-Euthanize would be the optimal management decision for populations greater than 50 cats. Removal is predicted to reduce feral cat populations quickly and prevent cats from taking a large number of wildlife prey.

  12. Integrated weed management for sustainable rice production: concepts, perspectives and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amartalingam Rajan

    2002-01-01

    Weed management has always been in some way integrated with cultural and biological methods, probably occurring more fortuitously than purposefully. Experience has shown that repeated use of any weed control technique especially in monocultures production systems results in rapid emergence of weeds more adapted to the new practice. In intensive high input farming systems, heavy selection pressure for herbicide tolerant weeds and the environmental impacts of these inputs are important tissues that require a good understanding of agroecosystem for successful integration of available options. Rice culture, in particular flooded rice culture has always employed integration through an evolution of management practices over the generations. However, a vast majority office farmers in Asia have yet to achieve the high returns realised by farmers elsewhere, where a near optimum combination of high inputs are being effectively integrated for maximum productivity. In addition to technological and management limitations, farmers in developing countries are faced with social, economic and policy constraints. On the other hand, farmers who had achieved considerable increases in productivity through labour replacing technologies, in particular direct seeding with the aid of herbicides, are now faced with issues related to environmental concerns due to high levels of these inputs. The issues facing weed scientists and farmers alike in managing weeds effectively and in a manner to ensure sustainability have become more challenging than ever before. In the last two decades, no issue has been discussed so. intensively as Sustainable Farming, Sustainable Agriculture or Alternative Agriculture within the broader global concept of Sustainable Development. To address these challenges a clear perspective of sustainable farming is essential. This paper addresses these concepts, perspectives and options for choices in weed management for sustainable rice production. (Author)

  13. Utilization of lean management principles in the ambulatory clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Jessica T; Brinton, Thomas S; Gonzalez, Chris M

    2009-03-01

    The principles of 'lean management' have permeated many sectors of today's business world, secondary to the success of the Toyota Production System. This management method enables workers to eliminate mistakes, reduce delays, lower costs, and improve the overall quality of the product or service they deliver. These lean management principles can be applied to health care. Their implementation within the ambulatory care setting is predicated on the continuous identification and elimination of waste within the process. The key concepts of flow time, inventory and throughput are utilized to improve the flow of patients through the clinic, and to identify points that slow this process -- so-called bottlenecks. Nonessential activities are shifted away from bottlenecks (i.e. the physician), and extra work capacity is generated from existing resources, rather than being added. The additional work capacity facilitates a more efficient response to variability, which in turn results in cost savings, more time for the physician to interact with patients, and faster completion of patient visits. Finally, application of the lean management principle of 'just-in-time' management can eliminate excess clinic inventory, better synchronize office supply with patient demand, and reduce costs.

  14. A System Dynamics Approach for the Selection of Contaminated Land Management Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, U. S.; Kuebert, M.; Finkel, M.; Bieg, M.

    2006-12-01

    Large-scale contaminated land and groundwater is a widespread problem that can severely impact human health, the environment and the economy at many urban sites all over the world. Usually a considerable number of potential management solutions exist at each of these sites. A detailed investigation of all these options, however, is not economically feasible which makes streamlining of the planning and decision process a mandatory requirement. Decisions to be taken should be made as early as possible in order to reduce expenditures on site investigation. Therefore, a tiered decision-making procedure is required, including (i) identification and prioritization of focal areas of risks, (ii) feasibility screening of remediation targets and available management alternatives to narrow the range of possible options for (iii) subsequent detailed investigations of only a select group of preferable options. For each of these elements, tailored decision and investigation concepts are required. These concepts and applied methods should be specifically adapted to the type and scale of the particular decision to be taken- more target-oriented, cost-efficient investigation programs, as well as model-based assessment methods are needed (Ruegner et al. 2006). A gap exists within this framework with respect to preliminary assessment methodologies representing the first decision level. To fill this gap, a new system dynamics approach has been developed that represents the system of source- pathway-receptor sequences by means of a mass flux model. The dynamics are governed by the effects of possible remedial actions, which are described as mass flux change over time (Serapiglia et al. 2005). This approach has been implemented in the preliminary evaluation tool CARO-plus (Cost-efficiency Assessment of Remediation Options) that models the effects of potential remedial actions, including tackling the contaminant source and managing the groundwater plume. The model represents the causal

  15. Effects of utility demand-side management programs on uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, E.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utilities face a variety of uncertainties that complicate their long-term resource planning. These uncertainties include future economic and load growths, fuel prices, environmental and economic regulations, performance of existing power plants, cost and availability of purchased power, and the costs and performance of new demand and supply resources. As utilities increasingly turn to demand-side management (DSM) programs to provide resources, it becomes more important to analyze the interactions between these programs and the uncertainties facing utilities. This paper uses a dynamic planning model to quantify the uncertainty effects of supply-only vs DSM + supply resource portfolios. The analysis considers four sets of uncertainties: economic growth, fuel prices, the costs to build new power plants, and the costs to operate DSM programs. The two types of portfolios are tested against these four sets of uncertainties for the period 1990 to 2010. Sensitivity, scenario, and worst-case analysis methods are used. The sensitivity analyses show that the DSM + supply resource portfolio is less sensitive to unanticipated changes in economic growth, fuel prices, and power-plant construction costs than is the supply-only portfolio. The supply-only resource mix is better only with respect to uncertainties about the costs of DSM programs. The base-case analysis shows that including DSM programs in the utility's resource portfolio reduces the net present value of revenue requirements (NPV-RR) by 490 million dollars. The scenario-analysis results show an additional 30 million dollars (6%) in benefits associated with reduction in these uncertainties. In the worst-case analysis, the DSM + supply portfolio again reduces the cost penalty associated with guessing wrong for both cases, when the utility plans for high needs and learns it has low needs and vice versa. 20 refs

  16. THE COMBINED USE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT WITH FACILITY MANAGEMENT AS AN OPTION FOR INTELLIGENT BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Dittmar Weise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Words like Business Management (BM and Facility Management (FM are well known as separate management methods. FM offers transparency about their property costs and exploitation, starting from the planning phase until its demolition. The investor sees this in the property invested capital and its recoverable yield. This means they also want a profit with their real estates. Besides this, changes in the social and environmental requirements become necessary to adapt the properties. The solution is called Intelligent Building. Its primary aim is to collect and select previous knowledge and information about Facility Management and Business Management. It is an application, mainly with sight to characterize and describe the possibilities of use of intelligent buildings as a combination of Facility and Business Management. This paper is an indirect survey carried out through a documental procedure in the form of a bibliographic research and theoretician study. Intelligent Building as combination of FM and BM is new, but in our times necessary to satisfy the needs of the demand. This type of building needs to be flexible in its structure and services, open for changes in environmental requirements, e.g. saving energy, and needs a lot of technology to realize their functions. Consequently, it will be sustainable for a value enhancement. With a Computer Aided Facilities Management system this is possible and the company will be more flexible in relation to the competitors and future changes.

  17. Federated and Cloud Enabled Resources for Data Management and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, R.; Gordon, M.; Potter, R. G.; Satchwill, B.

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of cloud computing over the past three years has led to a paradigm shift in how data can be managed, processed and made accessible. Building on the federated data management system offered through the Canadian Space Science Data Portal (www.cssdp.ca), we demonstrate how heterogeneous and geographically distributed data sets and modeling tools have been integrated to form a virtual data center and computational modeling platform that has services for data processing and visualization embedded within it. We also discuss positive and negative experiences in utilizing Eucalyptus and OpenStack cloud applications, and job scheduling facilitated by Condor and Star Cluster. We summarize our findings by demonstrating use of these technologies in the Cloud Enabled Space Weather Data Assimilation and Modeling Platform CESWP (www.ceswp.ca), which is funded through Canarie's (canarie.ca) Network Enabled Platforms program in Canada.

  18. Analysis of radwaste material management options for experimental DUPIC fuel fabrication process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, K. H.; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. S.; Ko, W. I.; Lee, J. W.; Yim, S. P.; Hong, D. H.; Lee, J. Y.; Baik, S. Y.; Song, W. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Lee, E. P.; Kang, I. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This report is desirable to review management options in advance for radioactive waste generated from manufacturing experiment of DUPIC nuclear fuel as well as residual nuclear material and dismantled equipment. This report was written for helping researchers working in related facilities to DUPIC project understanding management of DUPIC radioactive waste as well as fellows in DUPIC project. Also, it will be used as basic material to prove transparency and safeguardability of DUPIC fuel cycle. In order to meet these purposes, this report includes basic experiment plan for manufacturing DUPIC nuclear fuel, outlines for DUPIC manufacturing facility and equipment, arising source and estimated amount of radioactive waste, waste classification and packing, transport cask, transport procedures. 15 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  19. Applicability of the cost-effectiveness approach for comparison of waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, S.; Peltonen, E.; Vieno, T.; Vira, J.

    1984-01-01

    There is an obvious need to consider the achievable level of safety of waste management in view of the costs involved. The feasibility of the cost-effectiveness approach for this purpose is discussed in the framework of practical case studies. The analysis indicates that such an approach has clear benefits, but it also reveals several issues and ambiguities in its application. The waste management alternatives considered include various concepts for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level reactor wastes as well as of the unreprocessed spent fuel. The employed impact indicators describe both the individual and collective risks. In addition, indicators simultaneously giving a perspective into other risks in the society and a means to make a rank ordering of the alternative options are proposed. The cost-effectiveness ratios for collective risks vary in the range of ten to hundreds of millions US $ per man.Sv. The examples considered also indicate that increased costs do not necessarily improve safety. Furthermore, the comparison of the safety of different options requires more sophisticated and realistic models than those employed in the present analyses, because an unbalanced degree of conservatism could result in misleading conclusions. (author)

  20. Options for the management of Chernobyl-restricted areas in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, Anne; Woodman, Rona

    2000-01-01

    Areas in England and Wales are still subject to restrictions on the movement, sale and slaughter of sheep because activity concentrations of 137 Cs in sheepmeat may exceed the 1000 Bq kg -1 limit imposed after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The operation of various monitoring programmes has enabled lamb production to be sustained in restricted areas. Under present circumstances, it is predicted that some restrictions will remain until at least 2003. This paper describes an assessment of the practicability and cost-effectiveness of five alternative management options: utilisation of existing improved land for the purposes of clean feeding; improvement of unimproved upland grazing for the purposes of clean feeding; provision of housing and clean feed; administration of boli containing ammonium ferric hexacyanoferrate; and monitoring at the market place. The practicability of each option, which encompasses technical feasibility, capacity, cost, impact and acceptability, was assessed through a series of case studies carried out on farms in the restricted area of north Wales, and through consultation with a range of organisations with interests in farming and/or the environment. Recommendations are made for the future management of the restricted areas

  1. Preliminary Analysis on the Management Options of IRT-DPRK Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Minsoo; Hwang, Yongsoo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Although IRT-DPRK was upgraded several times, operation lifetime was already exhausted and thus management policy is needed to deal with the aging of IRT-DPRK. For example, IRT- 2000 type nuclear reactors in Georgia and Bulgaria had been shut down to refurbish or decommissioned to establish new low power facilities. However, the existing negotiations and agreements related to the nuclear issues on North Korea have been focused on the 'denuclearization', and thus the issues on the IRTDPRK were not handled. In recent, a group of USA scientists has suggested that IRT-DPRK should be refurbished to establish the 'Scientific cent for excellence' like the Cooperative Threat Reduction program applied in Russia and the former Soviet Union (FSU). In this paper, we examined the several options to manage the IRT-DPRK through the study of similar foreign cases. Due to the lack of the detailed and standardized information, it is impossible to suggest the best option at this moment. In order to do that, the further research on the detailed procedures, radioactive wastes, the standards of safety and security are needed.

  2. Non-deposit system option for waste management on small islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilms, Monica; Voronova, Viktoria

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses waste management on small islands (on a global scale these are micro-islands). In the context of the paper, small islands are islands that have an area less than 50 km(2) The study presents an overview of the problems connected with waste transport from islands to the mainland. Waste generation on islands is very much related to tourists. If tourists do not handle waste properly, it will cause problems. Four small Estonian islands in the range of 3-19 km(2) are studied in detail. For these and other small islands, the main problem is the waste produced by tourists, or related to tourists and waste transport to the mainland. Currently, the local municipality has to arrange and finance waste transport. In fact, and based on the polluter-pays principle, the tourists should bear the cost of waste management. There are different tax options available in order to collect the money from tourists - waste tax, harbour tax, tourist tax, donations, environmental tax and others. The study results revealed that the best possible solution for Estonian islands may be a non-deposit system - including an additional charge on ferry ticket prices. The extra money should cover the costs of waste management and waste shipping. The tourists arriving in their own boats should pay a harbour tax, which includes a waste tax to compensate for the cost of waste management. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Long-term issues associated with spent nuclear power fuel management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae-Sol, Lee; Kosaku, Fukuda; Burcl, R.; Bell, M.

    2003-01-01

    Spent fuel management is perceived as one of the crucial issues to be resolved for sustainable utilisation of nuclear power. In the last decades, spent fuel management policies have shown diverging tendencies among the nuclear power production countries - a group has adhered to reprocessing- recycle and another has turned to direct disposal, while the rest of the countries have not taken decision yet, often with ''wait and see'' position. Both the closed and open fuel cycle options for spent fuel management have been subject to a number of debates with pros and cons on various issues such as proliferation risk, environmental impact, etc. The anticipation for better technical solutions that would mitigate those issues has given rise to the renewal of interest in partitioning and transmutation of harmful nuclides to be disposed of, and in a broader context, the recent initiatives for development of innovative nuclear systems. The current trend toward globalization of market economy, which has already brought important impacts on nuclear industry, might have a stimulating effect on regional-international co-operations for cost-effective efforts to mitigate some of those long-term issues associated with spent fuel management. (author)

  4. Understanding Carbon Sequestration Options in the United States: Capabilities of a Carbon Management Geographic Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; Brown, Daryl R.; Mizoguchi, Akiyoshi; Shiozaki, Mai

    2001-04-03

    While one can discuss various sequestration options at a national or global level, the actual carbon management approach is highly site specific. In response to the need for a better understanding of carbon management options, Battelle in collaboration with Mitsubishi Corporation, has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) focused on carbon capture and sequestration opportunities in the United States. The GIS system contains information (e.g., fuel type, location, vintage, ownership, rated capacity) on all fossil-fired generation capacity in the Untied States with a rated capacity of at least 100 MW. There are also data on other CO2 sources (i.e., natural domes, gas processing plants, etc.) and associated pipelines currently serving enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects. Data on current and prospective CO2 EOR projects include location, operator, reservoir and oil characteristics, production, and CO2 source. The system also contains information on priority deep saline aquifers and coal bed methane basins with potential for sequestering CO2. The GIS application not only enables data storage, flexible map making, and visualization capabilities, but also facilitates the spatial analyses required to solve complex linking of CO2 sources with appropriate and cost-effective sinks. A variety of screening criteria (spatial, geophysical, and economic) can be employed to identify sources and sinks most likely amenable to deployment of carbon capture and sequestration systems. The system is easily updateable, allowing it to stay on the leading edge of capture and sequestration technology as well as the ever-changing business landscape. Our paper and presentation will describe the development of this GIS and demonstrate its uses for carbon management analysis.

  5. Research reactor utilization, safety, decommissioning, fuel and waste management. Posters of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    For more than 50 years research reactors have played an important role in the development of nuclear science and technology. They have made significant contributions to a large number of disciplines as well as to the educational and research programmes of about 70 countries world wide. About 675 research reactors have been built to date, of which some 278 are now operating in 59 countries (86 of them in 38 developing Member States). Altogether over 13,000 reactor-years of cumulative operational experience has been gained during this remarkable period. The objective of this conference was to foster the exchange of information on current research reactor concerns related to safety, operation, utilization, decommissioning and to provide a forum for reactor operators, designers, managers, users and regulators to share experience, exchange opinions and to discuss options and priorities. The topical areas covered were: a) Utilization, including new trends and directions for utilization of research reactors. Effective management of research reactors and associated facilities. Engineering considerations and experience related to refurbishment and modifications. Strategic planning and marketing. Classical applications (nuclear activation analysis, isotope production, neutron beam applications, industrial irradiations, medical applications). Training for operators. Educational programmes using a reactor. Current developments in design and fabrication of experimental facilities. Irradiation facilities. Projects for regional uses of facilities. Core management and calculation tools. Future trends for reactors. Use of simulators for training and educational programmes. b) Safety, including experience with the preparation and review of safety analysis reports. Human factors in safety analysis. Management of extended shutdown periods. Modifications: safety analysis, regulatory aspects, commissioning programmes. Engineering safety features. Safety culture. Safety peer reviews and

  6. Pro-ACT II: integrating utilization management, discharge planning, and nursing case management into the outcomes manager role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, J L; Bueno, M; Royal, N; Kendall-Sengin, K

    1997-02-01

    Building on redesign efforts that created case management, clinical care technicians, support service hosts, and pharmacy technician roles, this redesign focused on integrating case management, utilization management, and discharge planning functions into a new outcomes manager role. The authors describe the process of developing and implementing the new role and outline specific actions that eliminated redundancy and inefficiency. Results of the evaluation of the project are reviewed, including full-time equivalent and salary savings and employee and physician satisfaction improvements.

  7. Tadalafil - a therapeutic option in the management of BPH-LUTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, C C; Rosenberg, M; Kissel, J; Wong, D G

    2014-01-01

    Men with signs of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may experience lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as urinary frequency, urgency, intermittence, nocturia, straining, incomplete emptying or a weak urinary stream. The effective management of LUTS suggestive of BPH (BPH-LUTS) requires careful consideration of several factors, including the severity of a patient's symptoms, concurrent or other coexisting medical conditions, the ability to improve symptoms and impact quality of life (QOL), as well as the potential side effects of available treatment options. Several clinical studies have assessed phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors in reducing LUTS; however, tadalafil is the only PDE5 inhibitor approved for the treatment of signs and symptoms of BPH, as well as in men with both erectile dysfunction (ED) and the signs and symptoms of BPH. This review examined articles that assessed tadalafil in patients with signs and symptoms of BPH, with or without erectile dysfunction (ED), which led to regulatory approval in the United States and Europe. In dose-ranging and confirmatory studies, results demonstrate that tadalafil significantly improved total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) following 12 weeks of treatment with once daily tadalafil 5 mg. Statistically significant improvements in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index (BII), IPSS subscores, IPSS QOL and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) were also observed. Improvement in urinary symptoms occurred regardless of age, previous treatment with an α1 -adrenergic blocker, BPH-LUTS severity at baseline or ED status. While tadalafil is most frequently recognised as a standard treatment option for men with ED, it also represents a well-tolerated and effective treatment option in men with moderate to severe BPH-LUTS. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Availability and utilization of opioids for pain management: global issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjiani, Deepak; Paul, D Baby; Kunnumpurath, Sreekumar; Kaye, Alan David; Vadivelu, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Pain can significantly influence an individual's health status and can have serious negative consequences: poor nutrition, decreased appetite, abnormal sleep patterns, fatigue, and impairment of daily living activities. Pain can cause psychological impairment and decrease healing and recovery from injuries and illness. A hallmark of many chronic conditions, pain affects more patients' lives than diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and cancer combined. However, many chronic sufferers do not have access to effective pain management for a variety of reasons, including limited access, restrictions, and personal and cultural biases. This review summarizes issues of access, distribution, and cultural bias with regard to opioid agents and seeks to clarify the challenges related to opioid delivery. The considerable negative physical and mental consequences of chronic pain are discussed for the general and palliative care population. Opioids are an effective treatment for various intractable painful conditions, but problems in global opioid access for safe and rational use in pain management contribute to unnecessary suffering. These problems persist despite increased understanding in recent years of the pathophysiology of pain. Comprehensive guidelines for goal-directed and patient-friendly chronic opiate therapy will potentially enhance the outlook for future chronic pain management. The improvement of pain education in undergraduate and postgraduate training will benefit patients and clinicians. The promise of new medications, along with the utilization of multimodal approaches, has the potential to provide effective pain relief to future generations of sufferers.

  9. Utility analysis and calibration of QOL assessment in disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mo

    2018-05-02

    In clinical trials, the assessment of health-related quality of life (QOL) (or patient-reported outcome [PRO] measure) has become very popular especially for clinical studies conducted for evaluating clinical benefits of patients with chronic, severe, and/or life threatening diseases. Health-related QOL information and PRO measures are useful for disease management for achieving best clinical practice. In this article, we will focus on health-related QOL assessment. The concept, design, and analysis of health-related QOL in clinical trials are reviewed. Validation of the use of health-related QOL instrument in terms of some key performance characteristics such as accuracy, reliability, sensitivity, and responsibility for assuring quality, integrity, and validity of collected QOL data are discussed. The concept of utility analysis and calibration (e.g., with respect to life events) for achieving the optimization of disease management are proposed. The change of the QOL could be translated into different life events for effective disease management. These translations could evaluate the treatment effect by more directly displaying the change of the QOL.

  10. Novel Technological and Management Options for Accelerating Transformational Changes in Rice and Livestock Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngonidzashe Chirinda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural producers grapple with low farm yields and declining ecosystem services within their landscapes. In several instances, agricultural production systems may be considered largely unsustainable in socioeconomic and ecological (resource conservation and use and impact on nature terms. Novel technological and management options that can serve as vehicles to promote the provision of multiple benefits, including the improvement of smallholder livelihoods, are needed. We call for a paradigm shift to allow designing and implementing agricultural systems that are not only efficient (serving as a means to promote development based on the concept of creating more goods and services while using fewer resources and creating less waste but can also be considered synergistic (symbiotic relationship between socio-ecological systems by simultaneously contributing to major objectives of economic, ecological, and social (equity improvement of agro-ecosystems. These transformations require strategic approaches that are supported by participatory system-level research, experimentation, and innovation. Using data from several studies, we here provide evidence for technological and management options that could be optimized, promoted, and adopted to enable agricultural systems to be efficient, effective, and, indeed, sustainable. Specifically, we present results from a study conducted in Colombia, which demonstrated that, in rice systems, improved water management practices such as Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD reduce methane emissions (~70%. We also show how women can play a key role in AWD adoption. For livestock systems, we present in vitro evidence showing that the use of alternative feed options such as cassava leaves contributes to livestock feed supplementation and could represent a cost-effective approach for reducing enteric methane emissions (22% to 55%. We argue that to design and benefit from sustainable agricultural systems, there is a

  11. Economic Screening of Geologic Sequestration Options in the United States with a Carbon Management Geographic Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Dooley, James J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Brown, Daryl R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stephan, Alex J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Badie I. Morsi

    2001-10-19

    Developing a carbon management strategy is a formidable task for nations as well as individual companies. It is often difficult to understand what options are available, let alone determine which may be optimal. In response to the need for a better understanding of complex carbon management options, Battelle has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) model with economic screening capability focused on carbon capture and geologic sequestration opportunities in the United States. This paper describes the development of this GIS-based economic screening model and demonstrates its use for carbon management analysis.

  12. Cost-Utility Analysis: Sartorius Flap versus Negative Pressure Therapy for Infected Vascular Groin Graft Managment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Macarios, David; Griffin, Leah; Kosowski, Tomasz; Pyfer, Bryan J; Offodile, Anaeze C; Driscoll, Daniel; Maddali, Sirish; Attwood, John

    2015-11-01

    Sartorius flap coverage and adjunctive negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) have been described in managing infected vascular groin grafts with varying cost and clinical success. We performed a cost-utility analysis comparing sartorius flap with NPWT in managing an infected vascular groin graft. A literature review compiling outcomes for sartorius flap and NPWT interventions was conducted from peer-reviewed journals in MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE. Utility scores were derived from expert opinion and used to estimate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Medicare current procedure terminology and diagnosis-related groups codes were used to assess the costs for successful graft salvage with the associated complications. Incremental cost-effectiveness was assessed at $50,000/QALY, and both univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess robustness of the conclusions. Thirty-two studies were used pooling 384 patients (234 sartorius flaps and 150 NPWT). NPWT had better clinical outcomes (86.7% success rate, 0.9% minor complication rate, and 13.3% major complication rate) than sartorius flap (81.6% success rate, 8.0% minor complication rate, and 18.4% major complication rate). NPWT was less costly ($12,366 versus $23,516) and slightly more effective (12.06 QALY versus 12.05 QALY) compared with sartorius flap. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the base case findings; NPWT was either cost-effective at $50,000/QALY or dominated sartorius flap in 81.6% of all probabilistic sensitivity analyses. In our cost-utility analysis, use of adjunctive NPWT, along with debridement and antibiotic treatment, for managing infected vascular groin graft wounds was found to be a more cost-effective option when compared with sartorius flaps.

  13. The long term challenges of energy management: keeping all options open

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisan, F.

    2003-01-01

    Before the end of the 21. century, the global energy sector will need to face up to two challenges: climate warming due to greenhouse gas emissions and the increasing scarcity of traditional hydrocarbons. The likely scenarios expected by 2030 demonstrate that we are in the process of witnessing strong growth in the consumption of energy and in CO 2 emissions while at the same time climate experts warn us that we need to achieve a 75 % reduction of emissions in the industrialized nations by 2050. Several technological options may be envisaged in order to meet these challenges including a view generation nuclear power, renewable energy, the storage of carbon dioxide or managing energy consumption, and we need to keep all options open because none of these alone can solve all the problems. The time required for technologies to emerge following research and their penetration into the marketplace can often be several decades. The 2050 deadline is therefore not so at away and we need to stem and reverse the growth in demand from today onwards, something we should da without any misgivings when we consider the considerable uncertainties surrounding supply-side technologies. This profound transformation of our production and consumption methods also involves a change in our lifestyle and our behaviour: our efforts in the field of technological development must be accompanied by a commitment by all citizens to creating a more rational society where energy is concerned. (author)

  14. Volume reduction options for the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Lerch, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Volume reduction options that are now or soon will be available for low-level wastes are examined. These wastes generally are in the form of combustible solids, noncombustible solids, and wet wastes (solid/liquid). Initially, the wastes are collected and stored onsite. Preconditioning may be required, e.g., sorting, shredding, and classifying the solids into combustible and noncombustible fractions. The volume of combustible solids can be reduced by compaction, incineration/pyrolysis, acid digestion, or molten salt combustion. Options for reducing the volume of noncombustible solids include compaction, size reduction and decontamination, meltdown-casting, dissolution and electropolishing. Burnable wet wastes (e.g., organic wastes) can be evaporated or combusted; nonburnable wet wastes can be treated by various evaporative or nonevaporative processes. All radioactive waste processing operations result in some equipment contamination and the production of additional radioactively contaminated wastes (secondary wastes). The additional waste quantities must be considered in evaluating performance and overall volume reduction factors for the various systems. In the selection of an optimum waste management plan for a given facility, other important factors (e.g., relative stability of the waste product form) should be considered along with the savings accrued due to volume reduction

  15. Benefits and Limitations of Real Options Analysis for the Practice of River Flood Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Jarl M.; Baayen, Jorn H.; Botzen, W. J. Wouter

    2018-04-01

    Decisions on long-lived flood risk management (FRM) investments are complex because the future is uncertain. Flexibility and robustness can be used to deal with future uncertainty. Real options analysis (ROA) provides a welfare-economics framework to design and evaluate robust and flexible FRM strategies under risk or uncertainty. Although its potential benefits are large, ROA is hardly used in todays' FRM practice. In this paper, we investigate benefits and limitations of a ROA, by applying it to a realistic FRM case study for an entire river branch. We illustrate how ROA identifies optimal short-term investments and values future options. We develop robust dike investment strategies and value the flexibility offered by additional room for the river measures. We benchmark the results of ROA against those of a standard cost-benefit analysis and show ROA's potential policy implications. The ROA for a realistic case requires a high level of geographical detail, a large ensemble of scenarios, and the inclusion of stakeholders' preferences. We found several limitations of applying the ROA. It is complex. In particular, relevant sources of uncertainty need to be recognized, quantified, integrated, and discretized in scenarios, requiring subjective choices and expert judgment. Decision trees have to be generated and stakeholders' preferences have to be translated into decision rules. On basis of this study, we give general recommendations to use high discharge scenarios for the design of measures with high fixed costs and few alternatives. Lower scenarios may be used when alternatives offer future flexibility.

  16. Evaluating options for balancing the water–electricity nexus in California: Part 2—Greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott, E-mail: gss@uci.edu

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare the technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions. Part 2 of the study focused on determining the greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts of different pathways to stabilize major surface reservoir levels. Using a detailed electric grid model and taking into account impacts on the operation of the water supply infrastructure, the greenhouse gas emissions and effect on overall grid renewable penetration level was calculated for each water supply option portfolio that successfully secured water availability from Part 1. The effects on the energy signature of water supply infrastructure were found to be just as important as that of the fundamental processes for each option. Under historical (baseline) conditions, many option portfolios were capable of securing surface reservoir levels with a net neutral or negative effect on emissions and a benefit for renewable energy utilization. Under climate change augmented conditions, however, careful selection of the water supply option portfolio was required to prevent imposing major emissions increases for the system. Overall, this analysis provided quantitative insight into the tradeoffs associated with choosing different pathways for securing California's water supply. - Highlights: • Part I presents a spatially and temporally resolved model of California’s surface reservoirs. • Part II presents GHG emissions and grid renewable penetration for water availability options. • In particular, the energy signature of water supply infrastructure is delineated. • Different pathways for securing California’s water supply are developed quantitatively. • Under baseline conditions, portfolios capable of securing surface reservoir levels emerge. • Under climate change conditions, the

  17. Evaluating options for balancing the water–electricity nexus in California: Part 2—Greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions. Part 2 of the study focused on determining the greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts of different pathways to stabilize major surface reservoir levels. Using a detailed electric grid model and taking into account impacts on the operation of the water supply infrastructure, the greenhouse gas emissions and effect on overall grid renewable penetration level was calculated for each water supply option portfolio that successfully secured water availability from Part 1. The effects on the energy signature of water supply infrastructure were found to be just as important as that of the fundamental processes for each option. Under historical (baseline) conditions, many option portfolios were capable of securing surface reservoir levels with a net neutral or negative effect on emissions and a benefit for renewable energy utilization. Under climate change augmented conditions, however, careful selection of the water supply option portfolio was required to prevent imposing major emissions increases for the system. Overall, this analysis provided quantitative insight into the tradeoffs associated with choosing different pathways for securing California's water supply. - Highlights: • Part I presents a spatially and temporally resolved model of California’s surface reservoirs. • Part II presents GHG emissions and grid renewable penetration for water availability options. • In particular, the energy signature of water supply infrastructure is delineated. • Different pathways for securing California’s water supply are developed quantitatively. • Under baseline conditions, portfolios capable of securing surface reservoir levels emerge. • Under climate change conditions, the

  18. The utility of neuroimaging in the management of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak E Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a syndrome of progressive dysfunction of two or more cognitive domains associated with impairment of activities of daily living. An understanding of the pathophysiology of dementia and its early diagnosis is important in the pursuit of possible disease modifying therapy for dementia. Neuroimaging has greatly transformed this field of research as its function has changed from a mere tool for diagnosing treatable causes of dementia to an instrument for pre-symptomatic diagnosis of dementia. This review focuses on the diagnostic utility of neuroimaging in the management of progressive dementias. Structural imaging techniques like computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging highlights the anatomical, structural and volumetric details of the brain; while functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography, arterial spin labeling, single photon emission computerized tomography and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging focuses on chemistry, circulatory status and physiology of the different brain structures and regions.

  19. Review of biosolids management options and co-incineration of a biosolid-derived fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Murari Mohon; Dutta, Animesh; Corscadden, Kenny; Havard, Peter; Dickie, Lucas

    2011-11-01

    This paper reviews current biosolids management options, and identifies incineration as a promising technology. Incineration is attractive both for volume reduction and energy recovery. Reported emissions from the incineration of biosolids were compared to various regulations to identify the challenges and future direction of biosolids incineration research. Most of the gaseous and metal emissions were lower than existing regulations, or could be met by existing technologies. This paper also presents the results of an experimental study to investigate the potential use of biosolids for co-incineration with wood pellets in a conventional wood pellet stove. Pilot scale combustion tests revealed that co-incineration of 10% biosolids with 90% premium grade wood pellets resulted in successful combustion without any significant degradation of efficiency and emissions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Demographic profile, clinical presentation, management options in cranio-cerebral trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhole, A.M.; Potode, R.; Joharapurkar, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    Head injury is a common condition that can result in either obvious neurological sequelae or imaging findings. The purpose of this study was to find out the epidemiology, clinical presentation and management options in patients with head injury at a rural centre of central India. In this retrospective study, data of all patients who attended the Department of Surgery, ABMH, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha for cranio-cerebral trauma were included and a total of 200 patients were reviewed. Epidemiological and clinical details including investigations were noted for all the patients. Management offered to the patients was studied and outcome was analyzed. This study enrolled 200 patients. Male were more common than female. Young patients were commonly affected. Common presenting features were loss of consciousness and vomiting. Mild head injury was most common. Majority of patients were treated conservatively and indications for surgery were compound depressed fractures and significant intracranial haematomas. Cranio-cerebral injury patterns in developing countries particularly in rural area are no different from developed countries and knowledge of its causative factors, management and potential complications will help to plan active interventions that may improve outcome. It will also help in developing preventive measures. (author)

  1. Evaluation of waste management options in view of long-term maintenance-free landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, P.H.; Doeberl, G.; Huber, R.; Eder, M.; Pierrard, R.; Schoenbaeck, W.; Fruehwirth, W.; Hutterer, H.; Woeginger, H.

    2001-01-01

    The present case study compares and evaluates different waste management options with special consideration to their long-term implications. Multiple scenarios of these options were created and investigated as to which of term best fulfilled the goals of the Austrian waste management act (Abfallwirtschaftgesetz, AWG). Serving as a basis for this study, an elaborated model of the Austrian waste management, as described in GUA and IFIP (1998, 'Management of Household and Household-like Waste in Austria'), was used. Alterations to the GUA and IFIP study were done in order to best fulfill the needs of this assessment. Household and household-like waste, as well as municipal sewage sludge have been defined as the system input. The following list of scenarios were investigated against an up-dated status-quo (P0): M1 maximum landfilling of untreated waste; M2a maximum incineration without any after treatment; M2b maximum incineration with cement stabilization of the residual material; M2c maximum high temperature process; M3a maximum mechanical-biological treatment with the light fraction from sorting and splitting processed in a fluidized-bed furnace; M3b maximum mechanical-biological treatment with the light fraction from sorting and splitting processed in a rotary kiln for use in the cement industry; M3c maximum mechanical-biological treatment with the high caloric heavy fraction after decomposition processed in a fluidized-bed furnace; M3d maximum mechanical-biological treatment with the high caloric heavy fraction after decomposition processed in a rotary kiln for use in the cement industry. In order to oblige to the precautionary principle of the AWG, each of the scenarios were investigated, with regards to the short, middle, and long-term landfills behaviors of the deposited residual material. The macro-economical Cost-Benefit-Analysis (CBA) was used in the assessment. Additionally a so-called 'modified-Cost-Effect-Analysis' (MCEA) was developed. Unlike the

  2. Comparison of fermented animal feed and mushroom growth media as two value-added options for waste Cassava pulp management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakulvichean, Sivalee; Chaiprasert, Pawinee; Otmakhova, Julia; Songkasiri, Warinthorn

    2017-12-01

    Cassava is one of the main processed crops in Thailand, but this generates large amounts (7.3 million tons in 2015) of waste cassava pulp (WCP). The solid WCP is sold directly to farmers or pulp-drying companies at a low cost to reduce the burden of on-site waste storage. Using an integrated direct and environmental cost model, fermented animal feed and mushroom growth media were compared as added-value waste management alternatives for WCP to mitigate environmental problems. Primary and secondary data were collected from the literature, field data, and case studies. Data boundaries were restricted to a gate-to-gate scenario with a receiving capacity of 500 t WCP/d, and based on a new production unit being set up at the starch factory. The total production cost of each WCP utilization option was analyzed from the economic and environmental costs. Fermented animal feed was an economically attractive scenario, giving a higher net present value (NPV), lower investment cost and environmental impact, and a shorter payback period for the 10-year operational period. The selling price of mushrooms was the most sensitive parameter regarding the NPV, while the NPV for the price of fermented animal feed had the highest value in the best-case scenario.

  3. Plant life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzinger, H.; Erve, M.

    1999-01-01

    For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and plant life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize plant operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power plants must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of plant availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern plants, and as plants age they can only remain competitive if a plant operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a plant-wide basis. The significance of aging and plant life management for nuclear power plants becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power plants will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 plants will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power plants and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing plants have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of plant life time to operate the plants at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power plants can be licensed and constructed. (author)

  4. A decision methodology for the evaluation of mixed low-level radioactive waste management options for DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassi, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Abashian, M.S.; Chakraborti, S.; Devarakonda, M.; Djordjevic, S.M. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Currently, many DOE sites are developing site-specific solutions to manage their mixed low-level wastes. These site-specific MLLW programs often result in duplication of efforts between the different sites, and consequently, inefficient use of DOE system resources. A nationally integrated program for MLLW eliminates unnecessary duplication of effort, but requires a comprehensive analysis of waste management options to ensure that all site issues are addressed. A methodology for comprehensive analysis of the complete DOE MLLW system is being developed by DOE-HQ to establish an integrated and standardized solution for managing MLLW. To be effective, the comprehensive systems analysis must consider all aspects of MLLW management from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from MLLW generation to disposal). The results of the analysis will include recommendations for alternative management options for the complete DOE MLLW system based on various components such as effectiveness, cost, health and safety risks, and the probability of regulatory acceptance for an option. Because of the diverse nature of these various components and the associated difficulties in comparing between them, a decision methodology is being developed that will integrate the above components into a single evaluation scheme for performing relative comparisons between different MLLW management options. The remainder of this paper provides an overview of the roles and responsibilities of the various participants of the DOE MLLW Program, and discusses in detail the components involved in the development of the decision methodology for a comprehensive systems analysis.

  5. Strategic Risk Management Behavior: What Can Utility Functions Tell Us

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The validity of the utility concept, particularly in an expected utility framework, has been questioned because of its inability to predict revealed behavior. In this paper we focus on the global shape of the utility function instead of the local shape of the utility function. We examine

  6. Ecobalances of technical options for the supply and utilization of bioenergy; Oekobilanzen technischer Optionen zur Bioenergiebereitstellung und -nutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkelberg, Elisa; Aretz, Astrid

    2013-05-15

    In Germany bioenergy production and consumption are promoted and encouraged by means of the Renewable Energy Law, which has as its objectives transforming the energy system and preventing climate change. In recent years several forms of bioenergy have been criticized as leading to ecological and socioeconomic risks. This study presents life cycle assessments (LCA) for existing bioenergy processes. The LCAs were conducted as a part of the Project ''Renewable Energy Regions: Socio-Ecology of Self-Sufficiency''; the objective was to assess the ecological impact of the selected bioenergy processes in order to calculate the overall ecological impact of existing bioenergy plants. The results prove that the usage of agricultural biomass such as corn and wheat for biogas production leads to negative ecological impacts such as eutrophication and acidification. If greenhouse gas emissions from land-use change are included, the net effect in comparison to the usage of fossil energies will only be small or even negative; however, when residues such as manure or materials from landscape management are used as substrates for biogas production they lead to several positive ecological impacts. Residual forest wood or wood from short-rotation coppices used in co-generation show the highest greenhouse gas reduction potential among the investigated processes. It must, however, be assumed that the potential of residual forest wood in Germany is already largely being tapped. Regions that have made bioenergy a priority thus should limit the usage of agricultural biomass for energy production to specific crops such as short-rotation coppices and floral and herbaceous perennials. Additionally, future challenges will require strategies to improve cascade utilization and gathering and efficient usage of residues.

  7. Evolution of management accounting research: a review of thematic options in thesis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rivelino Martins Ribeiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the aim of analyzing the thematic options in thesis in Post-graduate studies in Accounting in Brazil, from 1973 to 2010. It started from the identification of the Brazilian scientific production in management accounting focus of the study, then detect the management practices contemplated that categorized according to the evolutionary stages of IMAP. With regard to the characteristics of the scientific framework adopted, is that this research is descriptive in character, whose problem is analyzed in its qualitative and quantitative aspects, in which strategies were bibliographic, documentary and ex-post facto and primary data using a longitudinal perspective. With use of content analysis and descriptive statistics explored were 256 thesis which was accessed from the programs. In conducting the analysis, there is the prevailing practice and directed to the following conclusions: stage 1, is the predominant absorption costing and variable costing; Stage 2 stands out the budget, stage 3, ABC and strategic planning; and stage 4, EVA, BSC and GECON.

  8. Lethal trap trees: a potential option for emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Lewis, Phillip A

    2016-05-01

    Economic and ecological impacts of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality resulting from emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) invasion are severe in forested, residential and urban areas. Management options include girdling ash trees to attract ovipositing adult beetles and then destroying infested trees before larvae develop or protecting ash with a highly effective, systemic emamectin benzoate insecticide. Injecting this insecticide and then girdling injected trees a few weeks later could effectively create lethal trap trees, similar to a bait-and-kill tactic, if girdling does not interfere with insecticide translocation. We compared EAB larval densities on girdled trees, trees injected with the emamectin benzoate insecticide, trees injected with the insecticide and then girdled 18-21 days later and untreated controls at multiple sites. Pretreatment larval densities did not differ among treatments. Current-year larval densities were higher on girdled and control trees than on any trees treated with insecticide at all sites. Foliar residue analysis and adult EAB bioassays showed that girdling trees after insecticide injections did not reduce insecticide translocation. Girdling ash trees to attract adult EAB did not reduce efficacy of emamectin benzoate trunk injections applied ≥ 18 days earlier and could potentially be used in integrated management programs to slow EAB population growth. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Federal Energy Efficiency through Utility Partnerships: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Program Overview Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, D.; Wolfson, M.

    2001-01-01

    This Utility Program Overview describes how the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) utility program assists Federal energy managers. The document identifies both a utility financing mechanism and FEMP technical assistance available to support agencies' implementation of energy and water efficiency methods and renewable energy projects

  10. Emerging treatment options for the management of Hodgkin's lymphoma: clinical utility of Nivolumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bond DA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available David A Bond, Lapo Alinari Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology, Arthur G James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma (cHL is a B-cell malignancy comprised of pathologic Reed Sternberg cells with a surrounding immune-tolerant inflammatory milieu. RS cells evade immune recognition in part through programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1 overexpression, which is genetically programmed through copy number alterations, polysomy, and amplification of the 9p24.1 locus encoding PD-L1. By engaging with PD-1+ T-cells, PD-L1 delivers a potent immune suppressive signal promoting immunologic escape of the tumor cell. Enhancing antitumor immune response by targeting PD-1 with the monoclonal antibody nivolumab has proved to be effective in multiple solid tumors, but the highest response rates to date have been reported in patients with cHL, with over 65% of treated patients achieving an objective clinical response. In this review, we will summarize the published evidence regarding the activity of nivolumab in cHL as well as its current place in therapy. We will review the pharmacology, mechanism of action, and side effects of nivolumab as well as the emerging data indicating possible increased risk of graft versus host disease in patients treated with PD-1 inhibitors either pre- or post-allogeneic stem cell transplant. Given the remarkable single-agent activity and safety profile of PD-1 inhibitors in heavily pretreated patients with cHL, the possibility of employing nivolumab in combination with other active agents and earlier in therapy is a promising area of active investigation, and we will briefly summarize current clinical trials. Keywords: nivolumab, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, pembrolizumab, checkpoint inhibitor therapy

  11. Intratubular germ cell neoplasms of the testis and bilateral testicular tumors: Clinical significance and management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Risk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN is the precursor lesion for invasive testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs of adolescents and young adults. The rising incidence of these tumors has prompted a rigorous investigation of the etiology, diagnosis and management of ITGCN. Bilateral testicular cancer is closely linked with ITGCN, as patients with unilateral testicular cancer are at the highest risk for a future malignancy in the contralateral testicle. Methods : A literature review directed at ITGCN and bilateral testis cancer was performed using the Medline/PubMed database. Our review focused on the pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment regimens utilized. Results : Major advances have been made in the understanding of ITGCN over the past 30 years. There is evidence that TGCTs arise from ITGCN, ITGCN is closely related to fetal gonocytes, and that events in pre- and perinatal period may result in abnormal persistence of fetal gonocytes leading to ITGCN and subsequent TGCT. Controversy exists regarding the need to biopsy men at increased risk of TGCT, as well as the best approach to managing patients with known ITGCN. Bilateral testicular cancer has excellent outcomes in the current era of platinum-based chemotherapy. Conclusion : The optimal management of patients at risk for ITGCN and future TGCT is still a matter of debate. Individualization of management, including biopsy and treatment, should be based on risk factors for TGCT, compliance with potential surveillance, and patient preferences particularly with regard to fertility.

  12. Use of population viability analysis to evaluate CITES trade-management options for threatened marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Janelle M R; Vincent, Amanda C J

    2008-10-01

    Achieving multiple conservation objectives can be challenging, particularly under high uncertainty. Having agreed to limit seahorse (Hippocampus) exports to sustainable levels, signatories to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) were offered the option of a single 10-cm minimum size limit (MSL) as an interim management measure for all Hippocampus species (> or =34). Although diverse stakeholders supported the recommended MSL, its biological and socioeconomic implications were not assessed quantitatively. We combined population viability analysis, model sensitivity analysis, and economic information to evaluate the trade-off between conservation threat to and long-term cumulative income from these exploited marine fishes of high conservation concern. We used the European long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) as a representative species to compare the performance of MSLs set at alternative biological reference points. Our sensitivity analyses showed that in most of our scenarios, setting the MSL just above size at maturity (9.7 cm in H. guttulatus) would not prevent exploited populations from becoming listed as vulnerable. By contrast, the relative risk of decline and extinction were almost halved--at a cost of only a 5.6% reduction in long-term catches--by increasing the MSL to the size reached after at least one full reproductive season. On the basis of our analysis, a precautionary increase in the MSL could be compatible with sustaining fishers' livelihoods and international trade. Such management tactics that aid species conservation and have minimal effects on long term catch trends may help bolster the case for CITES trade management of other valuable marine fishes.

  13. Evaluation of options for life cycle management of feeder cracking at the Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendron, T.S.; Slade, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The CANDU industry has a predictive capability for most Heat Transport System (HTS) degradation issues that allows utilities to apply cost-effective maintenance programs. The standard approach for maintenance programs is focussed inspection and planned replacement. Some examples of degradation issues with deterministic failure rates are feeder thinning, and pressure tube elongation and deuterium ingress. However, the cracking observed in Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) outlet feeder first bends is one notable exception to this behaviour. A predictive capability for feeder cracking does not currently exist for several reasons. First, the mechanism of feeder cracking, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), has to some degree a random nature. Second, although a probable environment causing cracking has been identified, the precise stress and environmental conditions for feeder crack initiation and propagation have not been defined. Finally, the very low incidence of feeder cracking observed to-date (four, all at PLGS) precludes a probabilistic or statistical prediction of failure rate. Generally, utilities select a Life Cycle Management Plan that ensures safe operation and has the lowest Net Present Value cost. In preparing a Feeder Life Cycle Management Plan, New Brunswick Power (NBP) has recognized that the Net Present Value cost is very sensitive to failure rate. Since the failure rate for feeder cracking is not well defined, the following three scenarios were considered to bound the probability of future failures at PLGS. (author)

  14. Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Different Stages of Liquid Manure Management Chains: Abatement Options and Emission Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohankumar Sajeev, Erangu Purath; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Amon, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Farm livestock manure is an important source of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Concerns over the environmental impact of emissions from manure management have resulted in research efforts focusing on emission abatement. However, questions regarding the successful abatement of manure-related emissions remain. This study uses a meta-analytical approach comprising 89 peer-reviewed studies to quantify emission reduction potentials of abatement options for liquid manure management chains from cattle and pigs. Analyses of emission reductions highlight the importance of accounting for interactions between emissions. Only three out of the eight abatement options considered (frequent removal of manure, anaerobic digesters, and manure acidification) reduced ammonia (3-60%), nitrous oxide (21-55%), and methane (29-74%) emissions simultaneously, whereas in all other cases, tradeoffs were identified. The results demonstrate that a shift from single-stage emission abatement options towards a whole-chain perspective is vital in reducing overall emissions along the manure management chain. The study also identifies some key elements like proper clustering, reporting of influencing factors, and explicitly describing assumptions associated with abatement options that can reduce variability in emission reduction estimates. Prioritization of abatement options according to their functioning can help to determine low-risk emission reduction options, specifically options that alter manure characteristics (e.g., reduced protein diets, anaerobic digestion, or slurry acidification). These insights supported by comprehensive emission measurement studies can help improve the effectiveness of emission abatement and harmonize strategies aimed at reducing air pollution and climate change simultaneously. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Managing the environmental impacts of utility lighting retrofits programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cress, K.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most popular demand-side management (DSM) programs currently being sponsored by electric utilities is the removal of old fluorescent light ballasts and replacing them with more efficient models. This type of program, however, can produce a substantial waste stream of the old ballasts, many of which contain Polychlorinated Biphenyl(s) (PCBs), a regulated hazardous substance. The proper disposal of spent light ballasts should be an integral component of DSM programs. This paper will discuss the experience that New England Electric System (NEES) 1 has had with disposing of spent light ballasts resulting from the implementation of our Small Commercial ampersand Industrial Program (a direct install lighting program which provides for the installation of energy efficient lighting measures which include fluorescent fixtures, ballasts and lamps, specular reflectors, compact fluorescent systems, high intensity discharge fixtures, and occupancy sensors. This innovative program is one of the largest in the country and has achieved over 6,000 installations). In this paper, we will review why PCBs are classified as hazardous substances and what effect State and Federal regulations have on the transportation and disposal of ballasts that contain PCBs. Second, we will explain our ballast disposal process which includes collecting, processing, storing, shipping and ultimate disposal. Third, we will discuss our experiences with two different methods of disposal - incineration and recycling. And last we will report on program results

  16. Nitrate leaching affected by management options with respect to urine-affected areas and groundwater levels for grazed grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hack-ten Broeke, M.J.D.; Putten, van der A.H.J.

    1997-01-01

    Simulations were performed to quantify the effects of management options on nitrate leaching to the groundwater in grazed pastures. At the experimental farm for sustainable dairy farming ‘De Marke’, experimental data on soil water and nitrates were gathered for two fields during the years 1991–1995.

  17. An initial evaluation of potential options for managing riparian reserves of the Aquatic Conservation Strategy of the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Brian R. Pickard; K. Norman. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    The Aquatic Conservation Strategy (ACS) of the Northwest Forest Plan guides management of riparian and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands in western Oregon, western Washington, and northern California. We applied new scientific findings and tools to evaluate two potential options, A and B, for refining interim riparian reserves to meet ACS goals and likely challenges...

  18. Risk Management Framework for Hedge Funds: Role of Funding and Redemption Options on Leverage

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, John; Sundaresan, Suresh

    2009-01-01

    We develop a model of hedge fund returns, which reflect the contractual relationships between a hedge fund, its investors and its prime brokers. These relationships are modelled as short option positions held by the hedge fund, wherein the “funding option” reflects the short option position with prime brokers and the “redemption option” reflects the short option position with the investors. Given an alpha producing human capital, the hedge fund’s ability to deploy leverage to magnify its alph...

  19. Hydrological services and biodiversity conservation under forestation scenarios: comparing options to improve watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Nunes, João Pedro; Sousa-Silva, Rita; Gonçalves, João; Pradinho Honrado, João

    2015-04-01

    Humans rely on ecosystems for the provision of hydrological services, namely water supply and water damage mitigation, and promoting forests is a widely used management strategy for the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to model how forests will contribute for this provision, taking into account the environmental characteristics of each region, as well as the spatio-temporal patterns of societal demand. In addition, ensuring forest protection and the delivery of forest ecosystem services is one of the aims included in the European Union biodiversity strategy to 2020. On the other hand, forest management for hydrological services must consider possible trade-offs with other services provision, as well as with biodiversity conservation. Accurate modeling and mapping of both hydrological services and biodiversity conservation value is thus important to support spatial planning and land management options involving forests. The objectives of this study were: to analyze the provision and spatial dynamics of hydrological services under two forest cover change scenarios (oak and eucalyptus/pine) compared to the current shrubland-dominated landscape; and to evaluate their spatial trade-offs with biodiversity conservation value. The Vez watershed (250km2), in northwest Portugal, was used as case-study area. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was applied to simulate the provision of hydrological services (water supply quantity, timing and quality; soil erosion and flood regulation), and was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments, nitrates and evapotranspiration. Good agreement was obtained between model predictions and field measurements. The maps for each service under the different scenarios were produced at the Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) level. Biodiversity conservation value was based on nature protection regimes and on expert valuation applied to a land cover map. Statistical correlations between hydrological services provision

  20. Modeling options to manage type 1 wild poliovirus imported into Israel in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkowska, Dominika A; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Grotto, Itamar; Shulman, Lester M; Anis, Emilia; Wassilak, Steven G F; Pallansch, Mark A; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2015-06-01

    After 25 years without poliomyelitis cases caused by circulating wild poliovirus (WPV) in Israel, sewage sampling detected WPV type 1 (WPV1) in April 2013, despite high vaccination coverage with only inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) since 2005. We used a differential equation-based model to simulate the dynamics of poliovirus transmission and population immunity in Israel due to past exposure to WPV and use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in addition to IPV. We explored the influences of various immunization options to stop imported WPV1 circulation in Israel. We successfully modeled the potential for WPVs to circulate without detected cases in Israel. Maintaining a sequential IPV/OPV schedule instead of switching to an IPV-only schedule in 2005 would have kept population immunity high enough in Israel to prevent WPV1 circulation. The Israeli response to WPV1 detection prevented paralytic cases; a more rapid response might have interrupted transmission more quickly. IPV-based protection alone might not provide sufficient population immunity to prevent poliovirus transmission after an importation. As countries transition to IPV in immunization schedules, they may need to actively manage population immunity and consider continued use of OPV, to avoid the potential circulation of imported live polioviruses before globally coordinated cessation of OPV use. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Options for the destruction of chemical weapons and management of the associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Ron G

    2006-09-01

    The destruction of chemical weapons is a hazardous operation. The degree of hazard posed, however, is not uniform and is dependent on the specific chemical agent and the configuration of the weapon or bulk storage vessel in which it is contained. For example, a highly volatile nerve agent in an explosively configured munition, such as a rocket, poses a very different hazard from that of a bulk storage container of viscous mustard gas. Equally the handling of recovered, often highly corroded, World War (WW)I or WWII chemical munitions will pose a very different hazard from that associated with dealing with modern chemical weapons stored under the appropriate conditions. Over the years, a number of technologies have been developed for the destruction of chemical weapons. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. None of them provide a universal solution to the problem. When assessing options for the destruction of these weapons and the management of the associated risks, therefore, it is important to give due consideration and weight to these differences. To ensure that the destruction technology selected takes due account of them and that the resulting overall risk assessment accurately reflects the actual risks involved.

  2. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options for the management of HIV infection during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen D Zorrilla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Carmen D Zorrilla, Vivian Tamayo-AgraitDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, Maternal Infant Studies Center (CEMI, San Juan, Puerto RicoAbstract: Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the treatment of HIV-1 infection using both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. Optimal prevention of the MTCT of HIV requires antiretroviral drugs (ARV during pregnancy, during labor, and to the infant. ARVs reduce viral replication, lowering maternal plasma viral load and thus the likelihood of MTCT. Postexposure prophylaxis of ARV agents in newborns protect against infection following potential exposure to maternal HIV during birth. In general, the choice of an ARV for treatment of HIV-infected women during pregnancy is complicated by the need to consider the effectiveness of the therapy for the maternal disease as well as the teratogenic or teratotoxic potential of these drugs. Clinicians managing HIV in pregnancy need to discuss the potential risks and benefits of available therapy options so that mothers can make informed decisions in choosing the best treatment regimen for themselves and for their children.Keywords: HIV, pregnancy, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, antiretroviral agents

  3. Radioactive waste management and spent nuclear fuel storing. Options and priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Ion

    2001-01-01

    As a member of the states' club using nuclear energy for peaceful applications, Romania approaches all the activities implied by natural uranium nuclear fuel cycle, beginning with uranium mining and ending with electric energy generation. Since, in all steps of the nuclear fuel cycle radioactive wastes are resulting, in order to protect the environment and the life, the correct and competent radioactive waste management is compulsory. Such a management implies: a. Separating the radioisotopes in all the effluences released into environment; b. Treating separately the radioisotopes to be each properly stored; c. Conditioning waste within resistant matrices ensuring long term isolation of the radioactive waste destined to final disposal; d. Building radioactive waste repositories with characteristics of isolation guaranteed for long periods of time. To comply with the provisions of the International Convention concerning the safety of the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management, signed on 5 September 1997, Romania launched its program 'Management of Radioactive Wastes and Dry Storing of Spent Nuclear Fuel' having the following objectives: 1. Establishing the technology package for treating and conditioning the low and medium active waste from Cernavoda NPP to prepare them for final disposal; 2. Geophysical and geochemical investigations of the site chosen for the low and medium active final disposal (DFDSMA); 3. Evaluating the impact on environment and population of the DFDSMA; 4. Providing data necessary in the dry intermediate storing of spent nuclear fuel and the continuous and automated surveillance; 5. Establishing multiple barriers for spent nuclear fuel final disposal in order to establish the repository in granitic rocks and salt massives; 6. Designing and testing containers for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel guaranteeing the isolation over at least 500 years; 7. Computational programs for evaluation of radionuclide leakage in environment in

  4. Technological options for management of NORM/TENORM from the petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Marcia Valeria Sa; Gomes, Joana D'Arc L.; Crispim, Verginia R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) is present in many natural resources and the contamination of oil and gas facilities with it can be expected. Some of the contamination may be sufficiently severe that maintenance and other personnel may be exposed to hazardous concentrations, at the production line. Because of this, its management shall be efficient and optimized. The measure adopted to achieve successful management will be in accordance with general environmental and safety objectives and will involve the application of best available techniques and best environmental safety practices. The disposal of NORM contaminated wastes is a problem with no completely satisfactory solution yet. NORM contamination in the oil and gas industry commonly occurs as radioactive scales, films and sludge. The resulting of the decontamination of petroleum production facilities can generate large volumes of NORM wastes. These materials require the same handling as low-level radioactive wastes. The cost of storing or disposing material contaminated with NORM is undoubtedly very expensive. The high cost of disposing of NORM wastes is opening new opportunities for research and development in methods and techniques of reducing waste volumes. The aim of this paper is present some considerations of possible NORM management/disposal options and show some samples analysis. The objective is to find appropriated solutions to the management/disposal of NORM wastes to prevent pollution of the environment and minimize public and occupational radiation exposure. NORM can be dealt with safely, efficiently and with minimized risks to the health of workers and the public while providing optimized environmental protection. Techniques as encapsulation, down hole injection, overboard disposal with produced formation water, landfill disposal including burial, land disposal in abandoned mine and interim storage in a dedicated facility pending ultimate disposal, are discussed from a

  5. Comparison of the Effect of 5 Different Treatment Options for Managing Patellar Tendinopathy: A Secondary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Dafne; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Steunebrink, Mirjam; Diercks, Ron L; Zwerver, Johannes; van der Worp, Henk

    2017-10-10

    Currently, no treatments exist for patellar tendinopathy (PT) that guarantee quick and full recovery. Our objective was to assess which treatment option provides the best chance of clinical improvement and to assess the influence of patient and injury characteristics on the clinical effect of these treatments. A secondary analysis was performed on the combined databases of 3 previously performed double-blind randomized controlled trials. In total, 138 patients with PT were included in the analysis. Participants were divided into 5 groups, based on the treatment they received: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) (n = 31), ESWT plus eccentric training (n = 43), eccentric training (n = 17), topical glyceryl trinitrate patch plus eccentric training (n = 16), and placebo treatment (n = 31). Clinical improvement (increase of ≥13 points on the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella score) after 3 months of treatment. Fifty-two patients (37.7%) improved clinically after 3 months of treatment. Odds ratios (ORs) for clinical improvement were significantly higher in the eccentric training group (OR 6.68, P = 0.009) and the ESWT plus eccentric training group (OR 5.42, P = 0.015) compared with the other groups. We found evidence that a high training volume, a longer duration of symptoms, and older age negatively influence a treatment's clinical outcome (trend toward significance). Our study confirmed the importance of exercise, and eccentric training in particular, in the management of PT. The role of ESWT remains uncertain. Further research focusing on the identified prognostic factors is needed to be able to design patient-specific treatment protocols for the management of PT.

  6. Reactor-based management of used nuclear fuel: assessment of major options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Phillip J; Wigeland, Roald A; Hill, Robert N

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms). Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  7. Current classification, treatment options, and new perspectives in the management of adipocytic sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Vita A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro De Vita,1 Laura Mercatali,1 Federica Recine,1 Federica Pieri,2 Nada Riva,1 Alberto Bongiovanni,1 Chiara Liverani,1 Chiara Spadazzi,1 Giacomo Miserocchi,1 Dino Amadori,1 Toni Ibrahim1 1Osteoncology and Rare Tumors Center, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST IRCCS, Meldola, FC, 2Pathology Unit, Morgagni-Pierantoni Hospital, Forlì, Italy Abstract: Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors arising from soft tissue or bone, with an uncertain etiology and difficult classification. Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs account for around 1% of all adult cancers. Till date, more than 50 histologic subtypes have been identified. Adipocyte sarcoma or liposarcoma (LPS is one of the most common STS subtypes, accounting for 15% of all sarcomas, with an incidence of 24% of all extremity STSs and 45% of all retroperitoneal STSs. The new World Health Organization classification system has divided LPS into four different subgroups: atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated LPS, dedifferentiated LPS, myxoid LPS, and pleomorphic LPS. These lesions can develop at any location and exhibit different aggressive potentials reflecting their morphologic diversity and clinical behavior. Patients affected by LPS should be managed in specialized multidisciplinary cancer centers. Whereas surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment for localized disease, the benefits of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy are still unclear. Systemic treatment, particularly chemotherapy, is still limited in metastatic disease. Despite the efforts toward a better understanding of the biology of LPS, the outcome of advanced and metastatic patients remains poor. The advent of targeted therapies may lead to an improvement of treatment options and clinical outcomes. A larger patient enrollment into translational and clinical studies will help increase the knowledge of the biological behavior of LPSs, test new drugs, and introduce new

  8. Changing Climate, Challenging Choices: Identifying and Evaluating Climate Change Adaptation Options for Protected Areas Management in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Christopher J.; Scott, Daniel J.

    2011-10-01

    Climate change will pose increasingly significant challenges to managers of parks and other forms of protected areas around the world. Over the past two decades, numerous scientific publications have identified potential adaptations, but their suitability from legal, policy, financial, internal capacity, and other management perspectives has not been evaluated for any protected area agency or organization. In this study, a panel of protected area experts applied a Policy Delphi methodology to identify and evaluate climate change adaptation options across the primary management areas of a protected area agency in Canada. The panel identified and evaluated one hundred and sixty five (165) adaptation options for their perceived desirability and feasibility. While the results revealed a high level of agreement with respect to the desirability of adaptation options and a moderate level of capacity pertaining to policy formulation and management direction, a perception of low capacity for implementation in most other program areas was identified. A separate panel of senior park agency decision-makers used a multiple criterion decision-facilitation matrix to further evaluate the institutional feasibility of the 56 most desirable adaptation options identified by the initial expert panel and to prioritize them for consideration in a climate change action plan. Critically, only two of the 56 adaptation options evaluated by senior decision-makers were deemed definitely implementable, due largely to fiscal and internal capacity limitations. These challenges are common to protected area agencies in developed countries and pervade those in developing countries, revealing that limited adaptive capacity represents a substantive barrier to biodiversity conservation and other protected area management objectives in an era of rapid climate change.

  9. Tank Operations Contract Construction Management Methodology. Utilizing The Agency Method Of Construction Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesko, K.F.; Berriochoa, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business constructioin subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the WRPS contract, construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper descirbes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method (John E Schaufelberger, Len Holm, 'Management of Construction Projects, A Constructor's Perspective', University of Washington, Prentice Hall 2002). This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (FY2009), where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted

  10. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LESKO KF; BERRIOCHOA MV

    2010-02-26

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business constructioin subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the WRPS contract, construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper descirbes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method (John E Schaufelberger, Len Holm, "Management of Construction Projects, A Constructor's Perspective", University of Washington, Prentice Hall 2002). This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (FY2009), where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are

  11. Palm utilization and management in Asia: examples for the neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    productos comestibles de 61 especies de palmas asiáticas. A partir de estos ejemplos, se hacen sugerencias para el manejo y la valorización de las palmas neotropicales, a fin de incrementar el suministro de alimentos y de otros productos útiles. Asia is endowed with the world’s greatest palm biodiversity, and also possesses the highest diversity of palm utilization. Palms have a long history of management for both subsistence and commercial products, many of which are deeply embedded in local cultures. In Asia, traditional technologies of exploiting wild and semi-wild palm populations, as well as processing techniques associated with many of the palm products, are generally more advanced than in the Neotropics. Native Asian palms currently provide significant quantities of food, beverage, fiber, rattan, construction material and other products. This article surveys edible products from 61 Asian palm species. Using these examples from Asia, suggestions are made as to how Neotropical palms could be managed and valorized for food and other useful products.

  12. Urban management: Addressing the housing and utility challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Oksana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have studied the three aspects of urban management: apartment buildings, major repair management, requirements for facility management companies to be licensed and waste management. The paper presents all the mentioned above aspects and possible negative circumstances and proposes solutions to the problems.

  13. Decomposing executive stock option exercises: relative information and incentives to manage earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, D.; Hodgson, A.; van Praag, B.; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the information content of stock option exercises versus regular insider share trades by corporate executives. We argue that the asymmetric payoff structure of options makes managerial wealth - compared to holdings of shares - relatively more sensitive to stock price changes and

  14. Managing hydroclimatological risk to water supply with option contracts and reservoir index insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Casey; Carriquiry, Miguel

    2007-11-01

    This paper explores the performance of a system of economic instruments designed to facilitate the reduction of hydroclimatologic variability-induced impacts on stakeholders of shared water supply. The system is composed of bulk water option contracts between urban water suppliers and agricultural users and insurance indexed on reservoir inflows. The insurance is designed to cover the financial needs of the water supplier in situations where the option is likely to be exercised. Insurance provides the irregularly needed funds for exercising the water options. The combined option contract - reservoir index insurance system creates risk sharing between sectors that is currently lacking in many shared water situations. Contracts are designed for a shared agriculture - urban water system in Metro Manila, Philippines, using optimization and Monte Carlo analysis. Observed reservoir inflows are used to simulate contract performance. Results indicate the option - insurance design effectively smooths water supply costs of hydrologic variability for both agriculture and urban water.

  15. A Study on Optimized Management Options for the Wolsong Low- and Intermediate - Level Waste Disposal Center in Korea - 13479

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, JooWan; Kim, DongSun; Choi, DongEun [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, Korea 89, Bukseongno, Gyeongju, 780-050 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The safe and effective management of radioactive waste is a national task required for sustainable generation of nuclear power and for energy self-reliance in Korea. Currently, for permanent disposal of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW), the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center (WLDC) is under construction. It will accommodate a total of 800,000 drums at the final stage after stepwise expansion. As an implementing strategy for cost-effective development of the WLDC, various disposal options suitable for waste classification schemes would be considered. It is also needed an optimized management of the WLDC by taking a countermeasure of volume reduction treatment. In this study, various management options to be applied to each waste class are analyzed in terms of its inventory and disposal cost. For the volume reduction and stabilization of waste, the vitrification and plasma melting methods are considered for combustible and incombustible waste, respectively. (authors)

  16. A perspective on laboratory utilization management from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Utilization, particularly in chemistry and molecular testing, is growing rapidly in Canada at a time when laboratory budgets are shrinking. Canadian laboratories face particular challenges as the prevailing funding model limits the scope for new revenue generation. Aggressive and coordinated interventions to reduce over-utilization will be necessary to ensure the long-term viability of the current system. © 2013.

  17. An outline of economic impacts of management options for Šumava National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Dickie

    2014-06-01

    activities around an expanded non-intervention zone, while not undermining the ecological integrity of the NP. The Šumava NP is a unique area which supports a wide variety of habitats and species and has the potential to form one of the largest areas of natural forest and wetland habitat in Central Europe. This tourism offer is in keeping with visitor ’ s preferences (identified in a 2010 survey, and can exploit global growth in ecotourism activity. The best access points to the Šumava NP ’ s wilderness are currently regarded as being “full” in that further increases in visitors would damage the wilderness experience which draws visitors. Therefore, there is perceived to be demand for a larger number of carefully managed access points to a larger wilderness area. To maximise the local economic benefits of this tourism development around the park, appropriate training for the local workforce is required. Local benefits could be enhanced through nature-based tourism development that is spread throughout the communities in and around the park. This would not conflict with the park ’ s wild image that attracts visitors, and this visitor market could grow with support from expanded marketing activity. The potential local economic benefits from the pro-wilderness development option include: maintaining and expanding employment in management of the National Park ’ s habitats, visitor facilities and access points; increased nature-based tourism trade in the villages within and surrounding the Park; increased opportunities to attract financing for local economic development (e.g. training and SME support for nature-based tourism, and for the Park ’ s management, both internationally (e.g. from EU funding sources, and locally (e.g. through fees for visitors using specific facilities; a greater proportion of value-added in the tourism offer being generated within the local community, meaning more income can be retained locally and support greater indirect economic

  18. 1980 survey and evaluation of utility conservation, load management, and solar end-use projects. Volume 3: utility load management projects. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The results of the 1980 survey of electric utility-sponsored energy conservation, load management, and end-use solar energy conversion projects are described. The work is an expansion of a previous survey and evaluation and has been jointly sponsored by EPRI and DOE through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are three volumes and a summary document. Each volume presents the results of an extensive survey to determine electric utility involvement in customer-side projects related to the particular technology (i.e., conservation, solar, or load management), selected descriptions of utility projects and results, and first-level technical and economic evaluations.

  19. The role of LDCs in conservation and demand management in 2007 : the Ontario Clean Air Alliance's response to the Ontario Power Authority's options paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.

    2006-01-01

    A response to The Ontario Power Authority (OPA) discussion paper on the role of local distribution companies (LDC) was presented, with reference to conservation and demand management (CDM). This paper examined 2 implicit issues raised by the OPA paper: (1) the appropriate role of the OPA with respect to conservation and demand management, and (2) the role of the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) in streamlining its CDM regulatory approval process. It was suggested that LDCs are ideal agencies for the delivery of CDM as they are trusted sources of energy information and have existing business relationships with electricity consumers. Local electric utilities understand local conditions and needs and are better placed to meet them. Ontario's electric utilities are now eligible for conservation profit bonuses equal to 5 per cent of the bill savings that their energy efficiency programs create for customers. It was noted that the benefits of CDM programs have already been demonstrated. The establishment of CDM budget targets was advised. Options to finance CDM programs were reviewed, as well as various energy efficiency programs. It was suggested that the OPA should continue to be a strong public advocate for CDM, and promote stricter provincial and federal energy efficiency standards. Recommendations for streamlining the OEB's CDM regulatory approval process were presented. It was concluded that marginalizing the role of Ontario's electric utilities in the delivery of CDM programs will short-circuit Ontario's efforts to develop a conservation culture. 13 refs

  20. A decision support tool to prioritize risk management options for contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvari, Jaana; Seppälä, Jyri

    2010-03-15

    The decisions on risk management (RM) of contaminated sites in Finland have typically been driven by practical factors such as time and money. However, RM is a multifaceted task that generally involves several additional determinants, e.g. performance and environmental effects of remediation methods, psychological and social factors. Therefore, we adopted a multi-criteria decision analysis approach and developed a decision support tool (DST) that is viable in decision-making in such a complex situation. The basic components of the DST are based on the Dutch REC system. However, our DST is more case-specific and allows the consideration of the type, magnitude and scale of contamination, land use, environmental conditions and socio-cultural aspects (e.g. loss of cultural heritage, image aspects). The construction of the DST was started by structuring the decision problem using a value tree. Based on this work we adopted the Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT) for data aggregation. The final DST was demonstrated by two model sites for which the RM alternatives and site-specific data were created on the basis of factual remediation projects and by interviewing experts. The demonstration of the DST was carried out in a workshop where representatives of different stakeholders were requested to rank and weight the decision criteria involved. To get information on the consistency of the ranking of the RM alternatives, we used different weighting techniques (ratio estimation and pair-wise weighting) and alternative ways to treat individual respondents' weights in calculating the preference scores for each RM alternative. These dissimilar approaches resulted in some differences in the preference order of the RM alternatives. The demonstration showed that attention has to be paid to the proper description of the site, the principles of the procedure and the decision criteria. Nevertheless, the procedure proved to enable efficient communication between different stakeholders

  1. Carbon footprint and energy use of food waste management options for fresh fruit and vegetables from supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mattias; Spångberg, Johanna

    2017-02-01

    Food waste is a problem with economic, environmental and social implications, making it both important and complex. Previous studies have addressed food waste management options at the less prioritised end of the waste hierarchy, but information on more prioritised levels is also needed when selecting the best available waste management options. Investigating the global warming potential and primary energy use of different waste management options offers a limited perspective, but is still important for validating impacts from the waste hierarchy in a local context. This study compared the effect on greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use of different food waste management scenarios in the city of Växjö, Sweden. A life cycle assessment was performed for four waste management scenarios (incineration, anaerobic digestion, conversion and donation), using five food products (bananas, tomatoes, apples, oranges and sweet peppers) from the fresh fruit and vegetables department in two supermarkets as examples when treated as individual waste streams. For all five waste streams, the established waste hierarchy was a useful tool for prioritising the various options, since the re-use options (conversion and donation) reduced the greenhouse gas emissions and the primary energy use to a significantly higher degree than the energy recovery options (incineration and anaerobic digestion). The substitution of other products and services had a major impact on the results in all scenarios. Re-use scenarios where food was replaced therefore had much higher potential to reduce environmental impact than the energy recovery scenarios where fossil fuel was replaced. This is due to the high level of resources needed to produce food compared with production of fossil fuels, but also to fresh fruit and vegetables having a high water content, making them inefficient as energy carriers. Waste valorisation measures should therefore focus on directing each type of food to the waste

  2. Risk perception of various technical options in the field of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, F.X.

    1996-01-01

    The author's group had a wide ranging discussion of risk and, at the very end of the discussion got to the question that was posed to them, which is that of risk perception of various technical options in the field of radioactive waste management. Some of the points that were made in this discussion is a reality that the group, as decision-makers, have to deal with, and it has to be treated as a reality. Secondly, the scientist looks at risk from the classic definition of ''probability times consequences'', but the public only looks at the consequences side of the equation, and too often the probability of something happening is treated as a probability of one that it will actually happen. A third problem that was identified in this area is that often the efforts to make the disposal of waste safer may contribute, in the public mind, to the fact that the risk is even more hazardous. And the last problem is that people do not trust what a decision maker is saying when he talks about the fact that there is little probability of something happening. The group then went on to a discussion of how he should try to treat risk perception. One point that was made is that voluntary acceptance of a risk is important. A second point that was made on how to deal with risk perception problems is that the group could try to put the risk of radioactive waste disposal in the perspective of other risks to society, from the chemical industry for instance. The group also talked about the possibility of putting the benefits in perspective for people. Another point was that the group should have different communications strategies for different audiences. But, the more the public is involved in the decision making process, the more comfortable they are going to be with the risk, and the more consistent the perception of risk may be with the scientific definition thereof. In terms of new technologies, new innovations on the generation and management of waste, although these may actually

  3. Removal of CO2 by storage in the deep underground, chemical utilization and biofixation. Options for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over, J.A.; De Vries, J.E.; Stork, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Utrecht University in Utrecht, Netherlands, initially put the subject of CO2-storage on the agenda as a possible necessary policy element. During 1990/1991 a number of research institutes and engineering consultants carried out several studies. Also in 1991 the lEA Greenhouse Gas Group (IEA GHG) was initiated, including participation from The Netherlands. The Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem) and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs both attended the meetings of the Executive Committee (ExCo) from the start. This Group started paying attention to the subject of CO2-capturing at large point sources (electricity stations). They then went subsequently from capturing from other (smaller and/or more diffuse) sources, ranking relative to other large scale options to combat or reduce CO2-emissions (i.e. vast areas of forest) to influence and controlling other 'greenhouse gases' such as methane. During 1992/1993 Novem prepared - on request of the Ministry of Economic Affairs - research proposals for investigations and demonstration projects, having a 10 to 15 year horizon, with regard to CO2-capturing technologies. In the beginning of 1994, the Dutch Ministry of Environment (VROM) put more emphasis on demonstration of the feasibility of CO2-storage. When the first 'Kok-government' (the so-called 'Purple Cabinet') came into being, attention shifted to studies on CO2-storage; the central question being whether there would be sufficient potential capacity if the necessity to store CO2 would ever occur. Within this framework Novem was authorized by the Ministry of Economic Affairs to carry out an investigation program on possibilities of CO2-storage. The present publication deals with the results of these studies. The main subject of investigation were: Storage in underground formations (depleted gas fields and aquifers) and the conditions under which this is feasible; Possibilities for enhanced gas recovery by carbon dioxide injection and its

  4. The Dynamics of Social Capital in Influencing Use of Soil Management Options in the Chinyanja Triangle of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemimah M. Njuki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital has become a critical issue in agricultural development as it plays an important role in collective action, such as, management of common resources and collective marketing. Whilst literature exists on the role of social capital in the use and adoption of improved agricultural technology, such literature is fraught with issues of the measurement of social capital beyond membership of farmers in groups. We hypothesized that different types of social capital influence the adoption of soil management options differently. This study looked at the measurement of social capital, differentiating between the main types of social capital and employed factor analysis to aggregate indicators of social capital into bonding, bridging, and linking social capital. Using logit analysis, the role of these types of capitals on influencing use of different soil management options was analyzed. The study found that bonding, bridging, and linking social capital all influence the adoption and use of different soil management options differently, a trend that might be similar for other agricultural technologies as well. The study recommends more research investments in understanding the differentiated outcomes of these forms of social capital on use and adoption of technologies to further guide agricultural interventions.

  5. The Implications of Healthcare Utilization of Diabetes Disease Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webb, Jonathan R

    2008-01-01

    ..., and $31 billion in excess general medical costs. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sustained hemoglobin HbA1c testing among patients is followed by reductions in healthcare utilization...

  6. Resource Guide to Effective Utility Management and Lean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastewater utilities are critical to the environmental, economic, and social well being of our nation’s communities, as they work to ensure that the public continues to enjoy the benefits of clean and safe water.

  7. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  8. Managing plutonium in Britain. Current options[Mixed oxide nuclear fuels; Nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the report of a two day meeting to discuss issues arising from the reprocessing of plutonium and production of mixed oxide nuclear fuels in Britain. It was held at Charney Manor, near Oxford, on June 25 and 26, 1998, and was attended by 35 participants, including government officials, scientists, policy analysts, representatives of interested NGO's, journalists, a Member of Parliament, and visiting representatives from the US and Irish governments. The topic of managing plutonium has been a consistent thread within ORG's work, and was the subject of one of our previous reports, CDR 12. This particular seminar arose out of discussions earlier in the year between Dr. Frank Barnaby and the Rt. Hon. Michael Meacher MP, Minister for the Environment. With important decisions about the management of plutonium in Britain pending, ORG undertook to hold a seminar at which all aspects of the subject could be aired. A number of on-going events formed the background to this initiative. The first was British Nuclear Fuels' [BNFL] application to the Environment Agency to commission a mixed oxide fuel [MOX] plant at Sellafield. The second was BNFL's application to vary radioactive discharge limits at Sellafield. Thirdly, a House of Lords Select Committee was in process of taking evidence, on the disposal of radioactive waste. Fourthly, the Royal Society, in a recent report entitled Management of Separated Plutonium, recommended that 'the Government should commission a comprehensive review... of the options for the management of plutonium'. Four formal presentations were made to the meeting, on the subjects of Britain's plutonium policy, commercial prospects for plutonium use, problems of plutonium accountancy, and the danger of nuclear terrorism, by experts from outside the nuclear industry. It was hoped that the industry's viewpoint would also be heard, and BNFL were invited to present a paper, but declined on the grounds that they

  9. A Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis of Waste Treatment Options for Food and Biodegradable Waste Management in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micky A. Babalola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with large-scale Food and Biodegradable Waste (FBW often results in many logistical problems and environmental impacts to be considered. These can become great hindrances when the integration of solid waste management is concerned. Extra care is needed to plan such waste disposal or treatment services and facilities, especially with respect to the ecological impact. Decision-making with regards to the sustainable use of these facilities also involves tradeoffs between a number of conflicting objectives, since increasing one benefit may decrease the others. In this study a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA is presented to evaluate different waste management options and their applicability in Japan. The analytical process aims at selecting the most suitable waste treatment option, using pairwise comparisons conducted within a decision hierarchy that was developed through the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The results of this study show that anaerobic digestion should be chosen as the best FBW treatment option with regards to resource recovery. The study also presents some conditions and recommendations that can enhance the suitability of other options like incineration and composting.

  10. Accelerating experience : utility sector case studies in training and knowledge management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel-Ferrari, C.C. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the development of effective training and knowledge management systems for recently hired personnel in electric utilities. Case studies of best practices from electric utilities in Ontario, consultants, and universities were used to develop an overview of current training practices. Methods of identifying, attracting, and recruiting personnel were presented and knowledge management and mentoring programs were discussed. The use of training programs in developing knowledge databases was also evaluated. Knowledge management formats included qualification training; simulation training; knowledge transfer; and curriculum development. Human resources, revenue, and management issues currently challenging electric utilities were discussed along with various new training practices. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. Outcomes management of mechanically ventilated patients: utilizing informatics technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K R

    1998-11-01

    This article examines an informatics system developed for outcomes management of the mechanically ventilated adult population, focusing on weaning the patient from mechanical ventilation. The link between medical informatics and outcomes management is discussed, along with the development of methods, tools, and data sets for outcomes management of the mechanically ventilated adult population at an acute care academic institution. Pros and cons of this system are identified, and specific areas for improvement of future health care outcomes medical informatics systems are discussed.

  12. Recycling as an option of used nuclear fuel management strategy for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiguer, M.; Casabianca, J.L.; Gros, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    As soon as the civil nuclear power age got underway, it became unthinkable to imagine generating nuclear electricity without recycling nuclear materials. In every country where this form of energy was being developed, construction programs involved not only power plants, but also fuel cycle facilities, notably dedicated to recovering and recycling nuclear material. Today, the nuclear renaissance coupled with growing concerns about energy security and public acceptance will provide a trigger for European nuclear countries to look back on three decades of Recycling used nuclear fuel excellent track record. In addition, back-end policy is more and more one of the major topics that nuclear countries and utilities have to face when managing existing as well as a new nuclear power plant. 'What will be done with the used fuel' is a key question, especially in terms of public acceptance. Countries that have previously postponed this topic now have to rethink the best solution for complete sustainable nuclear power. With several decades of experience and excellent feedback recycling has reached a maturity throughout all its supply chain and therefore constitutes the best response. The outcome is outstanding performance in reactors of recycled fuels and a robust, economical and optimized solution to ultimate waste management, in other words: - Recycling allows to significantly reduce the volume and toxicity of the ultimate waste to be interim stored and disposed of while enhancing proliferation resistance, - Recycling features competitive and predictable economics, - Recycling Used Nuclear Fuel supports the sustainable development of nuclear power allowing mitigating supply risks. All this helps to increase public support towards nuclear energy and insure the sustainable development of nuclear energy here and now. (authors)

  13. Carbon emissions and management scenarios for consumer-owned utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischlein, Miriam; Smith, Timothy M.; Wilson, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    An important subset of the utility sector has been scarcely explored for its ability to reduce carbon dioxide emissions: consumer-owned electric utilities significantly contribute to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, but are often excluded from energy efficiency and renewable energy policies. They sell a quarter of the nation's electricity, yet the carbon impact of these sales is not well understood, due to their small size, unique ownership models, and high percentage of purchased power for distribution. This paper situates consumer-owned utilities in the context of emerging U.S. climate policy, quantifying for the first time the state-by-state carbon impact of electricity sales by consumer-owned utilities. We estimate that total retail sales by consumer-owned utilities account for roughly 568 million metric tons of CO 2 annually, making this sector the 7th largest CO 2 emitter globally, and examine state-level carbon intensities of the sector in light of the current policy environment and the share of COU distribution in the states. Based on efficiency and fuel mix pathways under conceivable regulations, carbon scenarios for 2030 are developed.

  14. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City's air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions

  15. Pistia stratiotes l. (araceae): phytochemistry, use in medicines, phytoremediation, biogas and management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Gul, B.; Wahid, F.; Hashim, S.; Marwat, K.B.

    2014-01-01

    Pistia stratiotes L. commonly known as water lettuce belongs to Araceae. It has been used in various medicines for the treatment of eczema, leprosy, ulcers, piles, stomach disorder, throat and mouth inflammation, a few to mention. This review article is a compilation of the updated information regarding phytochemical, pharmacological, medicinal, bioremediation potential, allelopathy, utilization and management of water lettuce. In Pakistan it was first reported from Razmak, South Waziristan in 1972, but now it is widespread throughout the country. Information regarding the uses and effects of different extract (ethanolic and methanolic) of this plant is also documented. Pistia stratiotes possess different useful activities like, diuretic, antidiabetic, antidermatophytic, antifungal, and antimicrobial properties against harmful diseases. It has great potential for absorption of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Cd) without developing any toxicity or reduction in growth due to metal accumulation and has shown a wide range of tolerance to all the selected metals and therefore can be used for water purification and to combat water pollution in waste water bodies such as drainage ditches and channels carrying industrial effluents. This article provide bases and encourages further study on any of the above mentioned aspects of P. stratiotes for creation as well as confirmation of the information and also to reveal therapeutic effects, bioremediation and bioaccumulation potential with possible isolation of active bio-moieties and their mechanism of action. (author)

  16. Risk management with substitution options: Valuing flexibility in small-scale energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Karl Eric

    Several features of small-scale energy systems make them more easily adapted to a changing operating environment than large centralized designs. This flexibility is often manifested as the ability to substitute inputs. This research explores the value of this substitution flexibility and the marginal value of becoming a "little more flexible" in the context of real project investment in developing countries. The elasticity of substitution is proposed as a stylized measure of flexibility and a choice variable. A flexible alternative (elasticity > 0) can be thought of as holding a fixed-proportions "nflexible" asset plus a sequence of exchange options---the option to move to another feasible "recipe" each period. Substitutability derives value from following a contour of anticipated variations and from responding to new information. Substitutability value, a "cost savings option", increases with elasticity and price risk. However, the required premium to incrementally increase flexibility can in some cases decrease with an increase in risk. Variance is not always a measure of risk. Tools from stochastic dominance are newly applied to real options with convex payoffs to correct some misperceptions and clarify many common modeling situations that meet the criteria for increased variance to imply increased risk. The behavior of the cost savings option is explored subject to a stochastic input price process. At the point where costs are identical for all alternatives, the stochastic process for cost savings becomes deterministic, with savings directly proportional to elasticity of substitution and price variance. The option is also formulated as a derivative security via dynamic programming. The partial differential equation is solved for the special case of Cobb-Douglas (elasticity = 1) (also shown are linear (infinite elasticity), Leontief (elasticity = 0)). Risk aversion is insufficient to prefer a more flexible alternative with the same expected value. Intertemporal

  17. UTILITY OF ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IN THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUICAN LILIANA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Process knowledge of the financial situation of the economic entity presupposes the use of analysis and synthesis, as indispensable tools of investigation. Financial management of the economic entity have to belong to the basic role in strategic financial decisions that would solve the problem of effective management of the process optimal growth, balanced and proportionate entity. That is why it becomes necessary and imperative objective analysis of the implications of the current financial management in economic entities familiarize managers with the basic tools with which they operate, acquiring knowledge about planning and financial control, evaluation techniques of investment projects, about how to conduct financial and economic diagnosis and management control of the entity, the key issues in its orientation towards performance.

  18. Management options for rainfed chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. in northeast Ethiopia under climate change condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is one of the important cool season food legumes in the semi-arid north-eastern Ethiopia. Climate change is projected to alter the growing conditions of chickpea in this region and there would be substantial reduction in grain yield of the crop due to drought. The overall objectives of the study were to identify crop management and genetic options that could increase rain-fed chickpea productivity. For this, a simulation study has been conducted using CROPGRO-model in two sites (Sirinka and Chefa found in the semi-arid north-eastern Ethiopia. Change in planting date and cultivars having different maturity have been tested for their effectiveness to increase chickpea productivity. According to the prediction result, short duration cultivar is found to increase grain yield at Sirinka by about 11%, 10% and 11% in the baseline, 2030 s and 2050 s, respectively whereas long duration cultivar is found to decrease grain yield by about 6%, 9% and 11% as compared to the standard cultivar (control. On the other hand, short duration cultivar is found to decrease grain yield at Chefa by about 9%, 4% and 5% whereas long duration cultivar is found to increase grain yield by about 1%, 2% and 4% across the respective time periods. Early sowing (SSD − 20 days is found to significantly increase grain yield of short duration cultivar at Sirinka by about 48%, 48% and 54% and that of long duration cultivar by 31%, 33% and 39% in the baseline, 2030 s and 2050 s, respectively. Early sowing (SSD − 20 days is also found to increase grain yield of short duration cultivar at Chefa by about 26%, 27% and −1% and that of long duration cultivar by 37%, 32% and −2% across the respective time periods. However, the highest increase in chickpea grain yield can be achieved through combined application of early sowing and suitable cultivars. On the other hand, delayed sowing is found to significantly decrease chickpea grain yield in the

  19. DRUMS: Disk Repository with Update Management and Select option for high throughput sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettling, Martin; Thieme, Nils; Both, Andreas; Grosse, Ivo

    2014-02-04

    New technologies for analyzing biological samples, like next generation sequencing, are producing a growing amount of data together with quality scores. Moreover, software tools (e.g., for mapping sequence reads), calculating transcription factor binding probabilities, estimating epigenetic modification enriched regions or determining single nucleotide polymorphism increase this amount of position-specific DNA-related data even further. Hence, requesting data becomes challenging and expensive and is often implemented using specialised hardware. In addition, picking specific data as fast as possible becomes increasingly important in many fields of science. The general problem of handling big data sets was addressed by developing specialized databases like HBase, HyperTable or Cassandra. However, these database solutions require also specialized or distributed hardware leading to expensive investments. To the best of our knowledge, there is no database capable of (i) storing billions of position-specific DNA-related records, (ii) performing fast and resource saving requests, and (iii) running on a single standard computer hardware. Here, we present DRUMS (Disk Repository with Update Management and Select option), satisfying demands (i)-(iii). It tackles the weaknesses of traditional databases while handling position-specific DNA-related data in an efficient manner. DRUMS is capable of storing up to billions of records. Moreover, it focuses on optimizing relating single lookups as range request, which are needed permanently for computations in bioinformatics. To validate the power of DRUMS, we compare it to the widely used MySQL database. The test setting considers two biological data sets. We use standard desktop hardware as test environment. DRUMS outperforms MySQL in writing and reading records by a factor of two up to a factor of 10000. Furthermore, it can work with significantly larger data sets. Our work focuses on mid-sized data sets up to several billion

  20. Assessing the utilization of personnel in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assesses the utilization of technical teachers in Akwa Ibom State technical colleges. The study design was ex-post facto. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population of the study consisted of all the technical colleges in Akwa Ibom State. Inventory method titled: ”Teaching ...

  1. assessing the utilization of personnel in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    Technical Education (NBTE). The study revealed that teaching personnel in technical colleges in Akwa. Ibom State possess the required qualifications and experience as stipulated by National Board for. Technical Education (NBTE).The teacher/ student ratios in the colleges are high and the teachers are fully utilized.

  2. Managed Aquifer Recharge Using Treated Wastewater: An Option to Manage a Coastal Aquifer In Oman For Better Domestic Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Zekri, Slim; ElRawy, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    /year) without significantly deteriorating the aquifer water quality. The results suggests that the aquifer is capable to withstand further stresses when MAR is practiced allowing better utilization of the Al-Kawd aquifer especially during emergency events. Keywords: Managed Aquifer Recharge, Oman, Climate Change, Treated Effluent, MODFLOW 2005. Acknowledgements: This study was supported by a grant from USAID-FABRI, project contract: AID-OAA-TO-11-00049 (project code:1001626 - 104). Authors also acknowledge support from Sultan Qaboos University, Oman.

  3. Utilization of Near Field Communication Technology for Loyalty Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferina Ferdianti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Near Field Communication (NFC is one of wireless technology developed at this time. We can use a mobile phone to do many transactions with NFC. Mobile developments have created to provide convenience for users in all aspects. However, at this time the function of NFC just limited for payment and micropayment. Beside it, there are assets that support to increase sales with attention of loyality management system. In this system, discounts or prizes are given based on data mining for every transaction costumers. Loyalty management has three concept, those are Frequency, Recency and Quantity. The goals are minimizing the cost, making purchase process faster, and managing data obtained through the NFC technology more simple. The result of this paper is the procedure to use data mining of NFC for loyalty management and system design using Unified Modeling Language approach.

  4. Utilizing Contingent Claims to Improve the Management of CAFOs

    OpenAIRE

    Gramig, Benjamin M.; Skees, Jerry R.; Black, J. Roy

    2004-01-01

    We propose a market-based approach to reducing the environmental risk posed by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The dual problems of hidden information and hidden action faced by policymakers are considered alongside the competing incentives faced by the CAFO manager in a multiple principal-agent setting. A new approach that uses insurance-like contracts is introduced by use of the specific example of a swine operation with a lagoon-based manure management system. Index-based c...

  5. Managing an evolution: Deregulation of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, S.K.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the emerging competitive situation in the electric power industry as deregulation of electric utilities looms on the horizon. The paper supports this change, and the competition it will bring, but urges caution as changes are instituted, and the regulatory bodies decide how and how much to free, and at what rates. The reason for his urge for caution comes from historical experience of other industries, which were smaller and had less direct impact on every American.

  6. SIMULTANEOUS VISUALIZATION OF DIFFERENT UTILITY NETWORKS FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Semm

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cartographic visualizations of crises are used to create a Common Operational Picture (COP and enforce Situational Awareness by presenting and representing relevant information. As nearly all crises affect geospatial entities, geo-data representations have to support location-specific decision-making throughout the crises. Since, Operator's attention span and their working memory are limiting factors for the process of getting and interpreting information; the cartographic presentation has to support individuals in coordinating their activities and with handling highly dynamic situations. The Situational Awareness of operators in conjunction with a COP are key aspects of the decision making process and essential for coming to appropriate decisions. Utility networks are one of the most complex and most needed systems within a city. The visualization of utility infrastructure in crisis situations is addressed in this paper. The paper will provide a conceptual approach on how to simplify, aggregate, and visualize multiple utility networks and their components to meet the requirements of the decision-making process and to support Situational Awareness.

  7. Simultaneous Visualization of Different Utility Networks for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semm, S.; Becker, T.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Cartographic visualizations of crises are used to create a Common Operational Picture (COP) and enforce Situational Awareness by presenting and representing relevant information. As nearly all crises affect geospatial entities, geo-data representations have to support location-specific decision-making throughout the crises. Since, Operator's attention span and their working memory are limiting factors for the process of getting and interpreting information; the cartographic presentation has to support individuals in coordinating their activities and with handling highly dynamic situations. The Situational Awareness of operators in conjunction with a COP are key aspects of the decision making process and essential for coming to appropriate decisions. Utility networks are one of the most complex and most needed systems within a city. The visualization of utility infrastructure in crisis situations is addressed in this paper. The paper will provide a conceptual approach on how to simplify, aggregate, and visualize multiple utility networks and their components to meet the requirements of the decision-making process and to support Situational Awareness.

  8. Do School Boards Still Have Options? The Erosion of Management Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Myron

    1997-01-01

    School boards are woefully unprepared to deal with "make or buy" issues, due to massive union efforts to eliminate or restrict board freedom to contract for services. Teachers neither understand nor support a market economy. School boards' contracting out ability will not be secure until favorable legislative options are considered and…

  9. Introduction to the mathematics of finance from risk management to options pricing

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The Mathematics of Finance has become a hot topic in applied mathematics ever since the discovery of the Black-Scholes option pricing formulas in 1973. Unfortunately, there are very few undergraduate textbooks in this area. This book is specifically written for upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate students in mathematics, finance or economics. With the exception of an optional chapter on the Capital Asset Pricing Model, the book concentrates on discrete derivative pricing models, culminating in a careful and complete derivation of the Black-Scholes option pricing formulas as a limiting case of the Cox-Ross-Rubinstein discrete model. The final chapter is devoted to American options. The mathematics is not watered down but is appropriate for the intended audience. No measure theory is used and only a small amount of linear algebra is required. All necessary probability theory is developed in several chapters throughout the book, on a "need-to-know" basis. No background in finance is required, sinc...

  10. Utilizing a disease management approach to improve ESRD patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Shaan; Nissenson, Allen R

    2002-01-01

    In this era of processes and systems to improve quality, disease management is one methodology to improve care delivery and outcomes for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In most disease management systems a senior renal nurse coordinates all aspects of the patient's care and ensures that the prescribed and necessary care is delivered for both CKD-related and comorbid conditions. The nurse also continually monitors outcomes on quality indicators and key performance measures. These outcome data are then aggregated and analyzed, are compared with local and national benchmarks, and drive the continuous quality improvement (CQI) process. Such a system attempts to centralize the currently fragmented care delivery system, continually improve patient outcomes, and conserve scarce economic resources. Early data suggest a disease management approach may improve both the morbidity and mortality of CKD patients.

  11. The economics of nuclear decontamination: assessing policy options for the management of land around Fukushima dai-ichi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Alistair

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Assesses land management options after the Fukushima accident. • Builds a model for exploring intervention and decontaminations options in areas affected by radioactive contamination. • Findings suggest delaying decontamination efforts by 3–10 years is optimal with a central figure of 8.75 years. • Results are sensitive to estimates of the benefits of resettlement. • Poor state of knowledge about some variables that are key for policy actions, such as psychological benefits and costs of resettlement. -- Abstract: In the light of the Japanese government's intensive efforts to decontaminate areas affected by radioactive Caesium from Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant, I create a framework for assessing the merits of management options. In particular I consider delayed intervention as a possible policy. Delay can be optimal because allowing the natural decay of radiation can lower significantly the costs of achieving targets for exposure. Using some benchmark data for Japan I estimate that optimal delay is positive for most reasonable parameter values. Optimal delay generally lies in the range of 3–10 years with a central figure of 8.8 years. There is however considerable uncertainty over some of the key parameter values, particularly with regard to the behaviour of currently evacuated inhabitants

  12. Mobile healthcare information management utilizing Cloud Computing and Android OS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, Charalampos; Pliakas, Thomas; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    Cloud Computing provides functionality for managing information data in a distributed, ubiquitous and pervasive manner supporting several platforms, systems and applications. This work presents the implementation of a mobile system that enables electronic healthcare data storage, update and retrieval using Cloud Computing. The mobile application is developed using Google's Android operating system and provides management of patient health records and medical images (supporting DICOM format and JPEG2000 coding). The developed system has been evaluated using the Amazon's S3 cloud service. This article summarizes the implementation details and presents initial results of the system in practice.

  13. Communications technologies for demand side management, DSM, and European utility communications architecture, EurUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The scope of this research is data communications for electric utilities. Demand Side Management (DSM) calls for communication between the Electric Utility and the Customer. The communication capacity needed will depend on the functions that are chosen for DSM, and on the number of customers. Some functions may be handled with one-way communications, some functions require two-way communication. Utility Communication Architecture looks for an overall view of the communications needs and communication systems in an electric utility. The objective is to define and specify suitable and compatible communications procedures within the Utility and also to outside parties. (27 refs.)

  14. Communications technologies for demand side management, DSM, and European utility communications architecture, EurUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The scope of this research is data communications for electric utilities. Demand Side Management (DSM) calls for communication between the Electric Utility and the Customer. The communication capacity needed will depend on the functions that are chosen for DSM, and on the number of customers. Some functions may be handled with one-way communications, some functions require two-way communication. Utility Communication Architecture looks for an overall view of the communications needs and communication systems in an electric utility. The objective is to define and specify suitable and compatible communications procedures within the Utility and also to outside parties. (27 refs.)

  15. Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (L. in Southern Africa: Research Trends, Challenges and Insights on Sustainable Management Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honest Machekano

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella, is a global economic pest of brassicas whose pest status has been exacerbated by climate change and variability. Southern African small-scale farmers are battling to cope with increasing pressure from the pest due to limited exposure to sustainable control options. The current paper critically analysed literature with a climate change and sustainability lens. The results show that research in Southern Africa (SA remains largely constrained despite the region’s long acquaintance with the insect pest. Dependency on broad-spectrum insecticides, the absence of insecticide resistance management strategies, climate change, little research attention, poor regional research collaboration and coordination, and lack of clear policy support frameworks, are the core limitations to effective DBM management. Advances in Integrated Pest Management (IPM technologies and climate-smart agriculture (CSA techniques for sustainable pest management have not benefitted small-scale horticultural farmers despite the farmers’ high vulnerability to crop losses due to pest attack. IPM adoption was mainly limited by lack of locally-developed packages, lack of stakeholders’ concept appreciation, limited alternatives to chemical control, knowledge paucity on biocontrol, climate mismatch between biocontrol agents’ origin and release sites, and poor research expertise and funding. We discuss these challenges in light of climate change and variability impacts on small-scale farmers in SA and recommend climate-smart, holistic, and sustainable homegrown IPM options propelled through IPM-Farmer Field School approaches for widespread and sustainable adoption.

  16. Utilizing a Simulation Exercise to Illustrate Critical Inventory Management Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umble, Elisabeth; Umble, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Most undergraduate business students simply do not appreciate the elegant mathematical beauty of inventory models. So how does an instructor capture students' interest and keep them engaged in the learning process when teaching inventory management concepts? This paper describes a competitive and energizing in-class simulation game that introduces…

  17. Evolution of an outage management organization in a small utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oubre, R.P.; Shetler, J.

    1985-01-01

    Six refueling outages with a number of major equipment failure outages have taught Rancho Seco management three main items. One is that a dedicated management organization must be formed for the purpose of controlling work functions at Rancho Seco. This dedicated organization must have the experience of the plant and not have the responsibility for the actual maintenance. Second, upper management within a power plant must get directly involved in the outage. Upper management must show their presence, give input, and be available when needed. The third item learned is that the scheduling organization must be adequately staffed. Although Rancho Seco completed a refueling outage in 1978 within only 36 days, additional inspection requirements due to regulatory changes and/or previous equipment failures requiring follow-up actions would place the shortest possible outage today at approx.70 days. The only way an organization can keep this outage time down is with the proper scheduling of the resources and the timely coordination of activities to reduce conflicts

  18. Sentinel Asia step 2 utilization for disaster management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslin, S I; Wahap, N A; Han, O W

    2014-01-01

    With the installation of Wideband InterNetworking engineering test and Demonstration Satellite (WINDS) communication system in the National Space Centre, Banting; officially Malaysia is one of the twelve Sentinel Asia Step2 System Regional Servers in the Asia Pacific region. The system will be dedicated to receive and deliver images of disaster struck areas observed by Asia Pacific earth observation satellites by request of the Sentinel Asia members via WINDS satellite or 'Kizuna'. Sentinel Asia is an initiative of collaboration between space agencies and disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in Asia Pacific. When a disaster occurred, participating members will make an Emergency Observation Request (EOR) to the Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC). Subsequently, the Data Provider Node (DPN) will execute the emergency observation using the participating earth observation satellites. The requested images then will be processed and analysed and later it will be uploaded on the Sentinel Asia website to be utilised for disaster management and mitigation by the requestor and any other international agencies related to the disaster. Although the occurrences of large scale natural disasters are statistically seldom in Malaysia, but we can never be sure with the unpredictable earth climate nowadays. This paper will demonstrate the advantage of using Sentinel Asia Step2 for local disaster management. Case study will be from the recent local disaster occurrences. In addition, this paper also will recommend a local disaster management support system by using the Sentinel Asia Step2 facilities in ANGKASA

  19. Regulation and competition in public utilities: Electric utility management in Italy and other industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraquelli, G.

    1992-01-01

    In industrialized countries, electric power has become a vital energy resource requiring significant efforts on the part of national institutions to establish and maintain sound management and energy supply strategies. The situation in Italy reflects world trends in that electric power in this country now accounts for over one-third of total energy consumption and this percentage is expected to increase steadily through to the year 2000. This endorsement of electric power is having a strong impact on quality of life and on international relations as Italy, in order to ensure security of energy supplies, is actively pursuing of strategy of energy source and supplier diversification. With reference to recent proposals, in line with European Communities free market strategies, to deregulate the Italian electric power industry, this paper briefly analyzes the current institutional nature of ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) and compares the Italian electric power industry and market situation with that of Japan and the USA. The various aspects taken into consideration include investment, rate structure, quality of service, management methods and competition. An analysis is made of the most pressing difficulties currently troubling ENEL and suggestions are made as to the best courses of action to be taken

  20. Volume reduction options for the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Lerch, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines volume reduction options that are now or soon will be available for low-level wastes. These wastes generally are in the form of combustible solids, noncombustible solids, and wet wastes (solid/liquid). Initially, the wastes are collected and stored onsite. Preconditioning may be required, e.g., sorting, shredding, and classifying the solids into combustible and noncombustible fractions. The volume of combustible solids can be reduced by compaction, incineration/pyrolysis, acid digestion, or molten salt combustion. Options for reducing the volume of noncombustible solids include compaction, size reduction and decontamination, meltdown-casting, dissolution and electropolishing. Burnable wet wastes (e.g., organic wastes) can be evaporated or combusted; nonburnable wet wastes can be treated by various evaporative or nonevaporative processes. All radioactive waste processing operations result in some equipment contamination and the production of additional radioactively contaminated wastes (secondary wastes). 23 figures

  1. Therapeutic options to manage bleeding in a dentist’s office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostetter, Claudio; Finkenstädt, Tim; Rücker, Martin; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo

    2018-06-18

    This manuscript provides an overview of therapeutic options for the problem of bleeding in a dentist’s office. Bleeding after tooth extraction is a very common finding in dental medicine and persistent blood in the mouth is obviously uncomfortable and sometimes terrifying for the patient. Most bleedings can be stopped simply with compression, in some cases a homeostatic therapy is necessary. For local compression, a swab with tranexamic acid is useful. If local compression is not sufficient, sutures are often an option. A very effective therapy would also be Tabotamp®, a local hemostypticum which is placed onto the bleeding and should increase the thrombocytic aggregation. In the worst case Floseal®, a human Thrombin, can be placed locally. It stops the bleeding very fast and sufficiently.

  2. Radiological impacts of spent nuclear fuel management options. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Given its potential significance for public health and the environment, the impact of radioactive releases during important steps of nuclear energy production must be considered when selecting among different fuel cycles. With this in mind, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has undertaken a comparative study to the radiological impacts of two main fuel cycle options : one with and one without reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The study compares the respective impacts of the two options based on generic models and assumptions as well as actual data. It concludes that the difference between them is not significant. A wealth of recent data assembled and evaluated by an international expert team is provided in annex. (authors)

  3. Approach to improve construction management utilizing information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woo Bang; Moon, Jin Yeong

    2003-01-01

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) has been managed Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) construction projects including basic project planning, design, procurement, construction and start-up for nearly 30 years, and taken the leading role in the self-reliance program for constructing NPP. To maintain its leading position of construction technology and export it to other countries, it is more likely required to build the strong and competitive business management system to improve internal business efficiency and transparency, and also to respond to the change of external business circumstances such as electricity market opening. KHNP is implementing Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System as a business innovation tool to improve business efficiency, which changes the way of performing work from organizational system to process-oriented system in order to optimize the company resources to achieve above goals. This change should be made based on the results of performing Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) to maximize overall business efficiency. For the construction project management area, the establishment of Integrated Construction Information Sharing System based on Information Technology (IT) is the most important part. It makes possible to build collaboration system with 'Win-Win strategy' between the project owner and all related entities and to contribute to secure transparency and cut the project cost down. We would like to introduce our NPP Construction Project Management System, Infrastructure for Information System, Information Sharing System among construction related entities and Implementation Practices in this paper and also include the suggestions on our customary practice and subject that should be improved

  4. PACS project management utilizing web-based tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunil; Levin, Brad; Gac, Robert J., Jr.; Harding, Douglas, Jr.; Chacko, Anna K.; Radvany, Martin; Romlein, John R.

    2000-05-01

    As Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) implementations become more widespread, the management of deploying large, multi-facility PACS will become a more frequent occurrence. The tools and usability of the World Wide Web to disseminate project management information obviates time, distance, participant availability, and data format constraints, allowing for the effective collection and dissemination of PACS planning, implementation information, for a potentially limitless number of concurrent PACS sites. This paper will speak to tools, such as (1) a topic specific discussion board, (2) a 'restricted' Intranet, within a 'project' Intranet. We will also discuss project specific methods currently in use in a leading edge, regional PACS implementation concerning the sharing of project schedules, physical drawings, images of implementations, site-specific data, point of contacts lists, project milestones, and a general project overview. The individual benefits realized for the end user from each tool will also be covered. These details will be presented, balanced with a spotlight on communication as a critical component of any project management undertaking. Using today's technology, the web arguably provides the most cost and resource effective vehicle to facilitate the broad based, interactive sharing of project information.

  5. Managing carbon regulatory risk in utility resource planning: Current practices in the Western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. As such, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by 15 electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without federal climate regulation in the US, the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of US electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations

  6. Distributed Energy Implementation Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chandralata N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-13

    This presentation covers the options for implementing distributed energy projects. It distinguishes between options available for distributed energy that is government owned versus privately owned, with a focus on the privately owned options including Energy Savings Performance Contract Energy Sales Agreements (ESPC ESAs). The presentation covers the new ESPC ESA Toolkit and other Federal Energy Management Program resources.

  7. A Systems Approach to Information Technology (IT) Infrastructure Design for Utility Management Automation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fereidunian; H. Lesani; C. Lucas; M. Lehtonen; M. M. Nordman

    2006-01-01

    Almost all of electric utility companies are planning to improve their management automation system, in order to meet the changing requirements of new liberalized energy market and to benefit from the innovations in information and communication technology (ICT or IT). Architectural design of the utility management automation (UMA) systems for their IT-enabling requires proper selection of IT choices for UMA system, which leads to multi-criteria decision-makings (MCDM). In resp...

  8. Security Vulnerability and Patch Management in Electric Utilities: A Data-Driven Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qinghua [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Zhang, Fengli [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States)

    2018-01-18

    This paper explores a real security vulnerability and patch management dataset from an electric utility in order to shed light on characteristics of the vulnerabilities that electric utility assets have and how they are remediated in practice. Specifically, it first analyzes the distribution of vulnerabilities over software, assets, and other metric. Then it analyzes how vulnerability features affect remediate actions.

  9. Electric utility load management: rational use of energy program pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    In recognition of the role that load management can play in ensuring that the growing demand for electricity is met in a cost- and energy-efficient manner, in mid-1974, the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society sponsored all three meetings to provide a forum for representatives of U.S. and European utilities to exchange views and experiences on the various aspects of load management. It was the consensus of representatives at the meetings that three overall approaches offer significant opportunities for achieving improved load management: development of marginal-cost rate structures; power pooling and energy storage by utilities; and efforts by consumers. Industrial consumers can assist electric utilities in their efforts to level system loads through three important methods: interruptible power and deferred load control; peak self-generation; and shifts in operating schedules. Residential/commercial consumers also have an important role to play by managing both their electric heating load (through the interruption of direct-resistance heating and the storage of heat) and their air conditioning load. In response to the interest expressed by the participants in the CCMS conferences, the U.S. and several European governments, national electric utility industry organizations, state public utility commissions, and many individual utilities have undertaken R and D projects to investigate and test various aspects of these three approaches to load management. This report describes the projects that were presented by the utility representatives.

  10. Utility asset management : where you are, where you are going, knowing when you get there

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are one of the largest infrastructure assets a city can own. Cities are faced with a deteriorating infrastructure with a decreasing budget. A plan is needed to effectively manage this deterioration. New regulations and accounting requirements (CMOM - Capacity Management Operations and Management and GASB-34) are pushing utilities into asset management planning to manage their systems. An asset management plan provides a comprehensive assessment of the current condition of the utility and a projection of the cost required to meet standards of service. The capital asset management system provides a means to protect, maintain or improve the asset value of the water or sewer system (or any infrastructure) with planned maintenance and repair. (author)

  11. Utility asset management : where you are, where you are going, knowing when you get there

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, R.G. [GRW Engineers, Inc., Louisville, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: rjohanson@grwinc.com

    2002-06-15

    Water and wastewater systems are one of the largest infrastructure assets a city can own. Cities are faced with a deteriorating infrastructure with a decreasing budget. A plan is needed to effectively manage this deterioration. New regulations and accounting requirements (CMOM - Capacity Management Operations and Management and GASB-34) are pushing utilities into asset management planning to manage their systems. An asset management plan provides a comprehensive assessment of the current condition of the utility and a projection of the cost required to meet standards of service. The capital asset management system provides a means to protect, maintain or improve the asset value of the water or sewer system (or any infrastructure) with planned maintenance and repair. (author)

  12. Clinical utility of foam dressings in wound management: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jakob Nielsen, Karsten Fogh Department of Dermatology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Background: The management of chronic wounds is a significant medical burden associated with large health care expenditures. Since the establishment of moist wound healing in the 1960s, several types of wound dressings have been developed. However, the evidence for effectiveness when comparing various types of wound dressings is limited. Objectives: The purpose of this review is 1 to provide a general description of the role of foam in wound therapy and 2 to evaluate the evidence for effectiveness of foam dressings compared to other frequently used products. Summary and conclusion: Foam has a significant role in the clinical management of chronic wounds and in moist wound healing. There are only a few randomized controlled trials, which in general, show no significant difference in the healing effect of different dressing types. The choice of wound dressing should therefore be based on clinical evaluation of the wound and the periwound skin. Keywords: foam dressing, chronic wounds, comparative effectiveness, healing, periwound skin, ulcers 

  13. New Insights into Potential Prevention and Management Options for Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Schloss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neurological complications such as chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN and neuropathic pain are frequent side effects of neurotoxic chemotherapy agents. An increasing survival rate and frequent administration of adjuvant chemotherapy treatments involving neurotoxic agents makes it imperative that accurate diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of these neurological complications be implemented. Methods: A consideration was undertaken of the current options regarding protective and treatment interventions for patients undergoing chemotherapy with neurotoxic chemotherapy agent or experience with CIPN. Current knowledge on the mechanism of action has also been identified. The following databases PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, CNKI, and Google Scholar were searched for relevant article retrieval. Results: A range of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and herbal medicine treatments were identified that either showed efficacy or had some evidence of efficacy. Duloxetine was the most effective pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of CIPN. Vitamin E demonstrated potential for the prevention of cisplatin-IPN. Intravenous glutathione for oxaliplatin, Vitamin B6 for both oxaliplatin and cisplatin, and omega 3 fatty acids for paclitaxel have shown protection for CIPN. Acetyl-L-carnitine may provide some relief as a treatment option. Acupuncture may be of benefit for some patients and Gosha-jinki-gan may be of benefit for protection from adverse effects of oxaliplatin induced peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions: Clinicians and researchers acknowledge that there are numerous challenges involved in understanding, preventing, and treating peripheral neuropathy caused by chemotherapeutic agents. New insights into mechanisms of action from chemotherapy agents may facilitate the development of novel preventative and treatment options, thereby enabling medical staff to better support patients by

  14. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  15. Environmental and economic life cycle analysis of plastic waste management options. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, C. A.; Simões, Carla L.; Pinto, Lígia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, rising worldwide plastic consumption led to the generation of increasing amounts of plastic waste and to the awareness of the importance of its management. In that framework, the present work describes how Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and economic assessment methodologies can be used for evaluating environmental and economic impacts of alternative plastic waste management systems. The literature on LCA of plastic waste management systems is vast and the results reported are ge...

  16. Biogas plants: Utilization of microorganisms for waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadlbauer, E A; Trieu, C

    1984-05-01

    The continuous realisation of the basic principles of environmental conservation and compatability demands concern about the problems of eliminating wastes in an industrialised society. Biogas- and therefore technical plants for methane generation by anaerobic fermentation have promoted to effective means of environmental protection and sources of alternate energy from organic wastes. Methane fermentation has been employed for the stabilisation of sludges at municipal waste treatment plants for decades. However, the anaerobic digestion process shows promising applications both for industrial effluents and agricultural wastes as well as municipal solid wastes and covered waste deposits. In view of the advances achieved interdisciplinary cooperation the actual potential and perspective of methane fermentation technology with respect to the solution of the increasing problems of waste management and energy supply is discussed.

  17. Utilization of market research in managing hospital pharmacy resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L; McNamara, E J

    1984-10-01

    A market research survey of staff physicians and nurses was completed to obtain information on customer preference to be used in making planning and development decisions about the allocation of the pharmacy department's resources. Survey questionnaires were mailed to representative samples of each professional group and included the optimum mix of open-ended and closed-ended questions that would result in the highest response rate. The survey responses identified differences in wants and needs between the nurses and physicians that demonstrate the value of market research. Data obtained from the survey are being used by a staff advisory committee and management to develop departmental goals and objectives that will reduce costs and increase profit margins under the ever-increasing restrictions of prospective reimbursement.

  18. Double J stenting: A rewarding option in the management of emphysematous pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debiprasad Das

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Emphysematous pyelonephritis can be managed conservatively by DJ stenting, wcich is a less morbid procedure or percutaneous nephrostomy with proper antibiotics and adequate glycemic control.

  19. Optimal Energy Management for a Smart Grid using Resource-Aware Utility Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Brook W.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Negeri, Ebisa O.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous energy prosumers are aggregated to form a smart grid based energy community managed by a central controller which could maximize their collective energy resource utilization. Using the central controller and distributed energy management systems, various mechanisms that harness the power profile of the energy community are developed for optimal, multi-objective energy management. The proposed mechanisms include resource-aware, multi-variable energy utility maximization objectives, namely: (1) maximizing the net green energy utilization, (2) maximizing the prosumers' level of comfortable, high quality power usage, and (3) maximizing the economic dispatch of energy storage units that minimize the net energy cost of the energy community. Moreover, an optimal energy management solution that combines the three objectives has been implemented by developing novel techniques of optimally flexible (un)certainty projection and appliance based pricing decomposition in an IBM ILOG CPLEX studio. A real-world, per-minute data from an energy community consisting of forty prosumers in Amsterdam, Netherlands is used. Results show that each of the proposed mechanisms yields significant increases in the aggregate energy resource utilization and welfare of prosumers as compared to traditional peak-power reduction methods. Furthermore, the multi-objective, resource-aware utility maximization approach leads to an optimal energy equilibrium and provides a sustainable energy management solution as verified by the Lagrangian method. The proposed resource-aware mechanisms could directly benefit emerging energy communities in the world to attain their energy resource utilization targets.

  20. Managing the side effects of multiple sclerosis therapy: pharmacotherapy options for patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommer, Paulus S; Zettl, Uwe K

    2018-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated and neurodegenerative disease with an unpredictable outcome. Immune-modulatory treatment aims at decreasing long-term disability. With the increasing number of treatment options, it is essential to fully digest the possible side effects of the available therapeutics and to monitor patients is essential. Areas covered: All approved disease-modifying drugs (DMD) for MS are discussed in this review. Mode of action, adverse effects, reported risks for infections and malignancies, and pregnancy related issues are discussed in the review. The authors also provide suggestions for monitoring therapy. For all approved DMDs the pivotal studies have been included for possible side effects, as well as reports by health authorities. For this manuscript, PubMed was checked for reports on side effects for various drugs. Expert opinion: Treatment options in MS are manifold, each carrying different risks. The safety-risk profile for approved agents is favorable. Knowing and monitoring these possible side effects is essential to minimize risks associated with treatment. Presently, the long-term experience for some of these therapies is missing and this must be addressed.

  1. Managed Care for Children: Effect on Access to Care and Utilization of Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Peter G.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews what is known about the effect of managed care on access to health services, as well as utilization of hospital care, emergency department visits, primary care services, and specialty pediatric services. The effect of managed care appears dependent on several factors and, thus, is likely to vary according to the population served. (SLD)

  2. Options for biodiversity conservation in managed forest landscapes of multiple ownerships in Oregon and Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Suzuki; D.H. Olson

    2007-01-01

    We review the policies and management approaches used in U.S. Pacific Northwest planted forest to address biodiversity protection. We provide a case-study watershed design from southern Oregon, integrating various stand-to-landscape biodiversity-management approaches.

  3. Software for security event management: Development and utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr V. Kuznetcov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We address the challenge to the information security coming from the lack of algorithmic machinery for managing the security events. We start with a mathematical formulation of the problem for a tabular processor by introducing an appropriate target function. Details of corresponding algorithm can be found by following the provided links. We describe our original software module that implements the algorithm for determining the registered security events. The module is based on the tabular processor certified by the Russian Federal Service for Technical and Export Control. We present a control sample for testing the developed module. The sample has the dimension 30x20 and contains 14 choices for threshold values of security events number. The results of the tests comply with the specified boundary conditions and demonstrate a nonlinear dependence of the objective function on the number of registered security events, as well as a nonlinear dependence of the percentage of the detected security event on the total initial number of security events to be registered at the event source. The performance of the module specifically, the central processing unit usage is found acceptable (not exceeding 33%, which allows one to use the software for typical automated workplaces equipped with appropriate tabular processors. Our approach is universal with respect to the application areas.

  4. Organized Communities and Potable Water Public Utilities in Colombia: Advocacy for the Third Economic Option Based on the Common-pool Resources Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny Moncada Mesa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory and institutional principles proposed by Elinor Ostrom, this paper explores whether Colombian organized communities are able to provide potable water public utility in a sustainable manner and manage it as a common-pool resource (CPR. For this purpose, a set of Colombian community aqueducts is selected and compared against the eight principles proposed by this theory. The results have shown that, in general it complies with institutional principles but it also highlights difficulties, particularly in regards to the "minimal recognition of organization rights" principle.

  5. Certified meter data managers provide potent tool : Utilities, customers benefit from accurate energy data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, V.

    2004-02-01

    The use of customer energy information and its importance in building business-to-business and business-to-consumer demographic profiles, and the role of certified meter data management agents, i.e. companies that have created infrastructures to manage large volumes of energy data that can be used to drive marketing to energy customers, is discussed. Short and long-term load management planning, distribution planning, outage management and demand response programs, efforts to streamline billing and create revenue-generating value-added services, are just some of the areas that can benefit from comprehensively collected and accurate consumer data. The article emphasizes the process of certification, the benefits certified meter data management companies can provide to utilities as well as to consumers, their role in disaster recovery management, and characteristics of the way such companies bring the benefits of their operations to their client utilities and consumers. 1 tab.

  6. Ditch network maintenance in peat-dominated boreal forests: Review and analysis of water quality management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Mika; Piirainen, Sirpa; Sikström, Ulf; Löfgren, Stefan; Marttila, Hannu; Sarkkola, Sakari; Laurén, Ari; Finér, Leena

    2018-03-27

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of different water management options to mitigate sediment and nutrient exports from ditch network maintenance (DNM) areas in boreal peatland forests. Available literature was reviewed, past data reanalyzed, effects of drainage intensity modeled, and major research gaps identified. The results indicate that excess downstream loads may be difficult to prevent. Water protection structures constructed to capture eroded matter are either inefficient (sedimentation ponds) or difficult to apply (wetland buffers). It may be more efficient to decrease erosion, either by limiting peak water velocity (dam structures) or by adjusting ditch depth and spacing to enable satisfactory drainage without exposing the mineral soil below peat. Future research should be directed towards the effects of ditch breaks and adjusted ditch depth and spacing in managing water quality in DNM areas.

  7. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 2 options for minimising the production of contaminated milk

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, J G; Mercer, J A; Nisbet, A F; Wilkins, B T

    2002-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of three possible means by which the production of waste milk could be reduced following a nuclear accident. The three options studied are the reduction of contaminated pasture in the diet, the drying off of lactating dairy cattle and the slaughter of dairy cattle. The practicability of each of these is considered using criteria such as technical feasibility, capacity, cost, impact and acceptability, where appropriate. In theory reductions in waste milk arisings can be achieved with each option, however, there are a number of limitations associated with their practical application.

  8. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 2: options for minimising the production of contaminated milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.G.; Nisbet, A.F.; Mercer, J.A.; Brown, J.; Wilkins, B.T.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of three possible means by which the production of waste milk could be reduced following a nuclear accident. The three options studied are the reduction of contaminated pasture in the diet, the drying off of lactating dairy cattle and the slaughter of dairy cattle. The practicability of each of these is considered using criteria such as technical feasibility, capacity, cost, impact and acceptability, where appropriate. In theory reductions in waste milk arisings can be achieved with each option, however, there are a number of limitations associated with their practical application. (author)

  9. Management of patients with hormone receptor–positive breast cancer with visceral disease: challenges and treatment options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, Wael A

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine therapy is an important treatment option for women with hormone receptor–positive (HR+) advanced breast cancer (ABC), yet many tumors are either intrinsically resistant or develop resistance to these therapies. Treatment of patients with ABC presenting with visceral metastases, which is associated with a poor prognosis, is also problematic. There is an unmet need for effective treatments for this patient population. Although chemotherapy is commonly perceived to be more effective than endocrine therapy in managing visceral metastases, patients who are not in visceral crisis might benefit from endocrine therapy, avoiding chemotherapy-associated toxicities that might affect quality of life. To improve outcomes, several targeted therapies are being investigated in combination with endocrine therapy for patients with endocrine-resistant, HR+ ABC. Although available data have considered patients with HR+ ABC as a whole, there are promising data from a prespecified analysis of a Phase III study of everolimus (Afinitor ® ), a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, in combination with exemestane (Aromasin ® ) in patients with visceral disease progressing after nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor therapy. In this review, challenges and treatment options for management of HR+ ABC with visceral disease, including consideration of therapeutic approaches undergoing clinical investigation, will be assessed

  10. Free-roaming dog populations: a cost-benefit model for different management options, applied to Abruzzo, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgåsen, H R; Er, C; Di Nardo, A; Dalla Villa, P

    2013-11-01

    Since 1991, Italian free-roaming dogs have been under government protection and euthanasia is restricted by law. Management measures are regulated at the regional level and include: kennelling, adoptions, conversion of stray dogs into block dogs, and population control of owned dogs. "Block dogs" are free-roaming dogs that have been collected by the veterinary services, microchipped, sterilised, vaccinated, and released under the responsibility of the local municipalities. The present paper describes a cost-benefit model for different management options and applies it to two provinces in Abruzzo, central Italy. The model considers welfare, nuisance and direct costs to the municipality. Welfare is quantified based on the expert opinions of 60 local veterinarians, who were asked to assign a score for each dog category according to the five freedoms: freedom from pain, physical discomfort, disease, fear, and freedom to express normal behaviour. Nuisance was assessed only for comparisons between management options, using the number of free-roaming dogs per inhabitant as a proxy indicator. A community dog population model was constructed to predict the effect of management on the different subpopulations of dogs during a ten-year period. It is a user-friendly deterministic model in Excel, easily adaptable to different communities to assess the impact of their dog management policy on welfare, nuisance and direct monetary cost. We present results for Teramo and Pescara provinces. Today's management system is compared to alternative models, which evaluate the effect of specific interventions. These include either a 10% yearly increase in kennel capacity, an increase in adoptions from kennels, a doubling of the capture of stray dogs, or a stabilisation of the owned dog population. Results indicate that optimal management decisions are complex because welfare, nuisance and monetary costs may imply conflicting interventions. Nevertheless, they clearly indicate that

  11. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone: current and future management options.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sherlock, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte abnormality, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is the most frequent underlying pathophysiology. Hyponatraemia is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and as such appropriate treatment is essential. Treatment options for SIADH include fluid restriction, demeclocycline, urea, frusemide and saline infusion, all of which have their limitations. The introduction of the vasopressin-2 receptor antagonists has allowed clinicians to specifically target the underlying pathophysiology of SIADH. Initial studies have shown good efficacy and safety profiles in the treatment of mild to moderate hyponatraemia. However, studies assessing the efficacy and safety of these agents in acute severe symptomatic hyponatraemia are awaited. Furthermore, the cost of these agents at present may limit their use.

  12. Rapidly changing treatment options adding burden to the management of typhoid fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspal Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever continues to be a global public health problem. It is caused by the facultative intracellular organisms Salmonella enteric serotype Typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. Antimicrobial therapy is the mainstay for treatment of typhoid fever. Chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and cotrimoxazole had been in use for decades for treating enteric fever. But the emergence and rapid spread of drug resistance has resulted in rapid shift of treatment options from chloramphenicol to fluoroquinolones to third generation cephalosporins to azithromycin with tigecycline and carbapenems in line, thus adding burden to the health-care sector in developing countries. Rational and judicious antibiotic prescribing practices by health professionals are necessary to prevent further development of drug resistance and help in re-emergence of sensitive strains.

  13. Managing a drought: what does a hydroelectric utility do when the rain stops?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cormie, D.

    2004-07-01

    Measures put in place by Manitoba Hydro to combat drought resulting from the absence of precipitation, are discussed. Under normal conditions Manitoba Hydro, a provincially owned electric utility, generates over 95 per cent of its electricity from hydroelectric power stations. During the extended drought lasting from the summer of 2002 until the spring of 2004, the utility found itself forced to import electricity from outside the province. The principal reason that the utility was able to survive this long spell of no precipitation is that Manitoba Hydro's planners always assume that a drought will continue and if an option to purchase power exists, the utility will pursue that option instead of depleting its reservoirs. In most situations, Manitoba Hydro is able to import purchased power using its 12 transmission line interconnections to utilities in Saskatchewan, Ontario and the United States. The combined capacity of these lines is approximately, 1,340 MW. Manitoba Hydro also has a limited gas-fired generating capacity, which has been put into service during the drought, in particular to cap the price of purchased electricity when spot market prices exceeded the cost of producing electricity with natural gas. The third line of defence rests with a coal-fired unit at the utility's Brandon generating station which may be used as a last resort to help the utility limit its financial vulnerability to high electricity and gas prices. In addition to supplying power to to Manitobans, the utility has long-term contractual obligations to supply approximately 4,000 GWh of power to export customers. During the 2003-2004 drought Manitoba Hydro pursued offsetting purchases to these long-term sales; essentially buying back the power it had previously agreed to sell. Although retained earnings allowed the utility to cushion ratepayers from the financial shock of the drought, to rebuild those earnings, it will be necessary to increase electricity rates across all

  14. Limiting exercise options: depending on a proxy may inhibit exercise self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Christopher A; Brawley, Lawrence R

    2007-07-01

    We examined the influence of proxy-assistance on exercisers' social cognitions and behavior. Fifty-six fitness class participants reported preference for proxy-assistance and reacted to exercising in different contexts. A 2 (proxy-led vs self-managed exercise context) by 2 (preferred assistance) MANOVA revealed significant assistance by context interactions for self-regulatory efficacy (SRE) and difficulty. Regarding self-managed exercise, high-assistance individuals expressed lower SRE and higher difficulty. Chi-square analysis revealed that significantly fewer high-assistance participants chose self-managed exercise. A one-way MANOVA on preferred assistance indicated that high-assistance participants were less confident, satisfied and perceived their self-managed exercise as more difficult. Results support Bandura's theorizing that use of a proxy can limit SRE of those preferring the proxy's control of their behavior.

  15. Biological monitoring and assessment of rivers as a basis for identifying and prioritising river management options

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, DJ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available management objectives. This paper demonstrates how the results obtained with biological indices and system-specific knowledge, are combined to derive semi quantitative assessments of ecosystem condition. These assessments provide the basis for responding...

  16. Market characteristics and awareness of managed care options among elderly beneficiaries enrolled in traditional Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittler, Jessica N; Landon, Bruce E; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Cleary, Paul D

    2011-10-14

    Medicare beneficiaries' awareness of Medicare managed care plans is critical for realizing the potential benefits of coverage choices. To assess the relationships of the number of Medicare risk plans, managed care penetration, and stability of plans in an area with traditional Medicare beneficiaries' awareness of the program. Cross-sectional analysis of Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey data about beneficiaries' awareness and knowledge of Medicare managed care plan availability. Logistic regression models used to assess the relationships between awareness and market characteristics. Traditional Medicare beneficiaries (n = 3,597) who had never been enrolled in Medicare managed care, but had at least one plan available in their area in 2002, and excluding beneficiaries under 65, receiving Medicaid, or with end stage renal disease. Traditional Medicare beneficiaries' knowledge of Medicare managed care plans in general and in their area. Having more Medicare risk plans available was significantly associated with greater awareness, and having an intermediate number of plans (2-4) was significantly associated with more accurate knowledge of Medicare risk plan availability than was having fewer or more plans. Medicare may have more success engaging consumers in choice and capturing the benefits of plan competition by more actively selecting and managing the plan choice set. Public Domain.

  17. Integrated Assessment of the Policy of Working Capital Management in Housing and Utilities Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Petrovich Poluyanov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the approaches to the management of current assets in the enterprises of various industries in economic literature. We discuss theoretical, methodological and applied issues concerning the formation and improvement of the working capital management policy in utility companies, which require further study. The authors propose to assess the policy of working capital management in these enterprises by means of the integrated approach based on the system of reasoned indicators defining the type of working capital management policy. It includes indicators characterizing the policy of working capital management, management of the liquidity of working capital and the policy of financing sources management. The indicators which define the type of the policy of working capital management have been chosen as the most influential for each vector of the improvement of management policy. The range of values is set taking into account the current market conditions for the housing and utilities companies based on theoretical standard values adapted to modern situation. The paper proposes to use an integrated indicator for the evaluation of the policy of working capital management in housing and utilities enterprises. We have substantiated the technique of the integrated assessment of the policy of working capital management in housing and utilities companies. As an example of the application of this indicator, we defined the type of the policy of working capital management in Rostovvodokanal Company. The initial data for the calculation of integrated indicators are the official data on the structure of the balance and financial results of Rostovvodokanal Company during the period from 2012 to 2016. At the Rostovvodokanal Company, it is necessary to bring the type of the policy of working capital management and sources of its financing closer to moderate or conservative type. The authors have substantiated the optimal type of policy of

  18. Phytoremediation as a management option for contaminated sediments in tidal marshes, flood control areas and dredged sediment landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Valérie; Seuntjens, Piet; Dejonghe, Winnie; Lacherez, Sophie; Thuy, Hoang Thi Thanh; Vandecasteele, Bart

    2009-11-01

    Polluted sediments in rivers may be transported by the river to the sea, spread over river banks and tidal marshes or managed, i.e. actively dredged and disposed of on land. Once sedimented on tidal marshes, alluvial areas or control flood areas, the polluted sediments enter semi-terrestrial ecosystems or agro-ecosystems and may pose a risk. Disposal of polluted dredged sediments on land may also lead to certain risks. Up to a few years ago, contaminated dredged sediments were placed in confined disposal facilities. The European policy encourages sediment valorisation and this will be a technological challenge for the near future. Currently, contaminated dredged sediments are often not valorisable due to their high content of contaminants and their consequent hazardous properties. In addition, it is generally admitted that treatment and re-use of heavily contaminated dredged sediments is not a cost-effective alternative to confined disposal. For contaminated sediments and associated disposal facilities used in the past, a realistic, low cost, safe, ecologically sound and sustainable management option is required. In this context, phytoremediation is proposed in the literature as a management option. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge on management, (phyto)remediation and associated risks in the particular case of sediments contaminated with organic and inorganic pollutants. This paper deals with the following features: (1) management and remediation of contaminated sediments and associated risk assessment; (2) management options for ecosystems on polluted sediments, based on phytoremediation of contaminated sediments with focus on phytoextraction, phytostabilisation and phytoremediation of organic pollutants and (3) microbial and mycorrhizal processes occurring in contaminated sediments during phytoremediation. In this review, an overview is given of phytoremediation as a management option for semi-terrestrial and terrestrial ecosystems

  19. Assessment of coastal management options by means of multilayered ecosystem models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Ana M.; Ferreira, João G.; Nunes, João P.; Yan, Xiaojun; Bricker, Suzanne; Corner, Richard; Groom, Steve; Gu, Haifeng; Hawkins, Anthony J. S.; Hutson, Rory; Lan, Dongzhao; Silva, João D. Lencart e.; Pascoe, Philip; Telfer, Trevor; Zhang, Xuelei; Zhu, Mingyuan

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a multilayered ecosystem modelling approach that combines the simulation of the biogeochemistry of a coastal ecosystem with the simulation of the main forcing functions, such as catchment loading and aquaculture activities. This approach was developed as a tool for sustainable management of coastal ecosystems. A key feature is to simulate management scenarios that account for changes in multiple uses and enable assessment of cumulative impacts of coastal activities. The model was applied to a coastal zone in China with large aquaculture production and multiple catchment uses, and where management efforts to improve water quality are under way. Development scenarios designed in conjunction with local managers and aquaculture producers include the reduction of fish cages and treatment of wastewater. Despite the reduction in nutrient loading simulated in three different scenarios, inorganic nutrient concentrations in the bay were predicted to exceed the thresholds for poor quality defined by Chinese seawater quality legislation. For all scenarios there is still a Moderate High to High nutrient loading from the catchment, so further reductions might be enacted, together with additional decreases in fish cage culture. The model predicts that overall, shellfish production decreases by 10%-28% using any of these development scenarios, principally because shellfish growth is being sustained by the substances to be reduced for improvement of water quality. The model outcomes indicate that this may be counteracted by zoning of shellfish aquaculture at the ecosystem level in order to optimize trade-offs between productivity and environmental effects. The present case study exemplifies the value of multilayered ecosystem modelling as a tool for Integrated Coastal Zone Management and for the adoption of ecosystem approaches for marine resource management. This modelling approach can be applied worldwide, and may be particularly useful for the application of

  20. Managing vulnerability to drought and enhancing livelihood resilience in sub-Saharan Africa: Technological, institutional and policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele Shiferaw

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are highly sensitive to climatic variability. Drought, in particular, represents one of the most important natural factors contributing to malnutrition and famine in many parts of the region. The overall impact of drought on a given country/region and its ability to recover from the resulting social, economic and environmental impacts depends on several factors. The economic, social and environmental impacts of drought are huge in SSA and the national costs and losses incurred threaten to undermine the wider economic and development gains made in the last few decades in the region. There is an urgent need to reduce the vulnerability of countries to climate variability and to the threats posed by climate change. This paper attempts to highlight the challenges of drought in SSA and reviews the current drought risk management strategies, especially the promising technological and policy options for managing drought risks to protect livelihoods and reduce vulnerability. The review suggests the possibilities of several ex ante and ex post drought management strategies in SSA although their effectiveness depends on agro-climatic and socio-economic conditions. Existing technological, policy and institutional risk management measures need to be strengthened and integrated to manage drought ex ante and to minimize the ex post negative effects for vulnerable households and regions. A proactive approach that combines promising technological, institutional and policy solutions to manage the risks within vulnerable communities implemented by institutions operating at different levels (community, sub-national, and national is considered to be the way forward for managing drought and climate variability.

  1. Life cycle assessment of solid waste management options for Eskisehir, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banar, Mufide; Cokaygil, Zerrin; Ozkan, Aysun

    2009-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to determine the optimum municipal solid waste (MSW) management strategy for Eskisehir city. Eskisehir is one of the developing cities of Turkey where a total of approximately 750 tons/day of waste is generated. An effective MSW management system is needed in this city since the generated MSW is dumped in an unregulated dumping site that has no liner, no biogas capture, etc. Therefore, five different scenarios were developed as alternatives to the current waste management system. Collection and transportation of waste, a material recovery facility (MRF), recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling processes were considered in these scenarios. SimaPro7 libraries were used to obtain background data for the life cycle inventory. One ton of municipal solid waste of Eskisehir was selected as the functional unit. The alternative scenarios were compared through the CML 2000 method and these comparisons were carried out from the abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical ozone depletion points of view. According to the comparisons and sensitivity analysis, composting scenario, S3, is the more environmentally preferable alternative. In this study waste management alternatives were investigated only on an environmental point of view. For that reason, it might be supported with other decision-making tools that consider the economic and social effects of solid waste management

  2. Using Watershed Models and Human Behavioral Analyses to identify Management Options to Reduce Lake Erie's Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J.; Wilson, R. S.; Aloysius, N.; Kalcic, M. M.; Roe, B.; Howard, G.; Irwin, E.; Zhang, W.; Liu, H.

    2017-12-01

    In early 2016, the United States and Canada formally agreed to reduce phosphorus inputs to Lake Erie by 40% to reduce the severity of annual Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). These blooms have become more severe, with record events occurring in 2011 and 2015, and have compromised public safety, shut down drinking water supplies, and negatively impacted the economy of the western Lake Erie basin. Now, a key question is what management options should be pursued to reach the 40% reduction. This presentation will highlight interdisciplinary research to compare the amount and types of practices needed for this reduction to the current and projected levels of adoption. Multiple models of the Maumee watershed identified management plans and adoption rates needed to reach the reduction targets. For example, one successful scenario estimated necessary adoption rates of 50% for subsurface application of fertilizer on row crops, 58% for cover crops, and 78% for buffer strips. Current adoption is below these levels, but future projections based on farmer surveys shows these levels are possible. This information was then used to guide another round of watershed modeling analysis to evaluate scenarios that represented more realistic scenarios based on potential levels of management adoption. In general, these results show that accelerated adoption of management plans is needed compared to past adoption rates, and that some of these greater adoption levels are possible based on likely adoption rates. Increasing the perceived efficacy of the practices is one method that will support greater voluntary rates of adoption.

  3. Exploring options for managing strategies for pea-barley intercropping using a modeling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Launay, M.; Brisson, N.; Satger, S.

    2009-01-01

    ) intercropping made better use of environmental resources as regards yield amount and stability than sole cropping, with a noticeable site effect, (2) pea growth in intercrops was strongly linked to soil moisture, and barley yield was determined by nitrogen uptake and light interception due to its height......, underlining the interspecific offset in the use of environmental growth resources which led to similar total grain yields whatever the pea–barley design, and (5) long-term strategies including mineralization management through organic residue supply and rotation management were very valuable, always favoring...

  4. A Critical Review: Management and Surgical Options for Articular Defects in the Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Stone, Austin V; Ukwuani, Gift C; Zuke, William; Garabekyan, Tigran; Mei-Dan, Omer; Nho, Shane J

    2017-07-01

    Patients with articular cartilage lesions of the hip may present with pain and symptoms that may be vague in nature and onset. Therefore, a thorough history and physical examination should be performed for every patient presenting with hip pain and/or disability. The management may be operative or nonoperative. Nonoperative management includes a trial of rest and/or activity modification, along with anti-inflammatory medications, physical therapy, and biologic injections. Operative treatment in the form of arthroscopic techniques continues to decrease morbidity and offer innovative solutions and new applications for microfracture, ACT, and AMIC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments

  6. Numerical modelling to assess maintenance strategy management options for a small tidal inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeri, Saeed; Tomlinson, Rodger; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Strauss, Darrell

    2017-03-01

    Small tidal inlets are found to be more sensitive to anthropogenic alteration than their larger counterparts. Such alterations, although typically supported by technical design reports, sometimes require amendments or modification. One of the most suitable tools to conduct the necessary studies in this regard is numerical modelling, since the behaviour of the inlet system in response to proposed remedial actions, can easily be identified. In this paper, various alternative proposals are investigated to determine the most practical and viable option to mitigate the need for ongoing maintenance at a typical small, jettied tidal inlet. The main tool to investigate the alternatives is the hydro-sedimentological modelling of the inlet system, which was performed using the Delft3D software package. The proposed alternative entrance modifications were based upon structural alterations of the inlet system (such as a jetty extension or submerged weir) and non-structural scenarios (such as a change of the time of the dredging campaign or the deposition location of the dredged material). It was concluded that whilst a detailed study is inevitable in order to achieve a comprehensive design plan, based upon the results of this study the construction of a submerged weir at the entrance channel can satisfy the needs of most of the stakeholders, with justifiable costs over a longer period.

  7. Technical/ administrative options for managing tritium MCL exceedances in P-area groundwater and Steel Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-04-01

    This white paper was requested by the Core Team (United States Department of Energy [USDOE], United States Environmental Protection Agency [USEPA], and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control [SCDHEC]) at the P-Area Groundwater (PAGW) Operable Unit (OU) Scoping Meeting held in January 2017 to discuss recent data and potential alternatives in support of a focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study (CMS/FS). This white paper presents an overview of the problem, and a range of technical and administrative options for addressing the tritium contamination in groundwater and Steel Creek. As tritium cannot be treated practicably, alternatives are limited to media transfer, containment and natural attenuation principally relying on radioactive decay. Using other groundwater OU decisions involving tritium as precedent, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) recommends that final tritium alternatives be evaluated in a CMS/FS, understanding that the likely preferred remedy will include natural attenuation with land use controls (LUCs). This is based on the inability to significantly reduce tritium impact to Steel Creek using an engineered solution as compared to natural attenuation. The timing of this evaluation could be conducted concurrently with the final remedy evaluation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  8. Spent fuel from RA reactor inspection of state and options for management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aden, V.G.; Bulkin, S. Yu.; Sokolov, A. V.; Matausek, M.V.; Vukadin, Z.

    2001-01-01

    About five thousand spent fuel elements from RA reactor have been stored for over 30 years in sealed aluminum barrels in the spent fuel storage pool. This way of storage does not provide complete information about the state of spent fuel elements or the medium inside the barrels, like pressure or radioactivity. The technology has been developed and the equipment has been manufactured to inspect the state of the spent fuel and to reduce eventual internal pressure inside the aluminum barrels. The realization of this technology was started in 1999 but due to political and financial difficulties was not completed. In September the year 2000 the work was restarted. Two different ways of RA reactor spent fuel elements preparation for transportation or long-term storage are considered: 'all fuel elements canning without leak-tightness testing' and 'all fuel elements leak-tightness testing'. It is believed that the first option offers several distinct advantages, which can be summarized as: greater reliability in the course of transportation or dry storage. Higher safety for workers. Lower expenditures for non-standard equipment manufacturing. Shorter duration of work. (author)

  9. Archaeology of Arid Environments Points to Management Options for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N. Chapman; A. Dansie; C. McCombie

    2006-01-01

    As with all planned repositories for spent fuel, the critical period over which Yucca Mountain needs to provide isolation is the first hundreds to thousands of years after the fuel is emplaced, when it is at its most hazardous. Both the original and the proposed new EPA standards highlight the central importance of this performance period by focusing on repository behavior during the first 10,000 years. Archaeology has a lot to tell us about the behavior of materials and structures over this time period. There have been numerous studies of archaeological artifacts in conditions relevant to the groundwater saturated environments that are a feature of most international geological disposal concepts, but relatively few in arid environments like that of the Nevada desert. However, there is much information to be gleaned, not only from classic archaeological areas in the Middle East and around the Mediterranean but also, perhaps surprisingly to some, from Nevada itself. Our recent study evaluated archaeological materials from underground openings and shallow burial in arid environments relevant to Yucca Mountain, drawing conclusions about how their state and their environment of preservation could help to assess design and operational options for the high-level waste repository

  10. Management options for pediatric patients who stutter: current challenges and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaghy MA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Michelle A Donaghy,1 Kylie A Smith,2,3 1Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, 2Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Childrens Hospital, 3Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia Abstract: Stuttering is a speech disorder, with onset often occurring in the preschool years. The prevalence of stuttering in young children is much higher than that in the general population, suggesting a high rate of recovery. However, we are unable to predict which children will recover without treatment, and it is widely acknowledged that stuttering therapy during childhood provides the best safeguard against chronic stuttering. This review reports on current evidence-based stuttering treatment options for preschoolers through to adolescents. We discuss the clinical challenges associated with treating pediatric clients who stutter at different stages of development and explore potential areas of treatment research that might serve to advance current clinical practice in the future. Keywords: stuttering, stammering, pediatric, therapy, evidence based

  11. Double row spacing and drip irrigation as technical options in energy sorghum management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Roncucci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two row spacing configurations and four water supply levels was investigated on sweet and fibre sorghum in Central Italy for two consecutive years. Results highlighted the influence of both irrigation and row spatial configuration on crop productivity. Indeed, several studies have pointed out the positive response of sorghum to irrigation in Mediterranean climate, as in this environment water stress represents one of the main limiting factors on crop productivity. On the other hand, few attempts have been made to explore the role of row spacing on energy sorghum productivity. Results outlined an average increase in sorghum dry biomass yield ranging from +23% to +79% at variable rates of water supply as compared to rainfed control. The positive effect of irrigation was also observed on leaf area index and radiation use efficiency. Moreover, we observed a crop yield increase, from 9% to 20%, under double row spacing compared to the standard planting pattern (i.e. single row spacing. Finally, it was confirmed the efficient use of water by sorghum and the great ability of sorghum to increase its biomass yield in response to increasing volumes of water supplied. Therefore, this work suggests how row spacing configuration and drip irrigation could be feasible technical options to increase sorghum biomass yields in Mediterranean environments. These techniques should be experienced by farmers towards a sustainable intensification of current cropping systems.

  12. An update on the management of peripheral T-cell lymphoma and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips AA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Adrienne A Phillips1, Colette Owens2, Sangmin Lee1, Govind Bhagat31Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, 2Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, 3Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs comprise a rare and heterogeneous subset of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHLs that arise from post-thymic T-cells or natural killer (NK-cells at nodal or extranodal sites. Worldwide, PTCLs represent approximately 12% of all NHLs and the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO classification includes over 20 biologically and clinically distinct T/NK-cell neoplasms that differ significantly in presentation, pathology, and response to therapy. Because of the rarity and heterogeneity of these diseases, large clinical trials have not been conducted and optimal therapy is not well defined. Most subtypes are treated with similar combination chemotherapy regimens as used for aggressive B-cell NHL, but with poorer outcomes. New treatment combinations and novel agents are currently being explored for PTCLs and this review highlights a number of options that appear promising.Keywords: treatment, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, novel therapy, natural-killer cells

  13. Proceedings of the Seminar on Management Options for Low and Intermediate Level Wastes in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The solutions adopted for management problems on radioactive wastes of nuclear installations and contamined materials generated in hospitals, research centers, laboratories in the countries of Latin America are presented. The criteria of site selection for radioactive waste installation and the methods for treating and storage are evaluated. The results of inspections in installations which handle radioactive wastes are done. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Nitrogen in global animal production and management options for improving nitrogen use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Tamminga, S.

    2005-01-01

    Animal production systems convert plant protein into animal protein. Depending on animal species, ration and management, between 5% and 45 % of the nitrogen (N) in plant protein is converted to and deposited in animal protein. The other 55%-95% is excreted via urine and feces, and can be used as

  15. Implications of observed and simulated soil carbon sequestration for management options in corn-based rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing cropping systems to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) improves soil health and a system’s resiliency to impacts of changing climate. Our objectives were to 1) monitor SOC from a bio-energy cropping study in central Pennsylvania that included a corn-soybean-alfalfa rotation, switchgrass, a...

  16. Adaptation and mitigation options for forests and forest management in a changing climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnston, M.; Lindner, M.; Parotta, J.; Giessen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is now accepted as an important issue for forests and forest management around the world. Climate change will affect forests' ability to provide ecosystem goods and services on which human communities depend: biodiversity, carbon sequestration, regulation of water quality and

  17. Designing Student Groupwork in Management Education: Widening the Palette of Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtham, Clive W.; Melville, Robert R.; Sodhi, ManMohan S.

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe innovation in practice through the unusual deployment of teams in a master's in management core course. Two parallel uses of teams were made, both drawing on the jigsaw team method, in one case with the team supporting individual work. The experiences support the idea of widening the palette of types of groupwork used in…

  18. Ixabepilone: a new treatment option for the management of taxane-resistant metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobham, Marta Vallee; Donovan, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Ixabepilone (Ixempra ® ; Bristol-Myers Squibb) is a novel microtubule stabilizing agent recently approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). This article focuses on considerations for ixabepilone administration and adverse event (AE) management, drawing from the biomedical literature indexed in PubMed, published abstracts from the American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meetings, and the manufacturer’s prescribing information for ixabepilone. Administered as monotherapy or in combination with capecitabine in clinical studies, ixabepilone demonstrated positive clinical response rates, prolonged progression-free survival, and a favorable safety profile in patients with MBC. Treatment-related AEs were predictable and manageable with dose modification, treatment interruption, and active management. As ixabepilone undergoes development in earlier lines of breast cancer therapy and in other solid tumors, oncology nurses will encounter more and more patients receiving ixabepilone therapy. If nurses are acquainted with the unique management strategies associated with ixabepilone treatment, as detailed herein, patients are more likely to receive the full benefit of therapy

  19. Therapeutic options in the management of acromegaly: focus on lanreotide Autogel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Pereira, Alberto M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    In acromegaly, expert surgery is curative in only about 60% of patients. Postoperative radiation therapy is associated with a high incidence of hypopituitarism and its effect on growth hormone (GH) production is slow, so that adjuvant medical treatment becomes of importance in the management of many

  20. Implications of observed and simulated soil carbon sequestration for management options in corn-based rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing cropping systems to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) improves soil health and a system’s resiliency to impacts of changing climate. Our objectives were to 1) monitor SOC from a bio-energy cropping study in central Pennsylvania that included a corn-soybean-alfalfa rotation, switchgrass, ...

  1. Human resources management in the water utilities of Hermosillo and Mexicali

    OpenAIRE

    Edmundo Loera Burnes; Alejandro Salazar Adams

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies how the Human Resources Management Systems (HRMS) influence the performance of water utilities in Mexico. The differentiated performance of the water utilities of the cities of Hermosillo and Mexicali were compared to their HRMS characteristics through the analysis of four categories: 1) Hiring policies, 2) Development and training, 3) Salaries, benefits and incentives, and 4) Sanct...

  2. Diagnosis and management of food allergies: new and emerging options: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Keefe AW

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrew W O'Keefe,1,2 Sarah De Schryver,1 Jennifer Mill,3 Christopher Mill,3 Alizee Dery,1 Moshe Ben-Shoshan1 1Division of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL, Canada; 3Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: It is reported that 6% of children and 3% of adults have food allergies, with studies suggesting increased prevalence worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, our diagnostic capabilities and techniques for managing patients with food allergies remain limited. We have conducted a systematic review of literature published within the last 5 years on the diagnosis and management of food allergies. While the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, this assessment is resource intensive and impractical in most clinical situations. In an effort to reduce the need for the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, several risk-stratifying tests are employed, namely skin prick testing, measurement of serum-specific immunoglobulin E levels, component testing, and open food challenges. Management of food allergies typically involves allergen avoidance and carrying an epinephrine autoinjector. Clinical research trials of oral immunotherapy for some foods, including peanut, milk, egg, and peach, are under way. While oral immunotherapy is promising, its readiness for clinical application is controversial. In this review, we assess the latest studies published on the above diagnostic and management modalities, as well as novel strategies in the diagnosis and management of food allergy. Keywords: skin prick testing, oral challenge, specific IgE, component testing, oral immunotherapy, epinephrine

  3. Visualizing Our Options for Coastal Places: Exploring Realistic Immersive Geovisualizations as Tools for Inclusive Approaches to Coastal Planning and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Newell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective coastal planning is inclusive and incorporates the variety of user needs, values and interests associated with coastal environments. Realistic, immersive geographic visualizations, i.e., geovisualizations, can serve as potentially powerful tools for facilitating such planning because they can provide diverse groups with vivid understandings of how they would feel about certain management outcomes or impacts if transpired in real places. However, the majority of studies in this area have focused on terrestrial environments, and research on applications of such tools in the coastal and marine contexts is in its infancy. The current study aims to advance such research by examining the potential a land-to-sea geovisualization has to serve as a tool for inclusive coastal planning efforts. The research uses Sidney Spit Park (BC, Canada as a study site, and a realistic, dynamic geovisualization of the park was developed (using Unity3D that allows users to interact with and navigate it through the first-person perspective. Management scenarios were developed based on discussions with Parks Canada, and these scenarios included fencing around vegetation areas, positioning of mooring buoys, and management of dog activity within the park. Scenarios were built into the geovisualization in a manner that allows users to toggle different options. Focus groups were then assembled, involving residents of the Capital Regional District (BC, Canada, and participants explored and provided feedback on the scenarios. Findings from the study demonstrate the geovisualization's usefulness for assessing certain qualities of scenarios, such as aesthetics and functionality of fencing options and potential viewshed impacts associated with different mooring boat locations. In addition, the study found that incorporating navigability into the geovisualization proved to be valuable for understanding scenarios that hold implications for the marine environment due to

  4. Current and future groundwater withdrawals: Effects, management and energy policy options for a semi-arid Indian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sishodia, Rajendra P.; Shukla, Sanjay; Graham, Wendy D.; Wani, Suhas P.; Jones, James W.; Heaney, James

    2017-12-01

    Effects of future expansion/intensification of irrigated agriculture on groundwater and surface water levels and availability in a semi-arid watershed were evaluated using an integrated hydrologic model (MIKE SHE/MIKE 11) in conjunction with biophysical measurements. Improved water use efficiency, water storage, and energy policy options were evaluated for their ability to sustain the future (2035) increased groundwater withdrawals. Three future withdrawal scenarios (low = 20, medium = 30, high = 50 wells/100 km2/year) based on the historical rate of growth of irrigation wells were formulated. While well drying from falling groundwater levels was limited to drought and consecutive below average rainfall years, under the current (2015) withdrawals, significant increases in frequency and duration (17-97 days/year) of well drying along with 13-26% (19-37 mm) reductions in surface flows were predicted under the future withdrawals. Higher (27-108%) energy demands of existing irrigation pumps due to declining groundwater levels and reduced hydroelectric generation due to decreased surface flows would create a vicious water-food-energy nexus in the future. Crop failure, one of the main causes of farmers' emotional distress and death in the region, is predicted to exacerbate under the future withdrawal scenarios. Shift to negative net recharge (-63 mm) and early and prolonged drying of wells under the high scenario will reduce the groundwater availability and negatively affect crop production in more than 60% and 90% of cropped areas in the Rabi (November-February) and summer (March-May) seasons, respectively during a drought year. Individual and combined demand (drip irrigation and reduced farm electricity subsidy) and supply (water storage) management options improved groundwater levels and reduced well drying by 55-97 days/year compared to business-as-usual management under the high scenario. The combined management (50% drip conversion, 50% reduction in subsidy, and

  5. 25 CFR 1200.5 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4? 1200.5 Section 1200.5 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE... General Provisions § 1200.5 What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the...

  6. Public Response to Wildfire: Is the Australian "Stay and Defend or Leave Early" Approach an Option for Wildfire Management in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. McCaffrey; Alan Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, the increasing costs and negative impacts of wildfires are causing fire managers and policymakers to reexamine traditional approaches to fire management including whether mass evacuation of populations threatened by wildfire is always the most appropriate option. This article examines the Australian "stay and defend or leave early" (SDLE...

  7. Outline of a multiattribute utility approach to development of a waste management strategy at Sillamaee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmo, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The article briefly discusses a framework for analysis of the waste disposition and management problem at Sillamaee. It is a response to the need to develop a strategic waste management plan for the Sillamaee site. A hypothetical objectives hierarchy is presented, along with two possible methods for aggregating scores for designated alternatives. Waste management and disposal problems, particularly nuclear waste disposal problems, have been addressed by many decision analysts. The latter citations are examples of Multiattribute Utility (MAU) Analysis, a decision analysis technique that is most appropriate for evaluation of waste management strategies at Sillamaee

  8. When the 'soft-path' gets hard: demand management and financial instability for water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    In the past, cost benefit analysis (CBA) has been viewed as an effective means of evaluating water utility strategies, particularly those that were dependent on the construction of new supply infrastructure. As water utilities have begun to embrace 'soft-path' approaches as a way to reduce the need for supply-centric development, CBA fails to recognize some important financial incentives affected by reduced water consumption. Demand management, both as a short-term response to drought and in longer-term actions to accommodate demand growth, can introduce revenue risks that adversely affect a utility's ability to repay debt, re-invest in aging infrastructure, or maintain reserve funds for use in a short-term emergency. A utility that does not generate sufficient revenue to support these functions may be subject to credit rating downgrades, which in turn affect the interest rate it pays on its debt. Interest rates are a critical consideration for utility managers in the capital-intensive water sector, where debt payments for infrastructure often account for a large portion of a utility's overall costs. Even a small increase in interest rates can add millions of dollars to the cost of new infrastructure. Recent studies have demonstrated that demand management techniques can lead to significant revenue variability, and credit rating agencies have begun to take notice of drought response plans when evaluating water utility credit ratings, providing utilities with a disincentive to fully embrace soft-path approaches. This analysis examines the impact of demand management schemes on key credit rating metrics for a water utility in Raleigh, North Carolina. The utility's consumer base is currently experiencing rapid population growth, and demand management has the potential to reduce the dependence on costly new supply infrastructure but could lead to financial instability that will significantly increase the costs of financing future projects. This work analyzes how 'soft

  9. Human resources management in the water utilities of Hermosillo and Mexicali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Loera Burnes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper studies how the Human Resources Management Systems (HRMS influence the performance of water utilities in Mexico. The differentiated performance of the water utilities of the cities of Hermosillo and Mexicali were compared to their HRMS characteristics through the analysis of four categories: 1 Hiring policies, 2 Development and training, 3 Salaries, benefits and incentives, and 4 Sanctions systems. The main differences between these utilities are on categories 2 and 3, where Mexicali shows greater levels. The study provides a vision of water utilities from the point of view of HRMG, which has not been taken into account in previous research. Although Mexicali provides its workers with better training and incentives, it is observed that the influence of local governments and the excessive power of unions have led to weak HRMS that affect the performance of water utilities.

  10. Shortcomings in safety management: symptoms, examples and recovery processes. Omission of Operational Culture can be fatal for the power utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezoucky, F.; )

    2006-01-01

    During recent years, many utilities and their nuclear branches have undergone substantial change. The effectiveness of management in handling the change varies considerably from utility to utility. At the extreme, the way the change is managed and nuclear safety and operational performance aspects are integrated can either help lead a plant to operational excellence or destroy what was once an effective organisation. (author)

  11. Update on the management of chronic eczema: new approaches and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobart W Walling

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hobart W Walling1, Brian L Swick21Private Practice of Dermatology, Coralville IA, USA; 2University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Departments of Dermatology and Pathology, Iowa City, IA, USAAbstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common disease with worldwide prevalence, affecting up to 20% of children and 3% of adults. Recent evidence regarding pathogenesis has implicated epidermal barrier defects deriving from filagrin mutations with resulting secondary ­inflammation. In this report, the authors comprehensively review the literature on atopic dermatitis therapy, including topical and systemic options. Most cases of AD will benefit from emollients to enhance the barrier function of skin. Topical corticosteroids are first-line therapy for most cases of AD. Topical calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus ointment, pimecrolimus cream are considered second line therapy. Several novel barrier-enhancing prescription creams are also available. Moderate to severe cases inadequately controlled with topical therapy may require phototherapy or systemic therapy. The most commonly employed phototherapy modalites are narrow-band UVB, broadband UVB, and UVA1. Traditional systemic therapies include short-term corticosteroids, cyclosporine (considered to be the gold standard, methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and most recently leflunamide. Biologic therapies include recombinant monoclonal antibodies acting on the immunoglobulin E / interleukin-5 pathway (omalizumab, mepolizumab, acting as tumor necrosis factor-a inhibitors (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, and acting as T-cell (alefacept and B-cell (rituxumab inhibitors, as well as interferon γ and intravenous immunoglobulin. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability are reviewed for each medication.Keywords: topical corticosteroids, phototherapy, dermatitis

  12. Example of establishing the recycling of scrap metal as a waste management option within German regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenstein, Matthias; Delfs, Johannes; Karschnick, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The German Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz, AtG) specifies the German nuclear licensing and supervising regulations. On that basis the German federal states are responsible for licensing and supervising of nuclear power plants (NPPs) located in that state. The Ministry of Energy, Agriculture, the Environment and Rural Areas (MELUR) is the authority responsible for the state Schleswig-Holstein, in which the NPPs Brokdorf, Brunsbuettel, Kruemmel and the research reactor HZG are located. In the licensing and supervisory procedures the authority may consult authorized experts. In addition to the AtG, the German Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlenschutzverordnung, StrlSchV) specifies regulations for clearance according to the 10 μSv-concept. The clearance of metal by recycling / melting is one option within the regulations of the StrlSchV. For a clearance an additional license given by the MELUR is necessary. In that license and the application documents as well as in the supervisory procedures very specific regulations are implemented. This includes regulations for clearance at third parties in foreign countries. In this talk a short introduction to the German regulations focussed on clearance according to the 10 μSv-concept will be given. The specific regulations in the license of clearance will be presented and also the application documents for NPPs in Schleswig-Holstein will be discussed. Furthermore it will be illustrated on what terms the MELUR decided to agree upon the recycling of scrap metal with the aim of clearance according to Radiation Protection 89 in foreign countries along with the German regulatory framework. (authors)

  13. Scientific Evidence for Different Options for GDM Screening and Management: Controversies and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Caissutti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gestational diabetes (GDM affects up to 7% of pregnant women and is associated with several maternal and perinatal morbidities. International organizations suggest several different recommendations regarding how to screen and to manage GDM. Objective. We aimed to analyze the most important and employed guidelines about screening and management of GDM and we investigated existing related literature. Results. We found several different criteria for screening for GDM, for monitoring GDM, and for starting pharmacological therapy. When using IADPSG criteria, GDM rate increased, perinatal outcomes improved, and screening became cost-effective. Compared to no treatment, treatment of women meeting criteria for GDM by IADPSG criteria but not by other less strict criteria has limited evidence for an effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  14. A socio-ecological investigation of options to manage groundwater degradation in the Western Desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Caroline; Salem, Boshra

    2012-07-01

    Under increasing water scarcity, collective groundwater management is a global concern. This article presents an interdisciplinary analysis of this challenge drawing on a survey including 50 large and small farms and gardens in a village in an agricultural land reclamation area on the edge of the Western Desert of Egypt. Findings revealed that smallholders rely on a practice of shallow groundwater use, through which drainage water from adjacent irrigation areas is effectively recycled within the surface aquifer. Expanding agroindustrial activities in the surrounding area are socio-economically important, but by mining non-renewable water in the surrounding area, they set in motion a degradation process with social and ecological consequences for all users in the multi-layered aquifer system. Based on the findings of our investigation, we identify opportunities for local authorities to more systematically connect available environmental information sources and common pool resource management precedents, to counterbalance the degradation threat.

  15. Radioactive waste management - turning options into solutions. 3rd scientific forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The objective of the Scientific Forum was to bring to the attention of senior governmental representatives present at the IAEA General Conference some of the important scientific and technical issues in the field of radioactive waste management and to promote awareness of the international dimension of current developments. The Forum was intended, in part, to disseminate and build upon the observations, conclusions and recommendations of the International Conference on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management organised by the IAEA, in co-operation with the European Commission, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Health Organisation, and hosted in Cordoba by the Government of Spain. This report presents an overview of the issues raised in the discussions

  16. Policy options and system supplies on socialization standard management of city agricultural laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yujuan

    2007-01-01

    It is a social system engineering to solve problems of city agricultural laborers, inevitably concerning series of social phenomenon and the social issues of the city and countryside relations, the government function, the city management, the fair efficiency, the population flows, the labor employment, the social security, and so on. Furthermore, it also involves the profoundly political and economic system reforms, the transformation of government functions, the system perfection, legal administration, the social stability in China. The city government, as the direct superintendent of the agricultural laborers, should adopt the conception of the system engineering to construct anew mechanism of the city agricultural laborers socialization standard management, which has a profound theoretical and practical significance.

  17. Nonoperative options for management of residual stones after cholecystostomy in high-risk patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, David M.; Daye, S. S.; Lincer, R. M.

    1993-05-01

    Cholecystostomy is frequently performed to obtain control of sepsis in high risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Retained stones in the gallbladder may cause future clinical problems. We present two patients with cholecystostomy tubes managed non-operatively. A review of other reported methods for stone extraction or destruction is also presented. Knowledge of safe and effective techniques for removal of these stones, using minimally invasive techniques is useful to the general surgeon.

  18. Management Options in Advanced Prostate Cancer: What is the Role for Sipuleucel-T?

    OpenAIRE

    Bitting, Rhonda L.; Armstrong, Andrew J.; George, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Most prostate cancer-related deaths occur in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Until recently, only therapy with docetaxel and prednisone has been shown to prolong survival in men with metastatic CRPC. With the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) approvals of sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, and abiraterone acetate, all based on improvement in overall survival, the landscape for management of men with metastatic CRPC has dramatically changed. In this review ...

  19. Management strategies to curb rhino poaching: Alternative options using a cost benefit approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam M. Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The combination of increasing demand and high black market prices for rhino horn in Asian markets has fueled an escalation in rhino poaching since 2007, particularly in South Africa. This situation has in turn resulted in greatly increased rhino protection costs, loss in confidence by the private sector in rhinos, loss of revenue to conservation authorities and reduced rhino population growth rates. Within current CITES processes, management responses to threats posed by poaching to rhino persistence fall within a mixture of reactive responses of increased protection and law enforcement and some pro-active responses such as demand reduction tactics, along with a parallel call for opening a legal trade in horn. These rhino management strategies carry different risks and benefits in meeting several conservation objectives. An expert-based risk-benefit analysis of five different rhino management strategies was undertaken to assess their potential for delivering upon agreed rhino conservation objectives. The outcomes indicated that benefits may exceed risks for those strategies that in some or other format legally provided horn for meeting demand. Expert risk-benefit approaches are suggested to offer a rational, inclusive and consensus generating means of addressing complex issues such as rhino poaching and augmenting the information used within the CITES decision-making processes.

  20. Technology transfer on long-term radioactive waste management - a feasible option for small nuclear programmes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.; Mathieson, J.

    2007-01-01

    The EU project CATT - Co-operation and technology transfer on long-term radioactive waste management for Member States with small nuclear programmes investigated the feasibility of countries with small nuclear programmes implementing long-term radioactive waste management solutions within their national borders, through collaboration on technology transfer with those countries with advanced disposal concepts. The main project objective was to analyse the existing capabilities of technology owning Member States and the corresponding requirements of potential technology acquiring Member States and, based on the findings, to develop a number of possible collaboration models and scenarios that could be used in a technology transfer scheme. The project CATT was performed as a specific support action under the EU sixth framework programme and it brought together waste management organisations from six EU Member States: UK, Bulgaria, Germany, Lithuania, Slovenia and Sweden. In addition, the EC Joint Research Centre from the Netherlands also participated as a full partner. The paper summarises the analyses performed and the results obtained within the project. (author)

  1. Using ecological thresholds to inform resource management: current options and future possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M Foley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the face of growing human impacts on ecosystems, scientists and managers recognize the need to better understand thresholds and nonlinear dynamics in ecological systems to help set management targets. However, our understanding of the factors that drive threshold dynamics, and when and how rapidly thresholds will be crossed is currently limited in many systems. In spite of these limitations, there are approaches available to practitioners today—including ecosystem monitoring, statistical methods to identify thresholds and indicators, and threshold-based adaptive management—that can be used to help avoid ecological thresholds or restore systems that have crossed them. We briefly review the current state of knowledge and then use real-world examples to demonstrate how resource managers can use available approaches to avoid crossing ecological thresholds. We also highlight new tools and indicators being developed that have the potential to enhance our ability to detect change, predict when a system is approaching an ecological threshold, or restore systems that have already crossed a tipping point.

  2. Agricultural land management options after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents: The articulation of science, technology, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Turcanu, Catrinel

    2016-10-01

    The options adopted for recovery of agricultural land after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents are compared by examining their technical and socio-economic aspects. The analysis highlights commonalities such as the implementation of tillage and other types of countermeasures and differences in approach, such as preferences for topsoil removal in Fukushima and the application of K fertilizers in Chernobyl. This analysis shows that the recovery approach needs to be context-specific to best suit the physical, social, and political environment. The complex nature of the decision problem calls for a formal process for engaging stakeholders and the development of adequate decision support tools. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:662-666. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  3. Pest risk assessment of Monilinia fructicola for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2011-01-01

    The EFSA Panel on Plant Health has delivered a pest risk assessment on the risk posed by Monilinia fructicola to the EU territory and has identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness in reducing the risk to plant health posed by this organism. The Panel has also analysed...... the effectiveness of the special requirements presently listed in Annex IV, Part A, Section I of Council Directive 2000/29/EC, in reducing the risk of introduction of this pest into the EU territory. The Panel concluded that the main pathways for entry into the EU territory are plant material for propagation...... of the risk assessment area. Cultural practices and control measures currently applied and competition with other Monilinia species cannot prevent the establishment of M. fructicola. The probability of spread is very likely because of the multiple ways of dispersal of the pest. The overall impact...

  4. Using an Integrated Participatory Modeling Approach to Assess Water Management Options and Support Community Conversations on Maui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushil S. Mistry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an integrated analysis of water distribution on Maui and the cross-sectoral impacts of policies and regulations aimed at rejuvenating and sustaining the deep-rooted culture on the island. Since the water diversion system was implemented in 1876 on the island of Maui, there has been contention among local interest groups over the right way to manage and allocate this precious resource. There is also concern over the availability of the precious resource in the long term, as the demand for water is expected to exceed the potential supply of water on Maui by 2020. This paper analyzes various long run scenarios of policy options presently being discussed on Maui. By collaborating with local experts, business leaders, and community members, to develop a tool that facilitates policy formulation and evaluation, informed decisions can then be made by the local community to ensure sustainable development.

  5. Review of Alternative Management Options of Vegetable Crop Residues to Reduce Nitrate Leaching in Intensive Vegetable Rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Agneessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable crop residues take a particular position relative to arable crops due to often large amounts of biomass with a N content up to 200 kg N ha−1 left behind on the field. An important amount of vegetable crops are harvested during late autumn and despite decreasing soil temperatures during autumn, high rates of N mineralization and nitrification still occur. Vegetable crop residues may lead to considerable N losses through leaching during winter and pose a threat to meeting water quality objectives. However, at the same time vegetable crop residues are a vital link in closing the nutrient and organic matter cycle of soils. Appropriate and sustainable management is needed to harness the full potential of vegetable crop residues. Two fundamentally different crop residue management strategies to reduce N losses during winter in intensive vegetable rotations are reviewed, namely (i on-field management options and modifications to crop rotations and (ii removal of crop residues, followed by a useful and profitable application.

  6. Conservative management in ureteric hydronephrosis due to deep endometriosis: Could the levonorgestrel-intrauterine device be an option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, Elisa; Tejerizo, Álvaro; Muñoz, José Luis; Álvarez, Carmen; Marqueta, Laura; Jiménez, Jesús S

    2017-07-01

    Endometriosis can affect up to 10% of women of reproductive age, in a wide range of clinical presentations that vary from mild to severe or deep endometriosis. Deep endometriosis can affect the urinary tract in 1-5% to 15-25% cases. Even though deep endometriosis' surgeries are usually complex with higher rate of complications, conservative management is not always considered as an option because of its high failure rates. This paper describes two cases of deep endometriosis with ureteric involvement (hydronephrosis) treated conservatively with a double-pigtail stent plus a Levonorgestrel intrauterine device, after conservative surgery, who remained symptom free with no evidence of recurrence at 3 years follow-up, avoiding radical high-risk surgery. Impact statement Several treatments have been described for endometriosis. From a symptomatic perspective, conservative medical management has been proposed with a variable response. Concerning deep endometriosis (affecting the urinary or digestive tract), the definitive treatment has always been thought to be radical surgery. However, this can lead to several complications. To illustrate a possible more conservative approach this paper describes two cases of deep infiltrating endometriosis affecting the ureter, treated conservatively with a temporary pigtail ureter stent plus a Levonorgestrel intrauterine device. The management demonstrates that, in a selected population, conservative treatment solves the urinary disease avoiding the surgical complications and, what is more, improving patients' symptoms in a permanent way. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm whether the introduction of this management in clinical practice would reduce the need for surgery thereby, avoiding high-risk surgery and improving the success rate of conservative management.

  7. [Therapeutic options for weight management in schizophrenic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, J; Sinha-Röder, A; Kahl, K G; Malevani, J; Thuenker, J; Lange-Asschenfeldt, C; Hauner, H; Agelink, M W; Klimke, A

    2008-12-01

    Extensive, selective literature review of 2500 articles from the last years (up to December 2007) predominantly from Medline and Cochrane, using as search terms "antipsychotic or schizophrenia or individual drug names (amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone)" and the terms "BMI, weight gain, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, lipid(s), cholesterol, triglycerides" was conducted. Regardless of the advantages ascribed to atypical antipsychotics and the special effectiveness of clozapine in patients resistant to therapy and at risk for suicide, the probability of weight gain is considerably increased for some of these substances. Patients with schizophrenia have a considerably reduced life expectancy associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. There is a lack of practical guidelines integrated into clinical psychiatric care for the management of cardiovascular risk factors. The monitoring of patients treated with atypics, which has been recommended in the APA/ADA Consensus Paper in light of these facts, is insufficiently established in clinical practice. A regular monitoring can convey self control and motivation to the patient. In the case of corresponding risk constellations further decisions regarding indication and therapy have to be considered. Especially patients with a high cardiovascular risk profile are highly recommended to participate in a weight-management program for prevention purposes. Such a special program should include elements of dietetic treatment and behaviour and exercise therapy. First controlled studies suggest an effective prevention of weight gain and metabolic changes when applying such a structured program. The practice oriented step by step concept presented here is meant to provide points of reference for the implementation of required medical and psychoeducative measures facilitating the management of weight and further cardiovascular risk factors in the context of

  8. Analysis on digital management of uranium geological archives and its second exploitation and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Hui

    2009-01-01

    The enormous data and examples show that the second exploitation and utilization of geological archives information are important and necessary for geological prospecting. The author deeply studies and analyzes the information service system for uranium geology, it is believed that the traditional management mode of geological archives must be transformed into modernized service mode. The way of how to expand, apply and improve the 'management and analytical system for uranium resources information' is discussed for implementing geo-informational construction. (authors)

  9. Variation in information use in the evaluation of the social acceptability of nuclear waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    This article considers how technical information is used in forming judgements about such complex technological phenomena as nuclear waste management. Public understanding and acceptance of innovations is also considered, particularly where health and safety issues are involved. Education of the public is not a total solution. Many problems include political, social or ethical aspects which impinge on how they are judged by non-scientists. In addition, the vested interests of various parties must be weighed. A field-based experiment is described which is designed to illustrate the difference between ''normal'' and ''normative'' evaluation procedures used by both technically experienced and lay participants. (UK)

  10. A System Dynamics Approach for the Integrative Assessment of Contaminated Land Management Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Finkel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    ). Within the suggested tiered frameworks a gap exists with respect to preliminary assessment methodologies that are capable of prioritising hot spots and streamlining the further planning process. In this paper, we give a brief glimpse of the decision support system CARO-Plus (Cost-efficiency Analysis...... of contamination extent, boundary conditions/limitations, stakeholders, etc.) has led to the proposal of tiered frameworks for site investigation, risk assessment and management, e.g. in the United Kingdom and in the USA. Recent policies request an increased emphasis on modelling (e.g. EU Water Framework Directive...

  11. An Option of Conservative Management of a Duodenal Injury Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Modi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal injury following laparoscopic cholecystectomy is rare complications with catastrophic sequelae. Most injuries are attributed to thermal burns with electrocautery following adhesiolysis and have a delayed presentation requiring surgical intervention. We present a case of a 47-year-old gentleman operated on for laparoscopic cholecystectomy with a bilious drain postoperatively; for which an ERC was done showing choledocholithiasis with cystic duct stump blow-out and a drain in the duodenum suggestive of an iatrogenic duodenal injury. He was managed conservatively like a duodenal fistula and recovered without undergoing any intervention.

  12. Management of severe idiopathic oligohydramnios: is antepartum transabdominal amnioinfusion really a treatment option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozinszky, Zoltan; Pásztor, Norbert; Vanya, Melinda; Sikovanyecz, János; Pál, Attila

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was an evaluation of the role of antepartum transabdominal amnioinfusion (APTA) in the management of severe idiopathic oligohydramnios with a view to improving the pregnancy outcome. The study comprised an analysis of 20 pregnant women with severe oligohydramnios who were treated with APTA in 2009 and 2012. The pregnancy outcomes and the complications of the procedure were analysed. The mean gestational age at first treatment was 22 weeks 3 days. The preprocedure amniotic fluid index of <5 cm was restored by the treatment to 8 cm. More than a half of the pregnancies (66.7%, 8/12) treated with APTA finished with spontaneous abortion in the second trimester, mostly due to rupture of the membranes (as a consequence of retroamniotic filling with saline in four cases). The later the oligohydramnios developed, the higher the probability of a significant prolongation of the gestation. Although APTA is a useful procedure in the management of severe oligohydramnios, it may be followed by a relatively high rate of rupture of the membranes, particularly in the second trimester. Paradoxically, a higher volume of infused saline into the amniotic cavity is associated with a significantly lower risk of rupture.

  13. New treatment options in the management of fibromyalgia: role of pregabalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Zareba

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Grazyna ZarebaDepartment of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USAAbstract: Fibromyalgia (FM is a common, chronic pain disorder with unknown etiology, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and tenderness, and accompanied by several other symptoms such as sleep disturbance, fatigue, and mood disorders. Pregabalin is the first drug approved for the treatment of FM. Pregabalin has analgesic, anticonvulsant, and anxiolytic activity and has earlier demonstrated efficacy in the management of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and as adjuvant therapy for adult patients with partial onset seizures. Pregabalin, a lipophilic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA analog, is α2δ-1 ligand that binds to, and modulates, voltage-gated calcium channels. This modulation is characterized by a reduction of the excessive neurotransmitter release that is observed in certain neurological and psychotic disorders. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that pregabalin has been effective in pain management, improving sleep quality and fatigue, as well as in several domains of health related quality of life. Because of mild to moderate adverse effects it can be considered a well-tolerated therapy for FM.Keywords: fibromyalgia, pregabalin, GABA analog, fibromyalgia treatment

  14. Management options to increase soil organic matter and nitrogen availability in cultivated drylands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grace, P.R.

    1998-01-01

    Cropping of dryland soils in marginal regions with an emphasis on economic rather than ecological sustainability has generally led to decline in soil organic matter reserves and hence nutrient availability. Outputs commonly exceed inputs, with degradation of soil structure, reduction in infiltration and increase in runoff. Biological productivity is severely affected, leading to a vicious cycle of events usually culminating in decreased N release, excessive soil loss and ultimately desertification. Reducing the incidence of bare fallow, increasing crop-residue retention, strategic N-fertilizer application and shifting to cereal-legume rotations (as opposed to monocultures) and intercropping can slow the spiral. Simulation models such as DSSAT and SOCRATES provide suitable and easy-to-use platforms to evaluate these management strategies in terms of soil organic matter accumulation and yield performance. Through the linkage of these models to global information systems and the use of spatial-characterization software to identify zones of similarity, it is now possible to examine the transportability and risk of a particular management strategy under a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. (author)

  15. Surgical management of a patent ductus arteriosus: Is this still an option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Dany E; Giesinger, Regan E

    2018-03-07

    The evolution of neonatal intensive care over the past decade has seen the role of surgical patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation in preterm infants both decrease in scope and become laden with uncertainty. Associations of ligation with adverse neonatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes have rendered the ligation decision more challenging for clinicians and have been associated with a decline in surgical treatment, but these findings may be due to bias from confounding by indication in observational studies rather than a causal detrimental effect of ligation. Accordingly, ligation may still be indicated for infants with large ductal shunts and moderate-severe respiratory insufficiency in whom the prospect of timely spontaneous closure appears low. Ultimately a randomized trial of surgical ligation versus conservative management is necessary to assess the efficacy of this invasive intervention in a population of extremely preterm infants with large ductal shunts. Simultaneously, the transcatheter approach to ductal closure in the very immature infant represents an exciting therapeutic alternative but which is still in its infancy. Insights into the pathophysiology of postoperative cardiorespiratory deterioration, including the importance of left ventricular afterload, may help clinicians avoid instability and mitigate a potentially injurious aspect of surgical treatment. This review examines the evidence regarding the benefits and risks of PDA surgery in preterm neonates and provides a pathophysiology-based management paradigm to guide perioperative care in high-risk infants. © 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Environmental assessment of management options for nutrient flows in the food chain in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Wang, Fanghao; Zhang, Weifeng; Ma, Wenqi; Velthof, Gerard; Qin, Wei; Oenema, Oene; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-07-02

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) costs of food production have increased greatly in China during the last 30 years, leading to eutrophication of surface waters, nitrate leaching to groundwater, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we present the results of scenario analyses in which possible changes in food production-consumption in China for the year 2030 were explored. Changes in food chain structure, improvements in technology and management, and combinations of these on food supply and environmental quality were analyzed with the NUFER model. In the business as usual scenario, N and P fertilizer consumption in 2030 will be driven by population growth and diet changes and will both increase by 25%. N and P losses will increase by 44 and 73%, respectively, relative to the reference year 2005. Scenarios with increased imports of animal products and feed instead of domestic production, and with changes in the human diet, indicate reductions in fertilizer consumption and N and P losses relative to the business as usual scenario. Implementation of a package of integrated nutrient management measures may roughly nullify the increases in losses in the business as usual scenario and may greatly increase the efficiency of N and P throughout the whole food chain.

  17. Report of the Office of Chief Counsel on the role of the managing utility and its suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorinson, S.M.; Kane, K.P.

    1979-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the role of General Public Utilities Service Corp.; site change; role of Met Ed in design of TMI-2; control room design; containment isolation criteria selection; GPUSC startup and test group; commercial operation; management relationships within the utility; site management; review committees; procedures; attention to experience; NRC inspections; management approach to the emergency; and the TMI-2 recovery program

  18. Report of the Office of Chief Counsel on the role of the managing utility and its suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorinson, S.M.; Kane, K.P.

    1979-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the role of General Public Utilities Service Corp.; site change; role of Met Ed in design of TMI-2; control room design; containment isolation criteria selection; GPUSC startup and test group; commercial operation; managment relationships within the utility; site management; review committees; procedures; attention to experience; NRC inspections; management approach to the emergency; and the TMI-2 recovery program

  19. Business model innovation for Local Energy Management: a perspective from Swiss utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Facchinetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The successful deployment of the energy transition relies on a deep reorganization of the energy market. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver of this process. This work contributes to this topic by providing to potential Local Energy Management stakeholders and policy makers a conceptual framework guiding the Local Energy Management business model innovation. The main determinants characterizing Local Energy Management concepts and impacting its business model innovation are identified through literature reviews on distributed generation typologies and customer/investor preferences related to new business opportunities emerging with the energy transition. Afterwards, the relation between the identified determinants and the Local Energy Management business model solution space is analyzed based on semi-structured interviews with managers of Swiss utilities companies. The collected managers’ preferences serve as explorative indicators supporting the business model innovation process and provide insights to policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management.

  20. Pharmacological options in the management of orthostatic hypotension in older adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, Fiona

    2009-11-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common disorder in older adults with potentially serious clinical consequences. Understanding the key underlying pathophysiological processes that predispose individuals to OH is essential when making treatment decisions for this group of patients. In this article, we discuss the key antihypotensive agents used in the management of OH in older adults. Commonly, midodrine is used as a first-line agent, given its supportive data in randomized, controlled trials. Fludrocortisone has been evaluated in open-label trials and has long-established usage in clinical practice. Other agents are available and in clinical use, either alone or in combination, but larger randomized trial evaluations are yet to be published. It is important to bear in mind that a patient may be taking medications that predispose to or exacerbate the symptoms of OH. Withdrawal of such medications, where possible, should be considered before commencing other pharmacological agents that attenuate the symptoms of OH.

  1. Pharmacological management of binge eating disorder: current and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElroy SL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Susan L McElroy, Anna I Guerdjikova, Nicole Mori, Anne M O'MeliaLindner Center of HOPE, Mason, and Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: Growing evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with binge eating disorder (BED, an eating disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of uncontrollable consumption of abnormally large amounts of food without inappropriate weight loss behaviors. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of BED and review the rationales and data supporting the effectiveness of specific medications or medication classes in treating patients with BED. We conclude by summarizing these data, discussing the role of pharmacotherapy in the BED treatment armamentarium, and suggesting future areas for research.Keywords: binge eating disorder, pharmacotherapy, medication management

  2. Endovascular Treatment Options in the Management of Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, Sarfraz Ahmed; Ganeshan, Arul; Nazir, Sheraz; Uberoi, Raman

    2009-01-01

    Lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Systemic anticoagulation therapy is the mainstay of conventional treatment instituted by most physicians for the management of DVT. This has proven efficacy in the prevention of thrombus extension and reduction in the incidence of pulmonary embolism and rethrombosis. Unfortunately, especially in patients with severe and extensive iliofemoral DVT, standard treatment may not be entirely adequate. This is because a considerable proportion of these patients eventually develops postthrombotic syndrome. This is characterized by chronic extremity pain and trophic skin changes, edema, ulceration, and venous claudication. Recent interest in endovascular technologies has led to the development of an assortment of minimally invasive, catheter-based strategies to deal with venous thrombus. These comprise catheter-directed thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy devices, adjuvant venous angioplasty and stenting, and inferior vena cava filters. This article reviews these technologies and discusses their current role as percutaneous treatment strategies for venous thrombotic conditions.

  3. Evaluation of optional fee structures for solid waste management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Ga; Chu, Zhu-Jie; Zhuang, Jun

    2018-06-01

    A municipal solid waste fee has become an important means for the implementation of the waste management rendered by the government all around the world. Based on the ecological environmental compensation theory, this article constructs an analytical framework of waste charging from the perspective of public policy evaluation, to carry on the comprehensive comparison and analysis to the operability, feasibility, validity, rationality, and universality of the two modes of waste charging: Ration charge and unit-pricing modes. The results indicate that in the cities with large amounts of waste production, long time of waste charging, and high disposal rate, pilot projects should be carried out; and the government needs to improve the construction of associated laws and regulations.

  4. Security Analysis of the Electronic Management System for a Total Site Utility System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manso Cortes, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Security Analysis of the Electronic Management System (EMS) of a Total Site Utility System as proposed under the scope of the Efenis project. The Efenis project has been funded by the European Commission via the seventh framework programme (EC FP7) with the aim to improve ...

  5. Bridge management system for the Western Cape provincial government, South Africa: implementation and utilization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nell, AJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation and utilization of the bridge management system (BMS) of the Department of Transport and Public Works of the Western Cape Provincial Government. The implementation of the BMS as well as the visual assessment...

  6. Utility of an intraoperabive gamma probe in the surgical management of secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorna, Francisca H.; Jager, Pieter L.; Lemstra, Clara; Wiggers, Theo; Stegeman, Coen A.; Plukker, John T. M.

    BACKGROUND: In primary hyperparathyroidism the gamma probe is effective, but its role in secondary hyperparathyroidism is unclear. We investigated the utility of the probe in the surgical management of secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. METHODS: The value of the probe in guiding resection

  7. Accounting for water management issues within hydrological simulation: Alternative modelling options and a network optimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Nalbantis, Ioannis; Rozos, Evangelos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2010-05-01

    In mixed natural and artificialized river basins, many complexities arise due to anthropogenic interventions in the hydrological cycle, including abstractions from surface water bodies, groundwater pumping or recharge and water returns through drainage systems. Typical engineering approaches adopt a multi-stage modelling procedure, with the aim to handle the complexity of process interactions and the lack of measured abstractions. In such context, the entire hydrosystem is separated into natural and artificial sub-systems or components; the natural ones are modelled individually, and their predictions (i.e. hydrological fluxes) are transferred to the artificial components as inputs to a water management scheme. To account for the interactions between the various components, an iterative procedure is essential, whereby the outputs of the artificial sub-systems (i.e. abstractions) become inputs to the natural ones. However, this strategy suffers from multiple shortcomings, since it presupposes that pure natural sub-systems can be located and that sufficient information is available for each sub-system modelled, including suitable, i.e. "unmodified", data for calibrating the hydrological component. In addition, implementing such strategy is ineffective when the entire scheme runs in stochastic simulation mode. To cope with the above drawbacks, we developed a generalized modelling framework, following a network optimization approach. This originates from the graph theory, which has been successfully implemented within some advanced computer packages for water resource systems analysis. The user formulates a unified system which is comprised of the hydrographical network and the typical components of a water management network (aqueducts, pumps, junctions, demand nodes etc.). Input data for the later include hydraulic properties, constraints, targets, priorities and operation costs. The real-world system is described through a conceptual graph, whose dummy properties

  8. Transforming public utility commissions in the new regulatory environment: Some issues and ideas for managing change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirick, D.W.; Davis, V.W.; Burns, R.E.; Jones, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    In the face of sweeping changes in utility markets and regulatory practices, public utility commissions are being forced to change in fundamental ways--to substantially transform themselves rather than to make only incremental changes in their operations. Managing this process of radical change is complicated by the fact that for the foreseeable future some portions of utility markets (e.g., water utilities) will function much as they have before. Some envision commissions in the future that are more externally focussed, that rely more on dispute resolution than adjudicatory proceedings, that concentrate on identifying and understanding competitive markets, that are more automated, and that are more likely to question old assumptions and definitions. This report identifies the considerations commissions might apply for identifying what mix of skills or fields of experise should compromise the technical staff. Factors are also identified which point towards a sectoral arrangement of staff and those factors which point toward a functional approach.

  9. Dryland Salinity in the North Stirling Land Conservation District, Western Australia: Simulation and Management Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomboso, J.; Ghassemi, F.; Appleyard, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    The North Stirling Land Conservation District consists of approximately 100,000 hectares north of the Stirling Range National Park, Western Australia. Clearing of land for agriculture occurred in the 1960's and early 1970's. The groundwater is highly saline, and, since clearing, the water table has risen by as much as 12 m; it is now generally less than 3 m below ground level throughout the area. The rise in groundwater levels following clearing and the use of crops and pastures requiring low water use have caused dramatic secondary salinisation over a short period of time. Groundwater flow was simulated with models of steady-state and transient groundwater flow. By incorporating economic simulations with the calibrated transient hydrogeological model, estimates of the expected gross margin losses were made. Three salinity-management strategies were simulated. Results indicate that 1) under the `do-nothing' strategy, future gross margins are expected to decline; 2) under the agronomic strategy, the rate of water-table rise would be reduced and foregone agricultural production losses would be less than the `do-nothing' strategy; and 3) under the agroforestry strategy, the water table is expected to decline in the long term, which would increase future agricultural production levels and, hence, profitability.

  10. Managing many patients with a urethral stricture: a cost-benefit analysis of treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonna, B C

    1998-05-01

    To report a management method in a community where there are many patients with urethral stricture and where the short-term goal of providing some treatment to most may override the sometimes conflicting long-term aim of minimizing recurrence rates. Over a 3-year period, using optical urethrotomy in 76 patients followed by intermittent self-dilatation (ISD) in 29, urethroplasty in 28 and dilatation in three, 92 of 134 patients with a urethral stricture were treated and the outcome compared. The overall recurrence rate was 22%; a combination of urethrotomy plus ISD had a recurrence rate of 17% and gave a mean duration of follow-up without recurrence similar to that after urethroplasty. ISD significantly increased both the time before recurrence and the duration of follow-up without recurrence after urethrotomy. In addition to providing lasting treatment to many patients, urethrotomy was also 10 times cheaper, 10 times faster to perform and offered the surgeon better protection from infection with human immunodeficiency virus than did urethroplasty. Because wrongly selecting urethrotomy (resulting in a failed procedure) wastes valuable operating time and resources, the pre-operative recognition of strictures unsuitable for urethrotomy and their treatment by urethroplasty is important for overall efficiency.

  11. Inhalation device options for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePietro, Michael; Gilbert, Ileen; Millette, Lauren A; Riebe, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation, resulting from abnormalities in the airway and/or damage to the alveoli. Primary care physicians manage the healthcare of a large proportion of patients with COPD. In addition to determining the most appropriate medication regimen, which usually includes inhaled bronchodilators with or without inhaled corticosteroids, physicians are charged with optimizing inhalation device selection to facilitate effective drug delivery and patient adherence. The large variety of inhalation devices currently available present numerous challenges for physicians that include: (1) gaining knowledge of and proficiency with operating different device classes; (2) identifying the most appropriate inhalation device for the patient; and (3) providing the necessary education and training for patients on device use. This review provides an overview of the inhalation device types currently available in the United States for delivery of COPD medications, including information on their successful operation and respective advantages and disadvantages, factors to consider in matching a device to an individual patient, the need for device training for patients and physicians, and guidance for improving treatment adherence. Finally, the review will discuss established and novel tools and technology that may aid physicians in improving education and promoting better adherence to therapy.

  12. Options for management of containment integrity during severe accident in Indian PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sanjeev Kr.; Bhartia, D.K.; Mohan, N.; Nair, Suma R.

    2015-01-01

    Severe accident progressions have the potential to raise the containment pressure beyond the design pressure of the structure. Although the load withstanding capability of the containment structure has been assessed to be substantially higher than the design pressure of the structure (typically 2 times of design pressure), it is possible that a few components of Containment System may degrade leading to excessive release of radioactive fission gases at ground level. Additionally, possible cracks in the concrete of the containment at high pressure may aggravate the release at ground level. Over and above, maintaining high containment pressure high for a longer period increases the ground level release due to leakage from the containment, which effect on dose might be high. For maintaining the Integrity of the Containment, containment pressure can be reduced by either energy management system such as removing the heat from the calandria vault (CVWC) water by using CV water heat exchanger intermittently or reliving the containment atmosphere either through Primary Containment Controlled Discharge (PCCD) or Containment Filtered Venting System (CFVS). Further, it is necessary that these provisions must be initiated below design pressure. This paper presents the analysis for the containment depressurization by using CVWC system restored, manual opening of (PCCD) line and operation of CFVS during the progressions of the accident

  13. Treatment options and patient perspectives in the management of fibromyalgia: future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Lawson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Kim LawsonBiomedical Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield, UKAbstract: Fibromyalgia (FM is a common, complex, and difficult to treat chronic widespread pain disorder, which usually requires a multidisciplinary approach using both pharmacological and non-pharmacological (education and exercise interventions. It is a condition of heightened generalized sensitization to sensory input presenting as a complex of symptoms including pain, sleep dysfunction, and fatigue, where the pathophysiology could include dysfunction of the central nervous system pain modulatory systems, dysfunction of the neuroendocrine system, and dysautonomia. A cyclic model of the pathophysiological processes is compatible with the interrelationship of primary symptoms and the array of postulated triggers associated with FM. Many of the molecular targets of current and emerging drugs used to treat FM have been focused to the management of discrete symptoms rather than the condition. Recently, drugs (eg, pregabalin, duloxetine, milnacipran, sodium oxybate have been identified that demonstrate a multidimensional efficacy in this condition. Although the complexity of FM suggests that monotherapy, non-pharmacological or pharmacological, will not adequately address the condition, the outcomes from recent clinical trials are providing important clues for treatment guidelines, improved diagnosis, and condition-focused therapies.Keywords: fibromyalgia, pain, sleep dysfunction, fatigue, exercise, pharmacological treatments

  14. Management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: Current treatment options, challenges and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre R Pachman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Deirdre R Pachman1, Jason M Jones1, Charles L Loprinzi21Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Hot flashes are one of the most common and distressing symptoms associated with menopause, occurring in more than 75% of postmenopausal women. They are especially problematic in breast cancer patients since some breast cancer therapies can induce hot flashes. For mild hot flashes, it is proposed that behavioral modifications are the first step in management. Hormonal therapies, including estrogens and progestogens, are the most well known effective agents in relieving hot flashes; however, the safety of these agents is controversial. There is an increasing amount of literature on nonhormonal agents for the treatment of hot flashes. The most promising data regard newer antidepressant agents such as venlafaxine, which reduces hot flashes by about 60%. Gabapentin is another nonhormonal agent that is effective in reducing hot flashes. While many complimentary therapies, including phytoestrogens, black cohosh, and dehydroepiandrosterone, have been explored for the treatment of hot flashes; none can be recommended at this time. Furthermore, there is a lack of strong evidence to support exercise, yoga, or relaxation for the treatment of hot flashes. Paced respirations and hypnosis appear to be promising enough to warrant further investigation. Another promising nonpharmacological therapy, currently under investigation, involves a stellate ganglion block.Keywords: vasomotor symptoms, hot flashes, menopause, therapy

  15. Health care waste management (HCWM) in Pakistan: current situation and training options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Khan, E.A.; Ahmed, J.; Khan, Z.; Magan, M.; Nousheen; Mughal, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    Hospitals in Pakistan produce about 250,000 tons of waste per year. Hospital waste has been reported to be poorly handled and managed by the hospital staff and administration respectively. This leads to environmental and health consequences within hospitals as well as to outside population. Our study aimed to describe the qualitative results of observations of ten large private and public hospitals in the cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad Pakistan. Methods: The qualitative data was obtained through direct and indirect observations on hospital staff including doctors, nurses, sweepers and persons in administration and the way they handled the waste. Also direct observations of the hospitals premises inside and outside were made and noted. We also describe the process of involving the hospital staff for training. Results: Our results showed that almost all of the hospitals did not have practice of HCWM on their priority. Segregation, handling, storage, transportation and disposal of waste were below WHO and Pakistan bio-safety rules 2005 standards. The ten hospitals did not have HCWM rules and regulations in place hence the staff do not follow the best practices in this regard which causes numerous health and environmental consequences not only within the catchment area but also to patients and staff. Conclusions: Our study highlights the lack of HCWM practices within the ten public and private hospitals in two major cities in Pakistan. There is need of training of hospital staff in Pakistan. We also found that such training s are highly feasible if accompanied with incentives to participants. (author)

  16. Incorporating stand level risk management options into forest decision support systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Eyvindson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To examine methods of incorporating risk and uncertainty to stand level forest decisions. Area of study: A case study examines a small forest holding from Jönköping, Sweden. Material and methods: We incorporate empirically estimated uncertainty into the simulation through a Monte Carlo approach when simulating the forest stands for the next 100 years. For the iterations of the Monte Carlo approach, errors were incorporated into the input data which was simulated according to the Heureka decision support system. Both the Value at Risk and the Conditional Value at Risk of the net present value are evaluated for each simulated stand. Main results: Visual representation of the errors can be used to highlight which decision would be most beneficial dependent on the decision maker’s opinion of the forest inventory results. At a stand level, risk preferences can be rather easily incorporated into the current forest decision support software. Research highlights: Forest management operates under uncertainty and risk. Methods are available to describe this risk in an understandable fashion for the decision maker.

  17. Threshold values and management options for nutrients in a catchment of a temperate estuary with poor ecological status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hinsby

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Intensive farming has severe impacts on the chemical status of groundwater and streams and consequently on the ecological status of dependent ecosystems. Eutrophication is a widespread problem in lakes and marine waters. Common problems are hypoxia, algal blooms, fish kills, and loss of water clarity, underwater vegetation, biodiversity and recreational value. In this paper we evaluate the nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P concentrations of groundwater and surface water in a coastal catchment, the loadings and sources of N and P, and their effect on the ecological status of an estuary. We calculate the necessary reductions in N and P loadings to the estuary for obtaining a good ecological status, which we define based on the number of days with N and P limitation, and the corresponding stream and groundwater threshold values assuming two different management options. The calculations are performed by the combined use of empirical models and a physically based 3-D integrated hydrological model of the whole catchment. The assessment of the ecological status indicates that the N and P loads to the investigated estuary should be reduced to levels corresponding to 52 and 56% of the current loads, respectively, to restore good ecological status. Model estimates show that threshold total N (TN concentrations should be in the range of 2.9 to 3.1 mg l−1 in inlet freshwater (streams to Horsens estuary and 6.0 to 9.3 mg l−1 in shallow aerobic groundwater (∼ 27–41 mg l−1 of nitrate, depending on the management measures implemented in the catchment. The situation for total P (TP is more complex, but data indicate that groundwater threshold values are not needed. The stream threshold value for TP to Horsens estuary for the selected management options is 0.084 mg l−1. Regional climate models project increasing winter precipitation and runoff in the investigated region resulting in increasing runoff and

  18. Personalizing, not patronizing: the case for patient autonomy by unbiased presentation of management options in stage I testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, J; Aparicio, J; Beyer, J; Cohn-Cedermark, G; Cullen, M; Gilligan, T; De Giorgi, U; De Santis, M; de Wit, R; Fosså, S D; Germà-Lluch, J R; Gillessen, S; Haugnes, H S; Honecker, F; Horwich, A; Lorch, A; Ondruš, D; Rosti, G; Stephenson, A J; Tandstad, T

    2015-05-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common neoplasm in males aged 15-40 years. The majority of patients have no evidence of metastases at diagnosis and thus have clinical stage I (CSI) disease [Oldenburg J, Fossa SD, Nuver J et al. Testicular seminoma and non-seminoma: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol 2013; 24(Suppl 6): vi125-vi132; de Wit R, Fizazi K. Controversies in the management of clinical stage I testis cancer. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24: 5482-5492.]. Management of CSI TC is controversial and options include surveillance and active treatment. Different forms of adjuvant therapy exist, including either one or two cycles of carboplatin chemotherapy or radiotherapy for seminoma and either one or two cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy or retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for non-seminoma. Long-term disease-specific survival is ∼99% with any of these approaches, including surveillance. While surveillance allows most patients to avoid additional treatment, adjuvant therapy markedly lowers the relapse rate. Weighing the net benefits of surveillance against those of adjuvant treatment depends on prioritizing competing aims such as avoiding unnecessary treatment, avoiding more burdensome treatment with salvage chemotherapy and minimizing the anxiety, stress and life disruption associated with relapse. Unbiased information about the advantages and disadvantages of surveillance and adjuvant treatment is a prerequisite for informed consent by the patient. In a clinical scenario like CSI TC, where different disease-management options produce indistinguishable long-term survival rates, patient values, priorities and preferences should be taken into account. In this review, we provide an overview about risk factors for relapse, potential benefits and harms of adjuvant chemotherapy and active surveillance and a rationale for involving patients in individualized decision making about their treatment rather than adopting

  19. Particulate monitoring, modeling, and management: natural sources, long-range transport, and emission control options: a case study of Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleanthous, Savvas; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Christofides, Ioannis; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Achilleos, Constantia; Akylas, Evangelos; Demetriadou, Chrystalla; Christodoulides, Pavlos; Douros, Ioannis; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Panayiotou, Charalambos; Gregoris, Charalambous; Fedra, Kurt; Kubat, Milan; Mihalopoulos, Nicolaos

    2013-08-01

    The LIFE+ Project PM3: Particulate Monitoring, Modeling, Management is coordinated by the Department of Labour Inspection in Cyprus and funded in part by LIFE+ Environment Policy & Governance. The project aims at the analysis of dust emissions, transport, and control options for Cyprus, as well as at the identification of "natural" contributions (Directive 2008/50/EC). The ultimate objective is to provide inputs for the design of a dust management plan to improve compliance to EC Directives and minimise impacts to human health and environment. This paper presents a short analysis of historical monitoring data and their patterns as well as a description of a dynamic dust entrainment model. The pyrogenic PM10 emissions combined with the wind driven emissions, are subject to a two phase non-linear multi-criteria emission control optimization procedure. The resulting emission scenarios with an hourly resolution provide input to the Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) 3D fate and transport model, implemented for the 4,800 km master domain and embedded subdomains (270 km around the island of Cyprus and embedded smaller city domains of up to 30 km down to street canyon modeling). The models test the feasibility of candidate emission control solutions over a range of weather conditions. Model generated patterns of local emissions and long-range transport are discussed compared with the monitoring data, remote sensing (MODIS derived AOT), and the chemical analysis of dust samples.

  20. CRYOTHERAPY: A NON-SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OPTION FOR SEVERE, MEDICALLY REFRACTORY SPASMS AFTER SPINAL CORD INJURY: TWO CASE REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxwell Jokonya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neuromodulation in its various forms is emerging as a promising method of dealing with chronic pain and movement disorders. The scale of ablative vs augmentative procedures seems to be tilting towards augmentative procedures. We observed 8 patients who had failed medical treatment for muscle spasm respond to the cold application. Case summary: We report 2 cases of complete traumatic spinal cord injury patients, who developed severe, medically intractable muscle spasms. We applied cryotherapy to their legs with significant improvement. Outcome measurements: The spasm frequency score dropped immediately from a 4 to 0 in one patient. The other dropped from a 2 to 1 on day one then disappeared by day 7. Spasm severity dropped significantly on the first day in both cases. Conclusion: Cryotherapy as a form of neuromodulation, Is an effective, simple but safe way to symptomatically manage severe medically refractory muscle spasms in spinal cord injured patients. It becomes an important adjunct in the management of these patients in resource-limited settings where surgical options are not readily available.